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Sample records for high concentration salt

  1. Thermal denitration of high concentration nitrate salts waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Latge, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the thermodynamic and the thermal decomposition properties of high concentration nitrate salts waste water for the lagoon sludge treatment. The thermodynamic property was carried out by COACH and GEMINI II based on the composition of nitrate salts waste water. The thermal decomposition property was carried out by TG-DTA and XRD. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were decomposed at 250 .deg. C and 730 . deg. C, respectively. Sodium nitrate could be decomposed at 450 .deg. C in the case of adding alumina for converting unstable Na 2 O into stable Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 . The flow sheet for nitrate salts waste water treatment was proposed based on the these properties data. These will be used by the basic data of the process simulation

  2. Direct Analysis of Proteins from Solutions with High Salt Concentration Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Sistani, Habiballah; Levis, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    The detection of lysozyme, or a mixture of lysozyme, cytochrome c, and myoglobin, from solutions with varying salt concentrations (0.1 to 250 mM NaCl) is compared using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Protonated protein peaks were observed up to a concentration of 250 mM NaCl in the case of LEMS. In the case of ESI-MS, a protein solution with salt concentration > 0.5 mM resulted in predominantly salt-adducted features, with suppression of the protonated protein ions. The constituents in the mixture of proteins were assignable up to 250 mM NaCl for LEMS and were not assignable above a NaCl concentration of 0.5 mM for ESI. The average sodium adducts () bound to the 7+ charge state of lysozyme for LEMS measurements from salt concentrations of 2.5, 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl are 1.71, 5.23, 5.26, and 5.11, respectively. The conventional electrospray measurements for lysozyme solution containing salt concentrations of 0.1, 1, 2, and 5 mM NaCl resulted in of 2.65, 6.44, 7.57, and 8.48, respectively. LEMS displays an approximately two orders of magnitude higher salt tolerance in comparison with conventional ESI-MS. The non-equilibrium partitioning of proteins on the surface of the charged droplets is proposed as the mechanism for the high salt tolerance phenomena observed in the LEMS measurements. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Cation effect on small phosphonium based ionic liquid electrolytes with high concentrations of lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Kerr, Robert; Forsyth, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes with high alkali salt concentrations have displayed some excellent electrochemical properties, thus opening up the field for further improvements to liquid electrolytes for lithium or sodium batteries. Fundamental computational investigations into these high concentration systems are required in order to gain a better understanding of these systems, yet they remain lacking. Small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with high concentrations of alkali metal ions have recently shown many promising results in experimental studies, thereby prompting us to conduct further theoretical exploration of these materials. Here, we conducted a molecular dynamics simulation on four small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with 50 mol. % LiFSI salt, focusing on the effect of cation structure on local structuring and ion diffusional and rotational dynamics—which are closely related to the electrochemical properties of these materials.

  4. Solution Behavior and Activity of a Halophilic Esterase under High Salt Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Zhao, Xiubo; Pan, Fang; Li, Yin; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Lu, Jian R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. Methodology/Principal Findings A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a range of hydrolytic activity towards the substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters with different alkyl chains (n = 2−16), with the highest activity being observed for p-nitrophenyl acetate, consistent with the basic character of an esterase. The optimal esterase activities were found to be at pH 9.5 and [NaCl] = 3.4 M or [KCl] = 3.0 M and at around 45°C. Interestingly, the hydrolysis activity showed a clear reversibility against changes in salt concentration. At the ambient temperature of 22°C, enzyme systems working under the optimal salt concentrations were very stable against time. Increase in temperature increased the activity but reduced its stability. Circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were deployed to determine the physical states of LipC in solution. As the salt concentration increased, DLS revealed substantial increase in aggregate sizes, but CD measurements revealed the maximal retention of the α-helical structure at the salt concentration matching the optimal activity. These observations were supported by SANS analysis that revealed the highest proportion of unimers and dimers around the optimal salt concentration, although the coexistent larger aggregates showed a trend of increasing size with salt concentration, consistent with the DLS data. Conclusions/Significance The solution α-helical structure and activity relation also matched the highest proportion of enzyme unimers and dimers. Given that

  5. Adaptation to high salt concentrations in halotolerant/ halophilic fungi: a molecular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ePlemenitas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies of salt tolerance of eukaryotic microorganisms have until recently been limited to the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a few other moderately halotolerant yeast. Discovery of the extremely halotolerant and adaptable fungus Hortaea werneckii and the obligate halophile Wallemia ichthyophaga introduced two new model organisms into studies on the mechanisms of salt tolerance in eukaryotes. H. werneckii is unique in its adaptability to fluctuations in salt concentrations, as it can grow without NaCl as well as in the presence of up to 5 M NaCl. On the other hand, W. ichthyophaga requires at least 1.5 M NaCl for growth, but also grows in up to 5 M NaCl. Our studies have revealed the novel and intricate molecular mechanisms used by these fungi to combat high salt concentrations, which differ in many aspects between the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii and the halophilic W. ichthyophaga. Specifically, the high osmolarity glycerol signalling pathway that is important for sensing and responding to increased salt concentrations is here compared between H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga. In both of these fungi, the key signalling components are conserved, but there are structural and regulation differences between these pathways in H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga. We also address differences that have been revealed from analysis of their newly sequenced genomes. The most striking characteristics associated with H. werneckii are the large genetic redundancy, the expansion of genes encoding metal cation transporters, and a relatively recent whole genome duplication. In contrast, the genome of W. ichthyophaga is very compact, as only 4,884 protein-coding genes are predicted, which cover almost three quarters of the sequence. Importantly, there has been a significant increase in their hydrophobins, cell-wall proteins that have multiple cellular functions.

  6. Decondensation behavior of DNA chains induced by multivalent cations at high salt concentrations: Molecular dynamics simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yang-Wei; Zhang Lin-Xi; Ran Shi-Yong; He Lin-Li; Wang Xiang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we study the decondensation process of DNA chains induced by multivalent cations at high salt concentrations in the presence of short cationic chains in solutions. The typical simulation conformations of DNA chains with varying salt concentrations for multivalent cations imply that the concentration of salt cations and the valence of multivalent cations have a strong influence on the process of DNA decondensation. The DNA chains are condensed in the absence of salt or at low salt concentrations, and the compacted conformations of DNA chains become loose when a number of cations and anions are added into the solution. It is explicitly demonstrated that cations can overcompensate the bare charge of the DNA chains and weaken the attraction interactions between the DNA chains and short cationic chains at high salt concentrations. The condensation-decondensation transitions of DNA are also experimentally observed in mixing spermidine with λ-phage DNA at different concentrations of NaCl/MgCl 2 solutions. (paper)

  7. Isolation of transplutonium elements on ion exchangers from solutions of high salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirova, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of transplutonium elements (TPE) on cation and anion exchangers in aqueous alcoholic solutions of chlorides and nitrates of some alkali and alkaline earth metals depending on different factors: salt concentration, content of alcohol and of acid in the solution as well as the nature of a cation was studied. The data obtained were used to determine the optimal conditions of concentration of TPE on ion exchangers from solutions containing great quantities of salts. The advantages of the use of aqueous alcoholic solutions of nitric acid in the isolation of TPE are shown. (author)

  8. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  9. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  10. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  11. Corrosion mechanism of 13Cr stainless steel in completion fluid of high temperature and high concentration bromine salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Lining; Lu, Minxu; Meng, Yao; Zhu, Jinyang; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The corrosion behavior of 13Cr steel exposed to bromine salt completion fluid containing high concentration bromine ions was investigated. • There are passive circles around pits on the 13Cr steel surface after 7 d of exposure. • Macroscopic galvanic corrosion formed between the passive halo and the pit. • The mechanism of pitting corrosion on 13Cr stainless steel exposed to heavy bromine brine was established. - Abstract: A series of corrosion tests of 13Cr stainless steel were conducted in a simulated completion fluid environment of high temperature and high concentration bromine salt. Corrosion behavior of specimens and the component of corrosion products were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that 13Cr steel suffers from severe local corrosion and there is always a passive halo around every pit. The formation mechanism of the passive halo is established. OH − ligand generates and adsorbs in a certain scale because of abundant OH − on the surface around the pits. Passive film forms around each pit, which leads to the occurrence of passivation in a certain region. Finally, the dissimilarities in properties and morphologies of regions, namely the pit and its corresponding passive halo, can result in different corrosion sensitivities and may promote the formation of macroscopic galvanic pairs

  12. High salt inclusion reduces concentrate intake without major effects on renal function in young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef producers prefer to feed concentrates on an ad libitum basis to increase the flexibility of their work. Including salt, which is a self-limiting supplement, could control or reduce concentrate intake without increasing the workforce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of including 10%NaCl in the concentrate on intake, growth, blood ions (sodium, potassium and chlorine, renal function (through creatinine and urea concentrations in blood, and daytime behaviour of bulls over 6 weeks. Bulls consuming the control concentrate (Control bulls had greater weight gain (P<0.05 and concentrate intake (P<0.001 than those consuming the concentrate with 10%NaCl (10%NaCl bulls. Lower plasma sodium concentration was found in Control bulls after 6 weeks (P<0.05, while potassium concentration was lower after 4 (P<0.05 and 6 weeks (P<0.01. Blood urea did not differ between the groups, and creatinine only differed at week 4 (P<0.01. Control bulls spent less time eating hay (P<0.001 and more time idling (P<0.01 during daylight hours. In conclusion, the inclusion of 10%NaCl in the concentrate for short periods could be used to reduce concentrate intake without major effects on renal function; however, a concomitant decrease in weight gain should be expected.

  13. High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-22

    A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly X. Li; Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations Shelly X. Li, Steven D. Herrmann, and Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 USA Abstract - A series of six bench-scale liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) tests was performed to obtain basic separation data with focus on the behavior of rare earth elements. The electrolyte used for the tests was a mixed salt from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiners, in which spent metal fuels from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) had been processed. Rare earth (RE) chlorides, such as NdCl3, CeCl3, LaCl3, PrCl3, SmCl3, and YCl3, were spiked into the salt prior to the first test to create an extreme case for investigating rare earth contamination of the actinides collected by a LCC. For the first two LCC tests, an alloy with the nominal composition of 41U-30Pu-5Am-3Np-20Zr-1RE was loaded into the anode baskets as the feed material. The anode feed material for Runs 3 to 6 was spent ternary fuel (U-19Pu-10Zr). The Pu/U ratio in the salt varied from 0.6 to 1.3. Chemical and radiochemical analytical results confirmed that U and transuranics can be collected into the LCC as a group under the given run conditions. The RE contamination level in the LCC product was up to 6.7 wt% of the total metal collected. The detailed data for partitioning of actinides and REs in the salt and Cd phases are reported in the paper.

  15. An efficient way to prepare silver nanorods in high concentration by polyol method without adding other metal or salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Guan Jianguo; Xie Hongquan

    2012-01-01

    Using ethylene glycol as solvent and reductant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone(PVP) as capping agent under the action of appropriately preformed silver crystal seeds and controlled addition rates of silver nitrate and PVP solution, silver nanorods with length of 2–15 μm and diameter of 200–880 nm can be obtained in high concentration of AgNO 3 as 0.50 M. In the absence of the preformed seeds, nanorods cannot be obtained as the main product, if the AgNO 3 concentration is over 0.10 M. It is necessary to use the appropriately preformed silver crystal seeds for the high concentration preparation of silver nanorods. Transmission Electron Microscopy images showed that Ag seeds preformed at appropriate silver nitrate concentrations exhibited the multiply twinned particles of decahedral shape(MTPs), which formed Ag nanorods in the presence of PVP. Through study of the effects of various factors on the nanostructure of silver, the favorable conditions are: appropriately preformed seeds concentration at 6.54–9.81 mM, addition rate of AgNO 3 solution at 0.30–0.43 mL min −1 and molar ratio of PVP/AgNO 3 at 1.1–1.4, in order to control the crystal growth rate of silver matching the reduction rate of AgNO 3 by ethylene glycol. The nanorods obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, EDX, XRD, Raman spectrometry, Infrared Spectrophotometry and Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. On the base of the above results, the mechanism of rates matching for obtaining silver nanorods was briefly discussed. This method is a simple, facile and economical method using high concentration with high yield without using other metal or salt to massively synthesize silver nanorods through adding preformed silver seeds to control the reduction rate of silver nitrate and the crystal growth rate of silver nanorods. As compared to the conventional polyol method using lower silver nitrate concentration, this method can save ethylene glycol used and time of operation and the as

  16. Preliminary results of the immobilization of highly-salt-ladened concentrate in cement-based grout: a joint DOE/CEA research effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouniol, P.E.; Peyre, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.; Pitt, W.W.

    1988-10-01

    The ability of two types of cement-based matrices to immobilize highly-salt-ladened concentrate containing primarily nitrate and phosphate is examined when considering both fresh and hardened material properties. The effects of the incorporation ratio and the temperature of the feed concentrate are evaluated

  17. Enhanced ethanol production by fermentation of Gelidium amansii hydrolysate using a detoxification process and yeasts acclimated to high-salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jung, Jang Hyun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2015-06-01

    A total monosaccharide concentration of 59.0 g/L, representing 80.1 % conversion of 73.6 g/L total fermentable sugars from 160 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Subsequent adsorption treatment using 5 % activated carbon with an adsorption time of 2 min was used to prevent the inhibitory effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) >5 g/L in the medium. Ethanol production decreased with increasing salt concentration using C. tropicalis KCTC 7212 non-acclimated or acclimated to a high concentration of salt. Salt concentration of 90 psu was the maximum concentration for cell growth and ethanol production. The levels of ethanol production by C. tropicalis non-acclimated or acclimated to 90 psu high-salt concentration were 13.8 g/L with a yield (YEtOH) of 0.23, and 26.7 g/L with YEtOH of 0.45, respectively.

  18. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-14

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.

  19. Rock-salt structure lithium deuteride formation in liquid lithium with high-concentrations of deuterium: a first-principles molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mohan; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Carter, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of lithium’s possible use as a first wall material in a fusion reactor, a fundamental understanding of the interactions between liquid lithium (Li) and deuterium (D) is important. We predict structural and dynamical properties of liquid Li samples with high concentrations of D, as derived from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Liquid Li samples with four concentrations of inserted D atoms (LiDβ , β =0.25 , 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00) are studied at temperatures ranging from 470 to 1143 K. Densities, diffusivities, pair distribution functions, bond angle distribution functions, geometries, and charge transfer between Li and D atoms are calculated and analyzed. The analysis suggests liquid-solid phase transitions can occur at some concentrations and temperatures, forming rock-salt LiD within liquid Li. We also observe formation of some D2 molecules at high D concentrations.

  20. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Curtis, Andrew J.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides

  1. Enhanced cycling performance of a Li metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide-based electrolyte using highly concentrated lithium salt for a lithium-oxygen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togasaki, Norihiro; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Stable charge-discharge cycling behavior for a lithium metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-based electrolyte is strongly desired of lithium-oxygen batteries, because the Li anode is rapidly exhausted as a result of side reactions during cycling in the DMSO solution. Herein, we report a novel electrolyte design for enhancing the cycling performance of Li anodes by using a highly concentrated DMSO-based electrolyte with a specific Li salt. Lithium nitrate (LiNO3), which forms an inorganic compound (Li2O) instead of a soluble product (Li2S) on a lithium surface, exhibits a >20% higher coulombic efficiency than lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, and lithium perchlorate, regardless of the loading current density. Moreover, the stable cycling of Li anodes in DMSO-based electrolytes depends critically on the salt concentration. The highly concentrated electrolyte 4.0 M LiNO3/DMSO displays enhanced and stable cycling performance comparable to that of carbonate-based electrolytes, which had not previously been achieved. We suppose this enhancement is due to the absence of free DMSO solvent in the electrolyte and the promotion of the desolvation of Li ions on the solid electrolyte interphase surface, both being consequences of the unique structure of the electrolyte.

  2. Development and Optimization of Voltammetric Methods for Real Time Analysis of Electrorefiner Salt with High Concentrations of Actinides and Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2018-03-30

    reduction potentials for each of the species of interest, voltammetry can be used to quantify concentrations of a variety of elemental species—including uranium, plutonium, minor actinides, and rare earths. Various methods have been tested by other researchers to date—including cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, normal pulse voltammetry, etc. In most cases, it has been observed that there is a very limited concentration range for which the output can be readily correlated with concentration in the salt. Furthermore, testing to date has been limited to simple ternary salts with only a single element being quantified. While incomplete for application to MC&A for pyroprocessing, these results lead us to believe that voltammetry can be optimized based on salt properties and fundamental electrochemical rate processes to yield a highly accurate and robust method. This project is divided into four tasks jointly executed by three university research groups. This includes experimental measurement of key physical data on the systems of interest, development of a predictive voltammetry model, experimental validation of the voltammetry model, and design/verification of an optimized measurement method. This project supports the goals of the US-ROK Joint Fuel Cycle Study in addition to the NA-24 Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  3. Hyperproduction of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis ER15 in the presence of high salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindal, Shruti; Gupta, Rani

    2017-02-07

    Microbial γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (GGTs) have been exploited in biotechnological, pharmaceutical, and food sectors for the synthesis of various γ-glutamyl compounds. But, till date, no bacterial GGTs are commercially available in the market because of lower levels of production from various sources. In the current study, production of GGT from Bacillus licheniformis ER15 was investigated to achieve high GGT titers. Hyperproduction of GGT from B. licheniformis ER15 was achieved with 6.4-fold enhancement (7921.2 ± 198.7 U/L) by optimization of culture medium following one-variable-at-a-time strategy and statistical approaches. Medium consisting of Na 2 HPO 4 : 0.32% (w/v); KH 2 PO 4 : 0.15% (w/v); starch: 0.1% (w/v); soybean meal: 0.5% (w/v); NaCl: 4.0% (w/v), and MgCl 2 : 5 mM was found to be optimal for maximum GGT titers. Maximum GGT titers were obtained, in the optimized medium at 37°C and 200 rpm, after 40 h. It was noteworthy that GGT production was a linear function of sodium chloride concentration, as observed during response surface methodology. While investigating the role of NaCl on GGT production, it was found that NaCl drastically decreased subtilisin concentration and indirectly increasing GGT recovery. B. licheniformis ER15 is proved to be a potential candidate for large-scale production of GGT enzyme and its commercialization.

  4. Effects of basal media, salt concentrations, antioxidant supplements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants than MS, LS and D basal media. Five different levels of N6 medium salts (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100%) were tested, and the highest transformation efficiency was 15.9% under a 50% salt concentration, followed by 6.4% transformation efficiency with 70 and 3.2% under 100% salt conditions. More than 95% of ...

  5. Influence of salt concentration and topographical position on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water resource quality (WRQ) is affected by salt concentration and topographical position. Indeed, an increase in salt concentration, which decreases water availability for animal and plant nutrition, and lower altitude, which diminishes the potential for production of hydropower, negatively affects WRQ. Therefore, it is useful ...

  6. Salt type and concentration affect the viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, Emre; Perazzo, Antonio; Arnold, Craig B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-05-01

    The addition of small amounts of xanthan gum to water yields viscoelastic solutions. In this letter, we show that the viscoelasticity of aqueous xanthan gum solutions can be tuned by different types of salts. In particular, we find that the decrease in viscoelasticity not only depends, as is known, on the salt concentration, but also is affected by the counterion ionic radius and the valence of the salt.

  7. High temperature salting of fish mince

    OpenAIRE

    Talabi, S.O.; Sorinmade, S.O.; Nwanekezie, R.U.; Aliu, A.

    1986-01-01

    Freshly caught miscellaneous fish were transported to the laboratory, gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Seven batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (Wt/Wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt of the salted cooked mince, cooked water and salted pressed mince was determined. Also, the moisture content of the salted cooked mince and s...

  8. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Schulte, Louis D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Abney, Kent D.; Ricketts, Thomas E.; Valdez, Yvette E.; Bartsch, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material

  9. Concentration of iodine in edible salt in district mansehra, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.; Mustafa, A.; Khalil, K.U.R.; Faisal, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the status of iodization of edible salt of different brands available in the market and used at homes in district Mansehra, Pakistan. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in District Mansehra between December 2016 to March 2017. Samples were selected from 8 union councils through non probability convenient sampling technique. Salt analyzing kits were used to determine amount of iodine in each sample. Results: The mean iodine concentration of salt available in the market was 23.6+-10.461 ppm; while that of the household salt was 22.85+-10.696 ppm. Overall, 82% of the samples had iodine concentration within ecommended level i.e. 15-30ppm. No iodine was found in 13.2% of the samples and 4.8% of the samples had below recommended level. Conclusion: The percentage of adequately iodized salt in the market (83.9%) was better than that of households (81.5%). Overall samples of edible salt showed adequate amount of iodine. (author)

  10. High throughput salt separation from uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, I.T.; Park, S.B., E-mail: swkwon@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites in pyroprocessing. Multilayer porous crucible system was proposed to increase a throughput of the salt distiller in this study. An integrated sieve-crucible assembly was also investigated for the practical use of the porous crucible system. The salt evaporation behaviors were compared between the conventional nonporous crucible and the porous crucible. Two step weight reductions took place in the porous crucible, whereas the salt weight reduced only at high temperature by distillation in a nonporous crucible. The first weight reduction in the porous crucible was caused by the liquid salt penetrated out through the perforated crucible during the temperature elevation until the distillation temperature. Multilayer porous crucibles have a benefit to expand the evaporation surface area. (author)

  11. Development of a robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction against high concentration of salt for preconcentration of trace metals in saline aqueous samples: Application to the determination of Pb and Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2010-01-01

    A new ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for preconcentration and determination of compounds in aqueous samples containing very high salt concentrations. This method can solve the problems associated with the limited application of the conventional IL-based DLLME in these samples. This is believed to arise from dissolving of the ionic liquids in aqueous samples with high salt content. In this method, the robustness of microextraction system against high salt concentration (up to 40%, w/v) is increased by introducing a common ion of the ionic liquid into the sample solution. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily to the preconcentration of lead and cadmium in saline samples. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 100 μL ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Several variables affecting the microextraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions and preconcentration of only 10 mL of sample, the enhancement factors of 273 and 311 and the detection limits of 0.6 μg L -1 and 0.03 μg L -1 were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively. Validation of the method was performed by both an analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) and comparison of results with those obtained by ISO standard method.

  12. Chemical perspectives on alkali and earth alkaline nitrate and nitrite salts for concentrated solar power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph G. [Sandia National Labsoratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Molten salts have been widely considered as the leading candidate heat transfer fluids (HTF) used in high temperature, concentrated solar power plants. Specifically, nitrate and nitrite based salts have been investigated as a HTF and even deployed in pilot plants generating up to 19.9 MW of electricity at operating temperatures above 500 C. New plant designs requiring higher operating temperatures for better efficiencies are pushing the stability limit of HTF. This paper presents an overview of the thermophysical properties of nitrate and nitrite salts and discusses thermodynamic and kinetic stability limitations as they relate to concentrated solar power generation. (orig.)

  13. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen

  14. ELECTRODIALYSIS IN THE CONVERSION STEP OF THE CONCENTRATED SALT SOLUTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF BATTERY SCRAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The concentrated sodium sulfate solution is formed during the processing of waste battery scrap. A promising way to further treatment of the concentrated salt solution could be the conversion of these salts into acid and bases by electrodialysis, that can be reused in the same technical process cycle. For carrying out the process of conversion of salts into the corresponding acid and base several cells schemes with different combinations of cation, anion and bipolar membranes are used. At this article a comparative analysis of these cells is carried out. In the cells there were used the membranes МC-40, МА-41 and МB-2I. Acid and base solutions with higher concentration may be obtained during the process of electrodialysis in the circulation mode, when a predetermined amount of salt in the closed loop is run through a set of membranes to obtain the desired concentration of the product. The disadvantages of this method are the high cost of buffer tanks and the need to work with small volumes of treated solutions. In industrial applications it is advisable to use continuous electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, since this configuration allows to increase the number of repeating sections, which is necessary to reduce the energy costs. The increase of the removal rate of salts can be achieved by increasing the process steps, and to produce a more concentrated products after the conversion step can be applied electrodialysis-concentrator or evaporator.

  15. Capillary Ion Concentration Polarization for Power-Free Salt Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin; Jung, Yeonsu; Cho, Inhee; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Sung Jae

    2014-11-01

    In this presentation, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrated the capillary based ion concentration polarization for power-free salt purification system. Traditional ion concentration polarization phenomenon has been studied for a decade for both fundamental nanoscale fluid dynamics and novel engineering applications such as desalination, preconcentration and energy harvesting devices. While the conventional system utilizes an external power source, the system based on capillary ion concentration polarization is capable of perm-selective ion transportation only by capillarity so that the same ion depletion zone can be formed without any external power sources. An ion concentration profile near the nanostructure was tracked using fluorescent probes and analyzed by solving the modified Nernst-Planck equation. As a result, the concentration in the vicinity of the nanostructure was at least 10 times lower than that of bulk electrolyte and thus, the liquid absorbed into the nanostructure had the low concentration. This mechanism can be used for the power free salt purification system which would be significantly useful in underdeveloped and remote area. This work was supported by Samsung Research Funding Center of Samsung Electronics under Project Number SRFC-MA1301-02.

  16. Concentration of involatile salts at evaporating water surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, G.C.

    1988-02-01

    Safety cases for the PWR often need to know how much of the soluble salts in the water will evaporate with the steam during flashing and when the steam is discharged to the atmosphere. Some ideal evaporating systems to give guidance. Simple formulae are derived for the surface concentration relative to the bulk concentration. An analysis is also presented which derives a formula for the mass transfer process in the steam due to both diffusion and convection, which arises from the evaporation process. The convection process will usually dominate. (author)

  17. Role of salt concentration in blend polymer for energy storage conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Anil; Sharma, A. L., E-mail: alsharmaiitkgp@gmail.com [Centre for Physical Sciences, Central university of Punjab, Bathinda-151001. INDIA (India); Sadiq, M. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. (BHU), Varanasi-India (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are materials of considerable interest worldwide, which serves dual purpose of electrolyte and separator between electrode compartments in renewable energy conversion/storage devices such as; high energy density batteries, electrochromic display devices, and supercapacitors. Polymer blend electrolytes are prepared for various concentration of salt (Ö/Li) with the constant ratio (0.5 gm) of each PEO and PAN polymers (blend polymer) using solution casting technique. Solid polymeric ionic conductor as a separator is the ultimate substitute to eliminate the drawback related to liquid and gel polymer ionic conductors. In the present work, solid polymer electrolyte film consisting of PEO, PAN and LiPF{sub 6} are examined for various concentration of lithium salt by keeping PEO/PAN blend ratio as a constant with a view to optimize the dominant salt concentration which could give the maximum conductivity at ambient temperature.

  18. Tetraphenylborate Solubility in High Ionic Strength Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Ginn, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1998-04-01

    Solubility of sodium and potassium salts of the tetraphenylborate ion (TPB) in simulated Savannah River Site High Level Waste was investigated. Data generated from this study allow more accurate predictions of TPB solubility at the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility. Because previous research showed large deviations in the observed solubility of TPB salts when compared with model predictions, additional data were generated to better understand the solubility of TPB in more complex systems of high ionic strength and those containing both potassium and sodium. These data allow evaluation of the ability of current models to accurately predict equilibrium TPB concentrations over the range of experimental conditions investigated in this study

  19. Preservation of bovine hide using less salt with low concentration of antiseptic, part I: effectiveness of developed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine raw hides are commercially cured either with high salt concentration of about half the weight of actual hide or 95% saturated brine solution. This conventional technique is very popular due to the availability of common salt (sodium chloride) and its cost effective procedure but it generates ...

  20. The relationship between silicon availability, and growth and silicon concentration of the salt marsh halophyte Spartina anglica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; Van Soelen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of silicon concentrations of various halophytes from salt marshes in the S.W. Netherlands shows that the silicon concentration of Spartina anglica (Gramineae) is relatively high. To study the influence of dissolved Si concentrations on growth and plant tissue concentrations of S. anglica,

  1. Mathematical model of salt cavern leaching for gas storage in high-insoluble salt formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Shi, Xilin; Yang, Chunhe; Li, Yinping; Wang, Tongtao; Ma, Hongling

    2018-01-10

    A mathematical model is established to predict the salt cavern development during leaching in high-insoluble salt formations. The salt-brine mass transfer rate is introduced, and the effects of the insoluble sediments on the development of the cavern are included. Considering the salt mass conservation in the cavern, the couple equations of the cavern shape, brine concentration and brine velocity are derived. According to the falling and accumulating rules of the insoluble particles, the governing equations of the insoluble sediments are deduced. A computer program using VC++ language is developed to obtain the numerical solution of these equations. To verify the proposed model, the leaching processes of two salt caverns of Jintan underground gas storage are simulated by the program, using the actual geological and technological parameters. The same simulation is performed by the current mainstream leaching software in China. The simulation results of the two programs are compared with the available field data. It shows that the proposed software is more accurate on the shape prediction of the cavern bottom and roof, which demonstrates the reliability and applicability of the model.

  2. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  3. DNA Binding in High Salt: Analysing the Salt Dependence of Replication Protein A3 from the Halophile Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody A. Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic archaea maintain intracellular salt concentrations close to saturation to survive in high-salt environments and their cellular processes have adapted to function under these conditions. Little is known regarding halophilic adaptation of the DNA processing machinery, particularly intriguing since protein-DNA interactions are classically salt sensitive. To investigate such adaptation, we characterised the DNA-binding capabilities of recombinant RPA3 from Haloferax volcanii (HvRPA3. Under physiological salt conditions (3 M KCl, HvRPA3 is monomeric, binding 18 nucleotide ssDNA with nanomolar affinity, demonstrating that RPAs containing the single OB-fold/zinc finger architecture bind with broadly comparable affinity to two OB-fold/zinc finger RPAs. Reducing the salt concentration to 1 M KCl induces dimerisation of the protein, which retains its ability to bind DNA. On circular ssDNA, two concentration-dependent binding modes are observed. Conventionally, increased salt concentration adversely affects DNA binding but HvRPA3 does not bind DNA in 0.2 M KCl, although multimerisation may occlude the binding site. The single N-terminal OB-fold is competent to bind DNA in the absence of the C-terminal zinc finger, albeit with reduced affinity. This study represents the first quantitative characterisation of DNA binding in a halophilic protein in extreme salt concentrations.

  4. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger; Binning, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water...... displacement and infiltration could result in hazards for human health and the environment and therefore have to be investigated in detail. In this work numerical simulations are performed to estimate the risk related to the displacement of brine. The injected CO2 will displace the brine that is initially...

  5. Determination of potassium concentration in salt water for residual beta radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, Ll.

    2004-01-01

    High interferences may arise in the determination of potassium concentration in salt water. Several analytical methods were studied to determine which method provided the most accurate measurements of potassium concentration. This study is relevant for radiation protection because the exact amount of potassium in water samples must be known for determinations of residual beta activity concentration. The fitting algorithm of the calibration curve and estimation of uncertainty in potassium determinations were also studied. The reproducibility of the proposed analytical method was tested by internal and external validation. Furthermore, the residual beta activity concentration of several Spanish seawater and brackish river water samples was determined using the proposed method

  6. Problems of evaluating isotope analysis of concentrated salt solutions in potash mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedl, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Three problems of quantitative evaluation of analytic D and 18 O isotope data of concentrated salt solutions are discussed: (1) Consideration of the influence of admixtures of hydrated salts in determining meteoric or marine water fractions in a concentrated salt solution, (2) analytic accuracy and detection limits in determining meteoric water in salt solutions, and (3) processes of isotopic exchange with reservoir rock and sample matrix

  7. Iron corrosion in concentrated saline solutions at elevated T in high-level radioactive waste salt rock repositories. A thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Andres G.; Moog, Helge C. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Predictions of the evolution of the interfacial chemistry of corroding iron in high salinary milieus at temperatures of 25 C to 100 C based on an extended thermodynamic data basis for the system Fe(II)-Fe(III)-Na-K-Cl-Mg-Ca-SO{sub 4}-S-CO{sub 3}-H{sub 2} are presented. Future research directions are discussed.

  8. Microbial Succession And Biochemical Aspects Of Mandai Fermentation At Low Salt Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasrul Satria Nur

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandai isfermented food that traditionally made from the flesh of jack fruit (Arthocarphus champeden Spreg.. Usually mandai ismade as high salt concentration. However, the objective of this research is to study the succession and biochemicalaspects of microbials during fermentation at low salt concentration (10% w/v for 14 days. During the period offermentation microbial cell numbers and biochemical aspects were observed at the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th day. Total cellnumber of bacteria and yeast were measured by pour plate method. The measurement was also conducted on fleshbefore incubation. The biochemical aspect observation included the contents of reducing sugar, N-total, salt, and pH.The research results indicated that the pattern of microbial succession occurred the fermentation. Yeast cells grewdominantly (2.8 x 109 CFU/g on the 5th day fermentation but bacteria were dominant at the end (1.1 x 107 CFU/g. Thehighest decrease of reducing sugar and N-total contents were 0.240% at the 14th day and 0.159% at the 5th day,respectively. However, salt concentration was relatively stable and pH was varied within the range of 3.71-6.12 for thewhole period fermentation.

  9. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 2. Measurement test of the salt concentration in air and salt deposition in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the storage facility of spent nuclear fuel using the concrete cask, there is an issue of stress corrosion cracking(SCC). The cooling air goes up along the canister surface in the concrete cask. To evaluate the initiation of SCC or rusting, it is important to verify the estimation method of the sea salt deposition on the metal canister surface transported by cooling air including sea salt particles. To measure the deposition rate, field tests were performed in Choushi test center. In the field test, it was found that the amount of sea salt deposition was very low because the density of the atmospheric sea salt concentration was very low compared with the laboratory test. Using relation between laboratory data and filed data, it is possible to evaluate the salt deposition rate on the canister surface. We also measured atmospheric sea salt concentration in Choushi test center to make the environment condition clear and compared the measurement data with the calculation data to verify the evaluation model. We are developing the automatic measuring device for atmospheric sea salt concentration. To check its performance, we are measuring atmospheric sea salt concentration in Yokosuka Area of CRIEPI and it was confirmed that the device works for one month automatically and fulfills its specifications. (author)

  10. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Peter A.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Serrano, Brenda E.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Cowan, Ben F.; Herrmann, Steven D.; Li, Shelly X.

    2010-01-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-β(double p rime)-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-β(double p rime)-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in

  11. Sorption of cesium on montmorillonite and effect of salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.; Bilgin, B.; Mardinli, A.

    1996-01-01

    The sorption behavior of cesium on montmorillonite type[e clay was studied by using radioactivity measurements. Concentrations of Cs + ions ranged from 10 -6 to 10 -2 M. Cesium retention reduced with increasing salt concentration which was varied between 10 -4 and 10 -1 M. Selectivity coefficients K CsNa for the exchange between Cs and Na were calculated for different equivalent fractions of Cs on the solid phase. Using the K CsNa values, free energy change was found to be 7.8 kJ/mol. The data could be fitted to a Freundlich isotherm, and empirical Freundlich parameters enabled the generation of a site distribution function. By fitting the data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm, a mean energy of sorption of 8.6kJ/mole was calculated which corresponds to the energy of ion exchange reactions. The values of energy changes calculated by using two different methods were in good agreement. (author)

  12. Effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentration on the third month's weight and blood pressure in wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereidoun, H.

    2009-01-01

    In utero alterations in fluid and electrolyte endocrine systems may result in permanent effects on offspring. A low sodium intake during prenatal life jeopardizes growth in young rats, prenatal high-salt diet in Sprague-Dawley rats caused an increase in MAP at postnatal day 30. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure in Wistar rat. This study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran, over a period from 1998 to 2003. Six groups of rat, 1 male and 5 female in each group were exposed to 0.5, 1, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2 percent of salt concentrations during pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation period, another test group consumed distilled water and control group used Isfahan tap water, other living conditions for all groups were similar. Exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure was evaluated. Prenatal exposure to 0.5 and 1% salt concentrations gives birth to more alive and healthy infants, and third month's weight increased significantly, but blood pressure was not influenced significantly. Salt concentrations higher than 1% increased the maternal and infant mortality rate and blood pressure significantly, but some concentrations decreased third month's weight significantly. Level of dietary salt during intrauterine development can influence on the number of alive and healthy infants, birth weight, third month' weight and blood pressure significantly. There is no need to introduce a salt restricted diet in prenatal care, a balanced diet in sodium during pregnancy is recommended, high salt diet creates harmful effect. (author)

  13. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, M.; Sophanodora, P.

    2002-01-01

    % salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation....... LAB counts increased to 108-109 cfu g-1 and yeast counts to 107-5 x 107 cfu g-1 in all batches, except in the 11% salt batch, where counts were 1-2 log lower. Phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified LAB isolates as Pediococcus pentosaceus......Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7...

  14. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  15. Comparative Salt Stress Study on Intracellular Ion Concentration in Marine and Salt-adapted Freshwater Strains of Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad TALEBI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salinity imposes significant stresses in various living organisms including microalgae. High extracellular concentration of Na+ directly influences ionic balance inside the cell and subsequently the cellular activities. In the present study, the effect of such stress on growth and intracellular ions concentration (IIC of Dunaliella salina and Chlorella Spp. was investigated. IIC was analyzed using Ion chromatography technique. D. salina showed the highest degree of resistance to increase in salinity as little changes occurred both in IIC and in growth parameters. D. salina could maintain the balance of K+ inside the cell and eject the excess Na+ even at NaCl concentrations above 1M. Moreover, D. salina accumulated β-carotene in order to protect its photosynthetic apparatus. Among Chlorella species, C. vulgaris showed signs of adaptation to high content of salinity, though it is a fresh water species by nature. Moreover, the response shown by C. vulgaris to rise in salinity was even stronger than that of C. salina, which is presumably a salt-water resistant species. In fact, C. vulgaris could maintain intracellular K+ better than C. salina in response to increasing salinity, and as a result, it could survive at NaCl concentrations as high as 0.75 M. Marine strains such as D. salina well cope with the fluctuations in salinity through the existing adaptation mechanisms i.e. maintaining the K+/N+ balance inside the cell, K+ accumulation and Na+ ejection, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments like β-carotene.

  16. IODINE CONCENTRATION IN SALT AT HOUSEHOLD AND RETAIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-10

    Oct 10, 2003 ... of shop salt samples have iodine levels below the minimum standard set by the Quality and. Standard Authority of Ethiopia. ... process towards meeting the goal of IDD elimination. Universal salt iodization (USI) is .... study populations was Oromo accounting for 155(51.8%) and 10(30.3%) in the household ...

  17. Effect of alternative salt use on broiler breast meat yields, tenderness, flavor, and sodium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, P R; Behrends, J M; Schilling, M W

    2011-12-01

    Fresh chicken breast fillets were marinated with gourmet-style salts: Himalayan pink salt, Sonoma gourmet salt, sel gus de Guerande, and Bolivian rose salt to evaluate their effects on marination and cook loss yields, tenderness, sensory attributes, and sodium concentration. Fresh chicken breast fillets (48-h postmortem) were vacuum tumbled (137 kPa at 20 rpm for 17 min) in a solution of water, salt, and sodium tripolyphosphate at a level of 20% of the meat weights. Instrumental analyses showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in meat quality with respect to marination yield, cook yield, or shear-force value. There were also no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sensory descriptors between salt treatments. However, Sonoma gourmet salt showed a tendency (P = 0.0693) to score increased savory note values from panelists, whereas Bolivian rose salt received the lowest score. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sodium concentrations between salt treatments, but numerically, sel gus de Guerande had the lowest sodium concentration, which could be important in producing reduced sodium products. Understanding different salts and sodium concentrations allows the poultry industry to use gourmet salts in products and maintain overall meat quality and flavor.

  18. Computational Analysis of Nanoparticles-Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-05-05

    High fidelity computational models of thermocline-based thermal energy storage (TES) were developed. The research goal was to advance the understanding of a single tank nanofludized molten salt based thermocline TES system under various concentration and sizes of the particles suspension. Our objectives were to utilize sensible-heat that operates with least irreversibility by using nanoscale physics. This was achieved by performing computational analysis of several storage designs, analyzing storage efficiency and estimating cost effectiveness for the TES systems under a concentrating solar power (CSP) scheme using molten salt as the storage medium. Since TES is one of the most costly but important components of a CSP plant, an efficient TES system has potential to make the electricity generated from solar technologies cost competitive with conventional sources of electricity.

  19. A comparison between evaporation ponds and evaporation surfaces as a source of the concentrated salt brine for salt gradient maintenance at Tajoura solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Abdulghani M.; Agha, Khairy R.; Abughres, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems that negatively affect the operation of salt gradient solar ponds and influence its thermal stability is the maintenance of salt gradient profile. Evaporation pond (EP) is designed to generate the salt which lost upward salt diffusion from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond. Another attractive method is the evaporation surface facility (ES). Regions with moderate to high precipitation favor Evaporation Surface over Evaporation Ponds. Dry climates will generally favor Evaporation Ponds for the brine re-concentration. In previous studies [1-3], the authors have shown that the (EP) of Tajoura's Experimental Solar Pond (TESP) is under sized and can provide only about 30% of the salt required by a Salt Gradient Solar Pond (SGSP). The anticipated size of (EP) was estimated and presented in those studies under different design conditions, including Summer, Autumn and Spring designs, while the winter design was excluded due to the low rates of net evaporation during the winter season. In addition, the results presented were predicted for the first three years of operation. The daily variations of brine concentration in the (EP) of (TESP) and those based on different designs were predicted and discussed under different scenarios. The quantities of brine provided by the evaporation pond and that required by SGSP were predicted for both cases of surface water flushing (fresh water and sea-water) under the different design conditions as shown in Table 1. This paper investigates the differences between (EP) and (ES) both as a source for salt brine generation by evaporation. The effect of (EP) depth on the area ratio and daily variations of salt concentrations for three years of operation is shown. Results show that evaporation can be a reasonable method for salt brine generation. Reducing the depth of (EP) improves the capability of (EP) for brine re-concentration. It also increases the (EP) surface area for the same quantity of

  20. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  1. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  2. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  3. Ionic relaxation in PEO/PVDF-HFP-LiClO4 blend polymer electrolytes: dependence on salt concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of LiClO4 salt concentration on the ionic conduction and relaxation in poly ethylene oxide (PEO) and poly (vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) blend polymer electrolytes, in which the molar ratio of ethylene oxide segments to lithium ions (R  =  EO: Li) has been varied between 3 and 35. We have observed two phases in the samples containing low salt concentrations (R  >  9) and single phase in the samples containing high salt concentrations (R  ⩽  9). The scanning electron microscopic images indicate that there exists no phase separation in the blend polymer electrolytes. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity shows two slopes corresponding to high and low temperatures and follows Arrhenius relation for the samples containing low salt concentrations (R  >  9). The conductivity relaxation as well as the structural relaxation has been clearly observed at around 104 Hz and 106 Hz for these concentrations of the blended electrolytes. However, a single conductivity relaxation peak has been observed for the compositions with R  ⩽  9. The scaling of the conductivity spectra shows that the relaxation mechanism is independent of temperature, but depends on salt concentration.

  4. Assessment of iodine concentration in dietary salt at household level in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidi, Ahmed; Zahidi, Meriem; Taoufik, Jamal

    2016-05-20

    Following WHO recommendations, Morocco adopted in 1995 the universal salt iodization (USI) as a strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency disorders. In 2009, the standard salt iodine concentration was adjusted to 15-40 mg/kg. The success of USI for the control of iodine deficiency disorders requires an evaluation of iodine concentration in salt prior to assessing the iodine nutritional status of a population. In our study we refer to the anterior studies that were made in Morocco in 1993 and 1998. 178 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using spot-testing kits. The iodometric titration method was used to analyze accurately the concentration of iodine in the 178 household salt samples. An empiric polling method was adopted, using a non-probability sampling method; across the different twelve regions in the country. The median and interquartile range iodine concentration in salt was 2.9 mg/kg (IQR: 2.4-3.7). The results show that only 25 % of households use iodized salt. The recommended iodine concentration in salt of 15-40 mg/kg was met only in 4.5 % of salt samples. The bulk salt is used by 8 % of households. All samples of this bulk salt were found in rural areas. According to nonparametric appropriate tests used, there is no significant difference in iodine concentrations between regions, between urban and rural areas and between packaged and bulk salt. Two decades since introducing legislation on Universal Salt Iodization, our survey shows that generalization of iodized salt is far from being reached. In 2015, only a quarter of Moroccan households use the iodized salt and only 4.5 % of salt is in conformity with regulations. The use of bulk salt by households in rural areas constitutes a major obstacle to the success of USI. The National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program can only be achieved if an internal follow-up and a control of external quality of program is put in place.

  5. Influence of the supporting salt concentration on the electrodeposition of ZnO/eosin Y hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeckler, C.; Oekermann, T. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University Hannover (Germany); Saruban, M.; Ichinose, K.; Yoshida, T. [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems (CIPS), Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems (ERES) Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    ZnO/eosin Y hybrid films were electrodeposited from O{sub 2}-saturated ZnCl{sub 2}-solution under variation of the concentration of the supporting salt KCl. The supporting salt concentration was found to have a significant influence on the amount of dye loading and the morphology of the ZnO/eosin Y films. By decreasing the supporting salt concentration to 0.01 M KCl, porous films with a high dye loading can be obtained at potentials of -0.8 V vs. SCE at low eosin Y concentrations in the electrodeposition bath, which usually only lead to porous films at potentials where eosin Y is reduced (<-0.9 V vs. SCE). (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. High temperature salting of mince of small sized fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinmade, S.O.; Talabi, S.O.; Aliu, A.

    1982-01-01

    Freshly caught small sized fish species were transported to the laboratory gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Duplicate batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (wt/wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt in the salted cooked mince, free and press water and salted cooked pressed mince were determined. Also, the moisture contents of...

  7. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  8. Quantitative Visualization of Salt Concentration Distributions in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes during Battery Operation Using X-ray Phase Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Daiko; Yoneyama, Akio; Asari, Yusuke; Hirano, Tatsumi

    2018-02-07

    A fundamental understanding of concentrations of salts in lithium-ion battery electrolytes during battery operation is important for optimal operation and design of lithium-ion batteries. However, there are few techniques that can be used to quantitatively characterize salt concentration distributions in the electrolytes during battery operation. In this paper, we demonstrate that in operando X-ray phase imaging can quantitatively visualize the salt concentration distributions that arise in electrolytes during battery operation. From quantitative evaluation of the concentration distributions at steady states, we obtained the salt diffusivities in electrolytes with different initial salt concentrations. Because of no restriction on samples and high temporal and spatial resolutions, X-ray phase imaging will be a versatile technique for evaluating electrolytes, both aqueous and nonaqueous, of many electrochemical systems.

  9. On change of iodobenzene electroreduction mechanism with change of tetraethylammonium salts concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majranovskij, S.G.; Rubinskaya, T.Ya.; Proskurovskaya, I.V.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of the nature and concentration of tetraethylammonium salt on the mechanism of electroreduction of iodobenzene at the mercury electrode was studied. For this purpose a microelectrolysis of iodobenzene solution was carried out with a subsequent chromatographic analysis of the yield products (with tetraethylammonium bromide as an indifferent electrolyte). Diphenylmercury was found on the background of tetraethylammonium salts at 0.08 to 0.2M concentrations among the electrolysis products besides the main product-benzene. At 0.01 and 1M salt concentrations even traces of diphenylmercury weren't detected. The diphenyl mercury content somewhat increases, if the electrolysis is conducted at the potentials of the startrise of the iodobenzene reduction wave, i. e. at E=-1.45V. Thus, the change of tetraethylammonium salt concentration may partially alter the iodobenzene reduction mechanism

  10. The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabner, Joseph; Seiler, Michael P.; Launspach, Janice L.; Karp, Philip H.; Kearney, William R.; Look, Dwight C.; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2000-10-01

    The thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) contains antimicrobial substances that kill the small numbers of bacteria that are constantly being deposited in the lungs. An increase in ASL salt concentration inhibits the activity of airway antimicrobial factors and may partially explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that an osmolyte with a low transepithelial permeability may lower the ASL salt concentration, thereby enhancing innate immunity. We found that the five-carbon sugar xylitol has a low transepithelial permeability, is poorly metabolized by several bacteria, and can lower the ASL salt concentration in both CF and non-CF airway epithelia in vitro. Furthermore, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, xylitol sprayed for 4 days into each nostril of normal volunteers significantly decreased the number of nasal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus compared with saline control. Xylitol may be of value in decreasing ASL salt concentration and enhancing the innate antimicrobial defense at the airway surface.

  11. The Addition of White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Concentrated Base on Quality Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol, Protein Content and Salt Content of Salted Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu’addimah Mu’addimah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research was to determine the effect of Curcuma zedoaria concentrated addition on quality antioxidant activity, total phenols, protein content and salt content of salted egg. The materials were duck’s egg, water, salt, and essence of white turmeric. The method was experiment using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and three for replications. The Curcuma zedoaria juice research were divided into P0 (0%, P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30% and P4 (40%. Data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and then continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, if it was found significant effect among treatmeants. The result showed that the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice indicated highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on antioxidant activity, protein content and salt content, but significantly effect (P<0.05 on total phenol. The best treatment was the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice 40% were indicated of antioxidant activity, total phenol, protein content and the salt content was 99.80 mg/g, 0.16%, 9.96%, 2.43% respectively.

  12. Phosphate buffer and salt medium concentrations affect the inactivation of T4 phage by platinum(II) complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik B.; Josephsen, Jens; Kerszman, Gustaw

    1985-01-01

    -Tris) buffer and HEPES buffer. The phosphate abolishes the antiphage activity of the platinum complexes probably by some sort of complex formation. This together with dimerization reactions qualitatively explains the tailing off of the phage inactivation rate. High concentrations of NaNO3 as the salt medium...

  13. Chain stiffness, salt valency, and concentration influences on titration curves of polyelectrolytes: Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, Fabrice; Stoll, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to study two different models of a weak linear polyelectrolyte surrounded by explicit counterions and salt particles: (i) a rigid rod and (ii) a flexible chain. We focused on the influence of the pH, chain stiffness, salt concentration, and valency on the polyelectrolyte titration process and conformational properties. It is shown that chain acid-base properties and conformational properties are strongly modified when multivalent salt concentration variation ranges below the charge equivalence. Increasing chain stiffness allows to minimize intramolecular electrostatic monomer interactions hence improving the deprotonation process. The presence of di and trivalent salt cations clearly promotes the chain degree of ionization but has only a limited effect at very low salt concentration ranges. Moreover, folded structures of fully charged chains are only observed when multivalent salt at a concentration equal or above charge equivalence is considered. Long-range electrostatic potential is found to influence the distribution of charges along and around the polyelectrolyte backbones hence resulting in a higher degree of ionization and a lower attraction of counterions and salt particles at the chain extremities.

  14. Fermentation of Nocellara Etnea Table Olives by Functional Starter Cultures at Different Low Salt Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pino

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocellara Etnea is one of the main Sicilian cultivars traditionally used to produce both olive oil and naturally fermented table olives. In the present study, the effect of different salt concentrations on physico-chemical, microbiological, sensorial, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs formation was evaluated in order to obtain functional Nocellara Etnea table olives. The experimental design consisted of 8 treatments as follow: fermentations at 4, 5, 6, and 8% of salt with (E1-E4 samples and without (C1-C4 samples the addition of starters. All the trials were carried out at room temperature (18 ± 2°C and monitored for an overall period of 120 d. In addition, the persistence of the potential probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei N24 at the end of the process was investigated. Microbiological data revealed the dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, starting from the 7th d of fermentation, and the reduction of yeasts and enterobacteria in the final product inoculated with starters. VOCs profile highlighted a high amount of aldehydes at the beginning of fermentation, which significantly decreased through the process and a concomitant increase of alcohols, acids, esters, and phenols. In particular, esters showed an occurrence percentage higher in experimental samples rather than in control ones, contributing to more pleasant flavors. Moreover, acetic acid, ethanol, and phenols, which often generate off-flavors, were negatively correlated with mesophilic bacteria and LAB. It is interesting to note that salt content did not affect the performances of starter cultures and slightly influenced the metabolome of table olives. Sensory data demonstrated significant differences among samples registering the highest overall acceptability in the experimental sample at 5% of NaCl. The persistence of the L. paracasei N24 strain in experimental samples, at the end of the process, revealed its promising perspectives as starter culture for the production of

  15. Lithium isotope effect in the extraction systems of polyethers: effect of salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shengqiang; Fu Lian

    1991-01-01

    Separation factors of lithium isotopes at 20 deg C were determined in the extraction systems of B15C5-CHCl 3 /LiBr-H 2 O. The initial concentration of LiBr was controlled in the extent of more than 2 mol/l. It may be established that the increase of LiBr concentration causes a remarkable increase of the separation factor. The essence of this effect due to the change in salt concentration was discussed in connection with examination of relevant phenomena in literature. It can be concluded that the relationship between α and Cm, the concentration of lithium salt, is dependent on K Q and K P express respectively, lithium isotope exchange equilibrium constants between Li-crownether complex and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration less than 1-2 mol/l, and between lithium salt ion pair and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration more than 2 mol/l in aqueous phase

  16. High Salt Intake Attenuates Breast Cancer Metastasis to Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yijuan; Wang, Wenzhe; Wang, Minmin; Liu, Xuejiao; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei

    2018-04-04

    Diet-related factors are thought to modify the risk of cancers, while the influence of high salt intake remains largely uncharacterized. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In the present study, we examined the effect of salt intake on breast cancer by using a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model. Unexpectedly, both the fitness and the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice were improved by high salt intake. Similarly, high salt intake suppressed the primary tumor growth as well as metastasis to lung in mice. Mechanistically, high salt intake greatly reduced food intake and thus might exert antitumor effect through mimicking calorie restriction. Immunoblotting showed the lower proliferation marker Ki-67 and the higher expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in tumors of high salt intake mice. Importantly, high salt intake might induce hyperosmotic stress, which sensitized breast cancer cells to p53-dependent anoikis. Collectively, our findings raise the possibility that endogenous salt deposition might act as the first-line defense system against breast cancer progression as well as metastasis.

  17. Formation and stabilization of anionic metal complexes in concentrated aqueous quaternary ammonium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, F.L.; Hwang, L.L.Y.; Ronca, N.; Solomon, N.A.; Steigman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Anionic complexes of transition metals were stabilized in aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of various short-chain quaternary ammonium salts. Compounds with longer paraffin chains were effective in much less concentrated solution. Complex ions were detected spectrophotometrically. FeCl 4 - , which is usually formed in concentrated HCl, was the predominant Fe(III) complex in 30 m choline chloride containing only 0.12 M HCl. A yellow transitory Tc(VII) chloro-addition intermediate, formed in the reduction of TcO 4 - by concentrated HCl, was stabilized when the solution also contained 25 m choline chloride. Its spectrum, as well as the isolation of an already known Tc(VII) bipyridyl complex, is reported. Concentrated organic electrolytes also stabilized Tc(V) oxide halides against disproportionation and Tc(IV) hexahalides against hydrolysis. Halochromates of Cr(VI) were formed and stabilized in dilute acid containing quaternary ammonium salts. Their UV spectra showed the well-resolved vibronic fine structure associated with the symmetric chromium-to-oxygen charge-transfer band. It is known that these progressions are resolved in aprotic solvents, but not in aqueous acidic solution alone, and that the loss of fine structure in aqueous media is due to hydrogen bonding. The stabilization of anionic metal complexes and the resolution of vibronic structure in halochromates are probably consequences of water-structure-enforced ion paring. The present work suggests that the water molecules in immediate contact with the complex anions are more strongly hydrogen bonded to each other than to the complex. 21 references, 4 figures

  18. High salt diet induces metabolic alterations in multiple biological processes of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines. In addition, HS enhanced glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) and amino acid metabolism and suppressed the TCA (citrate synthase and aconitase) cycle. Finally, HS intake caused up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase), the ratio of NADPH/NADP + , NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production, suggesting that increased oxidative stress was associated with an altered PPP pathway. The metabolic pathways identified may serve as potential targets for the treatment of renal damage. Our findings provide comprehensive biochemical details about the metabolic responses to a high salt diet, which may contribute to the understanding of renal disease and salt-induced hypertension in SS rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  20. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  1. Structure and ionic conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes over a wide salt concentration range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide

  2. Quantification of salt concentrations in cured pork by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Eight pork loin samples were mounted in Plexiglas cylinders and cured for five days. Samples were scanned by computed tomography (CT) once every 24 h. At the end of the experiment, the cylinders were cut in 1 cm sections and analyzed for chloride. From image analysis of the CT images, concentration...

  3. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar

    2017-05-16

    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  4. Characterization of the deviation to the ideality of concentrated actinide and lanthanide salt solutions: contribution of the Bimsa theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruas, A.

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the mean stoichiometric activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients or water activities of aqueous actinide nitrate salt solutions up to high concentration. These sets of data are required for a better control of the equilibria occurring in liquid-liquid extraction processes. Experimental acquisition of these thermodynamic properties, in the case of some actinide nitrates, is possible and was conducted before.But, many actinide salt solutions cannot be experimentally handled up to high concentration because of unstable oxidation state or very high radioactivity. As a consequence, a suitable predictive theory is necessary for the description of these nitrate salt solutions (such as Am (NO 3 ) 3 , Cm (NO 3 ) 3 ). The BIMSA ('Binding Mean Spherical Approximation') was chosen for this purpose. This theory, unlike other methods, uses a set of microscopic parameters that have some physical meaning, for the description of macroscopic thermodynamic properties (osmotic coefficients, activity coefficients).The following manuscript is divided by 4 chapters, corresponding to 4 articles accepted in the scientific journal 'Journal of Physical Chemistry'. Chapter 1 first reviews the basic thermodynamic concepts before describing the issues involved in acquiring actinides binary data. An approach based on the thermodynamic concept of simple solutions, the notion of fictive binary data, is described. Within this approach, the activity coefficient of an aqueous phase constituent depends on two parameters: the water activity of the system and total concentration of dissolved constituents. As a first application, new fictive binary data of uranyl nitrate are proposed from measurements on the ternary system UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 /HNO 3 /H 2 O.Chapter 2 gives the main principles of the BIMSA theory. It shows also preliminary promising results obtained when modeling lanthanide(III) salt properties. Then, in chapter 3, two predictive capabilities of the theory

  5. Polyol concentrations in Aspergillus repens grown under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Na(+), K(+) and the ratio of Na(+)/K(+) were higher in cells of the halotolerant Aspergillus repens grown with 2 M NaCl than without NaCl. The osmolytes, proline, glycerol, betaine and glutamate, did not affect the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, nor the polyol content of cells under any conditions. The concentrations of polyols, consisting of glycerol, arabitol, erythritol and mannitol, changed markedly during growth, indicating that they have a crucial role in osmotic adaptation.

  6. Convective heat transfer characteristics in the turbulent region of molten salt in concentric tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.H.; Yuan, X.F.; Tian, J.; Tang, Z.F.; Zhu, H.H.; Fu, Y.; Wang, N.X.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the heat transfer behavior and characteristics of molten salt in heat exchanger, the convective heat transfer characteristics of molten salt in salt-to-oil concentric tube are studied. Overall heat transfer coefficients of the heat exchanger are calculated using Wilson plots. Heat transfer coefficients of tube side molten salt with the range of Reynolds number from 10,000 to 50,000 and the Prandtl number from 11 to 27 are evaluated invoking the calculated overall heat transfer coefficients. The effects of velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer in the turbulent region of molten salt are studied by comparing with the traditional correlations. The results show that the heat transfer characteristics of molten salt are in line with the empirical heat transfer correlation; however, Dittus–Boelter, Gnielinski, Sieder–Tate and Hausen correlations all give a larger deviation for the experimental data. Finally, based on the experimental data and Sieder–Tate correlation, a modified heat transfer correlation is proposed and good agreement is observed between the experimental data and the modified correlation. The results will also provide an important reference for the design of the heat exchangers in the Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor.

  7. Hydronephrosis causes salt-sensitive hypertension and impaired renal concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, M; Sällström, J; Skøtt, O

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Hypertension is a common disease in the industrialized world and approximately 5% of all cases are secondary to kidney malfunction. We have recently shown that hydronephrosis due to partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) causes salt-sensitive hypertension in rats. The mechanisms...... are still unclear, but appear to be intrarenal and primarily located to the diseased kidney. In the present study, we have developed a model for PUUO to study if hydronephrotic mice develop salt-sensitive hypertension. METHODS: PUUO was created in 3-week-old mice (C57bl/6J). Blood pressure and heart rate...... salt-sensitive hypertension that correlated to the degree of hydronephrosis. In hydronephrotic animals, blood pressure increased from 114 +/- 1 mmHg on normal salt diet to 120 +/- 2 mmHg on high salt diet, compared with 103 +/- 1 to 104 +/- 1 in controls. Hydronephrotic animals showed increased...

  8. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  9. Vascular effects of a single high salt meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Kader Abdel Wahab

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: High salt intake may acutely impair vascular function in different vascular beds independent of the increase of blood pressure. Plasma sodium increase may be one of the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Methane-steam reforming by molten salt - membrane reactor using concentrated solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanuki, K.; Nakajima, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Kaneko, H.; Tamaura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    By utilization of concentrated solar thermal energy for steam reforming of natural gas, which is an endothermic reaction, the chemical energy of natural gas can be up-graded. The chemical system for steam reforming of natural gas with concentrated solar thermal energy was studied to produce hydrogen by using the thermal storage with molten salt and the membrane reactor. The original steam reforming module with hydrogen permeable palladium membrane was developed and fabricated. Steam reforming of methane proceeded with the original module with palladium membrane below the decomposition temperature of molten salt (around 870 K). (authors)

  11. High Salt Intake Promotes Urinary Loss of Vitamin D Metabolites by Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, M.; Cephas, S.; Sayavongsa, P.; Clark, T.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have demonstrated that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) concentrations during hind limb unloading (a space flight model). We report here on the response of the vitamin D endocrine system of S and R rats to hind limb unloading during high salt intake. Dahl female rats (9.7-week-old) were tail-suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a diet containing twice the salt in standard rat chow (2 % sodium chloride). Control rats were fed the same diet, but were not hind limb unloaded. Vitamin D metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and radioimmunoassay kits from Diasorin.

  12. Some metallic materials and fluoride salts for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Hron, M.; Matal, O.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a special Ni base alloy MONICR for high temperature applications in fluoride salt environments developed in the framework of the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic. Selected results of MONICR alloy tests and results of semi products fabrication from this alloy are discussed in the paper. The results of the structural materials tests are applied on semi-products and for the design of the testing devices as the autoclave in loop arrangement for high temperature fluoride salts applications. Material properties other Ni base alloys are compared to those of MONICR. Corrosion test results of the alloy A686 in the LiF - NaF - ZrF 4 molten salt are provided and compared to the measured values of the polarizing resistance. (author)

  13. Development of High Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is one of the the most promising technologies for the advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. The electrorefining process, one of main processes which is composed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of the pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. High-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because a molten salt should be transported from the electrorefiner to electrowiner after the electrorefining process. Therefore, in pyrometallurgical processing, the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technologies is a crucial prerequisite. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. In this study, an apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high temperature transport technology for molten salt, and the performance test of the apparatus was performed. And also, predissolution test of the salt was carried out using the reactor with furnace in experimental apparatus

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in salt pans in the coastal area of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.N.; Chowdhury, M.I.; Zafar, M.; Kamal, M.; Ghose, S.; Kamal, A.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K in samples of water, soil and salt from three gradients of salt pans (reservoir, condenser and crystalliser) in the coastal area of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh and in samples of refined salts were measured using γ-spectrometry. The activities of 226 Ra in the salt pans were found to be in the range 3·18±1·02 Bq l -1 in water to 25·17±5·76 Bq kg -1 in soil; 232 Th activities were 2·01±0·89 Bq l -1 in water to 42·33±2·54 Bq kg -1 in soil, and 40 K activities ranged from 109·60±27·77 Bq l -1 in water to 651·89±65·89 Bq kg -1 in soil. No 137 Cs or 134 Cs was found in soil, salt and water from the salt pans investigated. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. DC electrophoresis and viscosity of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions: non-equilibrium dissociation-association processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Carrique, Félix; Lechuga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Most of the suspensions usually found in industrial applications are concentrated, aqueous and in contact with the atmospheric CO2. The case of suspensions with a high concentration of added salt is relatively well understood and has been considered in many studies. In this work we are concerned with the case of concentrated suspensions that have no ions different than: (1) those stemming from the charged colloidal particles (the added counterions, that counterbalance their surface charge); (2) the H(+) and OH(-) ions from water dissociation, and (3) the ions generated by the atmospheric CO2 contamination. We call this kind of systems "realistic salt-free suspensions". We show some theoretical results about the electrophoretic mobility of a colloidal particle and the electroviscous effect of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions. The theoretical framework is based on a cell model that accounts for particle-particle interactions in concentrated suspensions, which has been successfully applied to many different phenomena in concentrated suspensions. On the other hand, the water dissociation and CO2 contamination can be described following two different levels of approximation: (a) by local equilibrium mass-action equations, because it is supposed that the reactions are so fast that chemical equilibrium is attained everywhere in the suspension, or (b) by non-equilibrium dissociation-association kinetic equations, because it is considered that some reactions are not rapid enough to ensure local chemical equilibrium. Both approaches give rise to different results in the range from dilute to semidilute suspensions, causing possible discrepancies when comparing standard theories and experiments concerning transport properties of realistic salt-free suspensions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sodium concentration in home made salt – sugar – solution (sss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cohort of 210 young mothers, selected through cluster sampling technique from Ogida health district of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, the electrolyte concentration of prepared salt-sugar-solutions (SSS) were evaluated. This was predicated on the need to determine the effects of introduction of various ...

  17. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  18. High concentration agglomerate dynamics at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, M C; Pratsinis, S E

    2006-11-21

    The dynamics of agglomerate aerosols are investigated at high solids concentrations that are typical in industrial scale manufacture of fine particles (precursor mole fraction larger than 10 mol %). In particular, formation and growth of fumed silica at such concentrations by chemical reaction, coagulation, and sintering is simulated at nonisothermal conditions and compared to limited experimental data and commercial product specifications. Using recent chemical kinetics for silica formation by SiCl4 hydrolysis and neglecting aerosol polydispersity, the evolution of the diameter of primary particles (specific surface area, SSA), hard- and soft-agglomerates, along with agglomerate effective volume fraction (volume occupied by agglomerate) is investigated. Classic Smoluchowski theory is fundamentally limited for description of soft-agglomerate Brownian coagulation at high solids concentrations. In fact, these high concentrations affect little the primary particle diameter (or SSA) but dominate the soft-agglomerate diameter, structure, and volume fraction, leading to gelation consistent with experimental data. This indicates that restructuring and fragmentation should affect product particle characteristics during high-temperature synthesis of nanostructured particles at high concentrations in aerosol flow reactors.

  19. Dynamic Reference Electrode development for redox potential measurements in fluoride molten salt at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán-Klie, Gabriela; Rodrigues, Davide; Delpech, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of redox potential in fluoride media is a major problem due to the difficulty to design a reference electrode with high stability, high mechanical resistance and high accuracy. In the frame of molten salt reactor studies, a dynamic reference electrode (DRE) is developed to measure redox potential in fluoride molten salt at high temperature. DRE is based on the in-situ generation of a transient redox system. The choice of the redox couple corresponds to the cathodic limit of the molten salt considered. As a preliminary step, the demonstration of feasibility of generating a DRE was done in LiF-NaF-KF (46.5–11.5–42 mol%) media at 500 °C. In this salt, the reference redox system generated by coulometry at applied current is KF/K, metallic potassium being electrodeposited on a tungsten wire electrode. The validation of the DRE response and the experimental optimization parameters for DRE generation were realized by following the NiF 2 /Ni redox potential evolution as a function of NiF 2 concentration in the fused salt. The current value applied for DRE generation was optimized. It depends on the amount of metallic cations contained in the fused salt and which can be electrochemically reduced simultaneously during the DRE generation. The current corresponding to the DRE generation has to be 4 times greater than the current corresponding to the reduction of the other elements.

  20. Whispering Gallery Mode Based Optical Fiber Sensor for Measuring Concentration of Salt Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical fiber solution-concentration sensor based on whispering gallery mode (WGM is proposed in this paper. The WGM solution-concentration sensors were used to measure salt solutions, in which the concentrations ranged from 1% to 25% and the wavelength drifted from the left to the right. The experimental results showed an average sensitivity of approximately 0.372 nm/% and an R2 linearity of 0.8835. The proposed WGM sensors are of low cost, feasible for mass production, and durable for solution-concentration sensing.

  1. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  2. Salt removal from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), there are 23 waste storage tanks containing high-level radioactive wastes that are to be retired. These tanks contain about 23 million liters of salt and about 10 million liters of sludge, that are to be relocated to new Type III, fully stress-relieved tanks with complete secondary containment. About 19 million liters of salt cake are to be dissolved. Steam jet circulators were originally proposed for the salt dissolution program. However, use of steam jet circulators raised the temperature of the tank contents and caused operating problems. These included increased corrosion risk and required long cooldown periods prior to transfer. Alternative dissolution concepts were investigated. Examination of mechanisms affecting salt dissolution showed that the ability of fresh water to contact the cake surface was the most significant factor influencing dissolution rate. Density driven and mechanical agitation techniques were developed on a bench scale and then were demonstrated in an actual waste tank. Actual waste tank demonstrations were in good agreement with bench-scale experiments at 1/85 scale. The density driven method utilizes simple equipment, but leaves a cake heel in the tank and is hindered by the presence of sludge or Zeolite in the salt cake. Mechanical agitation overcomes the problems found with both steam jet circulators and the density driven technique and is the best method for future waste tank salt removal

  3. Adsorption of Sr(II) on clay minerals: effects of salt concentration, loading and pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, P.; Shiao, S.Y.; Binz, C.M.; Meyer, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The adsorption of Sr(II) on a number of clay minerals has been investigated by means of a batch technique in solutions of sodium salts. Generally the results can be approximated by ideal ion exchange equations. Distribution coefficients at trace loading follow the linear relation log D = s log [Na(I)sub(aq)] + b where b is a constant and s had values of from about - 1.5 to - 2.0, which are fairly close to the ideal valve of - 2. Adsorption isotherms at constant pH and salt concentration are linear in the low loading region. Distribution coefficients for montmorillonite are almost independent of pH in the intermediate pH region 5 to 7 but for illite and kaolinite, increases in the distribution coefficient with pH are observed. Comparison of these results with literature values, insofar as it is possible, shows that distribution coefficients are usually within a factor of two or three for the same mineral with similar capacities under the same conditions even if techniques of preparation and measurement are different, but values may vary considerably more if the capacities of the different mineral samples are greatly different. Values of the distribution coefficient at very high salt concentration are very low, considerably less than unity at 4 M NaCl. Thus migration rates of Sr(II), relative to water flow, through geologic formations whose adsorption behavior is dominated by these clay minerals are likely to be high at high salt concentrations. (author)

  4. Heavy Metals in Salt and Water Samples from Maharloo Lake and their Comparison with Metal Concentrations in Samples from Sirjan, Lar, and Firoozabad Salt Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sabet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maharloo Lake is one of the most important water ecosystems in Iran, which is nowadays exposed to multiple risks and threats due to poor water management, salt extraction, and heavy metal pollution. In this study, the concentrations of such heavy metals as chromium, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in both water and salt samples collected from areas in the north and south of the lake were determined by atomic absorption (AA-670G after the samples had been digested. Results showed that metal concentrations in the salt samples taken from both the northern and southern areas had identical mean values in the order of Cr> Cu> As> Cd> Pb. An almost similar pattern was detected in metal concentrations in water samples taken from the same areas but with a slight difference in the way they were ordered (Cr> Cu> As> Pb> Cd. It was found that both water and salt samples collected from the northern areas had higher metal concentrations, except for that of Pb which was slightly lower. Comparison of the mean values of metal concentrations in the Salt Lake and those of Sirjan, Lar, and Firoozabad salt mines revealed that copper, cadmium, and lead had their highest concentrations in the Salt Lake while arsenic and chromium recorded their highest values in samples taken from Lar and Firoozabad salt mines, respectively. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that the increased metal concentrations observed in samples from both northern and southern areas of the lake are due to the sewage and effluents from urban, industrial, and hospital sources in Shiraz disposed into the lake as well as such other human activities as farming in the areas around the lake, especially in the northern stretches. These observations call for preventive measures to avoid further water quality degradation in the area.

  5. Hydronium-dominated ion transport in carbon-dioxide-saturated electrolytes at low salt concentrations in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Jensen, Kristian; Kristensen, Jesper Toft; Crumrine, Andrew Michael

    2011-01-01

    the nanochannel conductance at low salt concentrations and identify a conductance minimum before saturation at a value independent of salt concentration in the dilute limit. Via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, our model self-consistently couples chemical-equilibrium dissociation models of the silica wall...

  6. Effets of Silver Salt Concentrations on Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Plant Nigella Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Saeri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel method, using leaves of the plant Nigella sativa. After drying the leaves in air, they were first sweltered in boiling distilled water and the liquid was filtered subsequently. The result was the brothused to reduce solutions including various concentrations of silver nitrate in a proper amount of pH. The displayed UV–visible spectra identified formation of silver nanoparticles whenever the colorless initial acclimated mixture turned brown. The centrifuged powder samples were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction analysis (EDX methods. The results clearly revealed that the final particles of precipitated powder are high purity agglomerates of silver nanoparticles. Besides, the effects of various amounts of the silver salt on particle size of nano silver were studied, using a particle size analyzer. FTIR results also indicated the role of different functional groups in the synthetic process.

  7. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl_2 reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO_4 layer formation. • MgSO_4 influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO_3 induced the formation of MgCO_3 as a degradation product

  8. Non-monotonic swelling of surface grafted hydrogels induced by pH and/or salt concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Gabriel S.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Szleifer, I.

    2014-09-01

    We use a molecular theory to study the thermodynamics of a weak-polyacid hydrogel film that is chemically grafted to a solid surface. We investigate the response of the material to changes in the pH and salt concentration of the buffer solution. Our results show that the pH-triggered swelling of the hydrogel film has a non-monotonic dependence on the acidity of the bath solution. At most salt concentrations, the thickness of the hydrogel film presents a maximum when the pH of the solution is increased from acidic values. The quantitative details of such swelling behavior, which is not observed when the film is physically deposited on the surface, depend on the molecular architecture of the polymer network. This swelling-deswelling transition is the consequence of the complex interplay between the chemical free energy (acid-base equilibrium), the electrostatic repulsions between charged monomers, which are both modulated by the absorption of ions, and the ability of the polymer network to regulate charge and control its volume (molecular organization). In the absence of such competition, for example, for high salt concentrations, the film swells monotonically with increasing pH. A deswelling-swelling transition is similarly predicted as a function of the salt concentration at intermediate pH values. This reentrant behavior, which is due to the coupling between charge regulation and the two opposing effects triggered by salt concentration (screening electrostatic interactions and charging/discharging the acid groups), is similar to that found in end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers. Understanding how to control the response of the material to different stimuli, in terms of its molecular structure and local chemical composition, can help the targeted design of applications with extended functionality. We describe the response of the material to an applied pressure and an electric potential. We present profiles that outline the local chemical composition of the

  9. Inorganic Contaminant Concentrations and Body Condition in Wintering Waterfowl from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, J.; Conover, M.; Perschon, C.; Luft, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world and is an important region for migratory and breeding waterbirds. Because the GSL is a closed basin, contaminants associated with industrial and urban development may accumulate in this system. Recently, water and sediment samples from the GSL revealed high concentrations of Hg and Se and methylmercury concentrations in GSL water samples were among the highest ever recorded in surface water by the USGS Mercury Laboratory. Thus, GSL waterbirds are likely exposed to these contaminants and elevated contaminant concentrations may adversely affect survival and reproduction in waterfowl. Our objectives were to 1) estimate mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wintering waterfowl from GSL and, 2) evaluate relationships between measures of waterfowl body condition and internal organ masses (hereafter body condition) with trace metal concentrations. We collected common goldeneye (COGO), northern shoveler (NSHO), and American green-winged teal (AGWT) from the GSL during early winter. We used ICP-MS to analyze liver and muscle tissue samples for contaminant concentrations. We developed species specific regression models for each of 5 condition indices, including ingesta-free plucked body mass (IFPBM), abdominal fat mass, spleen, liver, and pancreas masses. Independent variables were comprised of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn and we included sex and age as covariates in each regression. We used Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size to select best and competing models. Subsequently, we used partial correlations to depict inverse relationships identified in competing models. Hg concentrations in COGO and NSHO muscle tissue generally exceeded or approached the 1 ppm wet weight (ww) threshold considered unsafe for human consumption in fish and game. Hg concentrations in liver tissue exceeded or were among the highest reported in published

  10. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  11. Americium Separations from High-Salt Solutions Using Anion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, W.

    2001-01-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues due to the ingrowth of 241 Am from the β-decay of 241 Pu. We investigated parameters that affect the sorption of Am onto anion-exchange resins from concentrated effluents derived from nitric acid processing of plutonium residues. These postevaporator wastes are nearly saturated solutions of acidic nitrate salts, and americium removal is complicated by physical factors, such as solution viscosity and particulates, as well as by the presence of large quantities of competing metals and acid. Single- and double-contact batch distribution coefficients for americium and neodymium from simple and complex surrogate solutions are presented. Varied parameters include the nitrate salt concentration and composition and the nitric acid concentration. We find that under these extremely concentrated conditions, Am(III) removal efficiencies can surpass 50% per contact. Distribution coefficients for both neodymium and americium are insensitive to solution acidity and appear to be driven primarily by low water activities of the solutions

  12. Consumption of a high-salt diet by ewes during pregnancy alters nephrogenesis in 5-month-old offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S H; Blache, D; Gregg, K; Revell, D K

    2012-11-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy can affect kidney development in the foetus, which may lead to adverse consequences in the mature kidney. It was expected that high-salt intake by pregnant ewes would lead to a reduction in foetal glomerular number but that the ovine kidney would adapt to maintain homoeostasis, in part by increasing the size of each glomerulus. Merino ewes that were fed either a control (1.5% NaCl) or high-salt (10.5% NaCl) diet during pregnancy, as well as their 5-month-old offspring, were subjected to a dietary salt challenge, and glomerular number and size and sodium excretion were measured. The high-salt offspring had 20% fewer glomeruli compared with the control offspring (P sodium excretion between the two offspring groups (P > 0.05), although the high-salt offspring produced urine with a higher concentration of sodium. Our results demonstrated that maternal high-salt intake during pregnancy affected foetal nephrogenesis, altering glomerular number at birth. However, the ability to concentrate and excrete salt was not compromised, which indicates that the kidney was able to adapt to the reduction in the number of glomeruli.

  13. Omethoate treatment mitigates high salt stress inhibited maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Zhu, Lianhua; Li, Zuotong; Deng, Benliang

    2018-01-01

    Omethoate (OM) is a highly toxic organophophate insecticide, which is resistant to biodegradation in the environment and is widely used for pest control in agriculture. The effect of OM on maize seed germination was evaluated under salt stress. Salt (800mM) greatly reduced germination of maize seed and this could be reversed by OM. Additionally, H 2 O 2 treatment further improved the effect of OM on seed germination. Higher H 2 O 2 content was measured in OM treated seed compared to those with salt stress alone. Dimethylthiourea (DTMU), a specific scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, as did IMZ (imidazole), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, whereas fluridone, a specific inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, enhanced the effect of OM. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of ROS and ABA in the promotion of maize seed germination by OM under salt stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Stead, Graham; Amjad, Muhammad; Ding, Yulong; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-05-19

    Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO₃-NaNO₃ binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  15. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lasfargues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  16. Effect of road salt application on seasonal chloride concentrations and toxicity in south-central Indiana streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Kristin M; Royer, Todd V

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary information on road salt runoff is needed for management of water resources in regions experiencing urbanization and increased road density. We investigated seasonal Cl(-) concentrations among five streams in south-central Indiana that drained watersheds varying in degree of urbanization and ranging in size from 9.3 to 27 km(2). We also conducted acute toxicity tests with Daphnia pulex to assess the potential effects of the observed Cl(-) concentrations on aquatic life. Periods of elevated Cl(-) concentrations were observed during the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at all sites except the reference site. The highest Cl(-) concentration observed during the study was 2100 mg L(-1) and occurred at the most urbanized site. The Cl(-) concentration at the reference site never exceeded 22 mg L(-1). The application of road salt caused large increases in stream Cl(-) concentrations, but the elevated Cl(-) levels did not appear to be a significant threat to aquatic life based on our toxicity testing. Only the most urbanized site showed evidence of salt retention within the watershed, whereas the other sites exported the road salt relatively quickly after its application, suggesting storm drains and impervious surfaces minimized interaction between soils and salt-laden runoff. During winter at these sites, the response in stream Cl(-) concentrations appeared to be controlled by the timing and intensity of road salt application, the magnitude of precipitation, and the occurrence of air temperatures that caused snowmelt and generated runoff.

  17. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  18. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Division of Metallic Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich [University of Hamburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Grindelallee 48, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Willumeit-Römer, Regine [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Division of Metallic Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl{sub 2} reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO{sub 4} layer formation. • MgSO{sub 4} influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO{sub 3} induced the formation of MgCO{sub 3} as a degradation product.

  20. Estimating Concentrations of Road-Salt Constituents in Highway-Runoff from Measurements of Specific Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.

    1999-01-01

    Discrete or composite samples of highway runoff may not adequately represent in-storm water-quality fluctuations because continuous records of water stage, specific conductance, pH, and temperature of the runoff indicate that these properties fluctuate substantially during a storm. Continuous records of water-quality properties can be used to maximize the information obtained about the stormwater runoff system being studied and can provide the context needed to interpret analyses of water samples. Concentrations of the road-salt constituents calcium, sodium, and chloride in highway runoff were estimated from theoretical and empirical relations between specific conductance and the concentrations of these ions. These relations were examined using the analysis of 233 highwayrunoff samples collected from August 1988 through March 1995 at four highway-drainage monitoring stations along State Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Theoretically, the specific conductance of a water sample is the sum of the individual conductances attributed to each ionic species in solution-the product of the concentrations of each ion in milliequivalents per liter (meq/L) multiplied by the equivalent ionic conductance at infinite dilution-thereby establishing the principle of superposition. Superposition provides an estimate of actual specific conductance that is within measurement error throughout the conductance range of many natural waters, with errors of less than ?5 percent below 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and ?10 percent between 1,000 and 4,000 ?S/cm if all major ionic constituents are accounted for. A semi-empirical method (adjusted superposition) was used to adjust for concentration effects-superposition-method prediction errors at high and low concentrations-and to relate measured specific conductance to that calculated using superposition. The adjusted superposition method, which was developed to interpret the State Route 25 highway-runoff records, accounts for

  1. Effects of nanoparticle heating on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Julien O.; Alexander, Andrew J.; Camp, Philip J.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of a rapidly heated nanoparticle on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A diamond-like nanoparticle of radius 20 Å is immersed in a sodium-chloride solution at 20% above the experimental saturation concentration and equilibrated at T = 293 K and P = 1 atm. The nanoparticle is then rapidly heated to several thousand degrees Kelvin, and the system is held under isobaric-isoenthalpic conditions. It is observed that after 2-3 ns, the salt ions are depleted far more than water molecules from a proximal zone 15-25 Å from the nanoparticle surface. This leads to a transient reduction in molality in the proximal zone and an increase in ion clustering in the distal zone. At longer times, ions begin to diffuse back into the proximal zone. It is speculated that the formation of proximal and distal zones, and the increase in ion clustering, plays a role in the mechanism of nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation.

  2. Effects of nanoparticle heating on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Julien O; Alexander, Andrew J; Camp, Philip J

    2017-12-07

    The effects of a rapidly heated nanoparticle on the structure of a concentrated aqueous salt solution are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A diamond-like nanoparticle of radius 20 Å is immersed in a sodium-chloride solution at 20% above the experimental saturation concentration and equilibrated at T = 293 K and P = 1 atm. The nanoparticle is then rapidly heated to several thousand degrees Kelvin, and the system is held under isobaric-isoenthalpic conditions. It is observed that after 2-3 ns, the salt ions are depleted far more than water molecules from a proximal zone 15-25 Å from the nanoparticle surface. This leads to a transient reduction in molality in the proximal zone and an increase in ion clustering in the distal zone. At longer times, ions begin to diffuse back into the proximal zone. It is speculated that the formation of proximal and distal zones, and the increase in ion clustering, plays a role in the mechanism of nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation.

  3. Impacts of different salt source and concentrations on germination and seedling growth of many pumpkin seeds used as rootstoch in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadashpour Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different salt sources (C Cl2, NaCl, and KCl and concentrations, as measured by electrical conductivity, (0, "control", 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 dS m-1 on seed germination and seedling growth of “Ferro”, “Obez”, “RS 841” and “Strong Tosa F1” pumpkin varieties used as rootstock were investigated in this study. The results showed that germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh root weight, dry root weight, fresh shoot weight and dry shoot weights tend to decrease when the electrical conductivity of the solution is higher than 5 dS m-1, independent of salt sources and in all of the varieties. Three days after seeding, a germination ratio of 5 % was obtained from RS 841 variety in all salt source and concentrations, while a germination ratio over 50 % was obtained in “Strong Tosa” variety for the same conditions except CaCl2 salt source. Nevertheless, seeds germinated in medium having high concentrations of CaCl2 had lower germination rate and poor seedling growth, compared to media having the same concentrations of NaCl and KCl. It was concluded that all of the varieties studied were more sensitive to the concentrations prepared using CaCl2 than that of the KCl, and NaCl.

  4. A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, A.R.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO 4 .7H 2 O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO 4 and Na 2 SO 4 as well as Mg(OH) 2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting

  5. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tong-Shuai; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24937684

  6. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Shuai Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW and left ventricular mass index (LVMI of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  7. High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team Final Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the process used and results obtained by the High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team to select a primary and backup alternative salt disposition method for the Savannah River Site

  8. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: A food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legislating the levels of salt in processed food is only one part of this national strategy. All health professionals and educators should also provide appropriate nutritional recommendations that will educate, motivate and enable consumers to change their nutritional behaviour to reduce salt intake to less than 5 g per day, ...

  9. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  10. The Effect of Source Suspended Sediment Concentration on the Sediment Dynamics of a Macrotidal Creek and Salt Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, E.; van Proosdij, D.; Milligan, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal variability in the sediment dynamics of a Bay of Fundy tidal creek and salt marsh system was analyzed to better understand the ecomorphodynamics of a high suspended sediment concentration intertidal habitat. Data were collected over 62 tides for velocity, suspended sediment concentration, deposition, and grain size at four stations from the creek thalweg to the marsh surface. Five topographic surveys were also conducted throughout the 14-month study. Deposition rates per tide varied spatially from 56.4 g·m-2 at the creek thalweg to 15.3 g·m-2 at the marsh surface. Seasonal variations in deposition in the creek and marsh surface were from 38.0 g·m-2 to 97.7 g·m-2 and from 12.2 g·m-2 to 19.6 g·m-2 respectively. Deposition and erosion were greatest in late fall and winter. This seasonal change, led by higher suspended sediment concentrations, was observed in the creek and at the marsh bank but notably absent from the marsh edge and marsh surface. Sediments were predominantly deposited in floc form (76-83%). Because of high floc content, higher suspended sediment concentrations led to more rapid loss of sediment from suspension. With increasing sediment concentration, deposition increased in the tidal creek and at the marsh bank but not at the marsh edge or marsh surface. This suggests that in highly flocculated environments the water column clears fast enough that very little sediment remains in suspension when the water reaches the marsh and that the sediment concentration during marsh inundation is independent of the initial concentration in the creek.

  11. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 lead to the presence of substantial dynamical heterogeneity in these solutions of strongly interacting ions. The current study helps us to understand the molecular details of hydration structure, ion pairing, and dynamics of water in the solvation shells and also of ion diffusion in aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts.

  12. Evaporative crystallization of salts from Electrodialysis concentrated brine at atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Du, Wei; Cheng, Penggao; Tang, Na; Wang, Xuekui

    2018-02-01

    A large amount of concentrated brine was produced as by-product during the process of the electrodialysis seawater desalination. In this study, the crystallization sequences of different salts from the brine through evaporative crystallization at both atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures were investigated in detail. The profile of the boiling temperature with density and the relationship between the boiling temperature and the pressure were recorded. The combination of Powder X-Ray Diffraction and the polarizing microscope was employed to identify the salts in the solid form. It can be inferred that NaCl crystallized out firstly and then MgSO4·6H2O and CaSO4 precipitate in order at both atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures, and it should be noticed that CaSO4 crystallized as anhydrate at 70°C and 90°C while as dihydrate at 50°C. At the end of all the experiments the precipitation rates of CaSO4 and NaCl have reached to more than 95% while MgSO4 only reached to about 60%.

  13. DNA Duplex Length and Salt Concentration Dependence of Enthalpy−Entropy Compensation Parameters for DNA Melting

    KAUST Repository

    Starikov, E. B.

    2009-08-20

    Systematical differential calorimetry experiments on DNA oligomers with different lengths and placed in water solutions with various added salt concentrations may, in principle, unravel important information about the structure and dynamics of the DNA and their water-counterion surrounding. With this in mind, to reinterpret the most recent results of calorimetric experiments on DNA oligomers of such a kind, the recent enthalpy-entropy compensation theory has been used. It is demonstrated that the application of the latter could enable direct estimation of thermodynamic parameters of the microphase transitions connected to the changes in DNA dynamical regimes versus the length of the biopolymers and the ionic strengths of their water solutions, and this calls for much more systematical experimental and theoretical studies in this field. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Struthers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70–90° N of 86 × 106 m−2 s−1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m−2 s−1. This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between −0.2 and −0.4 W m−2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  15. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  16. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiCl−KCl eutectic salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Robert O. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 8340 (United States); Yoon, Dalsung [Department of Mechanical & Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 West Main St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn, E-mail: sphongikaroon@vcu.edu [Department of Mechanical & Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 West Main St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiCl−KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl{sub 3}−ZrCl{sub 4}−LiCl−KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl{sub 4} show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl{sub 4} and ZrCl{sub 2} as the function of temperature can be expressed as D{sub Zr(IV)} = 0.00046exp(−3716/T) and D{sub Zr(II)} = 0.027exp(−5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl{sub 4} at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl{sub 3} and ZrCl{sub 4} indicate that high concentrations of UCl{sub 3} hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl{sub 4} while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl{sub 4} increases.

  17. Reflectance degradation of a secondary concentrator by nitrate salt vapor deposition in an open volumetric receiver configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Radia; Armstrong, Peter R.; Calvet, Nicolas; Shamim, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    Nitrate salt vapor deposition on the reflecting surface of a secondary concentrator placed on top of an open molten salt tank at 500 °C is investigated using a lab-scale setup over an 8h-exposure cycle. Deposition, consisting of mostly spherical particles, is characterized in terms of chemical composition using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corresponding specular reflectance degradation both temporary (before washing off the salt deposits) and permanent (residual reflectance loss after cleaning), is measured at different incidence angles and at reference points located at different heights. Reflectance drop due to salt deposits is compared to the one resulting from dust deposition. Long-term reflectance degradation by means of corrosion needs to be further studied through suitable accelerated aging tests.

  18. High salt intake does not exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolypetri, P; Randell, E; Van Vliet, B N; Carayanniotis, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have raised the possibility that a HS diet may comprise a risk factor for autoimmune diseases in general. In this report, we have examined whether a HS diet regimen could exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis, including spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) in non-obese diabetic (NOD.H2h4) mice, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in C57BL/6J mice challenged with thyroglobulin (Tg) and EAT in CBA/J mice challenged with the Tg peptide (2549–2560). The physiological impact of HS intake was confirmed by enhanced water consumption and suppressed aldosterone levels in all strains. However, the HS treatment failed to significantly affect the incidence and severity of SAT or EAT or Tg-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, relative to control mice maintained on a normal salt diet. In three experimental models, these data demonstrate that HS intake does not exacerbate autoimmune thyroiditis, indicating that a HS diet is not a risk factor for all autoimmune diseases. PMID:24528002

  19. Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Shea, Patrick J.; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2007-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (Fe 0 , ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe 0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl - and Br - was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br - was present in solution. - The addition of halide ions promotes the degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

  20. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  1. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  2. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone ''Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures'' (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  3. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  4. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  5. Corrosion of carbon steel in saturated high-level waste salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    High level waste stored as crystallized salts is to be removed from carbon steel tanks by water dissolution. Dissolution of the saltcake must be performed in a manner which will not impact the integrity of the tank. Corrosion testing was performed to determine the amount of corrosion inhibitor that must be added to the dissolution water in order to ensure that the salt solution formed would not induce corrosion degradation of the tank materials. The corrosion testing performed included controlled potential slow strain rate, coupon immersion, and potentiodynamic polarization tests. These tests were utilized to investigate the susceptibility of the cooling coil material to stress corrosion cracking in the anticipated environments. No evidence of SCC was observed in any of the tests. Based on these results, the recommended corrosion requirements were that the temperature of the salt solution be less than 50 degrees C and that the minimum hydroxide concentration be 0.4 molar. It was also recommended that the hydroxide concentration not stay below 0.4 molar for longer than 45 days

  6. Nitrification of an industrial wastewater in a moving-bed biofilm reactor: effect of salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramel, Simone; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification of wastewaters from chemical industries can pose some challenges due to the presence of inhibitory compounds. Some wastewaters, besides their organic complexity present variable levels of salt concentration. In order to investigate the effect of salt (NaCl) content on the nitrification of a conventional biologically treated industrial wastewater, a bench scale moving-bed biofilm reactor was operated on a sequencing batch mode. The wastewater presenting a chloride content of 0.05 g l(-1) was supplemented with NaCl up to 12 g Cl(-) l(-1). The reactor operation cycle was: filling (5 min), aeration (12 or 24h), settling (5 min) and drawing (5 min). Each experimental run was conducted for 3 to 6 months to address problems related to the inherent wastewater variability and process stabilization. A PLC system assured automatic operation and control of the pertinent process variables. Data obtained from selected batch experiments were adjusted by a kinetic model, which considered ammonia, nitrite and nitrate variations. The average performance results indicated that nitrification efficiency was not influenced by chloride content in the range of 0.05 to 6 g Cl(-) l(-1) and remained around 90%. When the chloride content was 12 g Cl(-) l(-1), a significant drop in the nitrification efficiency was observed, even operating with a reaction period of 24 h. Also, a negative effect of the wastewater organic matter content on nitrification efficiency was observed, which was probably caused by growth of heterotrophs in detriment of autotrophs and nitrification inhibition by residual chemicals.

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on Free Amino Acids Composition of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara Cheese during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O. E. Altahir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat treatment and salt concentrations (0, 5, and 10% on the free amino acids (FAA composition of Sudanese braided cheese (BC ripened for up to 3 months at 5±2°C. Heat and salt concentration significantly affected the FAA of braided cheese. The free amino acids concentrations of BC ripened in 0%, 5%, and 10% salted whey (SW were significantly fluctuated. Under ripening conditions tested (salt level + time, braided cheese made from pasteurized milk (BCPM had consistently lower values of FAA than braided cheese made from raw milk (BCRM. In fresh cheese, the major FAA in BCRM were Glu (36.12 nmol/ml, Leu (26.77nmol/ml and Lys (14.51 nmol/ml while the major ones in BCPM were Lys (2.94 nmol/ml and Ala (2.45 nmol/ml. BCPM stored in 10% SW had shorter quality life compared to that stored in 5% salted whey.

  8. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. Huyghe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of are sponse to a change instrain, is one of a jumpin stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.A mecânica in vivo do anel fibroso do disco intervertebral é baseada em carregamento biaxial ao invés de uniaxial. As propriedades materiais do anel estão intimamente ligadas à osmolaridade no tecido. O artigo apresenta experimentos de relaxação biaxiais do anel fibroso de um tecido canino sob mudanças abruptas na concentração externa de sal. A assinatura da força devido à mudança brusca de salinidade resulta em uma progressiva e monótona mudança na tensão em direção a um novo valor de equilíbrio. Embora o número de amostras não permita nenhuma conclusão quantitativa, as tendências podem abrir uma luz no entendimento das intera

  9. Assessment of salt concentration in bread commonly consumed in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Al-Khamaiseh, Manal

    2018-04-05

    Hypertension is the most important cardiovascular risk factor in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Excessive salt and sodium intake is directly related to hypertension, and its reduction is a priority of WHO. Bread is the leading staple food in the Region; therefore, reducing the amount of salt added to bread could be an effective measure for reducing salt intake. The study sought to determine the levels of sodium and salt in locally produced staple bread from 8 countries in the Region. Bread samples were collected randomly from bakeries located in the capital cities of the selected countries. The samples were analysed for sodium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The mean salt content of breads varied from 4.28 g/kg in Jordan to 12.41 g/kg in Tunisia. The mean salt and sodium content in bread for all countries was 7.63 (SD 3.12) and 3.0 (SD 1.23) g/kg, respectively. The contribution of bread to daily salt intake varied considerably between countries, ranging from 1.3 g (12.5%) in Jordan to 3.7 g (33.5%) in Tunisia. Interventions to reduce population salt intake should target reduction of salt in bread in all countries. The amount of salt added to bread should be standardized and relevant legislation developed to guide bakers. Setting an upper limit for salt content in flat bread (pita or Arabic bread) at 0.5% is strongly recommended. However, salt levels at ≤ 1% would be appropriate for other kind of breads. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  10. Newly Identified Wild Rice Accessions Conferring High Salt Tolerance Might Use a Tissue Tolerance Mechanism in Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Manas R.; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Vinarao, Ricky; Entila, Frederickson; Egdane, James; Diaz, Maria G. Q.; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2018-01-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is very sensitive to salt stress. So far a few rice landraces have been identified as a source of salt tolerance and utilized in rice improvement. These tolerant lines primarily use Na+ exclusion mechanism in root which removes Na+ from the xylem stream by membrane Na+ and K+ transporters, and resulted in low Na+ accumulation in shoot. Identification of a new donor source conferring high salt tolerance is imperative. Wild relatives of rice having wide genetic diversity are regarded as a potential source for crop improvement. However, they have been less exploited against salt stress. Here, we simultaneously evaluated all 22 wild Oryza species along with the cultivated tolerant lines including Pokkali, Nona Bokra, and FL478, and sensitive check varieties under high salinity (240 mM NaCl). Based on the visual salt injury score, three species (O. alta, O. latifolia, and O. coarctata) and four species (O. rhizomatis, O. eichingeri, O. minuta, and O. grandiglumis) showed higher and similar level of tolerance compared to the tolerant checks, respectively. All three CCDD genome species exhibited salt tolerance, suggesting that the CCDD genome might possess the common genetic factors for salt tolerance. Physiological and biochemical experiments were conducted using the newly isolated tolerant species together with checks under 180 mM NaCl. Interestingly, all wild species showed high Na+ concentration in shoot and low concentration in root unlike the tolerant checks. In addition, the wild-tolerant accessions showed a tendency of a high tissue tolerance in leaf, low malondialdehyde level in shoot, and high retention of chlorophyll in the young leaves. These results suggest that the wild species employ tissue tolerance mechanism to manage salt stress. Gene expression analyses of the key salt tolerance-related genes suggested that high Na+ in leaf of wild species might be affected by OsHKT1;4-mediated Na+ exclusion in leaf and the following Na

  11. Comparison of the reaction of bone-derived cells to enhanced MgCl2-salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Anna; Luthringer, Bérengère; Willumeit, Regine; Feyerabend, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium-based implants exhibit various advantages such as biodegradability and potential for enhanced in vivo bone formation. However, the cellular mechanisms behind this possible osteoconductivity remain unclear. To determine whether high local magnesium concentrations can be osteoconductive and exclude other environmental factors that occur during the degradation of magnesium implants, magnesium salt (MgCl2) was used as a model system. Because cell lines are preferred targets in studies of non-degradable implant materials, we performed a comparative study of 3 osteosarcoma-derived cell lines (MG63, SaoS2 and U2OS) with primary human osteoblasts. The correlation among cell count, viability, cell size and several MgCl2 concentrations was used to examine the influence of magnesium on proliferation in vitro. Moreover, bone metabolism alterations during proliferation were investigated by analyzing the expression of genes involved in osteogenesis. It was observed that for all cell types, the cell count decreases at concentrations above 10 mM MgCl2. However, detailed analysis showed that MgCl2 has a relevant but very diverse influence on proliferation and bone metabolism, depending on the cell type. Only for primary cells was a clear stimulating effect observed. Therefore, reliable results demonstrating the osteoconductivity of magnesium implants can only be achieved with primary osteoblasts.

  12. A new thermal conductivity probe for high temperature tests for the characterization of molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pistacchio, S.

    2018-05-01

    A new thermal conductivity probe for high temperature (HT-TCP) has been built and tested. Its design and construction procedure are adapted from the ambient temperature thermal conductivity probe (AT-TCP) due to good performance of the latter device. The construction procedure and the preliminary tests are accurately described. The probe contains a Pt wire as a heater and a type K thermocouple (TC) as a temperature sensor, and its size is so small (0.6 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length) as to guarantee a length to diameter ratio of about 100. Calibration tests with glycerol for temperatures between 0 °C and 60 °C have shown good agreement with literature data, within 3%. Preliminary tests were also carried on a ternary molten salt for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) (18% in mass of NaNO3, 52% KNO3, and 30% LiNO3) at 120 °C and 150 °C. Obtained results are within λ range of the Hitec® salt (53% KNO3, 7% NaNO3, 40% NaNO2). Unfortunately, at the higher temperature tested (200 °C), the viscosity of the salt highly decreases, and free convection starts, making the measurements unreliable.

  13. Multilayer Porous Crucibles for the High Throughput Salt Separation from Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, I. T.; Seo, B. K.; Moon, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as a distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processsing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while nonvolatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in an electro-refiner. Therefore, a wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, it was attempted to enlarge a throughput of the salt distiller with a multilayer porous crucibles for the separation of adhered salt in the uranium deposits generated from the electrorefiner. The feasibility of the porous crucibles was tested by the salt distillation experiments. In this study, the salt distiller with multilayer porous crucibles was proposed and the feasibility of liquid salt separation was examined to increase a throughput. It was found that the effective separation of salt from uranium deposits was possible by the multilayer porous crucibles

  14. Multilayer Porous Crucibles for the High Throughput Salt Separation from Uranium Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, I. T.; Seo, B. K.; Moon, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as a distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processsing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while nonvolatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in an electro-refiner. Therefore, a wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, it was attempted to enlarge a throughput of the salt distiller with a multilayer porous crucibles for the separation of adhered salt in the uranium deposits generated from the electrorefiner. The feasibility of the porous crucibles was tested by the salt distillation experiments. In this study, the salt distiller with multilayer porous crucibles was proposed and the feasibility of liquid salt separation was examined to increase a throughput. It was found that the effective separation of salt from uranium deposits was possible by the multilayer porous crucibles.

  15. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakiba, Atefeh [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reaction temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.

  16. Influence of solvent and salt concentration on the alignment properties of acrylamide copolymer gels for the measurement of RDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Mouriño, Pablo; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando; Sánchez-Pedregal, Víctor M

    2012-12-01

    The dependence of molecular alignment with solvent nature and salt concentration has been investigated for mechanically stretched polyacrylamide copolymer gels. Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) were recorded for D(2)O, DMSO-d(6), and DMSO-d(6)/D(2)O solutions containing different proportions of the solvents and different sodium chloride concentrations. Alignment tensors were determined by fitting the experimental RDCs to the DFT-computed structure of N-methylcodeinium ion. Analysis of the tensors shows that the degree of alignment decreases with the proportion of DMSO-d(6) as well as with the concentration of sodium chloride, most likely due to enhanced ion-pair aggregation. Furthermore, rotation of the alignment tensor is observed when increasing the salt concentration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Preliminary Study on the High Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is one of the the most promising technologies for the advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. The electrorefining process, one of main processes is compos- ed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of the pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. High-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because a molten salt should be transported from the electrorefiner to electrowiner after the electrorefining process. Therefore, in pyroprocessing technology, the development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a crucial prerequisite. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. In this study, an apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt

  18. PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRY SALT WITH SEDIMENTATION – MICROFILTRATION PROCESS: OPTIMAZATION OF TEMPERATURE AND CONCENTRATION BY USING SURFACE RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat Widayat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The salt of sodium chloride commonly used consumption in house , so as a raw material in industry. Thequality of salt depends on sodium chloride concentration. The objective of this research is obtained ofoptimum condition in production of salt industry by using sedimentation and microfiltration process. Theoptimization used surface response methodology and analysis by Statistica 6 software. The responseperceived is NaCl concentration in product. The experiments do by mixing stearic acid with NaOH solutionto product stearic sodium. Then, the solution mixed with sea water, so the white solid will be emerge, thereare stearic calcium and stearic magnesium. And so filtrate evaporated until to obtain salt. TheMathematical model for reduction of Ca2+ and Mg2+ are1 222 221 1 Y = 93,3185 + 1,0967 X + 0,1909 X +1,0682 X - 0,2333 X - 0,3376 X X , with maximum conversion is94,46% at temperature 82,42oC and stearic sodium concentration 14,16%(v/v. The maximum of NaClconcentration is 96,19% at temperature 81,54oC and stearic sodium concetration 13,11 %(v/v. Themathematical model for NaCl production is1 222 221 1 Y = 92,7596 − 0,3443 X − 3,3706 X + 2,9553 X - 0,9562 X - 1,9272 X X . The results of NaCl not yetfulfilled with SNI industry salt. The NaCl concetration in SNI is 98,5%. So, this process is nt aplicable forproductiob salt industry in Indonesia.

  19. Study of composite adsorbent synthesis and characterization for the removal of Cs in the high-salt and high-radioactive wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jimin; Lee, Keun Young; Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, Eil Hee; Chung, Dong Yong; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jae Hyuk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    For the removal of cesium (Cs) from high radioactive/high salt-laden liquid waste, this study synthesized a highly efficient composite adsorbent (potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (PCFC)-loaded chabazite (CHA)) and evaluated its applicability. The composite adsorbent used CHA, which could accommodate Cs as well as other molecules, as a supporting material and was synthesized by immobilizing the PCFC in the pores of CHA through stepwise impregnation/precipitation with CoCl{sub 2} and K{sub 4}Fe (CN){sub 6} solutions. When CHA, with average particle size of more than 10 μm, is used in synthesizing the composite adsorbent, the PCFC particles were immobilized in a stable form. Also, the physical stability of the composite adsorbent was improved by optimizing the washing methodology to increase the purity of the composite adsorbent during the synthesis. The composite adsorbent obtained from the optimal synthesis showed a high adsorption rate of Cs in both fresh water (salt-free condition) and seawater (high-salt condition), and had a relatively high value of distribution coefficient (larger than 10{sup 4} mL·g{sup -1}) regardless of the salt concentration. Therefore, the composite adsorbent synthesized in this study is an optimized material considering both the high selectivity of PCFC on Cs and the physical stability of CHA. It is proved that this composite adsorbent can remove rapidly Cs contained in high radioactive/high salt-laden liquid waste with high efficiency.

  20. Evaluation of barley (hordeum vulgare l.) germplasm for high forage production under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Qurainy, F.A.; Akram, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    To explore high biomass producing salt tolerant cultivars of a potential forage crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), 30-day old plants of 105 different accessions from different origin were subjected to saline and non-saline (control) conditions for 45 days. Salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) markedly suppressed plant growth (shoot and/or root fresh and dry weights), chlorophyll pigments (a and b), internal CO/sub 2/ concentration, stomatal conductance, rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, while a considerable salt-induced increase was observed in all fluorescence related attributes including efficiency of photosystem-II (Fv/Fm), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (QN), photochemical quenching (QP), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in all 105 accessions of barley. The response of all 105 barley accessions to salt stress varied significantly for all the morpho-physiological attributes determined in the present study. Overall, on the basis of shoot and root dry weights, accessions, 4050, 4053, 4056, 4163, 4228, 4229, 4244, 4245, 4290, 4414, 4415, 4427, 4452, Mahali, Jesto, 4165, 4229, 4249, 4405, 4409, 4426, 4456, and Giza 123 were found superior while accessions, 4245, 4158, 4166, 4246, 4406, 4423, 4441, 4442 4447, 4453 and 4458 inferior under saline conditions. (author)

  1. The impact of high-salt exposure on cardiovascular development in the early chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Jin, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Zhao, Shu-Zhu; Chen, You-Peng; Chuai, Manli; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we show that high-salt exposure dramatically increases chick mortality during embryo development. As embryonic mortality at early stages mainly results from defects in cardiovascular development, we focused on heart formation and angiogenesis. We found that high-salt exposure enhanced the risk of abnormal heart tube looping and blood congestion in the heart chamber. In the presence of high salt, both ventricular cell proliferation and apoptosis increased. The high osmolarity induced by high salt in the ventricular cardiomyocytes resulted in incomplete differentiation, which might be due to reduced expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4. Blood vessel density and diameter were suppressed by exposure to high salt in both the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and chorioallantoic membrane models. In addition, high-salt-induced suppression of angiogenesis occurred even at the vasculogenesis stage, as blood island formation was also inhibited by high-salt exposure. At the same time, cell proliferation was repressed and cell apoptosis was enhanced by high-salt exposure in YSM tissue. Moreover, the reduction in expression of HIF2 and FGF2 genes might cause high-salt-suppressed angiogenesis. Interestingly, we show that high-salt exposure causes excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart and YSM tissues, which could be partially rescued through the addition of antioxidants. In total, our study suggests that excess generation of ROS might play an important role in high-salt-induced defects in heart and angiogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Supplementation with Ca salts of soybean oil interacts with concentrate level in grazing dairy cows: intake, ingestive behavior, and ruminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fernanda Lopes; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Chagas, Lucas Jado; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the associative effects of concentrate levels and Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) supplementation on performance and ruminal parameters of mid-lactation dairy cows grazing on tropical pasture. Twenty-four Jersey × Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design and assigned to four treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Factors evaluated were concentrate levels (low, 3 kg/day vs. high, 7 kg/day of concentrate) and CSSO supplementation (without CSSO vs. with 250 g CSSO cow/day). All cows grazed on elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon) and received the supplemental treatments for a 90-day period. The high concentrate level decreased forage intake and grazing time. In addition, the high concentrate level increased rumen propionate concentration and microbial synthesis and tended to decrease ammonia-N compared with low concentrate level. The addition of CSSO tended to decrease valerate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and microbial synthesis. In conclusion, feeding CSSO for mid lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture had negative effects on rumen function. In contrast, CSSO supplementation tended to interact with concentrate level and increased energy intake when fed at low concentrate level. Feeding the high level of concentrate was an effective strategy to increase energy intake and microbial synthesis and improve N utilization.

  3. SiC Schottky Diode Detectors for Measurement of Actinide Concentrations from Alpha Activities in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windl, Wolfgang; Blue, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this project, we have designed a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector device in order to monitor actinide concentrations in extreme environments, such as present in pyroprocessing of spent fuel. For the first time, we have demonstrated high temperature operation of such a device up to 500 °C in successfully detecting alpha particles. We have used Am-241 as an alpha source for our laboratory experiments. Along with the experiments, we have developed a multiscale model to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior and to be able to predict the device performance. Our multiscale model consists of ab initio modeling to understand defect energetics and their effect on electronic structure and carrier mobility in the material. Further, we have developed the basis for a damage evolution model incorporating the outputs from ab initio model in order to predict respective defect concentrations in the device material. Finally, a fully equipped TCAD-based device model has been developed to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior. Using this model, we have proven our concept that the detector is capable of performing alpha detection in a salt bath with the mixtures of actinides present in a pyroprocessing environment.

  4. SiC Schottky Diode Detectors for Measurement of Actinide Concentrations from Alpha Activities in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windl, Wolfgang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-28

    In this project, we have designed a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector device in order to monitor actinide concentrations in extreme environments, such as present in pyroprocessing of spent fuel. For the first time, we have demonstrated high temperature operation of such a device up to 500 °C in successfully detecting alpha particles. We have used Am-241 as an alpha source for our laboratory experiments. Along with the experiments, we have developed a multiscale model to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior and to be able to predict the device performance. Our multiscale model consists of ab initio modeling to understand defect energetics and their effect on electronic structure and carrier mobility in the material. Further, we have developed the basis for a damage evolution model incorporating the outputs from ab initio model in order to predict respective defect concentrations in the device material. Finally, a fully equipped TCAD-based device model has been developed to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior. Using this model, we have proven our concept that the detector is capable of performing alpha detection in a salt bath with the mixtures of actinides present in a pyroprocessing environment.

  5. Study of the influence of pre-activation of vermiculite and concentration of the quaternary ammonium salt in obtaining of organovermiculita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.L.; Barboza, E.A.; Souza, F.K.A.; Neves, G.A.; Santana, L.N.L.

    2011-01-01

    Organoclays, are derived from the addition of quaternary ammonium salts in aqueous dispersions of natural clays or sodium. The aim of this study was to obtain organoclays from the intercalation of clay mineral vermiculite and quaternary ammonium salt Praepagem WB, thus, was used to study the concentrations of salt activation of Na 2 CO 3 , the cure time of this salt and varying the concentration the quaternary ammonium salt. The X-ray diffraction was used to determine whether there was a change in basal spacing after intercalation process with the quaternary ammonium salt. The process of organophilization of vermiculite, was confirmed by change in clay basal interplanar distance, which was 14.32 Å and after the addition of salt increased to 60.04 Å when activated for 5 days. (author)

  6. HIGH YIELD AND RAPID SYNTHESES METHODS FOR PRODUCING METALLO-ORGANIC SALTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order...... to obtain a higher yield, purity and faster reaction speed than obtained with known synthesis methods. In particular, the present invention relates to the production of strontium salts of carboxylic acids. Novel strontium salts are also provided by the present method....

  7. Neutronics of a liquid salt cooled - very high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakova, J.

    2007-01-01

    During last few years, the interest in the innovative, Liquid Salt cooled - Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR), has been growing. The preconceptual design of the LS-VHTR was suggested in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) [1] and nowadays, several research institutions contribute to the development of this concept. The LS-VHTR design utilises a prismatic, High Temperature Reactor (HTR) fuel [2] in combination with liquid salt as a coolant. This connection of high-performance fuel and a coolant with enhanced heat transfer abilities enables efficient and economical operation. Main objective of the LS-VHTR operation may be either an efficient electricity production or a heat supply for a production of hydrogen or, combination of both. The LS-VHTR is moderated by graphite. The graphite matrix of the fuel blocks, as well as the inner and outer core reflectors serve as a thermal buffer in case of an accident, and they provide a strong thermal feedback during normal reactor operation. The high inherent safety of the LS-VHTR meets the strict requirements on future reactor systems, as defined by the Gen IV project. This work, purpose, scope, contribution to the state-of-art: The design, used in the present work is based on the first ORNL suggestion [1]. Recent study is focused on comparison of the neutronic performance of two types of fuel in the LS-VHTR core, whereas, in all previous works, only uranium fuel has been investigated. The first type of fuel, which has been employed in the present analysis, is based on the spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel, whereas the second one consists of enriched uranium oxide. The results of such a comparison bring a valuable knowledge about limits and possibilities of the LS-VHTR concept, when employed as a spent fuel burner. Method:It is used a 3-D drawing of the LS-VHTR core, which contains 324x10 hexagonal fuel blocks. Each fuel block contains 216x10 fuel pins, which consists of TRISO particles incorporated into a graphite

  8. Estimating the Application Rate of Liquid Chloride Products Based on Residual Salt Concentration on Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-21

    This technical report summarizes the results of laboratory testing on asphalt and concrete pavement. A known quantity of salt brine was applied as an anti-icer, followed by snow application, traffic simulation, and mechanical snow removal via simulat...

  9. Differential response of nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells to high salt, sorbitol, and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2012-03-01

    Nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells are routinely confronted with high osmolality in their microenvironment and respond to this stress in vitro by regulating cell cycle progression and by activating a DNA repair machinery in order to counteract its genotoxic effect. In the present study, we attempted to identify the origin of this osmo-regulatory response, by using an ionic NaCl/KCl solution, the compatible osmolyte sorbitol, and the readily permeant urea. High salt and sorbitol were found to activate similar molecular pathways, including the p38 MAPK and the p53-p21(WAF1)-pRb axis, that were not stimulated by high urea. On the other hand, only high urea led to the phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs. Furthermore, salt- and sorbitol-treated cells were able to phosphorylate histone H2A.X on Ser139, in contrast to cells exposed to urea, indicating a common mechanism for DNA repair, which was achieved by a p53-dependent activation of the G1 checkpoint by both solutes. DNA repair, as directly measured by a host cell reactivation assay, occurred under conditions of hyperosmolar salt and sorbitol, although to a lesser extent in sorbitol-treated cells than in cells exposed to high salinity. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the hyperosmolality-provoked DNA damage and the responses of nucleus pulposus cells induced by this genotoxic stress most probably originate from cell volume alterations mediated by hypertonicity and not from increased intracellular ionic concentration. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Characterization of high concentration dust generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Toichiro; Yokochi, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development of fluidized bed type high concentration dust generator that keeps for long period dust concentration range of about 10 mg/m 3 for the study of working place monitoring system and evaluation of respirator. The generator is keeping constant powder in fluidized bed for keeping the dust concentration. It is necessary to keep constant feeding rate of powder in order to keep the quantity of dust in the fluidized bed. Our generator enables to obtain constant feeding rate by a screw feeder and by using mixed powder with fluidising particles (glass beads) before feeding. The generator produces high concentration dust of 11.3 mg/m 3 ± 1.0 mg/m 3 for about 5 hours and keeps the dust size 4.2-4.6 μm in mass median aerodynamic diameter with reasonable reproducibility. (author)

  11. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  12. [Influences of the mobile phase constitution, salt concentration and pH value on retention characters of proteins on the metal chelate column].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Di, Z M; Chen, G L

    2001-09-01

    The effects of the nature and concentration of salts, pH value and competitive eluent in the mobile phase on the protein retention have been systematically investigated. A mathematical expression describing the protein retention in metal chelate chromatography has been derived. It is proposed that the eluting power of the salt solution can be expressed by the eluent strength exponent epsilon. According to the retention characters of protein under different chromatographic conditions, the interaction between the various metal chelate ligands and proteins is discussed. The protein retention on the metal chelate column is a cooperative interactions of coordination, electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction. For the strong combined metal column with proteins such as IDA-Cu, the coordination is the most important, and the electrostatic interaction is secondary in chromatographic process. However, for the weak combined metal columns with proteins such as IDA-Ni, IDA-Co and IDA-Zn, the electrostatic interaction between the metal chelate ligands and proteins is the chief one, while the coordination is the next in importance. When the mobile phase contains high concentration of salt which can't form complex with the immobilized metal, the hydrophobic interaction between the protein and stationary phase will be increased. As the interaction between the metal chelate ligand and proteins relates to chromatographic operating conditions closely, different elution processes may be selected for different metal chelate columns. The gradient elution is generally performed by the low concentration of salt or different pH for weakly combined columns with proteins, however the competitive elution procedure is commonly utilized for strongly combined column. The experiment showed that NH3 is an excellent competitive eluent. It isn't only give the efficient separation of proteins, but also has the advantages of cheapness, less bleeding of the immobilized metals and ease of controlling NH3

  13. Biological treatment of waste waters of high salt content; Depuracion biologica de efluentes con alto contenido salino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.I.; Goytia, M.; Muguruza, I.; Blanco, F. [GAIKER, Zamudio (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    The fish canning industry, a national industrial sector of economical significance, generates high volumes of wastewater containing a high organic load and salt concentration. In addition to other problems presented for the aerobic biological treatment of these effluents, the presence of a high chloride concentration produces an inhibitory effect on the growth of aerobic microorganisms. In this work the inhibitory effect of chloride has been analyzed by means of a biokinetic study carried out using the electrolytic respirometry techniques and tuna boiling water as wastewater. This kind of study is highly appropriated for the search of solutions to specific problems created during the treatment of different industrial sectors wastewater. (Author) 10 refs.

  14. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup.

  15. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  16. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations.

  17. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to

  18. Electrochemical treatment of organic wastewater with high salt content. Ko enbun yuki haisui no denkai shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Hideo; Kitamura, Takao; Kato, Shunsaku; Oyashiki, Satoru (Goverment Industrial Research Inst. Shikoku, Takamatsu, (Japan) Toyo Engineering Work Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-01-31

    Wastewater containing organic pollutants is generally treated by the biological methods like the activated sludge process, etc. But these biological methods are not necessarily applied to the wastewater with high salt content generated at pickles making plants, etc.. In this report, with the objective of application of the electrolytic oxidation treatment to the organic wastewater with high salt content of pickles making plants, the effects of such conditions as pH, temperature and current, etc. on the treatment rate and treatment efficiency were examined, furthermore, the treatment process was simulated on the basis of a simple reaction model, and its simulation results were compared for study with the experimental results. The results are shown below: No effect of pH was observed, hence no pH control is required; The higher temperature of the wastewater accelerates the treatment rate; It was considered that in high temperature, a loss due to autolysis of hypochlorous acid increases, but the current efficiency of generating hypochlorous acid increases too and since the latter effect is bigger, the above phenomenon occurs. The current has a small effect on the treatment efficiency. With the simple reaction model, the change of residual chlorine concentration, etc. with time can be reproduced semiquantitatively. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Development of galvanic high energy cells with molten salt electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borger, W.; Ely, G.; Kunze, D.; Laig-Hoerstebrock, H.; Panesar, H.; Sterr, G.; Wunderlich, A.

    1985-01-01

    The development work during the period 1980-1983 was mainly directed towards the development of technical LiAl/FeS cells, the development of separators, tests of cells and modules, and more basic work. An important objective was the improvement of cycle life at constant specific energy. Technical cells with 140 Ah nominal capacity at the five hour rate and 100 Wh.kg/sup -1/ specific energy performed up to 400 full cycles (30 A discharge), while in 10 Ah test cells more than 2000 full cycles have been demonstrated. The improvement of cycle life of technical cells was achieved by the use of improved separators fabricated from MgO-powder and by a vacuum-tight electrical feedthrough. A design concept of a 10 cell module has been developed based upon 200 Ah cell with two positive and three negative plates. A detailed investigation of safety aspects showed that there is no specific risk related to the LiAl/molten salt/FeS system. Thermal management of a 24 kWh battery was investigated and the Ohmic heat generated in the leads seems to be the critical factor. A range of total materials cost between 60 and 130 DM/kWh has been estimated. The price of LiAl/FeS batteries will most probably also be in the range of conventional secondary batteries. The cost/benefit analysis shows a considerable potential of energy conservation by the use of light-weight high energy batteries. Compared with a expected technical life of 7 years a pay-back period between 2 and 6 years seems attractive. However, the economy of the electric vehicle is strongly influenced by the higher purchase price of an electric vehicle and the present energy level.

  20. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Biological degradation of biomass on an industrial scale culminates in high concentrations of end products. It is known that the accumulation of glucose and cellobiose, end products of hydrolysis, inhibit cellulases and decrease glucose yields. Aside from these end products, however, other monosa...

  1. Economic Optimization of a Concentrating Solar Power Plant with Molten-salt Thermocline Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Flueckiger, S. M.; Iverson, B. D.; Garimella, S V

    2014-01-01

    System-level simulation of a molten-salt thermocline tank is undertaken in response to year-long historical weather data and corresponding plant control. Such a simulation is enabled by combining a finite-volume model of the tank that includes a sufficiently faithful representation at low computation cost with a system-level power tower plant model. Annual plant performance of a 100 MWe molten-salt power tower plant is optimized as a function of the thermocline tank size and the plant solar m...

  2. [Salt, renal function and high blood pressure--reflections on a current issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Mattias

    2002-11-21

    The role of salt intake for blood pressure control has been discussed for a long time. A brief review is given of some pertinent physiological facts to explain this relationship and evolutionary aspects of renal function are emphasized. Salt intake is very high in the modern society, often as high as 15 g sodium chloride per 24 hours while 3-6 g may be more than enough to maintain an adequate salt balance. If the kidneys cannot cope with this severe sodium overload, blood pressure will rise. Therefore, the kidneys' ability to excrete sodium is a key factor and the salt excretion capacity is the kidneys' major barostatic function. As barostats, the kidneys control the blood pressure by ultimately determining the sodium excretion. Reducing sodium intake is, however, difficult as more than 50% of the intake is contained in the food we buy such as bread, sausages, canned food, chips and fast-food. Food products should therefore be "salt declared", but information on this aspect is generally lacking. If the population's salt intake could be reduced by 50%, the prevalence of hypertension will be much reduced, perhaps also by as much as 50%. The cost to society for treating hypertension would be reduced accordingly. Salt intake is also an important aspect of the overweight problem among today's youth. Salt and overweight impose great health risks later in life. Preventive measures in this area must be given high priority in future health care work.

  3. Facile preparation of highly pure KF-ZrF4 molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Guoqiang; Cui, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Zhang, Long; Xiao, Ji-Chang

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of highly pure KF-ZrF4 (FKZr) molten salt, a potential secondary coolant in molten salt reactors, was realized simply by heating a mixture of (NH4)2ZrF6 and KF. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the FKZr molten salt was mainly composed of KZrF5 and K2ZrF6. The melting point of the prepared FKZr molten salt was 420-422 °C under these conditions. The contents of all metal impurities were lower than 20 ppm, and the content of oxygen was lower than 400 ppm. This one-step protocol avoids the need for a tedious procedure to prepare ZrF4 and for an additional purification process to remove oxide impurities, and is therefore a convenient, efficient and economic preparation method for high-purity FKZr molten salt.

  4. Assessment of the Capability of Molten Salt Reactors as a Next Generation High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsheikh, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactor according to Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE) and the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) programs, was designed to be the first full-scale, commercial nuclear power plant utilizing molten salt liquid fuels that can be used for producing electricity, and producing fissile fuels (breeding)burning actinides. The high temperature in the primary cycle enables the realization of efficient thermal conversion cycles with net thermal efficiencies reach in some of the designs of nuclear reactors greater than 45%. Molten salts and liquid salt because of their low vapor pressure are excellent candidates for meeting most of the requirements of these high temperature reactors. There is renewed interest in MSRs because of changing goals and new technologies in the use of high-temperature reactors. Molten Salt Reactors for high temperature create substantial technical challenges to have high effectiveness intermediate heat transfer loop components. This paper will discuss and investigate the capability and compatibility of molten salt reactors, toward next generation high temperature energy system and its technical challenges

  5. Reverse micelles in organic solvents: a medium for the biotechnological use of extreme halophilic enzymes at low salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frutos C. Marhuenda-Egea

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline p-nitrophenylphosphate phosphatase (pNPPase from the halophilic archaeobacterium Halobacterium salinarum (previously halobium was solubilized at low salt concentration in reverse micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide in cyclohexane with 1-butanol as cosurfactant. The enzyme maintained its catalytic properties under these conditions. The thermodynamic “solvation–stabilization hypothesis” has been used to explain the bell-shaped dependence of pNPPase activity on the water content of reverse micelles, in terms of protein–solvent interactions. According to this model, the stability of the folded protein depends on a network of hydrated ions associated with acidic residues at the protein surface. At low salt concentration and low water content (the ratio of water concentration to surfactant concentration; w0, the network of hydrated ions within the reverse micelles may involve the cationic heads of the surfactant. The bell-shaped profile of the relationship between enzyme activity and w0 varied depending on the concentrations of NaCl and Mn2+.

  6. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Ortega. J.; Tarrasa. F.; Cuevas, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  7. Correlation of high-temperature stability of alpha-chymotrypsin with 'salting-in' properties of solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky VYu; Panova, A A; Mozhaev, V V

    1994-01-15

    A correlation between the stability of alpha-chymotrypsin against irreversible thermal inactivation at high temperatures (long-term stability) and the coefficient of Setchenov equation as a measure of salting-in/out efficiency of solutes in the Hofmeister series has been found. An increase in the concentration of salting-in solutes (KSCN, urea, guanidinium chloride, formamide) leads to a many-fold decrease of the inactivation rate of the enzyme. In contrast, addition of salting-out solutes has a small effect on the long-term stability of alpha-chymotrypsin at high temperatures. The effects of solutes are additive with respect to their salting-in/out capacities; the stabilizing action of the solutes is determined by the calculated Setchenov coefficient of solution. The correlation is explained by a solute-driven shift of the conformational equilibrium between the 'low-temperature' native and the 'high-temperature' denatured forms of the enzyme within the range of the kinetic scheme put forward in the preceding paper in this journal: irreversible inactivation of the high-temperature form proceeds much more slowly compared with the low-temperature form.

  8. Optimization of elution salt concentration in stepwise elution of protein chromatography using linear gradient elution data. Reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Endo, Naomi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2006-05-05

    Our simple method for optimization of the elution salt concentration in stepwise elution was applied to the actual protein separation system, which involves several difficulties such as detection of the target. As a model separation system, reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in human monoclonal antibody (hMab) purification was chosen. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments and obtained the data for the peak salt concentration of hMab and residual protein A, respectively. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the measurement of the residual protein A. From these data, we calculated the distribution coefficient of the hMab and the residual protein A as a function of salt concentration. The optimal salt concentration of stepwise elution to reduce the residual protein A from the hMab was determined based on the relationship between the distribution coefficient and the salt concentration. Using the optimized condition, we successfully performed the separation, resulting in high recovery of hMab and the elimination of residual protein A.

  9. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chlorid...

  10. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung Soo; McKellar, Michael; Anderson, Nolan

    2011-01-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  11. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  12. UCP3 Ablation Exacerbates High-Salt Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Cardiac Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Lang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excessive salt intake and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH are both critical for the development of hypertension and heart failure. The uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 plays a cardio-protective role in early heart failure development. However, the potential role for UCP3 in salt intake and LVH is unclear. Methods: UCP3-/- and C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal-salt (NS, 0.5% or a high-salt (HS, 8% diet for 24 weeks. The cardiac function, endurance capacity, energy expenditure, and mitochondrial functional capacity were measured in each group. Results: Elevated blood pressure was only observed in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. High salt induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction were observed in both C57BL/6 and UCP3-/- mice. However, the cardiac lesions were more profound in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. Furthermore, HS-fed UCP3-/-mice experienced more severe mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction compared with HS-fed C57BL/6 mice, represented by the decreased volume of oxygen consumption and heat production at the whole-body level. Conclusion: UCP3 protein was involved in the incidence of high-salt induced hypertension and the progression of cardiac dysfunction in the early stages of heart failure. UCP3 ablation exacerbated high-salt-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction.

  13. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  14. Antihypertensive activities of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) in high salt-loaded rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopda, Orelien Sylvain Mtopi; Longo, Frida; Bella, Thierry Ndzana; Edzah, Protais Marcellin Ohandja; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Tom, Esther Ngo Lemba; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Theophile

    2014-04-28

    The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) are used in Cameroon folk medicine to manage many diseases such as cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the activities of aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe pinnata on the blood pressure of normotensive rat (NTR) and salt hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as its antioxidant properties. Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of 18% NaCl for 4 weeks. For the preventive study, three groups of rats received 18% NaCl solution and the plant extract at 25 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. Two positive control groups received 18% NaCl solution and either spironolactone (0.71 mg/kg/day) or eupressyl (0.86 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of this experimental period, systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by the invasive method. Some oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric monoxide (NO) were evaluated in heart, aorta, liver and kidney. NO level was indirectly evaluated by measuring nitrite concentration. Kalanchoe pinnata extract prevented significantly the increase of systolic and diastolic arterial pressures in high salt-loaded rats (SHR). In SHR, concomitant administration of Kalanchoe pinnata at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure by 32%, 24% and 47% (for SAP); 35%, 33% and 56% (for DAP), respectively. No significant change was recorded in heart rate of those rats. The plant extract improved antioxidant status in various organs, but more potently in aorta. Thus, antioxidant and modulatory effects of Kalanchoe pinnata at the vasculature might be of preponderant contribution to its overall antihypertensive activity. The work demonstrated that the concomitant administration of high-salt and the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata elicits prevention of salt-induced hypertension in rat. This

  15. Comparison of a rational vs. high throughput approach for rapid salt screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collman, Benjamin M; Miller, Jonathan M; Seadeek, Christopher; Stambek, Julie A; Blackburn, Anthony C

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.

  16. Plathelminth abundance in North Sea salt marshes: environmental instability causes high diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armonies, Werner

    1986-09-01

    Although supralittoral salt marshes are habitats of high environmental instability, the meiofauna is rich in species and abundance is high. The community structure of free-living Plathelminthes (Turbellaria) in these salt marshes is described. On an average, 104 individuals are found below an area of 10 cm2. The average species density in ungrazed salt marshes is 11.3 below 10 cm2 and 45.2 below 100 cm2, indicating strong small-scale heterogenity. The faunal similarity between sediment and the corresponding above-ground vegetation is higher than between adjacent sample sites. Species prefer distinct ranges of salinity. In the lower part of the supralittoral salt marshes, the annual fluctuations of salinity are strongest and highly unpredictable. This region is richest in plathelminth species and abundance; diversity is highest, and the faunal composition of parallel samples is quite similar. In the upper part of the supralittoral salt marshes, the annual variability of salinity is lower, plathelminths are poor in species diversity and abundance. Parallel samples often have no species in common. Thus, those salt marsh regions with the most unstable environment are inhabited by the most diverse species assemblage. Compared to other littoral zones of the North Sea, however, plathelminth diversity in salt marshes is low. The observed plathelminth diversity pattern can apparently be explained by the “dynamic equilibrium model” (Huston, 1979).

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  18. Both high and low maternal salt intake in pregnancy alter kidney development in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleganova, Nadezda; Piecha, Grzegorz; Ritz, Eberhard; Becker, Luis Eduardo; Müller, Annett; Weckbach, Monika; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Schirmacher, Peter; Gross-Weissmann, Marie-Luise

    2011-08-01

    In humans, low glomerular numbers are related to hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease in adult life. The present study was designed 1) to explore whether above- or below-normal dietary salt intake during pregnancy influences nephron number and blood pressure in the offspring and 2) to identify potential mechanisms in kidney development modified by maternal sodium intake. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low (0.07%)-, intermediate (0.51%)-, or high (3.0%)-sodium diets during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were weaned at 4 wk and subsequently kept on a 0.51% sodium diet. The kidney structure was assessed at postnatal weeks 1 and 12 and the expression of proteins of interest at term and at week 1. Blood pressure was measured in male offspring by telemetry from postnatal month 2 to postnatal month 9. The numbers of glomeruli at weeks 1 and 12 were significantly lower and, in males, telemetrically measured mean arterial blood pressure after month 5 was higher in offspring of dams on a high- or low- compared with intermediate-sodium diet. A high-salt diet was paralleled by higher concentrations of marinobufagenin in the amniotic fluid and an increase in the expression of both sprouty-1 and glial cell-derived neutrophic factor in the offspring's kidney. The expression of FGF-10 was lower in offspring of dams on a low-sodium diet, and the expression of Pax-2 and FGF-2 was lower in offspring of dams on a high-sodium diet. Both excessively high and excessively low sodium intakes during pregnancy modify protein expression in offspring kidneys and reduce the final number of glomeruli, predisposing the risk of hypertension later in life.

  19. Using an aqueous two-phase polymer-salt system to rapidly concentrate viruses for improving the detection limit of the lateral-flow immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Erik; Yamanishi, Cameron D; Chiu, Ricky Y T; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2014-12-01

    The development of point-of-need (PON) diagnostics for viruses has the potential to prevent pandemics and protects against biological warfare threats. Here we discuss the approach of using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to concentrate biomolecules prior to the lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) for improved viral detection. In this paper, we developed a rapid PON detection assay as an extension to our previous proof-of-concept studies which used a micellar ATPS. We present our investigation of a more rapid polymer-salt ATPS that can drastically improve the assay time, and show that the phase containing the concentrated biomolecule can be extracted prior to macroscopic phase separation equilibrium without affecting the measured biomolecule concentration in that phase. We could therefore significantly decrease the time of the diagnostic assay with an early extraction time of just 30 min. Using this rapid ATPS, the model virus bacteriophage M13 was concentrated between approximately 2 and 10-fold by altering the volume ratio between the two phases. As the extracted virus-rich phase contained a high salt concentration which destabilized the colloidal gold indicator used in LFA, we decorated the gold nanoprobes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to provide steric stabilization, and used these nanoprobes to demonstrate a 10-fold improvement in the LFA detection limit. Lastly, a MATLAB script was used to quantify the LFA results with and without the pre-concentration step. This approach of combining a rapid ATPS with LFA has great potential for PON applications, especially as greater concentration-fold improvements can be achieved by further varying the volume ratio. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2499-2507. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characterization of Laboratory Prepared Concrete Pastes Exposed to High Alkaline and High Sodium Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-30

    The objective of this study was to identify potential chemical degradation mechanisms for the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) concretes, which over the performance life of the structures may be exposed to highly alkaline sodium salt solutions containing sulfate, hydroxide, and other potentially corrosive chemicals in salt solution and saltstone flush water, drain water, leachate and / or pore solution. The samples analyzed in this study were cement pastes prepared in the SIMCO Technologies, Inc. concrete laboratory. They were based on the paste fractions of the concretes used to construct the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs). SDU 1 and 4 concrete pastes were represented by the PV1 test specimens. The paste in the SDU 2, 3, 5, and 6 concrete was represented by the PV2 test specimens. SIMCO Technologies, Inc. selected the chemicals and proportions in the aggressive solutions to approximate proportions in the saltstone pore solution [2, 3, 5, and 6]. These test specimens were cured for 56 days in curing chamber before being immersed in aggressive solutions. After exposure, the samples were frozen to prevent additional chemical transport and reaction. Selected archived (retrieved from the freezer) samples were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for additional characterization using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Characterization results are summarized in this report. In addition, a correlation between the oxide composition of the pastes and their chemical durability in the alkaline salt solutions is provided.

  1. High salt-induced excess reactive oxygen species production resulted in heart tube malformation during gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin-Rui; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shuai; Chuai, Manli; Bao, Yongping; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2018-09-01

    An association has been proved between high salt consumption and cardiovascular mortality. In vertebrates, the heart is the first functional organ to be formed. However, it is not clear whether high-salt exposure has an adverse impact on cardiogenesis. Here we report high-salt exposure inhibited basement membrane breakdown by affecting RhoA, thus disturbing the expression of Slug/E-cadherin/N-cadherin/Laminin and interfering with mesoderm formation during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT). Furthermore, the DiI + cell migration trajectory in vivo and scratch wound assays in vitro indicated that high-salt exposure restricted cell migration of cardiac progenitors, which was caused by the weaker cytoskeleton structure and unaltered corresponding adhesion junctions at HH7. Besides, down-regulation of GATA4/5/6, Nkx2.5, TBX5, and Mef2c and up-regulation of Wnt3a/β-catenin caused aberrant cardiomyocyte differentiation at HH7 and HH10. High-salt exposure also inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Most importantly, our study revealed that excessive reactive oxygen species(ROS)generated by high salt disturbed the expression of cardiac-related genes, detrimentally affecting the above process including EMT, cell migration, differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, which is the major cause of malformation of heart tubes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Luria, Justin; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, Adam C.; Sun, Liangfeng; Lim, Yee-Fun; Marohn, John A.; Wise, Frank W.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2010-05-12

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoporous Carbon Materials; The Effect of Surfactant Concentrations and Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Geranmayeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous carbon framework was synthesized using phenol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors and triblock copolymer (pluronic F127 as soft template via evaporation induced self-assembly. Hexagonal mesoporous carbon with specific surface area of 350 m2/g through optimizing the situation was obtained. The effects of different surfactant/phenol molar ratio and presence of salts on specific surface area, pore size and pore volume for all the prepared samples were studied by means of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET formalism, powder X-ray diffraction technique and FT-IR spectroscopy.

  5. Biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana (Mill) on the Myocardium of Left Ventricle of High Salt-Fed Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olushola, Ayoola I; Aderibigbe, Komolafe O; Stephen, Saka O; Ayodeji, Odukoya S

    2017-10-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Persea americana extract was investigated on biochemical activities of high salt-fed adult Wistar rats in this study. Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120 to 150 g were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 5 rats each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). Rats in groups A, F, G, and H were fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D, and E were fed on the high-salt diet for 4 weeks. Concomitantly, daily administration of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the P americana extract were given orally to groups C and F, D and G, and E and H, respectively, while rats in groups A and B were administered distilled water. Blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture; concentration of sodium ion, potassium ion, nitric oxide, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were determined. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparison. Results revealed that concentration of potassium ion and nitric oxide was significantly lower ( P < .05) in high salt-fed groups. Sodium ion concentration and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were higher in high salt-fed group while P americana prevented biochemical perturbations in other experimental groups. In conclusion, high salt-diet induced biochemical alterations which were significantly protected by oral administration of P americana extract.

  6. Mixtures of lecithin and bile salt can form highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Yang; Oh, Hyuntaek; Wang, Ting-Yu; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2014-09-02

    The self-assembly of biological surfactants in water is an important topic for study because of its relevance to physiological processes. Two common types of biosurfactants are lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and bile salts, which are both present in bile and involved in digestion. Previous studies on lecithin-bile salt mixtures have reported the formation of short, rodlike micelles. Here, we show that lecithin-bile salt micelles can be further induced to grow into long, flexible wormlike structures. The formation of long worms and their resultant entanglement into transient networks is reflected in the rheology: the fluids become viscoelastic and exhibit Maxwellian behavior, and their zero-shear viscosity can be up to a 1000-fold higher than that of water. The presence of worms is further confirmed by data from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and from cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We find that micellar growth peaks at a specific molar ratio (near equimolar) of bile salt:lecithin, which suggests a strong binding interaction between the two species. In addition, micellar growth also requires a sufficient concentration of background electrolyte such as NaCl or sodium citrate that serves to screen the electrostatic repulsion of the amphiphiles and to "salt out" the amphiphiles. We postulate a mechanism based on changes in the molecular geometry caused by bile salts and electrolytes to explain the micellar growth.

  7. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... effect on blood pressure, a high sodium intake has also been associated with ... promotion of healthy eating habits from an early age is important. Chen and ..... help consumers make informed purchasing decisions. However ...

  8. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  9. High Spatial resolution remote sensing for salt marsh change detection on Fire Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes are under increasing pressure due to anthropogenic stressors including sea level rise, nutrient enrichment, herbivory and disturbances. Salt marsh losses risk the important ecosystem services they provide including biodiversity, water filtration, wave attenuation, and carbon sequestration. This study determines salt marsh change on Fire Island National Seashore, a barrier island along the south shore of Long Island, New York. Object-based image analysis was used to classifying Worldview-2, high resolution satellite, and topobathymetric LiDAR. The site was impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October of 2012 causing a breach in the Barrier Island and extensive overwash. In situ training data from vegetation plots were used to train the Random Forest classifier. The object-based Worldview-2 classification achieved an overall classification accuracy of 92.75. Salt marsh change for the study site was determined by comparing the 2015 classification with a 1997 classification. The study found a shift from high marsh to low marsh and a reduction in Phragmites on Fire Island. Vegetation losses were observed along the edge of the marsh and in the marsh interior. The analysis agreed with many of the trends found throughout the region including the reduction of high marsh and decline of salt marsh. The reduction in Phragmites could be due to the species shrinking niche between rising seas and dune vegetation on barrier islands. The complex management issues facing salt marsh across the United States including sea level rise and eutrophication necessitate very high resolution classification and change detection of salt marsh to inform management decisions such as restoration, salt marsh migration, and nutrient inputs.

  10. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  11. Growth of Cyanobacterium aponinum influenced by increasing salt concentrations and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckelmann, Dominik; Bleeke, Franziska; Bergmann, Peter; Klöck, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    The increasing requirement of food neutral biofuels demands the detection of alternative sources. The use of non-arable land and waste water streams is widely discussed in this regard. A Cyanobacterium was isolated on the area of a possible algae production side near a water treatment plant in the arid desert region al-Wusta. It was identified as Cyanobacterium aponinum PB1 and is a possible lipid source. To determine its suitability of a production process using this organism, a set of laboratory experiments were performed. Its growth behavior was examined in regard to high temperatures and increasing NaCl concentrations. A productivity of 0.1 g L -1 per day was measured at an alga density below 0.75 g L -1 . C. aponinum PB1 showed no sign of altered growth behavior in media containing 70 g L -1 NaCl or less. Detection of a negative effect of NaCl on the growth using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation chlorophyll fluorescence analysis was not more sensitive than optical density measurement.

  12. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High-salt diet likely elevates blood pressure (BP), thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet plays a critical role in subjects whose renin-angiotensin systems cannot adjust to variable salt intake, rendering them more susceptible...... to atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice received standard or high-salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with fixed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.5 microg/kg per min). BP was measured using telemetry, and plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and innominate artery. We...... used urinary isoprostane as a marker for oxidative stress. RESULTS: Although high-salt diet per se did not affect plaque extension, high salt combined with Ang II increased plaque area significantly in both the aorta and the innominate artery as compared with Ang II or salt alone (P

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of Petunia hybrida in response to salt stress using high throughput RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo H Villarino

    Full Text Available Salinity and drought stress are the primary cause of crop losses worldwide. In sodic saline soils sodium chloride (NaCl disrupts normal plant growth and development. The complex interactions of plant systems with abiotic stress have made RNA sequencing a more holistic and appealing approach to study transcriptome level responses in a single cell and/or tissue. In this work, we determined the Petunia transcriptome response to NaCl stress by sequencing leaf samples and assembling 196 million Illumina reads with Trinity software. Using our reference transcriptome we identified more than 7,000 genes that were differentially expressed within 24 h of acute NaCl stress. The proposed transcriptome can also be used as an excellent tool for biological and bioinformatics in the absence of an available Petunia genome and it is available at the SOL Genomics Network (SGN http://solgenomics.net. Genes related to regulation of reactive oxygen species, transport, and signal transductions as well as novel and undescribed transcripts were among those differentially expressed in response to salt stress. The candidate genes identified in this study can be applied as markers for breeding or to genetically engineer plants to enhance salt tolerance. Gene Ontology analyses indicated that most of the NaCl damage happened at 24 h inducing genotoxicity, affecting transport and organelles due to the high concentration of Na+ ions. Finally, we report a modification to the library preparation protocol whereby cDNA samples were bar-coded with non-HPLC purified primers, without affecting the quality and quantity of the RNA-seq data. The methodological improvement presented here could substantially reduce the cost of sample preparation for future high-throughput RNA sequencing experiments.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of Petunia hybrida in response to salt stress using high throughput RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Gonzalo H; Bombarely, Aureliano; Giovannoni, James J; Scanlon, Michael J; Mattson, Neil S

    2014-01-01

    Salinity and drought stress are the primary cause of crop losses worldwide. In sodic saline soils sodium chloride (NaCl) disrupts normal plant growth and development. The complex interactions of plant systems with abiotic stress have made RNA sequencing a more holistic and appealing approach to study transcriptome level responses in a single cell and/or tissue. In this work, we determined the Petunia transcriptome response to NaCl stress by sequencing leaf samples and assembling 196 million Illumina reads with Trinity software. Using our reference transcriptome we identified more than 7,000 genes that were differentially expressed within 24 h of acute NaCl stress. The proposed transcriptome can also be used as an excellent tool for biological and bioinformatics in the absence of an available Petunia genome and it is available at the SOL Genomics Network (SGN) http://solgenomics.net. Genes related to regulation of reactive oxygen species, transport, and signal transductions as well as novel and undescribed transcripts were among those differentially expressed in response to salt stress. The candidate genes identified in this study can be applied as markers for breeding or to genetically engineer plants to enhance salt tolerance. Gene Ontology analyses indicated that most of the NaCl damage happened at 24 h inducing genotoxicity, affecting transport and organelles due to the high concentration of Na+ ions. Finally, we report a modification to the library preparation protocol whereby cDNA samples were bar-coded with non-HPLC purified primers, without affecting the quality and quantity of the RNA-seq data. The methodological improvement presented here could substantially reduce the cost of sample preparation for future high-throughput RNA sequencing experiments.

  15. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1990-04-01

    To satisfy the test objectives thirty highly radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./DG)

  16. HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.; Stippler, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in an one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. The project is funded by the BMFT and the CEC and carrier out in close co-operation with the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN)

  17. The HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.

    1988-04-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in a one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  18. Radiolysis salt phenomenology: application to storage of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Najib

    1993-01-01

    In France, rock salt is a candidate repository for highly radioactive waste. Rock salt contains water and adsorbed gases which can be released in boreholes after heating due to vitrified wastes. In addition, waste-induced irradiation in near-field conditions induce radiolytic reactions which also contribute to gas release. The aim of this work is to understand and evaluate the effects of heat and irradiation produced by waste containers in a deep disposal, primarily concerning gas production. This is justified by the impact of gases on long-term safety: toxicity, explosibility, chemical reactivity, pressure build-up. We have evidenced the influence of integrated dose, filling gases, temperature and grain size on an homogeneous medium (Asse Mine rock salt). We have then studied heterogeneous samples, which allowed to determine the influence of the chemical and mineralogical composition of rock salt (bedded rock salt from the Mine de Potasse d'Alsace). The role played by organic matter on gas production is important, leading for instance to high consumption rates of oxygen. Through this study, we have also considered the behaviour of clay-rich materials under irradiation. Our results constitute important bases for the future modelling of the phenomena which will take place in the near-field of a rock salt-type repository, especially concerning its long-term safety. (author) [fr

  19. Development of high temperature molten salt transport technology for pyrometallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Takatoshi; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2009-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology is currently being focused in many countries for closing actinide fuel cycle because of its favorable economic potential and an intrinsic proliferation-resistant feature due to the inherent difficulty of extracting weapons-usable plutonium. The feasibility of pyrometallurgical reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory scale experiments. Hence the development of the engineering technology necessary for pyrometallurgical reprocessing is a key issue for industrial realization. The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt and liquid cadmium is crucial for pyrometallurgical processing; however, there have been very few transport studies on high-temperature fluids. In this study, a salt transport test rig was installed in an argon glove box with the aim of developing technologies for transporting molten salt at approximately 773 K. The gravitation transport of the molten salt at approximately 773 K could be well controlled at a velocity from 0.1 to 1.2 m/s by adjusting the valve. Consequently, the flow in the molten salt can be controlled from laminar flow to turbulent flow. It was demonstrated that; using a centrifugal pump, molten salt at approximately 773 K could be transported at a controlled rate from 2.5 to 8 dm 3 /min against a 1 m head. (author)

  20. Biocompatibility of Four Common Orthopedic Biomaterials Following a High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lecocq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, salt consumption appears to be drastically above the recommended level in industrialized countries. The health consequences of this overconsumption are heavy since high-salt intake induces cardiovascular disease, kidney dysfunction, and stroke. Moreover, harmful interaction may also occur with orthopaedic devices because overconsumption of salt reinforces the corrosive aspect of biological tissues and favors bone resorption process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect of three weeks of a high-salt diet, associated (or not with two weeks of the neuro-myoelectrostimulation (NMES rehabilitation program on the biocompatibility of four biomaterials used in the manufacture of arthroplasty implants. Thus, two non-metallic (PEEK and Al2O3 and two metallic (Ti6Al4V and CrCo compounds were implanted in the rat tibial crest, and the implant-to-bone adhesion and cell viability of two surrounded muscles, the Flexor Digitorum (FD and Tibialis Anterior (TA, were assessed at the end of the experiment. Results indicated lower adhesion strength for the PEEK implant compared to other biomaterials. An effect of NMES and a high-salt diet was only identified for Al2O3 and Ti6Al4V implants, respectively. Moreover, compared to a normal diet, a high-salt diet induced a higher number of dead cells on both muscles for all biomaterials, which was further increased for PEEK, Al2O3, and CrCo materials with NMES application. Finally, except for Ti6Al4V, NMES induced a higher number of dead cells in the directly stimulated muscle (FD compared to the indirectly stimulated one (TA. This in vivo experiment highlights the potential harmful effect of a high-salt diet for people who have undergone arthroplasty, and a rehabilitation program based on NMES.

  1. Biocompatibility of Four Common Orthopedic Biomaterials Following a High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Mathieu; Bernard, Cécile; Felix, Marie Solenne; Chaves-Jacob, Julien; Decherchi, Patrick; Dousset, Erick

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, salt consumption appears to be drastically above the recommended level in industrialized countries. The health consequences of this overconsumption are heavy since high-salt intake induces cardiovascular disease, kidney dysfunction, and stroke. Moreover, harmful interaction may also occur with orthopaedic devices because overconsumption of salt reinforces the corrosive aspect of biological tissues and favors bone resorption process. In the present study, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect of three weeks of a high-salt diet, associated (or not) with two weeks of the neuro-myoelectrostimulation (NMES) rehabilitation program on the biocompatibility of four biomaterials used in the manufacture of arthroplasty implants. Thus, two non-metallic (PEEK and Al2O3) and two metallic (Ti6Al4V and CrCo) compounds were implanted in the rat tibial crest, and the implant-to-bone adhesion and cell viability of two surrounded muscles, the Flexor Digitorum (FD) and Tibialis Anterior (TA), were assessed at the end of the experiment. Results indicated lower adhesion strength for the PEEK implant compared to other biomaterials. An effect of NMES and a high-salt diet was only identified for Al2O3 and Ti6Al4V implants, respectively. Moreover, compared to a normal diet, a high-salt diet induced a higher number of dead cells on both muscles for all biomaterials, which was further increased for PEEK, Al2O3, and CrCo materials with NMES application. Finally, except for Ti6Al4V, NMES induced a higher number of dead cells in the directly stimulated muscle (FD) compared to the indirectly stimulated one (TA). This in vivo experiment highlights the potential harmful effect of a high-salt diet for people who have undergone arthroplasty, and a rehabilitation program based on NMES. PMID:28696371

  2. Effect of acidification and salt concentration on two black brined olives from Sicily (cv moresca and giarraffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo, Flora V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects of different brining treatments on mature table olives during natural fermentation were evaluated. The considered olive cultivars are typical of Sicily: Moresca and Giarraffa. They were harvested at pigmented state. The carpological data revealed their good quality as table olives. Natural fermentation was performed with or without acidification up to pH 4, and at 8% and 15% salt concentrations. The physical, chemical and microbiological changes in olives and brines were monitored throughout the processing period. The acidification affected and selected the microbial population and maintained the low pH necessary for the hygienic safety of the product. In fact, in Moresca brines,the lactic acid bacteria totally disappeared after 60 days of fermentation while in Giarraffa they maintained their presence in the brines up to 180 days with a value between 104 UFC/mL and 106 UFC/mL, depending on the salt concentration. The microbial population was also affected by the polyphenol content, which was different between the cultivars. The color of olive fruits was greatly influenced by acidification and less by salt concentration. The addition of salt showed a different influence on the studied cultivars, in fact only the chemical analyses of Giarraffa showed a significant difference between the two levels of salt concentration.

    En el presente trabajo, los efectos de diferentes tratamientos con salmuera en aceitunas de mesa maduras durante su fermentación natural fueron evaluados. Los cultivos de aceitunas considerados son típicos de Sicilia: Moresca y Giarraffa. Ellas son cosechadas en su estado maduro. Los datos carpológicos revelan su buena calidad como aceituna de mesa. La fermentación natural fue realizada con y sin acidificación hasta pH 4, y a una concentración de sal del 8% y 15%. Cambios físicos, químicos y microbiológicos de las aceitunas y salmueras a través de todo el

  3. Testing of Air Pulse Agitators to Support Design of Savannah River Site Highly Radioactive Processing at the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, R.M.; Stephens, A.B.; Wilkinson, R.H.; Dev, H.; Suggs, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is intended to concentrate the highly radioactive constituents from waste salt solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Air Pulse Agitators (APAs) were selected for process mixing in high-radiation locations at the SWPF. This technology has the advantage of no moving parts within the hot cell, eliminating potential failure modes and the need for maintenance within the high-radiation environment. This paper describes the results of APA tests performed to gain operational and performance data for the SWPF design. (authors)

  4. The effects of different salt concentrations on growth and chlorophyll content of some pumpkin rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köksal AYDİNŞAKİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different salinity levels, (0.7, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 dS m-1 on some physiological parameters of Obez F1, Ferro F1, RS841 F1, which are used as rootstocks in watermelon cultivation. Salty irrigation water was obtained through mixing of NaCl and CaCl2 salt into tap water. When the plants were at the 3-4 leaf stage, different salinity levels were applied. Plants were harvested during the phase of florescence. The study was carried out using split plots in randomized complete block design while rootstocks are main plot, salinity levels are sub-plot with three replications. While the salinity level was increasing, the physiological parameters decreased in each three rootstocks. While the plant height changed between 14.4-107.1 cm, the plant leaf area varied between 152.0-2182.7 cm2. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total carotenoid values decreased as the salinity level increased. Excluding the maximum value obtained from control plot, the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and total carotenoid values were obtained in Obez variety under 4.0 dS m-1 application with 14.8 mg l-1, 12.8 mg l-1 and 0.28 mg g-1 fw, respectively.

  5. Thermal Energy Recovery through Optimal Salt concentration in a Parabolic Trough Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsurn Rikesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Making a PVT system hybrid is to support the use of thermal and electrical energy simultaneously or independently, to control the thermal effect to improve electrical efficiency or vice-versa. This project makes use of the Parabolic Trough design with emphasis on making the system to be sustainable and also increasing the thermal efficiency of the system. Polystyrene and acrylic foam is utilized to maximize the heat retention capability of the system. To power, the pump that moves the heat transfer fluid (tested with salt water proportions within the copper tube, a set of solar PV panel is to support its power demand making it sustainable. The closed loop setup designed achieved an improved thermal efficiency level of 66.2%, which contributes to having a reliable heat energy source for applications such as hot showers. The novel setup design also makes use of PV cells to support other energy demands through power electronic control designs. Using a similar heat dissipation technique, a novel setup has been designed to improve the voltage supply by making use of liquid cooling and translucent glass PV panels. Cooling the PV panel restored up to 11.7% of its rated voltage supply. This is achieved by keeping the PV panels within its best thermal operating conditions using an energy efficient electronically controlled cooling system.

  6. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with safety evaluation as part of the investigations regarding a repository for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 5 of five volumes that together constitute the final report on the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. Two characteristics of the waste are of special importance for the safety evaluation: the encasing of the waste in steel casks with 15 cm thick walls affording protection against corrosion, protecting the surroundings against radiation, and protecting the glass cylinders from mechanical damage resulting from the pressure at the bottom of the disposal hole, and the modest generation of heat in the waste at the time of disposal resulting in a maximum temperature increase in the salt close to the waste of approx. 40 deg. C. These characteristics proved to considerably improve the safety margin with respect to unforeseen circumstances. The character of the salt dome and of the salt in the proposed disposal area offers in itself good protection against contact with the ground water outside the dome. The relatively large depth of 1200 and 2500 m of the salt surface also means that neither dome nor disposal facility will be appreciably influenced by glaciations or earthquakes. The chalk above the proposed disposal area is very tight and to retain radioactive matter effectively even in the precence of high concentrations of NaCL. The safety investigations included a number of natural processes and probable events such as the segregation of crystal water from overlooked salt minerals, faulty sealings of disposal holes, permeable fault zones in the chalk overlying the dome, the risk in connection with human penetration into the dome. These conditions will neither lead to the destruction of the waste casks or to the release of waste from the dome. Leaching of a cavern is the only situation which proved to result in a release of radioactive material to the biosphere, but the resulting doses was found to be small

  7. Evaluation of the salt deposition on the canister surface of concrete cask. Part 3. Long-term measurement of salt concentration in air and evaluation of the salt deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi; Takeda, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    To realize the dry storage using concrete cask in Japan, it is important to develop the evaluation method of the SCC of the canister. One of the key issues is sea salt deposition on the canister surface during the storage period. If the amount of salt deposition exceeds the critical value, the SCC may occur. The amount of salt deposition depends on the ambient air condition. We developed the measurement device of salt in air to make clear the ambient condition. The device sucks the air including sea salt and the sea salt dissolves in water. We analyze the water including sea salt. This device works automatically for one or two months. In this study, the performance of this device was verified comparing the data obtained by the air sampler using filter pack. In Yokosuka area of CRIEPI, we measured the ambient air condition using this device for three years. Furthermore, we performed the salt deposition test using the small ducts in the same area. The ambient air including sea salt flows in the duct and the sea salt deposits on the test specimen put on the duct inner surface. We took out the specimen after certain time and measured the salt amount on the test specimen. Using these data, we obtained the relation between the salt deposition and the time on this ambient condition. The results of this study are useful to evaluate the SCC of the canister. (author)

  8. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  9. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  10. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  11. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, E.M.; Ogasawara, T.; Silva, F.T. da; Fontes, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author) [pt

  12. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  13. Optimization of hybrid polymer electrolytes with the effect of lithium salt concentration in PEO/PVdF-HFP blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepa, P.; Edwin raj, S.; Sowmya, G.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Ramesh Prabhu, M., E-mail: mkram83@gmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Polymer blends based on PVdF-HFP/PEO were prepared for Li-ion battery applications. • Structural and electrochemical studies were carried out on prepared electrolytes. • The electrolytes can be used as electrolyte in the possible device fabrications. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) 6.25 wt%/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] 18.75 wt% blend based electrolyte films containing different concentrations (2–10) wt% of lithium salt were prepared. The miscibility studies have been performed by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The role of interaction between polymer hosts on conductivity is discussed using the results of a.c. impedance studies. A room temperature conductivity of 2.3912 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} has been obtained for PEO (6.25)–PVdF-HFP (18.75)–LiClO{sub 4} (8)–PC (67) polymer complex. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of polymer electrolyte seems to obey VTF relation. Electrochemical stability (3.3 V) was observed in the prepared polymer electrolyte. Reduction process and oxidation process of the prepared electrolyte system have also been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicate thermal stability of PEO/PVdF-HFP lithium salt complexes. Roughness parameter of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by AFM. The morphology of the polymer complex is investigated by using SEM.

  14. Salt at concentrations relevant to meat processing enhances Shiga toxin 2 production in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shaun M; Yue, Wan-Fu; Olsen, Sarena A; Hu, Jia; Means, Warrie J; McCormick, Richard J; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-10-15

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 remains a major food safety concern associated with meat, especially beef products. Shiga toxins (Stx) are key virulence factors produced by E. coli O157:H7 that are responsible for hemorrhagic colitis and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Stx are heat stable and can be absorbed after oral ingestion. Despite the extensive study of E. coli O157:H7 survival during meat processing, little attention is paid to the production of Stx during meat processing. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of salt, an essential additive to processed meat, at concentrations relevant to meat processing (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, W/V) on Stx2 production and Stx2 prophage induction by E. coli O157:H7 strains. For both E. coli O157:H7 86-24 and EDL933 strains, including 2% salt in LB broth decreased (Pmeat processing enhances Stx production, a process linked to bacterial stress response and lambdoid prophage induction. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of salt type and concentration on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris in synthetic saline wastewater for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Keug-Tae; McLean, Rebecca; Oh, You-Kwan; Nam, Bora; Joo, Jin Chul; Lee, Woo Hyoung

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae can offer several benefits for wastewater treatment with their ability to produce large amounts of lipids for biofuel production and the high economic value of harvested biomass for biogas and fertilizer. This study found that salt concentration (∼45gL -1 ) had more of an effect than salt type on metabolisms of Chlorella vulgaris for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. Salinity stress decreased the algal growth rate in wastewater by 0.003day -1 permScm -1 and slightly reduced nutrient removal rates. However, salinity stress was shown to increase total lipid content from 11.5% to 16.1% while also increasing the saturated portions of fatty acids in C. vulgaris. In addition, salinity increased the algal settling rate from 0.06 to 0.11mday -1 which could potentially reduce the cost of harvesting for algal biofuel production. Overall, C. vulgaris makes a suitable candidate for high salinity wastewater cultivation and biofuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.

    1990-04-01

    The HAW-project plants the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters containing Cs-137 and Sr-90 at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated, the measuring equipment installed, and two preceedings inactive electrical tests taken into operation. Furthermore, the components of a system for transportation and emplacement of highly radioactive canisters was fabricated, installed, and preliminarily tested. After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of the 30 radioactive canisters is now envisaged for early 1991. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed and will be tested. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  17. Deployment of quasi-digital sensor for high temperature molten salt level measurement in pyroprocessing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Ramesh; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sivaramakrishna, M.; Rao, G. Prabhakara

    2018-04-01

    Development of a liquid molten salt level sensor device that can detect the level of liquid molten salt in the process vessels of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent metallic fuels is detailed. It is proposed to apply a resistive-type pulsating sensor-based level measurement approach. There are no commercially available sensors due to limitations of high temperature, radiation, and physical dimensions. A compact, simple, rugged, low power, and high precise pulsating sensor-based level probe and simple instrumentation for the molten salt liquid level sensor to work in the extreme conditions has been indigenously developed, with high precision and accuracy. The working principle, design concept, and results have been discussed. This level probe is mainly composed of the variable resistor made up of ceramic rods. This resistor constitutes the part of resistance-capacitance-type Logic Gate Oscillator (LGO). A change in the molten salt level inside the tank causes a small change in the resistance which in turn changes the pulse frequency of the LGO. Thus the frequency, the output of the instrument that is displayed on the LCD of an embedded system, is a function of molten salt level. In the present design, the range of level measurement is about 10 mm. The sensitivity in position measurement up to 10 mm is ˜2.5 kHz/mm.

  18. Simulating Osmotic Equilibria: A New Tool for Calculating Activity Coefficients in Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Michael; Duvail, Magali; Guilbaud, Philippe; Dufrêche, Jean-François

    2017-10-19

    Herein, a new theoretical method is presented for predicting osmotic equilibria and activities, where a bulk liquid and its corresponding vapor phase are simulated by means of molecular dynamics using explicit polarization. Calculated time-averaged number density profiles provide the amount of evaporated molecules present in the vapor phase and consequently the vapor-phase density. The activity of the solvent and the corresponding osmotic coefficient are determined by the vapor density at different solute concentrations with respect to the reference vapor density of the pure solvent. With the extended Debye-Hückel equation for the activity coefficient along with the corresponding Gibbs-Duhem relation, the activity coefficients of the solutes are calculated by fitting the osmotic coefficients. A simple model based on the combination of Poisson processes and Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distributions is introduced to interpret statistical phenomena observed during the simulations, which are related to evaporation and recondensation. This method is applied to aqueous dysprosium nitrate [Dy(NO 3 ) 3 ] solutions at different concentrations. The obtained densities of the liquid bulk and the osmotic and activity coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental results for concentrated and saturated solutions. Density profiles of the liquid-vapor interface at different concentrations provide detailed insight into the spatial distributions of all compounds.

  19. Combined effect of salt concentration and pressure gradients across charged membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    The combined effect of both concentration and pressure differences on electrical potential (Deltaphi) for two ion-exchanger membranes, one positively charged (AE) and another negatively charged (CE), measured with the membranes in contact with NaCl solutions was studied. Results show a linear dep...

  20. High-flux solar concentration with imaging designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuermann, D. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research; Gordon, J.M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ries, H. [Ries and Partners, Munich (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Most large solar concentrators designed for high flux concentration at high collection efficiency are based on imaging primary mirrors and nonimaging secondary concentrators. In this paper, we offer an alternative purely imaging two-stage solar concentrator that can attain high flux concentration at high collection efficiency. Possible practical virtues include: (1) an inherent large gap between absorber and secondary mirror; (2) a restricted angular range on the absorber; and (3) an upward-facing receiver where collected energy can be extracted via the (shaded) apex of the parabola. We use efficiency-concentration plots to characterize the solar concentrators considered, and to evaluate the potential improvements with secondary concentrators. (author)

  1. Chemical concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide from solutions with low salt background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, Yu.S.; Ter-Akop'yan, G.M.; Popeko, A.G.; Drobina, T.P.; Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experiments on further concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide, the concentrates of which form the Cheleken geothermal brines have been obtained, are presented. The conclusions are drown about the chemical nature of a new spontaneously fissionable nuclide. It is a chalcophile element which copreipitates with sulphides of copper, lead, arsenic and mercury from weakly acid solutions. The behaviour of the new nuclide in sulphide systems in many respects is similar to the behaviour of polonium, astatine and probably of bismuth. The most probable stable valence of the new nuclide varies from +1 up to +3. The data available on the chemical behaviour of the new nuclide as well as the analysis over contamination by spontaneously fissionable isotopes permit to state that the new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide does not relate to the known isotopes

  2. Solidification of high temperature molten salts for thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The solidification of phase change materials for the high temperature thermal energy storage system of an advanced solar thermal power system has been examined theoretically. In light of the particular thermophysical properties of candidate phase change high temperature salts, such as the eutectic mixture of NaF - MgF2, the heat transfer characteristics of one-dimensional inward solidification for a cylindrical geometry have been studied. The Biot number for the solidified salt is shown to be the critical design parameter for constant extraction heat flux. A fin-on-fin design concept of heat transfer surface augmentation is proposed in an effort to minimize the effects of the salt's low thermal conductivity and large volume change upon fusing.

  3. The HAW Project. Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Mueller-Lyda, I.; Raynal, M.; Major, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive canisters is planned in the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty canisters containing the radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwith of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800-m-level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuously surveyed in respect of the thermomechanical and geochemical response of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and successfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field measuring systems consisting of ionization chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. 70 refs

  4. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  5. Simplified Reference Electrode for Electrorefining of Spent Nuclear Fuel in High Temperature Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Davies; Shelly X Li

    2007-01-01

    Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in development of proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel cycles. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the last decade. Electrorefining in a high temperature molten salt is considered a signature or central technology in pyroprocessing fuel cycles. Separation of actinides from fission products is being demonstrated by electrorefining the spent fuel in a molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl electrolyte in two engineering scale electrorefiners (ERs). The electrorefining process is current controlled. The reference electrode provides process information through monitoring of the voltage difference between the reference and the anode and cathode electrodes. This information is essential for monitoring the reactions occurring at the electrodes, investigating separation efficiency, controlling the process rate, and determining the process end-point. The original reference electrode has provided good life expectancy and signal stability, but is not easily replaceable. The reference electrode used a vycor-glass ion-permeable membrane containing a high purity silver wire with one end positioned in ∼2 grams of LiCl/KCl salt electrolyte with a low concentration (∼1%) AgCl. It was, however, a complex assembly requiring specialized skill and talent to fabricate. The construction involved multiple small pieces, glass joints, ceramic to glass joints, and ceramic to metal joints all assembled in a high purity inert gas environment. As original electrodes reached end-of-life it was uncertain if the skills and knowledge were readily available to successfully fabricate replacements. Experimental work has been conducted to identify a simpler electrode design while retaining the needed long life and signal stability. This improved design, based on an ion-permeable membrane of mullite has been completed. Use of the silver

  6. Simplified Reference Electrode for Electrorefining of Spent Nuclear Fuel in High Temperature Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Davies; Shelly X Li

    2007-09-01

    Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in development of proliferation- resistant nuclear fuel cycles. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the last decade. Electrorefining in a high temperature molten salt is considered a signature or central technology in pyroprocessing fuel cycles. Separation of actinides from fission products is being demonstrated by electrorefining the spent fuel in a molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl electrolyte in two engineering scale electrorefiners (ERs). The electrorefining process is current controlled. The reference electrode provides process information through monitoring of the voltage difference between the reference and the anode and cathode electrodes. This information is essential for monitoring the reactions occurring at the electrodes, investigating separation efficiency, controlling the process rate, and determining the process end-point. The original reference electrode has provided good life expectancy and signal stability, but is not easily replaceable. The reference electrode used a vycor-glass ion-permeable membrane containing a high purity silver wire with one end positioned in ~2 grams of LiCl/KCl salt electrolyte with a low concentration (~1%) AgCl. It was, however, a complex assembly requiring specialized skill and talent to fabricate. The construction involved multiple small pieces, glass joints, ceramic to glass joints, and ceramic to metal joints all assembled in a high purity inert gas environment. As original electrodes reached end-of-life it was uncertain if the skills and knowledge were readily available to successfully fabricate replacements. Experimental work has been conducted to identify a simpler electrode design while retaining the needed long life and signal stability. This improved design, based on an ion-permeable membrane of mullite has been completed. Use of the silver wire

  7. Cementification for radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinya; Sato, Tatsuaki; Sasoh, Michitaka; Sakurai, Jiro; Takada, Takao

    2005-01-01

    For the cementification of radioactive waste that has large concentrations of sodium sulfate and radioactive nuclide, a way of fixation for sulfate ion was studied comprising the pH control of water in contact with the cement solid, and the removal of the excess water from the cement matrix to prevent hydrogen gas generation with radiolysis. It was confirmed that the sulfate ion concentration in the contacted water with the cement solid is decreased with the formation of ettringite or barium sulfate before solidification, the pH value of the pore water in the cement solid can control less than 12.5 by the application of zeolite and a low-alkali cement such as alumina cement or fly ash mixed cement, and removal of the excess water from the cement matrix by heating is possible with aggregate addition. Consequently, radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide can be solidified with cementitious materials. (author)

  8. New graphite/salt materials for high temperature energy storage. Phase change properties study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.

    2007-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (≥200 C). The aim is to analyse and to understand the influence of both graphite and composite microstructure on the phase change properties of salts. This PhD is carried out within the framework of two projects: DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French). The major contributions of this work are threefold: 1) An important database (solid-liquid phase change properties) is provided from the DSC analysis of six salts and the corresponding composites. 2) Rigorous modeling of salts melting in confined media in several geometries are proposed to understand why, during the first melting of the compression elaborated composites, problems of salt leakage are observed. These models show that the materials morphology is responsible for these phenomena: the graphite matrix restrains the volume expansion due to salt melting: salt melts under pressure, which leads to a melting on a large temperature range and to a loss of energy density. Sensitivity analysis of parameters (geometric and physic) shows that matrix rigidity modulus is the parameter on which it is necessary to act during the composites elaboration to blur this phenomenon. 3) Finally, this work proposes a thermodynamic formulation of both surface/interface phenomena and the presence of dissolved impurities being able to explain a melting point lowering. It seems that the melting point lowering observed (∼ 5 C) are mainly due to the presence of dissolved impurities (brought by graphite) in the liquid, along with an additional Gibbs-Thomson effect (∼ 1 C, related to the size of the clusters crystals). (author)

  9. Effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in salted Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fish fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Choobkar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Salting of fish is a traditional method for fish preservation which reduces corruption, increase shelf life and is used in order to have an access to the new markets. In some countries, consuming semi-cooked or raw salted and smoked fish is well-liked. Due to the presence of halophilic microorganisms in salted fish, occurrence of food-borne infections is probable. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of NaCl on Staphlococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in salted silver carp. Effect of different concentrations of NaCl (4, 8, 12 % on behavior of Staphlococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in 10˚C during 3 weeks (0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 days was determined by evaluation of the bacterial growth in salted fish fillets. Statistical analysis showed that application of different concentrations of NaCl had significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus and L.monocytogenes in salted fish fillets compared to control group (p

  10. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with construction, operation and sealing of disposal facilities for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 4 of five volumes that together constitute the final report on the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. The safety investigations were carried out for a deep-hole disposal facility located in the salt dome on Mors. In principle the results of the investigations also apply to a shaft/mine disposal facility. The facility is designed for the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in the shape of glass canisters. There is a low concentration of waste in each canister, approx. 10%. Furthermore, it was selected to place the waste in an intermediate storage for about 40 years prior to its final disposal. Consequently, heat generation in the waste at the time of final disposal will be modest, resulting in low temperature increase in the salt. As an example, the highest temperature increase will be approx. 40 deg. C. and it will occur at the edge of the hole five years after disposal has taken place. Prior to disposal, the glass canisters are encased in steel casks with 15 cm thick walls. Three canisters are placed in each cask, and 215 casks are stacked on top on one another in each deep-hole from a depth of 1200 m to 2500 m underground. The additional encasing is designed to protect the glass from dissolution should any brine reach the disposal facility. Furthermore, the steel cask protects the glass canisters against pressure from the wall of the hole. The technical design of the disposal facility gives it a considerable safety margin against unexpected events. The investigations proved Cretaceous strata to constitute an effective secondary barrier that would prevent radioactive matter from travelling from the underlying disposal facility to the biosphere. (BP)

  11. Preliminary investigation results as applied to utilization of Ukrainian salt formations for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.; Khrushchov, D.P.; Petrichenko, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    The salt-bearing formations have been investigated in five regions of Ukraine. Upper Devonian and Lower Permian evaporite formations in Dnieper-Donets Depression and in the NW part of Donets basin are considered to be promising for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Rock salt occurs there either as bedded salts or as salt pillows and salt diapirs. Preliminary studies have resulted in selection of several candidate sites that show promise for construction of a subsurface pilot lab. Ten salt domes and two sites in bedded salts have been proposed for further exploration. Based on microstructural studies it is possible to separate the body of a salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt blocks of different genesis, i.e.: (a) blocks characteristic of initial undisturbed sedimentary structure; (b) flow zones; (c) sliding planes; (d) bodies of loose or uncompacted rock salt. Ultramicrochemical examination of inclusions in halite have shown that they are composed of more than 40 minerals. It is emphasized that to assess suitability of a structure for construction of subsurface lab, and also the potential construction depth intervals, account should be taken of the results of ultra microchemical and microstructural data

  12. Influences of salt concentration, loading and pH on strontium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.; Kaplan, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of Sr on clay with contains zeolites and montmorillonite mixtures was investigated in solutions of NaCl by means of a batch technique. Sr retention was reduced with increasing NaCl concentration from 5*10 -4 to 5*10 -1 M. Distribution coefficients (K d ) linearly increased with pH in the acidic region but they were almost independent of pH in neutral and alkaline solutions. By fitting the data of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm, the mean energies of adsorption and adsorption capacities of Sr at different pH values were calculated. The results showed that the mode of adsorption below pH 4.5 is ion exchange, while above that value a multilayer adsorption occurs. Adsorption data were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm and from empirical Freundlich parameters a site distribution function was calculated. (author)

  13. Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in a Salt-Wedge Estuary Revealed by High Resolution Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Douglas R; Maher, Damien T; Wong, WeiWen; Santos, Isaac R; Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Holloway, Ceylena; Cook, Perran L M

    2017-12-05

    Estuaries are an important source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, but uncertainties remain in the flux rates and production pathways of greenhouse gases in these dynamic systems. This study performs simultaneous high resolution measurements of the three major greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane, above and below the pycnocline along a salt wedge estuary (Yarra River estuary, Australia). We identified distinct zones of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. At the tip of salt wedge, average CO 2 and N 2 O concentrations were approximately five and three times higher than in the saline mouth of the estuary. In anaerobic bottom waters, the natural tracer radon ( 222 Rn) revealed that porewater exchange was the likely source of the highest methane concentrations (up to 1302 nM). Isotopic analysis of CH 4 showed a dominance of acetoclastic production in fresh surface waters and hydrogenotrophic production occurring in the saline bottom waters. The atmospheric flux of methane (in CO 2 equivalent units) was a major (35-53%) contributor of atmospheric radiative forcing from the estuary, while N 2 O contributed <2%. We hypothesize that the release of bottom water gases when stratification episodically breaks down will release large pulses of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

  14. High-Temperature Salt Pump Review and Guidelines - Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Prashant K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hazelwood, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Fluoride salt cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) concepts include pumps for forced circulation of the primary and secondary coolants. As part of a cooperative research and development agreement between the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a research project was initiated to aid in the development of pumps for high-temperature salts. The objectives of the task included characterization of the behavior of an existing ORNL LSTL pump; design and test a modified impeller and volute for improved pump characteristics; and finally, provide lessons learned, recommendations, and guidelines for salt pump development and design. The pump included on the liquid salt test loop (LSTL) at ORNL served as a case study. This report summarizes the progress to date. The report is organized as follows. First, there is a review, focused on pumps, of the significant amount of work on salts at ORNL during the 1950s 1970s. The existing pump on the LSTL is then described. Plans for hot and cold testing of the pump are then discussed, including the design for a cold shakedown test stand and the required LSTL modifications for hot testing. Initial hydraulic and vibration modeling of the LSTL pump is documented. Later, test data from the LSTL will be used to validate the modeling approaches, which could then be used for future pump design efforts. Some initial insights and test data from the pump are then provided. Finally, some preliminary design goals and requirements for a future LSTL pump are provided as examples of salt pump design considerations.

  15. High-Temperature Salt Pump Review and Guidelines - Phase I Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Kevin R.; Jain, Prashant K.; Hazelwood, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride salt cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) concepts include pumps for forced circulation of the primary and secondary coolants. As part of a cooperative research and development agreement between the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a research project was initiated to aid in the development of pumps for high-temperature salts. The objectives of the task included characterization of the behavior of an existing ORNL LSTL pump; design and test a modified impeller and volute for improved pump characteristics; and finally, provide lessons learned, recommendations, and guidelines for salt pump development and design. The pump included on the liquid salt test loop (LSTL) at ORNL served as a case study. This report summarizes the progress to date. The report is organized as follows. First, there is a review, focused on pumps, of the significant amount of work on salts at ORNL during the 1950s 1970s. The existing pump on the LSTL is then described. Plans for hot and cold testing of the pump are then discussed, including the design for a cold shakedown test stand and the required LSTL modifications for hot testing. Initial hydraulic and vibration modeling of the LSTL pump is documented. Later, test data from the LSTL will be used to validate the modeling approaches, which could then be used for future pump design efforts. Some initial insights and test data from the pump are then provided. Finally, some preliminary design goals and requirements for a future LSTL pump are provided as examples of salt pump design considerations.

  16. Isopiestic investigation of the osmotic coefficients of MgBr{sub 2}(aq) and study of bromide salts solubility in the (m{sub 1}KBr + m{sub 2}MgBr{sub 2})(aq) system at T = 323.15 K. Thermodynamic model of solution behaviour and (solid + liquid) equilibria in the MgBr{sub 2}(aq), and (m{sub 1}KBr + m{sub 2}MgBr{sub 2})(aq) systems to high concentration and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Christomir, E-mail: christov@svr.igic.bas.b [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, ul. ' Acad. G. Bonchev' , bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-03-15

    The isopiestic method has been used to determine the osmotic coefficients of the binary solutions MgBr{sub 2}(aq) (from 0.4950 to 2.5197 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}) at the temperature T = 323.15 K. Sodium chloride solutions have been used as isopiestic reference standards. The solubility of the bromide minerals in the mixed system (m{sub 1}KBr + m{sub 2}MgBr{sub 2})(aq) has been investigated at T = 323.15 K by the physico-chemical analysis method. In addition to simple salts {l_brace}KBr(cr) and MgBr{sub 2} . 6H{sub 2}O(cr){r_brace}, equilibrium crystallization of the highly incongruent double salt with stoichiometric composition 1:1:6 {l_brace}bromcarnallite: KBr . MgBr{sub 2} . 6H{sub 2}O(cr){r_brace} was also established. The results obtained from the isopiestic and solubility measurements have been combined with all other experimental thermodynamic quantities available in the literature (osmotic coefficients, and solubility of the bromide mineral) to construct a chemical model that calculates solute and solvent activities and (solid + liquid) equilibria in the MgBr{sub 2}(aq) binary, and (m{sub 1}KBr + m{sub 2}MgBr{sub 2})(aq) mixed systems from dilute to high solution concentration within the (273.15 to 438.15) K temperature range. The solubility modelling approach based on fundamental Pitzer specific interaction equations is employed. It was found, that the standard for 2-1 type of electrolytes approach with three ({beta}{sup (0)}, {beta}{sup (1)}, and C{sup {phi}}) single electrolyte ion interaction parameters gives excellent agreement with osmotic coefficients from T = (298.15 to 373.45) K; up to saturation at 298.15 K, and up to m(MgBr{sub 2}) = 5.83 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} at 373.45 K, and with MgBr{sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O(cr) equilibrium pure water solubility data within the (273.15 to 438.15) K temperature range and up to {approx}8.5 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} used in parameterization. The model for the ternary system gives very good

  17. Uranium isotopic composition and uranium concentration in special reference material SRM A (uranium in KCl/LiCl salt matrix)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Sabau, C.S.; Smith, F.P.; Bowers, D.L.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    To help assure that analysis data of known quality will be produced in support of demonstration programs at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (Idaho Falls, ID), a special reference material has been prepared and characterized. Designated SRM A, the material consists of individual units of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt containing a nominal concentration of 2.5 wt. % enriched uranium. Analyses were performed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (Argonne, IL) to determine the uniformity of the material and to establish reference values for the uranium concentration and uranium isotopic composition. Ten units from a batch of approximately 190 units were analyzed by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique to determine their uranium concentration. These measurements provided a mean value of 2.5058 ± 0.0052 wt. % U, where the uncertainty includes estimated limits to both random and systematic errors that might have affected the measurements. Evidence was found of a small, apparently random, non-uniformity in uranium content of the individual SRM A units, which exhibits a standard deviation of 0.078% of the mean uranium concentration. Isotopic analysis of the uranium from three units, by means of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a special, internal-standard procedure, indicated that the uranium isotopy is uniform among the pellets with a composition corresponding to 0.1115 ± 0.0006 wt. % 234 U, 19.8336 ± 0.0059 wt. % 235 U, 0.1337 ± 0.0006 wt. % 236 U, and 79.9171 ± 0.0057 wt. % 238 U

  18. Thermodynamics of the heating of titanium magnetite concentrate in the presence of different alkali salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunova, R.; Marinov, M.; Ivanov, J.

    2003-01-01

    Thermodynamics of the processes of heating of titanium magnetite concentrate in the presence of 6% Na 2 CO 3 , 6% Na 2 SO 4 and 6% NaCl has been studied using the EMF method and X-rays analysis. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range 973 K - 1273 K. Functional relationships as InP'o 2 = f(T) and EMF = f(T) for the processes taking place within the concentrate were described for a fixed temperature range. The X-ray and Moessbauer spectroscopy analysis of the end products of the mixture with 6% Na 2 CO 3 shows Fe 3 O 4 (51.31%), FeO (26.86%), Fe 2 O 3 (15.46%) and NaFeO 2 (6.38%). The free phases of vanadates can not be observed probably because they are formed in quantity less than 5%. So they can not be marked on the X-ray patterns. The X-ray analysis of the end products of the mixtures with Na 2 SO 4 and NaCl presents decreasing of the magnetite and wustite quantities because of hematite increasing. The oxygen partial pressure data of the mixture with 6% Na 2 CO 3 show that the galvanic cell registers not only Po 2 on the border Fe 3 O 4 ↔FeO and also Po 2 (CO 2 ) and Po 2 of the new phase (NaFeO 2 ). It was found out that the processes running by heating of the mixture with Na 2 SO4 are carried on the border Fe3O 4 ↔FeO at the temperatures above 1073 K. The experimental lgPo 2 results for mixture with 6% NaCl (Table 4) are lower than theoretically calculated for Fe 3 O 4 ↔FeO equilibrium. It is due to the fact that the chlorine is a strong oxidant and contributes to increase of the part of Fe 2 O 3 quantity. (Original)

  19. Resolution Mechanism and Characterization of an Ammonium Chloride-Tolerant, High-Thermostable, and Salt-Tolerant Phenylalanine Dehydrogenase from Bacillus halodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Ya-Li; Fang, Bai-Shan

    2018-05-09

    As phenylalanine dehydrogenase (PheDH) plays an important role in the synthesis of chiral drug intermediates and detection of phenylketonuria, it is significant to obtain a PheDH with specific and high activity. Here, a PheDH gene, pdh, encoding a novel BhPheDH with 61.0% similarity to the known PheDH from Microbacterium sp., was obtained. The BhPheDH showed optimal activity at 60 °C and pH 7.0, and it showed better stability in hot environment (40-70 °C) than the PheDH from Nocardia sp. And its activity and thermostability could be significantly increased by sodium salt. After incubation for 2 h in 3 M NaCl at 60 °C, the residual activity of the BhPheDH was found to be 1.8-fold higher than that of the control group (without NaCl). The BhPheDH could tolerate high concentration of ammonium chloride and its activity could be also enhanced by the high concentration of ammonium salts. These characteristics indicate that the BhPheDH possesses better thermostability, ammonium chloride tolerance, halophilic mechanism, and high salt activation. The mechanism of thermostability and high salt tolerance of the BhPheDH was analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation. These results provide useful information about the enzyme with high-temperature activity, thermostability, halophilic mechanism, tolerance to high concentration of ammonium chloride, higher salt activation and enantio-selectivity, and the application of molecular dynamics simulation in analyzing the mechanism of these distinctive characteristics.

  20. High salt loading induces urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of epithelial sodium channel alpha in the bladder epithelium in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Yamamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether high salt intake affects bladder function via epithelial sodium channel (ENaC by using Dahl salt-resistant (DR and salt-sensitive (DS rats. Bladder weight of DR + high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl and DS + HS groups were significantly higher than those of DR + normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl and DS + NS groups after one week treatment. We thereafter used only DR + HS and DS + HS group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group after the treatment period. Cystometrogram showed the intercontraction intervals (ICI were significantly shorter in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group during infusion of saline. Subsequent infusion of amiloride significantly prolonged ICI in DS + HS group, while no intra-group difference in ICI was observed in DR + HS group. No intra- or inter-group differences in maximum intravesical pressure were observed. Protein expression levels of ENaCα in the bladder were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group. ENaCα protein was localized at bladder epithelium in both groups. In conclusion, high salt intake is considered to cause urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of ENaC in the bladder epithelium with salt-sensitive hypertension, suggesting that ENaC might be a candidate for therapeutic target for urinary storage dysfunction.

  1. Concentration-Induced Association in a Protein System Caused by a Highly Directional Patch Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Persson, Björn A; Lund, Mikael; Bergenholtz, Johan; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2016-09-01

    Self-association of the protein lactoferrin is studied in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Effective static structure factors have been shown to exhibit either a monotonic or a nonmonotonic dependence on protein concentration in the small wavevector limit, depending on salt concentration. The behavior correlates with a nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on salt concentration, such that a maximum appears in the structure factor at a low protein concentration when the second virial coefficient is negative and close to a minimum. The results are interpreted in terms of an integral equation theory with explicit dimers, formulated by Wertheim, which provides a consistent framework able to explain the behavior in terms of a monomer-dimer equilibrium that appears because of a highly directional patch attraction. Short attraction ranges preclude trimer formation, which explains why the protein system behaves as if it were subject to a concentration-dependent isotropic protein-protein attraction. Superimposing an isotropic interaction, comprising screened Coulomb repulsion and van der Waals attraction, on the patch attraction allows for a semiquantitative modeling of the complete transition pathway from monomers in the dilute limit to monomer-dimer systems at somewhat higher protein concentrations.

  2. High-salt diets during pregnancy affected fetal and offspring renal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Caiping; Liu, Rong; Bo, Le; Chen, Ningjing; Li, Shigang; Xia, Shuixiu; Chen, Jie; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Lubo; Xu, Zhice

    2013-07-01

    Intrauterine environments are related to fetal renal development and postnatal health. Influence of salty diets during pregnancy on renal functions and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was determined in the ovine fetuses and offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed high-salt diet (HSD) or normal-salt diet (NSD) for 2 months during middle-to-late gestation. Fetal renal functions, plasma hormones, and mRNA and protein expressions of the key elements of renal RAS were measured in the fetuses and offspring. Fetal renal excretion of sodium was increased while urine volume decreased in the HSD group. Fetal blood urea nitrogen was increased, while kidney weight:body weight ratio decreased in the HSD group. The altered ratio was also observed in the offspring aged 15 and 90 days. Maternal and fetal plasma antidiuretic hormone was elevated without changes in plasma renin activity and Ang I levels, while plasma Ang II was decreased. The key elements of local renal RAS, including angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, AT1, and AT2 receptor expression in both mRNA and protein, except renin, were altered following maternal high salt intake. The results suggest that high intake of salt during pregnancy affected fetal renal development associated with an altered expression of the renal key elements of RAS, some alterations of fetal origins remained after birth as possible risks in developing renal or cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Determination of activity coefficient of lanthanum chloride in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt as a function of cesium chloride and lanthanum chloride concentrations using electromotive force measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagri, Prashant, E-mail: prashant.bagri@utah.edu; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-12-15

    The thermodynamic behavior of lanthanides in molten salt systems is of significant scientific interest for the spent fuel reprocessing of Generation IV reactors. In this study, the apparent standard reduction potential (apparent potential) and activity coefficient of LaCl{sub 3} were determined in a molten salt solution of eutectic LiCl-KCl as a function of concentration of LaCl{sub 3}. The effect of adding up to 1.40 mol % CsCl was also investigated. These properties were determined by measuring the open circuit potential of the La—La(III) redox couple in a high temperature molten salt electrochemical cell. Both the apparent potential and activity coefficient exhibited a strong dependence on concentration. A low concentration (0.69 mol %) of CsCl had no significant effect on the measured properties, while a higher concentration (1.40 mol %) of CsCl caused an increase (become more positive) in the apparent potential and activity coefficient at the higher range of LaCl{sub 3} concentrations.

  4. SANS from Salt-Free Aqueous Solutions of Hydrophilic and Highly Charged Star-Branched Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Boué

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scattering functions of sodium sulfonated polystyrene (NaPSS star-branched polyelectrolytes with high sulfonation degrees were measured from their salt-free aqueous solutions, using the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS technique. Whatever the concentration c, they display two maxima. The first, of abscissa q1*, is related to a position order between star cores and scales as q1* ∝ c1/3. The second, of abscissa q2*, is also observed in the scattering function of a semi-dilute solution of NaPSS linear polyelectrolytes. In the dilute regime (c < c*, non-overlapping stars, peak abscissa does not depend on concentration c and is just an intramolecular characteristic associated with the electrostatic repulsion between arms of the same star. In the semi-dilute regime, due to the star interpenetration, the scattering function – through the peak position, reflects repulsion between arms of the same star or of different stars. The c threshold between these distinct c-dependencies of q2* in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes is estimated as c*. Just as simple is the measurement of the geometrical radius R of the star obtained from the q1* value at c* through the relation 2R = 2π/q1*. By considering NaPSS stars of the same functionality with different degrees of polymerization per arm Na, we find R scaling linearly with Na, suggesting an elongated average conformation of the arms. This is in agreement with theoretical predictions and simulations. Meanwhile the value of q2* measured in the dilute regime does not allow any inhomogeneous counterion distribution inside the stars to be revealed.

  5. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus ( P proteins from the diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  6. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.; Ong, E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results of compatibility screening studies of 100 salt/containment/thermal conductivity enhancement (TCE) combinations for the high temperature solar thermal application range of 704 deg to 871 C (1300 to 1600 F) are presented. Nine candidate containment/HX alloy materials and two TCE materials were tested with six candidate solar thermal alkali and alkaline earth carbonate storage salts (both reagent and technical grade of each). Compatibility tests were conducted with salt encapsulated in approx. 6.0 inch x 1 inch welded containers of test material from 300 to 3000 hours. Compatibility evaluations were end application oriented, considering the potential 30 year lifetime requirement of solar thermal power plant components. Analyses were based on depth and nature of salt side corrosion of materials, containment alloy thermal aging effects, weld integrity in salt environment, air side containment oxidation, and chemical and physical analyses of the salt. A need for more reliable, and in some cases first time determined thermophysical and transport property data was also identified for molten carbonates in the 704 to 871 C temperature range. In particular, accurate melting point (mp) measurements were performed for Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 while melting point, heat of fusion, and specific heat determinations were conducted on 81.3 weight percent Na2CO3-18.7 weight percent K2CO3 and 52.2 weight percent BaCO3-47.8 weight percent Na2CO3 to support future TES system design and ultimate scale up of solar thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems.

  7. Analysis of corrosion data for carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Hull, A.B.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-03-01

    Carbon steel is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, corrosion is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant corrosion data for carbon steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ∼ 20 and 400 0 C. The hydrolysis of Mg 2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 25 0 C, which, in turn, influences the protective nature of the magnetite corrosion product layer on carbon steel. The corrosion data for the steels were analyzed, and an analytical model for general corrosion was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of corrosion product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the corrosion rate of steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the steels or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the corrosion rate

  8. ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions (number-sign 3053)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency

  9. Decadal-scale changes in dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater used for public supply, Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Spangler, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Basin-fill aquifers are a major source of good-quality water for public supply in many areas of the southwestern United States and have undergone increasing development as populations have grown over time. During 2005, the basin-fill aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, provided approximately 75,000 acre-feet, or about 29 percent of the total amount of water used by a population of 967,000. Groundwater in the unconsolidated basin-fill deposits that make up the aquifer occurs under unconfined and confined conditions. Water in the shallow unconfined part of the groundwater system is susceptible to near-surface contamination and generally is not used as a source of drinking water. Groundwater for public supply is withdrawn from the deeper unconfined and confined parts of the system, termed the principal aquifer, because yields generally are greater and water quality is better (including lower dissolved-solids concentrations) than in the shallower parts of the system. Much of the water in the principal aquifer is derived from recharge in the adjacent Wasatch Range (mountain-block recharge). In many areas, the principal aquifer is separated from the overlying shallow aquifer by confining layers of less permeable, fine-grained sediment that inhibit the downward movement of water and any potential contaminants from the surface. Nonetheless, under certain hydrologic conditions, human-related activities can increase dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer and result in groundwater becoming unsuitable for consumption without treatment or mixing with water having lower dissolved-solids concentrations. Dissolved-solids concentrations in areas of the principal aquifer used for public supply typically are less than 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) secondary (nonenforceable) drinking-water standard. However, substantial increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer have been documented in some

  10. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-01-26

    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  11. Trace determination of heavy metal concentrations in fauna, flora and salt samples from Black Sea waters by charged particles - induced X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, T.; Ciortea, C.; Dima, S.; Petrovici, A.; Popescu, I.; Serbanescu, O.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were performed on Black Sea pollution by charged particles induced X-rays spectra analysis, using alpha and 16 O beams. Fauna, flora and salt samples were analysed. We found some of the concentrations of pollutant elements to be below the accepted levels. (author)

  12. Screening of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions for high salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, M Y; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Aslani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m(-1) NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9), 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12), 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13), and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production.

  13. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  14. Systems costs for disposal of Savannah River high-level waste sludge and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.; Goodlett, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    A systems cost model has been developed to support disposal of defense high-level waste sludge and salt generated at the Savannah River Plant. Waste processing activities covered by the model include decontamination of the salt by a precipitation process in the waste storage tanks, incorporation of the sludge and radionuclides removed from the salt into glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and, after interim storage, final disposal of the DWPF glass waste canisters in a federal geologic repository. Total costs for processing of waste generated to the year 2000 are estimated to be about $2.9 billion (1984 dollars); incremental unit costs for DWPF and repository disposal activities range from $120,000 to $170,000 per canister depending on DWPF processing schedules. In a representative evaluation of process alternatives, the model is used to demonstrate cost effectiveness of adjustments in the frit content of the waste glass to reduce impacts of wastes generated by the salt decontamination operations. 13 references, 8 tables

  15. Screening of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. Accessions for High Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Amirul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an herbaceous leafy vegetable crop, comparatively more salt-tolerant than any other vegetables with high antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Salt-tolerant crop variety development is of importance due to inadequate cultivable land and escalating salinity together with population pressure. In this view a total of 25 purslane accessions were initially selected from 45 collected purslane accessions based on better growth performance and subjected to 5 different salinity levels, that is, 0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 dS m−1 NaCl. Plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and dry matter contents in salt treated purslane accessions were significantly reduced (P≤0.05 and the enormity of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Based on dry matter yield reduction, among all 25 purslane accessions 2 accessions were graded as tolerant (Ac7 and Ac9, 6 accessions were moderately tolerant (Ac3, Ac5, Ac6, Ac10, Ac11, and Ac12, 5 accessions were moderately susceptible (Ac1, Ac2, Ac4, Ac8, and Ac13, and the remaining 12 accessions were susceptible to salinity stress and discarded from further study. The selected 13 purslane accessions could assist in the identification of superior genes for salt tolerance in purslane for improving its productivity and sustainable agricultural production.

  16. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjun; Liu, Yue; Ji, Deqiang; Li, Zhida; Yi, Guanlin; Yuan, Dandan; Wang, Baohui; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wang, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized syngas contains very desirable content of H2 and CO, with tuneable molar ratios (H2/CO) from 0.6 to 7.8, and with an efficient faradaic efficiency of ∼94.5%. The synthesis of syngas from CO2 with renewable energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  17. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hongjun

    2017-07-13

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized syngas contains very desirable content of H2 and CO, with tuneable molar ratios (H2/CO) from 0.6 to 7.8, and with an efficient faradaic efficiency of ∼94.5%. The synthesis of syngas from CO2 with renewable energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  18. The Effect of Exogenous Spermidine Concentration on Polyamine Metabolism and Salt Tolerance in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud) Subjected to Short-Term Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shucheng; Jin, Han; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress, particularly short-term salt stress, is among the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to salt stress. The present study utilized two zoysiagrass cultivars commonly grown in China that exhibit either sensitive (cv. Z081) or tolerant (cv. Z057) adaptation capacity to salt stress. The two cultivars were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine [diamine putrescine (Put), tetraamine spermine (Spm), and Spd], H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and polyamine metabolic (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO, and DAO) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) enzyme activities were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), and diamine oxidase (DAO) activities in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not alter polyamine contents via regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in polyamine biosynthetic enzyme levels was observed during the experiment. Increasing the concentration of exogenous Spd resulted in a tendency of the Spd and Spm contents and ODC, SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzyme activities to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars. H2O2 and MDA levels significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. Additionally, in both cultivars, positive correlations between polyamine biosynthetic enzymes (ADC, SAMDC), DAO, and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), but negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA levels, and the Spd + Spm content were observed with an increase in the concentration of exogenous Spd.

  19. Permian salt dissolution, alkaline lake basins, and nuclear-waste storage, Southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, C.C. Jr.; Temple, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Areas of Permian salt dissolution associated with 15 large alkaline lake basins on and adjacent to the Southern High Plains of west Texas and eastern New Mexico suggest formation of the basins by collapse of strata over the dissolution cavities. However, data from 6 other alkaline basins reveal no evidence of underlying salt dissolution. Thus, whether the basins were initiated by subsidence over the salt dissolution areas or whether the salt dissolution was caused by infiltration of overlying lake water is conjectural. However, the fact that the lacustrine fill in Mound Lake greatly exceeds the amount of salt dissolution and subsidence of overlying beds indicates that at least Mound Lake basin was antecedent to the salt dissolution. The association of topography, structure, and dissolution in areas well removed from zones of shallow burial emphasizes the susceptibility of Permian salt-bed dissolution throughout the west Texas-eastern New Mexico area. Such evidence, combined with previous studies documenting salt-bed dissolution in areas surrounding a proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas, leads to serious questions about the rationale of using salt beds for nuclear-waste storage

  20. Maternal High-Fat and High-Salt Diets Have Differential Programming Effects on Metabolism in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal high-fat or high-salt diets can independently program adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in offspring. However, there is a paucity of evidence examining their effects in combination on metabolic function in adult offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either: control (CD; 10% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl, high-salt (SD; 10% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl, high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat, 1% NaCl or high-fat and salt (HFSD; 45% kcal from fat, 4% NaCl diets 21 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were weaned onto a standard chow diet and were culled on postnatal day 130 for plasma and tissue collection. Adipocyte histology and adipose tissue, liver, and gut gene expression were examined in adult male offspring. HF offspring had significantly greater body weight, impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperleptinemia compared to CD offspring, but these increases were blunted in HFSD offspring. HF offspring had moderate adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of the pre-adipocyte marker Dlk1. There was a significant effect of maternal salt with increased hepatic expression of Dgat1 and Igfb2. Gut expression of inflammatory (Il1r1, Tnfα, Il6, and Il6r and renin–angiotensin system (Agtr1a, Agtr1b markers was significantly reduced in HFSD offspring compared to HF offspring. Therefore, salt mitigates some adverse offspring outcomes associated with a maternal HF diet, which may be mediated by altered adipose tissue morphology and gut inflammatory and renin–angiotensin regulation.

  1. High salt intake enhances swim stress-induced PVN vasopressin cell activation and active stress coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N C; Gilman, T L; Daws, L C; Toney, G M

    2018-07-01

    Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS). Further, we evaluated the contribution of the osmo-regulatory stress-related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (VP) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), one of only a few brain regions that synthesize VP. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high dietary salt intake on responsivity to heterotypic stress and the potential contribution of VPergic-mediated neuronal activity on high salt-induced stress modulation, thereby providing insight into how dietary (homeostatic) and environmental (psychogenic) stressors might interact to facilitate psychiatric disorder vulnerability. Salt loading (SL) with 4% saline for 7 days was used to dehydrate and osmotically stress mice prior to exposure to an acute SS. Fluid intake and hematological measurements were taken to quantify osmotic dehydration, and serum corticosterone levels were measured to index stress axis activation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to stain for the immediate early gene product c-Fos to quantify effects of SL on SS-induced activation of neurons in the PVN and extended amygdala - brain regions that are synaptically connected and implicated in responding to osmotic stress and in modulation of SS behavior, respectively. Lastly, the role of VPergic PVN neurons and VP type 1 receptor (V1R) activity in the amygdala in mediating effects of SL on SS behavior was evaluated by quantifying c-Fos activation of VPergic PVN neurons and, in functional experiments, by nano-injecting the V1R selective

  2. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    /63, Tissue (Sandy loam, electrical conductivity (ECe (1 dS m-1, Silt (23.1%, Clay (5.5%, Organic matter (0.5%, Olsen phosphorus (P (5.35 mg kg-1, Ammonium acetate-extractable K (100 mg kg-1 were determined. Nitrogen treatments 3 weeks after planting, dissolved in irrigation water was added to pots. Salinity, after the establishment of the plant (5 weeks after planting, divided into two equal parts and one-week interval dissolved with irrigation water was added to the pot. as well acid gibberellic treatments, as spray after salt treatment was applied at three times and at intervals of one week. Results and discussion: The results showed that the salinity content of carotenoid and Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters significantly reduced but with increasing acid gibberellic and nitrogen application, mentioned parameters were significantly increased, compared to controls. The ability of photosynthesis improved and increased productivity. Mozafari et al studied the pistachio, reported that with increasing salinity from zero to 150 and 300 mM NaCl, carotenoids decreased more than 16% and 22% compared to control respectively. Carotenoids play a most important role in light, protecting plants against stress condition. Salinity application increased leaf proline, but with application of 150 mg nitrogen and 500 mg per liter foliar application of acid gibberellics, this parameter increased by 55 and 26 percent, respectively. Also, combined use of these two treatments increased proline content by 79 percent compared to control. The researchers stated that the increasing gibberellin concentration caused leaf proline increased, so spraying 100 and 200 mg per liter gibberellin significantly increased leaf proline compared with the non-application of gibberellin. The results also showed with increasing salinity increased iron, manganese and zinc concentrations shoots and roots and decreased copper concentrations, but using 150 mg of nitrogen and acid gibberellic consumption concentrations

  3. Long-distance flights and high-risk breeding by nomadic waterbirds on desert salt lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Reece D; Ribot, Raoul F H; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2018-02-01

    Understanding and conserving mobile species presents complex challenges, especially for animals in stochastic or changing environments. Nomadic waterbirds must locate temporary water in arid biomes where rainfall is highly unpredictable in space and time. To achieve this they need to travel over vast spatial scales and time arrival to exploit pulses in food resources. How they achieve this is an enduring mystery.  We investigated these challenges in the colonial-nesting Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), a nomadic shorebird of conservation concern. Hitherto, Banded Stilts were hypothesized to have only 1-2 chances to breed during their long lifetime, when flooding rain fills desert salt lakes, triggering mass-hatching of brine shrimp. Over 6 years, we satellite tagged 57 individuals, conducted 21 aerial surveys to detect nesting colonies on 14 Australian desert salt lakes, and analyzed 3 decades of Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery to quantify salt-lake flood frequency and extent. Within days of distant inland rainfall, Banded Stilts flew 1,000-2,000 km to reach flooded salt lakes. On arrival, females laid over half their body weight in eggs. We detected nesting episodes across the species' range at 7 times the frequency reported during the previous 80 years. Nesting colonies of thousands formed following minor floods, yet most were subsequently abandoned when the water rapidly evaporated prior to egg hatching. Satellite imagery revealed twice as many flood events sufficient for breeding-colony initiation as recorded colonies, suggesting that nesting at remote sites has been underdetected. Individuals took risk on uncertain breeding opportunities by responding to frequent minor flood events between infrequent extensive flooding, exemplifying the extreme adaptability and trade-offs of species exploiting unstable environments. The conservation challenges of nest predation by overabundant native gulls and anthropogenic modifications to salt lakes filling

  4. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J. T.; Renfro, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team down-selected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their down-selection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives

  5. Research on electrochemical methods for concentration measurement of dissolved ion in molten salt to apply to electrolytic process control. Innovative research adopted in 2002 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Takayuki

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish the online (in-situ) technique for concentration measuring of dissolved ion in the molten salt, and this technique is due to the electrochemical method for the concentration measuring of dissolved ion in solutions like the polarization curve measurement. This research executed the following four items. 1) Examination of possibility for concentration measuring of dissolved ion in molten salt by cyclic voltammetry. 2) Examination of possibility for concentration measuring of dissolved ion in molten salt by various electrochemical methods. 3) Examination of suitable electrochemical method for concentration measuring of dissolved ion. 4) Confirmation of selected electrochemical method for concentration measuring of dissolved ion. It has been understood that the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) is a promising electrochemical technique for the concentration measuring of dissolved ion in the molten salt as a result of this research. An appropriate measurement condition is as follows, the potential sweep rate is -0.1 V/s, the pulse cycle is 0.1 s, the pulse width is 10 ms, and the pulse voltage is 50 mV. As for the electrodes, the platinum working electrode, the glassy carbon counter electrode, and silver/silver chloride reference electrode are suitable. Moreover, the molar absorptivities of U 3+ , U 4+ , UO 2 + , UO 2 2+ , and the standard redox potentials of couples of U 4+ /U 3+ and UO 2 2+ /UO 2 + were acquired as a basic data of the uranium and the uranyl ion in molten NaCl-2CsCl. (author)

  6. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This report is the so-called Synthesis report 1985-1989 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the ASSE salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt-deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos S.A (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated and after some delays in the licensing procedure, the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 32 refs; 76 figs., 11 tabs

  7. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This publication is the interim report 1988-89 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 20 refs.; 92 figs.; 14 tabs

  8. Waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, S.J. Jr.; Carr, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the United States of America the selected method for disposal of radioactive waste is mined repositories located in suitable geohydrological settings. Currently four types of host rocks are under consideration: tuff, basalt, crystalline rock and salt. Development of waste package designs for incorporation in mined salt repositories is discussed. The three pertinent high-level waste forms are: spent fuel, as disassembled and close-packed fuel pins in a mild steel canister; commercial high-level waste (CHLW), as borosilicate glass in stainless-steel canisters; defence high-level waste (DHLW), as borosilicate glass in stainless-steel canisters. The canisters are production and handling items only. They have no planned long-term isolation function. Each waste form requires a different approach in package design. However, the general geometry and the materials of the three designs are identical. The selected waste package design is an overpack of low carbon steel with a welded closure. This container surrounds the waste forms. Studies to better define brine quantity and composition, radiation effects on the salt and brines, long-term corrosion behaviour of the low carbon steel, and the leaching behaviour of the spent fuel and borosilicate glass waste forms are continuing. (author)

  9. Numerical analysis of impurity separation from waste salt by investigating the change of concentration at the interface during zone refining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ho-Gil; Shim, Moonsoo; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    The waste salt treatment process is required for the reuse of purified salts, and for the disposal of the fission products contained in waste salt during pyroprocessing. As an alternative to existing fission product separation methods, the horizontal zone refining process is used in this study for the purification of waste salt. In order to evaluate the purification ability of the process, three-dimensional simulation is conducted, considering heat transfer, melt flow, and mass transfer. Impurity distributions and decontamination factors are calculated as a function of the heater traverse rate, by applying a subroutine and the equilibrium segregation coefficient derived from the effective segregation coefficients. For multipass cases, 1d solutions and the effective segregation coefficient obtained from three-dimensional simulation are used. In the present study, the topic is not dealing with crystal growth, but the numerical technique used is nearly the same since the zone refining technique was just introduced in the treatment of waste salt from nuclear power industry because of its merit of simplicity and refining ability. So this study can show a new application of single crystal growth techniques to other fields, by taking advantage of the zone refining multipass possibility. The final goal is to achieve the same high degree of decontamination in the waste salt as in zone freezing (or reverse Bridgman) method.

  10. High-Throughput Screening for a Moderately Halophilic Phenol-Degrading Strain and Its Salt Tolerance Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhi-Yan; Guo, Xiao-Jue; Li, Hui; Huang, Zhong-Zi; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Liu, Yong-Di

    2015-01-01

    A high-throughput screening system for moderately halophilic phenol-degrading bacteria from various habitats was developed to replace the conventional strain screening owing to its high efficiency. Bacterial enrichments were cultivated in 48 deep well microplates instead of shake flasks or tubes. Measurement of phenol concentrations was performed in 96-well microplates instead of using the conventional spectrophotometric method or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The high-throughput screening system was used to cultivate forty-three bacterial enrichments and gained a halophilic bacterial community E3 with the best phenol-degrading capability. Halomonas sp. strain 4-5 was isolated from the E3 community. Strain 4-5 was able to degrade more than 94% of the phenol (500 mg·L−1 starting concentration) over a range of 3%–10% NaCl. Additionally, the strain accumulated the compatible solute, ectoine, with increasing salt concentrations. PCR detection of the functional genes suggested that the largest subunit of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (LmPH) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) were active in the phenol degradation process. PMID:26020478

  11. Structural insights into the adaptation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) from Haloferax volcanii to a high-salt environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgunova, Ekaterina; Gray, Fiona C.; MacNeill, Stuart A.; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of PCNA from the halophilic archaeon H. volcanii reveals specific features of the charge distribution on the protein surface that reflect adaptation to a high-salt environment and suggests a different type of interaction with DNA in halophilic PCNAs. The sliding clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays vital roles in many aspects of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells and in archaea. Realising the full potential of archaea as a model for PCNA function requires a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches. In order to provide a platform for subsequent reverse genetic analysis, PCNA from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii was subjected to crystallographic analysis. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography and crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique. The structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a final R factor of 23.7% (R free = 25%). PCNA from H. volcanii was found to be homotrimeric and to resemble other homotrimeric PCNA clamps but with several differences that appear to be associated with adaptation of the protein to the high intracellular salt concentrations found in H. volcanii cells

  12. Internal deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts. Structures formed by complex deformation and high contrasts in viscosity observed in drill cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-04-01

    During the evaporation of a massive salt body, alternations of interrupted and full evaporation sequences can form a complex layering of different lithologies. Viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude between these different lithologies are possible in this environment. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. How up to 200m thick layers of these evaporites affect salt deformation at different scales is not well known. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt. To gain a better understanding of the internal deformation of these layers we analyzed K-Mg salt rich drill cores out of the Zechstein III-1b subunit from the Veendam Pillow 10 km southeast of Groningen, near the city Veendam in the NE Netherlands. The study area has a complex geological history with multiple tectonic phases of extension and compression forming internal deformation in the pillow but also conserving most of the original layering. Beside halite the most common minerals in the ZIII-1b are carnallite, kieserite, anhydrite and bischofite alternating in thin layers of simple composition. Seismic interpretation revealed that the internal structure of the Veendam Pillow shows areas, in which the K-Mg salt rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, as a result of salt deformation. The internal structure of the ZIII-1b on the other hand, remains unknown. The core analysis shows a strong strain concentration in the weaker Bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) and Carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) rich layers producing tectonic breccias and highly strained layers completely overprinting the original layering. Layers formed by alternating beds

  13. Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the molten salt destruction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process which has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD has been used by Rockwell International and by Anti-Pollution Systems to destroy hazardous wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents (including the HE) of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. In the case of HE-containing mixed wastes, any actinides in the waste are retained in the molten salt, thus converting the mixed wastes into low-level wastes. (Even though the MSD process is applicable to mixed wastes, this paper will emphasize HE-treatment.) The destruction of HE is accomplished by introducing it, together with oxidant gases, into a crucible containing a molten salt, such as sodium carbonate, or a suitable mixture of the carbonates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium. The temperature of the molten salt can be between 400 to 900 degrees C. The combustible organic components of the waste react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen and steam

  14. Comparison of temperature calculations for an arbitrary high-level waste disposal configuration in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevenaar, J.W.A.M.; Janssen, L.G.J.; Ploumen, P.; Winske, P.

    1979-05-01

    The objective of this report is the comparison of the results of temperature analyses for an arbitrary high-level radioactive waste disposal configuration in salt formations. The analyses were carried out at the RWTH and ECN. The computer programs used are based on finite difference and finite element techniques. From the local temperature analyses that were intended to check the solution techniques, it could be concluded that both finite difference and finite elements are capable to analyse this type of problems. From the global temperature analyses it could be concluded that both analysis approaches: temperature dependent and iteratively determined temperature independent material properties, are suited to analyse the global temperature distribution in the salt formation

  15. Radiant energy dissipation during final storage of high-level radioactive waste in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramthun, H.

    1981-08-01

    A final disposal concept is assumed where the high-active waste from 1400 t of uranium, remaining after conditioning, is solidified in borosilicate glass and distributed in 1.760 waste casks. These containers 1.2 m in height and 0.3 m in diameter are to be buried 10 years after the fuel is removed from the reactor in the 300 m deep boreholes of a salt dome. For this design the mean absorbed dose rates are calculated in the glass die (3.9 Gy/s), the steel mantle (0.26 Gy/s) and in the salt rock (0.12 Gy/s at a distance of 1 cm and 0.034 Gy/s at a distance of 9 cm from the container surface) valid at the beginning of disposal. The risk involved with these amounts of stored lattice energy is shortly discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  17. Corrosion aspects of high-level waste disposal in salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roerbo, K.

    1979-12-01

    In the ELSAM/ELKRAT waste management project it is planned that the high-level waste is glassified, encapsuled in canisters and finally deposited in a deep hole drilled in a salt dome. In the present report corrosion aspects of the canisters after deposition are discussed. The chemical environment will probably be a limited amount of brine coming from brine inclusions in the surrounding salt and moving up against the temperature gradient, the temperature at the canister surface being in the range of 100-150degC. The possible types of corrosion and the expected corrosion rates for a number of potential canister materials (mild steel, austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, Ni-base alloys, copper, titanium and a few combinations of materials) are discussed. Mild steel (possibly combined with an inner layer of copper or titanium) might possibly be an appropriate choice of material for the canister. (author)

  18. Unexplored Brazilian oceanic island host high salt tolerant biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Pylro, Victor Satler; Fernandes, Pericles Leonardo; Barcelos, Gisele Souza; Kalks, Karlos Henrique Martins; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto Gonçalves Reynaud; Tótola, Marcos Rogério

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to isolate biosurfactant-producing bacteria in high salt conditions from uncontaminated soils on the Brazilian oceanic island, Trindade. Blood agar medium was used for the isolation of presumptive biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Confirmation and measurements of biosurfactant production were made using an oil-spreading method. The isolates were identified by fatty acid profiles and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A total of 14 isolates obtained from the 12 soil samples were found to produce biosurfactants. Among them, two isolates stood out as being able to produce biosurfactant that is increasingly active in solutions containing up to 175 g L(-1) NaCl. These high salt tolerant biosurfactant producers are affiliated to different species of the genus Bacillus. Soil organic matter showed positive correlation with the number of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from our different sampling sites. The applied approach successfully recovered and identified biosurfactant-producing bacteria from non-contaminated soils. Due to the elevated salt tolerance, as well as their capacity to produce biosurfactants, these isolates are promising for environmental biotechnological applications, especially in the oil production chain.

  19. Titanium Implant Impairment and Surrounding Muscle Cell Death Following High-Salt Diet: An In Vivo Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lecocq

    Full Text Available High-salt consumption has been widely described as a risk factor for cardiovascular, renal and bone functions. In the present study, the extent to which high-salt diet could influence Ti6Al4V implant surface characteristic, its adhesion to rat tibial crest, and could modify muscle cell viability of two surrounding muscles, was investigated in vivo. These parameters have also been assessed following a NMES (neuro-myoelectrostimulation program similar to that currently used in human care following arthroplasty.After a three-week diet, a harmful effect on titanium implant surface and muscle cell viability was noted. This is probably due to salt corrosive effect on metal and then release of toxic substance around biologic tissue. Moreover, if the use of NMES with high-salt diet induced muscles damages, the latter were higher when implant was added. Unexpectedly, higher implant-to-bone adhesion was found for implanted animals receiving salt supplementation.Our in vivo study highlights the potential dangerous effect of high-salt diet in arthroplasty based on titanium prosthesis. This effect appears to be more important when high-salt diet is combined with NMES.

  20. Trial storage of high-level waste in the Asse II salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report covers a second phase of the work performed by GSF and KfK in the Asse II salt mine, with a view to disposal of radioactive waste in salt formations. New items of the research were geophysical investigations of the behaviour of heated salt and preparation of a trial storage in the Asse II salt mine

  1. Investigation of concentration-dependence of thermodynamic properties of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium and terbium in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo, E-mail: zhang.3558@osu.edu

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards. - Highlights: • Investigation of activity coefficient, apparent potential and diffusion coefficient at different concentrations. • MD simulation was studied for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of rare earth elements in molten salt. • The present study is a pioneering work focusing on the concentration dependence of thermodynamic properties.

  2. Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Cubic Rock-Salt AlN Under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebga, Noudjoud; Daoud, Salah; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Bioud, Nadhira; Latreche, Abdelhakim

    2018-03-01

    Density functional theory, density functional perturbation theory, and the Debye model have been used to investigate the structural, elastic, sound velocity, and thermodynamic properties of AlN with cubic rock-salt structure under high pressure, yielding the equilibrium structural parameters, equation of state, and elastic constants of this interesting material. The isotropic shear modulus, Pugh ratio, and Poisson's ratio were also investigated carefully. In addition, the longitudinal, transverse, and average elastic wave velocities, phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity, and interesting thermodynamic properties were predicted and analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the behavior of the elastic wave velocities under increasing hydrostatic pressure explains the hardening of the corresponding phonons. Based on the elastic stability criteria under pressure, it is found that AlN with cubic rock-salt structure is mechanically stable, even at pressures up to 100 GPa. Analysis of the Pugh ratio and Poisson's ratio revealed that AlN with cubic rock-salt structure behaves in brittle manner.

  3. On the time-dependent behavior of a cylindrical salt dome with a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1988-01-01

    In a salt dome with a repository for high-level radioactive and heat-generating waste, thermal stresses develop. These stresses can influence the isolation capability of the salt dome if these stresses can initiate cracks or introduce movements along existing closed flaws. The influence of the thermomechanical properties of the rock salt and the surrounding rocks on the thermal stresses and the surface rise is discussed. This discussion is based on a number of finite element creep analyses of a homogeneous cylindrical salt dome. The parameters, varied in the analyses, are constants in the thermomechanical constitutive behavior of salt and rocks, and furthermore the thermal loading has been varied. It is shown that variations in the creep properties, which result in differences in creep strain rate of a factor of 100, have only a very limited influence on the thermal stresses and the surface rise. Of more importance is the elastic stiffness of the materials. In all creep analyses the thermal stresses in the salt are compressive and the shear stresses remain below 2 MPa. The results are evaluated using an analytical treatment. Based on this evaluation, it is shown that the observed trends in the numerical results have a more general character and are not strictly limited to the geometry chosen. It is concluded that the thermal stresses in the salt formation are not strongly dependent on the creep properties of the rock salt

  4. Migrational polarization in high-current density molten salt electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, J.; Vallet, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical flux equations based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been derived in terms of experimental transport coefficients for binary molten salt mixtures analogous to those proposed for high temperature batteries and fuel cells. The equations and some numerical solutions indicate steady state composition gradients of significant magnitude. The effects of migrational separation must be considered along with other melt properties in the characterization of electrode behavior, melt composition, operating temperatures and differences of phase stability, wettability and other physicochemical properties at positive and negative electrodes of high current density devices with mixed electrolytes.

  5. The electrochemical reduction processes of solid compounds in high temperature molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua

    2014-05-21

    Solid electrode processes fall in the central focus of electrochemistry due to their broad-based applications in electrochemical energy storage/conversion devices, sensors and electrochemical preparation. The electrolytic production of metals, alloys, semiconductors and oxides via the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds (especially solid oxides) in high temperature molten salts has been well demonstrated to be an effective and environmentally friendly process for refractory metal extraction, functional materials preparation as well as spent fuel reprocessing. The (electro)chemical reduction of solid compounds under cathodic polarizations generally accompanies a variety of changes at the cathode/melt electrochemical interface which result in diverse electrolytic products with different compositions, morphologies and microstructures. This report summarizes various (electro)chemical reactions taking place at the compound cathode/melt interface during the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds in molten salts, which mainly include: (1) the direct electro-deoxidation of solid oxides; (2) the deposition of the active metal together with the electrochemical reduction of solid oxides; (3) the electro-inclusion of cations from molten salts; (4) the dissolution-electrodeposition process, and (5) the electron hopping process and carbon deposition with the utilization of carbon-based anodes. The implications of the forenamed cathodic reactions on the energy efficiency, chemical compositions and microstructures of the electrolytic products are also discussed. We hope that a comprehensive understanding of the cathodic processes during the electrochemical reduction of solid compounds in molten salts could form a basis for developing a clean, energy efficient and affordable production process for advanced/engineering materials.

  6. High temperature salt corrosion cracking of intermediate products of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyavskij, V.S.; Usova, V.V.; Lunina, S.I.; Kushakevich, S.A.; Makhmutova, E.A.; Khanina, Z.K.

    1982-01-01

    The high temperature salt corrosion cracking (HTSCC) of intermediate products from titanium base alloys in the form of hot rolled plates and rods has been studied. The investigated materials are as follows: VT20 pseudo-α-alloy, VT6 and VT14 α+β alloys; the comparison has been carried out with commercial titanium and low-alloyed OT4-1 α-alloy. The experiments have been held at 400 and 500 deg C, defining different stress levels: 0.4; 0.5; 0.75 and 0.9 tausub(0.2). The test basis - not less than 100 h. Standard tensile samples of circular cross section with NaCl (approximately 0.2-0.3 mg/cm 2 ) salt coatings, cut off from hot-rolled rods along the direction of rolling and hot-rolled plates along and across the direction of rolling have been tested. It has been extablished before hand that the notch doesn't affect the resistance of titanium alloys to HTSCC. The sensitivity of titanium alloy subproducts to HTSCC is estimated as to the time until the failure of the sample with salt coatings and without them. It is shown that salt coating practically doesn't affect the behaviour of titanium, that allows to consider it to be resistant to HTSCC. Titanium alloys alloying with β-isomorphous stabilizing additions increases it's HTSCC resistance. Vanadium alloying of the alloy (VT6 alloy of Ti-Al-V system) produces a favourable effect; intermediate products of VT14 (α+β) alloy (Ti-Al-V-Mo system), containing two β-stabilizing additions-vanadium and molybdenum, have satisfactory HTSCC resistance. It is shown that by changes is mechanical properties of alloys during HTSCC one can indirectly judge about their HTSCC sensitivity

  7. Trial storage of high-level waste cylinders in the Asse II salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the contract period 1976-77, as well as some of the tasks carried out during the extension in 1978, in the framework of the R and D programme for disposal of radioactive waste in salt formations. With regard to the in-situ tests for the liberation and migration of brine, the testing devices were examined successfully. Laboratory examinations carried out showed a stepwise liberation of the water contents in halite in dependence on the temperature. The amount of brine liberated stood in good agreement with the in situ results. A temperature test for borehole convergence resulted in definite convergence rates. Simultaneously no influence was registered in the stability of the surrounding rocks. For the realization of an integrated major experiment, temperature test field IV was mined on the 750 m level of the Asse Salt Mine and heater- as well as measurement drillings were carried out. Extensive rheological examinations are concentrated particularly on the halite and secondly on the Carnallite. They are chiefly based on uni- and multiaxial pressure tests. Computer programmes are developed to examine the heat generation in wastes as well as in salt. In comparison, the programme development of computer codes for the stability behaviour of rocks is still at a relatively early stage, because it has to build up on the results of heat generation. The works for the development of a transport container with a shielding combination are at a very advanced stage. An integrated disposal- and retrieval system was developed, tested and successfully demonstrated. A monitoring system in the mine has also been developed in its essential parts

  8. Dissecting the salt dependence of the Tus-Ter protein-DNA complexes by high-throughput differential scanning fluorimetry of a GFP-tagged Tus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Morgane J J; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of the salt dependence of protein-DNA complexes provides useful information about the non-specific electrostatic and sequence-specific parameters driving complex formation and stability. The differential scanning fluorimetry of GFP-tagged protein (DSF-GTP) assay has been geared with an automatic Tm peak recognition system and was applied for the high-throughput (HT) determination of salt-induced effects on the GFP-tagged DNA replication protein Tus in complex with various Ter and Ter-lock sequences. The system was designed to generate two-dimensional heat map profiles of Tus-GFP protein stability allowing for a comparative study of the effect of eight increasing salt concentrations on ten different Ter DNA species at once. The data obtained with the new HT DSF-GTP allowed precise dissection of the non-specific electrostatic and sequence-specific parameters driving Tus-Ter and Tus-Ter-lock complex formation and stability. The major factor increasing the thermal resistance of Tus-Ter-lock complexes in high-salt is the formation of the TT-lock, e.g. a 10-fold higher Kspe was obtained for Tus-GFP:Ter-lockB than for Tus-GFP:TerB. It is anticipated that the system can be easily adapted for the study of other protein-DNA complexes.

  9. An experimental test facility to support development of the fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, Graydon L.; Aaron, Adam; Cunningham, Burns; Fugate, David; Holcomb, David; Kisner, Roger; Peretz, Fred; Robb, Kevin; Wilgen, John; Wilson, Dane

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • • A forced convection test loop using FLiNaK salt was constructed to support development of the FHR. • The loop is built of alloy 600, and operating conditions are prototypic of expected FHR operation. • The initial test article is designed to study pebble bed heat transfer cooled by FLiNaK salt. • The test facility includes silicon carbide test components as salt boundaries. • Salt testing with silicon carbide and alloy 600 confirmed acceptable loop component lifetime. - Abstract: The need for high-temperature (greater than 600 °C) energy transport systems is significantly increasing as the world strives to improve energy efficiency and develop alternatives to petroleum-based fuels. Liquid fluoride salts are one of the few energy transport fluids that have the capability of operating at high temperatures in combination with low system pressures. The fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor design uses fluoride salt to remove core heat and interface with a power conversion system. Although a significant amount of experimentation has been performed with these salts, specific aspects of this reactor concept will require experimental confirmation during the development process. The experimental facility described here has been constructed to support the development of the fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor concept. The facility is capable of operating at up to 700 °C and incorporates a centrifugal pump to circulate FLiNaK salt through a removable test section. A unique inductive heating technique is used to apply heat to the test section, allowing heat transfer testing to be performed. An air-cooled heat exchanger removes added heat. Supporting loop infrastructure includes a pressure control system, a trace heating system, and a complement of instrumentation to measure salt flow, temperatures, and pressures around the loop. The initial experiment is aimed at measuring fluoride-salt heat transfer inside a heated pebble bed

  10. The United States fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The United States is pursuing the development of fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) through the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to economically generate large amounts of electricity while maintaining full passive safety. FHRs, however, remain a longer-term power production option. A principal development focus is, thus, on shortening, to the extent possible, the overall development time by focusing initial efforts on the longest lead-time issues. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid-metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated-particle fuel and graphite components. Light-water reactors show the potential of transparent, high-heat-capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. The FHR development efforts include both reactor concept and technology developments and are being broadly pursued. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides technical leadership to the effort and is performing concept development on both a large base-load-type FHR as well as a small modular reactor (SMR) in addition to performing a broad scope of technology developments. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is providing coated-particle fuel irradiation testing as well as developing high-temperature steam generator technology. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT

  11. Vortex Diode Analysis and Testing for Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, Graydon L. Jr.; Elkassabgi, Yousri M.; De Leon, Gerardo I.; Fetterly, Caitlin N.; Ramos, Jorge A.; Cunningham, Richard Burns

    2012-01-01

    Fluidic diodes are presently being considered for use in several fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor designs. A fluidic diode is a passive device that acts as a leaky check valve. These devices are installed in emergency heat removal systems that are designed to passively remove reactor decay heat using natural circulation. The direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) uses DRACS salt-to-salt heat exchangers (DHXs) that operate in a path parallel to the core flow. Because of this geometry, under normal operating conditions some flow bypasses the core and flows through the DHX. A flow diode, operating in reverse direction, is-used to minimize this flow when the primary coolant pumps are in operation, while allowing forward flow through the DHX under natural circulation conditions. The DRACSs reject the core decay heat to the environment under loss-of-flow accident conditions and as such are a reactor safety feature. Fluidic diodes have not previously been used in an operating reactor system, and therefore their characteristics must be quantified to ensure successful operation. This report parametrically examines multiple design parameters of a vortex-type fluidic diode to determine the size of diode needed to reject a particular amount of decay heat. Additional calculations were performed to size a scaled diode that could be tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Salt Flow Loop. These parametric studies have shown that a 152.4 mm diode could be used as a test article in that facility. A design for this diode is developed, and changes to the loop that will be necessary to test the diode are discussed. Initial testing of a scaled flow diode has been carried out in a water loop. The 150 mm diode design discussed above was modified to improve performance, and the final design tested was a 171.45 mm diameter vortex diode. The results of this testing indicate that diodicities of about 20 can be obtained for diodes of this size. Experimental

  12. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  13. ET-1 increases reactive oxygen species following hypoxia and high-salt diet in the mouse glomerulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimlich, J B; Speed, J S; Bloom, C J; O'Connor, P M; Pollock, J S; Pollock, D M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to determine whether ET-1 derived from endothelial cells contributes to oxidative stress in the glomerulus of mice subjected to a high-salt diet and/or hypoxia. C57BL6/J control mice or vascular endothelial cell ET-1 knockout (VEET KO) mice were subjected to 3-h exposure to hypoxia (8% O₂) and/or 2 weeks of high-salt diet (4% NaCl) prior to metabolic cage assessment of renal function and isolation of glomeruli for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In control mice, hypoxia significantly increased urinary protein excretion during the initial 24 h, but only in animals on a high-salt diet. Hypoxia increased glomerular ET-1 mRNA expression in control, but not in vascular endothelial cell ET-1 knockout (VEET KO) mice. Under normoxic conditions, mice on a high-salt diet had approx. 150% higher glomerular ET-1 mRNA expression compared with a normal-salt diet (P ET-1 (osmotic pumps) significantly increased the levels of glomerular ROS that were prevented by ETA antagonist treatment. These data suggest that both hypoxia and a high-salt diet increase glomerular ROS production via endothelial-derived ET-1-ETA receptor activation and provide a potential mechanism for ET-1-induced nephropathy. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. High level nuclear waste repository in salt: Sealing systems status and planning report: Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the initial conceptual design studies for a repository sealing system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The first step in the initial design studies was to review the current design level, termed schematic designs. This review identified practicality of construction and development of a design methodology as two key issues for the conceptual design. These two issues were then investigated during the initial design studies for seal system materials, seal placement, backfill emplacement, and a testing and monitoring plan. The results of these studies have been used to develop a program plan for completion of the sealing system conceptual design. 60 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Effect of Elevated Salt Concentrations on the Aerobic Granular Sludge Process : Linking Microbial Activity with Microbial Community Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassin, J.P.; Pronk, M.; Muyzer, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Dezotti, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The long- and short-term effects of salt on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes were studied in an aerobic granular sludge reactor. The microbial community structure was investigated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on 16S rRNA and amoA genes. PCR products

  16. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  17. Sustainability of thorium-uranium in pebble-bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, G.; Zou, Y.; Xu, H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of thorium fuel in a Pebble-Bed Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (PBFHR) is investigated to find the feasible region of high discharge burnup and negative Flibe (2LiF-BeF_2) salt Temperature Reactivity Coefficient (TRC). Dispersion fuel or pellet fuel with SiC cladding and SiC matrix is used to replace the tri-structural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle system for increasing fuel loading and decreasing excessive moderation. To analyze the neutronic characteristics, an equilibrium calculation method of thorium fuel self-sustainability is developed. We have compared two refueling schemes (mixing flow pattern and directional flow pattern) and two kinds of reflector materials (SiC and graphite). This method found that the feasible region of breeding and negative Flibe TRC is between 20 vol% and 62 vol% fuel loading in the fuel. A discharge burnup could be achieved up to about 200 MWd/kgHM. The case with directional flow pattern and SiC reflector showed superior burnup characteristics but the worst radial power peak factor, while the case with mixing flow pattern and SiC reflector, which was the best tradeoff between discharge burnup and radial power peak factor, could provide burnup of 140 MWd/kgHM and about 1.4 radial power peak factor with 50 vol% dispersion fuel. In addition, Flibe salt displays good neutron properties as a coolant of quasi-fast reactors due to the strong "9Be(n,2n) reaction and low neutron absorption of "6Li (even at 1000 ppm) in fast spectrum. Preliminary thermal hydraulic calculation shows a good safety margin. The greatest challenge of this reactor may be the decades irradiation time of the pebble fuel. (A.C)

  18. Performance assessment instrument to assess the senior high students' psychomotor for the salt hydrolysis material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.

  19. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsueh Pai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg, and decreased pup weight (~50% and size (~24%, but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  20. Aspects on the gas generation and migration in repositories for high level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Andre; Buhmann, Dieter; Meleshyn, Artur; Moenig, Joerg; Spiessl, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    In a deep geological repository for high-level waste, gases may be produced during the post-closure phase by several processes. The generated gases can potentially affect safety relevant features and processes of the repository, like the barrier integrity, the transport of liquids and gases in the repository and the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository into the biosphere. German long-term safety assessments for repositories for high-level waste in salt which were performed prior 2010 did not explicitly consider gas transport and the consequences from release of volatile radionuclides. Selected aspects of the generation and migration of gases in repositories for high-level waste in a salt formation are studied in this report from the viewpoint of the performance assessment. The knowledge on the availability of water in the repository, in particular the migration of salt rock internal fluids in the temperature field of the radioactive waste repository towards the emplacement drifts, was compiled and the amount of water was roughly estimated. Two other processes studied in this report are on the one hand the release of gaseous radionuclides from the repository and their potential impact in the biosphere and on the other hand the transport of gases along the drifts and shafts of the repository and their interaction with the fluid flow. The results presented show that there is some gas production expected to occur in the repository due to corrosion of container material from water disposed of with the backfill and inflowing from the host rock during the thermal phase. If not dedicated gas storage areas are foreseen in the repository concept, these gases might exceed the storage capacity for gases in the repository. Consequently, an outflow of gases from the repository could occur. If there are failed containers for spent fuel, radioactive gases might be released from the containers into the gas space of the backfill and subsequently transported together

  1. Influence of pH, temperature, and concentration on stabilization of aqueous hornet silk solution and fabrication of salt-free materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2015-01-01

    We found that an aqueous solution of silk from cocoons produced by hornet larvae (hornet silk) can be obtained when the solution is adjusted to basic conditions of pH > 9.2. It is known that native hornet cocoons can be dissolved in concentrated aqueous solution of salts, such as lithium bromide (LiBr) and calcium chloride (CaCl2). Upon the removal of these salts from solution by dialysis, solidification, gelation, or sedimentation of hornet silk is known to occur. In the present study, under basic conditions, however, no such solidification occurred, even after salt removal. In this study, ammonia was used for alkalization of solution because it is volatilized during the casting process and pure hornet silk materials can be obtained after drying. The effects of the concentrations of hornet silk and ammonia, as well as dialysis temperature, on preventing gelation during dialysis were investigated. Dialysis conditions that limit the degradation of hornet silk by hydrolysis in alkali solution were identified. Moreover, casting conditions to prepare flexible and transparent hornet silk film from aqueous ammonia solution were optimized. Molecular structural analysis of hornet silk in aqueous ammonia solution and cast film indicated the formation of α-helix conformations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Proteomic analysis of halotolerant proteins under high and low salt stress in Dunaliella salina using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Long Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dunaliella salina, a single-celled marine alga with extreme salt tolerance, is an important model organism for studying fundamental extremophile survival mechanisms and their potential practical applications. In this study, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE was used to investigate the expression of halotolerant proteins under high (3 M NaCl and low (0.75 M NaCl salt concentrations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and bioinformatics were used to identify and characterize the differences among proteins. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed 141 protein spots that were significantly differentially expressed between the two salinities. Twenty-four differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, including proteins in the following important categories: molecular chaperones, proteins involved in photosynthesis, proteins involved in respiration and proteins involved in amino acid synthesis. Expression levels of these proteins changed in response to the stress conditions, which suggests that they may be involved in the maintenance of intracellular osmotic pressure, cellular stress responses, physiological changes in metabolism, continuation of photosynthetic activity and other aspects of salt stress. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of the function and mechanisms of various proteins in salt stress.

  3. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hongjun; Liu, Yue; Ji, Deqiang; Li, Zhida; Yi, Guanlin; Yuan, Dandan; Wang, Baohui; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized

  4. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-01-01

    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy

  5. Case study of elevated layers of high sulfate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, D.J.; Orgill, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    During studies in August 1976 that were part of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study (MAP3S), Alkezweeny et al., (1977) noted that in the Milwaukee urban plume, layers of relatively high sulfate concentrations occurred at high altitudes with respect to the boundary layer. This paper represents a progress report on studies undertaken to investigate possible causes for a bimodel vertical profile of sulfate concentrations. Data presented by Alkezweeny et al., (1977) serve as a basis for this study. Data from August 23, 1976, and August 24, 1978, indicate concentrations relatively high in sulfate, at 1000 and 6000 ft, respectively, with lower concentrations at lower altitudes. Concentrations of trace metals also indicate no peaks in the vertical concentration profiles above the surface. Initial studies of the high, elevated sulfate concentrations have centered on the August 23 measurements taken over southeast Wisconsin using synoptic data from the national weather service, emissions data from the national emissions data bank system (EPA), air quality data from the national air surveillance network (EPA), and satellite photographs from the EROS Data Center

  6. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  7. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  8. Cathodic processes in high-temperature molten salts for the development of new materials processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwandt, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Molten salts play an important role in the processing of a range of commodity materials. This includes the large-scale production of iron, aluminium, magnesium and alkali metals as well as the refining of nuclear fuel materials. This presentation focuses on two more recent concepts in which the cathodic reactions in molten salt electrolytic cells are used to prepare high-value-added materials. Both were developed and advanced at the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy at the University of Cambridge and are still actively being pursued. One concept is now generally known as the FFC-Cambridge process. The presentation will highlight the optimisation of the process towards high selectivities for tubes or particles depict a modification of the method to synthesize tin-filled carbon nanomaterial, and illustrate the implementation of a novel type of process control to enable the preparation of gramme quantities of material within a few hours with simple laboratory equipment. Also discussed will be the testing of these materials in lithium ion batteries

  9. Recovery from episodic acidification delayed by drought and high sea salt deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laudon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available For the prediction of episodic acidification large uncertainties are connected to climatic variability and its effect on drought conditions and sea-salt episodes. In this study data on 342 hydrological episodes in 25 Swedish streams, sampled over 10 years, have been analyzed using a recently developed episode model. The results demonstrate that drought is the most important factor modulating the magnitude of the anthropogenic influence on pH and ANC during episodes. These modulating effects are especially pronounced in southern and central Sweden, where the historically high acid deposition has resulted in significant S pools in catchment soils. The results also suggest that the effects of episodic acidification are becoming less severe in many streams, but this amelioration is less clear in coastal streams subject to high levels of sea-salt deposition. Concurrently with the amelioration of the effects of episodic acidification, regional climate models predict that temperatures will increase in Sweden during the coming decades, accompanied by reductions in summer precipitation and more frequent storms during fall and winter in large areas of the country. If these predictions are realized delays in streams' recovery from episodic acidification events can be expected.

  10. Localized corrosion of high performance metal alloys in an acid/salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Ontiveros, C.

    1991-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Space Shuttle launch site at Kennedy Space Center use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the thin walled 304L stainless steel flex hoses. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. The study focussed on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, and long term exposure at a beach corrosion testing site. Based on the results of these tests, several nickel based alloys were found to have very high resistance to this corrosive environment. Also, there was excellent agreement between the electrochemical tests and the actual beach exposure tests. This suggests that electrochemical testing may be useful for narrowing the field of potential candidate alloys before subjecting samples to long term beach exposure.

  11. High mobility and high concentration Type-III heterojunction FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, R.; Fiddy, M. A.; Her, T.

    2018-02-01

    The PN junction was introduced in transistors by doping, resulting in high losses due to Coulomb scattering from the dopants. The MOSFET introduced carriers in the form of electrons and holes with an applied bias to the oxide barrier, resulting in carrier transfer without doping. This avoids high scattering losses and dominates the IC industries. With heterojunctions having valence-band maxima near and even above the conduction-band minimum in the formation of Type-III superlattices, very useful devices, introduced by Tsu, Sai-Halacz, and Esaki, soon followed. If the layer thicknesses are more than the carrier mean-free-path, incoherent scattering results in the formation of carrier transfer via diffusion instead of opening up new energy gaps. The exploitation of carriers without scattering represents a new and significant opportunity in what we call a Broken Gap Heterojunction FET.

  12. Electrorefining of High Carbon Ferromanganese in Molten Salts to Produce Pure Ferromanganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High carbon ferromanganese is used as a starting material to prepare pure ferromanganese by electrorefining in molten salts. High carbon ferromanganese was applied as the anode, molybdenum was the cathode and Ag/AgCl was the reference electrode. The anodic dissolution was investigated by linear polarization in molten NaCl-KCl system. Then potentiostatic electrolysis was carried out to produce pure ferromanganese from high carbon ferromanganese. The cathodic product was determined to be a mixture of manganese and iron by x-ray diffraction (XRD. The content of carbon in the product was analyzed by carbon and sulfur analyzer. The post-electrolysis anode was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The mechanism of the anode dissolution and the distribution of the main impurity of carbon and silicon after electrolysis were discussed.

  13. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  14. Temperature distributions in a salt formation used for the ultimate disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploumen, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the works on waste disposal is focussed on the utilization of a salt formation for ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat released from the high-level waste will be dissipated in the salt and the surrounding geologic formations. The occuring temperature distributions will be calculated with computer codes. A survey of the developed computer codes will be shown; the results for a selected example, taking into account the loading sequence of the waste, the mine ventilation as well as an air gap between the waste and the salt, will be discussed. Furthermore it will be shown that by varying the disposal parameters, the maximum salt temperature can be below any described value. (Auth.)

  15. Doping Polymer Semiconductors by Organic Salts: Toward High-Performance Solution-Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Rengert, Zachary D; McDowell, Caitlin; Ford, Michael J; Wang, Ming; Karki, Akchheta; Lill, Alexander T; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2018-04-24

    Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated with the addition of an organic salt, trityl tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate (TrTPFB), into thin films of donor-acceptor copolymer semiconductors. The performance of OFETs is significantly enhanced after the organic salt is incorporated. TrTPFB is confirmed to p-dope the organic semiconductors used in this study, and the doping efficiency as well as doping physics was investigated. In addition, systematic electrical and structural characterizations reveal how the doping enhances the performance of OFETs. Furthermore, it is shown that this organic salt doping method is feasible for both p- and n-doping by using different organic salts and, thus, can be utilized to achieve high-performance OFETs and organic complementary circuits.

  16. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I

    2014-01-01

    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  17. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  18. A compact spectrum splitting concentrator for high concentration photovoltaics based on the dispersion of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J.; Flowers, C. A.; Yao, Y.; Atwater, H. A.; Rockett, A. A.; Nuzzo, R. G.

    2018-06-01

    Photovoltaic devices used in conjunction with functional optical elements for light concentration and spectrum splitting are known to be a viable approach for highly efficient photovoltaics. Conventional designs employ discrete optical elements, each with the task of either performing optical concentration or separating the solar spectrum. In the present work, we examine the performance of a compact photovoltaic architecture in which a single lens plays a dual role as both a concentrator and a spectrum splitter, the latter made possible by exploiting its intrinsic dispersion. A four-terminal two-junction InGaP/GaAs device is prepared to validate the concept and illustrates pathways for improvements. A spectral separation in the visible range is demonstrated at the focal point of a plano-convex lens with a geometric concentration ratio of 1104X with respect to the InGaP subcell.

  19. "Water-in-salt" electrolytes enable the use of cost-effective aluminum current collectors for aqueous high-voltage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, R-S; Reber, D; Remhof, A; Figi, R; Bleiner, D; Battaglia, C

    2016-08-16

    The extended electrochemical stability window offered by highly concentrated electrolytes allows the operation of aqueous batteries at voltages significantly above the thermodynamic stability limit of water, at which the stability of the current collector potentially limits the cell voltage. Here we report the observation of suppressed anodic dissolution of aluminum in "water-in-salt" electrolytes enabling roll-to-roll electrode fabrication for high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion batteries on cost-effective light-weight aluminum current collectors using established lithium-ion battery technology.

  20. An Analysis of Testing Requirements for Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    This report provides guidance on the component testing necessary during the next phase of fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) development. In particular, the report identifies and describes the reactor component performance and reliability requirements, provides an overview of what information is necessary to provide assurance that components will adequately achieve the requirements, and then provides guidance on how the required performance information can efficiently be obtained. The report includes a system description of a representative test scale FHR reactor. The reactor parameters presented in this report should only be considered as placeholder values until an FHR test scale reactor design is completed. The report focus is bounded at the interface between and the reactor primary coolant salt and the fuel and the gas supply and return to the Brayton cycle power conversion system. The analysis is limited to component level testing and does not address system level testing issues. Further, the report is oriented as a bottom-up testing requirements analysis as opposed to a having a top-down facility description focus.

  1. Improvement of performance of vibration pump for molten salt at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Katagiri, Kazunari; Tang Bomin.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to improve the performance of a vibration pump using a vibrating pipe for conveying the molten salt at 784 K. A new system to measure the pump performance safely at such a high temperature was developed, which was characterized by simplicity in construction and ease of operation. All parts of the system, including a pump, valves and a volume tank to measure the volumetric flow rate, were placed in a cylindrical tank. The pump was driven by an air actuator. Experimental results indicated that the measuring system fulfilled the intended function: the pump worked effectively and its performance was safely evaluated at a high temperature. A few possible improvements related to the construction of the pump were suggested based on the results. (author)

  2. Multiphysics modelling and experimental validation of high concentration photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theristis, Marios; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Sumner, Mike; O'Donovan, Tadhg S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multiphysics modelling approach for concentrating photovoltaics was developed. • An experimental campaign was conducted to validate the models. • The experimental results were in good agreement with the models. • The multiphysics modelling allows the concentrator’s optimisation. - Abstract: High concentration photovoltaics, equipped with high efficiency multijunction solar cells, have great potential in achieving cost-effective and clean electricity generation at utility scale. Such systems are more complex compared to conventional photovoltaics because of the multiphysics effect that is present. Modelling the power output of such systems is therefore crucial for their further market penetration. Following this line, a multiphysics modelling procedure for high concentration photovoltaics is presented in this work. It combines an open source spectral model, a single diode electrical model and a three-dimensional finite element thermal model. In order to validate the models and the multiphysics modelling procedure against actual data, an outdoor experimental campaign was conducted in Albuquerque, New Mexico using a high concentration photovoltaic monomodule that is thoroughly described in terms of its geometry and materials. The experimental results were in good agreement (within 2.7%) with the predicted maximum power point. This multiphysics approach is relatively more complex when compared to empirical models, but besides the overall performance prediction it can also provide better understanding of the physics involved in the conversion of solar irradiance into electricity. It can therefore be used for the design and optimisation of high concentration photovoltaic modules.

  3. High-salt brines compromise autoinducer-mediated bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum survival in Spanish-style green olive fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Lucena-Padrós, Helena; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis

    2013-02-01

    The effect of NaCl on plantaricin production by five Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated. Plantaricin production in these strains was found to be regulated by three-component regulatory systems ruled by two different autoinducer peptides (AIPs), either PLNC8IF or Plantaricin A. Bacteriocin activity exhibited by these strains came to a halt in liquid medium containing NaCl concentrations of or above 2%. In contrast, bacteriocin activity was still observed when the producing strains were growing on solid medium containing up to 4% NaCl. Bacteriocin activity in liquid medium containing up to 2% NaCl could be restored by coculturing the producing strains with a selected plantaricin-production inducing strain of Lactococcus lactis. Growth of these bacteriocinogenic L. plantarum strains was monitored in traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentations. Survival of these strains could not be enhanced when provided with a range of plantaricin-production inducing mechanisms previously described, such as constitutive AIP production or coinoculation with a specific bacteriocin-production inducing strain of L. lactis. Our results suggest that it is advisable the use of constitutive bacteriocin producers, or at least non-AIP-dependant ones, as starters for olive fermentations due to the intrinsic physical characteristics of this food fermentation, especially the high salt concentration of the brines currently used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influences of hydrological regime on heavy metal and salt ion concentrations in intertidal sediment from Chongming Dongtan, Changjiang River estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiale; Gao, Xiaojiang; Yang, Jin

    2017-11-01

    The tidal flat along the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary has long been reclaimed for the agricultural purposes, with the prevailing hydrological conditions during such pedogenic transformations being of great importance to their successful development. In this study, samples of surface sediment from Chongming Dongtan, situated at the mouth of the Changjiang River estuary, were collected and analyzed in order to understand how hydrological management can influence the concentrations of heavy metals and salt ions in pore water, and chemical fractionation of heavy metals during the reclamation process. We performed a series of experiments that simulated three different hydrological regimes: permanent flooding (R1), alternative five-day periods of wetting and drying (R2), continuous field capacity (R3). Our results exhibited good Pearson correlations coefficients between heavy metals and salt ions in the pore water for both R1 and R2. In particular, the concentrations of salt ions in the pore water decreased in all three regimes, but showed the biggest decline in R2. With this R2 experiment, the periodic concentration patterns in the pore water varied for Fe and Mn, but not for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Neither the fractionation of Ni nor the residual fractions of any metals changed significantly in any regime. In R1, the reducible fractions of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the sediment decreased, while the acid extractable fractions increased. In R2, the acid extractable and the reducible fractions of Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb both decreased, as did the oxidizable fraction of Cu. These data suggest that an alternating hydrological regime can reduce both salinity and the availability of heavy metals in sediments.

  5. Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from coal gasification wastewater RO concentrate and microorganisms succession in a MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Yuxing; Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Li, Kun

    2017-10-01

    A lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with intermittent aeration was operated to treat the reverse osmosis concentrate derived from coal gasification wastewater. Results showed intermittent aeration represented slight effect on organic matter reduction but significant effect on nitrite and nitrate reduction, with 6h aeration and 6h non-aeration, removal efficiencies of organic matter, chloride, sulfate, nitrite and nitrate reached 48.35%, 40.91%, 34.28%, -36.05% and 64.34%, respectively. High-throughput sequencing showed a microorganisms succession from inoculated activated sludge (S1) to activated sludge in MBR (S2) with high salinity. Richness and diversity of microorganisms in S2 was lower than S1 and the community structure of S1 exhibited more even than S2. The most relative abundance of genus in S1 and S2 were unclassified_Desulfarculaceae (9.39%) and Roseibaca (62.1%), respectively. High salinity and intermittent aeration represented different influence on the denitrifying genus, and non-aeration phase provided feasible dissolved oxygen condition for denitrifying genera realizing denitrification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurements of the Suitability of Large Rock Salt Formations for Radio Detection of High-Energy Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odian, Allen C.

    2001-09-14

    We have investigated the possibility that large rock salt formations might be suitable as target masses for detection of neutrinos of energies about 10 PeV and above. In neutrino interactions at these energies, the secondary electromagnetic cascade produces a coherent radio pulse well above ambient thermal noise via the Askaryan effect. We describe measurements of radio-frequency attenuation lengths and ambient thermal noise in two salt formations. Measurements in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in an evaporite salt bed in Carlsbad, NM yielded short attenuation lengths, 3-7 m over 150-300 MHz. However, measurements at United Salt's Hockley mine, located in a salt dome near Houston, Texas yielded attenuation lengths in excess of 250 m at similar frequencies. We have also analyzed early ground-penetrating radar data at Hockley mine and have found additional evidence for attenuation lengths in excess of several hundred meters at 440 MHz. We conclude that salt domes, which may individually contain several hundred cubic kilometer water-equivalent mass, provide attractive sites for next-generation high-energy neutrino detectors.

  7. Measurements of the suitability of large rock salt formations for radio detection of high-energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, Peter; Saltzberg, David; Odian, Allen; Williams, Dawn; Besson, David; Frichter, George; Tantawi, Sami

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that large rock salt formations might be suitable as target masses for detection of neutrinos of energies about 10 PeV and above. In neutrino interactions at these energies, the secondary electromagnetic cascade produces a coherent radio pulse well above ambient thermal noise via the Askaryan effect. We describe measurements of radio-frequency attenuation lengths and ambient thermal noise in two salt formations. Measurements in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, located in an evaporite salt bed in Carlsbad, NM yielded short attenuation lengths, 3-7 m over 150-300 MHz. However, measurements at United Salt's Hockley mine, located in a salt dome near Houston, Texas yielded attenuation lengths in excess of 250 m at similar frequencies. We have also analyzed early ground-penetrating radar data at Hockley mine and have found additional evidence for attenuation lengths in excess of several hundred meters at 440 MHz. We conclude that salt domes, which may individually contain several hundred cubic kilometer water-equivalent mass, provide attractive sites for next-generation high-energy neutrino detectors

  8. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Effects of supplementation of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum concentrations of progesterone and insulin of pregnant dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe Moriel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five non-lactating, pregnant Holstein animals (18 heifers and 27 multiparous cows; BW = 561±114 kg; BCS = 2.9±0.3; days pregnant = 110±56 d were stratified by initial BW and BCS, and randomly assigned to receive daily (as-fed basis 0.50 kg of ground corn plus 0.22 kg of kaolin (CON, calcium salts of saturated fatty acids (SFA or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PF for 14 d. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14, immediately prior to (0 h and 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after feeding, to determine the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of P4 (5.52, 6.13 and 5.63±0.41 ng/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of insulin (11.5, 10.5 and 10.1±1.43 µIU/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. Heifers had greater serum concentrations of P4 than multiparous cows (6.35 vs. 5.16±0.42 ng/mL, but lower serum concentrations of insulin (7.0 vs. 14.4±1.49 µIU/mL. Feeding 0.22 kg of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids is not sufficient to increase the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin of non-lactating, pregnant dairy cows.

  10. Adaptations to High Salt in a Halophilic Protist: Differential Expression and Gene Acquisitions through Duplications and Gene Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Tommy; Roger, Andrew J.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of halophiles to thrive in extreme hypersaline habitats derives partly from the tight regulation of ion homeostasis, the salt-dependent adjustment of plasma membrane fluidity, and the increased capability to manage oxidative stress. Halophilic bacteria, and archaea have been intensively studied, and substantial research has been conducted on halophilic fungi, and the green alga Dunaliella. By contrast, there have been very few investigations of halophiles that are phagotrophic protists, i.e., protozoa. To gather fundamental knowledge about salt adaptation in these organisms, we studied the transcriptome-level response of Halocafeteria seosinensis (Stramenopiles) grown under contrasting salinities. We provided further evolutionary context to our analysis by identifying genes that underwent recent duplications. Genes that were highly responsive to salinity variations were involved in stress response (e.g., chaperones), ion homeostasis (e.g., Na+/H+ transporter), metabolism and transport of lipids (e.g., sterol biosynthetic genes), carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., glycosidases), and signal transduction pathways (e.g., transcription factors). A significantly high proportion (43%) of duplicated genes were also differentially expressed, accentuating the importance of gene expansion in adaptation by H. seosinensis to high salt environments. Furthermore, we found two genes that were lateral acquisitions from bacteria, and were also highly up-regulated and highly expressed at high salt, suggesting that this evolutionary mechanism could also have facilitated adaptation to high salt. We propose that a transition toward high-salt adaptation in the ancestors of H. seosinensis required the acquisition of new genes via duplication, and some lateral gene transfers (LGTs), as well as the alteration of transcriptional programs, leading to increased stress resistance, proper establishment of ion gradients, and modification of cell structure properties like membrane

  11. Adaptations to High Salt in a Halophilic Protist: Differential Expression and Gene Acquisitions through Duplications and Gene Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Harding

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of halophiles to thrive in extreme hypersaline habitats derives partly from the tight regulation of ion homeostasis, the salt-dependent adjustment of plasma membrane fluidity, and the increased capability to manage oxidative stress. Halophilic bacteria, and archaea have been intensively studied, and substantial research has been conducted on halophilic fungi, and the green alga Dunaliella. By contrast, there have been very few investigations of halophiles that are phagotrophic protists, i.e., protozoa. To gather fundamental knowledge about salt adaptation in these organisms, we studied the transcriptome-level response of Halocafeteria seosinensis (Stramenopiles grown under contrasting salinities. We provided further evolutionary context to our analysis by identifying genes that underwent recent duplications. Genes that were highly responsive to salinity variations were involved in stress response (e.g., chaperones, ion homeostasis (e.g., Na+/H+ transporter, metabolism and transport of lipids (e.g., sterol biosynthetic genes, carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., glycosidases, and signal transduction pathways (e.g., transcription factors. A significantly high proportion (43% of duplicated genes were also differentially expressed, accentuating the importance of gene expansion in adaptation by H. seosinensis to high salt environments. Furthermore, we found two genes that were lateral acquisitions from bacteria, and were also highly up-regulated and highly expressed at high salt, suggesting that this evolutionary mechanism could also have facilitated adaptation to high salt. We propose that a transition toward high-salt adaptation in the ancestors of H. seosinensis required the acquisition of new genes via duplication, and some lateral gene transfers (LGTs, as well as the alteration of transcriptional programs, leading to increased stress resistance, proper establishment of ion gradients, and modification of cell structure properties like

  12. The effect of emulsifying salts on the turbidity of a diluted milk system with varying pH and protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, M D; Saricay, Y; Harte, F M

    2017-06-01

    Solutions of 10 commonly used emulsifying salts (ES) listed in the Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR133.179) for pasteurized process cheese were tested for their effect on the turbidity of a diluted milk system at different pH and protein concentrations to characterize the conditions that affect micellar structure. Emulsifying salt solutions were made by mixing the ES in a 1-in-20 dilution of water in skim milk ultrafiltrate (3 kDa molecular weight cut-off) to obtain ES concentrations from 0 to 248 mM. Skim milk was added to solutions containing nanopure water, skim milk ultrafiltrate, and a specific ES ranging in concentration from 0 to 248 mM and pH 5, 5.8, 6.8, 7.8, and 8.8. The turbidity of the samples was measured as the optical density at 400 nm immediately after mixing (time, t = 0), after 30 s (t = 30s), and after 30 min (t = 30min). Emulsifying salts were found to cause a decrease in the turbidity of the system, which was modeled using an exponential decay model, where C* represents a threshold salt concentration at which rapid dissociation occurs. At pH values 5.8 and 6.8, the ES caused the greatest decrease in turbidity of the diluted milk system. At pH 5, the ES had the least effect on the turbidity of the system. Sodium hexametaphosphate was found to have the strongest dissociative effect, with a C* value of 0.33 mM for t = 0 at pH 6.8. In contrast, the largest C* value calculated at pH 6.8 was monosodium phosphate at 278.22 mM. Increased time resulted in lower C* values. The model established for this study can be used to predict the dissociation of casein micelles in the presence of various types of ES. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High indoor radon concentrations in some Swedish waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Heiberg, A.

    2002-01-01

    High indoor radon concentrations in buildings used for water treatment are not uncommon. When raw water is processed in an open system radon escapes from the water to the indoor air of the premises. It is not unusual that the staff of the waterworks have their offices in the building where the water is processed. If large volumes of water are processed and the evaporated radon can reach the workplaces the indoor radon concentration can be very high even if the radon concentration of the raw water is moderate. Groundwaters from aquifers in bedrock and soil and surface water that has been infiltrated through deposits of sand or gravel have the potential to cause high indoor radon levels. In surface water emanating directly from a lake or a river the radon concentrations are normally too low to cause problems. Three waterworks in central Sweden have been studied, Ludvika, Fredriksberg and Kolbaeck. The radon concentrations in the raw water of these waterworks are from 85 Bq/l to 300 Bq/l. Average indoor radon concentrations exceeding 17,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured in Ludvika with peaks of almost 37,000 Bq/m 3 . In Kolbaeck radon concentrations up to 56,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured. It is quite possible that employees of waterworks can receive doses exceeding 20 mSv per year (calculated according to ICRP:s dose conversion convention). Measurements of radon and gamma radiation from the waterworks are reported and methods to lower the indoor radon concentrations are discussed. (author)

  14. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  15. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  16. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  17. High-flux water desalination with interfacial salt sieving effect in nanoporous carbon composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Shuyu; Liang, Tengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhongli; Yin, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Xixiang; Lai, Zhiping; Sheng, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here, we show that nanoporous carbon composite membranes, which comprise a layer of porous carbon fibre structures grown on a porous ceramic substrate, can exhibit 100% desalination and a freshwater flux that is 3-20 times higher than existing polymeric membranes. Thermal accounting experiments demonstrated that the carbon composite membrane saved over 80% of the latent heat consumption. Theoretical calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations revealed the unique microscopic process occurring in the membrane. When the salt solution is stopped at the openings to the nanoscale porous channels and forms a meniscus, the vapour can rapidly transport across the nanoscale gap to condense on the permeate side. This process is driven by the chemical potential gradient and aided by the unique smoothness of the carbon surface. The high thermal conductivity of the carbon composite membrane ensures that most of the latent heat is recovered.

  18. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Charles [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hu, Lin-wen [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Per [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-01-21

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) awarded a 3- year integrated research project (IRP) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its partners at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW). The IRP included Westinghouse Electric Company and an advisory panel chaired by Regis Matzie that provided advice as the project progressed. The first sentence of the proposal stated the goals: The objective of this Integrated Research Project (IRP) is to develop a path forward to a commercially viable salt-cooled solid-fuel high-temperature reactor with superior economic, safety, waste, nonproliferation, and physical security characteristics compared to light-water reactors. This report summarizes major results of this research.

  19. High-flux water desalination with interfacial salt sieving effect in nanoporous carbon composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2018-03-05

    Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here, we show that nanoporous carbon composite membranes, which comprise a layer of porous carbon fibre structures grown on a porous ceramic substrate, can exhibit 100% desalination and a freshwater flux that is 3-20 times higher than existing polymeric membranes. Thermal accounting experiments demonstrated that the carbon composite membrane saved over 80% of the latent heat consumption. Theoretical calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations revealed the unique microscopic process occurring in the membrane. When the salt solution is stopped at the openings to the nanoscale porous channels and forms a meniscus, the vapour can rapidly transport across the nanoscale gap to condense on the permeate side. This process is driven by the chemical potential gradient and aided by the unique smoothness of the carbon surface. The high thermal conductivity of the carbon composite membrane ensures that most of the latent heat is recovered.

  20. Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) for Power and Process Heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles; Hu, Lin-wen; Peterson, Per; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 the U.S. Department of Energy through its Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) awarded a 3- year integrated research project (IRP) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its partners at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW). The IRP included Westinghouse Electric Company and an advisory panel chaired by Regis Matzie that provided advice as the project progressed. The first sentence of the proposal stated the goals: The objective of this Integrated Research Project (IRP) is to develop a path forward to a commercially viable salt-cooled solid-fuel high-temperature reactor with superior economic, safety, waste, nonproliferation, and physical security characteristics compared to light-water reactors. This report summarizes major results of this research.

  1. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  2. High spatial variability in biogeochemical rates and microbial communities across Louisiana salt marsh landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. J.; Chelsky, A.; Bernhard, A. E.; Giblin, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes are important sites for retention and transformation of carbon and nutrients. Much of our current marsh biogeochemistry knowledge is based on sampling at times and in locations that are convenient, most often vegetated marsh platforms during low tide. Wetland loss rates are high in many coastal regions including Louisiana which has the highest loss rates in the US. This loss not only reduces total marsh area but also changes the relative allocation of subhabitats in the remaining marsh. Climate and other anthropogenic changes lead to further changes including inundation patterns, redox conditions, salinity regimes, and shifts in vegetation patterns across marsh landscapes. We present results from a series of studies examining biogeochemical rates, microbial communities, and soil properties along multiple edge to interior transects within Spartina alterniflora across the Louisiana coast; between expanding patches of Avicennia germinans and adjacent S. alterniflora marshes; in soils associated with the four most common Louisiana salt marsh plants species; and across six different marsh subhabitats. Spartina alterniflora marsh biogeochemistry and microbial populations display high spatial variability related to variability in soil properties which appear to be, at least in part, regulated by differences in elevation, hydrology, and redox conditions. Differences in rates between soils associated with different vegetation types were also related to soil properties with S. alterniflora soils often yielding the lowest rates. Biogeochemical process rates vary significantly across marsh subhabitats with individual process rates differing in their hotspot habitat(s) across the marsh. Distinct spatial patterns may influence the roles that marshes play in retaining and transforming nutrients in coastal regions and highlight the importance of incorporating spatial sampling when scaling up plot level measurements to landscape or regional scales.

  3. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and magnesium intake on some blood and urine minerals and acid-base balance of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic salts contained in a concentrate mixture and magnesium (Mg intake on some blood and urine minerals in cows fed a grass silage based diet. Four diets provided either 16 g or 33 g total dietary Mg/day, and had either a low or high cation-anion difference. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB of the diets, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was +31 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +340 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (1.0 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.5 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Cows fed the low DCAB diet had a lower urinary pH (P

  4. Late gestational hypoxia and a postnatal high salt diet programs endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sarah L; Singh, Reetu R; Tan, Tiffany; Paravicini, Tamara M; Moritz, Karen M

    2016-03-01

    Gestational hypoxia and high dietary salt intake have both been associated with impaired vascular function in adulthood. Using a mouse model of prenatal hypoxia, we examined whether a chronic high salt diet had an additive effect in promoting vascular dysfunction in offspring. Pregnant CD1 dams were placed in a hypoxic chamber (12% O2) or housed under normal conditions (21% O2) from embryonic day 14.5 until birth. Gestational hypoxia resulted in a reduced body weight for both male and female offspring at birth. This restriction in body weight persisted until weaning, after which the animals underwent catch-up growth. At 10 weeks of age, a subset of offspring was placed on a high salt diet (5% NaCl). Pressurized myography of mesenteric resistance arteries at 12 months of age showed that both male and female offspring exposed to maternal hypoxia had significantly impaired endothelial function, as demonstrated by impaired vasodilatation to ACh but not sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial dysfunction caused by prenatal hypoxia was not exacerbated by postnatal consumption of a high salt diet. Prenatal hypoxia increased microvascular stiffness in male offspring. The combination of prenatal hypoxia and a postnatal high salt diet caused a leftward shift in the stress-strain relationship in both sexes. Histopathological analysis of aortic sections revealed a loss of elastin integrity and increased collagen, consistent with increased vascular stiffness. These results demonstrate that prenatal hypoxia programs endothelial dysfunction in both sexes. A chronic high salt diet in postnatal life had an additive deleterious effect on vascular mechanics and structural characteristics in both sexes. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  5. High pollution events in the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. Insights on mechanisms and spatial distribution of the formation of secondary aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Baasandorj, M.; Brown, S. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Moravek, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Thornton, J. A.; Womack, C.

    2017-12-01

    High pollution events are common in many locations in the U.S.A. and around the world. They can last several days or up to weeks and they negatively affect human health, deteriorate visibility, and increase premature mortality. The main causes for high pollution events are related to meteorology and sources. They often happen in the winter, when high emissions, stagnation and reduced mixing, due to a shallow boundary layer, cause high concentrations of pollutants to accumulate. In the last decades, the air quality in the U.S. has seen an overall improvement, due to the reductions in particulate and gaseous pollutants. However, some areas remain critical. The Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys are currently areas where high pollution events are a serious environmental problem involving more than 2.4 million people. We will present the results of the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) that took place in winter 2017. During UWFPS, we carried out airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition and precursor vapor concentrations over the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. We will give insights into how and under which conditions conversion of precursor vapors into aerosol particles takes place in the area. We will also present a comparison of our measurements with models that will provide an insight of the mechanisms that lead to the formation of secondary aerosol particles. With the results of our work, we aim to inform strategies for pollution control in the future.

  6. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m3. This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500°C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X

  7. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Per; Greenspan, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m 3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m 3 . This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500°C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X-PREX facility uses novel

  8. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  9. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  10. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  11. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  12. Effects of high concentration of chromium stress on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of high concentration of chromium (Cr) stress on physiological and biochemical characters and accumulation of Cr in Pingyang Tezao tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kutze 'Pingyangtezao'] through a pot experiment. The results show that the indicators of photosynthesis were all suppressed with ...

  13. The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelenburg, F. A. C.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schuitemaker, H.; Moorer, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture (80% ethanol and 5% isopropanol) was determined for a broad series of lipid-enveloped (LE) and non-lipid-enveloped (NLE) viruses covering all relevant blood-borne viruses. LE viruses were represented by human immunodeficiency virus

  14. Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface

  15. Retention of bile salts in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: relation of capacity factor to octanol-water partition coefficient and critical micellar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucangioli, S E; Carducci, C N; Tripodi, V P; Kenndler, E

    2001-12-25

    The capacity factors of 16 anionic cholates (from six bile salts, including their glyco- and tauro-conjugates) were determined in a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) system consisting of buffer, pH 7.5 (phosphate-boric acid; 20 mmol/l) with 50 mmol/l sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as micelle former and 10% acetonitrile as organic modifier. The capacity factors of the fully dissociated, negatively charged analytes (ranging between 0.2 and 60) were calculated from their mobilities, with a reference background electrolyte (BGE) without SDS representing "free" solution. For comparison, the capacity factors were derived for a second reference BGE where the SDS concentration (5 mmol/l) is close to the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The capacity factors are compared with the logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient, log Pow, as measure for lipophilicity. Clear disagreement between these two parameters is found especially for epimeric cholates with the hydroxy group in position 7. In contrast, fair relation between the capacity factor of the analytes and their CMC is observed both depending strongly on the orientation of the OH groups, and tauro-conjugation as well. In this respect the retention behaviour of the bile salts in MEKC seems to reflect their role as detergents in living systems, and might serve as model parameter beyond lipophilicity.

  16. Free Energies by Thermodynamic Integration Relative to an Exact Solution, Used to Find the Handedness-Switching Salt Concentration for DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja

    2013-01-08

    Sets of free energy differences are useful for finding the equilibria of chemical reactions, while absolute free energies have little physical meaning. However finding the relative free energy between two macrostates by subtraction of their absolute free energies is a valuable strategy in certain important cases. We present calculations of absolute free energies of biomolecules, using a combination of the well-known Einstein molecule method (for treating the solute) with a conceptually related method of recent genesis for computing free energies of liquids (to treat the solvent and counterions). The approach is based on thermodynamic integration from a detailed atomistic model to one which is simplified but analytically solvable, thereby giving the absolute free energy as that of the tractable model plus a correction term found numerically. An example calculation giving the free energy with respect to salt concentration for the B- and Z-isomers of all-atom duplex DNA in explicit solvent and counterions is presented. The coexistence salt concentration is found with unprecedented accuracy.

  17. Removal of salt from high-level waste tanks by density-driven circulation or mechanical agitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two high-level waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant are to be retired in the tank replacement/waste transfer program. The salt-removal portion of this program requires dissolution of about 19 million liters of salt cake. Steam circulation jets were originally proposed to dissolve the salt cake. However, the jets heated the waste tank to 80 to 90 0 C. This high temperature required a long cooldown period before transfer of the supernate by jet, and increased the risk of stress-corrosion cracking in these older tanks. A bench-scale investigation at the Savannah River Laboratory developed two alternatives to steam-jet circulation. One technique was density-driven circulation, which in bench tests dissolved salt at the same rate as a simulated steam circulation jet but at a lower temperature. The other technique was mechanical agitation, which dissolved the salt cake faster and required less fresh water than either density-driven circulation or the simulated steam circulation jet. Tests in an actual waste tank verified bench-scale results and demonstrated the superiority of mechanical agitation

  18. Rheological behavior of high-concentration sodium caseinate dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Simon M; Rao, M Anandha; Creamer, Lawrence K; Singh, Harjinder

    2010-03-01

    Apparent viscosity and frequency sweep (G', G'') data for sodium caseinate dispersions with concentrations of approximately 18% to 40% w/w were obtained at 20 degrees C; colloidal glass behavior was exhibited by dispersions with concentration >or=23% w/w. The high concentrations were obtained by mixing frozen powdered buffer with sodium caseinate in boiling liquid nitrogen, and allowing the mixtures to thaw and hydrate at 4 degrees C. The low-temperature G'-G'' crossover seen in temperature scans between 60 and 5 degrees C was thought to indicate gelation. Temperature scans from 5 to 90 degrees C revealed gradual decrease in G' followed by plateau values. In contrast, G'' decreased gradually and did not reach plateau values. Increase in hydrophobicity of the sodium caseinate or a decrease in the effective volume fraction of its aggregates may have contributed to these phenomena. The gelation and end of softening temperatures of the dispersions increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate. From an Eldridge-Ferry plot, the enthalpy of softening was estimated to be 29.6 kJ mol(-1). The results of this study should be useful for creating new products with high concentrations of sodium caseinate.

  19. Investigation of the areas of high radon concentration in Gyeongju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Min; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the radon concentrations at 21 elementary schools in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to identify those schools with high radon concentrations. Considering their geological characteristics and the preliminary survey results, three schools were finally placed under close scrutiny. For these three schools, continuous measurements over 48 h were taken at the principal's and administration office. The radon concentrations at one school, Naenam, exceeded the action level (148 Bq/m 3 ) established by the U.S. EPA, while those at the other two schools were below that level. - Highlights: • Preliminary measurements of the indoor radon concentrations were performed at the auditoriums in 23 elementary schools in Gyeongju. • Considering the geological characteristics and preliminary survey results, three elementary schools were screened for closer scrutiny. • For the three schools, continuous measurements were made at their principal's and administration offices over 48-h period. • The scrutiny revealed one elementary school of high radon concentration much higher than the U.S. EPA action level

  20. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  1. Analysis of petunia hybrida in response to salt stress using high throughput RNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt and drought are among the greatest challenges to crop and native plants in meeting their yield and reproductive potentials. DNA sequencing-enabled transcriptome profiling provides a means of assessing what genes are responding to salt or drought stress so as to better understand the molecular ...

  2. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  3. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with the geological investigations performed for determing the feasibility of a repository for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 2 of five volumes that together constitute the final report of the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. The purpose of the work was to procure a more detailed knowledge of the geology of salt domes in North Jutland on example of Mors. The Mors dome is oval with the two axes of approx. 12.5 km and 8 km respectively. Two deep wells have been drilled into the salt. These wells reach 3400-3500 m below surface. Until a depth of about 3200 m Erslev 2 passes through rock salt of Zechstein 1 which is the oldest evaporite series. However, it could also be interlayed with the slightly younger Zechstein 2. At about 3200 m a marker layer was met with Zechstein 2 salt below. Interpretation of cores and results of downhole electromagnetic and borehole gravimetric measurements show that there is a large area around Erslev 2 which consists of very pure sodium chloride with traces of anhydrite (calcium, sulphate) 1-3%. This area is used for the repository design and safety evaluation. The hydrological conditions existing in the strata above the salt dome (caprock) have been investigated with the help of four hydrogeological wells, placed two each, on two different sites. The cores themselves were taken at various depths in all four holes. With these laboratory methods it has been possible to measure data relevant to hydrology - such as porosity and permeability - as well as geochemistry. (BP)

  4. Unphysiologically high magnesium concentrations support chondrocyte proliferation and redifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Witte, Frank; Kammal, Michael; Willumeit, Regine

    2006-12-01

    The effect of unphysiologically high extracellular magnesium concentrations on chondrocytes, induced by the supplementation of magnesium sulfate, was studied using a 3-phase tissue engineering model. The experiments showed that chondrocyte proliferation and redifferentiation, on the gene and protein expression level, are enhanced. A negative influence was found during chondrogenesis where an inhibition of extracellular matrix formation was observed. In addition, a direct impact on chondrocyte metabolism, elevated magnesium concentrations also affected growth factor effectiveness by consecutive influences during chondrogenesis. All observations were dosage dependent. The results of this study indicate that magnesium may be a useful tool for cartilage tissue engineering.

  5. Total- and methyl-mercury concentrations and methylation rates across the freshwater to hypersaline continuum of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William P.; Swanson, Neil; Black, Brooks; Rudd, Abigail; Carling, Gregory; Fernandez, Diego P.; Luft, John; Van Leeuwen, Jim; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) speciation in water and sediment of the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands, a locale spanning fresh to hypersaline and oxic to anoxic conditions, in order to test the hypothesis that spatial and temporal variations in Hg concentration and methylation rates correspond to observed spatial and temporal trends in Hg burdens previously reported in biota. Water column, sediment, and pore water concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg), as well as related aquatic chemical parameters were examined. Inorganic Hg(II)-methylation rates were determined in selected water column and sediment subsamples spiked with inorganic divalent mercury (204Hg(II)). Net production of Me204Hg was expressed as apparent first-order rate constants for methylation (kmeth), which were also expanded to MeHg production potential (MPP) rates via combination with tin reducible ‘reactive’ Hg(II) (Hg(II)R) as a proxy for bioavailable Hg(II). Notable findings include: 1) elevated Hg concentrations previously reported in birds and brine flies were spatially proximal to the measured highest MeHg concentrations, the latter occurring in the anoxic deep brine layer (DBL) of the Great Salt Lake; 2) timing of reduced Hg(II)-methylation rates in the DBL (according to both kmeth and MPP) coincides with reduced Hg burdens among aquatic invertebrates (brine shrimp and brine flies) that act as potential vectors of Hg propagation to the terrestrial ecosystem; 3) values ofkmeth were found to fall within the range reported by other studies; and 4) MPP rates were on the lower end of the range reported in methodologically comparable studies, suggesting the possibility that elevated MeHg in the anoxic deep brine layer results from its accumulation and persistence in this quasi-isolated environment, due to the absence of light (restricting abiotic photo demethylation) and/or minimal microbiological demethylation.

  6. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

    2002-02-01

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible

  7. Use of alkali metal salts to prepare high purity single-walled carbon nanotube solutions and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rakan F.

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) display interesting electronic and optical properties desired for many advanced thin film applications, such as transparent conductive electrodes or thin-film transistors. Large-scale production of SWCNTs generally results in polydispersed mixtures of nanotube structures. Since SWCNT electronic character (conducting or semiconducting nature) depends on the nanotube structure, application performance is being held back by this inability to discretely control SWCNT synthesis. Although a number of post-production techniques are able to separate SWCNTs based on electronic character, diameter, or chirality, most still suffer from the disadvantage of high costs of materials, equipment, or labor intensity to be relevant for large-scale production. On the other hand, chromatographic separation has emerged as a method that is compatible with large scale separation of metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs. In this work, SWCNTs, in an aqueous surfactant suspension of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are separated by their electronic character using a gel chromatography process. Metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) are collected as initial fractions since they show minimum interaction with the gel medium, whereas, semiconducting SWCNTs (sc- SWCNTs) remain adsorbed to the gel. The process of sc-SWCNT retention in the gel is found to be driven by the packing density of SDS around the SWCNTs. Through a series of separation experiments, it is shown that sc-SWCNTs can be eluted from the gel simply by disturbing the configuration of the SDS/SWCNT micellar structure. This is achieved by either introducing a solution containing a co-surfactant, such as sodium cholate (SC), or solutions of alkali metal ionic salts. Analysis of SWCNT suspensions by optical absorption provides insights into the effect of changing the metal ion (M+ = Li+, Na+, and K+) in the eluting solution. Salts with smaller metal ions (e.g. Li+) require higher concentrations to achieve

  8. A Rechargeable High-Temperature Molten Salt Iron-Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Guan, Chengzhi; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Shiyu; Bao, Hongliang; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Guoping; Chen, George Zheng; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2018-06-11

    The energy and power density of conventional batteries are far lower than their theoretical expectations, primarily because of slow reaction kinetics that are often observed under ambient conditions. Here we describe a low-cost and high-temperature rechargeable iron-oxygen battery containing a bi-phase electrolyte of molten carbonate and solid oxide. This new design merges the merits of a solid-oxide fuel cell and molten metal-air battery, offering significantly improved battery reaction kinetics and power capability without compromising the energy capacity. The as-fabricated battery prototype can be charged at high current density, and exhibits excellent stability and security in the highly charged state. It typically exhibits specific energy, specific power, energy density, and power density of 129.1 Wh kg -1 , 2.8 kW kg -1 , 388.1 Wh L -1 , and 21.0 kW L -1 , respectively, based on the mass and volume of the molten salt. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Overexpression of GmDREB1 improves salt tolerance in transgenic wheat and leaf protein response to high salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB is able to improve tolerance to abiotic stress in plants by regulating the expression of downstream genes involved in environmental stress resistance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the salt tolerance of GmDREB1 transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and to evaluate its physiological and protein responses to salt stress. Compared with the wild type, the transgenic lines overexpressing GmDREB1 showed longer coleoptiles and radicles and a greater radicle number at the germination stage, as well as greater root length, fresh weight, and tiller number per plant at the seedling stage. The yield-related traits of transgenic lines were also improved compared with the wild type, indicating enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic lines overexpressing GmDREB1. Proteomics analysis revealed that osmotic- and oxidative-stress-related proteins were up-regulated in transgenic wheat leaves under salt stress conditions. Transgenic wheat had higher levels of proline and betaine and lower levels of malondialdehyde and relative electrolyte leakage than the wild type. These results suggest that GmDREB1 regulates the expression of osmotic- and oxidative-stress-related proteins that reduce the occurrence of cell injury caused by high salinity, thus improving the salt tolerance of transgenic wheat.

  10. High Salt Intake Increases Blood Pressure via BDNF-Mediated Downregulation of KCC2 and Impaired Baroreflex Inhibition of Vasopressin Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Katrina Y.; Han, Su Y.; Gaub, Perrine; Shell, Brent; Voisin, Daniel L.; Knapp, Blayne A.; Barker, Philip A.; Brown, Colin H.; Cunningham, J. Thomas; Bourque, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which dietary salt promotes hypertension are unknown. Previous work established that plasma [Na+] and osmolality rise in proportion with salt intake and thus promote release of vasopressin (VP) from the neurohypophysis. Although high levels of circulating VP can increase blood pressure, this effect is normally prevented by a potent GABAergic inhibition of VP neurons by aortic baroreceptors. Here we show that chronic high salt intake impairs baroreceptor inhibition of rat VP ...

  11. Highly concentrated zinc oxide nanocrystals sol with strong blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafaee, M.; Sasani Ghamsari, M.; Radiman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highly concentrated ZnO sol was synthesized by an improved sol-gel method. Water was used as a modifier to control the sol-gel reaction and provide a way to increase the sol concentration. Concentration of ZnO in the prepared sol is higher than from other methods. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were used to investigate optical properties of the prepared sol. FTIR test was performed to study the influence of water on the compounds of as-prepared sol. The size and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied by HRTEM. The prepared colloidal ZnO nanocrystals have narrow size distribution (5-8 nm) and showed strong blue emission. The prepared sol has enough potential for optoelectronic applications. - Research highlights: → Novel sol-gel route has been employed to prepare highly concentrated ZnO colloidal nanocrystals. → Water has been used to control the sources of emission in synthesized material. → A strong blue luminescent material has been obtained.

  12. High-sensitivity detection of polysaccharide using phosphodiesters quaternary ammonium salt as probe by decreased resonance light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanguang; Liu, Guoliang; Chen, Maohuai; Wu, Mingyao

    2009-07-15

    Phosphodiesters quaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) displayed quite intense light scattering in aqueous solution under the optimum condition. In addition, the resonance light scattering (RLS) signal of PQAS was remarkably decreased after adding trace amount polysaccharide with the maximum peak located at 391 nm. It was found that the decreased RLS intensity of the PQAS-PPGL system (DeltaI(RLS)) was in proportion to PPGL concentration in the range of 0.1-30 ng mL(-1), with a lower detection limit of 0.05 ng mL(-1). Based on this rare decreased RLS phenomenon, the novel method of the determination of purified polysaccharide of Gracilaria Lemaneiformis (PPGL) at nanogram level was proposed in this contribution. The proposed approach was used to determine purified polysaccharide extracted from Gracilaria Lemaneiformis with satisfactory results. Compared with the reported polysaccharide assays, this proposed method has good selectivity, high sensitivity and is especially simple and convenient. Moreover, the mechanism of the reaction between PQAS and polysaccharide was investigated by RLS, fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime spectra.

  13. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    to atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice received standard or high-salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with fixed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.5 microg/kg per min). BP was measured using telemetry, and plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and innominate artery. We...

  14. Downregulation of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Pathway Is Involved in Mitochondrion-Related Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Induced by High Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Zong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to investigate whether endogenous H2S pathway was involved in high-salt-stimulated mitochondria-related vascular endothelial cell (VEC apoptosis. Methods. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were used in the study. H2S content in the supernatant was detected. Western blot was used to detect expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE, cleaved-caspase-3, and mitochondrial and cytosolic cytochrome c (cytc. Fluorescent probes were used to quantitatively detect superoxide anion generation and measure the in situ superoxide anion generation in HUVEC. Mitochondrial membrane pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase-9 activities were measured. The cell apoptosis was detected by cell death ELISA and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL methods. Results. High-salt treatment downregulated the endogenous VEC H2S/CSE pathway, in association with increased generation of oxygen free radicals, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore and leakage of mitochondrial cytc, activated cytoplasmic caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequently induced VEC apoptosis. However, supplementation of H2S donor markedly inhibited VEC oxidative stress and mitochondria-related VEC apoptosis induced by high salt. Conclusion. H2S/CSE pathway is an important endogenous defensive system in endothelial cells antagonizing high-salt insult. The protective mechanisms for VEC damage might involve inhibiting oxidative stress and protecting mitochondrial injury.

  15. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  16. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in support of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's program to investigate an advanced molten salt cooled reactor concept for the U.S. Department of Energy, evaluated potential nitrogen trifluoride (NF 3 ) use as an agent for removing oxide and hydroxide contaminants from candidate coolants. These contaminants must be eliminated because they increase the corrosivity of the molten salt to the detriment of the materials of containment that are currently being considered. The baseline purification agent for fluoride coolant salts is hydrogen fluoride (HF) combined with hydrogen (H 2 ). Using HF/H 2 as the reference treatment, we compare HF and NF 3 industrial use, chemical and physical properties, industrial production levels, chemical, toxicity, and reactivity hazards, environmental impacts, effluent management strategies, and reaction thermodynamic values. Because NF 3 is only mildly toxic, non-corrosive, and non-reactive at room temperature, it will be easy to manage the chemical and reactivity hazards during transportation, storage, and normal operations. Industrial experience with NF 3 is also extensive because NF 3 is commonly used as an etchant and chamber cleaner in the electronics industry. In contrast HF is a highly toxic and corrosive gas at room temperature but because of its significance as the most important fluorine-containing chemical there is significant industrial experience managing HF hazards. NF 3 has been identified as having the potential to be a significant contributor to global warming and thus its release must be evaluated and/or managed depending on the amounts that would be released. Because of its importance to the electronics industry, commercial technologies using incineration or plasmas have been

  17. Nonfaradaic nanoporous electrochemistry for conductometry at high electrolyte concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Je Hyun; Kang, Chung Mu; Choi, Hyoungseon; Kim, Beom Jin; Jang, Woohyuk; Lim, Sung Yul; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2015-02-17

    Nanoporous electrified surfaces create a unique nonfaradaic electrochemical behavior that is sensitively influenced by pore size, morphology, ionic strength, and electric field modulation. Here, we report the contributions of ion concentration and applied ac frequency to the electrode impedance through an electrical double layer overlap and ion transport along the nanopores. Nanoporous Pt with uniform pore size and geometry (L2-ePt) responded more sensitively to conductivity changes in aqueous solutions than Pt black with poor uniformity despite similar real surface areas and enabled the previously difficult quantitative conductometry measurements at high electrolyte concentrations. The nanopores of L2-ePt were more effective in reducing the electrode impedance and exhibited superior linear responses to not only flat Pt but also Pt black, leading to successful conductometric detection in ion chromatography without ion suppressors and at high ionic strengths.

  18. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  19. High pressure study of water-salt systems, phase equilibria, partitioning, thermodynic properties and implication for large icy worlds hydrospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, B.; Brown, J. M.; Abramson, E.; Petitgirard, S.; Pakhomova, A.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Collings, I.

    2017-12-01

    Water salt systems are predicted to be present in deep hydrosphere inside water-rich planetary bodies, following water/rock chemical interaction during early differentiation stages or later hydrothermal activity. Unfortunately the current knowledge of the thermodynamic and physical properties of aqueous salt mixtures at high pressure and high temperature is still insufficient to allow realistic modeling of the chemical or dynamic of thick planetary hydrospheres. Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability fields, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions. Effects currently being investigated by our research group also covers ice melting curve depressions that depend on the salt species and incorporation of solutes inside the crystallographic lattice of high pressure ices. Both of these could have very important implication at the planetary scale, enabling thicker/deeper liquid oceans, and allowing chemical transportation through the high pressure ice layer in large icy worlds. We will present the latest results obtained in-situ using diamond anvil cell, coupled with Synchrotron X-Ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and optical observations, allowing to probe the crystallographic structure, equations of state, partitioning and phase boundary of high pressure ice VI and VII in equilibrium with Na-Mg-SO4-Cl ionic species at high pressures (1-10 GPa). The difference in melting behavior depending on the dissolved salt species was characterized, suggesting differences in ionic speciation at liquidus conditions. The solidus P-T conditions were also measured as well as an increase of lattice volumes interpreted as an outcome of ionic incorporation in HP ice during incongruent crystallization. The measured phase diagrams, lattice volumes and important salt incorporations suggest a more complex picture of the

  20. High Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Inhibit Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2017-07-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Tranexamic acid modulation of NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainate receptors was studied using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of current from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Tranexamic acid rapidly and reversibly inhibited NMDA receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 241 ± 45 mM, mean ± SD; 95% CI, 200 to 281; n = 5) and shifted the glycine concentration-response curve for NMDA-evoked current to the right. Tranexamic acid also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 231 ± 91 mM; 95% CI, 148 to 314; n = 5 to 6) and kainate receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 90 ± 24 mM; 95% CI, 68 to 112; n = 5). Tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors likely by reducing the binding of the co-agonist glycine and also inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate receptors. Receptor blockade occurs at high millimolar concentrations of tranexamic acid, similar to the concentrations that occur after topical application to peripheral tissues. Glutamate receptors in tissues including bone, heart, and nerves play various physiologic roles, and tranexamic acid inhibition of these receptors may contribute to adverse drug effects.

  1. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  2. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-Conceptual Design of a Fluoride-Salt-Cooled Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Cisneros, Anselmo T [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This document presents the results of a study conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 2010 to explore the feasibility of small modular fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs). A preliminary reactor system concept, SmATHR (for Small modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor) is described, along with an integrated high-temperature thermal energy storage or salt vault system. The SmAHTR is a 125 MWt, integral primary, liquid salt cooled, coated particle-graphite fueled, low-pressure system operating at 700 C. The system employs passive decay heat removal and two-out-of-three , 50% capacity, subsystem redundancy for critical functions. The reactor vessel is sufficiently small to be transportable on standard commercial tractor-trailer transport vehicles. Initial transient analyses indicated the transition from normal reactor operations to passive decay heat removal is accomplished in a manner that preserves robust safety margins at all times during the transient. Numerous trade studies and trade-space considerations are discussed, along with the resultant initial system concept. The current concept is not optimized. Work remains to more completely define the overall system with particular emphasis on refining the final fuel/core configuration, salt vault configuration, and integrated system dynamics and safety behavior.

  4. A high sensitive ion pairing probe (the interaction of pyrenetetrasulphonate and methyl viologen): Salt and temperature dependences and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Jeferson [Departamento de Bioquímica e Departamento de Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Perez, Katia R. [Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo-SP (Brazil); Pisco, Thiago B.; Pavanelli, David D.; Briotto Filho, Décio; Rezende, Daisy [Departamento de Bioquímica e Departamento de Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rezende Triboni, Eduardo [Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, São Paulo-SP (Brazil); Chagas Alves Lima, Francisco das [Coordenação de Química, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, Teresina-PI (Brazil); Lopes Magalhães, Janildo [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências da Natureza, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Centro de Ciências da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Midea Cuccovia, Iolanda [Departamento de Bioquímica e Departamento de Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); and others

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between pyrenetetrasulphonate (PTS) and methyl viologen (MV{sup 2+}) leads to a 1:1 charge transfer complex (CTC) in the concentration range below mmol L{sup −1} of the ligands. Quantum mechanical calculations show the 1:1 complex having the planar moiety of PTS and the charges of the sulfonate groups stabilized by the twisted rings of the positively charged MV{sup 2+} species. The peculiar nature of PTS includes high fluorescence quantum yield (∼1), clear specular UV–vis spectra and fluorescence emission images, as well similar S{sub 2}←S{sub 0} and S{sub 3}←S{sub 0} transitions as those of S{sub 1}←S{sub 0,} all of them exhibiting well resolved vibrational structure. MV{sup 2+} has well known electron-accepting properties that favor the complexation. These features were studied as a function of salt concentration and temperature dependences allowing a detailed comprehension of static and dynamic association processes. Quantum mechanical calculations show the 1:1 stabilization of PTS/MV{sup 2+}. In addition the effect of urea on the CTC equilibrium is presented, as expected the additive acts towards the non-complexed species (solvated free ions). The fluorescence quenching of MV{sup 2+}over PTS highlights is one of the applications of this effect for giant vesicles characterization. - Highlights: • We determined the details of PTS/MV{sup 2+} 1:1 complex formation. • Ground and excited states formation is operative. • Ion pairing effects due to urea effect are shown. • Vesicle formation is illustrated by the pair.

  5. Practical design constraints for using secondary concentrators at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J.J.; Winston, R.

    1999-07-01

    The optical advantages of using nonimaging secondary concentrators in two-stage solar thermal dish systems are well understood. However, practical questions having to do with the thermal behavior of any secondary and its possible effects on the performance of cavity type receivers have only recently begun to be investigated. A few years ago an experimental demonstration of a trumpet type nonimaging secondary concentrator was carried out with a cavity receiver operating 660 C in combination with the Cummins Power Generation CPG-460 7.5 kWe concentrator system. Lessons learned from this and previous experiments are reviewed. The tests alleviated any operational concerns about the effectiveness of active water cooling and have shown that secondaries can be operated successfully at high temperatures without significant problems. There was no evidence of direct heat loss from the hot receiver to the cooled trumpet. The optical quality of any primary can be expected to fall well below design goals and to deteriorate further with time. This expectation should be taken into account in planning future experiments and developing new concentrating systems.

  6. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 by using the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 for the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian-Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  7. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: jasouza@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 g U/c m3 by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 g U/c m3 for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian- Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  8. Salton Sea geothermal field as a natural analog for the near-field in a salt high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elders, W.A.; Moody, J.B.; Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), on the delta of the Colorado River in southern California, is being studied as a natural analog for the near-field environment of proposed nuclear waste repositories in salt. A combination of mineralogical and geochemical methods is being employed to develop a three-dimenisonal picture of temperature, salinity, lithology, mineralogy, and chemistry of reactions between the reservoir rocks and the hot brines. Our aim is to obtain quantitative data on mineral stabilities and on mobilities of the naturally occurring radionuclides of concern in Commercial High-Level Waste (CHLW). These data will be used to validate the EQ3/6 geochemical code under development to model the salt near-field repository behavior. Maximum temperatures encountered in wells in the SSGF equal or exceed peak temperatures expected in a salt repository. Brines produced from these wells have major element chemistry similar to brines from candidate salt sites. Relative to the rocks, these brines are enriched in Na, Mn, Sr, Ra, and Po, depleted in Ba, Si, Mg, Ti, and Al, and strongly depleted in U and Th. However, the unaltered rocks contain only about 2 to 3 ppm of U and 4 to 12 ppm of Th, largely in detrital epidotes and zircons. Samples of hydrothermally altered rocks from a wide range of temperature and salinity show rather similar uniform low concentrations of these elements, even when authigenic illite, chlorite, ipidote and feldspar are present. These observations suggest that U and Th are relatively immobile in these hot brines. However, Ra, Po, Cs, and Sr are relatively mobile. Work is continuing to document naturally occurring radionuclide partitioning between SSGF minears and brine over a range of temperature, salinity, and lithology. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Temperature calculations on different configurations for disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt dome model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Kevenaar, J.W.A.M.

    1978-06-01

    A medium size salt dome is considered as a structure in which a repository can be located for all radioactive wastes to be produced within the scope of a postulated nuclear power program. A dominating design factor for the lay-out of such a waste repository is the temperature distribution in the salt dome resulting from decay heat released from the buried solidified high-level reprocessing waste. Two numerical models are presented for the calculation of both global and local rock salt temperatures. The results of calculations performed with these models are demonstrated to be compatible. Rock salt temperatures related to several types of burial configurations, ranging from two layer configurations with various vertical distances between the layers via a three and a four layer repository to deep bore hole concepts varying from 100 to 600 m bore hole depth, can therefore be calculated with one rather simple unit cell model. The results of these calculations indicate that rock salt temperatures can be kept within acceptable limits to realize a repository using standard mining techniques. The temperatures at mine galery level prove to be a dominating factor in the selection of a repository configuration. More detailed calculations of these temperatures taking into account the loading sequence and the cooling capacity of the mine ventilation are recommended. Finally the apparent advantages of a deep bore hole concept emphasize the need for R and D work with respect to advanced drilling techniques in order to achieve deep dry disposal bore holes that can be realized from a burial mine in the salt dome. (Auth.)

  10. The molten salt reactor: R and D status and perspectives in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renault, Claude; Delpech, Sylvie; Merle-Lucotte, Elsa; Konings, Rudy; Hron, Miloslav; Ignatiev, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The paper concentrates on molten salt fast reactor (MSFR) concepts which are receiving most attention in the EU context. It shows the main R and D achievements and some remaining issues to be addressed in such essential areas as (a) reactor conceptual design, (b) molten salt properties, (c) fuel salt clean-up scheme and (d) high temperature materials. The status and perspectives of molten salt reactor R and D efforts in Europe are then discussed

  11. Concentration dependence of the partial volume, viscosity, and electric conductivity of solutions of lithium salts in aliphatic alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, O.V.; Golubev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Concentration dependence of partial volumes, electric conductivity and viscosity of lithium nitrate and chloride solutions in methanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, isobutanol, pentanol and isopentanol at 298.15 K were studied by the methods of densimetry, conductometry and viscosimetry. Structural specific features of the solutions studied are discussed on the basis of the calculated volumetric characteristics of the substance dissolved and solvent [ru

  12. Technetium removal column flow testing with alkaline, high salt, radioactive tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Kurath, D.E.; Golcar, G.R.; Conradson, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes two bench-scale column tests conducted to demonstrate the removal of Tc-99 from actual alkaline high salt radioactive waste. The waste used as feed for these tests was obtained from the Hanford double shell tank AW-101, which contains double shell slurry feed (DSSF). The tank sample was diluted to approximately 5 M Na with water, and most of the Cs-137 was removed using crystalline silicotitanates. The tests were conducted with two small columns connected in series, containing, 10 mL of either a sorbent, ABEC 5000 (Eichrom Industries, Inc.), or an anion exchanger Reillex trademark-HPQ (Reilly Industries, Inc.). Both materials are selective for pertechnetate anion (TcO 4 - ). The process steps generally followed those expected in a full-scale process and included (1) resin conditioning, (2) loading, (3) caustic wash to remove residual feed and prevent the precipitation of Al(OH) 3 , and (4) elution. A small amount of Tc-99m tracer was added as ammonium pertechnetate to the feed and a portable GEA counter was used to closely monitor the process. Analyses of the Tc-99 in the waste was performed using ICP-MS with spot checks using radiochemical analysis. Technetium x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of 6 samples were also collected to determine the prevalence of non-pertechnetate species [e.g. Tc(IV)

  13. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias; Choi, Joshua J.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Drinking water contributes to high salt consumption in young adults in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Malek, Abdul; Khan, Sheela; Chu, Cordia

    2016-04-01

    Increasing salinity of freshwater from environmental and anthropogenic influences is threatening the health of 35 million inhabitants in coastal Bangladesh. Yet little is known about the characteristics of their exposure to salt (sodium), a major risk factor for hypertension and related chronic diseases. This research examined sodium consumption levels and associated factors in young adults. We assessed spot urine samples for 282 participants (19-25 years) during May-June 2014 in a rural sub-district in southwestern coastal Bangladesh and measured sodium levels of their potable water sources. The significant factors associated with high sodium consumption were determined from logistic regression analyses. Mean sodium content in tube-well water (885 mg/L) was significantly higher than pond water (738 mg/L) (P = 0.01). Fifty three percent of subjects were consuming sodium at levels above the WHO recommended level (≥2 g/day). The users of tube-well water were more likely to consume sodium above this recommended level than pond water users. Salinity problems are projected to increase with climate change, and with large populations potentially at risk, appropriate public health and behavior-change interventions are an urgent priority for this vulnerable coastal region along with targeted research to better understand sodium exposure pathways and health benefits of alternative water supplies.

  15. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  16. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A. L.; Betzler, Benjamin R.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Carbajo, Juan; Greenwood, Michael Scott; Hale, Richard Edward; Harrison, Thomas J.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Terrell, Jerry W.

    2015-01-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  17. Thermogravimetric studies of high temperature reactions between potassium salts and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmusto, J.; Lindberg, D.; Yrjas, P.; Skrifvars, B.-J.; Hupa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► K 2 CO 3 reacted with Cr 2 O 3 forming K 2 CrO 4 . ► Presence of chlorine did not alone explain the initiation of accelerated oxidation. ► More light was shed to the role of chromates in accelerated oxidation. ► Accelerated oxidation of chromia protected steels occurs in two consecutive stages. ► Both potassium and chloride are required, so that both stages of reaction occur. - Abstract: This study compares the high temperature reactions of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ), two salts found in fly ashes formed in biomass combustion, with both pure metallic chromium (Cr) and chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ). The reactions were investigated with thermogravimetric measurements and the results discussed based on thermodynamic calculations. In simple terms: potassium chloride reacted with chromium forming potassium chromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) and chromium oxide. Potassium chloride did not react with chromium oxide. Potassium carbonate reacted with chromium oxide, but not with chromium. The presence of potassium is sufficient to initiate accelerated oxidation, but chloride is needed to sustain it.

  18. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Experimental storage of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine - technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.; Rothfuchs, T.; Feddersen, H.; Graefe, V.; Gross, S.; Hente, B.; Jockwer, N.; Kessels, W.; Schwaegermann, H.

    1988-01-01

    The work performed under this project in the Asse salt mine is an important milepost within the framework schedule of the 'Gorleben Poject' of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The project phase I (1982 - June 30, 1985) is about to be concluded at the time this report is published. The main points of interest of this project phase cover the planning of the experimental work, the design of experiments, and the first activities for developing the systems for handling the high-level radioactive wastes. The engineering development work has been advanced to the point where construction and manufacture of equipment can be started (transport containers Asse, TB1, collective transport containers, borehole gates, transport vehicles, waste positioning equipment, and borehole casing). Testing of the pipes for the last mentioned task with regard to the material's deformation behaviour will be done by the Dutch ECN as a sub-contractor. First laboratory experiments have been carried out on radiolysis gas formation, to complement the engineering work and the in-situ measuring programmes. (orig./RB) [de

  20. Sandia studies of high-level waste canisters and overpacks applicable for a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Schaefer, D.W.; Glass, R.S.; Ruppen, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop candidate materials for use as high-level waste (HLW) overpacks or canisters in a salt repository has been in progress at Sandia National Laboratories since 1976. The main objective of this program is to provide a waste package barrier having a long lifetime in the chemical and physical environment of a repository. This paper summarizes the recent corrosion and metallurgical study results for the prime overpack material, TiCode-12, in the areas of uniform corrosion (extremely low rate and extent); local attack, e.g., pits and crevices (none were found); stress corrosion cracking susceptibility (no significant changes in macroscopic tensile properties were detected); hydrogen sorption-embrittlement effects; effects of gamma irradiation in solution; and sensitization effects (testing is still in process in the last three areas). Previous candidate screening analyses on other alloys and recent work on alternate overpack alloys are reviewed. All phases of these interrelated laboratory, hot-cell, and field experimental studies are described. 16 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  1. Response of Yield, Yield Components and Nutrient Concentration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. to Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bijhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and salinity stress on the growth, yield and nutrient concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., an experiment was carried out as split plot in a completely randomized block design at Zabol University Research Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of three salinity stresses: 1 (control, 5 and 10 dSm-1, was considered as the main treatments, and four levels of mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus intraradices, G. etanicatum, G. hoi and non-inoculation as control as the sub-treatments. The effects of salinity on all traits under study, except umbers per plant, were significant, and severe stress (10 dSm-1 reduced 100 seed weight, number of seeds per umbel, concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in seeds by 17.71, 11.4, 14.95, 46.08, 13.60 %, respectively, as compared to the control. The numbers of seeds per umbel and phosphorus concentration in seed were highest in G. intraradices with 28.4 and 54.4%, respectively as compared to control and umbels per plant was also maximum (9.7 by using G. etanicatum. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not have significant effect on calcium and magnesium concentrations in seeds and 1000 seed weight. However mycorrhiza × salinity stress interaction was significant about concentration of sodium, potassium and sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K in seeds, as well as seed yield and seed number per plant. Among the species of mycorrhiza, applied G. intraradices had better performance in severe salinity (10 dS-1 and increased seed yield and seed number per plant by 28.5 and 47.6%, respectively in comparision control. The results suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation improves water absorption by plant. Yield increases of plants under different salinity regimes dependent on their mycorrhizal inoculation.

  2. Liver imaging with MDCT and high concentration contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, Audrey L.

    2003-01-01

    Liver imaging has advanced greatly over the last 10 years with helical CT capability and more recently the addition of multidetector-row CT (MDCT). Multidetector CT technology facilitates imaging at faster speeds with improved image quality and less breathing artifact [Abdom. Imaging 25 (2000) 643]. Exquisite three-dimensional data sets can be obtained with thin collimation providing improved lesion detection, multiplanar imaging, and the ability to perform CT angiography of the liver and mesenteric vessels. New challenges arise with this advance in technology including safety considerations. The radiation dose to the patient has increased with MDCT and this is compounded by the ability to perform multi-phase liver imaging. Furthermore, issues of contrast media administration require reconsideration including optimal timing and rate of administration, the total volume of contrast needed and the ideal iodine concentration of the contrast media. Recently, the use of high concentration contrast media (HCCM) has been explored and study results to date will be reviewed

  3. Characterization of the deviation to the ideality of concentrated actinide and lanthanide salt solutions: contribution of the Bimsa theory; Caracterisation de l'ecart a l'idealite de solutions concentrees de sels d'actinide et de lanthanide: contribution de la theorie Bimsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruas, A

    2006-03-15

    The aim of this work is to describe the mean stoichiometric activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients or water activities of aqueous actinide nitrate salt solutions up to high concentration. These sets of data are required for a better control of the equilibria occurring in liquid-liquid extraction processes. Experimental acquisition of these thermodynamic properties, in the case of some actinide nitrates, is possible and was conducted before.But, many actinide salt solutions cannot be experimentally handled up to high concentration because of unstable oxidation state or very high radioactivity. As a consequence, a suitable predictive theory is necessary for the description of these nitrate salt solutions (such as Am (NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Cm (NO{sub 3}){sub 3}). The BIMSA ('Binding Mean Spherical Approximation') was chosen for this purpose. This theory, unlike other methods, uses a set of microscopic parameters that have some physical meaning, for the description of macroscopic thermodynamic properties (osmotic coefficients, activity coefficients).The following manuscript is divided by 4 chapters, corresponding to 4 articles accepted in the scientific journal 'Journal of Physical Chemistry'. Chapter 1 first reviews the basic thermodynamic concepts before describing the issues involved in acquiring actinides binary data. An approach based on the thermodynamic concept of simple solutions, the notion of fictive binary data, is described. Within this approach, the activity coefficient of an aqueous phase constituent depends on two parameters: the water activity of the system and total concentration of dissolved constituents. As a first application, new fictive binary data of uranyl nitrate are proposed from measurements on the ternary system UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O.Chapter 2 gives the main principles of the BIMSA theory. It shows also preliminary promising results obtained when modeling lanthanide(III) salt properties. Then

  4. [Condition optimization for bio-oxidation of high-S and high-As gold concentrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caiyun; Dong, Bowen; Wang, Meijun; Ye, Zhiyong; Zheng, Tianling; Huang, Huaiguo

    2015-12-04

    To study the effects of temperature and lixivium return on the concentrate bio-oxidation and rate of gold cyanide leaching. The bioleaching of a high-sulphur (S) and high-arsenic (As) refractory gold concentrate was conducted, and we studied the effects of different temperature (40 ° and 45 °C) and lixivium return (0 and 600 mL) on the bio-oxidation efficiency. The bacterial community structure also was investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results showed that both the temperature and lixivium return significantly influenced the oxidation system. The temperature rising elevated the oxidation level, while the addition of lixivium depressed the oxidation. Dissimilarity and DCA (detrended correspondence analysis) indicated the effect of temperature on oxidation system was much greater than lixivium. The bacterial community was comprised by Acidithiocacillus caldu (71%) Leptospirillum ferriphilum (23%) and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (6%) indicated by the clone library, and the OTU coverage based on 97% sequence similarity was as high as 93.67%. Temperature rising to 45 T would improve the oxidation efficiency while lixivium return would decrease it. This study is helpful to provide an important guiding value for the industry cost optimization of mesophile bacterial oxidation and reduction process.

  5. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 for U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm 3 for U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 in U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm 3 U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U 3 Si 2 -Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm 3 showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U 3 Si 2 production at 4.8 gU/cm 3 , with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  6. Mitigation of houses with extremely high indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.; Neznal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on the experience of the Czech Technical University in dealing with mitigation of houses in which unusually high indoor radon concentrations were found. The whole process of remediation is illustrated by example of an old single-family house that was built in the area formed by highly permeable soils with high radon content in the soil air. T he house has a small cellar located under 1/5 of the ground floor area. Two types of floors, i.e. timber floors and cracked concrete slabs were found in the house. As a result of extremely high radon concentration in the sub-floor region (up to 600 kBq/m 3 ) and leaky structures in contact with soil, radon concentrations around 100 kBq/m 3 in the cellar and up to 60 kBq/m 3 in the living rooms on the ground floor were measured prior to mitigation. Mitigation measures that were carried out in the house consist of reconstruction of timber floors and installation of active soil depressurization. Timber floors were replaced with concrete slab fitted with damp proof membrane, thermal insulation and floor covering. The soil depressurization system was made up of two sections. The first section is composed of the network of perforated pipes inserted in the drainage layer placed under the new floors and four perforated tubes drilled under the existing floors. The soil air from this section is extracted by means of a roof fan installed at the top of the vertical exhaust pipe running inside the living space and terminating above the roof. The second section was designed to withdraw by means of a small fan radon-laden air from the filling in the floor above the cellar and from perforated tubes drilled into the sub-floor region under the rooms adjacent to the cellar. It serves also for the active ventilation of the cellar. Pressure, temperature and radon concentration sensors were installed into the drainage layer during the reconstruction of floors to record variations in these

  7. Effects of angiotensin (1-7 on nephrosis of the mice with metabolic syndrome induced by high-salt and high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan ZHU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To establish a metabolic syndrome model of C57BL/6 mice by high-salt and high-fat diet, and investigate the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2 and angiotensin (1-7 on renal damage in mice. Methods Fifty-six male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 7 groups (8 each, and fed with normal diet (0.3% NaCl, 10% fat, high-salt diet (8% NaCl, 10% fat, high-fat diet (0.3% NaCl, 60% fat, high-salt and high-fat diet (8% NaCl, 60% fat, high-salt and high-fat diet with enalapril 20mg/(kg•d, with valsartan 50mg/(kg•d, and with valsartan 50mg/(kg•d plus Mas receptor antagonist (A-779 150ng/(kg•d, respectively for 16 weeks. Basal metabolic index including blood pressure, body weight, blood glucose and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER were tested. After intraperitoneal anesthesia with chloral hydrate, the blood was collected from the carotid artery. Serum angiotensin Ⅱ and angiotensin (1-7 levels were detected by ELISA; Western blotting was performed to evaluate the expression of ACE 2 protein and collagen Ⅲ in renal tissue; renal pathological changes were observed by HE and Masson staining. Results The blood pressure, ratio of visceral fat weight/body weight, blood lipid, blood glucose and UAER increased significantly in the C57BL/6 mice fed with high-salt and high-fat diet for 16 weeks, and the renal fibrosis change was obvious, serum angiotensin Ⅱ level increased, expressions of ACE 2 and angiotensin (1-7 decreased significantly in the renal tissue. In different intervention groups, valsartan obviously alleviated the abnormal metabolism, ameliorated renal injury, promoted the expression of ACE2 and angiotensin (1-7 in the kidney and serum. However, no significant change was observed in the groups with intervention of enalapril or valsartan+A-779 compared with non-intervention group. Conclusions High-salt and high-fat diet can be used to successfully establish the model of metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6

  8. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-01-01

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54 psu) compared with seawater controls (37 psu) over 6 weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2–4 weeks at 54 psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. - Highlights: • We separated salt effects of desalination brine from other deleterious components. • Sublethal salinity stress depended on both salinity increase and exposure time. • Very effective osmoregulation led to tolerance of short intervals of high salinity.

  9. Introduction of high oxygen concentrations into silicon wafers by high-temperature diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Ruzin, A.; Wegrzecki, M.

    1999-01-01

    The tolerance of silicon detectors to hadron irradiation can be improved by the introduction of a high concentration of oxygen into the starting material. High-resistivity Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon is required for detectors used in particle physics applications. A significantly high oxygen concentration (>10 17 atoms cm -3 ) cannot readily be achieved during the FZ silicon refinement. The diffusion of oxygen at elevated temperatures from a SiO 2 layer grown on both sides of a silicon wafer is a simple and effective technique to achieve high and uniform concentrations of oxygen throughout the bulk of a 300 μm thick silicon wafer

  10. Emergent nanoscale fluctuations in high rock-salt PbTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinge, Simon

    2013-03-01

    Lead Telluride is one of the most promising thermoelectric materials in the temperature range just above room temperature. It is a narrow band gap semiconductor with a high Seebeck coefficient and a low thermal conductivity. It is structurally much simpler than many other leading candidates for high performance thermoelectrics being a binary rock-salt, isostructural to NaCl. The thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, can be markedly improved by alloying with various other elements by forming quenched nanostructures. The undoped endmember, PbTe, does not have any such quenched nanostructure, yet has a rather low intrinsic thermal conductivity. There are also a number of interesting and non-canonical behaviors that it exhibits, such as an increasing measured band-gap with increasing temperature, exactly opposite to what is normally seen due to Fermi smearing of the band edge, and an unexpected non-monotonicity of the band gap in the series PbTe - PbSe - PbS. The material is on the surface simple, but hides some interesting complexity. We have investigated in detail the PbTe endmember using x-ray and neutron diffraction and neutron inelastic scattering. To our surprise, using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron powder diffraction data we found that an interesting and non-trivial local structure that appears on warming. with the Pb atoms moving off the high-symmetry rock-salt positions towards neighboring Te ions. No evidence for the off-centering of the Pb atoms is seen at low temperature. The crossover from the locally undistorted to the locally distorted state occurs on warming between 100 K and 250 K. This unexpected emergence of local symmetry broken distortions from an undistorted ground-state we have called emphanisis, from the Greek for appearing from nothing. We have also investigated the lattice dynamics of the system to search for a dynamical signature of this behavior and extended the studies to doped systems and I will also

  11. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  12. Identification of Organic Iodine Compounds and Their Transformation Products in Edible Iodized Salt Using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lifen; Peng, Yue'e; Chang, Qing; Zhu, Qingxin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yanxin

    2017-07-05

    The consumption of edible iodized salt is a key strategy to control and eliminate iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. We herein report the identification of the organic iodine compounds present in different edible iodized salt products using liquid chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 38 organic iodine compounds and their transformation products (TPs) were identified in seaweed iodine salt from China. Our experiments confirmed that the TPs were generated by the replacement of I atoms from organic iodine compounds with Cl atoms. Furthermore, the organic iodine compound contents in 4 seaweed iodine salt samples obtained from different manufacturers were measured, with significant differences in content being observed. We expect that the identification of organic iodine compounds in salt will be important for estimating the validity and safety of edible iodized salt products.

  13. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  14. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between simulations and observations of

  15. Ecological effects of climate change on salt marsh wildlife: a case study from a highly urbanized estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal areas are high-risk zones subject to the impacts of global climate change, with significant increases in the frequencies of extreme weather and storm events, and sea-level rise forecast by 2100. These physical processes are expected to alter estuaries, resulting in loss of intertidal wetlands and their component wildlife species. In particular, impacts to salt marshes and their wildlife will vary both temporally and spatially and may be irreversible and severe. Synergistic effects caused by combining stressors with anthropogenic land-use patterns could create areas of significant biodiversity loss and extinction, especially in urbanized estuaries that are already heavily degraded. In this paper, we discuss current ideas, challenges, and concerns regarding the maintenance of salt marshes and their resident wildlife in light of future climate conditions. We suggest that many salt marsh habitats are already impaired and are located where upslope transgression is restricted, resulting in reduction and loss of these habitats in the future. In addition, we conclude that increased inundation frequency and water depth will have negative impacts on the demography of small or isolated wildlife meta-populations as well as their community interactions. We illustrate our points with a case study on the Pacific Coast of North America at San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge in California, an area that supports endangered wildlife species reliant on salt marshes for all aspects of their life histories.

  16. [Influence of removing iodized salt on children's goiter status in areas with high iodine in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengmin; Xu, Dong; Wang, Yuchun; Du, Yonggui; Jia, Lihui; Liang, Suoli

    2015-05-01

    To explore the changes of goiter prevalence of children living in areas with high iodine in drinking water after removing iodized salt from their diet. Three towns with median water iodine of 150 - 300 μg/L were selected randomly in Hengshui city of Hebei province of China. A total of 452 and 459 children in the 3 towns were randomly selected to measure thyroid volume by ultrasound before and after removing iodized salt, respectively. Their goiter status was judged using the criteria of age-specific thyroid volume recommended by the WHO. After removing iodized salt, the overall goiter prevalence in the three towns significantly decreased from 24.56% (111/452) to 5.88% (27/459) (P < 0.01). The goiter prevalence in 8, 9 and 10 year-old children decreased respectively from 33.70% (31/92), 23.32% (45/193) and 20.96% (35/167) to 6.10% (10/164), 5.52% (9/163) and 6.06% (8/132). The goiter prevalence in boys and girls decreased from 27.05% (66/244) and 21.63% (45/208 ) to 6.66% (15/226 ) and 5.15% (12/233), respectively. The decreases in children's goiter prevalence across gender and age group were all significant. Children's goiter prevalence decreased significantly after removing iodized salt from their diet for about one and half years in the HIA in Hebei province.

  17. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  18. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10 15 cm -3 has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium β-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H 2 with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10 7 cm -3 and are estimated to contain 10 8 H atoms each

  19. Risk factors associated with high linezolid trough plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, L; De la Calle, C; Gómez-Cerquera, J M; Manzanedo, L; Casals, G; Brunet, M; Cobos-Trigueros, N; Martínez, J A; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2016-06-01

    The major concern of linezolid is the adverse events. High linezolid trough serum concentration (Cmin) has been associated with toxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze factors associated with high Cmin. Main clinical characteristics of 104 patients treated with 600 mg/12 hours of linezolid were retrospectively reviewed. Samples were obtained just before the next dose after at least three doses and within the first 8 days of treatment. High Cmin was considered when it was >8 mg/L. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. 34.6% patients had a Cmin >8 mg/L, and they were older and had more frequently an estimated glomerular filtration by MDRD 8 was the renal function. Patients with an eGF 80 mL/min (OR: 4.273) and there was a trend towards a high Cmin in patients with eGF between 40-80 mL/min (OR: 2.109). High Cmin were frequent, especially in patients with MDRD <40 mL/min. Therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful to avoid toxicity in patients with renal dysfunction.

  20. Ammonia complexes of metals in aqueous solutions with high concentrations of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padar, T.G.; Novikov, L.K.; Stupko, T.V.; Isaev, I.D.; Pashkov, G.L.; Mironov, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Potentiometric method, glass electrodes and Bierrum function were used to study the formation of ammonia complexes of magnesium, calcium, cadmium, zinc, copper(2) and silver in 2.0 mol/dm 3 aqueous solutions of ammonia nitrate with 0-18 mol/dm 3 ammonia concentrations at 25.0 deg C. Step constants of stability of studied complexes were calculated and their compositions were determined with account of nonideal character of aqueous-salt solutions with ammonia concentrations above 1.0 mol/dm 3 . Values of correction effects on salting out ammonia action for Bierrum function in solutions with 1.0-18 mol/dm 3 ammonia concentrations were found

  1. [Low caloric value and high salt content in the meals served in school canteens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Isabel; Pinto, Carlos; Queirós, Laurinda; Meister, Maria Cristina; Saraiva, Margarida; Bruno, Paula; Antunes, Delfina; Afonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    School lunch can contribute to aggravate food quality, by excess or deficiency, or it can contribute to compensate and alleviate them. This school meal should be an answer to combating the epidemic of obesity, and to feed some grace children. The objective was to study the nutritional composition of catering in canteens of public schools, from Northern municipalities in the District of Porto: Vila do Conde, Póvoa de Varzim, Santo Tirso and Trofa. Meals were subjected to laboratory analysis. Thirty two meals, four per each school were analysed, reference values for the analysis of the nutritional composition of meals were dietary reference intakes (USA) and eating well at school (UK). The average energy meal content was 447 kcal and the median 440 kcal (22% of daily calories). The average values of nutrients, per meal, were: lipids 9, 8 g, carbohydrate 65,7 g and proteins 24,0 g. In average the contribution for the meal energy was: 20% fat, 59% carbohydrate and 21% protein. In more than 75% of meals the contribution of lipid content was below the lower bound of the reference range. The average content of sodium chloride per meal was 3.4 g, and the confidence interval 95% to average 3.0 to 3.8 g, well above the recommended maximum value of 1.5 grams. The average content fiber per meal was 10.8 g higher than the minimum considered appropriate. In conclusion, the value low caloric meals was mainly due to the low fat content, and content salt of any of the components of the meal was very high.

  2. High-Performance Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrolyte Derived from Optimum Combination of Solvent and Lithium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Su Mi; Suk, Jungdon; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Yongku; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-10-01

    To fabricate a sustainable lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, it is crucial to identify an optimum electrolyte. Herein, it is found that tetramethylene sulfone (TMS) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) form the optimum electrolyte, which greatly reduces the overpotential at charge, exhibits superior oxygen efficiency, and allows stable cycling for 100 cycles. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) analyses reveal that neat TMS is stable to oxidative decomposition and exhibit good compatibility with a lithium metal. But, when TMS is combined with typical lithium salts, its performance is far from satisfactory. However, the TMS electrolyte containing LiNO 3 exhibits a very low overpotential, which minimizes the side reactions and shows high oxygen efficiency. LSV-DEMS study confirms that the TMS-LiNO 3 electrolyte efficiently produces NO 2 - , which initiates a redox shuttle reaction. Interestingly, this NO 2 - /NO 2 redox reaction derived from the LiNO 3 salt is not very effective in solvents other than TMS. Compared with other common Li-O 2 solvents, TMS seems optimum solvent for the efficient use of LiNO 3 salt. Good compatibility with lithium metal, high dielectric constant, and low donicity of TMS are considered to be highly favorable to an efficient NO 2 - /NO 2 redox reaction, which results in a high-performance Li-O 2 battery.

  3. A novel process for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates: NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Longsheng; Liu, Yahui; Qi, Tao; Wang, Jianchong; Wang, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The conversion of titanium is 96.6% in the rich titanium–vanadium slag. ► MgTi 2 O 5 and M 3 O 5 (M = Ti, Mg, Fe) were converted to Na 2 TiO 3 and NaMO 2 , respectively. ► Na 2 TiO 3 is converted to undefined structure of H 2 TiO 3 . ► NaMO 2 is converted to α-NaFeO 2 -type structure of HMO 2 . ► 87.3% of sodium, 42.3% of silicon, 43.2% of aluminum, 22.8% of manganese and 96.6% of vanadium were leached out. -- Abstract: A novel process for recovering iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates has been developed. In the present paper, the treatment of rich titanium–vanadium slag by NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes is investigated. In the NaOH molten salt roasting process, the metallic iron is oxidized into ferriferous oxide, MgTi 2 O 5 is converted to NaCl-type structure of Na 2 TiO 3 , and M 3 O 5 (M = Ti, Mg, Fe) is converted to α-NaFeO 2 -type structure of NaMO 2 , respectively. Roasting temperature and NaOH–slag mass ratio played a considerable role in the conversion of titanium in the rich titanium–vanadium slag during the NaOH molten salt roasting process. Roasting at 500 °C for 60 min and a 1:1 NaOH–slag mass ratio produces 96.3% titanium conversion. In the water leaching process, the Na + was exchanged with H + , Na 2 TiO 3 is converted to undefined structure of H 2 TiO 3 , and NaMO 2 is converted to α-NaFeO 2 -type structure of HMO 2 . Under the optimal conditions, 87.3% of the sodium, 42.3% of the silicon, 43.2% of the aluminum, 22.8% of the manganese, and 96.6% of the vanadium are leached out

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Thermal Stability of Oleuropein and Related Phenolic Compounds of Olive Leaf Extract after Separation and Concentration by Salting-Out-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A fast, clean, energy-saving, non-toxic method for the stabilization of the antioxidant activity and the improvement of the thermal stability of oleuropein and related phenolic compounds separated from olive leaf extract via salting-out-assisted cloud point extraction (CPE was developed using Tween 80. The process was based on the decrease of the solubility of polyphenols and the lowering of the cloud point temperature of Tween 80 due to the presence of elevated amounts of sulfates (salting-out and the separation from the bulk solution with centrifugation. The optimum conditions were chosen based on polyphenols recovery (%, phase volume ratio (Vs/Vw and concentration factor (Fc. The maximum recovery of polyphenols was in total 95.9%; Vs/Vw was 0.075 and Fc was 15 at the following conditions: pH 2.6, ambient temperature (25 °C, 4% Tween 80 (w/v, 35% Na2SO4 (w/v and a settling time of 5 min. The total recovery of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, at optimum conditions, was 99.8%, 93.0%, 87.6%, 99.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Polyphenolic compounds entrapped in the surfactant-rich phase (Vs showed higher thermal stability (activation energy (Ea 23.8 kJ/mol compared to non-entrapped ones (Ea 76.5 kJ/mol. The antioxidant activity of separated polyphenols remained unaffected as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.

  5. Stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid polymer microgels under various conditions of temperature, pH and salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor H. Farooqi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research article describes the colloidal stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid [P(NIPAM-co-AAc] polymer microgels with different acrylic acid contents in aqueous medium under various conditions of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentrations. Three samples of multi-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AAc polymer microgels were synthesized using different amounts of acrylic acid by free radical emulsion polymerization. Dynamic laser light scattering was used to investigate the responsive behavior and stability of the prepared microgels under various conditions of pH, temperature and ionic strength. The microgels were found to be stable at all pH values above the pKa value of acrylic acid moiety in the temperature range from 15 to 60 °C in the presence and absence of sodium chloride. Increase in temperature, salt concentration and decrease in pH causes aggregation and decreases the stability of microgels due to the decrease in hydrophilicity.

  6. Alcohol consumption is associated with high concentrations of urinary hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; de la Torre, Rafael; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Flores, Gemma; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Fiol, Miguel; Vila, Joan; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquín; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, Jose; Sáez, Guillermo; Covas, María-Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we reported the presence of hydroxytyrosol in red wine and higher human urinary recovery of total hydroxytyrosol than that expected after a single red wine intake. We hypothesized that the alcohol present in wine could promote endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation. The objective was to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and urinary hydroxytyrosol concentrations. This was a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, an intervention study directed at testing the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Participants included 1045 subjects, aged 55-80 y, who were at high cardiovascular risk. Alcohol consumption was estimated through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Urinary hydroxytyrosol and ethyl glucuronide, a biomarker of alcohol consumption, were measured. Urinary ethyl glucuronide concentrations were directly related to alcohol and wine consumption (P logistic regression analyses showed a significant linear trend (P 20 g (2 drinks)/d and >10 g (1 drink)/d alcohol in men and women, respectively, were associated (P wine as a source of hydroxytyrosol and alcohol as an indirect promoter of endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com/isrctn/ as ISRCTN 35739639.

  7. Hydronium-dominated ion transport in carbon-dioxide-saturated electrolytes at low salt concentrations in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennathur, Sumita; Kristensen, Jesper; Crumrine, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    the surface reaction equilibrium constant for silica/hydronium reactions. The model describes our experimental data with aqueous potassium chloride solutions in 165-nm-high silica nanochannels well, and furthermore, by comparing model predictions with measurements in bulk and in nanochannels with hydrochloric...

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic pumps for molten salts in cooling loops of high-temperature nuclear reactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Kotlan, V.; Ulrych, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 5 (2011), s. 28-33 ISSN 0033-2097 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) MEB051041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : magnetohydrodynamic pump * molten salt * electric field Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.244, year: 2011 http://pe.org.pl/

  9. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  10. Inactivation of Ca2+-induced ciliary reversal by high-salt extraction in the cilia of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutomi, Osamu; Seki, Makoto; Nakamura, Shogo; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Munenori

    2013-10-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) induces ciliary reversal and backward swimming in Paramecium. However, it is not known how the Ca(2+) signal controls the motor machinery to induce ciliary reversal. We found that demembranated cilia on the ciliated cortical sheets from Paramecium caudatum lost the ability to undergo ciliary reversal after brief extraction with a solution containing 0.5 M KCl. KNO(3), which is similar to KCl with respect to chaotropic effect; it had the same effect as that of KCl on ciliary response. Cyclic AMP antagonizes Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal. Limited trypsin digestion prevents endogenous A-kinase and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of an outer arm dynein light chain and induces ciliary reversal. However, the trypsin digestion prior to the high-salt extraction did not affect the inhibition of Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal caused by the high-salt extraction. Furthermore, during the course of the high-salt extraction, some axonemal proteins were extracted from ciliary axonemes, suggesting that they may be responsible for Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal.

  11. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.

    2016-05-13

    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  12. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.; Rowe, Arthur J.

    2016-01-01

    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  13. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  14. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  15. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with {approximately} 1,142 Ci of {sup 137}Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO{sub 3} and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent.

  16. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for 137Cs and 90Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with ∼ 1,142 Ci of 137 Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO 3 and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent

  17. Acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms at high pH and high calcium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14 C compounds in cementitious repositories. Tamagawa river sediment or Teganuma pond sediment was anaerobically cultured with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate at pH 9.5-12 at 30 o C. After 20 and 90 days, the acetate concentration of the culture medium was analyzed and found to have decreased below 5 mM at pH ≤ 11. On the other hand, it did not decrease when either sediment was incubated in the absence of nitrate. These results suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate under more alkaline conditions than the reported pH range in which nitrate-reducing bacteria can exhibit activity. Acetate biodegradation was also examined at a high calcium concentration. Sediments were anaerobically cultured at pH 9.5 with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate in solution, equilibrated with ordinary Portland cement hydrate, in which the Ca concentration was 14.6 mM. No decrease in acetate concentration after incubation of the sediments was observed, nor was it lower than in the absence of cementitious composition, suggesting that kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms is lowered by a high Ca concentration. - Research highlights: → Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14 C compounds in cementitious repositories. → Nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate at pH ≤ 11. → Kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms might be lowered by a high Ca concentration.

  18. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutz, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.leutz@leopil.com [Leutz Optics and Illumination UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Marburg (Germany)

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  19. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  20. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV

  1. Context-driven Salt Seeking Test (Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Smith, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation. Importantly, this adaptive salt-seeking behavior occurs despite the fact that the rats never tasted salt in the depleted state, and therefore never tasted it as a highly desirable reward. The following protocol is a method to investigate the neural circuitry mediating adaptive salt seeking using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The procedure is designed to provide an opportunity to discover possible dissociations between the neural circuitry mediating salt seeking and salt consumption to replenish the bodily deficit after sodium depletion. Additionally, this procedure is amenable to incorporating a number of neurobiological techniques for studying the brain basis of this behavior.

  2. Investigation of an Alternative Fuel Form for the Liquid Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, William A. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the recent studies investigating the use of liquid salts as reactor coolants have utilized a core configuration of graphite prismatic fuel block assemblies with TRISO particles embedded into cylindrical fuel compacts arranged in a triangular pitch lattice. Although many calculations have been performed for this fuel form in gas cooled reactors, it would be instructive to investigate whether an alternative fuel form may yield improved performance for the liquid salt-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This study investigates how variations in the fuel form will impact the performance of the LS-VHTR during normal and accident conditions and compares the results with a similar analysis that was recently completed for a LS-VHTR core made up of prismatic block fuel. (author)

  3. Salt-assisted direct exfoliation of graphite into high-quality, large-size, few-layer graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Liyong; Li, Mingjian; Tao, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhuang; Zhou, Xuechang; Raju, Arun P A; Young, Robert J; Zheng, Zijian

    2013-08-21

    We report a facile and low-cost method to directly exfoliate graphite powders into large-size, high-quality, and solution-dispersible few-layer graphene sheets. In this method, aqueous mixtures of graphite and inorganic salts such as NaCl and CuCl2 are stirred, and subsequently dried by evaporation. Finally, the mixture powders are dispersed into an orthogonal organic solvent solution of the salt by low-power and short-time ultrasonication, which exfoliates graphite into few-layer graphene sheets. We find that the as-made graphene sheets contain little oxygen, and 86% of them are 1-5 layers with lateral sizes as large as 210 μm(2). Importantly, the as-made graphene can be readily dispersed into aqueous solution in the presence of surfactant and thus is compatible with various solution-processing techniques towards graphene-based thin film devices.

  4. The function of packing materials in a high-level nuclear waste repository and some candidate materials: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Shade, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    Packing materials should be included in waste package design for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. A packing material barrier would increase confidence in the waste package by alleviating possible shortcomings in the present design and prolonging confinement capabilities. Packing materials have been studied for uses in other geologic repositories; appropriately chosen, they would enhance the confinement capabilities of salt repository waste packages in several ways. Benefits of packing materials include retarding or chemically modifying brines to reduce corrosion of the waste package, providing good thermal conductivity between the waste package and host rock, retarding or absorbing radionuclides, and reducing the massiveness of the waste package. These benefits are available at low percentage of total repository cost, if the packing material is properly chosen and used. Several candidate materials are being considered, including oxides, hydroxides, silicates, cement-based mixtures, and clay mixtures. 18 refs

  5. Salt partitioning between water and high-pressure ices. Implication for the dynamics and habitability of icy moons and water-rich planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Cardon, Hervé; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Water-rich planetary bodies including large icy moons and ocean exoplanets may host a deep liquid water ocean underlying a high-pressure icy mantle. The latter is often considered as a limitation to the habitability of the uppermost ocean because it would limit the availability of nutrients resulting from the hydrothermal alteration of the silicate mantle located beneath the deep ice layer. To assess the effects of salts on the physical properties of high-pressure ices and therefore the possible chemical exchanges and habitability inside H2O-rich planetary bodies, we measured partitioning coefficients and densities in the H2O-RbI system up to 450 K and 4 GPa; RbI standing as an experimentally amenable analog of NaCl in the H2O-salt solutions. We measured the partitioning coefficient of RbI between the aqueous fluid and ices VI and VII, using in-situ Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). With in-situ X-ray diffraction, we measured the unit-cell parameters and the densities of the high-pressure ice phases in equilibrium with the aqueous fluid, at pressures and temperatures relevant to the interior of planetary bodies. We conclude that RbI is strongly incompatible towards ice VI with a partitioning coefficient Kd(VI-L) = 5.0 (± 2.1) ṡ10-3 and moderately incompatible towards ice VII, Kd(VII-L) = 0.12 (± 0.05). RbI significantly increases the unit-cell volume of ice VI and VII by ca. 1%. This implies that RbI-poor ice VI is buoyant compared to H2O ice VI while RbI-enriched ice VII is denser than H2O ice VII. These new experimental results might profoundly impact the internal dynamics of water-rich planetary bodies. For instance, an icy mantle at moderate conditions of pressure and temperature will consist of buoyant ice VI with low concentration of salt, and would likely induce an upwelling current of solutes towards the above liquid ocean. In contrast, a deep and/or thick icy mantle of ice VII will be enriched in salt and hence would form a stable chemical boundary

  6. The HAW-Project. Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Cuevas, C. de las; Donker, H.; Feddersen, H.K.; Garcia-Celma, A.; Gies, H.; Goreychi, M.; Graefe, V.; Heijdra, J.; Hente, B.; Jockwer, N.; LeMeur, R.; Moenig, J.; Mueller, K.; Prij, J.; Regulla, D.; Smailos, E.; Staupendahl, G.; Till, E.; Zankl, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to improve the final concept for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in boreholes drilled into salt formation plans were developed a couple of years ago for a full scale testing of the complete technical system of an underground repository. To satisfy the test objectives, thirty highly radioactive radiation sources were planned to be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800-m-level in the Asse salt mine. A duration of testing of approximately five years was envisaged. Because of licensing uncertainties the German Federal Government decided on December 3rd, 1992 to stop all activities for the preparation of the test disposal immediately. In the course of the preparation of the test disposal, however, a system, necessary for handling of the radiation sources was developed and installed in the Asse salt mine and two non-radioactive reference tests with electrical heaters were started in November 1988. These tests served for the investigation of thermal effects in comparison to the planned radioactive tests. An accompanying scientific investigation programme performed in situ and in the laboratory comprises the estimation and observation of the thermal, radiation-induced, and mechanical interaction between the rock salt and the electrical heaters and the radiation sources, respectively. The laboratory investigations are carried out at Braunschweig (FRG), Petten (NL), Saclay (F) and Barcelona (E). As a consequence of the premature termination of the project the working programme was revised. The new programme agreed to by the project partners included a controlled shutdown of the heater tests in 1993 and a continuation of the laboratory activities until the end of 1994. (orig.)

  7. Metamaterial Receivers for High Efficiency Concentrated Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellowhair, Julius E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kwon, Hoyeong [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Alu, Andrea [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Jarecki, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Shinde, Subhash L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Operation of concentrated solar power receivers at higher temperatures (>700°C) would enable supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles for improved power cycle efficiencies (>50%) and cost-effective solar thermal power. Unfortunately, radiative losses at higher temperatures in conventional receivers can negatively impact the system efficiency gains. One approach to improve receiver thermal efficiency is to utilize selective coatings that enhance absorption across the visible solar spectrum while minimizing emission in the infrared to reduce radiative losses. Existing coatings, however, tend to degrade rapidly at elevated temperatures. In this report, we report on the initial designs and fabrication of spectrally selective metamaterial-based absorbers for high-temperature, high-thermal flux environments important for solarized sCO2 power cycles. Metamaterials are structured media whose optical properties are determined by sub-wavelength structural features instead of bulk material properties, providing unique solutions by decoupling the optical absorption spectrum from thermal stability requirements. The key enabling innovative concept proposed is the use of structured surfaces with spectral responses that can be tailored to optimize the absorption and retention of solar energy for a given temperature range. In this initial study through the Academic Alliance partnership with University of Texas at Austin, we use Tungsten for its stability in expected harsh environments, compatibility with microfabrication techniques, and required optical performance. Our goal is to tailor the optical properties for high (near unity) absorptivity across the majority of the solar spectrum and over a broad range of incidence angles, and at the same time achieve negligible absorptivity in the near infrared to optimize the energy absorbed and retained. To this goal, we apply the recently developed concept of plasmonic Brewster angle to suitably designed

  8. Characterization of swollen structure of high-density polyelectrolyte brushes in salt solution by neutron reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Takahara, Atsushi [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Terayama, Yuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan); Hino, Masahiro [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Ishihara, Kazuhiko, E-mail: takahara@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    Zwitterionic and cationic polyelectrolyte brushes on quartz substrate were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (METAC), respectively. The effects of ionic strength on brush structure and surface properties of densely grafted polyelectrolyte brushes were analysed by neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements. NR at poly(METAC)/D{sub 2}O and poly(MPC)/D{sub 2}O interface revealed that the grafted polymer chains were fairly extended from the substrate surface, while the thickness reduction of poly(METAC) brush was observed in 5.6 M NaCl/D{sub 2}O solution due to the screening of the repulsive interaction between polycations by hydrated salt ions. Interestingly, no structural change was observed in poly(MPC) brush even in a salt solution probably due to the unique interaction properties of phosphorylcholine units.

  9. "Water-in-salt" electrolyte enables high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Olguin, Marco; Ho, Janet; Fan, Xiulin; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Kang

    2015-11-20

    Lithium-ion batteries raise safety, environmental, and cost concerns, which mostly arise from their nonaqueous electrolytes. The use of aqueous alternatives is limited by their narrow electrochemical stability window (1.23 volts), which sets an intrinsic limit on the practical voltage and energy output. We report a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte whose window was expanded to ~3.0 volts with the formation of an electrode-electrolyte interphase. A full lithium-ion battery of 2.3 volts using such an aqueous electrolyte was demonstrated to cycle up to 1000 times, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency at both low (0.15 coulomb) and high (4.5 coulombs) discharge and charge rates. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. High concentrations of manganese and sulfur in deposits on Murray Ridge, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Squyres, Steven W.; Morris, Richard V.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Gellert, Ralf; Clark, Benton C.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; McLennan, Scott M.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; VanBommel, Scott; Mittelfehldt, David W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Guinness, Edward A.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bell, James F.; Farrand, William H.; Stein, Nathan; Fox, Valerie K.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Hinkle, Margaret A. G.; Calvin, Wendy M.; de Souza, Paulo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE images and Opportunity rover observations of the ~22 km wide Noachian age Endeavour Crater on Mars show that the rim and surrounding terrains were densely fractured during the impact crater-forming event. Fractures have also propagated upward into the overlying Burns formation sandstones. Opportunity’s observations show that the western crater rim segment, called Murray Ridge, is composed of impact breccias with basaltic compositions, as well as occasional fracture-filling calcium sulfate veins. Cook Haven, a gentle depression on Murray Ridge, and the site where Opportunity spent its sixth winter, exposes highly fractured, recessive outcrops that have relatively high concentrations of S and Cl, consistent with modest aqueous alteration. Opportunity’s rover wheels serendipitously excavated and overturned several small rocks from a Cook Haven fracture zone. Extensive measurement campaigns were conducted on two of them: Pinnacle Island and Stuart Island. These rocks have the highest concentrations of Mn and S measured to date by Opportunity and occur as a relatively bright sulfate-rich coating on basaltic rock, capped by a thin deposit of one or more dark Mn oxide phases intermixed with sulfate minerals. We infer from these unique Pinnacle Island and Stuart Island rock measurements that subsurface precipitation of sulfate-dominated coatings was followed by an interval of partial dissolution and reaction with one or more strong oxidants (e.g., O2) to produce the Mn oxide mineral(s) intermixed with sulfate-rich salt coatings. In contrast to arid regions on Earth, where Mn oxides are widely incorporated into coatings on surface rocks, our results demonstrate that on Mars the most likely place to deposit and preserve Mn oxides was in fracture zones where migrating fluids intersected surface oxidants, forming precipitates shielded from subsequent physical erosion.

  11. The HAW-Project: Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuously surveyed in respect of the thermomechanical and geochemical response of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of 30 radioactive canisters (Sr-90 and Cs-137 sources) was developed and succesfully tested. This system consists of six multiple transport and storage casks of the type Castor-GSF-5, two above ground/below ground shuttle transport casks of the type Asse TB1, an above ground transfer station, an underground transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and a borehole slider. A laboratory investigation program on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This program includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers