Sample records for high concentration oxygen

  1. High-Pressure Oxygen Concentrator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA desires to generate and store gases including oxygen and nitrogen at sub-critical conditions as a part of its lunar and spacecraft atmospheric systems. Oxygen...

  2. Are there ecological implications for the proposed energetic restrictions on photosynthetic oxygen evolution at high oxygen concentrations? (United States)

    Raven, J A; Larkum, A W D


    It has recently been shown that, in subthylakoid particles prepared using detergent, there is inhibition of oxygen production reactions in photosynthesis by thermodynamic feedback from oxygen build-up, with 50% inhibition at 230 kPa partial pressure of oxygen. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of laboratory data on the effects of high oxygen partial pressures on photosynthesis, and on photo-lithotrophic and chemo-organotrophic growth, of oxygen-producing organisms. The article also contains an analysis of the extent to which high oxygen concentrations occur at the site of photosystem II (PSII) activity under natural conditions today and in the past. The conclusion is that the oxygen concentrations found in nature are very unlikely to reach that needed to cause 50% inhibition of the photosynthetic oxygen production reaction in subthylakoid particles, but that it is just possible that a small part of the inhibition of photosynthesis and of photo-lithotrophic growth by oxygen can be attributed to inhibition of oxygen production by PSII.

  3. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  4. High-concentration oxygen and surgical site infections in abdominal surgery: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Patel, Sunil V; Coughlin, Shaun C; Malthaner, Richard A


    There has been recent interest in using high-concentration oxygen to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs). Previous meta-analyses in this area have produced conflicting results. With the publication of 2 new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were not included in previous meta-analyses, an updated review is warranted. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis on RCTs comparing high- and low- concentration oxygen in adults undergoing open abdominal surgery. We completed independent literature reviews using electronic databases, bibliographies and other sources of grey literature to identify relevant studies. We assessed the overall quality of evidence using grade guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed on pooled data from included studies. A priori subgroup analyses were planned to explain statistical and clinical heterogeneity. Overall, 6 studies involving a total of 2585 patients met the inclusion criteria. There was no evidence of a reduction in SSIs with high-concentration oxygen (risk ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.50-1.19, p = 0.24). We observed substantial heterogeneity among studies. There is moderate evidence that high-concentration oxygen does not reduce SSIs in adults undergoing open abdominal surgery.

  5. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael; Lindström, G


    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2*10/sup 14/ to 9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10601130f the initial doping concentration for [O/sub i/]=9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/, while for normal detector grade material with [O/sub i/] below 5*10/sup 16/ cm /sup -3/ that value is 60-90Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentratio...

  6. Optical oxygen concentration monitor (United States)

    Kebabian, Paul


    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  7. Preservation of high glycolytic phenotype by establishing new acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines at physiologic oxygen concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheard, Michael A., E-mail: [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Ghent, Matthew V., E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Health Sciences Campus, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Cabral, Daniel J., E-mail: [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Lee, Joanne C., E-mail: [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Khankaldyyan, Vazgen, E-mail: [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Ji, Lingyun, E-mail: [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Wu, Samuel Q., E-mail: [Medical Genetics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Kang, Min H., E-mail: [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); and others


    Cancer cells typically exhibit increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and they continue to exhibit some elevation in glycolysis even under aerobic conditions. However, it is unclear whether cancer cell lines employ a high level of glycolysis comparable to that of the original cancers from which they were derived, even if their culture conditions are changed to physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations. From three childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients we established three new pairs of cell lines in both atmospheric (20%) and physiologic (bone marrow level, 5%) oxygen concentrations. Cell lines established in 20% oxygen exhibited lower proliferation, survival, expression of glycolysis genes, glucose consumption, and lactate production. Interestingly, the effects of oxygen concentration used during cell line initiation were only partially reversible when established cell cultures were switched from one oxygen concentration to another for eight weeks. These observations indicate that ALL cell lines established at atmospheric oxygen concentration can exhibit relatively low levels of glycolysis and these levels are semi-permanent, suggesting that physiologic oxygen concentrations may be needed from the time of cell line initiation to preserve the high level of glycolysis commonly exhibited by leukemias in vivo. - Highlights: • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher glycolytic expression and function. • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher proliferation and lower cell death. • The divergent metabolic phenotypes selected in 5% and 20% oxygen are semi-permanent.

  8. High concentrations and photochemical fate of oxygenated hydrocarbons in the global troposphere (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Kanakidou, M.; Crutzen, P. J.; Jacob, D. J.


    OXYGENATED species in the atmosphere are important sources of free radicals and are intricately linked with the fate of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), which are themselves necessary for tropospheric ozone formation1,2. With the exception of formaldehyde, oxygenated hydrocarbons have rarely been measured in the free troposphere. Here we report airborne measurements indicating the presence of high concentrations (compared to those of routinely measured C2-C6 tropospheric hydrocarbons3,4) of acetone and methanol. We use a three-dimensional model to show that acetone photochemistry provides a quantitatively significant (up to 50%) pathway for sequestering NO x in the form of peroxyacetylnitrate, a relatively unreactive temporary reservoir of NO x . Furthermore, in the dry regions of the upper troposphere, acetone can provide a large primary source of HOx (OH + HO2) radicals, resulting in increased ozone production. This surprisingly significant contribution of such oxygenated hydrocarbons to tropospheric NOx, HO x and ozone cycling is likely to be affected by their changing natural and anthropogenic emissions due to land-use change, biomass burning and alcohol-based biofuel use.

  9. High-concentration versus titrated oxygen therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a pilot randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Ranchord, Anil M; Argyle, Rachel; Beynon, Rhys; Perrin, Kyle; Sharma, Vishal; Weatherall, Mark; Simmonds, Mark; Heatlie, Grant; Brooks, Nicholas; Beasley, Richard


    The optimal approach to oxygen therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is uncertain. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken in which 136 patients presenting with their first STEMI uncomplicated by cardiogenic shock or marked hypoxia were randomized to receive high-concentration (6 L/min via medium concentration mask) or titrated oxygen (to achieve oxygen saturation 93%-96%) for 6 hours after presentation. The main outcome variables were 30-day mortality and infarct size assessed by troponin T level at 72 hours. Secondary outcomes included a meta-analysis of mortality data from this study and previous randomized controlled trials, and infarct size was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at 4 to 6 weeks. There were 1 of 68 and 2 of 68 deaths in the high-concentration and titrated oxygen groups, respectively; a meta-analysis including these data with those from the 2 previous studies showed an odds ratio for mortality of high-concentration oxygen compared with room air or titrated oxygen of 2.2 (95% CI 0.8-6.0). There was no significant difference between high-concentration versus titrated oxygen in troponin T (ratio of mean levels 0.74, 95% CI 0.50-1.1, P = .14), infarct mass (mean difference -0.8 g, 95% CI -7.6 to 6.1, P = .82), or percent infarct mass (mean difference -0.6%, 95% CI -5.6 to 4.5, P = .83). This study found no evidence of benefit or harm from high-concentration compared with titrated oxygen in initially uncomplicated STEMI. However, our estimates have wide CIs, and as a result, large randomized controlled trials are required to resolve the clinical uncertainty. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An fMRI study on variation of visuospatial cognitive performance of young male due to highly concentrated oxygen administration (United States)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Kim, Ik Hyeon; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun


    This study investigated the effects of 30% oxygen administration on the visuospatial cognitive performance using fMRI. Eight college students (right-handed, average age 23.5) were selected as subjects for this study. Oxygen supply equipment which gives 21% and 30% oxygen at a constant rate of 8L/min was developed for this study. To measure the performance of visuospatial cognition, two questionnaires with similar difficulty containing 20 questions each were also developed. Experiment was designed as two runs: run for visuospatial cognition test with normal air (21% of oxygen) and run for visuospatial cognition test with highly concentrated air (30% of oxygen). Run consists of 4 blocks and each block has 8 control problems and 5 visuospatial problems. Functional brain images were taken from 3T MRI using single-shot EPI method. Activities of neural network due to performing visuospatial cognition test were identified using subtraction procedure, and activation areas while performing visuospatial cognition test were extracted using double subtraction procedure. Activities were observed at occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe when performing visuospatial cognition test following both 21% and 30% oxygen administration. But in case of only 30% oxygen administration there were more activities at left precuneus, left cuneus, right postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, bilateral uvula, bilateral pyramis, and nodule compared with 21% oxygen administration. From results of visuospatial cognition test, accuracy rate increased in case of 30% oxygen administration. Thus it could be concluded that highly concentrated oxygen administration has positive effects on the visuospatial cognitive performance.

  11. A new highly sensitive method to assess respiration rates and kinetics of natural planktonic communities by use of the switchable trace oxygen sensor and reduced oxygen concentrations. (United States)

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Revsbech, Niels Peter


    Oxygen respiration rates in pelagic environments are often difficult to quantify as the resolutions of our methods for O2 concentration determination are marginal for observing significant decreases during bottle incubations of less than 24 hours. Here we present the assessment of a new highly sensitive method, that combine Switchable Trace Oxygen (STOX) sensors and all-glass bottle incubations, where the O2 concentration was artificially lowered. The detection limit of respiration rate by this method is inversely proportional to the O2 concentration, down to water with an initial O2 concentration of 500 nmol L(-1). The method was tested in Danish coastal waters and in oceanic hypoxic waters. It proved to give precise measurements also with low oxygen consumption rates (∼7 nmol L(-1) h(-1)), and to significantly decrease the time required for incubations (≤14 hours) compared to traditional methods. This method provides continuous real time measurements, allowing for a number of diverse possibilities, such as modeling the rate of oxygen decrease to obtain kinetic parameters. Our data revealed apparent half-saturation concentrations (Km values) one order of magnitude lower than previously reported for marine bacteria, varying between 66 and 234 nmol L(-1) O2. Km values vary between different microbial planktonic communities, but our data show that it is possible to measure reliable respiration rates at concentrations ∼0.5-1 µmol L(-1) O2 that are comparable to the ones measured at full air saturation.

  12. A new highly sensitive method to assess respiration rates and kinetics of natural planktonic communities by use of the switchable trace oxygen sensor and reduced oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tiano

    Full Text Available Oxygen respiration rates in pelagic environments are often difficult to quantify as the resolutions of our methods for O2 concentration determination are marginal for observing significant decreases during bottle incubations of less than 24 hours. Here we present the assessment of a new highly sensitive method, that combine Switchable Trace Oxygen (STOX sensors and all-glass bottle incubations, where the O2 concentration was artificially lowered. The detection limit of respiration rate by this method is inversely proportional to the O2 concentration, down to <2 nmol L(-1 h(-1 for water with an initial O2 concentration of 500 nmol L(-1. The method was tested in Danish coastal waters and in oceanic hypoxic waters. It proved to give precise measurements also with low oxygen consumption rates (∼7 nmol L(-1 h(-1, and to significantly decrease the time required for incubations (≤14 hours compared to traditional methods. This method provides continuous real time measurements, allowing for a number of diverse possibilities, such as modeling the rate of oxygen decrease to obtain kinetic parameters. Our data revealed apparent half-saturation concentrations (Km values one order of magnitude lower than previously reported for marine bacteria, varying between 66 and 234 nmol L(-1 O2. Km values vary between different microbial planktonic communities, but our data show that it is possible to measure reliable respiration rates at concentrations ∼0.5-1 µmol L(-1 O2 that are comparable to the ones measured at full air saturation.

  13. Crossed Optical Fiber Sensor Arrays for High-Spatial-Resolution Sensing: Application to Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veronica Rigo


    Full Text Available Optical fiber sensors using luminescent probes located along an optical fiber in the cladding of this fiber are of great interest for monitoring physical and chemical properties in their environment. The interrogation of a luminophore with a short laser pulse propagating through the fiber core allows for the measurement of the location of these luminophores. To increase the spatial resolution of such a measurements and to measure multiple analytes and properties in a confined space, a crossed optical fiber sensing platform can be employed. Here we describe the application of this platform to measuring the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The sensor is based on luminescence quenching of a ruthenium complex immobilized in a highly crosslinked film and covalently attached to the optical fibers. Both luminescence-intensity and luminescence-lifetime changes of the sensor molecules in response to changes in the concentration of oxygen dissolved in water are reported. For luminescence-intensity measurements, a second adjacent sensor region is employed as reference to account for laser pulse energy fluctuations. Enhanced quenching response in water is demonstrated by the use of organically modified poly(ethylene glycol precursors, which increase the hydrophobicity of the film surface.

  14. Medical Oxygen Concentrator for Microgravity Operation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have all seen people carrying portable oxygen tanks or concentrators to provide critical life support respiratory oxygen. Heavy, bulky, and for O2 concentrators,...

  15. Effect of high copper and oxygen concentrations on the optical and electrical properties of (CdTe){sub x}Cu{sub y}O{sub z} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Sandoval, S.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O.; Zuniga-Romero, C.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apartado Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Carmona-Rodriguez, J.; Lozada-Morales, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla, Pue., 72570 (Mexico); Melendez-Lira, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Av, Instituto Politecnico Nacional No 2508, Zacatenco (Mexico); Dahlberg, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Chuch St. SE, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Thin films of (CdTe){sub x}Cu{sub y}O{sub z} have been prepared by reactive RF cosputtering using high concentrations of copper and oxygen. The films were grown at 350{sup o}C on glass and Si substrates. Under these conditions samples of amorphous nature were obtained with some clusters of Cu{sub 2}O for the larger concentrations of Cu and O used in this work. The largest band gap variation, from 3.5 to 1.4eV, was obtained for the samples grown with an oxygen flow of 17 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) in the growth chamber. The samples are highly resistive for most cases, but for high Cu concentrations resistivities of the order of 10{sup 3}{omega}-cm were obtained in the case of films grown with a flow of 15sccm of oxygen. (author)

  16. Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Profiles in the Hyporheic Zone Through the Use of a High-Density Fiber Optic Measurement Network (United States)

    Reeder, William Jeffrey; Quick, Annika; Farrell, Tiffany B.; Benner, Shawn G.; Feris, Kevin P.; Tonina, Daniele


    The majority of chemical reactions in riverine systems occur within the hyporheic zone (HZ). Hyporheic exchange, flow into and out of the hyporheic zone, represents a primary control over those reactions because the flow rate will determine the residence time and amount of chemical constituents in the HZ. Hyporheic flow can be conceptualized as discreet streamlines that collectively represent a broad distribution of residence times. Within this context, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration becomes a primary indicator of the redox and biochemical state of the HZ including, for example, the fate of carbon, contaminant behavior, nutrient cycling, stream DO levels and nitrous oxide (N2O) production. River systems have been identified as a significant source of N2O emissions, contributing an estimated 10% of anthropogenically generated N2O. The primary biochemical transformations that lead to N2O production are nitrification (NH4+ to NO3-) and denitrification (NO3- to N2) reactions that are mediated by microbes living in the HZ. Current theory describes a process in which DO enters the stoss side of the HZ and is consumed by respiration and nitrification in the upstream, oxic portion of the streamlines leading to a progressive partitioning of the HZ from oxic to anoxic. This conceptualization, however, has not been well validated in a physical sense, due to inherent difficulties associated with measuring chemical concentrations in the HZ. To test current theory, we measured HZ DO concentrations, in a large-scale flume experiment, almost continuously for five months using a multiplexed optical network and a precision robotic surface probe system. We were able to measure DO at higher spatial and temporal resolution than has been previously demonstrated. These measurements, coupled with detailed numerical modeling of HZ flowlines, allowed us to map HZ DO concentrations spatially and over time. Our findings validate the models that describe the consumption of DO through

  17. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian


    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  18. Estimation of α-tocopherol concentration necessary to optimise lamb meat quality stability during storage in high-oxygen modified atmosphere using broken-line regression analysis. (United States)

    Alvarez, I; De la Fuente, J; Díaz, M T; Lauzurica, S; Pérez, C; Cañeque, V


    The research was carried out to evaluate the effect of different α-tocopherol concentrations in lamb meat on oxidative stability during storage in high-oxygen atmosphere. Thirty-six lambs were randomly distributed to four groups and given diets containing four levels of vitamin E (20, 270, 520 and 1020 mg vitamin E/kg feed) from an initial weight of 13.2 ± 0.5 kg to a slaughter weight of 26.2 ± 0.3 kg. Supplementation of the diet with vitamin E increased (P meat and concentrations were obtained in the 0.46 to 4.14 mg/kg meat range. Broken-line analysis of data indicated a target dietary vitamin E supplementation of 287 mg/kg feed, which corresponded with a concentration of 2.26 mg α-tocopherol/kg meat. α-Tocopherol in meat was highly correlated with the oxidation of lipids and pigments. Broken-line analysis of data indicated the target α-tocopherol concentration in lamb for improved protection against lipid and pigment oxidation during 14, 21 and 28 days of storage in high-oxygen atmosphere was in the range 1.87 to 2.37 mg/kg meat. These concentrations of α-tocopherol in the meat made it possible to maintain the indicator values of lipid and pigment oxidation below the values considered in the bibliography as unacceptable to the consumer.

  19. Acceptability of oxygen concentrators: the patient's view. (United States)

    Dilworth, J P; Higgs, C M; Jones, P A; White, R J


    The impact of the installation of an oxygen concentrator on the lifestyle of 30 patients in two health districts has been investigated using a questionnaire. Marked improvements in general well-being (83% of respondents), breathing (82%), mobility (62%) and sleep pattern (52%) were reported. The long term nature of the aims of treatment were understood by 83% of the respondents and the mean period of time the patients used the concentrator was satisfactory. However, 34% of respondents had a concentrator with only one outlet and 70% had the concentrator situated in a commonly used room with the possibility of problems with noise. Thirty one percent of the respondents were still smoking. The recommendations given to patients for the sitting of the concentrator and the number of outlets should be improved. However, the oxygen concentrator was found to be generally well tolerated and this refutes criticism that patients may find it restricting.

  20. High performance optical sensing nanocomposites for low and ultra-low oxygen concentrations using phase-shift measurements. (United States)

    Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Marín-Suárez, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Jorge Fernando; de la Torre-Vega, Ángel; Baranoff, Etienne; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto


    The accurate and real-time measurement of low and ultra-low concentrations of oxygen using non-invasive methods is a necessity for a multitude of applications, from brewing beer to developing encapsulating barriers for optoelectronic devices. Current optical methods and sensing materials often lack the necessary sensitivity, signal intensity, or stability for practical applications. In this report we present a new optical sensing nanocomposite resulting in an outstanding overall performance when combined with the phase-shift measurement method (determination of luminescence lifetime in the frequency domain). For the first time we have incorporated the standard PtTFPP dye (PtTFPP = platinum(II) 5,10,15,20-meso-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin) into AP200/19, a nanostructured aluminium oxide-hydroxide solid support. This sensing film shows an excellent sensitivity between 0 and 1% O₂ (KSV = 3102 ± 132 bar⁻¹) and between 0 and 10% O₂ (KSV = 2568 ± 614 bar⁻¹) as well as Δτ0.05% (62.53 ± 3.66%), which makes it 62 times more sensitive than PtTFPP immobilized in polystyrene and also 8 times more sensitive than PtTFPP immobilized on silica beads. Furthermore the phase-shift measurement method results in a significant improvement (about 23 times) in stability compared to the use of intensity recording methods. The film also displays full reversibility, long shelf stability (no change observed after 12 months), and it is not affected by humidity. To establish this sensing methodology and develop sensors over the full range of the visible light, we also studied three other dye-AP200/19 nanocomposites based on phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes.

  1. Oxygenic photosynthesis as a protection mechanism for cyanobacteria against iron-encrustation in environments with high Fe(2+) concentrations. (United States)

    Ionescu, Danny; Buchmann, Bettina; Heim, Christine; Häusler, Stefan; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos


    If O2 is available at circumneutral pH, Fe(2+) is rapidly oxidized to Fe(3+), which precipitates as FeO(OH). Neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria have evolved mechanisms to prevent self-encrustation in iron. Hitherto, no mechanism has been proposed for cyanobacteria from Fe(2+)-rich environments; these produce O2 but are seldom found encrusted in iron. We used two sets of illuminated reactors connected to two groundwater aquifers with different Fe(2+) concentrations (0.9 μM vs. 26 μM) in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. Cyanobacterial biofilms developed in all reactors and were phylogenetically different between the reactors. Unexpectedly, cyanobacteria growing in the Fe(2+)-poor reactors were encrusted in iron, whereas those in the Fe(2+)-rich reactors were not. In-situ microsensor measurements showed that O2 concentrations and pH near the surface of the cyanobacterial biofilms from the Fe(2+)-rich reactors were much higher than in the overlying water. This was not the case for the biofilms growing at low Fe(2+) concentrations. Measurements with enrichment cultures showed that cyanobacteria from the Fe(2+)-rich environment increased their photosynthesis with increasing Fe(2+) concentrations, whereas those from the low Fe(2+) environment were inhibited at Fe(2+) > 5 μM. Modeling based on in-situ O2 and pH profiles showed that cyanobacteria from the Fe(2+)-rich reactor were not exposed to significant Fe(2+) concentrations. We propose that, due to limited mass transfer, high photosynthetic activity in Fe(2+)-rich environments forms a protective zone where Fe(2+) precipitates abiotically at a non-lethal distance from the cyanobacteria. This mechanism sheds new light on the possible role of cyanobacteria in precipitation of banded iron formations.

  2. Oxygenic Photosynthesis As A Protection Mechanism For Cyanobacteria Against Iron-Encrustation In Environments With High Fe2+ Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny eIonescu


    Full Text Available If O2 is available at circumneutral pH, Fe2+ is rapidly oxidized to Fe3+, which precipitates as FeO(OH. Neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria have evolved mechanisms to prevent self-encrustation in iron. Hitherto, no mechanism has been proposed for cyanobacteria from Fe2+ rich environments; these produce O2 but are seldom found encrusted in iron. We used two sets of illuminated reactors connected to two groundwater aquifers with different Fe2+ concentrations (0.9 µM vs. 26 µM in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. Cyanobacterial biofilms developed in all reactors and were phylogenetically different between the reactors. Unexpectedly, cyanobacteria growing in the Fe2+-poor reactors were encrusted in iron, whereas those in the Fe2+-rich reactors were not. In-situ microsensor measurements showed that O2 concentrations and pH near the surface of the cyanobacterial biofilms from the Fe2+-rich reactors were much higher than in the overlying water. This was not the case for the biofilms growing at low Fe2+ concentrations. Measurements with enrichement cultures showed that cyanobacteria from the Fe2+-rich environment increased their photosynthesis with increasing Fe2+ concentrations, whereas those from the low Fe2+ environment were inhibited at Fe2+ > 5 µM. Modeling based on in-situ O2 and pH profiles showed that cyanobacteria from the Fe2+-rich reactor were not exposed to significant Fe2+ concentrations. We propose that, due to limited mass transfer, high photosynthetic activity in Fe2+-rich environments forms a protective zone where Fe2+ precipitates abiotically at a non-lethal distance from the cyanobacteria. This mechanism sheds new light on the possible role of cyanobacteria in precipitation of banded iron formations.

  3. Operational Considerations for Oxygen Flammability Risks: Concentrated Oxygen Diffusion and Permeation Behaviors (United States)

    Harper, Susana; Smith, Sarah; Juarez, Alfredo; Hirsch, David


    Increased human spaceflight operations utilize oxygen concentrations that are frequently varied with use of concentrations up to 100 percent oxygen. Even after exiting a higher percentage oxygen environment, high oxygen concentrations can still be maintained due to material saturation and oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. This paper examines the material flammability concerns that arise from changing oxygen environments during spaceflight operations. We examine the time required for common spacecraft and spacesuit materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced ignitability and flammability once removed from the increased concentration. Various common spacecraft materials were considered: spacecraft cabin environment foams, Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit materials and foams, Advanced Crew Escape Suit materials, and other materials of interest such as Cotton, Nomex^ HT90-40, and Tiburon Surgical Drape. This paper presents calculated diffusion coefficients derived from experimentally obtained oxygen transmission rates for the tested materials and the analytically derived times necessary for reduced flammability to be achieved based on NASA flammability criteria. Oxygen material saturation and entrapment scenarios are examined. Experimental verification data on oxygen diffusion in saturation scenarios are also presented and discussed. We examine how to use obtained data to address flammability concerns during operational planning to reduce the likelihood of fires while improving efficiency for procedures.

  4. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas


    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  5. Selective oxidation of glycerol to formic acid in highly concentrated aqueous solutions with molecular oxygen using V-substituted phosphomolybdic acids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe


    Formic acid is an important commodity chemical as well as a promising medium for hydrogen storage and hydrogen production. In this paper, we report that formic acid can be produced through selective oxidation of glycerol, a low-cost by-product of biodiesel, by using vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acids as catalysts and molecular oxygen as the oxidant. Significantly, this catalytic system allows for high-concentration conversions and thus leads to exceptional efficiency. Specifically, 3.64 g of formic acid was produced from 10 g of glycerol/water (50/50 in weight) solution. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  6. High oxygen affinity hemoglobins. (United States)

    Mangin, O


    High oxygen affinity hemoglobins are responsible for rare and heterogeneous autosomic dominant genetic diseases. They cause pure erythrocytosis, sometimes accountable for hyperviscosity and thrombosis, or hemolysis. Differential diagnoses must be first ruled out. The diagnosis is based on the identification of a decreased P50, and their possible characterization by cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Finally, genetic studies of the responsible globin chain gene will confirm the mutation. The prognosis mainly relies on the P50 decrease rate and on the hemoglobin cooperativity impairment. Disease management should be personalized, and it should primarily depend on smoking cessation and physical activity. Phlebotomy and platelet aggregation inhibitors' prescriptions can be discussed. There is no contraindication to flights, high-altitude conditions, or pregnancy. Nevertheless, blood donation must be prohibited. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards a highly-efficient fuel-cell catalyst: optimization of Pt particle size, supports and surface-oxygen group concentration. (United States)

    Muthuswamy, Navaneethan; de la Fuente, Jose Luis Gomez; Ochal, Piotr; Giri, Rajiv; Raaen, Steinar; Sunde, Svein; Rønning, Magnus; Chen, De


    In the present work, methanol oxidation reaction was investigated on Pt particles of various diameters on carbon-nanofibers and carbon-black supports with different surface-oxygen concentrations, aiming for a better understanding of the relationship between the catalyst properties and the electrochemical performance. The pre-synthesized Pt nanoparticles in ethylene glycol, prepared by the polyol method without using any capping agents, were deposited on different carbon supports. Removal of oxygen-groups from the carbon supports had profound positive effects on not only the Pt dispersion but also the specific activity. The edge structures on the stacked graphene sheets in the platelet carbon-nanofibers provided a strong interaction with the Pt particles, significantly reconstructing them in the process. Such reconstruction resulted in the formation of more plated Pt particles on the CNF than on the carbon-black and exposure of more Pt atoms with relatively high co-ordination numbers, and thereby higher specific activity. Owing to the combined advantages of optimum Pt particle diameter, an oxygen-free surface and the unique properties of CNFs, Pt supported on heat-treated CNFs exhibited a higher mass activity twice of that of its commercial counterpart.

  8. [Correlations between polygraphic and hemodynamic parameter changes induced by high concentrated oxygen administration in patients with mitral valvulopathy (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Ferro, G; Chiariello, M; Tari, M G; Volpe, M; Ricciardelli, B; Catena, E; Condorelli, M


    The goal of this study was to identify, utilizing apexcardiogram, other noninvasive parameters useful to evaluate the functional condition of the pulmonary vascular bed in patients with mitral stenosis and insufficiency. The patients of both sexes with mitral stenosis and insufficiency underwent left and right heart catetherization and simultaneously a polygraphic study was performed. Recordings of polygraphic as well as hemodynamic parameters were performed under control condition and after 5 min breathing of 100% Oxygen administered by facial mask. These results indicate that changes in rapid filling angle have a close relationship with changes in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and variation of rapid filling interval are correlated with changes in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and variation of rapid filling interval are correlated with changes in cardiac output.

  9. Oxygenic Photosynthesis As A Protection Mechanism For Cyanobacteria Against Iron-Encrustation In Environments With High Fe2+ Concentrations


    Danny eIonescu; Bettina eBuchmann; Christine eHeim; Stefan eHaeusler; Dirk eDe Beer; Lubos ePolerecky


    If O2 is available at circumneutral pH, Fe2+ is rapidly oxidized to Fe3+, which precipitates as FeO(OH). Neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria have evolved mechanisms to prevent self-encrustation in iron. Hitherto, no mechanism has been proposed for cyanobacteria from Fe2+ rich environments; these produce O2 but are seldom found encrusted in iron. We used two sets of illuminated reactors connected to two groundwater aquifers with different Fe2+ concentrations (0.9 µM vs. 26 µM) in the Äspö Har...

  10. Oxygenic photosynthesis as a protection mechanism for cyanobacteria against iron-encrustation in environments with high Fe2+ concentrations


    Ionescu, Danny; Buchmann, Bettina; Heim, Christine; Häusler, Stefan; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos


    If O2 is available at circumneutral pH, Fe(2+) is rapidly oxidized to Fe(3+), which precipitates as FeO(OH). Neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria have evolved mechanisms to prevent self-encrustation in iron. Hitherto, no mechanism has been proposed for cyanobacteria from Fe(2+)-rich environments; these produce O2 but are seldom found encrusted in iron. We used two sets of illuminated reactors connected to two groundwater aquifers with different Fe(2+) concentrations (0.9 μM vs. 26 μM) in the ...

  11. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia


    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  12. Oxygen vacancies enabled enhancement of catalytic property of Al reduced anatase TiO{sub 2} in the decomposition of high concentration ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yanhua; Zhang, Xiaolei [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235 (China); Chen, Li [East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang, Xiaorui [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235 (China); Zhang, Na, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235 (China); Liu, Yufeng [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235 (China); Fang, Yongzheng, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 200235 (China)


    The catalytic decomposition of gaseous ozone (O{sub 3}) is investigated using anatase TiO{sub 2} (A-TiO{sub 2}) and Aluminum-reduced A-TiO{sub 2} (ARA-TiO{sub 2}) at high concentration and high relative humidity (RH) without light illumination. Compared with the pristine A-TiO{sub 2}, the ARA-TiO{sub 2} sample possesses a unique crystalline core-amorphous shell structure. It is proved to be an excellent solar energy “capture” for solar thermal collectors due to lots of oxygen vacancies. The results indicate that the overall decomposition efficiency of O{sub 3} without any light irradiation has been greatly improved from 4.8% on A-TiO{sub 2} to 100% on ARA-TiO{sub 2} under the RH=100% condition. The ozone conversion over T500/ARA-TiO{sub 2} catalyst is still maintained at 95% after a 72 h test under the reaction condition of 18.5 g/m{sup 3} ozone initial concentration, and RH=90%. The results can be explained that T500/ARA-TiO{sub 2} possesses the largest amorphous contour, the lowest crystallinity, the most surface-active Ti{sup 3+}/T{sup i4+}couples, and the most oxygen vacancies. This result opens a new door to widen the application of TiO{sub 2} in the thermal-catalytic field. - Graphical abstract: The anatase-TiO{sub 2} with various oxidation states and oxygen vacancies have been obtained by aluminum-reduction, and the decomposition efficiency of O{sub 3} has been greatly improved from 4.8% to 100% without irradiation under the RH=100% condition. - Highlights: • The decomposition of gaseous ozone over Al reduced TiO2 (ARA-TiO{sub 2}) is firstly reported. • The decomposition efficiency is up to 100% without any light irradiation on ARA-TiO{sub 2} under RH=100% condition. • The ozone conversion is maintained at 95% after a 72 h test, when C{sub inlet}=18.5 g/m{sup 3} and RH=90%.

  13. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and concentration for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji


    Ambient oxygen concentration, a key variable directly related to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels in diesel engines, plays a significant role in particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The utilization of biodiesel in diesel engines has been investigated over the last decades for its renewable characteristics and lower emissions compared to diesel. In an earlier work, we demonstrated that the soot temperature and concentration of biodiesel were lower than diesel under regular diesel engine conditions without EGR. Soot concentration was quantified by a parameter called KL factor. As a continuous effort, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the ambient oxygen concentration on soot temperature and KL factor during biodiesel and diesel spray combustion. The experiment was implemented in a constant volume chamber system, where the ambient oxygen concentration varied from 21 to 10% and the ambient temperature was kept to 1,000 K. A high speed two-color pyrometry technique was used to measure transient soot temperature and the KL factor of the spray flame. The soot temperature of biodiesel is found to be lower than that of diesel under the same conditions, which follows the same trend from our previous results found when the ambient temperature changes to 21% oxygen conditions. A reduction in ambient oxygen concentration generally reduces the soot temperature for both fuels. However, this is a complicated effect on soot processes as the change of oxygen concentration greatly affects the balance between soot formation and oxidation. The KL factor is observed to be the highest at 12% O2 for diesel and 18% O2 for biodiesel, respectively. On the other hand, the 10% O2 condition shows the lowest KL factor for both fuels. These results can provide quantitative experimental evidences to optimize the ambient oxygen concentration for diesel engines using different fuels for better emissions characteristics. © 2014 American Society of

  14. Gas exchange and the coagulation system of the blood during the effect on the body of high concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide (United States)

    Palosh, L.; Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Davydov, G. A.; Rybakov, B. K.; Sergiyenko, A. S.


    Maximum permissible concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a controlled atmosphere were determined by evaluating their effects on human gas exchange, blood coagulation, and tolerances to acute hypoxia, acceleration, and physical loads. It was found that functional disturbances depend on the concentration of respiratory gases and the length of stay in an altered atmosphere. By changing the atmospheric composition and by bringing the gaseous environment into accordance with the work and rest regimen and energy expenditures, the general reactivity of the body changes favorably.

  15. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  16. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  17. A Solar Powered, Ceramic Oxygen Concentrator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Oxygen is an essential treatment for several life-threatening conditions including pneumonia, the single biggest cause of death in children less than five years of...

  18. Comparison of portable oxygen concentrators in a simulated airplane environment. (United States)

    Fischer, Rainald; Wanka, Eva R; Einhaeupl, Franziska; Voll, Klaus; Schiffl, Helmut; Lang, Susanne M; Gruss, Martin; Ferrari, Uta


    Portable oxygen concentrators (POC) are highly desirable for patients with lung disease traveling by airplane, as these devices allow theoretically much higher travel times if additional batteries can be used. However, it is unclear whether POCs produce enough oxygen in airplanes at cruising altitude, even if complying with aviation regulations. We evaluated five frequently used POCs (XPO2 (Invacare, USA), Freestyle (AirSep C., USA), Evergo (Philipps Healthcare, Germany), Inogen One (Inogen, USA), Eclipse 3 (Sequal, USA)) at an altitude of 2650 m (as simulated airplane environment) in 11 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and compared theses POCs with the standard oxygen system (WS120, EMS Ltd., Germany) used by Lufthansa. Oxygen was delivered by each POC for 30 min to each patient at rest, blood gases were then drawn from the arterialized ear lobe. All POCs were able to deliver enough oxygen to increase the PaO(2) of our subjects by at least 1.40 kPa (10 mmHg). However, to achieve this increase, the two most lightweight POCs (Freestyle and Invacare XPO2) had to be run at their maximum level. This causes a significant reduction of battery life. The three other POCs (EverGo, Inogen One, Eclipse 3) and the WS120 were able to increase the PaO(2) by more than 2.55 kPa (20 mmHg), which provides extra safety for patients with more severe basal hypoxemia. When choosing the right oxygen system for air travel in patients in COPD, not only weight, but also battery life and maximum possible oxygen output must be considered carefully. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis (United States)

    Tang, Baojun; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik


    The large water-pumping and particle-capturing gills of the filter-feeding blue mussel Mytilus edulis are oversized for respiratory purposes. Consequently, the oxygen uptake rate of the mussel has been suggested to be rather insensitive to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the ambient water, since the diffusion rate of oxygen from water flowing through the mussel determines oxygen uptake. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the oxygen uptake in mussels exposed to various oxygen concentrations. These concentrations were established via N2-bubbling of the water in a respiration chamber with mussels fed algal cells to stimulate fully opening of the valves. It was found that mussels exposed to oxygen concentrations decreasing from 9 to 2 mg O2 /L resulted in a slow but significant reduction in the respiration rate, while the filtration rate remained high and constant. Thus, a decrease of oxygen concentration by 78% only resulted in a 25% decrease in respiration rate. However, at oxygen concentrations below 2 mg O2 /L M. edulis responded by gradually closing its valves, resulting in a rapid decrease of filtration rate, concurrent with a rapid reduction of respiration rate. These observations indicated that M. edulis is no longer able to maintain its normal aerobic metabolism at oxygen concentration below 2 mg O2/L, and there seems to be an energy-saving mechanism in bivalve molluscs to strongly reduce their activity when exposed to low oxygen conditions.

  20. Evaluation of the Oxygen Concentrator Prototypes: Pressure Swing Adsorption Prototype and Electrochemical Prototype (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Olson, Sandra L.


    An oxygen concentrator is needed to provide enriched oxygen in support of medical contingency operations for future exploration human spaceflight programs. It would provide continuous oxygen to an ill or injured crew member in a closed cabin environment. Oxygen concentration technology is being pursued to concentrate oxygen from the ambient environment so oxygen as a consumable resource can be reduced. Because oxygen is a critical resource in manned spaceflight, using an oxygen concentrator to pull oxygen out of the ambient environment instead of using compressed oxygen can provide better optimization of resources. The overall goal of this project is to develop an oxygen concentrator module that minimizes the hardware mass, volume, and power footprint while still performing at the required clinical capabilities. Should a medical event occur that requires patient oxygenation, the release of 100 percent oxygen into a small closed cabin environment can rapidly raise oxygen levels to the vehicles fire limit. The use of an oxygen concentrator to enrich oxygen from the ambient air and concentrate it to the point where it can be used for medical purposes means no oxygen is needed from the ultra-high purity (99.5+% O2) oxygen reserve tanks. By not adding oxygen from compressed tanks to the cabin environment, oxygen levels can be kept below the vehicle fire limit thereby extending the duration of care provided to an oxygenated patient without environmental control system intervention to keep the cabin oxygen levels below the fire limits. The oxygen concentrator will be a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearable device. A demonstration unit for the International Space Station (ISS) is planned to verify the technology and provide oxygen capability. For the ISS, the demonstration unit should not exceed 10 kg (approximately 22 lb), which is the soft stowage mass limit for launch on resupply vehicles for the ISS. The unit's size should allow for transport within the

  1. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. IV. Influence on the oxygen binding properties of guinea pig blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maginniss, L.A.; Szewczak, J.M.; Troup, C.M.


    Whole blood oxygen equilibrium curves (O/sub 2/ECs), blood buffer lines, and several hematologic properties were determined for adult guinea pigs exposed to 700 ppm methyl isocyanate (MIC) for 15 min. MIC inhalation effected a significant reduction of blood O/sub 2/ affinity; the half-saturation pressure (P/sub 50/) at 38/sup 0/C increased from the control (untreated) level of 22.8 +/- 0.1 mm Hg to values ranging from 28.5 to 43.7 mm Hg for experimental animals. MIC exposure had no apparent influence on O/sub 2/ EC shape or CO/sub 2/ Bohr effect. Erythrocyte volume, (metHb), O/sub 2/ binding capacity, and combined red cell organic phosphate concentration (DPG + ATP) were not affected by MIC treatment. However, experimental animals experienced a severe metabolic acid-base disturbance; blood lactate concentration ranged from 8.6 to 24.0 mmole/L. Results indicate that lactic acidosis was solely responsible for increased blood P/sub 50/ of MIC-treated animals. No direct effects of MIC on hemoglobin function were observed. Reduced Hb-O/sub 2/ affinity, in conjunction with severe hypoxemia, compromised the guinea pigs' capacity for pulmonary O/sub 2/ loading; at PaO/sub 2/ of 30 mm Hg, Hb-O/sub 2/ saturation (S) decreased from 66% S for controls to 42% S for MIC-treated animals.

  2. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations during neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, L.; Heijst, A.F.J. van; Rosmalen, J. van; Rijke, Y.B. de; Beurskens, L.; Tibboel, D.; Akker, E.L. van den; H, I.J.


    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid hormone concentrations can be disturbed during critical illness. Our aim was to determine changes in thyroid hormone concentrations during neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). STUDY DESIGN: We included 21 ECMO-treated neonates. Age-specific s.d. scores (SDS) of

  3. The role of high oxygen vacancy concentration on modification of surface properties and H2S adsorption on the rutile TiO2 (110) (United States)

    Wei, Shiqian; Wang, Fang; Dan, Meng; Zeng, Kaiyue; Zhou, Ying


    In this work, spin-polarized DFT + U method has been employed to investigate adsorption properties of H2S on the rutile TiO2 (110) surface with a high coverage of bridging oxygen vacancies (BOVs). The influence of different BOV coverage (θ-BOVs) on the surface electronic structure is examined. Defected states increase within the band gap with θ-BOVs increasing from 1/8 to 4/8 monolayer (ML). The high defected surface with θ-BOVs = 4/8 ML is determined to have a desired band structure and noticeable visible light response. In addition, H2S adsorption behaviors are noticeably affected by different H2S coverage (θ-H2S). Particularly, it is found molecular adsorption at θ-H2S ≤ 1/8 ML and dissociative adsorption at the higher θ-H2S. The maximization of spontaneous dissociation of H2S can be realized when the BOVs are all covered by H2S molecules. This work gains mechanistic insights into BOVs in tuning the surface properties and provides a guide for the effective utilization of the active surface sites on the rutile TiO2 (110) in the field of H2S splitting.

  4. Application of Nanosize Zeolite Molecular Sieves for Medical Oxygen Concentration. (United States)

    Pan, Mingfei; Omar, Hecham M; Rohani, Sohrab


    The development of a portable oxygen concentrator is of prime significance for patients with respiratory problems. This paper presents a portable concentrator prototype design using the pressure/vacuum swing adsorption (PVSA) cycle with a deep evacuation step (-0.82 barg) instead of desorption with purge flow to simplify the oxygen production process. The output of the oxygen concentrator is a ~90 vol % enriched oxygen stream in a continuous adsorption and desorption cycle (cycle time ~90 s). The size of the adsorption column is 3 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. A Li⁺ exchanged 13X nanosize zeolite is used as the adsorbent to selectively adsorb nitrogen from air. A dynamic model of the pressure and vacuum swing adsorption units was developed to study the pressurization and depressurization process inside the microporous area of nanosized zeolites. The describing equations were solved using COMSOL Multiphysics Chemical Engineering module. The output flow rate and oxygen concentration results from the simulation model were compared with the experimental data. Velocity and concentration profiles were obtained to study the adsorption process and optimize the operational parameters.

  5. Application of Nanosize Zeolite Molecular Sieves for Medical Oxygen Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Pan


    Full Text Available The development of a portable oxygen concentrator is of prime significance for patients with respiratory problems. This paper presents a portable concentrator prototype design using the pressure/vacuum swing adsorption (PVSA cycle with a deep evacuation step (−0.82 barg instead of desorption with purge flow to simplify the oxygen production process. The output of the oxygen concentrator is a ~90 vol % enriched oxygen stream in a continuous adsorption and desorption cycle (cycle time ~90 s. The size of the adsorption column is 3 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. A Li+ exchanged 13X nanosize zeolite is used as the adsorbent to selectively adsorb nitrogen from air. A dynamic model of the pressure and vacuum swing adsorption units was developed to study the pressurization and depressurization process inside the microporous area of nanosized zeolites. The describing equations were solved using COMSOL Multiphysics Chemical Engineering module. The output flow rate and oxygen concentration results from the simulation model were compared with the experimental data. Velocity and concentration profiles were obtained to study the adsorption process and optimize the operational parameters.

  6. Activity of type i methanotrophs dominates under high methane concentration: Methanotrophic activity in slurry surface crusts as influenced by methane, oxygen, and inorganic nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Yun Feng; Reinsch, Sabine; Ambus, Per


    Livestock slurry is a major source of atmospheric methane (CH4), but surface crusts harboring methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could mediate against CH4 emissions. This study examined conditions for CH4 oxidation by in situ measurements of oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a proxy for inorg......Livestock slurry is a major source of atmospheric methane (CH4), but surface crusts harboring methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could mediate against CH4 emissions. This study examined conditions for CH4 oxidation by in situ measurements of oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a proxy...... for inorganic N transformations, in intact crusts using microsensors. This was combined with laboratory incubations of crust material to investigate the effects of O2, CH4, and inorganic N on CH4 oxidation, using 13CH4 to trace C incorporation into lipids of MOB. Oxygen penetration into the crust was 2 to 14 mm...

  7. Analytical determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand in samples considered to be difficult to analyse: solid substrates and liquid samples with high suspended solid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in the field of waste and wastewater treatment processes, and more specifically in anaerobic digestion processes. However, little is known about the COD measurement quality of anaerobic digestion samples. Taking into account the lack...

  8. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water (United States)

    Jantzen, Paul G.


    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  9. Light, heat, nutrients and oxygen concentrations vary with depth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 19, 1995 ... All zoo- plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered saline formalin. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and chloro- phyll concentration were measured (over depth) at regular times (04:00, 09:00, 18:00 and 22:00) through- ..... Villefranche Bay, France. Palma (1985). Leuckartiara octona. DVM.

  10. The Effect of Acceptor and Donor Doping on Oxygen Vacancy Concentrations in Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Slouka


    Full Text Available The different properties of acceptor-doped (hard and donor-doped (soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT ceramics are often attributed to different amounts of oxygen vacancies introduced by the dopant. Acceptor doping is believed to cause high oxygen vacancy concentrations, while donors are expected to strongly suppress their amount. In this study, La3+ donor-doped, Fe3+ acceptor-doped and La3+/Fe3+-co-doped PZT samples were investigated by oxygen tracer exchange and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to analyse the effect of doping on oxygen vacancy concentrations. Relative changes in the tracer diffusion coefficients for different doping and quantitative relations between defect concentrations allowed estimates of oxygen vacancy concentrations. Donor doping does not completely suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies; rather, it concentrates them in the grain boundary region. Acceptor doping enhances the amount of oxygen vacancies but estimates suggest that bulk concentrations are still in the ppm range, even for 1% acceptor doping. Trapped holes might thus considerably contribute to the charge balancing of the acceptor dopants. This could also be of relevance in understanding the properties of hard and soft PZT.

  11. Indirect estimation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis biomass concentration using oxygen balance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Silveira


    Full Text Available The kinetic analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti growth is often hindered by the impossibility of using conventional methods to measure biomass concentration in natural raw-material-based media, which normally have a high content of insoluble solids. In this work, application of a mathematical model based on respiratory parameters in the estimation of Bti biomass concentration was evaluated. The values obtained for the respiratory parameters true cell yield from oxygen consumption and maintenance coefficient for oxygen (mO were 0.091 g cell/mmol O2 and 2.1 mmol O2/g cell/hour, respectively. With these constants and the oxygen uptake rates obtained from oxygen balance calculations, cell concentrations of Bti were estimated in batch runs with initial glucose concentrations from 10 to 80 g/L and were found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  12. Microbial respiration and gene expression as a function of very low oxygen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiano, Laura

    cruises allowed us to support distribution studies of iron species in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) OMZ water column, and to gain evidences that this OMZ is characterized by a functionally anoxic core (Anoxic Marine Zone, AMZ) (Manuscript II, VI). Subsequently we applied our low-O2 method...... recently, due to the lack of high-resolution methods for O2 concentration determination, several oxygen-related processes, such as aerobic respiration in pelagic aquatic ecosystems and in naturally oxygen poor waters (e.g. Oxygen Minimum Zones, OMZs), or the oxygen regulation of nitrification......-sensitive method to assess O2 respiration rates, using of the ultrasensitive Switchable Trace amount Oxygen (STOX) sensor, ii) apply the method to investigate the O2 uptake kinetics of natural planktonic communities from OMZs, iii) investigate the influence of low O2 concentration on nitrification, in particular...

  13. Interactions among temperature, moisture, and oxygen concentrations in controlling decomposition rates in a boreal forest soil (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Malghani, Saadatullah; Loescher, Henry W.


    Determining environmental controls on soil organic matter decomposition is of importance for developing models that predict the effects of environmental change on global soil carbon stocks. There is uncertainty about the environmental controls on decomposition rates at temperature and moisture extremes, particularly at high water content levels and high temperatures. It is uncertain whether observed declines in decomposition rates at high temperatures are due to declines in the heat capacity of extracellular enzymes as predicted by thermodynamic theory, or due to simultaneous declines in soil moisture. It is also uncertain whether oxygen limits decomposition rates at high water contents. Here we present the results of a full factorial experiment using organic soils from a boreal forest incubated at high temperatures (25 and 35 °C), a wide range of water-filled pore space (WFPS; 15, 30, 60, 90 %), and contrasting oxygen concentrations (1 and 20 %). We found support for the hypothesis that decomposition rates are high at high temperatures, provided that enough moisture and oxygen are available for decomposition. Furthermore, we found that decomposition rates are mostly limited by oxygen concentrations at high moisture levels; even at 90 % WFPS, decomposition proceeded at high rates in the presence of oxygen. Our results suggest an important degree of interaction among temperature, moisture, and oxygen in determining decomposition rates at the soil core scale.

  14. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated engine conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji


    This study investigates the effect of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated compression-ignition engine conditions in a constant-volume chamber. The apparent heat release rate (AHRR) is calculated based on the measured pressure. High-speed imaging of OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL) is employed to visualize the combustion process. Temporally and spatially resolved NL and OH* contour plots are obtained. The result indicates that AHRR depends monotonically on the ambient oxygen concentration for both fuels. A lower oxygen concentration yields a slower AHRR increase rate, a lower peak AHRR value, but a higher AHRR value during the burn-out stage when compared with higher ambient oxygen concentration conditions. OH* chemiluminescence and NL contours indicate that biodiesel may experience a longer premixed-combustion duration. The 18% ambient O2 condition works better for biodiesel than diesel in reducing soot luminosity. With 12% O2, diesel combustion is significantly degraded. However, both fuels experience low temperature combustion at 10% O2. These results may imply that biodiesel is able to achieve the desired lower soot production under a moderate oxygen level with higher combustion efficiency, while diesel needs to be burned under very low ambient oxygen concentration for low soot production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sorbents Remove Oxygen At High Temperatures (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.


    Cobalt-exchanged, platinized zeolites 13X and L found conveniently reducible in hot gaseous mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen and thereafter useful as sorbents of trace amounts of oxygen at high temperatures. Aided by catalytic action of platinum, sorbents exhibit rapid oxygen-sorption kinetics and, according to thermodynamic properties of O2/CoO system, capable of lowering level of oxygen in otherwise inert gaseous atmosphere to less than 1 part per trillion in temperature range of 400 to 800 degrees C. Inert atmospheres with these oxygen levels required for processing of certain materials in semiconductor industry.

  16. Effect Of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration On Activated Sludge Settleability In Sequencing Batch Reactor


    Engin Gürtekin


    In this study, the effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and sudden decrease and increase in dissolved oxygen concentration on the settleability of activated sludge was examined in lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (2-5 mg/L) produced sludge with lower sludge volume index, lower turbidity of effluent and higher sedimentation velocity than lower dissolved oxygen concentrations (0.5-1 mg/L). The sudden increase and decrease in dissolved oxygen ...

  17. Effect of High Inspiratory Oxygen Fraction on Endothelial Dysfunction in Healthy Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Hjordt Holm; Ekeløf, Sara; Kokotovic, Dunja


    It has been suggested that high inspiratory oxygen concentrations during anesthesia may be associated with higher postoperative mortality due to endothelial dysfunction. A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted with 25 healthy male volunteers. They inhaled an oxygen concentration of ...... unaffected. Inhalation of a high oxygen fraction in healthy volunteers did not result in a significant reduction of endothelial function....

  18. [Influence of the Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen on Embryonic Development of the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)]. (United States)

    Dmitrieva, E V


    Several series of experiments investigating the influence of dissolved oxygen concentrations on the growth rates and mortality in the embryogenesis of the common toad Bufo bufo were carried out. The experiments showed that, when the eggs develop singly, the lack of oxygen does not lead to an increase in mortality by the time of hatching and results only in a change in the dynamics of mortality: mortality occurs at an earlier stage of development than in the conditions of normal access to oxygen. Taking into account the combined effect of the density of eggs and the dissolved oxygen concentration, we increase the accuracy of analysis of the experimental results and improve the interpretation of the results. In the conditions of different initial density of eggs, the impact of the concentration of dissolved oxygen on mortality and rates of development of the common toad embryos is manifested in different ways. At high density, only a small percentage of embryos survives by the time of hatching, and the embryos are significantly behind in their development compared with the individuals that developed in normal oxygen conditions. The lack of oxygen dissolved in the water slows down the development of embryos of the common toad.

  19. Aeration optimization through operation at low dissolved oxygen concentrations: Evaluation of oxygen mass transfer dynamics in different activated sludge systems. (United States)

    Fan, Haitao; Qi, Lu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Yuankai; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Hongchen


    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using the activated sludge process, two methods are widely used to improve aeration efficiency - use of high-efficiency aeration devices and optimizing the aeration control strategy. Aeration efficiency is closely linked to sludge characteristics (such as concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and microbial communities) and operating conditions (such as air flow rate and operational dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations). Moreover, operational DO is closely linked to effluent quality. This study, which is in reference to WWTP discharge class A Chinese standard effluent criteria, determined the growth kinetics parameters of nitrifiers at different DO levels in small-scale tests. Results showed that the activated sludge system could meet effluent criteria when DO was as low as 0.3mg/L, and that nitrifier communities cultivated under low DO conditions had higher oxygen affinity than those cultivated under high DO conditions, as indicated by the oxygen half-saturation constant and nitrification ability. Based on nitrifier growth kinetics and on the oxygen mass transfer dynamic model (determined using different air flow rate (Q' air ) and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) values), theoretical analysis indicated limited potential for energy saving by improving aeration diffuser performance when the activated sludge system had low oxygen consumption; however, operating at low DO and low MLVSS could significantly reduce energy consumption. Finally, a control strategy coupling sludge retention time and MLVSS to minimize the DO level was discussed, which is critical to appropriate setting of the oxygen point and to the operation of low DO treatment technology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    reaction kinetics. At oxygen partial pressures below 10-6 bar at 700 C, the mass transport processes dominated the response time. The response time increased with decreasing oxygen partial pressure and inlet gas flow rate. A series of porous platinum electrodes were impregnated with the ionically...... conducting gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (CGO). The addition of CGO was found to decrease the polarisation resistance of the oxygen reaction by up to an order of magnitude compared with a single phase platinum electrode by increasing the effective triple phase boundary (TPB) length. It did not have any......Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...

  1. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity. (United States)

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C


    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  2. Transcript and metabolite profiling of the adaptive response to mild decreases in oxygen concentration in the roots of arabidopsis plants. (United States)

    van Dongen, Joost T; Fröhlich, Anja; Ramírez-Aguilar, Santiago J; Schauer, Nicolas; Fernie, Alisdair R; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Clark, Jeremy; Langer, Anke; Geigenberger, Peter


    Oxygen can fall to low concentrations within plant tissues, either because of environmental factors that decrease the external oxygen concentration or because the movement of oxygen through the plant tissues cannot keep pace with the rate of oxygen consumption. Recent studies document that plants can decrease their oxygen consumption in response to relatively small changes in oxygen concentrations to avoid internal anoxia. The molecular mechanisms underlying this response have not been identified yet. The aim of this study was to use transcript and metabolite profiling to investigate the genomic response of arabidopsis roots to a mild decrease in oxygen concentrations. Arabidopsis seedlings were grown on vertical agar plates at 21, 8, 4 and 1 % (v/v) external oxygen for 0.5, 2 and 48 h. Roots were analysed for changes in transcript levels using Affymetrix whole genome DNA microarrays, and for changes in metabolite levels using routine GC-MS based metabolite profiling. Root extension rates were monitored in parallel to investigate adaptive changes in growth. The results show that root growth was inhibited and transcript and metabolite profiles were significantly altered in response to a moderate decrease in oxygen concentrations. Low oxygen leads to a preferential up-regulation of genes that might be important to trigger adaptive responses in the plant. A small but highly specific set of genes is induced very early in response to a moderate decrease in oxygen concentrations. Genes that were down-regulated mainly encoded proteins involved in energy-consuming processes. In line with this, root extension growth was significantly decreased which will ultimately save ATP and decrease oxygen consumption. This was accompanied by a differential regulation of metabolite levels at short- and long-term incubation at low oxygen. The results show that there are adaptive changes in root extension involving large-scale reprogramming of gene expression and metabolism when oxygen

  3. Direct measurement of local dissolved oxygen concentration spatial profiles in a cell culture environment. (United States)

    Kagawa, Yuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tsuneda, Satoshi


    Controlling local dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in media is critical for cell or tissue cultures. Various biomaterials and culture methods have been developed to modulate DO. Direct measurement of local DO in cultures has not been validated as a method to test DO modulation. In the present study we developed a DO measurement system equipped with a Clark-type oxygen microelectrode manipulated with 1 μm precision in three-dimensional space to explore potential applications for tissue engineering. By determining the microelectrode tip position precisely against the bottom plane of culture dishes with rat or human cardiac cells in static monolayer culture, we successfully obtained spatial distributions of DO in the medium. Theoretical quantitative predictions fit the obtained data well. Based on analyses of the variance between samples, we found the data reflected "local" oxygen consumption in the vicinity of the microelectrode and the detection of temporal changes in oxygen consumption rates of cultured cells was limited by the diffusion rate of oxygen in the medium. This oxygen measuring system monitors local oxygen consumption and production with high spatial resolution, and can potentially be used with recently developed oxygen modulating biomaterials to design microenvironments and non-invasively monitor local DO dynamics during culture. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Addition of oxygen to and distribution of oxides in tantalum alloy T-111 at low concentrations (United States)

    Stecura, S.


    Oxygen was added at 820 and 990 C at an oxygen pressure of about .0003 torr. The technique permitted predetermined and reproducible oxygen doping of the tantalum alloy (T-111). Based on the temperature dependency of the doping reaction, it was concluded that the initial rates of oxygen pickup are probably controlled by solution of oxygen into the T-111 lattice. Although hafnium oxides are more stable than those of tantalum or tungsten, analyses of extracted residues indicate that the tantalum and tungsten oxides predominate in the as-doped specimens, presumably because of the higher concentrations of tantalum and tungsten in the alloy. However, high-temperature annealing promotes gettering of dissolved oxygen and oxygen from other oxides to form hafnium oxides. Small amounts of tantalum and tungsten oxides were still present after high temperature annealing. Tungsten oxide (WO3) volatilizes slightly from the surface of T-111 at 990 C but not at 820 C. The vaporization of WO3 has no apparent effect on the doping reaction.

  5. The Relationship between Mollusks and Oxygen Concentrations in Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabriel Kuk-Dzul


    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between mollusks, physicochemical properties of seawater, and sediments under natural conditions of low impact. Thirty-nine stations were sampled in October 1994 using a Van Veen grab (0.1 m−2. Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations of bottom water were obtained with a CTD. Organic matter content and sediment grain analysis were determined. A total of 836 mollusks were collected. Gastropoda was the most abundant (52% and diverse class with 27 genera, followed by Bivalvia with eight genera and Scaphopoda with only one genus. According to CCA analysis, dominant mollusks were significantly related with high DO concentrations. Donax, Natica, Acteocina, Bulla, Anachis, Odostomia, and Crucibulum can be classified as sensitive genera because they were found mainly in high oxygen concentrations (3.1–5.6 mL L−1; on the other hand, Cardiomya, Nuculana, Laevicardium, Chione, Truncatella, and Dentalium can be classified as tolerant genera (1.0–5.6 mL L−1. Todos Santos Bay hosts a diverse malacological fauna (36 genera; our results show that the dominant genera were mainly related to high dissolved oxygen concentrations. Mollusks can be a useful tool in environmental monitoring programs related with oxygen depletion in coastal areas.

  6. Regulation of Respiration and Fermentation to Control the Plant Internal Oxygen Concentration


    Zabalza, A.; van Dongen, J; Froehlich, A.; Oliver, S.; Faix, B.; Gupta, K; Schmalzlin, E.; Igal, M.; Orcaray, L.; Royuela, M.; Geigenberger, P


    Plant internal oxygen concentrations can drop well below ambient even when the plant grows under optimal conditions. Using pea (Pisum sativum) roots, we show how amenable respiration adapts to hypoxia to save oxygen when the oxygen availability decreases. The data cannot simply be explained by oxygen being limiting as substrate but indicate the existence of a regulatory mechanism, because the oxygen concentration at which the adaptive response is initiated is independent of the actual respira...

  7. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  8. Effect Of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration On Activated Sludge Settleability In Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Gürtekin


    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and sudden decrease and increase in dissolved oxygen concentration on the settleability of activated sludge was examined in lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR. Higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (2-5 mg/L produced sludge with lower sludge volume index, lower turbidity of effluent and higher sedimentation velocity than lower dissolved oxygen concentrations (0.5-1 mg/L. The sudden increase and decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration caused higher sludge volume index.

  9. Comparison of oxygen transfer parameters and oxygen demands in bioreactors operated at low and high dissolved oxygen levels. (United States)

    Mines, Richard O; Callier, Matthew C; Drabek, Benjamin J; Butler, André J


    The proper design of aeration systems for bioreactors is critical since it can represent up to 50% of the operational and capital cost at water reclamation facilities. Transferring the actual amount of oxygen needed to meet the oxygen demand of the wastewater requires α- and β-factors, which are used for calculating the actual oxygen transfer rate (AOTR) under process conditions based on the standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR). The SOTR is measured in tap water at 20°C, 1 atmospheric pressure, and 0 mg L -1 of dissolved oxygen (DO). In this investigation, two 11.4-L bench-scale completely mixed activated process (CMAS) reactors were operated at various solid retention times (SRTs) to ascertain the relationship between the α-factor and SRT, and between the β-factor and SRT. The second goal was to determine if actual oxygen uptake rates (AOURs) are equal to calculated oxygen uptake rates (COURs) based on mass balances. Each reactor was supplied with 0.84 L m -1 of air resulting in SOTRs of 14.3 and 11.5 g O 2 d -1 for Reactor 1 (R-1) and Reactor 2 (R-2), respectively. The estimated theoretical oxygen demands of the synthetic feed to R-1 and R-2 were 6.3 and 21.9 g O 2 d -1 , respectively. R-2 was primarily operated under a dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and high nitrogen loading to determine if nitrification would be inhibited from a nitrite buildup and if this would impact the α-factor. Nitrite accumulated in R-2 at DO concentrations ranging from 0.50 to 7.35 mg L -1 and at free ammonia (FA) concentrations ranging from 1.34 to 7.19 mg L -1 . Nonsteady-state reaeration tests performed on the effluent from each reactor and on tap water indicated that the α-factor increased as SRT increased. A simple statistical analysis (paired t-test) between AOURs and COURs indicated that there was a statistically significant difference at 0.05 level of significance for both reactors. The ex situ BOD bottle method for estimating AOUR appears to be invalid in

  10. Oxygen transfer dynamics and activated sludge floc structure under different sludge retention times at low dissolved oxygen concentrations. (United States)

    Fan, Haitao; Liu, Xiuhong; Wang, Hao; Han, Yunping; Qi, Lu; Wang, Hongchen


    In activated sludge systems, the aeration process consumes the most energy. The energy cost can be dramatically reduced by decreasing the operating dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. However, low DO may lead to incomplete nitrification and poor settling performance of activated sludge flocs (ASFs). This study investigates oxygen transfer dynamics and settling performances of activated sludge under different sludge retention times (SRTs) and DO conditions using microelectrodes and microscopic techniques. Our experimental results showed that with longer SRTs, treatment capacity and settling performances of activated sludge improved due to smaller floc size and less extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term low DO conditions produced larger flocs and more EPS per unit sludge, which produced a more extensive anoxic area and led to low oxygen diffusion performance in flocs. Long SRTs mitigated the adverse effects of low DO. According to the microelectrode analysis and fractal dimension determination, smaller floc size and less EPS in the long SRT system led to high oxygen diffusion property and more compact floc structure that caused a drop in the sludge volume index (SVI). In summary, our results suggested that long SRTs of activated sludge can improve the operating performance under low DO conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor. (United States)

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene


    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electron spin resonance microscopic imaging of oxygen concentration in cancer spheroids (United States)

    Hashem, Mada; Weiler-Sagie, Michal; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Neufeld, Gera; Neeman, Michal; Blank, Aharon


    Oxygen (O2) plays a central role in most living organisms. The concentration of O2 is important in physiology and pathology. Despite the importance of accurate knowledge of the O2 levels, there is very limited capability to measure with high spatial resolution its distribution in millimeter-scale live biological samples. Many of the current oximetric methods, such as oxygen microelectrodes and fluorescence lifetime imaging, are compromised by O2 consumption, sample destruction, invasiveness, and difficulty to calibrate. Here, we present a new method, based on the use of the pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) microimaging technique to obtain a 3D mapping of oxygen concentration in millimeter-scale biological samples. ESR imaging requires the incorporation of a suitable stable and inert paramagnetic spin probe into the desirable object. In this work, we use microcrystals of a paramagnetic spin probe in a new crystallographic packing form (denoted tg-LiNc-BuO). These paramagnetic species interact with paramagnetic oxygen molecules, causing a spectral line broadening that is linearly proportional to the oxygen concentration. Typical ESR results include 4D spatial-spectral images that give an indication about the oxygen concentration in different regions of the sample. This new oximetry microimaging method addresses all the problems mentioned above. It is noninvasive, sensitive to physiological oxygen levels, and easy to calibrate. Furthermore, in principle, it can be used for repetitive measurements without causing cell damage. The tissue model used in this research is spheroids of Human Colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) with a typical diameter of ∼600 μm. Most studies of the microenvironmental O2 conditions inside such viable spheroids carried out in the past used microelectrodes, which require an invasive puncturing of the spheroid and are also not applicable to 3D O2 imaging. High resolution 3D oxygen maps could make it possible to evaluate the

  13. Highly Accurate Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Determination Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) and the University of Wisconsin (UW) propose to develop a highly-accurate sensor for high-purity oxygen determination....

  14. End expiratory oxygen concentrations to predict central venous oxygen saturation: an observational pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steuerwald Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A non-invasive surrogate measurement for central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2 would be useful in the ED for assessing therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that either linear or nonlinear mathematical manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen in breath at end expiration (EtO2 would accurately predict ScVO2. Methods Prospective observational study of a convenience sample of hemodialysis patients age > 17 years with existing upper extremity central venous catheters were enrolled. Using a portable respiratory device, we collected both tidal breathing and end expiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, volume and flow on each patient. Simultaneous ScVO2 measurements were obtained via blood samples collected from the hemodialysis catheter. Two models were used to predict ScVO2: 1 Best-fit multivariate linear regression equation incorporating all respiratory variables; 2 MathCAD to model the decay curve of EtO2 versus expiratory volume using the least squares method to estimate the pO2 that would occur at Results From 21 patients, the correlation between EtO2 and measured ScVO2 yielded R2 = 0.11. The best fit multivariate equation included EtCO2 and EtO2 and when solved for ScVO2, the equation yielded a mean absolute difference from the measured ScVO2 of 8 ± 6% (range -18 to +17%. The predicted ScVO2 value was within 10% of the actual value for 57% of the patients. Modeling of the EtO2 curve did not accurately predict ScVO2 at any lung volume. Conclusion We found no significant correlation between EtO2 and ScVO2. A linear equation incorporating EtCO2 and EtO2 had at best modest predictive accuracy for ScVO2.

  15. End expiratory oxygen concentrations to predict central venous oxygen saturation: an observational pilot study. (United States)

    Jones, Alan E; Kuehne, Karl; Steuerwald, Michael; Kline, Jeffrey A


    A non-invasive surrogate measurement for central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2) would be useful in the ED for assessing therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that either linear or nonlinear mathematical manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen in breath at end expiration (EtO2) would accurately predict ScVO2. Prospective observational study of a convenience sample of hemodialysis patients age > 17 years with existing upper extremity central venous catheters were enrolled. Using a portable respiratory device, we collected both tidal breathing and end expiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, volume and flow on each patient. Simultaneous ScVO2 measurements were obtained via blood samples collected from the hemodialysis catheter. Two models were used to predict ScVO2: 1) Best-fit multivariate linear regression equation incorporating all respiratory variables; 2) MathCAD to model the decay curve of EtO2 versus expiratory volume using the least squares method to estimate the pO2 that would occur at <20% of total lung capacity. From 21 patients, the correlation between EtO2 and measured ScVO2 yielded R2 = 0.11. The best fit multivariate equation included EtCO2 and EtO2 and when solved for ScVO2, the equation yielded a mean absolute difference from the measured ScVO2 of 8 +/- 6% (range -18 to +17%). The predicted ScVO2 value was within 10% of the actual value for 57% of the patients. Modeling of the EtO2 curve did not accurately predict ScVO2 at any lung volume. We found no significant correlation between EtO2 and ScVO2. A linear equation incorporating EtCO2 and EtO2 had at best modest predictive accuracy for ScVO2.

  16. Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)


    This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

  17. Influence of oxygen concentration on ethylene removal using dielectric barrier discharge (United States)

    Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Motodate, Takuma; Takaki, Koichi; Koide, Shoji


    Ethylene gas is decomposed using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor for long-period preservation of fruits and vegetables. The oxygen concentration in ambient gas is varied from 2 to 20% to simulate the fruit and vegetable transport container. The experimental results show that the efficiency of ethylene gas decomposition increases with decreasing oxygen concentration. The reactions of ethylene molecules with ozone are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The analysis results show that the oxidization process by ozone is later than that by oxygen atoms. The amount of oxygen atoms that contribute to ethylene removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration because the reaction between oxygen radicals and oxygen molecules is suppressed at low oxygen concentrations. Ozone is completely removed and the energy efficiency of C2H4 removal is increased using manganese dioxide as a catalyst.

  18. FiO2 delivered by a turbine portable ventilator with an oxygen concentrator in an Austere environment. (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Erwan d'Aranda; Savoie, Pierre-Henry; Montcriol, Ambroise; Goutorbe, Philippe; Kaiser, Eric


    Management of critically ill patients in austere environments is a logistic challenge. Availability of oxygen cylinders for the mechanically ventilated patient may be difficult in such a context. A solution is to use a ventilator able to function with an oxygen concentrator. We tested the SeQual Integra™ (SeQual, San Diego, CA) 10-OM oxygen concentrator paired with the Pulmonetic System(®) LTV 1000 ventilator (Pulmonetic Systems, Minneapolis, MN) and evaluated the delivered fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) across a range of minute volumes and combinations of ventilator settings. Two LTV 1000 ventilators were tested. The ventilators were attached to a test lung and FiO2 was measured by a gas analyzer. Continuous-flow oxygen was generated by the OC from 0.5 L/min to 10 L/min and injected into the oxygen inlet port of the LTV 1000. Several combinations of ventilator settings were evaluated to determine the factors affecting the delivered FiO2. The LTV 1000 ventilator is a turbine ventilator that is able to deliver high FiO2 when functioning with an oxygen concentrator. However, modifications of the ventilator settings such as increase in minute ventilation affect delivered FiO2 even if oxygen flow is constant on the oxygen concentrator. The ability of an oxygen concentrator to deliver high FiO2 when used with a turbine ventilator makes this method of oxygen delivery a viable alternative to cylinders in austere environments when used with a turbine ventilator. However, FiO2 has to be monitored continuously because delivered FiO2 decreases when minute ventilation is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Formation of superoxide radicals in isolated cardiac mitochondria: effect of low oxygen concentration]. (United States)

    Sviriaeva, I V; Mertsalova, A S; Ruuge, E K


    The formation of superoxide radical in isolated rat heart mitochondria under conditions of variable oxygen concentration has been studied by the spin trapping technique and EPR oximetry. Lithium phthalocyanine and TEMPONE-D-15 N16 were used to determine the oxygen concentration. TIRON was used as a spin trap. By varying the oxygen content in reaction medium, it was shown that isolated heart mitochondria can produce superoxide even at an oxygen partial pressure of 17.5 mmHg. However, the rate of superoxide generation was considerably lower than in control. It was found that increasing the oxygen concentration leads to an increase in the rate of superoxide generation.

  20. Comparison of domiciliary oxygen using liquid oxygen and concentrator in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ling Su


    Conclusion: Patients in the LOG used oxygen for longer hours, went on more outings, and were more likely to travel with oxygen than patients in the OCG. Being ambulatory with liquid oxygen might enable patients with COPD to walk more effectively.

  1. Oxygen concentrators performance with nitrous oxide at 50:50 volume. (United States)

    Moll, Jorge Ronaldo; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Gozzani, Judymara Lauzi; Mathias, Lígia Andrade Silva Telles


    Few investigations have addressed the safety of oxygen from concentrators for use in anesthesia in association with nitrous oxide. This study evaluated the percent of oxygen from a concentrator in association with nitrous oxide in a semi-closed rebreathing circuit. Adult patients undergoing low risk surgery were randomly allocated into two groups, receiving a fresh gas flow of oxygen from concentrators (O293) or of oxygen from concentrators and nitrous oxide (O293N2O). The fraction of inspired oxygen and the percentage of oxygen from fresh gas flow were measured every 10 min. The ratio of FiO2/oxygen concentration delivered was compared at various time intervals and between the groups. Thirty patients were studied in each group. There was no difference in oxygen from concentrators over time for both groups, but there was a significant improvement in the FiO2 (pnitrous oxide fell during the observation period although oxygen saturation was higher than 98.5% throughout the study. Concentrators can be considered a stable source of oxygen for use during short anesthetic procedures, either pure or in association with nitrous oxide at 50:50 volume. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Dust explosion hazard in ITER: limiting oxygen concentration measurements of ITER-relevant dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denkevits, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The work aim is to support inert-gas dilution mitigation methods proposed recently to prevent accidental explosions of dusts accumulated inside the ITER vacuum vessel during the machine operation. A standard method of 20-l-sphere is used to test 4 micron graphite dust and 1 micron tungsten dust to measure their Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC) values, below which no self-sustained flame propagation is possible in the dust cloud at any dust concentrations. The tested dust clouds are formed inside the 20-l spherical explosion bomb in nitrogen-diluted air atmospheres at normal initial conditions. The oxygen content in the pre-explosion atmospheres is varied from normal (about 21 vol. %) down to 9 vol. %. The tested dust cloud concentrations are 150-300 g/m{sup 3} of the graphite dust and 3000 g/m3 of the tungsten dust. The dust clouds are ignited with 2, 5, or 10 kJ igniters. The dependences of maximum overpressures and maximum rates of pressure rise generated in course of the dust cloud explosions are measured as functions of oxygen content in the pre-explosion atmospheres. The maximum overpressure generated by the graphite dust clouds ignited with 2 kJ reduces from 4 bar at normal oxygen content to 0.5 bar at 17 vol. % O2. In case of a stronger 10 kJ ignition the maximum overpressure is higher 0.5 bar down to 11 vol. % oxygen. The tungsten dust ignited by 5 kJ generate 4 bar overpressure in normal air. With reducing oxygen content the overpressure decreases to 0.5 bar at 13 vol. % oxygen. However, the observed regimes of the tungsten dust explosions seem to be overdriven under the tested conditions because of too high ignition energy (5 kJ) for rather a small combustion volume (20 l). Even the value of 15 vol. % oxygen can be considered as a conservative estimate of LOC for 1 micron tungsten dust. The results obtained indicate that only a weak dilution of accidental atmosphere in ITER vacuum vessel can suppress the dust explosions in case of severe accident

  3. Long-term simulations of dissolved oxygen concentrations in Lake Trout lakes (United States)

    Jabbari, A.; Boegman, L.; MacKay, M.; Hadley, K.; Paterson, A.; Jeziorski, A.; Nelligan, C.; Smol, J. P.


    Lake Trout are a rare and valuable natural resource that are threatened by multiple environmental stressors. With the added threat of climate warming, there is growing concern among resource managers that increased thermal stratification will reduce the habitat quality of deep-water Lake Trout lakes through enhanced oxygen depletion. To address this issue, a three-part study is underway, which aims to: analyze sediment cores to understand the past, develop empirical formulae to model the present and apply computational models to forecast the future. This presentation reports on the computational modeling efforts. To this end, a simple dissolved oxygen sub-model has been embedded in the one-dimensional bulk mixed-layer thermodynamic Canadian Small Lake Model (CSLM). This model is currently being incorporated into the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), the primary land surface component of Environment Canada's global and regional climate modelling systems. The oxygen model was calibrated and validated by hind-casting temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles from two Lake Trout lakes on the Canadian Shield. These data sets include 5 years of high-frequency (10 s to 10 min) data from Eagle Lake and 30 years of bi-weekly data from Harp Lake. Initial results show temperature and dissolved oxygen was predicted with root mean square error climate-change relevant timescales, against dissolved oxygen reconstructions from the sediment cores and predicting future deep-water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations in Canadian Lake Trout lakes under future climate change scenarios. This model will provide a useful tool for managers to ensure sustainable fishery resources for future generations.

  4. CPAP and High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Sinha, Ian P; McBride, Antonia K S; Smith, Rachel; Fernandes, Ricardo M


    Severe respiratory failure develops in some infants with bronchiolitis because of a complex pathophysiologic process involving increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may improve the work of breathing and oxygenation. Although the mechanisms behind these noninvasive modalities of respiratory support are not well understood, they may help infants by way of distending pressure and delivery of high concentrations of warmed and humidified oxygen. Observational studies of varying quality have suggested that CPAP and HFNC may confer direct physiologic benefits to infants with bronchiolitis and that their use has reduced the need for intubation. No trials to our knowledge, however, have compared CPAP with HFNC in bronchiolitis. Two randomized trials compared CPAP with oxygen delivered by low-flow nasal cannula or face mask and found some improvements in blood gas results and some physiologic parameters, but these trials were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the need for intubation. Two trials evaluated HFNC in bronchiolitis (one comparing it with headbox oxygen, the other with nebulized hypertonic saline), with the results not seeming to suggest important clinical or physiologic benefits. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of respiratory failure in bronchiolitis, discuss these trials in detail, and consider how future research studies may be designed to best evaluate CPAP and HFNC in bronchiolitis.

  5. NOx emissions from high swirl turbulent spray flames with highly oxygenated fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles


    Combustion of fuels with fuel bound oxygen is of interest from both a practical and a fundamental viewpoint. While a great deal of work has been done studying the effect of oxygenated additives in diesel and gasoline engines, much less has been done examining combustion characteristics of fuels with extremely high mass fractions of fuel bound oxygen. This work presents an initial investigation into the very low NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of a model, high oxygen mass fraction fuel. Glycerol was chosen as a model fuel with a fuel bound oxygen mass fraction of 52%, and was compared with emissions measured from diesel combustion at similar conditions in a high swirl turbulent spray flame. This work has shown that high fuel bound oxygen mass fractions allow for combustion at low global equivalence ratios with comparable exhaust gas temperatures due to the significantly lower concentrations of diluting nitrogen. Despite similar exhaust gas temperatures, NOx emissions from glycerol combustion were up to an order of magnitude lower than those measured using diesel fuel. This is shown to be a result not of specific burner geometry, but rather is influenced by the presence of higher oxygen and lower nitrogen concentrations at the flame front inhibiting NOx production. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  6. Predictive Control of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Cynoglossus Semilaevis Industrial Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing LIU


    Full Text Available Dissolved oxygen is an important factor that influences cynoglossus semilaevis’ growth. Keeping the stability of its concentration is beneficial for cynoglossus semilaevis’ healthy growth. The changing process of dissolved oxygen concentration contains nonlinearities and big time- delay because it is restricted by multiple factors, so traditional control methods are difficult to control it effectively or keep its concentration stable. This paper proposes a predictive control model for dissolved oxygen based on DMC algorithm. Firstly, it adopts DMC’s predictive model to predict the dissolved oxygen concentration’s variation trend. Secondly, it gives the calculated optimal control to aerators. Using DMC predictive model, it has better solved the nonlinear prediction problem of dissolved oxygen. Using DMC rolling optimization, it has better solved the optimal control problem of dissolved oxygen. System simulation results have shown that the model this paper proposed has a good performance in terms of rapidity, disturbances and errors in dissolved oxygen control.

  7. Effect of Oxygen Concentration on Autogenous Ignition Temperature and Pneumatic Impact Ignitability of Nonmetallic Materials (United States)

    Smith, Sarah


    Extensive test data exist on the ignitability of nonmetallic materials in pure oxygen, but these characteristics are not as well understood for lesser oxygen concentrations. In this study, autogenous ignition temperature testing and pneumatic impact testing were used to better understand the effects of oxygen concentration on ignition of nonmetallic materials. Tests were performed using oxygen concentrations of 21, 34, 45, and 100 %. The following materials were tested: PTFE Teflon(Registered Trademark), Buna-N, Silicone, Zytel(Registered Trademark) 42, Viton(registered Trademark) A, and Vespel(Registered Trademark) SP-21.

  8. High-efficiency solar concentrator (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Dorman, J.


    A new type of solar concentrator is presented using liquid lenses and simple translational tracking mechanism. The concentrator achieves a 100:1 nominal concentration ratio and is compared in performance with a flat-plate collector having two sheets of glazing and non-selective coating. The results of the thermal analysis show that higher temperatures can be obtained with the concentrator than is possible with the non-concentrator flat-plate type. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency far exceeds that of the comparative flat-plate type for all operating conditions.

  9. The dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality monitoring and assessment in polder ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeningen, R.


    This study deals with the use of the dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality assessment in polder ditches. The dynamics of the dissolved oxygen concentration, i.e. the temporal and spatial variations in a few polder ditches under a range of natural, pollution and management

  10. Monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in living mouse tail using photoacoustic CT scanner (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Stantz, Keith M.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use PCT spectroscopy scanner to monitor the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation change of living mouse by imaging the artery and veins in a mouse tail. Materials and Methods: One mouse tail was scanned using the PCT small animal scanner at the isosbestic wavelength (796nm) to obtain its hemoglobin concentration. Immediately after the scan, the mouse was euthanized and its blood was extracted from the heart. The true hemoglobin concentration was measured using a co-oximeter. Reconstruction correction algorithm to compensate the acoustic signal loss due to the existence of bone structure in the mouse tail was developed. After the correction, the hemoglobin concentration was calculated from the PCT images and compared with co-oximeter result. Next, one mouse were immobilized in the PCT scanner. Gas with different concentrations of oxygen was given to mouse to change the oxygen saturation. PCT tail vessel spectroscopy scans were performed 15 minutes after the introduction of gas. The oxygen saturation values were then calculated to monitor the oxygen saturation change of mouse. Results: The systematic error for hemoglobin concentration measurement was less than 5% based on preliminary analysis. Same correction technique was used for oxygen saturation calculation. After correction, the oxygen saturation level change matches the oxygen volume ratio change of the introduced gas. Conclusion: This living mouse tail experiment has shown that NIR PCT-spectroscopy can be used to monitor the oxygen saturation status in living small animals.

  11. Were kinetics of Archean calcium carbonate precipitation related to oxygen concentration? (United States)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Grotzinger, J. P.


    Archean carbonates commonly contain decimetre- to metre-thick beds consisting entirely of fibrous calcite and neomorphosed fibrous aragonite that precipitated in situ on the sea floor. The fact that such thick accumulations of precipitated carbonate are rare in younger marine carbonates suggests an important change in the modes of calcium carbonate precipitation through time. Kinetics of carbonate precipitation depend on the concentration of inhibitors to precipitation that reduce crystallization rates and crystal nuclei formation, leading to kinetic maintenance of supersaturated solutions. Inhibitors also affect carbonate textures by limiting micrite precipitation and promoting growth of older carbonate crystals on the sea floor. Fe2+, a strong calcite-precipitation inhibitor, is thought to have been present at relatively high concentrations in Archean seawater because oxygen concentrations were low. The rise in oxygen concentration at 2.2-1.9 Ga led to the removal of Fe2+ from seawater and resulted in a shift from Archean facies, which commonly include precipitated beds, to Proterozoic facies, which contain more micritic sediment and only rare precipitated beds.

  12. A Theoretical Basis for the Transition to Denitrification at Nanomolar Oxygen Concentrations (United States)

    Zakem, E.; Follows, M. J.


    Current climate change is likely to expand the size and intensity of marine oxygen minimum zones. How will this affect denitrification rates? Current global biogeochemical models typically prescribe a critical oxygen concentration below which anaerobic activity occurs, rather than resolve the underlying microbial processes. Here, we explore the dynamics of an idealized, simulated anoxic zone in which multiple prokaryotic metabolisms are resolved mechanistically, defined by redox chemistry and biophysical constraints. We first ask, what controls the critical oxygen concentration governing the favorability of aerobic or anaerobic respiration? The predicted threshold oxygen concentration varies as a function of the environment as well as of cell physiology, and lies within the nanomolar range. The model thus provides a theoretical underpinning for the recent observations of nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zones. In the context of an idealized, two-dimensional intensified upwelling simulation, we also predict denitrification at oxygen concentrations orders of magnitude higher due to physical mixing, reconciling observations of denitrification over a similar range and demonstrating a decoupling of denitrification from the local oxygen concentration. In a sensitivity study with the idealized ocean model, we comment upon the relationship between the volume of anoxic waters and total denitrification.

  13. Oxygen concentrators performance with nitrous oxide at 50:50 volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ronaldo Moll


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Few investigations have addressed the safety of oxygen from concentrators for use in anesthesia in association with nitrous oxide. This study evaluated the percent of oxygen from a concentrator in association with nitrous oxide in a semi-closed rebreathing circuit. Methods: Adult patients undergoing low risk surgery were randomly allocated into two groups, receiving a fresh gas flow of oxygen from concentrators (O293 or of oxygen from concentrators and nitrous oxide (O293N2O. The fraction of inspired oxygen and the percentage of oxygen from fresh gas flow were measured every 10 min. The ratio of FiO2/oxygen concentration delivered was compared at various time intervals and between the groups. Results: Thirty patients were studied in each group. There was no difference in oxygen from concentrators over time for both groups, but there was a significant improvement in the FiO2 (p < 0.001 for O293 group while a significant decline (p < 0.001 for O293N2O. The FiO2/oxygen ratio varied in both groups, reaching a plateau in the O293 group. Pulse oximetry did not fall below 98.5% in either group. Conclusion: The FiO2 in the mixture of O293 and nitrous oxide fell during the observation period although oxygen saturation was higher than 98.5% throughout the study. Concentrators can be considered a stable source of oxygen for use during short anesthetic procedures, either pure or in association with nitrous oxide at 50:50 volume.

  14. Predictive Control of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Cynoglossus Semilaevis Industrial Aquaculture


    Hongjing LIU; Wei, Yaoguang; Liu, Chunhong; Yingyi CHEN


    Dissolved oxygen is an important factor that influences cynoglossus semilaevis’ growth. Keeping the stability of its concentration is beneficial for cynoglossus semilaevis’ healthy growth. The changing process of dissolved oxygen concentration contains nonlinearities and big time- delay because it is restricted by multiple factors, so traditional control methods are difficult to control it effectively or keep its concentration stable. This paper proposes a predictive control model for dissolv...

  15. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with autologous platelet concentrate applied in rabbit fibula fraction healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Fagundes Neves


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrates in healing the fibula bone of rabbits after induced fractures. METHODS: A total of 128 male New Zealand albino rabbits, between 6-8 months old, were subjected to a total osteotomy of the proximal portion of the right fibula. After surgery, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 32 each: control group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy; autologous platelet concentrate group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site; hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions; and autologous platelet concentrate and hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy, autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site, and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to a pre-determined euthanasia time points: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperative. After euthanasia at a specific time point, the fibula containing the osseous callus was prepared histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius red. RESULTS: Autologous platelet concentrates and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, applied together or separately, increased the rate of bone healing compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrate combined increased the rate of bone healing in this experimental model.

  16. The Effects of Oxygen Concentration on Benthic Foraminiferal Growth and Size (United States)

    Ng, B.; Keating-Bitonti, C.; Payne, J.


    Many organisms use oxygen through cellular respiration in order to gain energy. For this reason, oxygen has a significant influence on organism size and growth. The amount of oxygen an organism needs depends on its metabolic demand, which is partially a function organism size (i.e., mass). The Santa Monica Basin (SMB) is an oxygen minimum zone located off the southern coast of California that maintains a steep oxygen gradient and is thus an ideal location for conducting research on how oxygen influences organism size. Here we use benthic foraminifera, widespread single-celled protists that produce shells (tests), to study the controls of oxygen on organism size. Because cell mass and cell volume are correlated, we study trends in the log test volume of four abundant species from SMB: Uvigerina peregrina, Bolivina spissa, B. argentea, Loxostomum pseudobeyrichi. These foraminifera make multi-chambered tests, thus we also count the number of chambers per specimen in order to further assess their growth under varying oxygen concentrations. We analyzed the data using quantile regressions to determine trends in not only median values of the log test volume and number of chambers as a function of oxygen concentrations, but also in the 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles because oxygen availability often constrains the maximum and minimum size of organisms. Our results show a positive correlation between oxygen concentration and the maximum log test volumes of L. pseudobeyrichi and B. argentea, supporting our hypothesis. However, we observed a negative correlation between oxygen concentration and the maximum percentiles of log test volume in U. peregrina. Nevertheless, U. peregrina still displays a positive correlation between chamber number and oxygen concentrations in line with our hypothesis. The preponderance of trends supporting a direct correlation between log test volume or chamber number and oxygen concentration suggest that oxygen limits the maximum obtainable

  17. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores. (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Kobori, Nilce Naomi; Behle, Robert W; Dunlap, Christopher A; Delalibera Júnior, Ítalo


    The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is an economically important pathogen of numerous arthropod pests and is able to grow in submerged culture as filaments (mycelia) or as budding yeast-like blastospores. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen and high glucose concentrations on blastospore production by submerged cultures of two isolates of B. bassiana, ESALQ1432 and GHA. Results showed that maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels coupled with high glucose concentrations enhanced blastospore yields by both isolates. High glucose concentrations increased the osmotic pressure of the media and coincided with higher dissolved oxygen levels and increased production of significantly smaller blastospores compared with blastospores produced in media with lower concentrations of glucose. The desiccation tolerance of blastospores dried to less than 2.6 % moisture was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium but was isolate dependent. Blastospores of isolate ESALQ1432 produced in media containing 140 g glucose L(-1) showed greater virulence toward whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) as compared with blastospores produced in media containing 40 g glucose L(-1). These results suggest a synergistic effect between glucose concentration and oxygen availability on changing morphology and enhancing the yield and efficacy of blastospores of B. bassiana, thereby facilitating the development of a cost-effective production method for this blastospore-based bioinsecticide.

  18. Evaluation of Oxygen Concentrators and Chemical Oxygen Generators at Altitude and Temperature Extremes (United States)


    device is $895 each. 3.2.3 BOB. The BOB system requires the user to add ingredients to a plastic bag to initiate oxygen production. The...Pacific Precision Products, Irvine, CA), TraumAid-26 (HABCO Industries, Blastonbury, CT), and BUDI Oxygen Bag (BOB) (Green Dot Systems, Miami, FL)—in a...FiO2 range was 90% ± 3% for the Eclipse, 91% ± 3% with the iGo, and 93% ± 3% with the SAROS. Additionally, battery life of the POCs was evaluated at

  19. Detection of ultra-low oxygen concentration based on the fluorescence blinking dynamics of single molecules (United States)

    Wu, Ruixiang; Chen, Ruiyun; Zhou, Haitao; Qin, Yaqiang; Zhang, Guofeng; Qin, Chengbing; Gao, Yan; Gao, Yajun; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang


    We present a sensitive method for detection of ultra-low oxygen concentrations based on the fluorescence blinking dynamics of single molecules. The relationship between the oxygen concentration and the fraction of time spent in the off-state, stemming from the population and depopulation of triplet states and radical cationic states, can be fitted with a two-site quenching model in the Stern-Volmer plot. The oxygen sensitivity is up to 43.42 kPa-1 in the oxygen partial pressure region as low as 0.01-0.25 kPa, which is seven times higher than that of the fluorescence intensity indicator. This method avoids the limitation of the sharp and non-ignorable fluctuations that occur during the measurement of fluorescence intensity, providing potential applications in the field of low oxygen-concentration monitoring in life science and industry.

  20. High-concentration protein formulations: How high is high? (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Kuhn, Alexander B; Schäfer, Lars V; Karow-Zwick, Anne R; Blech, Michaela


    High-concentration protein formulation (HCPF) is a term that is used to describe protein formulations, mostly monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs, at high protein concentration. The concentration is rarely defined, with typical ranges varying between 50 and 150mg/ml for mAbs. The term HCPF is meant to include and express specific solution properties of formulations that are prone to appear at high protein concentrations such as high viscosity, high opalescence, phase separation, gel formation or the increased propensity for protein particle formation. Thus the term HCPF can be understood as a descriptor of protein formulations, usually at high protein (monoclonal antibody) concentrations, which have specific solution, stability and colloidal properties that differ from formulations at low protein concentration (e.g. at 10mg/ml). The current paper highlights in brief the development challenges that might occur for high-concentration protein/monoclonal antibody formulations. In particular, the maximum concentration regimes achievable in HCPF remained unclear. Based on geometrical considerations involving packing of monoclonal antibodies in a lattice we map out a maximum concentration range that might be theoretically achievable. Different geometrical assumptions and packing models are compared and their relevance is critically discussed, in particular concerning the influence of the physicochemical properties of the monoclonal antibodies on their solubility, which is neglected in the simple geometrical model. According to our estimates, monoclonal antibody concentration above 500mg/ml will be very challenging to achieve. Our results have implications for setting up realistic drug product development strategies and for preparing convincing drug target product profiles for development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Digitized Onondaga Lake Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations and Model Simulated Values using Bayesian Monte Carlo Methods (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset is lake dissolved oxygen concentrations obtained form plots published by Gelda et al. (1996) and lake reaeration model simulated values using Bayesian...

  2. Effects of oxygen concentration on the growth of Nannochloropsis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raso, S.


    ANannochloropsissp. is a promising microalgal resource for production of food, feed and bio-based commodities, as it can grow relatively fast and combines high lipid content with high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. High productivity with constant product quality can be achieved in fully

  3. Prevention of airway fires: do not overlook the expired oxygen concentration. (United States)

    Remz, Matthew; Luria, Isaac; Gravenstein, Michael; Rice, Scott D; Morey, Timothy E; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Rice, Mark J


    It is generally accepted that when an ignition source is used the inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) should be Avance S/5 anesthesia machine to reach an FIO2 of 30% for a considerable time after the FIO2 is in a "safe" range. An increased expired oxygen concentration should also be considered an airway fire risk, and patient care protocols may need to be modified based on future studies.

  4. Fluorine-functionalized ionic liquids with high oxygen solubility


    Vanhoutte, Gijs; Hojniak, Sandra; Bardé, Fanny; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan


    Eight fluorine-functionalized ionic liquids were synthesized and the oxygen solubility was compared to commercial ionic liquids without the extra fluorinated chain. The concentration of dissolved oxygen increased with the fluorine content of the alkyl chain, which can be attached either to the cation or the anion. This approach maintains the freedom to design an ionic liquid for a specific application, while at the same time the oxygen solubility is increased.

  5. Trough Concentrations of Vancomycin in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Jin Park

    Full Text Available To investigate the appropriateness of the current vancomycin dosing strategy in adult patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, between March 2013 and November 2013, patients who were treated with vancomycin while on ECMO were enrolled. Control group consisted of 60 patients on vancomycin without ECMO, stayed in medical intensive care unit during the same study period and with the same exclusion criteria. Early trough levels were obtained within the fourth dosing, and maintenance levels were measured at steady state. A total of 20 patients were included in the analysis in ECMO group. Sixteen patients received an initial intravenous dose of 1.0 g vancomycin followed by 1.0 g every 12 hours. The non-steady state trough level of vancomycin after starting administration was subtherapeutic in 19 patients (95.00% in ECMO group as compared with 40 patients (66.67% in the control group (p = 0.013. Vancomycin clearance was 1.27±0.51 mL/min/kg, vancomycin clearance/creatinine clearance ratio was 0.90 ± 0.37, and elimination rate constant was 0.12 ± 0.04 h-1. Vancomycin dosingfrequency and total daily dose were significantly increased after clinical pharmacokinetic services of the pharmacist based on calculated pharmacokinetic parameters (from 2.10 ± 0.72 to 2.90 ± 0.97 times/day, p = 0.002 and from 32.54 ± 8.43 to 42.24 ± 14.62mg/kg, p = 0.014 in ECMO group in contrast with those (from 2.11 ± 0.69 to 2.37 ± 0.86 times/day, p = 0.071 and from 33.91 ± 11.85 to 31.61 ± 17.50 mg/kg, p = 0.350 in the control group.Although the elimination rate for vancomycin was similar with population parameter of non ECMO patients, the current dosing strategy of our institution for vancomycinin our ICU was not sufficient to achieve the target trough in the initial period in most patients receiving ECMO.

  6. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on iron efficiency: Removal of three chloroacetic acids. (United States)

    Tang, Shun; Wang, Xiao-mao; Mao, Yu-qin; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Hong-wei; Xie, Yuefeng F


    The monochloroacetic, dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acid (MCAA, DCAA and TCAA) removed by metallic iron under controlled dissolved oxygen conditions (0, 0.75, 1.52, 2.59, 3.47 or 7.09 mg/L DO) was investigated in well-mixed batch systems. The removal of CAAs increased first and then decreased with increasing DO concentration. Compared with anoxic condition, the reduction of MCAA and DCAA was substantially enhanced in the presence of O2, while TCAA reduction was significantly inhibited above 2.59 mg/L. The 1.52 mg/L DO was optimum for the formation of final product, acetic acid. Chlorine mass balances were 69-102%, and carbon mass balances were 92-105%. With sufficient mass transfer from bulk to the particle surface, the degradation of CAAs was limited by their reduction or migration rate within iron particles, which were dependent on the change of reducing agents and corrosion coatings. Under anoxic conditions, the reduction of CAAs was mainly inhibited by the available reducing agents in the conductive layer. Under low oxic conditions, the increasing reducing agents and thin lepidocrocite layer were favorable for CAA dechlorination. Under high oxic conditions, the redundant oxygen competing for reducing agents and significant lepidocrocite growth became the major restricting factors. Various CAA removal mechanisms could be potentially applied to explaining the effect of DO concentration on iron efficiency for contaminant reduction in water and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trematode Hemoglobins Show Exceptionally High Oxygen Affinity


    Kiger, Laurent; Rashid, Aftab K.; Griffon, Nathalie; Haque, Masoodul; Moens, Luc; Gibson, Quentin H.; Poyart, Claude; Marden, Michael C.


    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of ox...

  8. Differential Diode Laser Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A compact portable sensor for determining the purity of oxygen concentrations near 100 percent is proposed based on differential absorption of two beams from a diode...

  9. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries. (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook


    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O2 and Na-O2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium during cell culture: Defects and improvements. (United States)

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; He, Yunlin; Zhou, Yanzhao; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling


    In vitro cell culture has provided a useful model to study the effects of oxygen on cellular behavior. However, it remains unknown whether the in vitro operations themselves affect the medium oxygen levels and the living states of cells. In addition, a prevailing controversy is whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is induced by continuous hypoxia or reoxygenation. In this study, we have measured the effects of different types of cell culture containers and the oxygen environment where medium replacement takes place on the actual oxygen tension in the medium. We found that the deviations of oxygen concentrations in the medium are much greater in 25-cm(2) flasks than in 24-well plates and 35-mm dishes. The dissolved oxygen concentrations in the medium were increased after medium replacement in normoxia, but remained unchanged in glove boxes in which the oxygen tension remained at a low level (11.4, 5.7, and 0.5% O2 ). We also found that medium replacement in normoxia increased the number of ROS-positive cells and reduced the cell viability; meanwhile, medium replacement in a glove box did not produce the above effects. Therefore, we conclude that the use of 25-cm(2) flasks should be avoided and demonstrate that continuous hypoxia does not produce ROS, whereas the reoxygenation that occurs during the harvesting of cells leads to ROS and induces cell death. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Predicting oxygen vacancy non-stoichiometric concentration in perovskites from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Heng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Shin, Yongwoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Yu, Yang; Cetin, Deniz [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Ludwig, Karl [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Pal, Uday; Basu, Soumendra N.; Gopalan, Srikanth [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States); Lin, Xi, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Brookline, MA 02446 (United States)


    Highlights: • Prediction of materials properties from first principles. • Oxygen vacancy non-stoichiometric concentration transition between the surface and bulk phases. • Controlled defect concentrations via materials design. - Abstract: Formation of oxygen vacancies by introducing various mixed-valent cation dopants is a common practice to improve the cathode performance in solid oxide fuel cells. A computational procedure is developed in this work to predict the equilibrium oxygen vacancy non-stoichiometric concentrations at experimentally relevant temperatures and oxygen partial pressures for both bulk and surface oxide phases. The calculations are based on the first-principles density functional theory and a constrained free-energy functional. Quantitative agreements are found by direct comparisons to the thermogravimetry and solid electrolyte coulometry measurements for the strontium-doped lanthanum cobalt iron oxides at different compositions. Our results indicate that the oxygen vacancies are energetically stabilized at surfaces for all temperatures and all oxygen partial pressures, while such surface stabilization effects become stronger at higher temperatures and lower oxygen partial pressures.

  12. High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.


    We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted

  13. Rapid hydrogen and oxygen atom transfer by a high-valent nickel-oxygen species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, Teresa; Draksharapu, Apparao; Padamati, Sandeep K; Gamba, Ilaria; Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad; Acuña-Parés, Ferran; Browne, Wesley R; Company, Anna


    Terminal high-valent metal-oxygen species are key reaction intermediates in the catalytic cycle of both enzymes (e.g., oxygenases) and synthetic oxidation catalysts. While tremendous efforts have been directed towards the characterization of the biologically relevant terminal manganese-oxygen and

  14. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations. (United States)

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S


    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  15. High oxygen as an additional factor in food preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.


    In this thesis, the efficacy of high oxygen as an additional hurdle for food preservation is studied. At high oxygen conditions and at low temperature, significant impairment of growth and viability of bacterial cells is found to occur as the result of free

  16. Influence of the dissolved oxygen concentration on the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in steady-state cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Claus Maxel; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John


    The influence the of dissolved oxygen concentration on penicillin biosynthesis was studied in steady-state continuous cultures of a high-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum operated at a dilution rate of 0.05 h-l. The dissolved oxygen concentration was varied between 0.019 and 0.344 m...... recovered to its maximum value when the dissolved oxygen concentration was reset to a value above 0.08 mM. The specific formation rates of a number of typical byproducts of the penicillin production, i.e., delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine, isopenicillin N, 6-aminopenicillanic acid, 8......-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine and glutathione is suggested. The intracellular pools of the pathway intermediates delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine and isopenicillin N increased respectively 2- and 3-fold when the dissolved oxygen concentration was lowered from 0.344 to 0.042 mM, whereas the intracellular pools of glutathione...

  17. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring


    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis: metabolic adaptation and biofilm formation in response to different oxygen concentrations. (United States)

    Uribe-Alvarez, Cristina; Chiquete-Félix, Natalia; Contreras-Zentella, Martha; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Peña, Antonio; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador


    Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a major health hazard. It is necessary to study its metabolism and hopefully uncover therapeutic targets. Cultivating S. epidermidis at increasing oxygen concentration [O2] enhanced growth, while inhibiting biofilm formation. Respiratory oxidoreductases were differentially expressed, probably to prevent reactive oxygen species formation. Under aerobiosis, S. epidermidis expressed high oxidoreductase activities, including glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, as well as cytochromes bo and aa3; while little tendency to form biofilms was observed. Under microaerobiosis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase decreased while glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase nearly disappeared; cytochrome bo was present; anaerobic nitrate reductase activity was observed; biofilm formation increased slightly. Under anaerobiosis, biofilms grew; low ethanol dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and cytochrome bo were still present; nitrate dehydrogenase was the main terminal electron acceptor. KCN inhibited the aerobic respiratory chain and increased biofilm formation. In contrast, methylamine inhibited both nitrate reductase and biofilm formation. The correlation between the expression and/or activity or redox enzymes and biofilm-formation activities suggests that these are possible therapeutic targets to erradicate S. epidermidis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  19. Influences of dissolved oxygen concentration on biocathodic microbial communities in microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Rago, Laura; Cristiani, Pierangela; Villa, Federica; Zecchin, Sarah; Colombo, Alessandra; Cavalca, Lucia; Schievano, Andrea


    Dissolved oxygen (DO) at cathodic interface is a critical factor influencing microbial fuel cells (MFC) performance. In this work, three MFCs were operated with cathode under different DO conditions: i) air-breathing (A-MFC); ii) water-submerged (W-MFC) and iii) assisted by photosynthetic microorganisms (P-MFC). A plateau of maximum current was reached at 1.06±0.03mA, 1.48±0.06mA and 1.66±0.04mA, increasing respectively for W-MFC, P-MFC and A-MFC. Electrochemical and microbiological tools (Illumina sequencing, confocal microscopy and biofilm cryosectioning) were used to explore anodic and cathodic biofilm in each MFC type. In all cases, biocathodes improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared to abiotic condition and A-MFC was the best performing system. Photosynthetic cultures in the cathodic chamber supplied high DO level, up to 16mg O2 L -1 , which sustained aerobic microbial community in P-MFC biocathode. Halomonas, Pseudomonas and other microaerophilic genera reached >50% of the total OTUs. The presence of sulfur reducing bacteria (Desulfuromonas) and purple non-sulfur bacteria in A-MFC biocathode suggested that the recirculation of sulfur compounds could shuttle electrons to sustain the reduction of oxygen as final electron acceptor. The low DO concentration limited the cathode in W-MFC. A model of two different possible microbial mechanisms is proposed which can drive predominantly cathodic ORR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a High-Flow Oxygen Delivery System in a Critically Ill Patient with Dementia (United States)


    facial mask. We saw a 92-year-old woman with delirium and dementia in the intensive care unit for multi-lobar pneumonia with severe hypoxemia. Attempts to...a high oxygen concentration. Key words: high-flow oxygen, palliative care , hypoxemia. [Respir Care 2008;53(12):1739–1743] Introduction We have...Fig. 2. Radiograph on hospital day 4. HIGH-FLOW OXYGEN IN A CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT WITH DEMENTIA 1740 RESPIRATORY CARE • DECEMBER 2008 VOL 53 NO 12

  1. Conjunctival oxygen tension at high altitude. (United States)

    Mader, T H; Friedl, K E; Mohr, L C; Bernhard, W N


    Transconjunctival oxygen tension (PcjO2) was studied using a hypobaric chamber and during mountaineering excursions. Measurements obtained during acute chamber exposures (15-20 min) at sea level, 1829 m (6,000 ft), 3048 m (10,000 ft), 4267 m (14,000 ft) and return to sea level were (means +/- SEM): 60.1 +/- 2.7, 49.1 +/- 1.8, 38.3 +/- 2.4, 27.4 +/- 1.5, and 61.1 +/- 2.8 mm Hg, respectively (n = 13). The ratio of PcjO2 to arterial blood oxygen tension (PaO2) did not change in a consistent manner between sea level and 4267 m; PcjO2 was 74 +/- 6.9% of PaO2. The 16 subjects participating in the mountaineering phase of the study revealed similar means at sea level and 1829 m (57.4 +/- 2.4 and 46.3 +/- 1.9 mm Hg respectively), but a smaller decrement was observed at 3048 m (43.0 +/- 1.6 mm Hg). The difference between mountain and chamber values may be accounted for by a partial acclimatization to altitude brought about by longer exposure on the mountain excursions. A comparison between PcjO2 and transcutaneous oxygen tension during the chamber study suggests that a greater precision and sensitivity is obtained with measurement of oxygen tension at the conjunctival site. PcjO2 measurement is a non-invasive reflection of PaO2 which is suitable for continuous monitoring during hypoxia studies.

  2. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.


    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  3. Sulfide-inhibition of mitochondrial respiration at very low oxygen concentrations. (United States)

    Matallo, J; Vogt, J; McCook, O; Wachter, U; Tillmans, F; Groeger, M; Szabo, C; Georgieff, M; Radermacher, P; Calzia, E


    Our aim was to study the ability of an immortalized cell line (AMJ2-C11) to sustain aerobic cell respiration at decreasing oxygen concentrations under continuous sulfide exposure. We assumed that the rate of elimination of sulfide through the pathway linked to the mitochondrial respiratory chain and therefore operating under aerobic conditions, should decrease with limiting oxygen concentrations. Thus, sulfide's inhibition of cellular respiration would occur faster under continuous sulfide exposure when the oxygen concentration is in the very low range. The experiments were performed with an O2K-oxygraph (Oroboros Instruments) by suspending 0.5-1×10(6) cells in 2 ml of continuously stirred respiration medium at 37 °C and calculating the oxygen flux (JO2) as the negative derivative of the oxygen concentration in the medium. The cells were studied in two different metabolic states, namely under normal physiologic respiration (1) and after uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration (2). Oxygen concentration was controlled by means of a titration-injection pump, resulting in average concentration values of 0.73±0.05 μM, 3.1±0.2 μM, and 6.2±0.2 μM. Simultaneously we injected a 2 mM Na2S solution at a continuous rate of 10 μl/s in order to quantify the titration-time required to reduce the JO2 to 50% of the initial respiratory activity. Under the lowest oxygen concentration this effect was achieved after 3.5 [0.3;3.5] and 11.7 [6.2;21.2]min in the uncoupled and coupled state, respectively. This time was statistically significantly shorter when compared to the intermediate and the highest O2 concentrations tested, which yielded values of 24.6 [15.5;28.1]min (coupled) and 35.9 [27.4;59.2]min (uncoupled), as well as 42.4 [27.5;42.4]min (coupled) and 51.5 [46.4;51.7]min (uncoupled). All data are medians [25%, and 75% percentiles]. Our results confirm that the onset of inhibition of cell respiration by sulfide occurs earlier under a continuous exposure when approaching

  4. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.


    conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...... of species and aquatic communities. We argue that oxygen deficiency may be a potentially important factor, and that more focus on this topic is likely to produce significant new insights in aquatic community ecology....

  5. The Sensitivity of Future Ocean Oxygen Concentrations to Changes in Ocean Circulation (United States)

    Trossman, D. S.; Palter, J. B.


    One expected consequence of anthropogenically forced climate change is a general decrease in oceanic oxygen concentrations. The volume of hypoxic ocean waters is of particular interest, as fish and other organisms become physiologically stressed at low oxygen concentrations. Solubility decline, changes in the wind-driven circulation, and modification of the convective renewal of deep water have each been implicated as important physical controls on the oceanic oxygen concentrations in a warming world. Biological changes, such as those tied to export production and respiration may also play a critical role. The importance of large-scale ocean circulation changes in setting oxygen concentrations relative to other physical factors, such as changes in stratification and mixing, is unclear, with implications for the uncertainty in predicting future hypoxia. By comparing oxygen budgets in a suite of fully coupled climate change simulations to identical simulations in which the ocean circulation is held constant (Trossman et al., 2016), we address this challenge. Under a 1% to doubling of carbon dioxide scenario, our simulations predict a 25% decline in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. However, this decline plays a relatively minor role in setting the spatial patterns of total ocean oxygen on a multi-decadal time scale. On the other hand, the ocean circulation perturbation due to climate change substantially slows the expansion of the tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), due to a future weakening of the Walker circulation. A weaker Walker circulation reduces the upwelling of old, nutrient rich waters, suppressing export production and associated subsurface respiration. In the absence of this dynamic ocean response, the expansion of the Pacific OMZ would be much more dramatic.

  6. Sensitivity of Oxygen Isotopes of Sulfate in Ice Cores to Past Changes in Atmospheric Oxidant Concentrations (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Alexander, B.; Kunasek, S. A.; Mickley, L.; Murray, L. T.; Kaplan, J. O.


    The oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O) of sulfate from ice cores allows for a quantitative assessment of the past oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, which has implications for the lifetime of pollutants (e.g. CO) and greenhouse gases (e.g. CH4), and changes in the sulfur budget on various timescales. Using Δ17O of sulfate measurements from the WAIS-Divide, Antarctica and Site-A, Greenland ice cores as constraints, we use the GEOS-Chem global three-dimensional chemical transport model to study changes in the concentrations of OH, O3, and H2O2 and their impact on sulfate Δ17O between the preindustrial and present-day. The Greenland ice core sulfate oxygen isotope observations are insensitive to changes in oxidant concentrations on the preindustrial-industrial timescale due to the rising importance of metal catalyzed S(IV) oxidation in mid- to high-northern latitudes resulting from anthropogenic metal emissions. The small change in Antarctic ice core sulfate Δ17O observations on this timescale is consistent with simultaneous increases in boundary layer O3 (32%) and H2O2 (49%) concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere, which have opposing effects on the sulfate O-isotope anomaly. Sulfate Δ17O is insensitive to the relatively small (-12%) decrease in Southern Hemisphere OH concentrations on this timescale due to the dominance of in-cloud versus gas-phase formation of sulfate in the mid-to-high southern latitudes. We find that the fraction of sulfate formed globally through gas-phase oxidation has not changed substantially between preindustrial and present times, however the total amount of sulfate formed in the gas-phase has nearly quadrupled due to rising anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide. Measurements over a glacial-interglacial cycle from the Vostok core indicate dramatic changes in the Δ17O of sulfate on this timescale, which provide a strong constraint for glacial-era atmospheric chemistry modeling efforts. We will present preliminary results of

  7. Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Based on Benchmark Simulation Model Number 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang


    Full Text Available In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, the dissolved oxygen is the key variable to be controlled in bioreactors. In this paper, linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC is utilized to track the dissolved oxygen concentration based on benchmark simulation model number 1 (BSM1. Optimal LADRC parameters tuning approach for wastewater treatment processes is obtained by analyzing and simulations on BSM1. Moreover, by analyzing the estimation capacity of linear extended state observer (LESO in the control of dissolved oxygen, the parameter range of LESO is acquired, which is a valuable guidance for parameter tuning in simulation and even in practice. The simulation results show that LADRC can overcome the disturbance existing in the control of wastewater and improve the tracking accuracy of dissolved oxygen. LADRC provides another practical solution to the control of WWTPs.

  8. Feed intake, growth and metabolism of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in relation to dissolved oxygen concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran-Duy, A.; Dam, van A.A.; Schrama, J.W.


    The objectives of the present study were to determine, for Nile tilapia of different body weights and fed to satiation, (1) the incipient dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at which feed intake starts to level off and (2) the effect of DO on nitrogen and energy balances. Two successive experiments

  9. Effect of Different Silage Storing Conditions on the Oxygen Concentration in the Silo and Fermentation Quality of Rice. (United States)

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kazuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Yamamura, Kohji


    We investigated the effects of different silage storing conditions on the oxygen concentration in the silo and fermentation quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Forage rice was ensiled in bottles (with or without space at the bottlemouth, with solid or pinhole cap, and with oxygen scavenger, ethanol transpiration agent, oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent, or no adjuvant) and stored for 57 days. The oxygen concentration decreased with the addition of the oxygen scavenger and increased with that of the ethanol transpiration agent. The oxygen scavenger facilitated silage fermentation and fungus generation, whereas the ethanol transpiration agent suppressed silage fermentation and fungus generation. However, the combined use of the oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent facilitated silage fermentation and also suppressed fungus generation. Overall, this study revealed the negative effects of oxygen on the internal silo and the positive effects of the combined use of the oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent on silage fermentation quality.

  10. Detection of Molecular Oxygen at Low Concentrations Using Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pohlkötter


    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is detected at low concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy despite its unfavorable photoacoustic properties. The system consists of a seed laser diode, a tapered amplifier and a quartz tuning fork based spectrophone, thus employing quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS. With this system a detection limit of 13 ppm is reached with a compact and long term stable setup. Further improvement of the detection limit is possible by adding suitable gases to the sample gas that promote the radiationless de-excitation of the oxygen molecules.

  11. Detection of molecular oxygen at low concentrations using quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy. (United States)

    Pohlkötter, Andreas; Köhring, Michael; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang


    Molecular oxygen is detected at low concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy despite its unfavorable photoacoustic properties. The system consists of a seed laser diode, a tapered amplifier and a quartz tuning fork based spectrophone, thus employing quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). With this system a detection limit of 13 ppm is reached with a compact and long term stable setup. Further improvement of the detection limit is possible by adding suitable gases to the sample gas that promote the radiationless de-excitation of the oxygen molecules.

  12. Simultaneous measurements of total hemoglobin concentration and blood oxygenation with laser diode-based optoacoustic system (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.


    Noninvasive, accurate, continuous monitoring of multiple variables, including blood oxygenation, i.e. oxyhemoglobin saturation (SO2) and total hemoglobin concentration (THb) in both high acuity and low acuity environments would greatly facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of physiologic derangements. However, most of the existing techniques for patient monitoring are invasive, while noninvasive techniques often fail to provide accurate measurements. We built a compact, multi-wavelength, nanosecond, fiber-coupled laser diode-based optoacoustic system for noninvasive, accurate monitoring of blood SO2 and THb in veins and arteries. We tested the system by probing the radial artery of healthy volunteers. Using blood samples obtained by venipuncture, we also measured a reference THb for each volunteer. Moreover, the optoacoustic data were compared with that obtained from a commercially available noninvasive monitor for measurements of these variables. The optoacoustic system provided rapid, simultaneous, and continuous measurement of THb and SO2 with high precision. The obtained results are promising and we plan to further test the system in clinical studies and at conditions simulating circulatory shock.

  13. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning. (United States)

    West, John B


    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Effect of Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake and serum vitamin B2 concentration in young men (United States)

    Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Otsuki, Takeshi


    Chlorella is a unicellular green alga that contains high levels of proteins, vitamins and minerals. The present study investigated the effects of a 4-week Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake and circulating vitamin B2 levels in healthy men. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups: placebo or Chlorella. Prior to the intervention, we observed that the intake of several minerals and soluble vitamins did not satisfy the nutrient requirements of either group by assessing the frequency of daily food intake. There was a significant negative relationship between the pre-intervention maximal oxygen uptake and serum vitamin B2 concentrations in all subjects (r = −0.372). Maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased after Chlorella supplementation (before vs after, 42.1 ± 1.5 vs 44.9 ± 1.6 ml/kg/min), while serum vitamin B2 concentrations did not (14.6 ± 0.9 vs 14.0 ± 0.9 µg/L). In conclusion, Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases maximal oxygen uptake in individuals with an insufficient micronutrient status, although there was no association between the increase in aerobic capacity and serum levels of vitamin B2. PMID:28955131

  15. Effects of oxygen concentration and body weight on maximum feed intake, growth and hematological parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Duy, A.; Schrama, J.W.; Dam, van A.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    Feed intake and satiation in fish are regulated by a number of factors, of which dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) is important. Since fish take up oxygen through the limited gill surface area, all processes that need energy, including food processing, depend on their maximum oxygen uptake

  16. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning


    that low free water availability contributes to cellulase inhibition. Of the hydrolytic enzymes involved, those acting on the cellulose substrate, that is, exo- and endoglucanases, were the most inhibited. The β -glucosidases were shown to be less sensitive to high monosaccharide concentrations except......Biological degradation of biomass on an industrial scale culminates in high concentrations of end products. It is known that the accumulation of glucose and cellobiose, end products of hydrolysis, inhibit cellulases and decrease glucose yields. Aside from these end products, however, other...

  17. The diversification of Paleozoic fire systems and fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen concentration. (United States)

    Scott, Andrew C; Glasspool, Ian J


    By comparing Silurian through end Permian [approximately 250 million years (Myr)] charcoal abundance with contemporaneous macroecological changes in vegetation and climate we aim to demonstrate that long-term variations in fire occurrence and fire system diversification are related to fluctuations in Late Paleozoic atmospheric oxygen concentration. Charcoal, a proxy for fire, occurs in the fossil record from the Late Silurian (approximately 420 Myr) to the present. Its presence at any interval in the fossil record is already taken to constrain atmospheric oxygen within the range of 13% to 35% (the "fire window"). Herein, we observe that, as predicted, atmospheric oxygen levels rise from approximately 13% in the Late Devonian to approximately 30% in the Late Permian so, too, fires progressively occur in an increasing diversity of ecosystems. Sequentially, data of note include: the occurrence of charcoal in the Late Silurian/Early Devonian, indicating the burning of a diminutive, dominantly rhyniophytoid vegetation; an apparent paucity of charcoal in the Middle to Late Devonian that coincides with a predicted atmospheric oxygen low; and the subsequent diversification of fire systems throughout the remainder of the Late Paleozoic. First, fires become widespread during the Early Mississippian, they then become commonplace in mire systems in the Middle Mississippian; in the Pennsylvanian they are first recorded in upland settings and finally, based on coal petrology, become extremely important in many Permian mire settings. These trends conform well to changes in atmospheric oxygen concentration, as predicted by modeling, and indicate oxygen levels are a significant control on long-term fire occurrence.

  18. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration. (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario


    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Temperature, DOC level and basin interactions explain the declining oxygen concentrations in the Bothnian Sea (United States)

    Ahlgren, Joakim; Grimvall, Anders; Omstedt, Anders; Rolff, Carl; Wikner, Johan


    Hypoxia and oxygen deficient zones are expanding worldwide. To properly manage this deterioration of the marine environment, it is important to identify the causes of oxygen declines and the influence of anthropogenic activities. Here, we provide a study aiming to explain the declining oxygen levels in the deep waters of the Bothnian Sea over the past 20 years by investigating data from environmental monitoring programmes. The observed decline in oxygen concentrations in deep waters was found to be primarily a consequence of water temperature increase and partly caused by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the seawater (R2Adj. = 0.83) as well as inflow from the adjacent sea basin. As none of the tested eutrophication-related predictors were significant according to a stepwise multiple regression, a regional increase in nutrient inputs to the area is unlikely to explain a significant portion of the oxygen decline. Based on the findings of this study, preventing the development of anoxia in the deep water of the Bothnian Sea is dependent on the large-scale measures taken to reduce climate change. In addition, the reduction of the nutrient load to the Baltic Proper is required to counteract the development of hypoxic and phosphate-rich water in the Baltic Proper, which can form deep water in the Bothnian Sea. The relative importance of these sources to oxygen consumption is difficult to determine from the available data, but the results clearly demonstrate the importance of climate related factors such as temperature, DOC and inflow from adjacent basins for the oxygen status of the sea.

  20. Catalyst evaluation for oxygen reduction reaction in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yiliang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Cleemann, Lars N.; Li, Qingfeng


    Phosphoric acid is the common electrolyte for high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) that have advantages such as enhanced CO tolerance and simplified heat and water management. The currently used rotating disk electrode technique is limited to tests in dilute solutions at low temperatures and hence is not suitable for catalyst evaluation for HT-PEMFCs. In this study, we have designed and constructed a half-cell setup to measure the intrinsic activities of catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in conditions close to HT-PEMFC cathodes. By optimization of the hydrophobic characteristics of electrodes and the catalyst layer thickness, ORR activities of typical Pt/C catalysts are successfully measured in concentrated phosphoric acid at temperatures above 100 °C. In terms of mass-specific activities, the catalyst exhibits about two times higher activity in the half-cell electrode than that observed in fuel cells, indicating the feasibility of the technique as well as the potential for further improvement of fuel cell electrode performance.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention describes a new class of highly stable mixed conducting materials based on acceptor doped cerium oxide (CeO2-8 ) in which the limiting electronic conductivity is significantly enhanced by co-doping with a second element or co- dopant, such as Nb, W and Zn, so that cerium and the co-...... thin film membrane devices using these materials....

  2. Late Proterozoic rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration inferred from phylogenetic and sulphur-isotope studies (United States)

    Canfield, D. E.; Teske, A.


    The evolution of non-photosynthetic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria was contemporaneous with a large shift in the isotopic composition of biogenic sedimentary sulphides between 0.64 and 1.05 billion years ago. Both events were probably driven by a rise in atmospheric oxygen concentrations to greater than 5-18% of present levels--a change that may also have triggered the evolution of animals.

  3. Detection of Molecular Oxygen at Low Concentrations Using Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy


    Andreas Pohlkötter; Michael Köhring; Ulrike Willer; Wolfgang Schade


    Molecular oxygen is detected at low concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy despite its unfavorable photoacoustic properties. The system consists of a seed laser diode, a tapered amplifier and a quartz tuning fork based spectrophone, thus employing quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). With this system a detection limit of 13 ppm is reached with a compact and long term stable setup. Further improvement of the detection limit is possible by adding suitable gases to the sa...

  4. The physiological response of the marine platyhelminth Macrostomum lignano to different environmental oxygen concentrations. (United States)

    Rivera-Ingraham, G A; Bickmeyer, U; Abele, D


    The respiration rate of meiofauna is difficult to measure, and the response to variations in the environmental oxygen concentration has so far been mainly addressed through behavioral investigation. We investigated the effect of different oxygen concentrations on the physiology of the marine platyhelminth Macrostomum lignano. Respiration was measured using batches of 20 animals in a glass microtiter plate equipped with optical oxygen sensor spots. At higher oxygen saturations (>12 kPa), the animals showed a clear oxyconforming behavior. However, below this value, the flatworms kept respiration rates constant at 0.064±0.001 nmol O2 l(-1) h(-1) individual(-1) down to 3 kPa PO2, and this rate was increased by 30% in animals that were reoxygenated after enduring a period of 1.5 h in anoxia. Physiological changes related to tissue oxygenation were assessed using live imaging techniques with different fluorophores in animals maintained in normoxic (21 kPa), hyperoxic (40 kPa) or near-anoxic (~0 kPa) conditions and subjected to anoxia-reoxygenation. The pH-sensitive dyes Ageladine-A and BCECF both indicated that pHi under near-anoxia increases by about 0.07-0.10 units. Mitochondrial membrane potential, Δψm, was higher in anoxic and hyperoxic than in normoxic conditions (JC1 dye data). Staining with ROS-sensitive dyes - DHE for detection of superoxide anion (O2•(-)) formation and C-H DFFDA for other ROS species aside from O2•(-) (H2O2, HOO• and ONOO) - showed increased ROS formation following anoxia-reoxygenation treatment. Animals exposed to hyperoxic, normoxic and anoxic treatments displayed no significant differences in O2•(-) formation, whereas mitochondrial ROS formation as detected by C-H2DFFDA was higher after hyperoxic exposure and lowest under near-anoxia conditions compared with the normoxic control group. Macrostomum lignano seems to be a species that is tolerant of a wide range of oxygen concentrations (being able to maintain aerobic metabolism from

  5. Oxygen deficiency and salinity affect cell-specific ion concentrations in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare). (United States)

    Kotula, Lukasz; Clode, Peta L; Striker, Gustavo G; Pedersen, Ole; Läuchli, André; Shabala, Sergey; Colmer, Timothy D


    Oxygen deficiency associated with soil waterlogging adversely impacts root respiration and nutrient acquisition. We investigated the effects of O2 deficiency and salinity (100 mM NaCl) on radial O2 concentrations and cell-specific ion distributions in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Microelectrode profiling measured O2 concentrations across roots in aerated, aerated saline, stagnant or stagnant saline media. X-ray microanalysis at two positions behind the apex determined the cell-specific elemental concentrations of potassium (K), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) across roots. Severe O2 deficiency occurred in the stele and apical regions of roots in stagnant solutions. O2 deficiency in the stele reduced the concentrations of K, Na and Cl in the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells at the subapical region. Near the root apex, Na declined across the cortex in roots from the aerated saline solution but was relatively high in all cell types in roots from the stagnant saline solution. Oxygen deficiency has a substantial impact on cellular ion concentrations in roots. Both pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells are involved in energy-dependent K loading into the xylem and in controlling radial Na and Cl transport. At root tips, accumulation of Na in the outer cell layers likely contributed to reduction of Na in inner cells of the tips. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. High-dimensional entanglement concentration of twisted photon pairs High-dimensional entanglement concentration (United States)

    Chen, L. X.; Wu, Q. P.


    Recently, Dada et al. reported on the experimental entanglement concentration and violation of generalized Bell inequalities with orbital angular momentum (OAM) [Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011)]. Here we demonstrate that the high-dimensional entanglement concentration can be performed in arbitrary OAM subspaces with selectivity. Instead of violating the generalized Bell inequalities, the working principle of present entanglement concentration is visualized by the biphoton OAM Klyshko picture, and its good performance is confirmed and quantified through the experimental Shannon dimensionalities after concentration.

  7. Pilot Plant Demonstration of Stable and Efficient High Rate Biological Nutrient Removal with Low Dissolved Oxygen Conditions (United States)

    Aeration in biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes accounts for nearly half of the total electricity costs at many wastewater treatment plants. Even though conventional BNR processes are usually operated to have aerated zones with high dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, r...

  8. Effect of low oxygen concentrations on trophoblast-like cell line invasion. (United States)

    Lash, G E; Hornbuckle, J; Brunt, A; Kirkley, M; Searle, R F; Robson, S C; Bulmer, J N


    The applicability of trophoblast-like cell lines to the study of trophoblast function has been widely debated. The present study investigated the effect of oxygen on the invasiveness, apoptosis, proliferation and secreted proteases of four different trophoblast cell lines; HTR-8/SVneo, SGHPL-4, JEG3 and JAR. All experiments were performed at 20% and 3% oxygen for 24, 48 and 72h. Immunostaining for integrins alpha1, alpha6 and beta3, cytokeratin 7 and HLA-G was used to determine the phenotype of the different cell lines. Invasion was assessed using the Matrigel invasion assay. Immunostaining for M30 and Ki67 determined levels of apoptosis and proliferation, respectively. Gelatin and casein/plasminogen zymography were performed on conditioned media to determine levels of secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), respectively. None of the cell lines immunostained for all markers normally expressed by extravillous trophoblast cells. Invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo and JEG3 cells cultured in 3% oxygen was increased after 24h but was inhibited by 72h in culture. Invasion of SGHPL-4 cells was inhibited after culture in 3% oxygen for 24h. Invasion by JAR cells was not affected by changes in oxygen concentration. The different cell lines also displayed different responses to culture period in 3% oxygen with respect to apoptosis, proliferation and secreted proteases. Care should be taken before results obtained using cell lines as a model for EVT are extrapolated to extravillous trophoblast cell behaviour in vivo.

  9. Burning of forest materials under late Paleozoic high atmospheric oxygen levels (United States)

    Richard A., Jr. Wildman; Leo J. Hickey; Matthew B. Dickinson; Robert A. Berner; Jennifer M. Robinson; Michael Dietrich; Robert H. Essenhigh; Craig B. Wildman


    Theoretical models suggest that atmospheric oxygen reached concentrations as high as 35% O2 during the past 550 m.y. Previous burning experiments using strips of paper have challenged this idea, concluding that ancient wildfires would have decimated plant life if O2 significantly exceeded its present level of 21%. New...

  10. Impact of microbial physiology and microbial community structure on pharmaceutical fate driven by dissolved oxygen concentration in nitrifying bioreactors. (United States)

    Stadler, Lauren B; Love, Nancy G


    Operation at low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (4 mg/L) DO concentrations to understand how DO growth conditions impacted microbial community structure. Short-term batch experiments using the biomass from the parent reactors were performed under low and high DO conditions to understand how DO concentration impacts microbial physiology. Although the low DO parent biomass had a lower specific activity with respect to ammonia oxidation than the high DO parent reactor biomass, it had faster biotransformation rates of ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole, 17α-ethinylestradiol, acetaminophen, and atenolol in high DO batch conditions. This was likely because the low DO reactor had a 2x higher biomass concentration, was enriched for ammonia oxidizers (4x higher concentration), and harbored a more diverse microbial community (3x more unique taxa) as compared to the high DO parent reactor. Overall, the results show that there can be indirect benefits from low DO operation over high DO operation that support pharmaceutical biotransformation during wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Routine Metabolic Rate and Limiting Oxygen Concentration of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Larvae (United States)

    Malaysian prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are hatched and raised indoors in small tanks. Prawns may be raised and shipped at high densities which could result in low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Because DO may play an important role in prawn development and survival, we measured routine me...

  12. Effect of oxygen concentration on the growth of Nannochloropsis sp. at low light intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raso, S.; Genugten, van B.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.


    In large-scale microalgal production in tubular photobioreactors, the build-up of O2 along the tubes is one of the major bottlenecks to obtain high productivities. Oxygen inhibits the growth, since it competes with carbon dioxide for the Rubisco enzyme involved in the CO2 fixation to generate

  13. Consolidation mechanism of gold concentrates containing sulfur and carbon during oxygen-enriched air roasting (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ji, Fang-zhou; Xu, Bin; Hu, Jian-jun; Yang, Yong-bin; Jiang, Tao


    Consolidation in calcines is a common problem in the oxygen-enriched air roasting of refractory gold concentrates containing sulfur and carbon when the initial temperature is greater than 600°C. To determine the phases that caused consolidation, gold concentrates were roasted under different conditions and the calcines were mainly detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The possible underlying mechanism was then studied through comparisons of the XRD patterns of different calcines. The results indicated that the generation of calcium magnesium silicate, iron-doped calcium aluminosilicate, and calcium aluminate caused the consolidation. Furthermore, an enriched oxygen atmosphere accelerated the oxidation reaction and the emitted heat increased the local temperature in calcines. The local temperature was inferred to have increased to the generation temperature zone of the corresponding liquid phases. Oxidation of the pyrite and decomposition of the dolomite and muscovite mainly occurred at the initial stage of oxygen-enriched air roasting. Calcium was confirmed to be essential to the consolidation process.

  14. Effect of low dissolved oxygen concentration on planktonic foraminifera: results from laboratory culture experiments and implications for oceanic anoxic events (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, A.; da Rocha, R. E.; Bijma, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.; Eggins, S. M.; Kawahata, H.


    During Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), substantial turnover of planktonic foraminiferal species occurred, however, the direct effects of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on planktonic foraminifera remain obscure. Althogh culture experiments conducted under controlled conditions can quantify the relationships between foraminiferal ecology and environmental parameters, experiments controlling DO have yet to be conducted because it is difficult to maintain a stable oxygen concentration. In this study, we cultured two subtropical-transitional planktonic foraminifer species (one symbiotic species, Orbulina universa, and one nonsymbiotic species, Globigerina bulloides) under six different DO conditions (between 10% and 100% saturation). In both species, the gametogenesis rate was more than 60% even at a DO of 10%, suggesting that at least 'dysoxic' conditions (~0.7 mg O2 L-1) could not have directly caused the extinction of planktonic foraminifera during OAEs. Planktonic foraminifera originated from benthic lineages, and this origin is one possible explanation for their high tolerance to extremely low DO levels. Although the number of days to gametogenesis did not differ significantly among treatments in either species, final shell weight increased with increasing DO, suggesting that fossil foraminiferal shell weight could vary with past DO conditions. Our results suggest that the extinction of many planktonic foraminiferal species during OAEs may have been due to anoxic or euxinic conditions in the euphotic zone. The occurrence of these conditions can be explained either by the oxygen minimum layer model or by the stagnant ocean model combined with elevated riverine P input.

  15. Tuning the surface oxygen concentration of {111} surrounded ceria nanocrystals for enhanced photocatalytic activities (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Li, Sean


    For oxide semiconductors, the morphology, particle size and oxygen vacancies are usually considered as key influential parameters for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants/dyes. It is widely accepted that cation doping not only modifies their phase and microstructures but also introduces variations in oxygen vacancy concentration. Herein, we report the fabrication of sub-10 nm sized pure and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals (NCs) via a facile, green hydrothermal method for the investigation of photocatalytic activities. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the crystal phase and morphology of the as-prepared nanocrystals. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques were implemented to investigate the presence and variations in oxygen vacancy concentration in un-doped and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals. The photocatalytic activity results revealed that 10 at% doping is the optimal indium doping level to demonstrate superior dye removal efficiency (~40%) over un-doped and doped CeO2 NCs. Moreover, the 10% In-doped CeO2 nanocrystals expressed excellent cycling stability and superior photocatalytic performance toward other dye pollutants. Finally, on the basis of our findings, a possible photocatalytic mechanism in which indium doping can generate more surface oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice which delay the electron-hole recombination rates, thus increasing the lifetime of electron-hole separation for enhanced photocatalytic performances was proposed.For oxide semiconductors, the morphology, particle size and oxygen vacancies are usually considered as key influential parameters for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants/dyes. It is widely accepted that cation doping not only modifies their phase and microstructures but also introduces variations in oxygen vacancy concentration. Herein, we report the fabrication of sub-10 nm sized pure and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals (NCs) via a facile

  16. The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on oxygen diffusion and bacterial community structure in moving bed sequencing batch reactor (MBSBR). (United States)

    Cao, Yongfeng; Zhang, Chaosheng; Rong, Hongwei; Zheng, Guilin; Zhao, Limin


    The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was studied in a moving bed sequencing batch reactor (MBSBR) by microelectrode measurements and by real-time PCR. In this system, the biofilm grew on polyurethane foam carriers used to treat municipal sewage at five DO concentrations (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 mg/L). The results indicated that the MBSBR exhibited good removal of chemical oxygen demand (92.43%) and nitrogen (83.73%) when DO concentration was 2.5 mg/L. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the reactor was inhibitory to denitrification. Microelectrode measurements showed that the thickness of oxygen penetration increased from 1.2 to 2.6 mm when the DO concentration (from 1.5 mg/L to 5.5 mg/L) in the system increased. Oxygen diffusion was not significantly limited by the boundary layer surrounding the carrier and had the largest slope when DO concentration was 2.5 mg/L. The real-time PCR analysis indicated that the amount of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria increased slowly as DO concentration increased. The proportions of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, as a percentage of the total bacteria, were low with average values of 0.063% and 0.67%, respectively. When the DO concentration was 2.5 mg/L, oxygen diffusion was optimal and ensured the optimal bacterial community structure and activity; under these conditions, the MBSBR was efficient for total inorganic nitrogen removal. Changing the DO concentration could alter the aerobic zone and the bacterial community structure in the biofilm, directly influencing the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification activity in MBSBRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency-duration analysis of dissolved-oxygen concentrations in two southwestern Wisconsin streams (United States)

    Greb, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.


    Historically, dissolved-oxygen (DO) data have been collected in the same manner as other water-quality constituents, typically at infrequent intervals as a grab sample or an instantaneous meter reading. Recent years have seen an increase in continuous water-quality monitoring with electronic dataloggers. This new technique requires new approaches in the statistical analysis of the continuous record. This paper presents an application of frequency-duration analysis to the continuous DO records of a cold and a warm water stream in rural southwestern Wisconsin. This method offers a quick, concise way to summarize large time-series data bases in an easily interpretable manner. Even though the two streams had similar mean DO concentrations, frequency-duration analyses showed distinct differences in their DO-concentration regime. This type of analysis also may be useful in relating DO concentrations to biological effects and in predicting low DO occurrences.

  18. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  19. Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates (United States)

    Foster, D. L.


    Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

  20. Catalyst evaluation for oxygen reduction reaction in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jiang, Yiliang; Jensen, Jens Oluf


    temperatures and hence is not suitable for catalyst evaluation for HT-PEMFCs. In this study, we have designed and constructed a half-cell setup to measure the intrinsic activities of catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in conditions close to HT-PEMFC cathodes. By optimization...... of the hydrophobic characteristics of electrodes and the catalyst layer thickness, ORR activities of typical Pt/C catalysts are successfully measured in concentrated phosphoric acid at temperatures above 100 °C. In terms of mass-specific activities, the catalyst exhibits about two times higher activity in the half...

  1. Maximizing biomass concentration in baker's yeast process by using a decoupled geometric controller for substrate and dissolved oxygen. (United States)

    Chopda, Viki R; Rathore, Anurag S; Gomes, James


    Biomass production by baker's yeast in a fed-batch reactor depends on the metabolic regime determined by the concentration of glucose and dissolved oxygen in the reactor. Achieving high biomass concentration in turn is dependent on the dynamic interaction between the glucose and dissolved oxygen concentration. Taking this into account, we present in this paper the implementation of a decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) for maximizing biomass in a fed-batch yeast process. The decoupling is based on the inversion of 2×2 input-output matrix resulting from global linearization. The DIOLC was implemented online using a platform created in LabVIEW employing a TCP/IP protocol via the reactor's built-in electronic system. An improvement in biomass yield by 23% was obtained compared to that using a PID controller. The results demonstrate superior capability of the DIOLC and that the cumulative effect of smoother control action contributes to biomass maximization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  3. Effect of oxygen concentration in modified atmosphere packaging on color and texture of beef patties cooked to different temperatures. (United States)

    Bao, Yulong; Puolanne, Eero; Ertbjerg, Per


    Patties were made from raw minced beef after storage for 6days in modified atmosphere (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% oxygen) to study the combined effect of oxygen concentration and cooking temperature on hardness and color. Increased oxygen concentrations generally led to larger (P<0.01) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, greater (P<0.01) loss of free thiols and more formation of cross-linked myosin heavy chain. Hardness of cooked patties was generally lower (P<0.01) without oxygen. Premature browning of cooked patties was observed already at a relative low oxygen concentration of 20%. The internal redness of cooked patties decreased (P<0.05) with increasing oxygen concentrations and increasing cooking temperatures. Mean particle size (D(3,2)) of homogenized cooked meat generally increased (P<0.05) with increasing cooking temperatures and increasing oxygen concentrations, and particle size was correlated (r=0.80) with hardness of cooked patties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen


    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  5. The role of oxygen in yeast metabolism during high cell density brewery fermentations. (United States)

    Verbelen, P J; Saerens, S M G; Van Mulders, S E; Delvaux, F; Delvaux, F R


    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e., higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density fermentations can have a negative impact on the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. The use of different oxygen conditions (wort aeration, wort oxygenation, yeast preoxygenation) was investigated to improve the growth yield during high cell density fermentations and yeast metabolic and physiological parameters were assessed systematically. Together with a higher extent of growth (dependent on the applied oxygen conditions), the fermentation power and the formation of unsaturated fatty acids were also affected. Wort oxygenation had a significant decreasing effect on the formation of esters, which was caused by a decreased expression of the alcohol acetyl transferase gene ATF1, compared with the other conditions. Lower glycogen and trehalose levels at the end of fermentation were observed in case of the high cell density fermentations with oxygenated wort and the reference fermentation. The expression levels of BAP2 (encoding the branched chain amino acid permease), ERG1 (encoding squalene epoxidase), and the stress responsive gene HSP12 were predominantly influenced by the high cell concentrations, while OLE1 (encoding the fatty acid desaturase) and the oxidative stress responsive genes SOD1 and CTT1 were mainly affected by the oxygen availability per cell. These results demonstrate that optimisation of high cell density fermentations could be achieved by improving the oxygen conditions, without drastically affecting the physiological condition of the yeast and beer quality.

  6. Plasma concentrations of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno D Wildschut

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO support on pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate (OC in children. METHODOLOGY: Steady state 0-12 hour pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in new influenza A (H1N1 infected children treated with oseltamivir while on ECMO support. Cmax, Cmin and AUC(0-12 h were calculated. The age-specific oseltamivir dosage was doubled to counter expected decreased plasma drug concentrations due to increased volume of distribution on ECMO support. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three patients were enrolled aged 15, 6 and 14 years in this pharmacokinetic case series. For two children the OC plasma concentrations were higher than those found in children and adults not on ECMO. These increased plasma concentrations related to the increased oseltamivir dosage and decreased kidney function. In one patient suboptimal plasma concentrations coincided with a decreased gastric motility. CONCLUSION: Oseltamivir pharmacokinetics do not appear to be significantly influenced by ECMO support. Caution is required in case of nasogastric administration and decreased gastric motility. Due to the limited number of (paediatric patients available further multicenter studies are warranted.

  7. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development


    Tomar, Dheeraj S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K.; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li


    Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-or...

  8. The sensitivity of the oxygen isotopes of ice core sulfate to changing oxidant concentrations since the preindustrial (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Alexander, B.; Kunasek, S. A.


    Changes in tropospheric oxidant concentrations since preindustrial times have implications for the ozone radiative forcing, lifetimes of reduced trace gases, aerosol formation, and human health but are highly uncertain. Measurements of the triple oxygen isotopes of sulfate in ice cores (described by Δ17OSO4 = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O) provide one of the few constraints on paleo-oxidants. We use the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transport model to simulate changes in oxidant concentrations and the Δ17OSO4 between 1850 and 1990 to assess the sensitivity of Δ17OSO4 measurements in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores to changing tropospheric oxidant concentrations. The model indicates a 42% increase in the concentration of global mean tropospheric O3, a 10% decrease in OH, and a 58% increase in H2O2 between the preindustrial and present. Modeled Δ17OSO4 is consistent with measurements from ice core and aerosol samples. Model results indicate that the observed decrease in the Arctic Δ17OSO4 in spite of increasing O3 is due to the combined effects of increased sulfate formation by O2 catalyzed by anthropogenic transition metals and increased cloud water acidity. In Antarctica, the Δ17OSO4 is sensitive to relative changes of oxidant concentrations, but in a nonlinear fashion. Sensitivity studies explore the uncertainties in preindustrial emissions of oxidant precursors.

  9. The addition of pure oxygen to reduce sulphide concentration; La adicion oxigeno puro para disminuir la concentracion de sulfuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Castillo, M.C.; Ortiz Alemany, F. [EMARASA, aLICANTE (Spain)


    The effect of using oxygen in order to reducing problems caused by the presence of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater has been studied in the wastewater treatment plant of Alicante ``Monte Orgegia``. Oxygen was injected in the sewage system before the wastewater treatment plant. The effect of different doses of Oxygen over the values of electrode potential of wastewater was studied and so the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the air of the pretreatment building. A decreasing in the hydrogen sulfide concentration due to the modification of the usual values of electrode potential in wastewater was observed. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Laboratory investigations involving high-velocity oxygen atoms (United States)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Koontz, Steven L.; Visentine, James T.; Cross, Jon B.


    Facilities for measuring material reactive characteristics have been under development for several years and span the atom energy range from thermal to 5 eV, the orbital collision energy. One of the high-atom energy facilities (The High Intensity/Energy Atomic Oxygen Source) capable of simulating the reactive part of LEO is described, along with results of beam characterization and preliminary material studies. The oxygen atom beam source was a continuous wave plasma produced by focusing a high-power CO2 laser through a lens system into a rare gas/molecular oxygen mixture chamber at elevated temperature. Material samples were exposed to the high velocity beam through an external feedthrough. The facility showed good stability in continued operation for more than 100 hours, producing fluences of 10 to the 21st to 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. Reaction efficiencies and surface morphology have been measured for several materials at energies of 1.5 and 2.8 eV, matching with data generated from previous space flights. Activation energies for carbon and Kapton as measured in this facility were 800 cal/mole.

  11. A highly accurate method for determination of dissolved oxygen: gravimetric Winkler method. (United States)

    Helm, Irja; Jalukse, Lauri; Leito, Ivo


    A high-accuracy Winkler titration method has been developed for determination of dissolved oxygen concentration. Careful analysis of uncertainty sources relevant to the Winkler method was carried out and the method was optimized for minimizing all uncertainty sources as far as practical. The most important improvements were: gravimetric measurement of all solutions, pre-titration to minimize the effect of iodine volatilization, accurate amperometric end point detection and careful accounting for dissolved oxygen in the reagents. As a result, the developed method is possibly the most accurate method of determination of dissolved oxygen available. Depending on measurement conditions and on the dissolved oxygen concentration the combined standard uncertainties of the method are in the range of 0.012-0.018 mg dm(-3) corresponding to the k=2 expanded uncertainty in the range of 0.023-0.035 mg dm(-3) (0.27-0.38%, relative). This development enables more accurate calibration of electrochemical and optical dissolved oxygen sensors for routine analysis than has been possible before. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of low oxygen tension on tissue-engineered cartilage construct development in the concentric cylinder bioreactor. (United States)

    Saini, Sunil; Wick, Timothy M


    Cartilage is exposed to low oxygen tension in vivo, suggesting culture in a low-oxygen environment as a strategy to enhance matrix deposition in tissue-engineered cartilage in vitro. To assess the effects of oxygen tension on cartilage matrix accumulation, porous polylactic acid constructs were dynamically seeded in a concentric cylinder bioreactor with bovine chondrocytes and cultured for 3 weeks at either 20 or 5% oxygen tension. Robust chondrocyte proliferation and matrix deposition were achieved. After 22 days in culture, constructs from bioreactors operated at either 20 or 5% oxygen saturation had similar chondrocyte densities and collagen content. During the first 12 days of culture, the matrix glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition rate was 19.5 x 10(-9) mg/cell per day at 5% oxygen tension and 65% greater than the matrix GAG deposition rate at 20% oxygen tension. After 22 days of bioreactor culture, constructs at 5% oxygen contained 4.5 +/- 0.3 mg of GAG per construct, nearly double the 2.5 +/- 0.2 mg of GAG per construct at 20% oxygen tension. These data demonstrate that culture in bioreactors at low oxygen tension favors the production and retention of GAG within cartilage matrix without adversely affecting chondrocyte proliferation or collagen deposition. Bioreactor studies such as these can identify conditions that enhance matrix accumulation and construct development for cartilage tissue engineering.

  13. High performance platinum single atom electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jiao, Menggai; Lu, Lanlu; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Li, Yuping; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Luhua; Wu, Zhijian; Liu, Di-Jia; Zhuang, Lin; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Bingsen; Su, Dangsheng; Song, Ping; Xing, Wei; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Zheng; Sun, Gongquan


    For the large-scale sustainable implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in vehicles, high-performance electrocatalysts with low platinum consumption are desirable for use as cathode material during the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Here we report a carbon black-supported cost-effective, efficient and durable platinum single-atom electrocatalyst with carbon monoxide/methanol tolerance for the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. The acidic single-cell with such a catalyst as cathode delivers high performance, with power density up to 680 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with a low platinum loading of 0.09 mgPt cm-2, corresponding to a platinum utilization of 0.13 gPt kW-1 in the fuel cell. Good fuel cell durability is also observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that the main effective sites on such platinum single-atom electrocatalysts are single-pyridinic-nitrogen-atom-anchored single-platinum-atom centres, which are tolerant to carbon monoxide/methanol, but highly active for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  14. High performance platinum single atom electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jiao, Menggai; Lu, Lanlu; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Li, Yuping; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Luhua; Wu, Zhijian; Liu, Di-jia; Zhuang, Lin; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Bingsen; Su, Dangsheng; Song, Ping; Xing, Wei; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Zheng; Sun, Gongquan


    For the large-scale sustainable implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in vehicles, high-performance electrocatalysts with low platinum consumption are desirable for use as cathode material during the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Here we report a carbon black-supported cost-effective, efficient and durable platinum single-atom electrocatalyst with carbon monoxide/methanol tolerance for the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. The acidic single-cell with such a catalyst as cathode delivers high performance, with power density up to 680 mW cm−2 at 80 °C with a low platinum loading of 0.09 mgPt cm−2, corresponding to a platinum utilization of 0.13 gPt kW−1 in the fuel cell. Good fuel cell durability is also observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that the main effective sites on such platinum single-atom electrocatalysts are single-pyridinic-nitrogen-atom-anchored single-platinum-atom centres, which are tolerant to carbon monoxide/methanol, but highly active for the oxygen reduction reaction. PMID:28737170

  15. The Effect of Various Concentrations of Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen on the Hypersensitive Gag Reflex. (United States)

    De Veaux, Candace K E; Montagnese, Thomas A; Heima, Masahiro; Aminoshariae, Anita; Mickel, Andre


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various concentrations of N2O/O2 on obtunding a hypersensitive gag reflex. We hypothesized that the administration of nitrous oxide and oxygen would obtund a hypersensitive gag reflex enough to allow a patient to tolerate the placement and holding of a digital x-ray sensor long enough to obtain a dental radiograph. Volunteers claiming to have a hypersensitive gag reflex were first screened to validate their claim and then tested by placing a size 2 digital x-ray sensor in the position for a periapical radiograph of the right mandibular molar area and holding it in place for 10 seconds. Subjects were first tested using room air only, then 30%, 50%, or 70% nitrous oxide until they were able to tolerate the sensor without gagging or discomfort. A visual analog scale was used for subjective responses, and other statistical tests were used to analyze the results. We found that for some subjects, 30% nitrous oxide was sufficient; for others, 50% was needed; and for the remainder of the subjects, 70% was sufficient to tolerate the test. Using a combination of 70% nitrous oxide and 30% oxygen allowed all patients claiming to have a hypersensitive gag reflex to tolerate the placement and holding of a digital x-ray sensor long enough to take a periapical radiograph.

  16. Effect of oxygen concentration on resistive switching behavior in silicon oxynitride film (United States)

    Chen, Da; Huang, Shihua; He, Lü


    SiO{}xN{}y films with different oxygen concentrations were fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering, and the resistive switching characteristics and conduction mechanism of Cu/SiO{}xN{}y/ITO devices were investigated. The Cu/SiO{}xN{}y/ITO device with SiO{}xN{}y deposited in 0.8-sccm O{}2 flow shows a reliable resistive switching behavior, including good endurance and retention properties. As the conductivity of SiO{}xN{}y increases with the increase of the oxygen content dynamical electron trapping and detrapping is suggested to be the conduction mechanism. The temperature dependent I-V measurement indicates that the carrier transport can be ascribed to the hopping conduction rather than the metallic conductive filament. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LY17F040001), the Open Project Program of Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) of Fudan University (No. KF2015_02), the Open Project Program of National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. M201503), the Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Key Innovation Team (No. 2011R50012), and the Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory (No. 2013E10022).

  17. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on red pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus ATCC 36928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Pereira


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of agitation speed, N (200, 500, 600 or 700 rpm, and dissolved oxygen concentration, C (120, >70, 70, 60, 10 or < 10%, on red pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus ATCC 36928, cultivated in liquid medium by a batch process. The gas flow rate was the same for all runs with C controlled by means of the incoming gas composition control (air/N2 or air/O2. From the response surface plots it can be verified that the effect of C was greater than that of N on the production of both metabolites. The absorbance for red pigments varied from 1.6 U (C< 10%; N=200 rpm up to 3.3 U (C=60%; N=600 rpm, an increase of 106%, while citrinin concentration increased 257%, from 14.2 to 50.7 mg.L-1. The most appropriate conditions were C=60% and N=600rpm, under which the highest red pigment absorbance (3.3U and half of the highest citrinin concentration were obtained.

  18. Liquid products from oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air. (United States)

    Shie, J L; Chang, C Y; Lin, J P; Le, D J; Wu, C H


    Oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air by using a dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) reaction system is investigated. The experimental conditions employed are: gas flow rate of 50 cm3/min (value at 298 K) for 300 mg dry waste, a constant heating rate of 5.2 K/min, the oxygen concentrations in air of 1.09, 8.62 and 20.95 vol. % O2, and the temperature (T) range of 378-873 K. From the experimental results, the residual mass fractions (M) are about 78.95, 28.49, 8.77 and 4.13 wt. % at the oxidative T of 563, 713, 763 and 873 K for the case with 20.95 vol. % O2, respectively. The values of M with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 873 K are 4.87 and 9.44 wt. %, respectively. The distillation characteristics of the oil portion of liquid products (condensates of gas at 298 K) from the oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with 20.95 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K is close to those of commercial gasoline. Nevertheless, the liquid product contains a large amount of water. The distillation characteristics of the oil portions of liquid products with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K are close to those of diesel and fuel oils, respectively. The oil quality with 8.62 vol. % O2 is better than that with 1.09 vol. % O2. However, the liquid product with 8.62 vol. % O2 still contains a large amount of water; nonetheless, that with 1.09 vol. % O2 is with negligible water. Compared with the oil product of nitrogen pyrolysis, the oil quality with 1.09 vol. % O2 is better. Certainly, low oxygen conditions (i.e. 1.09 vol. % O2) not only accelerate the thermal reaction of oil sludge, but also at the same time avoid or reduce the production of water. Further, from the analysis of benzene (B), ethylbenzene (E), toluene (T) and iso-xylene (X) concentrations of the oil portion of liquid products, the BETX concentrations of oil with 20.95 vol. % O2 are higher than those with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2. The yields of liquid products with 20.95, 8

  19. High temperature thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate thin films with oxygen vacancy and niobium doping

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.


    We report the evolution of high temperature thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 thin films doped with Nb and oxygen vacancies. Structure-property relations in this important thermoelectric oxide are elucidated and the variation of transport properties with dopant concentrations is discussed. Oxygen vacancies are incorporated during growth or annealing in Ar/H2 above 800 K. An increase in lattice constant due to the inclusion of Nb and oxygen vacancies is found to result in an increase in carrier density and electrical conductivity with simultaneous decrease in carrier effective mass and Seebeck coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivity at 300 K is found to be 2.22 W m-1 K-1, and the estimated figure of merit is 0.29 at 1000 K. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Hyperosmotic Agents and Antibiotics Affect Dissolved Oxygen and pH Concentration Gradients in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms. (United States)

    Kiamco, Mia Mae; Atci, Erhan; Mohamed, Abdelrhman; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk


    Biofilms on wound surfaces are treated topically with hyperosmotic agents, such as medical-grade honey and cadexomer iodine; in some cases, these treatments are combined with antibiotics. Tissue repair requires oxygen, and a low pH is conducive to oxygen release from red blood cells and epithelialization. We investigated the variation of dissolved oxygen concentration and pH with biofilm depth and the variation in oxygen consumption rates when biofilms are challenged with medical-grade honey or cadexomer iodine combined with vancomycin or ciprofloxacin. Dissolved oxygen and pH depth profiles in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were measured using microelectrodes. The presence of cadexomer iodine with vancomycin or ciprofloxacin on the surface of the biofilm permitted a measurable concentration of oxygen at greater biofilm depths (101.6 ± 27.3 μm, P = 0.02; and 155.5 ± 27.9 μm, P = 0.016, respectively) than in untreated controls (30.1 μm). Decreases in pH of ∼0.6 and ∼0.4 units were observed in biofilms challenged with medical-grade honey alone and combined with ciprofloxacin, respectively ( P dissolved oxygen concentration and penetration depth into the biofilm, while medical-grade honey was associated with a lower pH; not all treatments established a bactericidal effect in the time frame used in the experiments. IMPORTANCE Reports about using hyperosmotic agents and antibiotics against wound biofilms focus mostly on killing bacteria, but the results of these treatments should additionally be considered in the context of how they affect physiologically important parameters, such as oxygen concentration and pH. We confirmed that the combination of a hyperosmotic agent and an antibiotic results in greater dissolved oxygen and reduced pH within an S. aureus biofilm. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Real time continuous oxygen concentration monitoring system during malaxation for the production of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiello, G.


    Full Text Available During the mechanical extraction process of Virgin Olive Oil (VOO some important physical phenomena and enzymatic transformations occur which influence the quality of the final product. The control of process parameters is crucial to ensure the quality of VOO, therefore process monitoring and control is a fundamental requirement in the modern VOO processing industry. The present work proposes an innovative Real-Time Monitoring System (RTMS aimed at continuously measuring the oxygen concentration during the malaxation process in order to establish a correlation with the quality of the final product obtained. This monitoring system is based on an oxygen concentration sensor directly connected to the malaxation chamber and a data acquisition system to analyze and store the measured values in a process database. The experimental results obtained show that the use of oxygen during malaxation improves some qualitative parameters of VOO such as free fatty acids and total polyphenols while others (peroxide values and spectrophotometric indexes worsen. These results are similar to those obtained by employing nitrogen, which is the traditional technique to avoid the wellknown oxidation processes studied by several researchers, thus demonstrating that the presence of oxygen during the malaxation process can have beneficial effects on the quality of VOO when its concentration is properly controlled.

    Durante el proceso de extracción mecánica del aceite de oliva virgen ocurren importantes fenómenos físicos y transformaciones enzimáticas que influyen en la calidad del producto final. El control de los parámetros del proceso es crucial para garantizar la calidad del aceite de oliva virgen, por tanto la monitorización y el control del proceso son requisitos fundamentales en el moderno tratamiento industrial del aceite de oliva virgen. El presente trabajo propone un sistema de monitorización innovador en tiempo real dirigido a medir continuamente

  2. A hyperoxic lung injury model in premature rabbits: the influence of different gestational ages and oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Munhoz Manzano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animal models have been developed to study bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. The preterm rabbit is a low-cost, easy-to-handle model, but it has a high mortality rate in response to the high oxygen concentrations used to induce lung injury. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality rates of two models of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in preterm rabbits. METHODS: Pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 28 or 29 (full term  = 31 days. The premature rabbits in the 28-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂ ≥95%, and the rabbits in the 29-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂  = 80% for 11 days. The mean linear intercept (Lm, internal surface area (ISA, number of alveoli, septal thickness and proportion of elastic and collagen fibers were quantified. RESULTS: The survival rates in the 29-day groups were improved compared with the 28-day groups. Hyperoxia impaired the normal development of the lung, as demonstrated by an increase in the Lm, the septal thickness and the proportion of elastic fibers. Hyperoxia also decreased the ISA, the number of alveoli and the proportion of collagen fibers in the 28-day oxygen-exposed group compared with the control 28-day group. A reduced number of alveoli was found in the 29-day oxygen exposed animals compared with the control 29-day group. CONCLUSIONS: The 29-day preterm rabbits had a reduced mortality rate compared with the 28-day preterm rabbits and maintained a reduction in the alveoli number, which is comparable to BPD in humans.

  3. Assessment of GFP fluorescence in cells of Streptococcus gordonii under conditions of low pH and low oxygen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Palmer, R.J.; Udsen, C.


    . A lower limit of oxygen concentration for maturation of the GFP fluorophore was determined: fluorescence was emitted at 0.1 p.p.m. dissolved oxygen (in conventionally prepared anaerobic media lacking reducing agents), whereas no fluorescence was detected in the presence of 0.025 p.p.m. dissolved oxygen......Use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a molecular reporter is restricted by several environmental factors, such as its requirement for oxygen in the development of the fluorophore, and its poor fluorescence at low pH. There are conflicting data on these limitations, however, and systematic...... (lateral or vertical) within the >50 mum thick biofilm, and fluorescence development after the shift to aerobic conditions occurred throughout the biofilm (even at the substratum). This suggests that oxygen gradients, which might result in reduced GFP fluorescence, did not exist in the >50 mum thick...

  4. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development. (United States)

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li


    Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-order intermolecular interactions, non-native aggregation, and concentration-dependent fluctuations of various antibody regions. This article reviews our current understanding of molecular origins of viscosity behaviors of antibody solutions. We discuss general strategies and guidelines to select low viscosity candidates or optimize lead candidates for lower viscosity at early drug discovery stages. Moreover, strategies for formulation optimization and excipient design are also presented for candidates already in advanced product development stages. Potential future directions for research in this field are also explored.

  5. The role of atomic oxygen concentration in the ionization balance of the lower ionosphere during solar proton events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osepian, A.; Tereschenko, V. [Polar Geophysical Institute, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden)


    The influence of atomic oxygen concentration on the height distribution of the main positive and negative ions and on electron density in the mesosphere is studied for the conditions prevailing during the solar proton event on 17 January 2005. It is shown by numerical modeling that the electron and ion density profiles are strongly dependent on the choice of the atomic oxygen profile. Experimental measurements of the electron density are used as the criterion for choosing the atomic oxygen profile in the mesosphere. With the help of modeling, the atomic oxygen profile in the daytime in the winter mesosphere is found to lead to a model electron density profile best matching the electron density profile obtained experimentally. As a result, with the help of modeling, we find the atomic oxygen profiles at various solar zenith angles in the winter mesosphere which lead to model electron density profiles matching the electron density profiles obtained experimentally. Alteration of the atomic oxygen concentration leads to a redistribution of the abundance of both positive and negative ion constituents, with changes in their total concentrations and transition heights. In consequence this results in changes of the electron density and effective recombination coefficient. For conditions of low concentration of atomic oxygen (during a solar proton event), the formation of cluster ions is the key process determining electron and ion densities at altitudes up to 77 km. The complex negative CO{sub 3}{sup -} ion is formed up to about 74 km and the final NO{sub 3}{sup -} ion, which is stable in relation to the atomic oxygen, is the dominant negative ion up to 74 km. As a result the transition heights between cluster ions and molecular ions and between negative ions and electron density are located at 77 km and 66 km, respectively. (orig.)

  6. Oxygen pathway modeling estimates high reactive oxygen species production above the highest permanent human habitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Cano

    Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS from the inner mitochondrial membrane is one of many fundamental processes governing the balance between health and disease. It is well known that ROS are necessary signaling molecules in gene expression, yet when expressed at high levels, ROS may cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Both hypoxia and hyperoxia may alter ROS production by changing mitochondrial Po2 (PmO2. Because PmO2 depends on the balance between O2 transport and utilization, we formulated an integrative mathematical model of O2 transport and utilization in skeletal muscle to predict conditions to cause abnormally high ROS generation. Simulations using data from healthy subjects during maximal exercise at sea level reveal little mitochondrial ROS production. However, altitude triggers high mitochondrial ROS production in muscle regions with high metabolic capacity but limited O2 delivery. This altitude roughly coincides with the highest location of permanent human habitation. Above 25,000 ft., more than 90% of exercising muscle is predicted to produce abnormally high levels of ROS, corresponding to the "death zone" in mountaineering.

  7. NIRS-Derived Tissue Oxygen Saturation and Hydrogen Ion Concentration Following Bed Rest (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Everett, M. E.; Crowell, J. B.; Westby, C. M.; Soller, B. R.


    Long-term bed rest (BR), a model of spaceflight, results in a decrease in aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. The strongest BR-induced effects on exercise appear to be centrally-mediated, but longer BR durations may result in peripheral adaptations (e.g., decreased mitochondrial and capillary density) which are likely to influence exercise responses. PURPOSE: To measure tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) and hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) in the vastus lateralis (VL) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycle ergometry before and after . 30 d of BR. METHODS: Eight subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to volitional fatigue 7 d before (pre-BR) and at the end or 1 day after BR (post-BR). NIRS spectra were collected from a sensor adhered to the skin overlying the VL. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured by open circuit spirometry. Blood volume (BV) was measured before and after BR using the carbon monoxide rebreathing technique. Changes in pre- and post-BR SO2 and [H+] data were compared using mixed model analyses. BV and peak exercise data were compared using paired t-tests. RESULTS: BV (pre-BR: 4.3+/-0.3, post-BR: 3.7+/-0.2 L, mean+/-SE, p=.01) and peak VO2 (pre-BR: 1.98+/-0.24, post-BR: 1.48 +/-0.21 L/min, p<.01) were reduced after BR. As expected, SO2 decreased with exercise before and after BR. However, SO2 was lower post compared with pre-BR throughout exercise, including at peak exercise (pre-BR: 50+/-3, post-BR: 43+/-4%, p=.01). After BR, [H+] was higher at the start of exercise and did not increase at the same rate as pre-BR. Peak [H+] was not different from pre to post-BR (pre-BR: 36+/-2; post-BR: 38+/-2 nmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: Lower SO2 during exercise suggests that oxygen extraction in the VL is higher after BR, perhaps due to lower circulating blood volume. The higher [H+] after BR suggests a greater reliance upon glycolysis during submaximal exercise, although [H+] at peak exercise was unchanged

  8. Effect of high-oxygen atmosphere packaging on oxidative stability and sensory quality of two chicken muscles during chill storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Wen, Jinzhu; Tørngren, Mari Ann


    The oxidative stability and sensory quality of chicken breast (m. pectoralis) and thigh (m. peroneus longus) stored in high-oxygen modified atmosphere (MAP-O), non-oxygen modified atmosphere (MAP-N), or vacuum for up to 9 days at 5°C were investigated. Protein thiol concentration in breasts...... in MAP-O than breast, indicating that the negative effect MAP-O may have on the oxidative stability and sensory quality of meat varies between different muscles....

  9. A Semi-Empirical Formula of the Dependence of the Fluorescence Intensity of Naphthalene on Temperature and the Oxygen Concentration (United States)

    An, B.; Wang, Z.-G.; Yang, L.-C.; Li, X.-P.


    Two-ring aromatics, such as naphthalene, are important fluorescent components of kerosene in the planar laser-induced fluorescent (PLIF) technique. Quantifying measurements of kerosene vapor concentrations by PLIF require a prior knowledge of the fluorescence intensity of naphthalene over a wide temperature and oxygen concentration range. To promote the application of PLIF, a semi-empirical formula based on the collision theory and experimental data at the laser wavelength of 266 nm and a pressure of 0.1 MPa is established to predict the fluorescence intensity of naphthalene at different temperatures and oxygen concentrations. This formula takes vibrational states, temperature, and oxygen quenching into account. Verified by published experimental data, the formula can predict the fluorescence intensity of naphthalene with an error less than 9%.

  10. Diurnal changes of arterial oxygen saturation and erythropoietin concentration in male and female highlanders. (United States)

    Cristancho, Edgar; Riveros, Alain; Sánchez, Armando; Peñuela, Oscar; Böning, Dieter


    In Caucasians and Native Americans living at altitude, hemoglobin mass is increased in spite of erythropoietin concentrations ([Epo]) not markedly differing from sea level values. We hypothesized that a nocturnal decrease of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) causes a temporary rise of [Epo] not detected by morning measurements. SaO2 (continuous, finger oximeter) and [Epo] (ELISA, every 4 h) were determined in young highlanders (altitude 2600 m) during 24 h of usual daily activity. In Series I (six male, nine female students), SaO2 fell during the night with the nadir occurring between 01:00 and 03:00; daily means (range 92.4-95.2%) were higher in females (+1.7%, P < 0.01). [Epo] showed opposite changes with zenith occurring at 04:00 without a sex difference. Mean daily values (22.9 ± 10.7SD U/L) were higher than values obtained at 08:00 (17.2 ± 9.5 U/L, P < 0.05). In Series II (seven females), only SaO2 was measured. During follicular and luteal phases, SaO2 variation was similar to Series I, but the rhythm was disturbed during menstruation. While daily [Epo] variations at sea level are not homogeneous, there is a diurnal variation at altitude following changes in SaO2 Larger hypoventilation-dependent decreases of alveolar PO2 decreases during the night probably cause a stronger reduction of SaO2 in highlanders compared to lowlanders. This variation might be enlarged by a diurnal fluctuation of Hb concentration. In spite of a lower [Hb], the higher SaO2 in women compared to men led to a similar arterial oxygen content, likely explaining the absence of differences in [Epo] between sexes. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. Normocapnic high frequency oscillatory hyperventilation increases oxygenation in pigs. (United States)

    Roubík, K; Pachl, J; Zábrodský, V


    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), contrary to conventional ventilation, enables a safe increase in tidal volume (V(T)) without endangering alveoli by volutrauma or barotrauma. The aim of the study is to introduce the concept of normocapnic high frequency oscillatory hyperventilation and to assess its effect upon oxygen gain under experimental conditions. Laboratory pigs (n = 9) were investigated under total intravenous anesthesia in three phases. Phase 1: Initial volume controlled HFOV period. Phase 2: Hyperventilation--V(T) was increased by (46 +/- 12) % when compared to normocapnic V(T) during phase 1. All other ventilatory parameters were unchanged. A significant increase in PaO(2) (by 3.75 +/- 0.52 kPa, p hyperventilation was achieved by an iterative increase in the CO(2) fraction in the inspiratory gas by a CO(2) admixture. All ventilatory parameters were unchanged. A significant increase in PaO(2) (by 3.79 +/- 0.73 kPa, p hyperventilation offers a lung protective strategy that significantly improves oxygenation whilst preserving normocapnia.

  12. Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Arri, Sandra Jasminder; Muehlemann, Thomas; Biallas, Martin; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Wolf, Martin


    Background and aim: One source of error with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is the assumption that the measured tissue is optically homogeneous. This is not always the case. Our aim is to assess the impact of tissue homogeneity (TH) on the precision of NIRS measurements in neonates. Methods: On 36 term and 27 preterm neonates at least five 1-min measurements are performed on each subject using the OxiplexTS. The sensor position is slightly changed before each measurement while assessing TH. The precision for cerebral tissue oxygenation saturation (StO2) and total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) are calculated by repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The mean StO2 is not significantly different between term and preterm infants. The mean tHb is significantly lower in preterm infants (p preterm and from 11.0 to 2.0% for term infants; the precision of tHb increases from 10.1 to 7.5μM for preterm and from 16.4 to 3.5μM for term infants. The precision for StO2 is higher in term than in preterm infants. The precision for tHb shows no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: The precision of NIRS measurements correlates with tissue homogeneity.

  13. Microscopic Study of the Phase Transformation During the Oxygen-Enriched Direct Smelting of Jamesonite Concentrate (United States)

    Chen, Min; Dai, Xi


    Samples of partially oxidized jamesonite particles and crude lead-antimony alloy from oxygen-enriched direct smelting of jamesonite concentrate have been characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was shown that the Fe diffused outward from the center of the jamesonite to the outermost layer forming an iron-riched sulfide coat, while the behaviors of Pb, Sb, and Cu were contrary to that of Fe. The formation of FexSbyS impeded the oxidation and volatilization of antimony compounds. As a result, more antimony was retained in the grain during the oxidation process and then transformed into the crude lead-antimony alloy. The microprobe analysis of the metallic core of the partially oxidized jamesonite grain revealed that the PbS was preferentially oxidized to give metals. Investigations on crude lead-antimony alloy indicated that impurities of iron and copper presented as FeSb2, FeSb, and Cu2Sb forms.

  14. The Effects of Differing Oxygen Concentrations on Reaction Time Performance at Altitude (United States)


    technology employed in modern air platforms. In OBOGS, engine bleed air is passed through a molecular sieve where harmful gasses such as carbon ...would be decreased, which in 2 turn would result in a decline in the ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide through the alveoli... carbon dioxide in the blood by oxygen. The abundance of oxygen and the lack of carbon dioxide have been thought to cause vasoconstriction in the

  15. Metabolism of benthic octopods (Cephalopoda) as a function of habitat depth and oxygen concentration (United States)

    Seibel, Brad A.; Childress, James J.


    The oxygen consumption rates and activities of key metabolic enzymes were measured and analyzed as a function of habitat depth for several species of benthic octopod (Cephalopoda: Octopoda) including a recently described hydrothermal vent endemic species. Oxygen consumption rates and citrate synthase activity, an indicator of aerobic metabolic potential, did not vary significantly with increasing habitat depth. Anaerobic metabolic potential, as evidenced by octopine dehydrogenase activity, declined significantly with increasing habitat depth. It is suggested that burst swimming abilities, and hence glycolytic potential, are not strongly selected for in the deep-sea, where visual predator-prey interactions are reduced because of light-limitation. Oxygen consumption rates for Octopus californicus and O. bimaculoides were analyzed as a function of oxygen partial pressure as well. O. californicus, which lives in the hypoxic Santa Barbara basin at 500 m depth, was able to regulate its oxygen consumption to the limit of detectable oxygen partial pressures. O. bimaculoides, an intertidal species, had a minimum critical oxygen partial pressure of 16 mmHg. It is also shown that oxygen consumption rates and oxygen consumption regulation are strongly affected by individual experiment duration (either handling stress or food deprivation). O. californicus appears to be much more strongly affected by experiment duration than is O. bimaculoides.

  16. Industrial glucoamylase fed‐batch benefits from oxygen limitation and high osmolarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse; Hansen, Kim; Nielsen, Jens


    The market for glucoamylase is large and very competitive and the production process has been optimized through several decades. So far a thorough characterization of the process has not been published, but previous academic reports suggest that the process suffers from severe byproduct formation...... Periodicals, Inc........ An alternative process with low glucose concentration show that high osmolarity is beneficial for the process, and we conclude that oxygen limitation, high osmolarity, and the associated byproduct metabolism are important for the efficiency of the process. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012;109: 116–124. © 2011 Wiley...

  17. Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronized Oscillations of Microbial Populations, Carbon and Oxygen Concentrations, Induced by Root Exudation in the Rhizosphere (United States)

    Molz, F. J.; Faybishenko, B.; Jenkins, E. W.


    Mass and energy fluxes within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum are highly coupled and inherently nonlinear. The main focus of this presentation is to demonstrate the results of numerical modeling of a system of 4 coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are used to describe the long-term, rhizosphere processes of soil microbial dynamics, including the competition between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and those unable to fix nitrogen, along with substrate concentration (nutrient supply) and oxygen concentration. Modeling results demonstrate the synchronized patterns of temporal oscillations of competing microbial populations, which are affected by carbon and oxygen concentrations. The temporal dynamics and amplitude of the root exudation process serve as a driving force for microbial and geochemical phenomena, and lead to the development of the Gompetzian dynamics, synchronized oscillations, and phase-space attractors of microbial populations and carbon and oxygen concentrations. The nonlinear dynamic analysis of time series concentrations from the solution of the ODEs was used to identify several types of phase-space attractors, which appear to be dependent on the parameters of the exudation function and Monod kinetic parameters. This phase space analysis was conducted by means of assessing the global and local embedding dimensions, correlation time, capacity and correlation dimensions, and Lyapunov exponents of the calculated model variables defining the phase space. Such results can be used for planning experimental and theoretical studies of biogeochemical processes in the fields of plant nutrition, phyto- and bio-remediation, and other ecological areas.

  18. Effects of Changes in Colored Light on Brain and Calf Muscle Blood Concentration and Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Weinzirl


    Full Text Available Color light therapy is a therapeutic method in complementary medicine. In color therapy, light of two contrasting colors is often applied in a sequential order. The aim of this study was to investigate possible physiological effects, i.e., changes in the blood volume and oxygenation in the brain and calf muscle of healthy subjects who were exposed to red and blue light in sequential order. The hypothesis was that if a subject is first exposed to blue and then red light, the effect of the red light will be enhanced due to the contrastingly different characteristics of the two colors. The same was expected for blue light, if first exposing a subject to red and then to blue light. Twelve healthy volunteers (six male, six female were measured twice on two different days by near-infrared spectroscopy during exposure to colored light. Two sequences of colored light were applied in a controlled, randomized, crossover design: first blue, then red, and vice versa. For the brain and muscle, the results showed no significant differences in blood volume and oxygenation between the two sequences, and a high interindividual physiological variability. Thus, the hypothesis had to be rejected. Comparing these data to results from a previous study, where subjects were exposed to blue and red light without sequential color changes, shows that the results of the current study appear to be similar to those of red light exposure. This may indicate that the exposure to red light was preponderant and thus effects of blue light were outweighed.

  19. High microparticle concentration in cord plasma. (United States)

    Schweintzger, S; Schlagenhauf, A; Rinner, B; Bernhard, H; Novak, M; Leschnik, B; Muntean, W


    We investigated if differences in the microparticle concentration and activity between newborn cord plasma and adult plasma exist. To enumerate and characterize microparticles (MP) FACS and ELISA were used.The effect of microparticles derived tissue factor (TF) on thrombin generation was measured indirectly by CAT (calibrated automated thrombography). The flow cytometric measurements revealed an increased microparticle concentration in newborn cord compared with adult plasma. By the use of ELISA a significantly increased procoagulant activity of microparticles was found in newborn cord plasma as compared to adult plasma. Initiation of thrombin generation by adding phospholipids alone resulted in a significant lower prolongation of the lag time, time to peak in cord plasma, while the decrease of endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and peak was comparable between newborns and adults. Our results show a higher impact of microparticles on the haemostatic system of newborns than on that of adults. The three methods suggest a somewhat increased microparticle activity in newborn cord plasma, but argue against strong platelet activation during birth.

  20. Escherichia coli avoids high dissolved oxygen stress by activation of SoxRS and manganese-superoxide dismutase (United States)


    Background High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were reported to cause oxidative stress to E. coli cells associated with reduced or inhibited growth. The high ROS concentrations described in these reports were generated by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 and superoxide-generating chemicals which are non-physiological growth conditions. However, the effect of molecular oxygen on oxidative stress response has not been evaluated. Since the use of oxygen-enriched air is a common strategy to support high density growth of E. coli, it was important to investigate the effect of high dissolved oxygen concentrations on the physiology and growth of E. coli and the way it responds to oxidative stress. Results To determine the effect of elevated oxygen concentrations on the growth characteristics, specific gene expression and enzyme activity in E. coli, the parental and SOD-deficient strain were evaluated when the dissolved oxygen (dO2) level was increased from 30% to 300%. No significant differences in the growth parameters were observed in the parental strain except for a temporary decrease of the respiration and acetate accumulation profile. By performing transcriptional analysis, it was determined that the parental strain responded to the oxidative stress by activating the SoxRS regulon. However, following the dO2 switch, the SOD-deficient strain activated both the SoxRS and OxyR regulons but it was unable to resume its initial growth rate. Conclusion The transcriptional analysis and enzyme activity results indicated that when E. coli is exposed to dO2 shift, the superoxide stress regulator SoxRS is activated and causes the stimulation of the superoxide dismutase system. This enables the E. coli to protect itself from the poisoning effects of oxygen. The OxyR protecting system was not activated, indicating that H2O2 did not increase to stressing levels. PMID:23497217

  1. Adrenal Demedullation and Oxygen Supplementation Independently Increase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Concentrations in Fetal Sheep With Intrauterine Growth Restriction


    Macko, Antoni R.; Yates, Dustin T.; Chen, Xiaochuan; Shelton, Leslie A.; Kelly, Amy C.; Davis, Melissa A.; Camacho, Leticia E.; Anderson, Miranda J.; Limesand, Sean W.


    In pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal glucose and oxygen concentrations are reduced, whereas plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations are elevated throughout the final third of gestation. Here we study the effects of chronic hypoxemia and hypercatecholaminemia on β-cell function in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR that is produced by maternal hyperthermia. IUGR and control fetuses underwent a sh...

  2. Adrenal Demedullation and Oxygen Supplementation Independently Increase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Concentrations in Fetal Sheep With Intrauterine Growth Restriction (United States)

    Macko, Antoni R.; Yates, Dustin T.; Chen, Xiaochuan; Shelton, Leslie A.; Kelly, Amy C.; Davis, Melissa A.; Camacho, Leticia E.; Anderson, Miranda J.


    In pregnancies complicated by placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal glucose and oxygen concentrations are reduced, whereas plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations are elevated throughout the final third of gestation. Here we study the effects of chronic hypoxemia and hypercatecholaminemia on β-cell function in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR that is produced by maternal hyperthermia. IUGR and control fetuses underwent a sham (intact) or bilateral adrenal demedullation (AD) surgical procedure at 0.65 gestation. As expected, AD-IUGR fetuses had lower norepinephrine concentrations than intact-IUGR fetuses despite being hypoxemic and hypoglycemic. Placental insufficiency reduced fetal weights, but the severity of IUGR was less with AD. Although basal plasma insulin concentrations were lower in intact-IUGR and AD-IUGR fetuses compared with intact-controls, glucose-stimulated insulin concentrations were greater in AD-IUGR fetuses compared with intact-IUGR fetuses. Interestingly, AD-controls had lower glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin concentrations than intact-controls, but AD-IUGR and AD-control insulin responses were not different. To investigate chronic hypoxemia in the IUGR fetus, arterial oxygen tension was increased to normal levels by increasing the maternal inspired oxygen fraction. Oxygenation of IUGR fetuses enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin concentrations 3.3-fold in intact-IUGR and 1.7-fold in AD-IUGR fetuses but did not lower norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations. Together these findings show that chronic hypoxemia and hypercatecholaminemia have distinct but complementary roles in the suppression of β-cell responsiveness in IUGR fetuses. PMID:26937714

  3. Highly oxygenated antiausterity agents from the leaves of Uvaria dac. (United States)

    Awale, Suresh; Tawila, Ahmed M; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Sun, Sijia; Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Balachandran, Chandrashaker; Saiki, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Esumi, Hiroyasu


    From the chloroform extract of the leaves of Uvaria dac, four new highly-oxygenated cyclohexene derivatives named uvaridacols I-L (1-4) were isolated together with nine previously reported compounds (5-13). Their structures were determined based on the extensive NMR spectroscopic data and circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis. Among the new compounds, uvaridacol L (4) displayed strong preferential cytotoxicity in the nutrient deprived medium against five different tested pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 (PC50, 20.1μM), PSN-1 (PC50, 9.7μM), MIA PaCa-2 (PC50, 29.1μM), Capan-1 (73.0μM) and KLM-1 (25.9μM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the biological activity of high rate algae ponds through the calculation of oxygen balances. (United States)

    Arbib, Zouhayr; de Godos Crespo, Ignacio; Corona, Enrique Lara; Rogalla, Frank


    Microalgae culture in high rate algae ponds (HRAP) is an environmentally friendly technology for wastewater treatment. However, for the implementation of these systems, a better understanding of the oxygenation potential and the influence of climate conditions is required. In this work, the rates of oxygen production, consumption, and exchange with the atmosphere were calculated under varying conditions of solar irradiance and dilution rate during six months of operation in a real scale unit. This analysis allowed determining the biological response of these dynamic systems. The rates of oxygen consumption measured were considerably higher than the values calculated based on the organic loading rate. The response to light intensity in terms of oxygen production in the bioreactor was described with one of the models proposed for microalgae culture in dense concentrations. This model is based on the availability of light inside the culture and the specific response of microalgae to this parameter. The specific response to solar radiation intensity showed a reasonable stability in spite of the fluctuations due to meteorological conditions. The methodology developed is a useful tool for optimization and prediction of the performance of these systems.

  5. Effect of reduced hemoglobin concentration on leg oxygen uptake during maximal exercise in humans. (United States)

    Schaffartzik, W; Barton, E D; Poole, D C; Tsukimoto, K; Hogan, M C; Bebout, D E; Wagner, P D


    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is affected by hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Whether this is simply due to altered convection of O2 into the muscle microcirculation or also to [Hb]-dependent diffusive transport of O2 out of the muscle capillary is unknown in humans. To examine this, seven healthy volunteers performed four maximal cycle exercise bouts at sea level immediately after 8 wk at altitude (3,801 m, barometric pressure 485 Torr), a sojourn designed to increase [Hb]. The first two bouts were at ambient [Hb] of 15.9 +/- 0.7 g/100 ml breathing 21 or 12% O2 in random order. [Hb] was then decreased to a prealtitude level of 13.8 +/- 0.6 g/100 ml by venesection and isovolemic replacement with 5% albumin in 0.9% saline, and the exercise bouts were repeated. At whole body VO2max, PO2, PCO2, pH, and O2 saturation were measured in radial arterial and femoral venous blood. Femoral venous thermodilution blood flow was determined for calculation of leg VO2. Mean muscle capillary PO2 and muscle diffusing capacity (DO2) were computed by Bohr integration between measured arterial and femoral venous PO2. Averaged over both fractional concentrations of inspired O2, leg VO2 at maximum decreased by 17.7 +/- 4.3% as [Hb] was lowered while leg O2 delivery decreased by 17.5 +/- 2.6% and DO2 decreased by 10.7 +/- 2.7% (all P < 0.05). The relative contributions of decreases in leg O2 delivery and DO2 to the decrease in VO2max were computed to be 64 and 36%, respectively. These findings suggest that [Hb] is an important determinant of O2 diffusion rates into working muscle in humans. Possible mechanisms include 1) dependence of DO2 on intracapillary red blood cell spacing, 2) changes in the total rate of dissociation of O2 from [Hb], and 3) increased red blood cell flow heterogeneity as [Hb] is reduced.

  6. Effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and iron addition on immediate-early gene expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1. (United States)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Kasama, Takeshi; Workman, Mhairi; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Hobley, Timothy John


    We report the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and iron addition on gene expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 cells during fermentations, focusing on 0.25-24 h after iron addition. The DO was strictly controlled at 0.5% or 5% O2, and compared with aerobic condition. Uptake of iron (and formation of magnetosomes) was only observed in the 0.5% O2 condition where there was little difference in cell growth and carbon consumption compared to the 5% O2 condition. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed a rapid (within 0.25 h) genetic response of MSR-1 cells after iron addition for all the genes studied, except for MgFnr (oxygen sensor gene) and fur (ferric uptake regulator family gene), and which in some cases was oxygen dependent. In particular, expression of sodB1 (superoxide dismutase gene) and feoB1 (ferrous transport protein B1 gene) was markedly reduced in cultures at 0.5% O2 compared to those at higher oxygen tensions. Moreover, expression of katG (catalase-peroxidase gene) and feoB2 (ferrous transport protein B2 gene) was reduced markedly by iron addition, regardless of oxygen conditions. These data provide a greater understanding of molecular response of MSR-1 cells to environmental conditions associated with oxygen and iron metabolisms, especially relevant to immediate-early stage of fermentation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:



    Rodriguez Caballero, Adrian


    Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A numb...

  8. Effects of fulvic acid concentration and origin on photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution: Importance of active oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Xinghui [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail:; Li Gongchen [Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Yang Zhifeng [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chen Yumin; Huang, Gordon H. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)


    With an Xe arc lamp house as simulated sunlight, the influences of fulvic acid (FA) concentration and origins on photodegradation of acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene in aqueous solution have been studied. Similar effects of FAs, collected from five places around China, on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) photodegradation have been observed. Active oxygen was of significance in PAH photodegradation with the presence of FAs. For systems with 1.25 mg L{sup -1} FAs, the contributions of {center_dot}OH to PAH photodegradation rates were from 33% to 69%. FAs had two opposite effects, i.e., stimulating the generation of active oxygen and advancing PAH photodegradation; competing with PAHs for energy and photons and restraining PAH photodegradation. Generally, photodegradation rates of the 5 PAHs decreased with the increase of FAs concentration; except fluoranthene and pyrene were advanced in solutions with low FA concentration. The influences of FA concentration on PAH photodegradation were more significant than FA origin. - Influences of fulvic acid (FA) concentration on PAH photodegradation were more significant than FA origin, and active oxygen played an important role in PAH photodegradation.

  9. High oxygen ion conduction in sintered oxides of the $Bi_2O_3-Er_2O_3$ system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, M.J.; Keizer, Klaas; Burggraaf, A.J.


    The phase diagram of the Bi2O3-Er2O3 system was investigated. A monophasic f c c structure was stabilized for samples containing 17.5–45.5 mol% Er2O3. Above and below this concentration range polyphasic regions appear. The f c c phase showed high oxygen ion conduction. The ionic transference number

  10. Portable Cathode-Air-Vapor-Feed Electrochemical Medical Oxygen Concentrator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space exploration missions present significant new challenges to crew health care capabilities, particularly in the efficient utilization of on-board oxygen...

  11. Simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus removal by Agrobacterium sp. LAD9 under varying oxygen concentration. (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Qian; Gui, Mengyao; Li, Can; Ni, Jinren


    Although efficient aerobic denitrification has received increasing attention, few studies have been made on simultaneous denitrification and phosphorus removal (SDPR) under aerobic condition. In this study, SDPR by an efficient aerobic denitrifier, Agrobacterium sp. LAD9, was firstly demonstrated. High nitrate and phosphorus removal rates of 7.50 and 1.02 mg L(-1) h(-1) were achieved in wide range of O2 concentration from 5.92 to 20.02 mg L(-1). The N2O production would be inhibited as O2 concentration exceeded 11.06 mg L(-1), while the phosphorus removal efficiency would be generally improved with increasing O2 concentration. (15)N mass spectrometry revealed that nitrogen removal accorded with the typical aerobic denitrification pathway, while (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P NMR) indicated the fate of phosphorus to cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and polyphosphate (poly-P) of the denitrifier. EPS acted as a reservoir of phosphorus and the transformation of poly-P was dynamic and depended on initial orthophosphate (ortho-P) content. The aerobic SDPR would greatly simplify the conventional wastewater treatment processes which required separated considerations of nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

  12. Deep Nitrate Deficit Observed in the Highly Oxygenated East/Japan Sea and Its Possible Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Nam Kim


    Full Text Available We present evidence of denitrification on the continental slopes of the Ulleung Basin (UB and the Eastern Japan Basin (EJB near the Tatar Strait (TtS in the East/Japan Sea (EJS, despite its high water column dissolved oxygen concentrations. Some nutrient concentration data deviate significantly from the fitted regression line of nitrate (N vs. phosphate (P in deep waters, indicating a loss of nitrate in the region. The EJS has a lower N/P ratio (ca. 12.4 below 300 dbar than a traditional Redfield ratio (16. The N/P ratio and oxygen concentration are substantially lower at several locations whose depths are close to the sediment-water interface, near TtS (500 - 1100 dbar and in UB (1100 - 2200 dbar. The decreased nitrate concentration is smaller than the expected nitrate level (a low N/P ratio of < 12.4, and a secondary nitrite peak near the bottom of these two regions: taken collectively, both indicate the presence of denitrification in the bottom layer. It is speculated that active re-mineralization and denitrification may occur simultaneously along the rich organic matter bottom layer on the slope environment. Denitrification rates are estimated at ~3 - 33 μmol N m-2 d-1. Current estimates do not support the previous idea of basin-wide denitrification in EJS, although the N/P ratio is low like in other hypoxic/anoxic seas. A better understanding of the denitrification process is necessary for predicting future changes of nitrogen cycle in the well-oxygenated EJS considering the decadal-scale physical and biogeochemical changes that have occurred.

  13. [Effect of reduced oxygen concentrations and hydrogen sulfide on the amino acid metabolism and mesenchymal cells proliferation]. (United States)

    Plotnikova, L N; Berezovskii, V A; Veselskii, S P


    We investigated the effect of hydrogen sulfide donor (10(-12) mol/l NaHS--I group) alone and together with the reduced oxygen concentrations (5% O2--II group, 3% O2--III group, 24 h) on the biological processes of human stem cells culture. It was shown that the cells proliferation by the third day of cultivation in I, II and III group decreased 1,7; 2,8 and 4,2 times. On the 4th day of culture proliferation inhibited in I, II and III group by 29; 33 and 54% compared to the control. Thus, adverse effects NaHS enhanced by reducing the oxygen concentration. It was established that in all experimental versions rapidly absorbed from the culture medium amino acids: cysteine and cystine, serine and aspartic acid, valine and tryptophan, proline and hydroxyproline, which are involved in the synthesis of proteins, in particular collagen. In the culture medium increased the concentration of free amino acids of the three factions: arginine, histidine and taurine; glycine and methionine; alanine and glutamine. We believe that in the applied concentration of hydrogen sulfide donor in conditions of low oxygen in a gaseous medium incubation inhibits the proliferation and alters the amino acid metabolism of human cells line 4BL.

  14. An in silico analysis of oxygen uptake of a mild COPD patient during rest and exercise using a portable oxygen concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz I


    Full Text Available Ira Katz,1,2 Marine Pichelin,1 Spyridon Montesantos,1 Min-Yeong Kang,3 Bernard Sapoval,3,4 Kaixian Zhu,5 Charles-Philippe Thevenin,5 Robert McCoy,6 Andrew R Martin,7 Georges Caillibotte1 1Medical R&D, Air Liquide Santé International, Centre de Recherche Paris-Saclay, Les Loges-en-Josas, France; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA; 3Physique de la Matière Condensée, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, 4Centre de Mathématiques et de leurs Applications, CNRS, UniverSud, Cachan, 5Centre Explor!, Air Liquide Healthcare, Gentilly, France; 6Valley Inspired Products, Inc, Apple Valley, MN, USA; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Oxygen treatment based on intermittent-flow devices with pulse delivery modes available from portable oxygen concentrators (POCs depends on the characteristics of the delivered pulse such as volume, pulse width (the time of the pulse to be delivered, and pulse delay (the time for the pulse to be initiated from the start of inhalation as well as a patient’s breathing characteristics, disease state, and respiratory morphology. This article presents a physiological-based analysis of the performance, in terms of blood oxygenation, of a commercial POC at different settings using an in silico model of a COPD patient at rest and during exercise. The analysis encompasses experimental measurements of pulse volume, width, and time delay of the POC at three different settings and two breathing rates related to rest and exercise. These experimental data of device performance are inputs to a physiological-based model of oxygen uptake that takes into account the real dynamic nature of gas exchange to illustrate how device- and patient-specific factors can affect patient oxygenation. This type of physiological analysis that considers the true effectiveness of oxygen transfer to the blood, as opposed to delivery to the nose (or mouth, can be

  15. Factors Impeding Enzymatic Wheat Gluten Hydrolysis at High Solid Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.


    Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased

  16. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.


    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  17. Highly Oxygenated Flavonoids from the Leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiullah Shajib


    Full Text Available Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. is an annual herb of the family Solanaceae, which grows abundantly in the weedy lands of Bangladesh . This plant possesses analgesic, antibacterial, anti-anxiety and hepatoprotective properties, and produces various phenolic compounds including flavonoids. The present study afforded determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and for the first time, the isolation and characterization of highly oxygenated flavonoids, e.g., 3,3' ,5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy- 4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone (1, 3,3' ,4' ,5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (2, exoticin, 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone (3 and ( 3,3' ,4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (4 from the leaves of N. plumbaginifolia . All these flavonoids are rather rare natural products, and only found in a few genera, e.g.,Polygonum and Murraya. The structures of the isolated flavonoids were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, e.g., UV, 1H, 13C NMR, DEPT, HSQC, HMBC and MS.

  18. Formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from aromatic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Molteni


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs often dominate the urban atmosphere and consist to a large degree of aromatic hydrocarbons (ArHCs, such as benzene, toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes, e.g., from the handling and combustion of fuels. These compounds are important precursors for the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Here we show that the oxidation of aromatics with OH leads to a subsequent autoxidation chain reaction forming highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs with an O : C ratio of up to 1.09. This is exemplified for five single-ring ArHCs (benzene, toluene, o-/m-/p-xylene, mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene, as well as two conjugated polycyclic ArHCs (naphthalene and biphenyl. We report the elemental composition of the HOMs and show the differences in the oxidation patterns of these ArHCs. A potential pathway for the formation of these HOMs from aromatics is presented and discussed. We hypothesize that AVOCs may contribute substantially to new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas.

  19. Effect of 50% and maximal inspired oxygen concentrations on respiratory variables in isoflurane-anesthetized horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Phillip


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 0.5 fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and >0.95 FiO2 on pulmonary gas exchange, shunt fraction and oxygen delivery (DO2 in dorsally recumbent horses during inhalant anesthesia. The use of 0.5 FiO2 has the potential to reduce absorption atelectasis (compared to maximal FiO2 and augment alveolar oxygen (O2 tensions (compared to ambient air thereby improving gas exchange and DO2. Our hypothesis was that 0.5 FiO2 would reduce ventilation-perfusion mismatching and increase the fraction of pulmonary blood flow that is oxygenated, thus improving arterial oxygen content and DO2. Results Arterial partial pressures of O2 were significantly higher than preanesthetic levels at all times during anesthesia in the >0.95 FiO2 group. Arterial partial pressures of O2 did not change from preanesthetic levels in the 0.5 FiO2 group but were significantly lower than in the >0.95 FiO2 group from 15 to 90 min of anesthesia. Alveolar to arterial O2 tension difference was increased significantly in both groups during anesthesia compared to preanesthetic values. The alveolar to arterial O2 tension difference was significantly higher at all times in the >0.95 FiO2 group compared to the 0.5 FiO2 group. Oxygen delivery did not change from preanesthetic values in either group during anesthesia but was significantly lower than preanesthetic values 10 min after anesthesia in the 0.5 FiO2 group. Shunt fraction increased in both groups during anesthesia attaining statistical significance at varying times. Shunt fraction was significantly increased in both groups 10 min after anesthesia but was not different between groups. Alveolar dead space ventilation increased after 3 hr of anesthesia in both groups. Conclusions Reducing FiO2 did not change alveolar dead space ventilation or shunt fraction in dorsally recumbent, mechanically ventilated horses during 3 hr of isoflurane anesthesia. Reducing FiO2 in

  20. Hyperspectral microscopy can detect metabolic heterogeneity within bovine post-compaction embryos incubated under two oxygen concentrations (7% versus 20%). (United States)

    Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L; Gosnell, Martin; Anwer, Ayad G; White, Melissa; Purdey, Malcolm; Abell, Andrew D; Goldys, Ewa M; Thompson, Jeremy G


    Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity? Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy. Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic. However, there remains uncertainty over the accuracy of current techniques, such as PGS and time-lapse microscopy, to predict subsequent pregnancy establishment. The impact of two oxygen concentrations (7% = optimal and 20% = stressed) during post-fertilisation embryo culture was assessed. Cattle embryos were exposed to the different oxygen concentrations for 8 days (D8; embryo developmental competence) or 5 days (D5; metabolism measurements). Between 3 and 4 experimental replicates were performed, with 40-50 embryos per replicate used for the developmental competency experiment, 10-20 embryos per replicate for the fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence experiments and a total of 21-22 embryos used for the hyperspectral microscopy study. In-vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos were utilised for this study. Post-fertilisation, embryos were exposed to 7% or 20% oxygen. To determine impact of oxygen concentrations on embryo viability, blastocyst development was assessed on D8. On D5, metabolic heterogeneity was assessed in morula (on-time) embryos using fluorophores probes (active mitochondria, hydrogen peroxide and reduced glutathione), two-channel autofluorescence (FAD and NAD(P)H) and 18-channel hyperspectral microscopy. Exposure to 20% oxygen following fertilisation significantly reduced total blastocyst, expanded and hatched blastocyst rates by 1.4-, 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, compared to 7% oxygen

  1. Production rates of bacterial tetraether lipids and fatty acids in peatland under varying oxygen concentrations (United States)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Meador, Travis B.; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Könneke, Martin; Wu, Weichao; Derenne, Sylvie; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe


    Interpretations of the abundance and distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) lipids have been increasingly applied to infer changes in paleoenvironment and to estimate terrigenous organic matter inputs into estuarine and marine sediments. However, only preliminary information is known regarding the ecology and physiology of the source organisms of these biomarkers. We assessed the production rates of brGDGTs under different redox conditions in peat, where these lipids are found in high concentrations, particularly at greater depths below the fluctuating water table. The incorporation of hydrogen relative to carbon into lipids observed in our dual stable isotope probing assay indicates that brGDGTs were produced by heterotrophic bacteria. Unexpectedly, incubations with stable isotope tracers of the surface horizon (5-20 cm) initiated under oxic conditions before turning suboxic and eventually anoxic exhibited up to one order of magnitude higher rates of brGDGT production (16-87 ng cm-3 y-1) relative to the deeper, anoxic zone (20-35 cm; ca. 7 ng cm-3 y-1), and anoxic incubations of the surface horizon (organisms are likely facultative aerobic heterotrophs that are particularly active in the peat acrotelm. Production rates of bacterial fatty acids (ca. 2 μg cm-3 y-1) were roughly two orders of magnitude higher than those of brGDGTs, suggesting that brGDGT producers are a minor constituent of the microbial community or that brGDGTs are a small component of the microbial cell membrane in comparison to fatty acids, despite the typically high brGDGT concentrations observed in peat. Multivariate analysis identified two branched fatty acids that shared a similar production pattern as brGDGTs among the experimental treatments and may be associated with brGDGT biosynthesis.

  2. High Pressure Oxygen Generation for Future Exploration Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is the development of a cathode feed electrolysis cell stack capable of generating 3600 psia oxygen at a relevant scale for future...

  3. Effect of high-oxygen and oxygen-free modified atmosphere packaging on the spoilage process of poultry breast fillets. (United States)

    Rossaint, Sonja; Klausmann, Sonja; Kreyenschmidt, Judith


    A comparison was made of the effect of atmospheres containing high oxygen (70% O2 and 30% CO2) or high nitrogen (70% N2 and 30% CO2) on the spoilage process during storage (at 4°C) of poultry fillets. Four samples of each gas atmosphere were analyzed at 7 sample points during storage. For this analysis, the growth of typical spoilage organisms (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacilli spp.) and total viable count (TVC) were analyzed and modeled by using the Gompertz function. Sensory analyses of the poultry samples were carried out by trained sensory panelists to analyze color, odor, texture, drip loss, and general appearance. The composition of the spoilage flora differed between the oxygen-free atmosphere and the high-oxygen atmosphere. Anaerobic conditions favored the growth of Lactobacilli spp., whereas aerobic gas composition favored the growth of B. thermosphacta. However, no significant difference (Patmosphere in comparison to a high-nitrogen atmosphere. These results indicate that high-oxygen packaging has no additional beneficial effect on the quality maintenance and shelf life of fresh poultry fillets. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. High energy lithium-oxygen batteries - Transport barriers and thermodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.


    We show that it is possible to achieve higher energy density lithium-oxygen batteries by simultaneously lowering the discharge overpotential and increasing the discharge capacity via thermodynamic variables alone. By assessing the relative effects of temperature and pressure on the cell discharge profiles, we characterize and diagnose the critical roles played by multiple dynamic processes that have hindered implementation of the lithium-oxygen battery. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Effect of oxygen concentration on fire growth of various types of cable bending in horizontal and vertical orientations (United States)

    Pangaribuan, Adrianus; Dhiputra, I. M. K.; Nugroho, Yulianto S.


    Electrical cable is a whole of the material including metal (cooper) conductor and its insulation, when an electrical cable is flowed by electric current, based on its own capacity, the temperature of cable conductor increases gradually. If the current flows above the cable carrying capacity, then an extreme temperature rises are expected. When temperature increase, the electric current flow inside cable conductor will decrease gradually related to the resistance and could occur repeatedly in a period. Since electrical faults on electrical cable system are often suspected as the cause of fires, thus this research aims to investigate measures of preventing the fire to start by means of controlling oxygen concentration in a cable compartment. The experimental work was conducted in laboratory by using electrical power cable of 1.5 mm2 size. Two transparent chambers were applied for studying the effect of vertical and horizontal orientations on the cable temperature rise, under various oxygen concentration of the gas streams. In the present work, the electrical was maintained at a constant level during a typical test run. Parametric studies reported in the paper include the use of a bare and insulated cables as well as the bending shape of the cable lines of a straight cable, coiled cable and randomly bent cable which were loaded with the same electric load and oxygen concentration in the gas supply.

  6. High Iridium concentration of alkaline rocks of Deccan and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report here an unusually high concentration of iridium in some alkali basalts and alkaline rocks of Deccan region having an age of about 65Ma, similar to the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The alkali basalts of Anjar, in the western periphery of Deccan province, have irid-ium concentration as high as 178pg/g ...

  7. Two-wavelength pyrometry study of the combustion of sulfide minerals: Part III. The influence of oxygen concentration on pyrite combustion (United States)

    Tuffrey, N. E.; Richards, G. G.; Brimacombe, J. K.


    The strong influence of oxygen concentration on the combustion of pyrite at a furnace temperature of 1130 K has been investigated by pyrometer measurements of the temperature of individual particles and by morphological examination of the reaction products. Three distinct types of behavior were identified depending on the oxygen concentration. With oxygen levels between 10 and 40 pct, the maximum temperature of the pyrite particles increased linearly from about 2000 to over 3000 K while heating rates also climbed. The characteristics of the combustion pulses from the pyrometer revealed that cenosphere inflation occurred at the maximum particle temperature and that the freezing of a magnetite shell is subsequent to, not associated with, sudden expansion of the particles. For oxygen concentrations between 40 and 80 pct, the maximum particle temperature was independent of oxygen concentration, remaining constant at 3000 to 3400 K; however, heating rates were some-what variable. The combustion pulse characteristics again suggested that particles inflate into cenospheres but there was an increased tendency for them to rupture. At oxygen concentrations of 80 pct and greater, higher heating rates were measured but the maximum particle temperatures were limited to 3200 to 3500 K. The combustion pulse characteristics in oxygen suggested that the termination of reactions is consistent with material ejection or particle disintegration as opposed to cenosphere inflation. The results generally were consistent with the reaction rate being governed by oxygen transport in the gas phase, although at higher oxygen concentrations evaporation of the iron species and other physical phenomena limited the particle temperature.

  8. Systemic oxygen extraction during exercise at high altitude (United States)

    Martin, D. S.; Cobb, A.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Edsell, M.; Mythen, M. G.; Grocott, M. P. W.; Adams, Tom; Biseker, Lindsay; Booth, Adam; Burdall, Oliver; Cobb, Alexandra; Cumpstey, Andrew; Dauncey, Steve; Edsell, Mark; Farrant, James; Feelisch, Martin; Fernandez, Bernadette; Firth, Oliver; Gilbert, Edward; Grant, Daniel; Grocott, Michael; Hennis, Phil; Jackson, Laura; Jenner, Will; van der Kaaij, Jildou; Khosravi, Maryam; Kortekaas, Edith; Levett, Denny; Mahomed, Zeyn; Martin, Daniel; Meale, Paula; Milledge, Jim; Mitchell, Kay; Mole, Damian; Moses, Oliver; Mythen, Michael; Rigat, Fabio; O'Doherty, Alasdair; Salam, Alex; Sanborn, Matt; Sheperdigian, Adam; Shrubb, Fiona; Simpson, Jo; Talbot, Nick; Wandrag, Liesel; Wijesingha, Savini; Williamson, Wilby; Woolley, Tom; Yow, Heng


    Background Classic teaching suggests that diminished availability of oxygen leads to increased tissue oxygen extraction yet evidence to support this notion in the context of hypoxaemia, as opposed to anaemia or cardiac failure, is limited. Methods At 75 m above sea level, and after 7–8 days of acclimatization to 4559 m, systemic oxygen extraction [C(a−v)O2] was calculated in five participants at rest and at peak exercise. Absolute [C(a−v)O2] was calculated by subtracting central venous oxygen content (CcvO2) from arterial oxygen content (CaO2) in blood sampled from central venous and peripheral arterial catheters, respectively. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2) was determined from expired gas analysis during exercise. Results Ascent to altitude resulted in significant hypoxaemia; median (range) SpO2 87.1 (82.5–90.7)% and PaO2 6.6 (5.7–6.8) kPa. While absolute C(a−v)O2 was reduced at maximum exercise at 4559 m [83.9 (67.5–120.9) ml litre−1 vs 99.6 (88.0–151.3) ml litre−1 at 75 m, P=0.043], there was no change in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) [C(a−v)O2/CaO2] between the two altitudes [0.52 (0.48–0.71) at 4559 m and 0.53 (0.49–0.73) at 75 m, P=0.500]. Comparison of C(a−v)O2 at peak V˙O2 at 4559 m and the equivalent V˙O2 at sea level for each participant also revealed no significant difference [83.9 (67.5–120.9) ml litre1 vs 81.2 (73.0–120.7) ml litre−1, respectively, P=0.225]. Conclusion In acclimatized individuals at 4559 m, there was a decline in maximum absolute C(a−v)O2 during exercise but no alteration in OER calculated using central venous oxygen measurements. This suggests that oxygen extraction may have become limited after exposure to 7–8 days of hypoxaemia. PMID:25501722

  9. Systemic oxygen extraction during exercise at high altitude. (United States)

    Martin, D S; Cobb, A; Meale, P; Mitchell, K; Edsell, M; Mythen, M G; Grocott, M P W


    Classic teaching suggests that diminished availability of oxygen leads to increased tissue oxygen extraction yet evidence to support this notion in the context of hypoxaemia, as opposed to anaemia or cardiac failure, is limited. At 75 m above sea level, and after 7-8 days of acclimatization to 4559 m, systemic oxygen extraction [C(a-v)O2] was calculated in five participants at rest and at peak exercise. Absolute [C(a-v)O2] was calculated by subtracting central venous oxygen content (CcvO2) from arterial oxygen content [Formula: see text] in blood sampled from central venous and peripheral arterial catheters, respectively. Oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] was determined from expired gas analysis during exercise. Ascent to altitude resulted in significant hypoxaemia; median (range) [Formula: see text] 87.1 (82.5-90.7)% and [Formula: see text] 6.6 (5.7-6.8) kPa. While absolute C(a-v)O2 was reduced at maximum exercise at 4559 m [83.9 (67.5-120.9) ml litre(-1) vs 99.6 (88.0-151.3) ml litre(-1) at 75 m, P=0.043], there was no change in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) [C(a-v)O2/CaO2] between the two altitudes [0.52 (0.48-0.71) at 4559 m and 0.53 (0.49-0.73) at 75 m, P=0.500]. Comparison of C(a-v)O2 at peak [Formula: see text] at 4559 m and the equivalent [Formula: see text] at sea level for each participant also revealed no significant difference [83.9 (67.5-120.9) ml litre(1) vs 81.2 (73.0-120.7) ml litre(-1), respectively, P=0.225]. In acclimatized individuals at 4559 m, there was a decline in maximum absolute C(a-v)O2 during exercise but no alteration in OER calculated using central venous oxygen measurements. This suggests that oxygen extraction may have become limited after exposure to 7-8 days of hypoxaemia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  10. Generation of High Pressure Oxygen via Electrochemical Pumping in a Multi-Stage Electrolysis Stack (United States)

    Setlock, John A (Inventor); Green, Robert D (Inventor); Farmer, Serene (Inventor)


    An oxygen pump can produce high-purity high-pressure oxygen. Oxygen ions (O(2-)) are electrochemically pumped through a multi-stage electrolysis stack of cells. Each cell includes an oxygen-ion conducting solid-state electrolyte between cathode and anode sides. Oxygen dissociates into the ions at the cathode side. The ions migrate across the electrolyte and recombine at the anode side. An insulator is between adjacent cells to electrically isolate each individual cell. Each cell receives a similar volt potential. Recombined oxygen from a previous stage can diffuse through the insulator to reach the cathode side of the next stage. Each successive stage similarly incrementally pressurizes the oxygen to produce a final elevated pressure.

  11. Generation of High Pressure Oxygen via Electrochemical Pumping in a Multi-stage Electrolysis Stack (United States)

    Setlock, John A (Inventor); Green, Robert D (Inventor); Farmer, Serene (Inventor)


    An oxygen pump can produce high-purity high-pressure oxygen. Oxygen ions (O.sup.2-) are electrochemically pumped through a multi-stage electrolysis stack of cells. Each cell includes an oxygen-ion conducting solid-state electrolyte between cathode and anode sides. Oxygen dissociates into the ions at the cathode side. The ions migrate across the electrolyte and recombine at the anode side. An insulator is between adjacent cells to electrically isolate each individual cell. Each cell receives a similar volt potential. Recombined oxygen from a previous stage can diffuse through the insulator to reach the cathode side of the next stage. Each successive stage similarly incrementally pressurizes the oxygen to produce a final elevated pressure.

  12. Surprisingly high activity for oxygen reduction reaction of selected oxides lacking long oxygen-ion diffusion paths at intermediate temperatures: a case study of cobalt-free BaFeO(3-δ). (United States)

    Dong, Feifei; Chen, Yubo; Chen, Dengjie; Shao, Zongping


    The widespread application of solid oxide fuel cell technology requires the development of innovative electrodes with high activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at intermediate temperatures. Here, we demonstrate that a cobalt-free parent oxide BaFeO(3-δ) (BF), which lacks long-range oxygen-ion diffusion paths, has surprisingly high electrocatalytic activity for ORR. Both in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis on room-temperature powder and transmission electron microscopy on quenched powder are applied to investigate the crystal structure of BF. Despite the lack of long oxygen-ion diffusion paths, the easy redox of iron cations as demonstrated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and oxygen temperature-programmed desorption and the high oxygen vacancy concentration as supported by iodometric titration and TGA benefit the reduction of oxygen to oxygen ions. Moreover, the electrical conductivity relaxation technique in conjunction with a transient thermogravimetric study reveals very high surface exchange kinetics of BF oxide. At 700 °C, the area specific resistance of BF cathode, as expressed by a symmetrical cell configuration, is only ∼0.021 Ω cm(2), and the derived single fuel cell achieves high power output with a peak power density of 870 mW cm(-2). It suggests that an undoped BF parent oxide can be used as a high-efficiency catalyst for ORR.

  13. Technical Note: Particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations and their association with environmental conditions in an urban, subtropical climate (United States)

    Khurshid, S. S.; Siegel, J. A.; Kinney, K. A.


    Reactions between hydrocarbons and ozone or hydroxyl radicals lead to the formation of oxidized species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the troposphere. ROS can be carried deep into the lungs by small aerodynamic particles where they can cause oxidative stress and cell damage. While environmental studies have focused on ROS in the gas phase and rainwater, it is also important to determine concentrations of ROS on respirable particles. Samples of PM2.5 collected over 3 h at midday on 40 days during November 2011 and September 2012 show that the particulate ROS concentration in Austin, Texas, ranged from a minimum value of 0.02 nmoles H2O2 m-3 air in December to 3.81 nmoles H2O2 m-3 air in September. Results from correlation tests and linear regression analysis on particulate ROS concentrations and environmental conditions (which included ozone and PM2.5 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and solar radiation) indicate that ambient particulate ROS is significantly influenced by the ambient ozone concentration, temperature and incident solar radiation. Particulate ROS concentrations measured in this study were in the range reported by other studies in the US, Taiwan and Singapore. This study is one of the first to assess seasonal variations in particulate ROS concentrations and helps explain the influence of environmental conditions on particulate ROS concentrations.

  14. Periodontal Wound Healing Responses to Varying Oxygen Concentrations and Atmospheric Pressures. (United States)


    ranging from diabetes mellitus to syphilis. The first such chamber was built in the United States by Corning in 1891. In the 1930s, the American Medical...uniformly predictable goal (Stahl, 1975, 1977b). In a recent overview on peridontal attachment, Stahl (1985) described a possible sequence of...with neutrophil defects may benefit from hyperbaric oxygen’s ability to enhance host response, as seen in the treatment of diabetic leg ulcerations

  15. Effect of reduced light and low oxygen concentration on germination, growth and establishment of some plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yasin, Muhammad

    Many abiotic factors effect plants germination, growth, and development. This Ph.D. study elucidates the effect of reduced light, low oxygen and seed dormancy on germination and growth of some weed species, field crops and vegetables. One study describes the growth and developmental responses of ...... improved the germination of the problematic invader Alliaria petiolate of North American forests. A method was developed to break seed dormancy of the herb garlic mustard using chemicals....

  16. Taurus Littrow Pyroclastic Deposit: High-Yield Feedstock for Lunar Oxygen (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.


    Future human habitation of the Moon will likely require the use of locally derived materials because of the high cost of transportation from Earth. Oxygen, extracted from oxides and silicates, is a potentially abundant lunar resource vital for life support and spacecraft propulsion. The anticipated costs of supplying all oxygen needs for a lunar base from Earth are high enough to warrant serious study of oxygen production from local resources.

  17. Performance of modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor treating recycled paper mill effluent: effects of influent chemical oxygen demand concentration and hydraulic retention time. (United States)

    Zwain, Haider M; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Dahlan, Irvan


    The performance of modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) treating recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) was investigated by varying the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration from 1000 to 4000 mg/L, and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 3 to 1 day, corresponding to an organic loading rate increase from 0.33 to 4 g COD/L day. Throughout 126 days of operation, a maximum removal efficiency of up to 96% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 99% of biological oxygen demand, methane (CH4) yield of 0.259 L CH4/g COD, and a stable effluent pH of 6.5 were achieved. Furthermore, the compartmental performance showed that most of the organic substrates were removed in the initial two compartments, resulting in low pH and alkalinity levels and a high concentration of volatile fatty acids. Overall, the results showed that the MAI-BR successfully treated RPME, and the performance was affected by the variation of HRT more than the CODin.

  18. Rocket observation of atomic oxygen and night airglow: Measurement of concentration with an improved resonance fluorescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kita


    Full Text Available An improved resonant fluorescence instrument for measuring atomic oxygen concentration was developed to avoid the Doppler effect and the aerodynamic shock effect due to the supersonic motion of a rocket. The shock effect is reduced by adopting a sharp wedge-shaped housing and by scanning of the detector field of view to change the distance between the scattering volume and the surface of the housing. The scanning enables us to determine absolute values of atomic oxygen concentration from relative variation of the scattered light signal due to the self-absorption. The instrument was calibrated in the laboratory, and the numerical simulation reproduced the calibration result. Using the instrument, the altitude profile of atomic oxygen concentration was observed by a rocket experiment at Uchinoura (31°N on 28 January 1992. The data obtained from the rocket experiment were not perfectly free from the shock effect, but errors due to the effect were reduced by the data analysis procedure. The observed maximum concentration was 3.8× 1011 cm–3 at altitudes around 94 km. The systematic error is estimated to be less than ±0.7×1011 cm–3 and the relative random error is less than±0.07× 1011 cm–3at the same altitudes. The altitude profile of the OI 557.7-nm airglow was also observed in the same rocket experiment. The maximum volume emission rate was found to be 150 photons cm–3 s–1 at 94 km. The observed altitude profiles are compared with the MSIS model and other in situ observations.

  19. Acetazolamide improves cerebral oxygenation during exercise at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuyk, J.; Bos, J. van den; Terhell, K.; Bos, R. de; Vletter, A.; Valk, P.; Beuzekom, M. van; Kleef, J. van; Dahan, A.


    Acute mountain sickness is thought to be triggered by cerebral hypoxemia and be prevented by acetazolamide (Actz). The effect of Actz on cerebral oxygenation at altitude remains unknown. In 16 members of the 2005 Dutch Cho Oyu (8201 m, Tibet) expedition, the influence of Actz and exercise (750 mg PO

  20. Concentration fields near air-water interfaces during interfacial mass transport: oxygen transport and random square wave analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Schulz


    Full Text Available Mass transfer across a gas-liquid interface was studied theoretically and experimentally, using transfer of oxygen into water as the gas-liquid system. The experimental results support the conclusions of a theoretical description of the concentration field that uses random square waves approximations. The effect of diffusion over the concentration records was quantified. It is shown that the peak of the normalized rms concentration fluctuation profiles must be lower than 0.5, and that the position of the peak of the rms value is an adequate measure of the thickness of the diffusive layer. The position of the peak is the boundary between the regions more subject to molecular diffusion or to turbulent transport of dissolved mass.

  1. Placental weight in pregnancies with high or low hemoglobin concentrations. (United States)

    Larsen, Sandra; Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Haavaldsen, Camilla; Eskild, Anne


    To study the associations of maternal hemoglobin concentrations with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio. In this retrospective cohort study, we included all singleton pregnancies during the years 1998-2013 at a large public hospital in Norway (n=57062). We compared mean placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio according to maternal hemoglobin concentrations: 13.5g/dl. The associations of maternal hemoglobin concentrations with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio were estimated by linear regression analyses, and adjustments were made for gestational age at birth, preeclampsia, parity, maternal age, diabetes, body mass index, smoking, offspring sex and year of birth. In pregnancies with maternal hemoglobin concentrations hemoglobin concentrations 9-13.5g/dl and 655.5g (SD 147.7g) for hemoglobin concentrations >13.5g/dl (ANOVA, phemoglobin concentrations hemoglobin concentrations 9-13.5g/dl (0.193 (SD 0.040)) and >13.5g/dl (0.193 (SD 0.043)). Adjustments for our study factors did not alter the estimates notably. Placental weight decreased with increasing maternal hemoglobin concentrations. The high placental to birthweight ratio with low maternal hemoglobin concentrations suggests differences in placental growth relative to fetal growth across maternal hemoglobin concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High acrylate concentrations in the mucus of Phaeocystis globosa colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, D.J B; Schotten, M; Gieskes, W.W C; Forney, L.J; Gottschal, J.C; van Rijssel, M


    Acrylate produced from dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) by Phaeocystis has been claimed to inhibit bacterial growth. However, the concentrations of acrylate measured in seawater during Phaeocystis blooms are not high enough to expect inhibition of bacterial growth. In this study, the total

  3. First-time imaging of effects of inspired oxygen concentration on regional lung volumes and breathing pattern during hypergravity. (United States)

    Borges, João Batista; Hedenstierna, Göran; Bergman, Jakob S; Amato, Marcelo B P; Avenel, Jacques; Montmerle-Borgdorff, Stéphanie


    Aeroatelectasis can develop in aircrew flying the latest generation high-performance aircraft. Causes alleged are relative hyperoxia, increased gravity in the head-to-foot direction (+Gz), and compression of legs and stomach by anti-G trousers (AGT). We aimed to assess, in real time, the effects of hyperoxia, +Gz accelerations and AGT inflation on changes in regional lung volumes and breathing pattern evaluated in an axial plane by electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The protocol mimicked a routine peacetime flight in combat aircraft. Eight subjects wearing AGT were studied in a human centrifuge during 1 h 15 min exposure of +1 to +3.5Gz. They performed this sequence three times, breathing AIR, 44.5 % O2 or 100 % O2. Continuous recording of functional EIT enabled uninterrupted assessment of regional lung volumes at the 5th intercostal level. Breathing pattern was also monitored. EIT data showed that +3.5Gz, compared with any moment without hypergravity, caused an abrupt decrease in regional tidal volume (VT) and regional end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) measured in the EIT slice, independently of inspired oxygen concentration. Breathing AIR or 44.5 % O2, sub-regional EELV measured in the EIT slice decreased similarly in dorsal and ventral regions, but sub-regional VT measured in the EIT slice decreased significantly more dorsally than ventrally. Breathing 100 % O2, EELV and VT decreased similarly in both regions. Inspired tidal volume increased in hyperoxia, whereas breathing frequency increased in hypergravity and hyperoxia. Our findings suggest that hypergravity and AGT inflation cause airway closure and air trapping in gravity-dependent lung regions, facilitating absorption atelectasis formation, in particular during hyperoxia.

  4. Low concentrations of methamphetamine detectable in urine in the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine. (United States)

    Jemionek, John F; Addison, Joseph; Past, Marilyn R


    Twenty-two urine specimens reported by military drug-testing laboratories for the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine only were subject to further analysis for the presence of methamphetamine. The 22 urine specimens had concentrations of amphetamine in the range of 28,028 to 241,142 ng/mL. The specimens were also assayed for the respective isomeric ratio of d (S) and l (R) amphetamine and methamphetamine. The results suggest that urine specimens containing high concentrations of amphetamine in which the urine concentration ratio of methamphetamine to amphetamine is less than 0.5% with similar isomeric distribution of d-(S) and l-(R) amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, may not necessarily indicate polydrug use.

  5. High Precision Continuous and Real-Time Measurement of Atmospheric Oxygen Using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (United States)

    Kim-Hak, David; Leuenberger, Markus; Berhanu, Tesfaye; Nyfeler, Peter; Hoffnagle, John; Sun, Minghua


    Oxygen (O2) is a major and vital component of the Earth atmosphere representing about 21% of its composition. It is consumed or produced through biochemical processes such as combustion, respiration, and photosynthesis and can be used as a top-down constraint on the carbon cycle. The observed variations of oxygen in the atmosphere are relatively small, in the order of a few ppm's. This presents the main technical challenge for the measurement since a very high level of precision on a large background is required. Only few analytical methods including mass spectrometry, fuel, ultraviolet[1] and paramagnetic cells are capable of achieving it. Here we present new developments of a high-precision gas analyzer that utilizes the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy to measure oxygen concentration and its oxygen isotope ratio 18O/16O. Its compact and ruggedness design combined with high precision and long-term stability allows the user to deploy the instrument in the field for continuous monitoring of atmospheric oxygen level. Measurements have a 1-σ 5-minute averaging precision of 1-2 ppm for O2 over a dynamic range of 0-50%. We will present comparative test results of this instrument against the incumbent technologies such as the mass spectrometer and the paramagnetic cell. In addition, we will demonstrate its long-term stability from a field deployment in Switzerland.

  6. High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III-V cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubi, Ghassan; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fracastoro, Gian Vincenzo [Department of Energetics, Politecnico of Turin, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)


    High concentration systems make use of the direct solar beam and therefore are suitable for application in regions with high annual direct irradiation values. III-V PV cells with a nominal efficiency of up to 39% are readily available in today's market, with further efficiency improvements expected in the years ahead. The relatively high cost of III-V cells limits their terrestrial use to applications under high concentration, usually above 400 suns. In this way the relatively high cell cost is compensated through the low amount for cells needed per kW nominal system output. This paper presents a state of the art of high concentration photovoltaics using III-V cells. This PV field accounts already for more than 20 developed systems, which are commercially available or shortly before market introduction. (author)

  7. Optical noninvasive calculation of hemoglobin components concentrations and fractional oxygen saturation using a ring-scattering pulse oximeter (United States)

    Abdallah, Omar; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus


    The deficiencies of the currently used pulse oximeter are discussed in diverse literature. A hazardous pitfalls of this method is that the pulse oximeter will not detect carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (metHb) concentrations. This leads to incorrect measurement of oxygen saturation by carbon monoxide poisoning and methemoglobinemia. Also the total hemoglobin concentration will not be considered and can only be measured in-vitro up to now. A second pitfall of the standard pulse oximetry is that it will not be able to show a result by low perfusion of tissues. This case is available inter alia when the patient is under shock or has a low blood pressure. The new non-invasive system we designed measures the actual (fractional) oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. It will enable us also to measure COHb and metHb. The measurement can be applied at better perfused body central parts. Four or more light emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes (LDs) and five photodiodes (PDs) are used. The reflected light signal detected by photodiodes is processed using a modified Lambert-Beer law (I=I0×e-α.d ). According to this law, when a non scattering probe is irradiated with light having the incident intensity I0, the intensity of transmitted light I decays exponentially with the absorption coefficient a of that probe and its thickness d. Modifications of this law have been performed following the theoretical developed models in literature, Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurement.

  8. Study on the output current for electrochemical low-energy neutrino detector with regards to oxygen concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Shoya; Ishibashi, Kenji; Riyana, Eka Sapta [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Aida, Yani Nur [SyarifHidatatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nakamura, Shohei [Infrastructure System Company, Hitachi, Tokyo (Japan); Imahayashi, Yoichi [Mitsubishi Electric, Tokyo (Japan)


    Experiments with small electrochemical apparatus were previously carried out for detecting low-energy neutrinos under irradiation of reactor neutrinos and under natural neutrino environment. The experimental result indicated that the output current of reactor-neutrino irradiated detector was appreciably larger than that of natural environmental one. Usual interaction cross-sections of neutrinos are quite small, so that they do not explain the experimental result at all. To understand the experimental data, we propose that some biological products may generate AV-type scalar field B0, leading to a large interaction cross-section. The output current generation is ascribed to an electrochemical process that may be assisted by weak interaction phenomena. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the detector solution were measured in this study, for the purpose of understanding the mechanism of the detector output current generation. It was found that the time evolution of experimental output current was mostly reproduced in simulation calculation on the basis of the measured dissolved oxygen concentration. We mostly explained the variation of experimental data by using the electrochemical half-cell analysis model based on the DO concentration that is consistent to the experiment.

  9. Nutrient and oxygen concentrations within the sediments of an Alaskan beach polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill. (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C; Sharifi, Youness; Van Aken, Benoit; Wrenn, Brian A; Lee, Kenneth


    Measurements of the background concentrations of nutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO), and salinity were obtained from a beach that has oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Two transects were set across the beach, one passed through an oil patch while the other transect was clean. Three pits were dug in each transect, and they ranged in depth from 0.9 to 1.5 m. The DO was around 1.0 mg L(-1) at oiled pits and larger than 5 mg L(-1) at clean pits. The average nutrient concentrations in the beach were 0.39 mg-N L(-1) and 0.020 mg-P L(-1). Both concentrations are lower than optimal values for oil biodegradation (2 to 10 mg-N L(-1) and 0.40 to 2.0 mg-P L(-1)), which suggests that they are both limiting factors for biodegradation. The lowest nitrate and DO values were found in the oiled pits, leading to the conclusion that microbial oil consumption was probably occurring under anoxic conditions and was associated to denitrification. We present evidence that the oxygen level may be a major factor limiting oil biodegradation in the beaches.

  10. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.


    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy.

  11. Oxygen at high pressures: a theoretical approach to monoatomic phases. (United States)

    Oda, T; Sugimori, K; Nagao, H; Hamada, I; Kagayama, S; Geshi, M; Nagara, H; Kusakabe, K; Suzuki, N


    We have studied the ζ-phase of solid oxygen using the generalized gradient approximation in the density functional approach. Calculations of total energies and pressures have been carried out for the prototype of diatomic ζ-phase and other hypothetical monoatomic crystal structures. The diatomic phase was found to be stable over a wide range of pressure (100-2000 GPa). The stacking of molecular layers is discussed in comparison with the available experimental data.

  12. Graphene Oxide Bionanocomposite Coatings with High Oxygen Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Uysal Unalan


    Full Text Available In this work, we present the development of bionanocomposite coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET with outstanding oxygen barrier properties. Pullulan and graphene oxide (GO were used as main polymer phase and nanobuilding block (NBB, respectively. The oxygen barrier performance was investigated at different filler volume fractions (ϕ and as a function of different relative humidity (RH values. Noticeably, the impermeable nature of GO was reflected under dry conditions, in which an oxygen transmission rate (OTR, mL·m−2·24 h−1 value below the detection limit of the instrument (0.01 mL·m−2·24 h−1 was recorded, even for ϕ as low as 0.0004. A dramatic increase of the OTR values occurred in humid conditions, such that the barrier performance was totally lost at 90% RH (the OTR of coated PET films was equal to the OTR of bare PET films. Modelling of the experimental OTR data by Cussler’s model suggested that the spatial ordering of GO sheets within the main pullulan phase was perturbed because of RH fluctuations. In spite of the presence of the filler, all the formulations allowed the obtainment of final materials with haze values below 3%, the only exception being the formulation with the highest loading of GO (ϕ ≈ 0.03. The mechanisms underlying the experimental observations are discussed.

  13. Optimization of the temperature and oxygen concentration conditions in the malaxation during the oil mechanical extraction process of four Italian olive cultivars. (United States)

    Selvaggini, Roberto; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio


    Response surface modeling (RSM) was used to optimize temperature and oxygen concentration during malaxation for obtaining high quality extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). With this aim, those chemical variables closely related to EVOO quality, such as the phenolic and the volatile compounds, have been previously analyzed and selected. It is widely known that the presence of these substances in EVOOs is highly dependent on genetic, agronomic, and technological aspects. Based on these data, the two parameters were optimized during malaxation of olive pastes of four important Italian cultivars using some phenols and volatile compounds as markers; the optimal temperatures and oxygen levels, obtained by RSM, were as follows for each cultivar: 33.5 °C and 54 kPa of oxygen (Peranzana), 32 °C and 21.3 kPa (Ogliarola), 25 °C and 21.3 kPa (Coratina), and 33 °C and 21.3 kPa (Itrana). These results indicate the necessity to optimize these malaxing parameters for other olive cultivars.

  14. In situ laser measurement of oxygen concentration and flue gas temperature utilizing chemical reaction kinetics. (United States)

    Viljanen, J; Sorvajärvi, T; Toivonen, J


    Combustion research requires detailed localized information on the dynamic combustion conditions to improve the accuracy of the simulations and, hence, improve the performance of the combustion processes. We have applied chemical reaction kinetics of potassium to measure the local temperature and O 2 concentration in flue gas. An excess of free atomic potassium is created in the measurement volume by a photofragmenting precursor molecule such as potassium chloride or KOH which are widely released from solid fuels. The decay of the induced potassium concentration is followed with an absorption measurement using a narrow-linewidth diode laser. The temperature and O 2 concentration are solved from the decay curve features using equations obtained from calibration measurements in a temperature range of 800°C-1000°C and in O 2 concentrations of 0.1%-21%. The local flue gas temperature and O 2 concentration were recorded in real time during devolatilization, char burning, and ash cooking phases of combustion in a single-particle reactor with a 5 Hz repetition rate. The method can be further extended to other target species and applications where the chemical dynamics can be disturbed with photofragmentation.

  15. How do changes in dissolved oxygen concentration influence microbially-controlled phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms? (United States)

    Saia, S. M.; Locke, N. A.; Regan, J. M.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Walter, M. T.


    Advances in molecular microbiology techniques (e.g. epi-fluorescent microscopy and PCR) are making it easier to study the influence of specific microorganisms on nutrient transport. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants to remove excess phosphorus (P) from effluent water. PAOs have also been identified in natural settings but their ecological function is not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PAOs in natural environments would release and accumulate P during anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. We placed stream biofilms in sealed, covered tubs and subjected them to alternating air (aerobic conditions) and N2 gas (anaerobic condition) bubbling for 12 hours each. Four treatments investigated the influence of changing dissolved oxygen on micribially-controlled P cycling: (1) biofilms bubbled continuously with air, (2) biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2, (3) biocide treated biofilms bubbled continuously with air, and (4) biocide treated biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2. Treatments 3 and 4 serve as abiotic controls to treatments 1 and 2. We analyzed samples every 12 hours for soluble reactive P (SRP), temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. We also used fluorescent microscopy (i.e. DAPI staining) and PCR to verify the presence of PAOs in the stream biofilms. SRP results over the course of the experiment support our hypothesis that anaerobic and aerobic stream conditions may impact PAO mediated P release and uptake, respectively in natural environments. The results of these experiments draw attention to the importance of microbiological controls on P mobility in freshwater ecosystems.

  16. Effects of oxygen concentration and pressure on Drosophila melanogaster: oxidative stress, mitochondrial activity, and survivorship. (United States)

    Bosco, Gerardo; Clamer, Martina; Messulam, Elisa; Dare, Cristina; Yang, Zhongjin; Zordan, Mauro; Reggiani, Carlo; Hu, Qinggang; Megighian, Aram


    Organisms are known to be equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits in response to the imposed environmental challenges as they grow and develop. In this study, the effects of extreme changes in oxygen availability and atmospheric pressure on physiological phenotypes of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated to explore adaptation mechanisms. The changes in citrate synthase activity (CSA), lifespan, and behavioral function in different atmospheric conditions were evaluated. In the CAS test, hyperoxia significantly increased CSA; both hypoxia and hyperbaric conditions caused a significant decrease in CSA. In the survivorship test, all changed atmospheric conditions caused a significant reduction in lifespan. The lifespan reduced more after hypoxia exposure than after hyperbaria exposure. In behavioral function test, when mechanical agitation was conducted, bang-sensitive flies showed a stereotypical sequence of initial muscle spasm, paralysis, and recovery. The percentage of individuals that displayed paralysis or seizure was measured on the following day and after 2 weeks from each exposure. The majority of flies showed seizure behavior 15 days after exposure, especially after 3 h of exposure. The percentage of individuals that did not undergo paralysis or seizure and was able to move in the vial, was also tested. The number of flies that moved and raised the higher level of the vial decreased after exposure. Animal's speed decreased significantly 15 days after exposure to extreme environmental conditions. In summary, the alteration of oxygen availability and atmospheric pressure may lead to significant changes in mitochondria mass, lifespan, and behavioral function in D. melanogaster. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... of oxygen rather than a continuous flow. Before purchasing or renting a portable oxygen concentrator, ask your ... and with activity when using your oxygen delivery system. ✔ ✔ Do not smoke, especially around any oxygen devices. ✔ ✔ Avoid being around ... information is a public service of the American Thoracic ...

  18. Readaptation time after photo stress. Readaptation time as a function of oxygen concentration. (United States)

    Tengroth, B; Högman, B; Linde, C J; Bergman, H


    Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is used to study the eye's ReAdaptation Time (RAT) after a brief exposure to a light flash. The effects on RAT of breathing different concentrations of O2 are examined. Significant changes in RAT have been registered, showing that inhalation of 100% O2 as compared with room air, results in a shortened RAT (i.e. improvement), while inhalation of 9% O2 leads to an increased RAT (i.e. impairment). The physiology of RAT and the possible mechanisms behind the changes caused by different O2 concentrations are discussed. The findings of this group are compared with those of other studies.

  19. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy


    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  20. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Adults: An Evidence-based Assessment. (United States)

    Drake, Matthew G


    High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation has distinct advantages over other oxygen devices because of its unique effects on respiratory physiology. In particular, adjustable oxygen delivery and flow-dependent carbon dioxide clearance reduce work of breathing and better match inspiratory demand during respiratory distress. Historically, few studies had evaluated whether the physiologic effects of these devices translated into clinical benefit. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation has been shown to have similar, and in some cases superior clinical efficacy compared with conventional low-flow oxygen supplementation and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation also prevents reintubations in medical and postoperative surgical populations, provides preoxygenation for laryngoscopy, and supports oxygenation during bronchoscopy. This review examines the evidence for high-flow nasal cannula oxygenation use in adults, including a focus on the unique effects of high flow on respiratory physiology and keys for tailoring flow for specific clinical scenarios.

  1. Observation of yielding and strain hardening in a titanium alloy having high oxygen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, F., E-mail: [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 850-8577 (Japan); Niinomi, M.; Nakai, M. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 850-8577 (Japan)


    Highlights: {yields} TNTZ with high oxygen content indicates special mechanical properties. {yields} The phenomenon was explained by the interaction between oxygen atoms and dislocations. {yields} The deformation behavior changes with the addition of oxygen in TNTZ. {yields} There is a specific compositional area of oxygen in TNTZ exhibits good property. - Abstract: Plastic deformation behavior and its relation to tensile properties were investigated in an attractive {beta}-type titanium alloy (Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr) with the oxygen content of 0.1-0.7 mass% subjected to hot rolling and solution treatment after hot rolling. Hereafter, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr is abbreviated to TNTZ. With the increase of oxygen content, the tensile strength and 0.2% proof stress of all the samples increase, however, their elongation indicates special change, which is contradictory to that reported conventionally. The elongation firstly decreases and then increases with the increase in the oxygen content. Therefore, TNTZ with high strength and high ductility due to the addition of high oxygen content (0.7 mass%) is obtained. Remarkable yielding phenomenon and strain hardening are observed in TNTZ, which can be explained by the interaction between oxygen atoms and a lot of screw and edge dislocations leading to the easy activation of the multiple slip systems. The deformation behavior changes with the addition of oxygen in TNTZ. The plastic deformation mode changes from the deformation-induced martensite transformation to slip mechanism. It is realized that there is a specific compositional area of oxygen in which the TNTZ exhibits strain hardening and high strength, and appropriate Young's modulus value.

  2. Highly oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids and their bioactivity from the fruiting body of Ganoderma gibbosum. (United States)

    Pu, De-Bing; Zheng, Xi; Gao, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Xing-Jie; Qi, Yan; Li, Xiao-Si; Wang, Yong-Mei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Li, Xiao-Li; Wan, Chun-Ping; Xiao, Wei-Lie


    Eight new highly oxygenated lanostane triterpenes, gibbosic acids A-H (1-8), along with three known ones (9-11), were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma gibbosum. The structures of new isolates were assigned by NMR and HRESIMS experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 were further confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction data and computational ECD methods. Immunoregulatory effect and anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were screened in murine lymphocyte proliferation assay and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW-264.7 macrophages, respectively. Compound 2 exhibited immunostimulatory effect both in lymphocyte proliferation assay without any induction and ConA-induced mitogenic activity of T-lymphocyte, and the proportion of lymphocyte proliferation at the concentration of 0.1μM are 20.01% and 21.40%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of inoculum type and bulk dissolved oxygen concentration on achieving partial nitrification by entrapped-cell-based reactors. (United States)

    Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Khan, Eakalak


    An entrapment of nitrifiers into gel matrix is employed as a tool to fulfill partial nitrification under non-limiting dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in bulk solutions. This study aims to clarify which of these two attributes, inoculum type and DO concentration in bulk solutions, is the decisive factor for partial nitrification in an entrapped-cell based system. Four polyvinyl alcohol entrapped inocula were prepared to have different proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and nitrite-oxidizing activity. At a DO concentration of 3 mg l(-1), the number of active NOB cells in an inoculum was the decisive factor for partial nitrification enhancement. However, when the DO concentration was reduced to 2 mg l(-1), all entrapped cell inocula showed similar degrees of partial nitrification. The results suggested that with the lower bulk DO concentration, the preparation of entrapped cell inocula is not useful as the DO level becomes the decisive factor for achieving partial nitrification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromotropic acid-formaldehyde reaction in strongly acidic media. The role of dissolved oxygen and replacement of concentrated sulphuric acid. (United States)

    Fagnani, E; Melios, C B; Pezza, L; Pezza, H R


    The procedure for formaldehyde analysis recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the Chromotropic acid spectrophotometric method, which is the one that uses concentrated sulphuric acid. In the present study the oxidation step associated with the aforementioned method for formaldehyde determination was investigated. Experimental evidence has been obtained indicating that when concentrated H(2)SO(4) (18 mol l(-1)) is used (as in the NIOSH procedure) that acid is the oxidizing agent. On the other hand, oxidation through dissolved oxygen takes place when concentrated H(2)SO(4) is replaced by concentrated hydrochloric (12 mol l(-1)) and phosphoric (14.7 mol l(-1)) acids as well as by diluted H(2)SO(4) (9.4 mol l(-1)). Based on investigations concerning the oxidation step, a modified procedure was devised, in which the use of the potentially hazardous and corrosive concentrated H(2)SO(4) was eliminated and advantageously replaced by a less harmful mixture of HCl and H(2)O(2).

  5. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter. (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H


    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  6. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine


    was to evaluate the influence of oxygen tension on human pre-implantation development using time-lapse monitoring. Materials and methods: Human embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™) in 20% O2 (group 1), 20% O2 for 24 hours followed by culture in 5% O2 (group 2......) or in 5% O2 (group 3). Eligible were patients with age 8 oocytes retrieved. Group 1 consisted of 120 IVF/ICSI embryos from 26 patients recruited to a study conducted to evaluate the safety of the time-lapse incubator by randomising 1:1 embryos from a patient to culture......-points for each cell division and blastocyst stages were registered until 120 hours after oocyte retrieval. Only 2PN embryos completing the first cleavage were evaluated. The groups were compared using one-way ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis test. Estimates are reported as medians with 95% confidence intervals. Time...

  7. Long term high flow heated oxygen treatment in COPD – lung function and physical ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Ulla; Storgaard, Line; Hockey, Hans


    Introduction: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves survival in patients with COPD with resting hypoxemia. Despite this, a progressive loss of lung function and physical ability is expected in COPD. The AIRVO device delivers nasal high flow (NHF) warmed and humidified oxygen-enriched air, 20...

  8. Long-term nasal high flow treatment with oxygen in COPD - exacerbations, admissions and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Ulla; Storgaard, Line; Hockey, Hans


    Introduction: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves survival in patients with COPD with resting hypoxemia. Exacerbations (AECOPD) and hospital admissions are prevalent and have a negative impact on prognosis. The AIRVO device delivers nasal high flow (NHF) heated, humidified oxygenated air, 20...

  9. High-accuracy oxygen polarograph for photosynthetic systems (United States)

    Meunier, P. C.; Popovic, R.


    A new system is presented here, whose design is based on the electrochemical phenomena occurring on the platinum electrode that we examined before [P. Meunier and R. Popovic (unpublished)]. The architecture of the system is articulated around an IBM-PC computer which controls the polarization of the electrodes, the triggering of the flash lamp, and the acquisition of data. The potentiostat circuit and new electrode design improve the response of the electrode to a rise time of 4 ms and a decay time constant of 21 ms, without the signal being distorted by filters and without using the first derivative of the signal. This polarograph shows a 50-dB signal-to-noise ratio (0.3% error) during experiments with the motile algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. The determination of amplitudes of oxygen production is performed with third-order cubic spline interpolations, after subtraction of the current base line. The resulting accuracy and reproducibility will enable researchers to attain a higher degree of refinement in the quantification of properties of the oxygen evolving complex.

  10. Study on Oxygen Supply Standard for Physical Health of Construction Personnel of High-Altitude Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Guo


    Full Text Available The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of air density and equivalent PIO2. In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on the relationship between construction labor intensity and oxygen consumption.

  11. Novel multi wavelength sensor concept to detect total hemoglobin concentration, methemoglobin and oxygen saturation (United States)

    Timm, Ulrich; Gewiss, Helge; Kraitl, Jens; Stuepmann, Kirstin; Hinz, Michael; Koball, Sebastian; Ewald, Hartmut


    The paper will describe the novel multi-wavelength photometric device OxyTrue Hb® which is capable to measure the hemoglobin (Hb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) concentration non-invasively. Clinic trails in blood donation centers and during the dialysis are done to prove and demonstrate the performance of the system. The results are compared to the gold standard, the BGA measurement.

  12. Outdoor Characterisation of High Efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators


    PRAVETTONI Mauro; VIRTUANI Alessandro; Kenny, Robert; Daniel J. Farrell; Chatten, Amanda J.; Barnham, Keith W J


    This work presents recent results on outdoor characterisation of high efficiency luminescent solar concentrators. Outdoor measurements at 25°C and corrected to 1000 W/m2 have been compared with indoor characterization according to the international standards for conventional photovoltaic devices. Dependence of electrical parameters with temperature is also shown, together with results of various 1-day monitoring campaigns of luminescent concentrators performance under varying irradiance condi...

  13. Denitrification of a landfill leachate with high nitrate concentration in an anoxic rotating biological contactor. (United States)

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, Pilar; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, Manuel


    The denitrification performance of a lab-scale anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC) using landfill leachate with high nitrate concentration was evaluated. Under a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 2, the reactor achieved N-NO(3)(-) removal efficiencies above 95% for concentrations up to 100 mg N-NO(3)(-) l(-1). The highest observed denitrification rate was 55 mg N-NO(3)(-) l(-1) h(-1) (15 g N-NO(3)(-) m(-2) d(-1)) at a nitrate concentration of 560 mg N-NO(3)(-) l(-1). Although the reactor has revealed a very good performance in terms of denitrification, effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations were still high for direct discharge. The results obtained in a subsequent experiment at constant nitrate concentration (220 mg N-NO(3)(-) l(-1)) and lower C/N ratios (1.2 and 1.5) evidenced that the organic matter present in the leachate was non-biodegradable. A phosphorus concentration of 10 mg P-PO(4)(3-) l(-1) promoted autotrophic denitrification, revealing the importance of phosphorus concentration on biological denitrification processes.

  14. Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilsted Linda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen cyanide (HCN and carbon monoxide (CO may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood. Objective The purpose of the present study was to determine whole blood CN concentrations in fire victims before and after HBO treatment. Materials and methods The patients included were those admitted to the hospital because of CO intoxication, either as fire victims with smoke inhalation injuries or from other exposures to CO. In thirty-seven of these patients we measured CN concentrations in blood samples, using a Conway/microdiffusion technique, before and after HBO. The blood samples consisted of the remaining 2 mL from the arterial blood gas analysis. CN concentration in blood from fire victims was compared to 12 patients from non-fire accidents but otherwise also exposed to CO intoxication. Results The mean WB-CN concentration before patients received HBO did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients (p = 0.42. The difference between WB-CN before and after HBO did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients (p = 0.7. Lactate in plasma before and after did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients. Twelve of the 25 fire patients and one of the non-fire patients had been given a dose of hydroxycobalamin before HBO. Discussion and Conclusion CN

  15. Capacitance behavior of InAlN Schottky diodes in presence of large concentrations of shallow and deep states related to oxygen (United States)

    Py, M. A.; Lugani, L.; Taniyasu, Y.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.


    The capacitance-voltage-temperature characteristics of nonintentionally doped In0.16Al0.84N/n+-GaN Schottky diodes were measured at 1 MHz and in the 90-400 K range. They are discussed in the framework of existing theories, which properly treat the Poisson's equation, especially near the edge of the space-charge region, the so-called transition region. The concentration of a shallow donor and of a deep DX-like center, previously reported, is properly determined. The key parameter to discuss the temperature dependence of the capacitance is the ratio between the frequency of the small ac modulating signal and the temperature-dependent emission rate associated to each level. The capacitance-voltage C-Va curves were successfully fitted using a three parameters expression over the full range of temperatures. The concentration of both shallow and deep levels exceeds a few 1018 cm-3. Based on secondary ion mass spectrometry profiling, we assign both levels to the dominant oxygen impurity. This result supports our previous assignment of the shallow donor to a substitutional oxygen atom on a nitrogen site and the deep state to an O-related DX center, naturally explaining its high concentration. The sluggish kinetics at low temperatures, associated to the large concentration of deep levels located near the transition region, is illustrated by hysteresis loops in the C-Va curves below 270 K. Furthermore, the contribution of free carriers to the capacitance is revealed below 150 K, when both shallow and deep donors cannot respond anymore due to an emission rate lower than the 1 MHz modulating frequency. Finally, the presence of a highly doped thin surface barrier, as already reported in other III-nitrides, finds further support.

  16. Interactions among temperature, moisture, and oxygen concentrations in controlling decomposition rates in a boreal forest soil


    Sierra, Carlos A.; Malghani, Saadatullah; Henry W Loescher


    Determining environmental controls on soil organic matter decomposition is of importance for developing models that predict the effects of environmental change on global soil carbon stocks. There is uncertainty about the environmental controls on decomposition rates at temperature and moisture extremes, particularly at high water content levels and high temperatures. It is uncertain whether observed declines in decomposition rates at high temperatures are due to declines ...

  17. Factors affecting cerebral oxygenation in hemodialysis patients: cerebral oxygenation associates with pH, hemodialysis duration, serum albumin concentration, and diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyonori Ito

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD often develop cerebral disease complications. Furthermore, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2 was previously reported to be significantly lower in HD patients than in healthy subjects. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the cerebral rSO2 in HD patients.Fifty-four HD patients (38 men and 16 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 1.2 years, HD duration, 6.5 ± 1.9 years were recruited. Cerebral rSO2 was monitored at the forehead before HD using an INVOS 5100C (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan.The rSO2 levels were significantly lower in HD patients compared with healthy controls (49.5 ± 1.7% vs. 68.9 ± 1.6%, p <0.001. Multiple regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 independently associated with pH (standardized coefficient: -0.35, HD duration (standardized coefficient: -0.33, and serum albumin concentration (standardized coefficient: 0.28. Furthermore, the rSO2 was significantly lower in HD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, compared with patients without DM (46.8 ± 1.7% vs. 52.1 ± 1.8%, p <0.05.In HD patients, cerebral rSO2 was affected by multiple factors, including pH, HD duration, and serum albumin concentration. Furthermore, this is the first report describing significantly lower levels of rSO2 in HD patients with DM than in those without DM.

  18. A high precision method for quantitative measurements of reactive oxygen species in frozen biopsies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Berg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CP• with known spin concentration. RESULTS: The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than ±10 µM (k = 1. The spin concentration of samples stored at -80°C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate. CONCLUSION: The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time.

  19. Effects of red tides on oxygen concentration and distribution in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica


    Gocke, Klaus; Cortés, Jorge; Villalobos, Carlos


     A one year study (April 1978-March 1979) in the inner section of lhe Golfo de Nicoya (100 N, 850 W), Costa Rica, revealed that red tides in this shallow « 20 m) region are most common during the dry and at the beginning of the rainy season, but may also occur during the later par! of the wet season.The massive occurrence of red lides in distinct patches strongly influences the temporal and spatial concentration of dissolved qxygen, (02 saturation values of up to 200 % were observed).Gross pr...

  20. Solubility of zinc ferrite in high-temperature oxygenated water (United States)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Hiroishi, Daisuke; Matsuura, Chihiro; Ishigure, Kenkichi


    The solubility of zinc ferrite was measured at 423 K, 473 K, and 523 K in an oxygenated water system, which is rather similar to the chemical condition of boiling water reactors. Thermodynamic analysis was performed by a procedure minimizing standard Gibbs free energy of the system at the final state. From both the analysis and the experimental results it was concluded that the dissolution process of ZnFe 2O 4 in conditions where no redox reaction occurs is described by combination of ZnFe 2O 4 dissolution and Fe 2O 3 precipitation equilibria. By fitting to the experimental results, thermodynamic data of ZnFe 2O 4 are re-analyzed at 423 K, 473 K, and 523 K.

  1. Investigating the mechanical and barrier properties to oxygen and fuel of high density polyethylene–graphene nanoplatelet composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, K., E-mail:; Vautard, F.; Drzal, L.T.


    Highlights: • Melt mixing used to investigate high density polyethylene and graphene nanoplatelet composite. • Addition of graphene nanoplatelets resulted in a stiffer polymer matrix. • Presence of graphene nanoplatelets causes a decrease in oxygen and fuel permeation. - Abstract: Graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) of different sizes were investigated for their ability to modify high density polyethylene (HDPE) for potential fuel system applications, focusing on compounding via melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder. Mechanical properties, crystallinity of the polymer, and permeation to oxygen and fuel were assessed as a function of GnP concentration. The surface of GnP acted as a nucleation site for the generation of HDPE crystallites, increasing the crystallinity. The flexural properties were improved, clearly influenced by platelet size and quality of dispersion. A sharp, 46% decrease of the impact resistance was observed, even at low GnP concentration (0.2 wt.%). With a 15 wt.% GnP-M-15 (platelets with a 15 μm diameter), a 73% reduction in oxygen permeation was observed and a 74% reduction in fuel vapor transmission. This correlation was similar throughout the GnP concentration range. The smaller diameter platelets had a lesser effect on the properties.

  2. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Mussack, Katie; Orban, Chris; Colgan, James; Ducret, Jean-Eric; Fontes, Christopher J.; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Heeter, Robert F.; Kilcrease, Dave; Le Pennec, Maelle; Mancini, Roberto; Perry, Ted; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Trantham, Matt


    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. This discrepancy has led to an investigation of opacities through laboratory experiments and improved opacity models for many of the larger contributors to the sun’s opacity, including iron and oxygen. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al, 2015]. Although these results are still controversial, repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for C, O and Fe to address the solar abundance issue [Colgan, 2013]. Armstrong et al [2014] have also implemented changes in the ATOMIC code for low-Z elements. However, no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions.This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDPLP, grant No. DE-NA0001840, and the NLUF Program, grant No. DE-NA0000850, and through LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  3. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material. (United States)

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan


    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  5. Assessment of the menstrual cycle upon total hemoglobin, water concentration, and oxygen saturation in the female breast (United States)

    Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Soho, Sandra; Poplack, Steven P.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Paulsen, Keith D.


    Near-infrared imaging can be used in humans to characterize changes in breast tumor tissue by imaging total hemoglobin and water concentrations as well as oxygen saturation. In order to improve our understanding of these changes, we need to carefully quantify the range of variation possible in normal tissues for these parameters. In this study, the effect of the subject"s menstrual cycle was examined by imaging their breast at the follicular (7-14 days of the cycle) and secretory phases (21-28 days of the cycle), using our NIR tomographic system. In this system, a three layer patient interface is used to measure 3 planes along the breast from chest wall towards the nipple at 1cm increments. Seven volunteers in their 40s were observed for 2 menstrual cycles and all of these volunteers recently had normal mammograms (ACR 1) with heterogeneously dense breast composition. The results show that average total hemoglobin in the breast increased in many subjects between 0 to 15% from the follicular phase to secretory phase. Oxygen saturation and water concentration changes between these 2 parts of the cycle were between -6.5% to 12% for saturation and between -33% to 28% for water concentration. While the data averaged between subjects showed no significant change existed between phases, it was clear that individual subjects did exhibit changes in composition which were consistent from cycle to cycle. Understanding what leads to this heterogeneity between subjects will be an important factor in utilizing these measurements in clinical practice.

  6. Chronic Diarrhea Associated with High Teriflunomide Blood Concentration. (United States)

    Duquette, André; Frenette, Anne Julie; Doré, Maxime


    To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient's general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of consciousness. Therefore, hospitalization was required. Teriflunomide blood concentration was 156 mg/L. After 11 days of cholestyramine washout therapy, teriflunomide blood concentration was reduced to 6 mg/L. As the teriflunomide levels decreased, diarrhea improved. All other possible causes of diarrhea were ruled out. The patient's diarrhea finally resolved 26 days after treatment with cholestyramine. Diarrhea is a known adverse effect of leflunomide. In this report, the severe diarrhea was associated with high blood teriflunomide concentrations. Available data suggests an association between teriflunomide concentrations greater than 50 mg/L and lower disease activity, but toxic teriflunomide levels still have to be clarified. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal therapeutic levels of teriflunomide. However, therapeutic drug monitoring of teriflunomide blood concentrations may be helpful to improve effectiveness and to prevent toxicity in patients taking leflunomide for RA, particularly in those with suboptimal therapeutic response to leflunomide or in patients with toxicity suspected to be induced by leflunomide.

  7. Studies on the oxygen precipitation in highly boron doped silicon; Untersuchungen zur Sauerstoffausscheidung in hoch bordotiertem Silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschorsch, Markus


    The aim of this thesis was the getting of new knowledge on the elucidation of the oxygen precipitation in highly doped silicon. In the study of the early phases of the oxygen precipitation boron-oxygen complexes and their kinetics could be indirectly detected. These arise already during the cooling of the crystal and can be destroyed by subsequent temperature processes. The formation of the here as BO assumed species during the cooling after the silicon crystal fabrication could be numerically reproduced. Furthermore the study of early precipitation phases by means of neutron small angle scattering a maximum of the oxygen precipitation at {rho}=9 m{omega}cm. It could be shown that the decreasing of this at increasing boron concentration can be most probably reduced to boron precipitations. Furthermore it could be shown that after a tempering time of 24 hours at 700 C in silicon with {rho}=9 m{omega}cm platelet-shaped precipitates form. By the study of the precipitate growth could be shown that also in this phase the oxygen precipitation in silicon is strongest with a specific resistance of {rho}=9 m{omega}cm. By means of FTIR spectroscopy a new absorption band at a wave number of 1038 cm{sup -1} was found, which could be assigned to a boron species. By different experiments it is considered as probable that at this species it deals with BI respectively B{sub 2}I complexes.

  8. Stability of human telomere quadruplexes at high DNA concentrations. (United States)

    Kejnovská, Iva; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Brázdová, Marie; Sagi, Janos


    For mimicking macromolecular crowding of DNA quadruplexes, various crowding agents have been used, typically PEG, with quadruplexes of micromolar strand concentrations. Thermal and thermodynamic stabilities of these quadruplexes increased with the concentration of the agents, the rise depended on the crowder used. A different phenomenon was observed, and is presented in this article, when the crowder was the quadruplex itself. With DNA strand concentrations ranging from 3 µM to 9 mM, the thermostability did not change up to ∼2 mM, above which it increased, indicating that the unfolding quadruplex units were not monomolecular above ∼2 mM. The results are explained by self-association of the G-quadruplexes above this concentration. The ΔG(°) 37 values, evaluated only below 2 mM, did not become more negative, as with the non-DNA crowders, instead, slightly increased. Folding topology changed from antiparallel to hybrid above 2 mM, and then to parallel quadruplexes at high, 6-9 mM strand concentrations. In this range, the concentration of the DNA phosphate anions approached the concentration of the K(+) counterions used. Volume exclusion is assumed to promote the topological changes of quadruplexes toward the parallel, and the decreased screening of anions could affect their stability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agostini, M.D.


    This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

  10. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders. (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen


    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  11. Highly Active and Stable Fe-N-C Catalyst for Oxygen Depolarized Cathode Applications. (United States)

    Li, Jingkun; Jia, Qingying; Ghoshal, Shraboni; Liang, Wentao; Mukerjee, Sanjeev


    Anion immunity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has tremendous implications in electrocatalysis with applications for fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and oxygen depolarized cathodes (ODCs) in the anodic evolution of chlorine. The necessity of exploring ORR catalysts with immunity to anion adsorption is particularly significant considering that platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are costly and highly vulnerable to impurities such as halides. Herein, we report a metal organic framework (MOF)-derived Fe-N-C catalyst that exhibits a dramatically improved half-wave potential of 240 mV compared to the state-of-the-art Rh x S y /C catalyst in a rotating disk electrode in the presence of Cl - . The Fe-N 4 active sites in Fe-N-C are intrinsically immune to Cl - poisoning, in contrast to Pt/C, which is severely susceptible to Cl - poisoning. As a result, the activity of Fe-N-C decreases only marginally in the presence of Cl - , far exceeding that of Pt/C. The viability of this catalyst as ODCs is further demonstrated in real-life hydrochloric acid electrolyzers using highly concentrated HCl solution saturated with Cl 2 gas as the electrolyte. The introduction of Fe-N-C materials as ODC catalysts here overcomes the limitations of (i) the low intrinsic ORR activity of Rh x S y /C as the state-of-the-art ODC catalyst; (ii) the vulnerability to Cl - poisoning of Pt/C as the state-of-the-art ORR catalyst; and (iii) the high cost of precious metals in these two materials, resulting in a cost-effective ODC catalyst with the overall performance exceeding that of all previously reported materials.

  12. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.


    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system solar cell at >660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  13. Influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on intracellular pH for regulation of Aspergillus niger growth rate during citric acid fermentation in a stirred tank bioreactor. (United States)

    Haq, Ikram-Ul; Ali, Sikander; Qadeer, M A


    In this paper we report the regulation of Aspergillus niger growth rate during citric acid fermentation in a stirred tank bioreactor. For this, the influence of dissolved oxygen concentration in a medium on intracellular pH values and consequently on overall microbial metabolism was emphasized. Intracellular pH of mycelium grown under different concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the medium was determined. Sensitivity of proteins toward proton concentration is well recognized, therefore pH influences on the activities of key regulatory enzymes of Aspergillus niger were determined at pH values similar to those detected in the cells grown under lower dissolved oxygen concentrations. The results have shown significantly reduced specific activities of hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in more acidic environment, while pyruvate kinase was found to be relatively insensitive towards higher proton concentration. As expected, due to the reduced specific activities of regulatory enzymes under more acidic conditions, overall metabolism should be hindered in the medium with lower dissolved oxygen concentration which was confirmed by detecting the reduced specific growth rates. From the studies, we conclude that dissolved oxygen concentration affects the intracellular pH and thus growth rate of Aspergillus niger during the fermentation process.

  14. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and


    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  15. [High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT]. (United States)

    Espinoza Salinas, Alexis; Aguilera Eguía, Raúl; Cofre Bolados, Cristian; Zafra Santos, Edson; Pavéz Von Martens, Gustavo


    A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR), low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT) in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91). In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  16. Clinical research on high oxygen permeable contact lens used after photorefractive keratectomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Jiang Yang


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the outcome of high oxygen permeable contact lens used after photorefractive keratectomy(PRKsurgery.METHODS: Totally 95 patients(190 eyesafter PRK were included. Patients were randomly assigned to wear high oxygen permeable contact lens in one eye and normal lens in the fellow eye after surgery. The subjective symptoms and corneal epithelial status after PRK were evaluated. Uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAand haze were assessed at 6 months after PRK.RESULTS: Complaints of blurred vision, pain and photophobia were statistically more among the normal lens group than high oxygen permeable contact lens group(PPP=0.35. There was no difference in UCVA and haze 6 months after surgery(P=0.55. CONCLUSION: High oxygen permeable contact lens can significantly produce less the corneal irritated symptoms, reduce the discomfort feeling and promote healing of corneal epithelium after PRK.

  17. Production of glucose syrups in highly concentrated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der M.E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.


    We have investigated the hydrolysis of maltodextrins in a high concentration (up to 70%), by means of enzymatic and acid catalysis. The study revealed that the equilibrium compositions of the catalyzed reactions were kinetically determined by the selectivity of the catalyst, the substrate

  18. The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelenburg, F. A. C.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schuitemaker, H.; Moorer, W. R.


    The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture (80% ethanol and 5% isopropanol) was determined for a broad series of lipid-enveloped (LE) and non-lipid-enveloped (NLE) viruses covering all relevant blood-borne viruses. LE viruses were represented by human immunodeficiency virus

  19. High Iridium concentration of alkaline rocks of Deccan and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    and implications to K/T boundary. P N Shukla, N Bhandari∗, Anirban Das, A D Shukla and J S Ray. Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. ∗e-mail: We report here an unusually high concentration of iridium in some alkali basalts and alkaline rocks of Deccan region having an age ...

  20. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  1. Effects of high concentration of chromium stress on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of high concentration of chromium (Cr) stress on physiological and biochemical characters and accumulation of Cr in Pingyang Tezao tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kutze 'Pingyangtezao'] through a pot experiment. The results show that the indicators of photosynthesis were all suppressed with ...

  2. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Butler, Hannah; Trantham, Matt; Mussack, Katie; Colgan, James; Fontes, Chris; Guzik, Joyce; Kilcrease, David; Perry, Ted; Orban, Chris; Ducret, Jean-Eric; La Pennec, Maelle; Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine; Mancini, Roberto; Heeter, Robert


    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al., 2015]. Repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for low-Z elements [Colgan, 2013, Armstrong 2014], however no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDLP, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the NLUF Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719, and through the LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under No. DE-NA0001944.

  3. Physiological and hypoxic oxygen concentration differentially regulates human c-Kit+ cardiac stem cell proliferation and migration. (United States)

    Bellio, Michael A; Rodrigues, Claudia O; Landin, Ana Marie; Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E; Kuznetsov, Jeffim; Florea, Victoria; Valasaki, Krystalenia; Khan, Aisha; Hare, Joshua M; Schulman, Ivonne Hernandez


    Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are being evaluated for their efficacy in the treatment of heart failure. However, numerous factors impair the exogenously delivered cells' regenerative capabilities. Hypoxia is one stress that contributes to inadequate tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia impairs cell proliferation, survival, and migration of human CSCs relative to physiological and room air oxygen concentrations. Human endomyocardial biopsy-derived CSCs were isolated, selected for c-Kit expression, and expanded in vitro at room air (21% O2). To assess the effect on proliferation, survival, and migration, CSCs were transferred to physiological (5%) or hypoxic (0.5%) O2 concentrations. Physiological O2 levels increased proliferation (P air and hypoxia, a significant reduction of β-galactosidase activity (-4,203 fluorescent units, P air and hypoxia, and treatment with mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned media rescued CSC migration under hypoxia to levels comparable to physiological O2 migration (2-fold, P air may diminish cell regenerative potential. This study provides novel insights into the modulatory effects of O2 concentration on CSC biology and has important implications for refining stem cell therapies. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Tertiary treatment of textile wastewater with combined media biological aerated filter (CMBAF) at different hydraulic loadings and dissolved oxygen concentrations. (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Chao-Cheng; Zhao, Dong-Feng; Liu, Guo-Hua


    An up-flow biological aerated filter packed with two layers media was employed for tertiary treatment of textile wastewater secondary effluent. Under steady state conditions, good performance of the reactor was achieved and the average COD, NH(4)(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent were 31, 2 and 8mg/L, respectively. For a fixed dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, an increase of hydraulic loading resulted in a decrease in substrate removal. With the increase of hydraulic loadings from 0.13 to 0.78m(3)/(m(2)h), the removal efficiencies of COD, NH(4)(+)-N and TN all decreased, which dropped from 52 to 38%, from 90 to 68% and from 45 to 33%, respectively. In addition, the results also confirmed that the increase of COD and NH(4)(+)-N removal efficiencies resulted from the increase of DO concentrations, but this variation trend was not observed for TN removal. With the increase of DO concentrations from 2.4 to 6.1mg/L, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH(4)(+)-N were 39-53% and 64-88%, whenas TN removal efficiencies increased from 39 to 42% and then dropped to 35%.

  5. High concentration of antimitochondrial antibodies predicts progressive primary biliary cirrhosis. (United States)

    Flisiak, Robert; Pelszynska, Maria; Prokopowicz, Danuta; Rogalska, Magdalena; Grygoruk, Urszula


    To evaluate the serum concentration of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) as a prognostic indicator of progressive primary biliary cirrhosis (pPBC). Serum concentrations of AMA subtypes (anti-M2, anti-M4, and anti-M9), biochemical indices of liver function and Mayo risk factor (MRF) were determined in 30 women with diagnosed primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) selected among 348 females with elevated alkaline phosphatase but without signs of hepatic decompensation. They were followed up for 5 years for possible development of hepatic decompensation. Anti-M2 concentration was significantly correlated with bilirubin and albumin levels as well as MRF, whereas anti-M4 was significantly correlated with albumin level, prothrombin time and MRF. During the 5-year follow-up, progressive PBC (pPBC) was diagnosed in 3 among 23 patients available for evaluation. These 3 patients were positive for both anti-M2 and anti-M4. Anti-M2 serum concentration exceeded 1 300 RU/mL in patients with pPBC and only in 1 among 20 non-progressive PBC persons (5%). Anti-M4 serum concentration exceeded 400 RU/mL in 2 of the progressive patients and none in the non-progressive group. In contrast, anti-M9 serum concentration was below 100 RU/mL in all patients with pPBC, and higher than 100 RU/mL in 11 women (55%) among the non-progressive group. Females with elevated alkaline phosphatase and high anti-M2 and anti-M4 concentrations are at a high risk for developing pPBC. Quantitative AMA detection should be considered as a method for early diagnosis of pPBC.

  6. NIR spectroscopic imaging to map hemoglobin + myoglobin oxygenation, their concentration and optical pathlength across a beating pig heart during surgery. (United States)

    Gussakovsky, Eugene; Yang, Yanmin; Rendell, John; Jilkina, Olga; Kupriyanov, Valery


    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic imaging can provide spatial distribution (maps) of the absolute concentration of hemoglobin + myoglobin, oxygen saturation parameter and optical pathlength, reporting on the biochemico-physiological status of a beating heart in vivo. The method is based on processing the NIR spectroscopic images employing a first-derivative approach. Blood-pressure-controlled gating compensated the effect of heart motion on the imaging. All the maps are available simultaneously and noninvasively at a spatial resolution in the submillimeter range and can be obtained in a couple of minutes. The equipment has no mechanical contact with the tissue, thereby leaving the heart unaffected during the measurement. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Variations of dissolved oxygen in Mandovi and Zuari estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; SenGupta, R.

    During non-monsoon months the estuaries were well mixed showing uniform oxygen concentrations from surface to bottom. However, during monsoon months both the estuaries showed stratified conditions with surface water showing high oxygen concentration...

  8. Metabolic profiling and flux analysis of MEL-2 human embryonic stem cells during exponential growth at physiological and atmospheric oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Turner

    Full Text Available As human embryonic stem cells (hESCs steadily progress towards regenerative medicine applications there is an increasing emphasis on the development of bioreactor platforms that enable expansion of these cells to clinically relevant numbers. Surprisingly little is known about the metabolic requirements of hESCs, precluding the rational design and optimisation of such platforms. In this study, we undertook an in-depth characterisation of MEL-2 hESC metabolic behaviour during the exponential growth phase, combining metabolic profiling and flux analysis tools at physiological (hypoxic and atmospheric (normoxic oxygen concentrations. To overcome variability in growth profiles and the problem of closing mass balances in a complex environment, we developed protocols to accurately measure uptake and production rates of metabolites, cell density, growth rate and biomass composition, and designed a metabolic flux analysis model for estimating internal rates. hESCs are commonly considered to be highly glycolytic with inactive or immature mitochondria, however, whilst the results of this study confirmed that glycolysis is indeed highly active, we show that at least in MEL-2 hESC, it is supported by the use of oxidative phosphorylation within the mitochondria utilising carbon sources, such as glutamine to maximise ATP production. Under both conditions, glycolysis was disconnected from the mitochondria with all of the glucose being converted to lactate. No difference in the growth rates of cells cultured under physiological or atmospheric oxygen concentrations was observed nor did this cause differences in fluxes through the majority of the internal metabolic pathways associated with biogenesis. These results suggest that hESCs display the conventional Warburg effect, with high aerobic activity despite high lactate production, challenging the idea of an anaerobic metabolism with low mitochondrial activity. The results of this study provide new insight that

  9. Design and Control of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Systems with High Oxygen Regenerator Feed Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, C-K.; Luyben, W.L.


    This paper studies the use of regenerator feeds that have higher oxygen concentrations. Not only steady-state but also dynamic issues are examined. The key issue is identified to be heat-removal limitations which is confirmed by dynamic simulations.

  10. Concentric circular focusing reflector realized using high index contrast gratings (United States)

    Fang, Wenjing; Huang, Yongqing; Fei, Jiarui; Duan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kai; Ren, Xiaomin


    A non-periodic concentric circular high index contrast grating (CC-HCG) focusing reflector on 500 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is fabricated and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed mirror is realized with phase modulation of wave front in a high reflectivity region. The circular structure based HCG focusing reflector has a spot of high concentration at the 10.87 mm with normal incidence for radially polarization, along with the center wavelength set at 1550 nm. The FWHM spot size of the focusing beam decreases to 260 μm, and the intensity increases to 1.26 compared with the incident beam. The focusing efficiency of about 80% is observed at 1550 nm in the experimental measurement.

  11. The ejector flowmeter as air/oxygen mixing device. An apparatus providing gas mixtures with adjustable oxygen content for high-flow humidification systems. (United States)

    Christensen, K N; Waaben, J; Jørgensen, S


    The ejector flowmeter is constructed for continuous removal of excess gas from anaesthetic circuits. This instrument can be used as an air/oxygen mixing device for high-flow humidification systems in wards where compressed air is not available. Pure oxygen is used as driving gas through the ejector. A nomogram has been constructed to show the relationship between oxygen driving pressure, inlet of air to the flowmeter, FIO2 and total outflow.

  12. Measurement of excited oxygen (O2:[sup 1][Delta]g) concentration by spontaneous emission. Hakko kyodo ni yoru reiki sanso ([sup 1][Delta]g) nodo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    The concentration of excited oxygen ([sup 1][Delta]g), which was generated by microwave discharge in a pure oxygen flow, was measured from the intensity of spontaneous emission. The conversion factor to density was determined by spectroscopic analysis of the rotational structure and calibration of the emission intensity using a black-body furnace as light source. Consequently, a good agreement was found between the observed profiles and those calculated from spectroscopic data, and it was illustrated that the absolute concentration can be obtained by coupling band analysis and the calibration method. In addition, even when the concentration was low, it was shown that the excited oxygen concentration can be measured by considering the reflection at the cell wall. The excited oxygen concentration at the microwave discharge cavity was estimated to be around 1% under the pressure ranging from 0.5 torr to 2 torr. Furthermore, the comparison of the profiles calculated at different temperature provided that the band profile can be a good indicator of gas temperature when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Unraveling the structure and chemical mechanisms of highly oxygenated intermediates in oxidation of organic compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong


    Decades of research on the autooxidation of organic compounds have provided fundamental and practical insights into these processes; however, the structure of many key autooxidation intermediates and the reactions leading to their formation still remain unclear. This work provides additional experimental evidence that highly oxygenated intermediates with one or more hydroperoxy groups are prevalent in the autooxidation of various oxygenated (e.g., alcohol, aldehyde, keto compounds, ether, and ester) and nonoxygenated (e.g., normal alkane, branched alkane, and cycloalkane) organic compounds. These findings improve our understanding of autooxidation reaction mechanisms that are routinely used to predict fuel ignition and oxidative stability of liquid hydrocarbons, while also providing insights relevant to the formation mechanisms of tropospheric aerosol building blocks. The direct observation of highly oxygenated intermediates for the autooxidation of alkanes at 500–600 K builds upon prior observations made in atmospheric conditions for the autooxidation of terpenes and other unsaturated hydrocarbons; it shows that highly oxygenated intermediates are stable at conditions above room temperature. These results further reveal that highly oxygenated intermediates are not only accessible by chemical activation but also by thermal activation. Theoretical calculations on H-atom migration reactions are presented to rationalize the relationship between the organic compound’s molecular structure (n-alkane, branched alkane, and cycloalkane) and its propensity to produce highly oxygenated intermediates via extensive autooxidation of hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals. Finally, detailed chemical kinetic simulations demonstrate the influence of these additional reaction pathways on the ignition of practical fuels.

  14. Gold-doped graphene: A highly stable and active electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. (United States)

    Stolbov, Sergey; Alcántara Ortigoza, Marisol


    In addressing the growing need of renewable and sustainable energy resources, hydrogen-fuel-cells stand as one of the most promising routes to transform the current energy paradigm into one that integrally fulfills environmental sustainability. Nevertheless, accomplishing this technology at a large scale demands to surpass the efficiency and enhance the cost-effectiveness of platinum-based cathodes, which catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this work, our first-principles calculations show that Au atoms incorporated into graphene di-vacancies form a highly stable and cost-effective electrocatalyst that is, at the same time, as or more (dependently of the dopant concentration) active toward ORR than the best-known Pt-based electrocatalysts. We reveal that partial passivation of defected-graphene by gold atoms reduces the reactivity of C dangling bonds and increases that of Au, thus optimizing them for catalyzing the ORR and yielding a system of high thermodynamic and electrochemical stabilities. We also demonstrate that the linear relation among the binding energies of the reaction intermediates assumed in computational high-throughput material screening does not hold, at least for this non-purely transition-metal material. We expect Au-doped graphene to finally overcome the cathode-related challenge hindering the realization of hydrogen-fuel cells as the leading means of powering transportation and portable devices.

  15. Bioconversion of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in airlift bioreactor. (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed Abdel-Monaem; AlZahrani, Abdulraheem Ahmad; Noweir, Madbuli Hamed; El-Marakby, Fadia Ahmed


    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5-8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500 mg/L at pH values 8.0-8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8-8.5.

  16. Comparison of Mask Oxygen Therapy and High-Flow Oxygen Therapy after Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlum Sahin


    Full Text Available Background. To clarify the efficiency of mask O2 and high-flow O2 (HFO treatments following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in obese patients. Methods. During follow-up, oxygenization parameters including arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2, and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and physical examination parameters including respiratory rate, heart rate, and arterial pressure were recorded respectively. Presence of atelectasia and dyspnea was noted. Also, comfort scores of patients were evaluated. Results. Mean duration of hospital stay was 6.9 ± 1.1 days in the mask O2 group, whereas the duration was significantly shorter (6.5 ± 0.7 days in the HFO group (p=0.034. The PaO2 values and SpO2 values were significantly higher, and PaCO2 values were significantly lower in patients who received HFO after 4th, 12th, 24th, 36th, and 48th hours. In postoperative course, HFO leads patients to achieve better postoperative FVC (p<0.001. Also, dyspnea scores and comfort scores were significantly better in patients who received HFO in both postoperative day 1 and day 2 (p<0.001,p<0.001 and p=0.002,p=0.001, resp.. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that HFO following CPB in obese patients improved postoperative PaO2, SpO2, and PaCO2 values and decreased the atelectasis score, reintubation, and mortality rates when compared with mask O2.

  17. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri


    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  18. Nasal high-flow oxygen therapy system for improving sleep-related hypoventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case report. (United States)

    Okuda, Miyuki; Kashio, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuya; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Ishihara, Sumiko; Nozoe, Tatsuo; Fujii, Takashi; Okuda, Yoshinari; Kawahara, Toshiomi; Miyata, Keigo


    Sleep-related hypoventilation should be considered in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, because appropriate respiratory management during sleep is important for preventing elevation of PaCO2 levels. A nasal high-flow oxygen therapy system using a special nasal cannula can deliver suitably heated and humidified oxygen at up to 60 L/min. Since the oxygen concentration remains a constant independent of minute ventilation, this system is particularly useful in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who have hypercapnia. This is the first report of sleep-related hypoventilation with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease improving using a nasal high-flow oxygen therapy system. We report the case of a 73-year-old Japanese female who started noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CO2 narcosis due to respiratory infection. Since she became agitated as her level of consciousness improved, she was switched to a nasal high-flow oxygen therapy system. When a repeat polysomnography was performed while using the nasal high-flow oxygen therapy system, the Apnea Hypopnea Index was 3.7 times/h, her mean SpO2 had increased from 89 to 93%, percentage time with SpO2 ≤ 90% had decreased dramatically from 30.8 to 2.5%, and sleep stage 4 was now detected for 38.5 minutes. As these findings indicated marked improvements in sleep-related hypoventilation, nasal high-flow oxygen therapy was continued at home. She has since experienced no recurrences of CO2 narcosis and has been able to continue home treatment. Use of a nasal high-flow oxygen therapy system proved effective in delivering a prescribed concentration of oxygen from the time of acute exacerbation until returning home in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia and sleep-related hypoventilation. The nasal high-flow oxygen therapy system is currently used as a device to administer high concentrations of

  19. Increased long-term mortality after a high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction during abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian Sylvest; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wetterslev, Jørn


    A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (80%) has been recommended to prevent postoperative wound infections. However, the most recent and one of the largest trials, the PROXI trial, found no reduction in surgical site infection, and 30-day mortality was higher in patients given 80% oxyg....... In this follow-up study of the PROXI trial we assessed the association between long-term mortality and perioperative oxygen fraction in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.......A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (80%) has been recommended to prevent postoperative wound infections. However, the most recent and one of the largest trials, the PROXI trial, found no reduction in surgical site infection, and 30-day mortality was higher in patients given 80% oxygen...

  20. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  1. Modeling hourly dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) using two different adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS): a comparative study. (United States)

    Heddam, Salim


    This article presents a comparison of two adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS)-based neuro-fuzzy models applied for modeling dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. The two models are developed using experimental data collected from the bottom (USGS station no: 420615121533601) and top (USGS station no: 420615121533600) stations at Klamath River at site KRS12a nr Rock Quarry, Oregon, USA. The input variables used for the ANFIS models are water pH, temperature, specific conductance, and sensor depth. Two ANFIS-based neuro-fuzzy systems are presented. The two neuro-fuzzy systems are: (1) grid partition-based fuzzy inference system, named ANFIS_GRID, and (2) subtractive-clustering-based fuzzy inference system, named ANFIS_SUB. In both models, 60 % of the data set was randomly assigned to the training set, 20 % to the validation set, and 20 % to the test set. The ANFIS results are compared with multiple linear regression models. The system proposed in this paper shows a novelty approach with regard to the usage of ANFIS models for DO concentration modeling.

  2. Higher fraction of inspired oxygen in anesthesia induction does not affect functional residual capacity reduction after intubation: a comparative study of higher and lower oxygen concentration. (United States)

    Kanaya, Akihiro; Satoh, Daizoh; Kurosawa, Shin


    Low fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) reduces the atelectasis area during anesthesia induction. However, atelectasis may occur during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation because lungs can collapse within a fraction of a second. We assessed the effects of ventilation with 100 and 40 % oxygen on functional residual capacity (FRC) in patients undergoing general anesthesia. Twenty patients scheduled for elective open abdominal surgery were randomized into 40 % oxygen (GI, n = 10) and 100 % oxygen (GII, n = 10) groups and FRC was measured. Preoxygenation and mask ventilation with 40 and 100 % oxygen were used in GI and GII, respectively. In both groups, 40 % oxygen was used for anesthesia maintenance after intubation. Bilateral lung ventilation was performed with volume guarantee and low tidal volume (7 ml/kg predicted body weight) using bilevel airway pressure. We measured FRC and blood gas in all patients during preoxygenation, after intubation, and during surgery. FRC decreased from during preoxygenation (GI 2380 ml, GII 2313 ml) to after intubation (GI 1569 ml, GII 1586 ml) and significantly decreased during surgery (GI 1338 ml, GII 1417 ml) (P elevation at anesthesia induction.

  3. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang


    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  4. Search for Fractionally Charged Nuclei in High-Energy Oxygen-Lead Collisions

    CERN Multimedia


    We propose to use stacks of CR-39 plastic track detectors to look for fractionally charged projectile fragments produced in collisions of high-energy oxygen, sulfur, and calcium nuclei with a lead target. The expected charge resolution is @s^z~=~0.06e for fragments with 17e/3~@$<$~Z~@$<$~23e/3. We request that two target + stack assemblies be exposed to 1~x~10|5 oxygen nuclei at maximum available energy.

  5. High concentrations of H2O2 make aerobic glycolysis energetically more favourable than cellular respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian


    Full Text Available Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over eight decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2 above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP in response to the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources. This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  6. High concentration biotherapeutic formulation and ultrafiltration: Part 1 pressure limits. (United States)

    Lutz, Herb; Arias, Joshua; Zou, Yu


    High therapeutic dosage requirements and the desire for ease of administration drive the trend to subcutaneous administration using delivery systems such as subcutaneous pumps and prefilled syringes. Because of dosage volume limits, prefilled syringe administration requires higher concentration liquid formulations, limited to about 30 cP or roughly 100-300 g L-1 for mAb's. Ultrafiltration (UF) processes are routinely used to formulate biological therapeutics. This article considers pressure constraints on the UF process that may limit its ability to achieve high final product concentrations. A system hardware analysis shows that the ultrafiltration cassette pressure drop is the major factor limiting UF systems. Additional system design recommendations are also provided. The design and performance of a new cassette with a lower feed channel flow resistance is described along with 3D modeling of feed channel pressure drop. The implications of variations in cassette flow channel resistance for scaling up and setting specifications are considered. A recommendation for a maximum pressure specification is provided. A review of viscosity data and theory shows that molecular engineering, temperature, and the use of viscosity modifying excipients including pH adjustment can be used to achieve higher concentrations. The combined use of a low pressure drop cassette with excipients further increased final concentrations by 35%. Guidance is provided on system operation to control hydraulics during final concentration. These recommendations should allow one to design and operate systems to routinely achieve the 30 cP target final viscosity capable of delivery using a pre-filled syringe. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:113-124, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction. (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun


    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  8. The effects of health education given by nurses to COPD patients on the daily oxygen concentrator usage time. (United States)

    Doğan, Uğur; Ovayolu, Nimet


    Long-term oxygen therapy is the most effective method which has been shown to prolong the lifespan in people with COPD. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of health education given by nurses to patients with COPD on the daily oxygen concentrator (OC) usage time. The study was carried out in a State Hospital, Turkey, between July and November 2015. After given consent to the study, participants were divided into intervention and control groups by simple random sampling method. Then data forms were filled during face-to-face interview. Firstly, the data describing patients' arrival times were collected retrospectively. Afterwards, the patients from the intervention group were educated through educational booklets prepared by the researchers. They were phoned in the weeks 4, 8 and 12th for problems they might have encountered during the use of OC. After the 14th week, data forms of patients from the both groups were filled again; the results were compared with previous clinical findings. Data were analysed using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. It was determined that 95.5% of patients did not get information about the use of OC. Daily OC usage time (hour) by patients in the intervention group firstly amounted to 5.69 ± 3.90, later on to 11.94 ± 4.73 (p educational periods were compared; a significant improvement in PaO₂, PaCO2, FEV₁ and SaO₂ of patients in the intervention group (peducation and close monitoring of their results.

  9. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations. (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun


    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 g U/c m3 by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 g U/c m3 for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian- Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  11. Oxygen ordering in the high-T$_c$ superconductor HgBa$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_{6+\\delta}$ as revealed by perturbed angular correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendonca, Tania Melo; Haas, Heinz; Odier, Philippe; Tavares, Pedro; Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Lopes, Armandina; Pereira, Andre; Goncalves, Joao Nuno; Amaral, Joao; Darie, Celine; Araujo, Joao Pedro


    Lattice sites and collective ordering of oxygen atoms in HgBa$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_{6+\\delta}$ were studied using the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique at ISOLDE/CERN. The electric field gradients (EFG) at $^{199m}$Hg nuclei have been measured as functions of oxygen doping on the Hg planes, above and below T$_c$. In comparison with the results obtained for oxygen and fluorine doping in Hg-1201, the analysis shows a different oxygen ordering exhibited by Hg-1212. Moreover, for all studied cases, the experimental results show that at a local scale there is non-uniform oxygen distribution. A series of ab initio EFG calculations allowed to infer that at low concentrations, regions without oxygen coexist with regions where O$_{2\\delta}$ dumbbell molecules are located at the center of the Hg mesh. On the other side, at high concentrations, O$_{2\\delta}$ dumbbell molecules coexist with single O$_\\delta$ atoms occupying the center of the Hg mesh. The present results suggest that oxygen sits on the Hg planes in t...

  12. Temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration estimates through the PETM using triple oxygen isotope analysis of mammalian bioapatite. (United States)

    Gehler, Alexander; Gingerich, Philip D; Pack, Andreas


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a remarkable climatic and environmental event that occurred 56 Ma ago and has importance for understanding possible future climate change. The Paleocene-Eocene transition is marked by a rapid temperature rise contemporaneous with a large negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Both the temperature and the isotopic excursion are well-documented by terrestrial and marine proxies. The CIE was the result of a massive release of carbon into the atmosphere. However, the carbon source and quantities of CO2 and CH4 greenhouse gases that contributed to global warming are poorly constrained and highly debated. Here we combine an established oxygen isotope paleothermometer with a newly developed triple oxygen isotope paleo-CO2 barometer. We attempt to quantify the source of greenhouse gases released during the Paleocene-Eocene transition by analyzing bioapatite of terrestrial mammals. Our results are consistent with previous estimates of PETM temperature change and suggest that not only CO2 but also massive release of seabed methane was the driver for CIE and PETM.

  13. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.


    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  14. High-Frequency Observations of Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Reveal Under-Ice Convection in a Large Lake (United States)

    Yang, Bernard; Young, Joelle; Brown, Laura; Wells, Mathew


    Detailed observations of thermal structure over an entire winter in a large lake reveal the presence of large (10-20 m) overturns under the ice, driven by diurnal solar heating. Convection can occur in the early winter, but the most vigorous convection occurred near the end of winter. Both periods are when our lake ice model suggest thinner ice that would have been transparent. This under-ice convection led to a deepening of the mixed layer over time, consistent with previous short-term studies. During periods of vigorous convection under the ice at the end of winter, the dissolved oxygen had become supersaturated from the surface to 23 m below the surface, suggesting abundant algal growth. Analysis of our high-frequency observations over the entire winter of 2015 using the Thorpe-scale method quantified the scale of mixing. Furthermore, it revealed that changes in oxygen concentrations are closely related to the intensity of mixing.

  15. Towards operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated fuel (United States)

    Zhao, T. S.; Yang, W. W.; Chen, R.; Wu, Q. X.

    A significant advantage of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is the high specific energy of the liquid fuel, making it particularly suitable for portable and mobile applications. Nevertheless, conventional DMFCs have to be operated with excessively diluted methanol solutions to limit methanol crossover and the detrimental consequences. Operation with diluted methanol solutions significantly reduces the specific energy of the power pack and thereby prevents it from competing with advanced batteries. In view of this fact, there exists a need to improve conventional DMFC system designs, including membrane electrode assemblies and the subsystems for supplying/removing reactants/products, so that both the cell performance and the specific energy can be simultaneously maximized. This article provides a comprehensive review of past efforts on the optimization of DMFC systems that operate with concentrated methanol. Based on the discussion of the key issues associated with transport of the reactants/products, the strategies to manage the supply/removal of the reactants/products in DMFC operating with highly concentrated methanol are identified. With these strategies, the possible approaches to achieving the goal of concentrated fuel operation are then proposed. Past efforts in the management of the reactants/products for implementing each of the approaches are also summarized and reviewed.

  16. Prediction of colloidal stability of high concentration protein formulations. (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Blume, Alfred; Wagner, Michael


    A major aspect determining the colloidal properties of proteins in solution is the interaction between them and with surrounding molecules. These interactions can be described by the concentration dependency of the protein diffusivity (kD), as derived by dynamic light scattering and was determined for different solutions of monoclonal antibodies varying in pH, ionic strength and presence/absence of co-solute(s). Concerning colloidal stability, protein solutions of different kD values are evaluated, based on their initial solution opalescence, to assess protein association. The current investigation shows that solution conditions with large kD values, indicating high repulsive protein-protein interactions, show lower initial opalescence, compared to solution conditions with low kD values. Upon applying stirring stress, to assess colloidal stability, the trend is such that, the higher kD values are, the more stable the protein solutions are, as long as the thermodynamic and conformational stability is not impaired. Besides, kD allows ranking of solution conditions for highly concentrated immunoglobulin solutions up to concentrations of ∼200 mg mL(-1) with regard to protein self-association and thus opalescent properties. The present study shows that the protein interaction parameter kD can be used as a surrogate parameter for a qualitative prediction of protein association and, thus, colloidal protein stability.

  17. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo


    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  18. Novel fully-BODIPY functionalized cyclotetraphosphazene photosensitizers having high singlet oxygen quantum yields (United States)

    Şenkuytu, Elif; Eçik, Esra Tanrıverdi


    Novel fully-BODIPY functionalized dendrimeric cyclotetraphosphazenes (FBCP 1 and 2) have been synthesized and characterized by 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of FBCP 1 and 2 are investigated in dichloromethane solution. The effectiveness of singlet oxygen generation was measured for FBCP 1 and 2 by UV-Vis spectra monitoring of the solution of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF), which is a well-known trapping molecule used in detection of singlet oxygen. FBCP 1 and 2 show high molar extinction coefficients in the NIR region, good singlet oxygen quantum yields and appropriate photo degradation. The data presented in the work indicate that the dendrimeric cyclotetraphosphazenes are effective singlet oxygen photosensitizers that might be used for various areas of applications such as photodynamic therapy and photocatalysis.

  19. High concentration methanol fuel cells: Design and theory (United States)

    Shaffer, Christian E.; Wang, Chao-Yang

    Use of highly concentrated methanol fuel is required for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) to compete with the energy density of Li-ion batteries. Because one mole of H 2O is needed to oxidize one mole of methanol (CH 3OH) in the anode, low water crossover to the cathode or even water back flow from the cathode into the anode is a prerequisite for using highly concentrated methanol. It has previously been demonstrated that low or negative water crossover can be realized by the incorporation of a low-α membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which is essentially an MEA designed for optimal water management, using, e.g. hydrophobic anode and cathode microporous layers (aMPL and cMPL). In this paper we extend the low-α MEA concept to include an anode transport barrier (aTB) between the backing layer and hydrophobic aMPL. The main role of the aTB is to act as a barrier to CH 3OH and H 2O diffusion between a water-rich anode catalyst layer (aCL) and a methanol-rich fuel feed. The primary role of the hydrophobic aMPL in this MEA is to facilitate a low (or negative) water crossover to the cathode. Using a previously developed 1D, two-phase DMFC model, we show that this novel design yields a cell with low methanol crossover (i.e. high fuel efficiency, ∼80%, at a typical operating current density of ∼80-90% of the cell limiting current density), while directly feeding high concentration methanol fuel into the anode. The physics of how the aTB and aMPL work together to accomplish this is fully elucidated. We further show that a thicker, more hydrophilic, more permeable aTB, and thicker, more hydrophobic, and less permeable aMPL are most effective in accomplishing low CH 3OH and H 2O crossover.

  20. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Monaem Zytoon


    Full Text Available Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m−3 h−1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO 500 mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5.

  1. Optimal design of high concentration reflected photovoltaic module (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Yi; Lin, Yuli


    In this study, a fabrication and design process of a high concentration reflected photovoltaic (HCRPV) using 3x3 array modules with the light guide tube and III-V solar cells are demonstrated. The developed and designed of 3x3 array modules with the light guide tube following key design aims are all satisfied with highly uniform irradiance on the solar cell absorber and maximum light collective efficiency. With the use of the maximum peak power output from the tracking system which had two phases of X-Y axis and θ-axis tracking the sun position precisely and getting. With an optimized high concentration reflected photovoltaic systems of 3x3 array modules with the light guide tube, the optimal condition and measured characteristics and efficiency was conducted. This improved HCRPV performance is attributed to the enhanced collection light power from a big reflected mirror area. The HCRPV module was then fabricated using Aluminum material and it was coated with silver material. From the simulation results, the light collective efficiency can be reached to about 94.9% with uniform irradiance. From the measurement results, the power can be calculated to be 2.62W˜2.74W, which is about 90% of the power of solar cell (3W) used.

  2. Mapping Global Atmospheric CO2 Concentration at High Spatiotemporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Jing


    Full Text Available Satellite measurements of the spatiotemporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are a key component for better understanding global carbon cycle characteristics. Currently, several satellite instruments such as the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, SCanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY, and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 can be used to measure CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions. However, because of cloud effects, a single satellite can only provide limited CO2 data, resulting in significant uncertainty in the characterization of the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In this study, a new physical data fusion technique is proposed to combine the GOSAT and SCIAMACHY measurements. On the basis of the fused dataset, a gap-filling method developed by modeling the spatial correlation structures of CO2 concentrations is presented with the goal of generating global land CO2 distribution maps with high spatiotemporal resolution. The results show that, compared with the single satellite dataset (i.e., GOSAT or SCIAMACHY, the global spatial coverage of the fused dataset is significantly increased (reaching up to approximately 20%, and the temporal resolution is improved by two or three times. The spatial coverage and monthly variations of the generated global CO2 distributions are also investigated. Comparisons with ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON measurements reveal that CO2 distributions based on the gap-filling method show good agreement with TCCON records despite some biases. These results demonstrate that the fused dataset as well as the gap-filling method are rather effective to generate global CO2 distribution with high accuracies and high spatiotemporal resolution.

  3. A combined photocatalytic determination system for chemical oxygen demand with a highly oxidative reagent. (United States)

    Zhang, Aiyong; Zhou, Minghua; Zhou, Qixing


    This study focuses on the proposal and validation of a combined photocatalytic (PC) system and a three-parameterized procedure for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD; PcCOD(combined)), with a highly oxidative reagent utilized as a photoelectron scavenger and signal indicator. The PcCOD(combined) was the functional combination of photon-efficient thin-layer photocatalytic oxidation, conventional bulk-phase photocatalytic oxidation and photocarrier-efficient high-activity photocatalytic reduction in one single photodigestion system, and consequently, this system possessed high photon-utilization efficiency, automatic stirring function and satisfactory determination characteristics. In comparison with the conventional one-parameterized procedure, the three-parameterized procedure introduces the blank and total photocatalytic reduction responses as two of the three significant analytical parameters. Under the optimized pH value of 3.0-4.5 and a rotating rate of 40 rpm, the representative KMnO(4) species was used for the PcCOD(combined) system as the combined high-activity oxidant, and a narrow and reliable analytical linear range of 0-260 mg L(-1) was achieved during the 10 min duration of the determinations. No observable interference of Cl(-) was found at concentration of the ion up to 2000 mg L(-1). A real sample analysis indicated that the measured values for the PcCOD(combined) were all within a relative deviation below 5% of COD(Cr) of the standard method, which further validates the practical feasibility of the proposed PcCOD(combined) system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail:


    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  5. Review and advances of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) part I: Design, fabrication, and testing with high concentration methanol solutions (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Faghri, Amir


    A review of the experimental studies on passive and semi-passive direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is conducted, with an emphasis on high concentration methanol and pure methanol. Key issues such as methanol transport, water management, oxygen transport, and carbon dioxide release in the DMFC are analyzed in detail. The design and fabrication, development approaches, challenges and opportunities on DMFCs passively fed with high concentration methanol are discussed. The advances of DMFC stacks and prototype developments are presented. Several unresolved issues and challenges in DMFCs are identified and reviewed in detail.

  6. Effect of high soil copper concentration on mycorrhizal grapevines (United States)

    Nogales, Amaia; Santos, Erika S.; Viegas, Wanda; Aran, Diego; Pereira, Sofia H.; Vidigal, Patricia; Lopes, Carlos M.; Abreu, M. Manuela


    Repeated application of Copper (Cu) based fungicides in vineyards since the end of the 19th century has led to a significant increase in the concentration of this chemical element in many viticultural soils. Although Cu is an essential micronutrient for most organisms, it can be toxic for the development and survival of plants and soil (micro)organisms at high concentrations and eventually lead to yield loses in viticulture, as it negatively affects key physiological and biogeochemical processes. However, some soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), have developed adaptive mechanisms for persistence in environments with supra-optimal levels of essential elements or in the presence of harmful ones, as well as for increasing plant tolerance to such abiotic stress conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a high total soil concentration of Cu on microbial soil activity as well as on the development of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal grapevines. A microcosm assay was set up under greenhouse and controlled conditions. Touriga Nacional grapevine variety plants grafted onto 1103P rootstocks were inoculated either with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mosseae, or were left as non-inoculated controls. After three months, they were transplanted to containers filled with 4 kg of a sandy soil (pH: 7.0; electrical conductivity: 0.08 mS/cm; [organic C]: 5.6 g/kg; [N-NO3]: 1.1 mg/kg; [N-NH4]: 2.5 mg/kg; [extractable K]: 45.1 mg/kg; [extractable P]: 52.3 mg/kg), collected near to a vineyard in Pegões (Portugal). Two treatments were carried out: with and without Cu application. The soil with high Cu concentration was prepared by adding 300 mg Cu/kg (in the form of an aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O) followed by an incubation during four weeks in plastic bags at room temperature in dark. Physico-chemical soil characteristics (pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients concentration in available fraction), soil

  7. Resonance absorption measurements of atom concentrations in reacting gas mixtures. VI. Shapes of the vacuum ultraviolet oxygen (3S-3P) resonance triplet from microwave sources and empirical calibration in a shock tube (United States)

    Pamidimukkala, Krishna M.; Lifshitz, Assa; Skinner, Gordon B.; Wood, David R.


    Spectral line profiles of the atomic oxygen triplet 3S1-3P2,1,0 emitted from microwave discharges in O2-He mixtures containing 0.1% O2 were measured in the 43rd order using a 2 m vacuum Czerny-Turner scanning spectrometer under three different lamp conditions. The profiles varied from nearly Gaussian to highly self-absorbed. The line shapes were accounted for by the amount of light absorbed by ground state oxygen atoms within the lamp. Experiments were carried out to calibrate the microwave discharge lamp for analysis of oxygen atoms using oxygen resonance triplet absorption. Known concentration of O atoms were produced in the temperature range 1950-2600 K in a shock tube by the complete dissociation of dilute (1-20 ppm) mixtures of N2O in Ar and related to the fraction of light absorbed. It was found that the ratios of the intensities of the oxygen components, measured using a low-resolution monochromator, can be used to obtain resonably accurate calibration curves. Kinetic data obtained on N2O dissociation as a part of our calibration experiments in the temperature range 1519-2408 K are also presented; the results are consistent with the correlations of Baulch et al. It was confirmed that O atom concentrations during calibration experiments were determined by stoichiometry, and not by the kinetics of N2O dissociation.

  8. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries


    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  9. A new method combining soil oxygen concentration measurements with the quantification of gross nitrogen turnover rates and associated formation of N2O and N2 emissions (United States)

    Gütlein, Adrian; Dannenmann, Michael; Sörgel, Christoph; Meier, Rudi; Meyer, Astrid; Kiese, Ralf


    Climate change and the expansion of land use have led to significant changes in terrestrial ecosystems. These include changes in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen and therewith implications for biodiversity, water cycle and pedosphere-atmosphere exchange. To understand these impacts detailed research on nitrogen turnover and fluxes are conducted at various (semi-) natural and managed ecosystems in the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. In this context, we execute 15N tracing analyses on soil samples in our stable isotope laboratory including a new experimental setup. The soils were sampled from different forest ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro varying in altitude (1600 - 4500 m) and will be analyzed for gross rates of ammonification and nitrification, gross rates of microbial inorganic N uptake as well as for the gaseous losses of ^15N2 and ^15N2O using ^15NH4+ and ^15NO3- tracing and pool dilution approaches. Since nitrogen turnover of nitrification and denitrification is dependent on soil oxygen concentrations we developed an incubation method which allows to adjust soil samples to different oxygen concentrations. For this purpose, soil is incubated in glass bottles with side tubes to ensure a constant gas flow over the whole incubation time. To adjust the oxygen levels in the laboratory experiment as close as possible to the natural conditions, we started to monitor soil oxygen concentrations with a FirestingO2 Sensor (Pyroscience) connected to a timer and a datalogger (MSR 145 IP 60 E3333) at a Mt. Kilimanjaro rainforest site. The equipment is complemented with soil temperature, moisture and pressure sensors (MSR 145 IP 60). A solar panel connected to an energy source guarantees a working time for over 2 years by a measuring frequency of 20 seconds each 30 minutes. The new laboratory incubation method together with in-situ oxygen concentration measurements in soils will facilitate laboratory incubations with realistic oxygen concentrations and thus will allow for a better

  10. High speed diagnostics for characterization of oxygen / hydrogen rocket injector flowfields (United States)

    Locke, Justin M.

    location. The time-averaged results are consistent with previous spatially-resolved Raman spectroscopy measurements made in a similar rocket combustor under similar flow conditions. The primary atomization and combustion characteristics of a liquid oxygen (LOX) / gaseous hydrogen (GH2) shear coaxial injector element were also experimentally investigated. High speed movies using a shadowgraph imaging technique to visualize the LOX core were recorded for both hot-fire (LOX/GH 2) and cold-flow (LOX/gaseous oxygen (GO2)) conditions with the same injector and chamber. Flow conditions were set to approximate realistic rocket conditions. For the hot-fire tests (LOX/GH2), chamber pressures were 600, 730, and 920 psia, with momentum flux ratios (annulus flow/post flow) of 2.7, 2.0 and 1.6 respectively. The rocket assembly utilized a preburner to provide a background flow (M≈0.1) of hot gaseous nitrogen (GN2 )/GH2/water (H2O) gas with 25% volumetric concentration of hydrogen. For the cold-flow tests (LOX/GO2 with GO2 background flow), chamber pressures were 650 and 830 psia, thus above and below the critical pressure of oxygen (731.6 psia), with momentum flux ratios (annulus flow/post flow) of 2.2 and 1.8 respectively. The high speed visualizations under hot-fire conditions show a long sinuous LOX core region that breaks into large dense-oxygen structures, which are then quickly consumed. These results do not agree with the classical phenomenological breakup model that suggests a liquid core that is rapidly sheared into a drop cloud. Rather, a large-scale fragmentation model may be better suited to describe the primary atomization behavior in combusting flow from a LOX/GH2 shear coaxial injector element at realistic rocket conditions. Unlike the hot-fire case, cold-flow LOX visualization movies show a clear difference between the two chamber pressures, with the higher pressure (supercritical) case resembling behavior indicative of gaseous mixing compared to the typically two phase

  11. Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide (United States)

    Howard, David; Abney, Morgan


    This next Generation Life Support Project entails the development and demonstration of Bosch reaction technologies to improve oxygen recovery from metabolically generated oxygen and/or space environments. A primary focus was placed on alternate carbon formation reactor concepts to improve useful catalyst life for space vehicle applications, and make use of in situ catalyst resources for non-terrestrial surface missions. Current state-of-the-art oxygen recovery systems onboard the International Space Station are able to effectively recover approximately 45 percent of the oxygen consumed by humans and exhausted in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Excess CO2 is vented overboard and the oxygen contained in the molecules is lost. For long-duration missions beyond the reaches of Earth for resupply, it will be necessary to recover greater amounts of constituents such as oxygen that are necessary for sustaining life. Bosch technologies theoretically recover 100 percent of the oxygen from CO2, producing pure carbon as the sole waste product. Challenges with this technology revolve around the carbon product fouling catalyst materials, drastically limiting catalyst life. This project successfully demonstrated techniques to extend catalyst surface area exposure times to improve catalyst life for vehicle applications, and demonstrated the use of Martian and lunar regolith as viable catalyst Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide materials for surface missions. The Bosch process generates carbon nanotube formation within the regolith, which has been shown to improve mechanical properties of building materials. Production of bricks from post reaction regolith for building and radiation shielding applications were also explored.

  12. Evaluation of oxygen administration with a high-flow nasal cannula to clinically normal dogs. (United States)

    Daly, Jennifer L; Guenther, Christine L; Haggerty, Jamie M; Keir, Iain


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oxygen administration by use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in sedated clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs undergoing routine dental prophylaxis. PROCEDURES Dogs were sedated with butorphanol tartrate and dexmedetomidine. An esophageal balloon catheter was inserted into the esophagus, a double-pronged nasal cannula was inserted into the nares, and a catheter was inserted into the dorsal pedal artery. Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency. After a 6-minute acclimation period, baseline blood gas values and transpulmonary pressure were measured. Dogs then received supplemental oxygen via conventional oxygen therapy (COT) at a rate of 100 mL/kg/min (COT-100 treatment) and an HFNC at a rate of 20 L/min (HF-20 treatment) and 30 L/min (HF-30 treatment). Arterial blood gas and transpulmonary pressure were measured after a 6-minute acclimation period for each oxygen delivery method. Radiographs were obtained before and after oxygen administration to evaluate gastric distension. RESULTS Median Pao2 was significantly higher for HF-20 (519.9 mm Hg) and HF-30 (538.1 mm Hg) treatments, compared with median Pao2 for the COT-100 treatment (202.9 mm Hg). The Pao2 did not differ significantly between the HF-20 and HF-30 treatments. There was no significant difference in Paco2 or change in transpulmonary pressure between baseline and any oxygen delivery method. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, HFNC appeared to be a safe and effective method for oxygen delivery to sedated healthy dogs. Further studies are needed to evaluate use of HFNCs for oxygen administration to hypoxemic patients.

  13. High altitude genetic adaptation in Tibetans: no role of increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity. (United States)

    Tashi, Tsewang; Feng, Tang; Koul, Parvaiz; Amaru, Ricardo; Hussey, Dottie; Lorenzo, Felipe R; RiLi, Ge; Prchal, Josef T


    High altitude exerts selective evolutionary pressure primarily due to its hypoxic environment, resulting in multiple adaptive responses. High hemoglobin-oxygen affinity is postulated to be one such adaptive change, which has been reported in Sherpas of the Himalayas. Tibetans have lived on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau for thousands of years and have developed unique phenotypes, such as protection from polycythemia which has been linked to PDH2 mutation, resulting in the downregulation of the HIF pathway. In order to see if Tibetans also developed high hemoglobin-oxygen affinity as a part of their genetic adaptation, we conducted this study assessing hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and their fetal hemoglobin levels in Tibetan subjects from 3 different altitudes. We found normal hemoglobin-oxygen affinity in all subjects, fetal hemoglobin levels were normal in all except one and no hemoglobin variants in any of the subjects. We conclude that increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity or increased fetal hemoglobin are not adaptive phenotypes of the Tibetan highlanders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. High manganese concentrations in rocks at Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Lanza, Nina L.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Wiens, Roger C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Ollila, Ann M.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Clark, Benton C.; Gellert, Ralf; Mangold, Nicolas; Maurice, Sylvestre; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Nachon, Marion; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Berger, Jeffrey; Clegg, Samuel M.; Forni, Olivier; Hardgrove, Craig; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton E.; Sautter, Violaine


    The surface of Mars has long been considered a relatively oxidizing environment, an idea supported by the abundance of ferric iron phases observed there. However, compared to iron, manganese is sensitive only to high redox potential oxidants, and when concentrated in rocks, it provides a more specific redox indicator of aqueous environments. Observations from the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity rover indicate abundances of manganese in and on some rock targets that are 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than previously observed on Mars, suggesting the presence of an as-yet unidentified manganese-rich phase. These results show that the Martian surface has at some point in time hosted much more highly oxidizing conditions than has previously been recognized.

  15. In situ quantification of ultra-low O2 concentrations in oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Lehner, Philipp; Borisov, Sergey M.


    Conventional sensors for the quantification of O2 availability in aquatic environments typically have limits of detection (LOD) of  > 1 μmol L−1 and do not have sufficient resolution to reliably measure concentrations in strongly O2 depleted environments. We present a novel trace optical sensor...... based on the palladium(II)-benzoporphyrin luminophore, immobilized in a perfluorinated matrix with high O2 permeability. The trace sensor has a detection limit of ∼5 nmol L−1 with a dynamic range extending up to ∼2 μmol L−1. The sensor demonstrates a response time ...B). The measurements demonstrated that O2 concentrations in the ETNP generally were below the LOD of the trace sensor, but that large sub-micromolar O2 intrusions, spanning 60–80 m with maximum O2 concentrations above 50 nmol L−1, could be observed in the OMZ core. The O2 concentrations in the BoB were high compared...

  16. Integrated testing of an electrochemical depolarized CO2 concentrator /EDC/ and a Bosch CO2 reduction subsystem /BRS/. [in spaceborne oxygen reclamation system (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.


    An oxygen reclamation system (ORS) in a spacecraft has the task to revitalize the spacecraft atmosphere by recovering the elementary oxygen from metabolically produced carbon dioxide and water vapor. Life support subsystems which can form such an ORS are an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator (EDC), a Bosch carbon dioxide reduction subsystem (BRS), and an oxygen generation subsystem (OGS). A total recovery of the oxygen from metabolically generated carbon dioxide can be obtained with the aid of system composed of the considered three subsystems. Attention is given to the control concept which assures an integrated operation of the EDC, BRS, and OGS. A description is presented of the test results obtained during 86 days of testing.

  17. Fine temporal control of the medium gas content and acidity and on-chip generation of series of oxygen concentrations for cell cultures. (United States)

    Polinkovsky, Mark; Gutierrez, Edgar; Levchenko, Andre; Groisman, Alex


    We describe the design, operation, and applications of two microfluidic devices that generate series of concentrations of oxygen, [O(2)], by on-chip gas mixing. Both devices are made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and have two layers of channels, the flow layer and the gas layer. By using in-situ measurements of [O(2)] with an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye, we show that gas diffusion through PDMS leads to equilibration of [O(2)] in an aqueous solution in the flow layer with [O(2)] in a gas injected into the gas layer on a time scale of approximately 1 sec. Injection of carbon dioxide into the gas layer causes the pH in the flow layer to drop within approximately 0.5 sec. Gas-mixing channel networks of both devices generate series of 9 gas mixtures with different [O(2)] from two gases fed to the inlets, thus creating regions with 9 different [O(2)] in the flow layer. The first device generates nitrogen-oxygen mixtures with [O(2)] varying linearly between 0 and 100%. The second device generates nitrogen-air mixtures with [O(2)] varying exponentially between 0 and 20.9%. The flow layers of the devices are designed for culturing bacteria in semi-permeable microchambers, and the second device is used to measure growth curves of E. coli colonies at 9 different [O(2)] in a single experiment. The cell division rates at [O(2)] of 0, 0.2, and 0.5% are found to be significantly different, further validating the capacity of the device to set [O(2)] in the flow layer with high precision and resolution. The degree of control of [O(2)] achieved in the devices and the robustness with respect to oxygen consumption due to respiration would be difficult to match in a traditional large-scale culture. The proposed devices and technology can be used in research on bacteria and yeast under microaerobic conditions and on mammalian cells under hypoxia.

  18. Extreme learning machines: a new approach for modeling dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration with and without water quality variables as predictors. (United States)

    Heddam, Salim; Kisi, Ozgur


    In this paper, several extreme learning machine (ELM) models, including standard extreme learning machine with sigmoid activation function (S-ELM), extreme learning machine with radial basis activation function (R-ELM), online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM), and optimally pruned extreme learning machine (OP-ELM), are newly applied for predicting dissolved oxygen concentration with and without water quality variables as predictors. Firstly, using data from eight United States Geological Survey (USGS) stations located in different rivers basins, USA, the S-ELM, R-ELM, OS-ELM, and OP-ELM were compared against the measured dissolved oxygen (DO) using four water quality variables, water temperature, specific conductance, turbidity, and pH, as predictors. For each station, we used data measured at an hourly time step for a period of 4 years. The dataset was divided into a training set (70%) and a validation set (30%). We selected several combinations of the water quality variables as inputs for each ELM model and six different scenarios were compared. Secondly, an attempt was made to predict DO concentration without water quality variables. To achieve this goal, we used the year numbers, 2008, 2009, etc., month numbers from (1) to (12), day numbers from (1) to (31) and hour numbers from (00:00) to (24:00) as predictors. Thirdly, the best ELM models were trained using validation dataset and tested with the training dataset. The performances of the four ELM models were evaluated using four statistical indices: the coefficient of correlation (R), the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), the root mean squared error (RMSE), and the mean absolute error (MAE). Results obtained from the eight stations indicated that: (i) the best results were obtained by the S-ELM, R-ELM, OS-ELM, and OP-ELM models having four water quality variables as predictors; (ii) out of eight stations, the OP-ELM performed better than the other three ELM models at seven stations while the R

  19. Locomotor muscle fatigue does not alter oxygen uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hopker


    Full Text Available The slow component (VO2sc that develops during high-intensity aerobic exercise is thought to be strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue. We sought to experimentally test this hypothesis by pre-fatiguing the locomotor muscles used during subsequent high-intensity cycling exercise. Over two separate visits, eight healthy male participants were asked to either perform a non-metabolically stressful 100 intermittent drop-jumps protocol (pre fatigue condition or rest for 33 minutes (control condition according to a random and counterbalanced order. Locomotor muscle fatigue was quantified with 6-second maximal sprints at a fixed pedaling cadence of 90 rev·min-1. Oxygen kinetics and other responses (heart rate, capillary blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion, RPE were measured during two subsequent bouts of 6 min cycling exercise at 50% of the delta between the lactate threshold and VO2max determined during a preliminary incremental exercise test. All tests were performed on the same cycle ergometer. Despite significant locomotor muscle fatigue (P = 0.03, the VO2sc was not significantly different between the pre fatigue (464 ± 301 mL·min-1 and the control (556 ± 223 mL·min-1 condition (P = 0.50. Blood lactate response was not significantly different between conditions (P = 0.48 but RPE was significantly higher following the pre-fatiguing exercise protocol compared with the control condition (P < 0.01 suggesting higher muscle recruitment. These results demonstrate experimentally that locomotor muscle fatigue does not significantly alter the VO2 kinetic response to high intensity aerobic exercise, and challenge the hypothesis that the VO2sc is strongly associated with locomotor muscle fatigue.

  20. A new approach for chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement at high salinity and low organic matter samples. (United States)

    Kayaalp, Necati; Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Ozgun, Hale; Koyuncu, Ismail; Kinaci, Cumali


    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is used as a discharge standard parameter in wastewater treatment plant design, environmental modelling and many other applications. Chloride interference is an important problem of COD measurement for wastewaters containing low organic matter and high chloride concentrations. In case of chloride concentrations up to 2,000 mg/L, mercury sulphate addition at a ratio of 10:1 (HgSO(4):Cl(-)) can adequately mask the interference. When chloride concentration exceeds 2,000 mg/L, this ratio becomes ineffective to hinder the interference. At this point, it is proposed to use a greater and constant ratio of mercury sulphate addition. However, this application sometimes results in extra mercury sulphate addition which is not necessary. Even in some cases, greater addition of mercury sulphate alone is not a solution to erroneous measurement results. The purpose of the study is to determine optimum HgSO(4):Cl(-) ratios according to the chloride concentrations of the samples and to show the importance of the strength of the digestion solution for the correct determination of the COD parameter. CODs of the synthetic samples containing varying COD and chloride concentrations were measured by closed reflux colorimetric method using three digestion solutions having different strengths. It is indicated in this study that a constant ratio of mercury sulphate can only prevent chloride interference up to a specific chloride concentration. Achieving high precision results in case of low organic matter and high chloride concentration can only be possible by both decreasing the concentration of oxidant and adding mercury sulphate.

  1. Tolerance to high-intensity intermittent running exercise: do oxygen uptake kinetics really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBuchheit


    Full Text Available We examined the respective associations between aerobic fitness (VO2max, metabolic control (VO2 kinetics and locomotor function and various physiological responses to high-intensity intermittent running exercise (HIT in team sport players. Eleven players (30.5 ± 3.6 y performed a series of tests to determine their VO2max and the associated velocity (vVO2max, maximal sprinting speed (MSS and VO2 kinetics at exercise onset in the moderate and severe intensity domains, and during recovery (VO2τoff SEV. Cardiorespiratory variables, oxygenation and electromyography (EMG of lower limbs muscles and blood lactate concentration ([La] were collected during a standardized HIT protocol consisting in 8 sets of 10, 4-s runs. During HIT, four players could not complete more than 2 sets; the others finished at least 5 sets. Metabolic responses to the 2 first sets of HIT were negatively correlated with VO2max, vVO2max, and VO2τoff SEV (r=-0.6 to -0.8, while there was no clear relationship with the other variables. VO2, oxygenation and [La] responses to the first 2 sets of HIT were the only variables that differed between the players which could complete at least 5 sets or those who could not complete more than 2 sets. Players that managed to run at least 5 sets presented, in comparison with the others, greater v O2max (ES=+1.5(0.4;2.7, MSS(ES=+1.0(0.1;1.9 and training load (ES=+3.8 (2.8;4.9. There was no clear between-group difference in any of the VO2 kinetics measures (e.g., ES=-0.1(-1.4;1.2 for VO2τon SEV. While VO2max and vVO2max are likely determinant for HIT tolerance, the importance of VO2 kinetics as assessed in the present study appears limited in the present population. Knowing the main factors influencing tolerance to high-intensity intermittent running exercise may assist practitioners in personalizing training interventions.

  2. Influence of the oxygen concentration of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 films on the dielectric property and interface trap density (United States)

    Park, Jaehoo; Cho, Moonju; Kim, Seong Keun; Park, Tae Joo; Lee, Suk Woo; Hong, Sug Hun; Hwang, Cheol Seong


    The influence of the ozone concentration (160-370g/m3) during atomic layer deposition of HfO2-gate dielectrics on the dielectric performance of the films grown on Si was studied. Although ozone was effective in reducing the impurity concentration in the film compared to H2O, the higher concentration slightly deteriorated the dielectric performance. More importantly, the degradation in the interface trap property with increasing post-annealing temperature became more serious as the ozone concentration increased. Investigation of the interface states using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the excessive oxygen incorporated during the film growth made the interfacial sub-oxide species (SiO, Si2O3, and silicate) and SiO2 coordinate more with oxygen. This increased the interface trap density and degraded the interface properties.

  3. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda


    and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure...

  4. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration and Iron Addition on Immediate-early Gene Expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Kasama, Takeshi


    in cultures at 0.5% O2 compared to those at higher oxygen tensions. Moreover, expression of katG (catalase-peroxidase gene) and feoB2 (ferrous transport protein B2 gene) was reduced markedly by iron addition, regardless of oxygen conditions. The data provides a greater understanding of molecular response...

  5. Response of export production and dissolved oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zones to pCO2 and temperature stabilization scenarios in the biogeochemical model HAMOCC 2.0 (United States)

    Beaty, Teresa; Heinze, Christoph; Hughlett, Taylor; Winguth, Arne M. E.


    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the ocean is an important component of marine biogeochemical cycles and will be greatly altered as climate change persists. In this study a global oceanic carbon cycle model (HAMOCC 2.0) is used to address how mechanisms of oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) expansion respond to changes in CO2 radiative forcing. Atmospheric pCO2 is increased at a rate of 1 % annually and the model is stabilized at 2 ×, 4 ×, 6 ×, and 8 × preindustrial pCO2 levels. With an increase in CO2 radiative forcing, the OMZ in the Pacific Ocean is controlled largely by changes in particulate organic carbon (POC) export, resulting in increased remineralization and thus expanding the OMZs within the tropical Pacific Ocean. A potential decline in primary producers in the future as a result of environmental stress due to ocean warming and acidification could lead to a substantial reduction in POC export production, vertical POC flux, and thus increased DO concentration particularly in the Pacific Ocean at a depth of 600-800 m. In contrast, the vertical expansion of the OMZs within the Atlantic is linked to increases POC flux as well as changes in oxygen solubility with increasing seawater temperature. Changes in total organic carbon and increase sea surface temperature (SST) also lead to the formation of a new OMZ in the western subtropical Pacific Ocean. The development of the new OMZ results in dissolved oxygen concentration of ≤ 50 µmol kg-1 throughout the equatorial Pacific Ocean at 4 times preindustrial pCO2. Total ocean volume with dissolved oxygen concentrations of ≤ 50 µmol kg-1 increases by 2.4, 5.0, and 10.5 % for the 2 ×, 4 ×, and 8 × CO2 simulations, respectively.

  6. Generation of highly reactive oxygen species by co-adsorption of oxygen and water on metal-supported MgO(100) thinfilms

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Zhenjun


    The formation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) on metal oxide surfaces have attracted considerable interest due to their diverse applications. In this work, we have performed densi-ty-functional theory calculations to investigate the co-adsorption of oxygen and water on ul-trathin MgO(100) films deposited on Mo(100) substrate. We reveal that the molecular oxygen can be stepwise decomposed completely with the assistance of water. Consequently, a series of highly ROS including superoxide, hydroperoxide, hydroxyl and single oxygen adatom are formed on Mo(100) supported MgO(100) thinfilms. The reaction barriers accompanied by the generation of ROS are reported, and the influence of the thickness of MgO(100) films is also discussed. The most promising routes to produce these fascinating species provide valuable information to understand the importance of synergistic effect, namely the substrate, the co-adorbed species, and the film thickness, in multiphase catalyst design.

  7. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H


    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  8. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.


    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  9. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas


    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  10. Effect of oxygen supplementation in a hatchery at high altitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    total ventricle (TV) weight and the RV : TV ratio. The plasma T3 level ... The hypoxic conditions that occurred during the embryonic stage . which altered endogenous functions of prenatal chicks and affected several blood parameters, and oxygen supplementation at high altitude . improved chick quality. However, it did not ...

  11. Coagulation pretreatment of highly concentrated acrylonitrile wastewater from petrochemical plants. (United States)

    Zheng, Dongju; Qin, Lin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Jiding


    Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. Several chemical methods for the pretreatment of AN wastewater are available in laboratory scale. However, the harsh reaction conditions and high operational cost make these methods undesirable. Until now, four-effect evaporation is the only pretreatment method used for AN wastewater in industry despite its huge energy consumption and high cost. It is difficult to find an energy-saving pretreatment technique from the perspective of industrial application. In this study, a safe and low-cost coagulation technique was developed for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. Three types of inorganic coagulant and three types of polymer coagulant were investigated for the coagulation treatment of highly concentrated AN wastewater from petrochemical plants. The effects of coagulant type, dosage, and coagulation conditions on the pretreatment efficiency of AN wastewater were investigated. The results show that a combination of inorganic and polymer coagulants is effective for the pretreatment of AN wastewater.

  12. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin


    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  13. Anaesthesia in a patient with subarachanoidal haemorrhage and high oxygen affinity haemoglobinopathy (HB york: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaca Enrico


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 90 haemoglobinopathies have been identified that result in abnormally high oxygen affinity. One of these is haemoglobinopathy York (HbY, first described in 1976. HbY causes an extreme leftward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve with the P50 value changing to 12.5 - 15.5 mmHg (normal value 26.7 mmHg, indicating that approximately half of the haemoglobin is not available as oxygen carrier. Patients with haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity could suffer from the risk developing ischaemic complications due to a lack of functional oxygen carriers. This is, to best of our knowledge, the first case report on a patient with HbY published in connection with anesthesia. Case Presentation A 42-year-old female with a severe headache and Glasgow coma scale (GCS of 15 was admitted to the neurosurgical intensive care unit with a ruptured, right sided ICA aneurysm with consecutive subarachnoid haemorrhage [Fisher III, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS I]. The medical history of the patient included an erythrocytosis (Hb 17.5 g/dl on the base of a high-oxygen-affinity haemoglobinopathy, called Hb York (HbY. With no time available to take special preoperative precautions, rapid blood loss occurred during the first attempt to clip the aneurysm. General transfusion procedures, according to the guidelines based on haemoglobin and haematocrit values, could not be applied due to the uncertainty in the oxygen carrier reduction. To maintain tissue oxygen supply, clinical indicators of ischaemia were instead utilized to gauge the appropriate required blood products, crystalloids and colloids replacements. Despite this, the patient survived the neurosurgical intervention without any neurological deficit. Conclusions Family members of patients with HbY (and other haemoglobinopathies with increased oxygen affinity should undergo clinical assessment, particularly if they are polycythaemic. If the diagnosis

  14. Effects of transient bottom water currents and oxygen concentrations on benthic exchange rates as assessed by eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Moritz; Glud, Ronnie N.; Doris, Daphne


    Eddy correlation (EC) measurements in the benthic boundary layer (BBL) allow estimating benthic O2 uptake from a point distant to the sediment surface. This noninvasive approach has clear advantages as it does not disturb natural hydrodynamic conditions, integrates the flux over a large foot...... in the bottom water are in steady state, which is seldom the case in highly dynamic environments like coastal waters. Therefore, it is of great importance to estimate the error introduced by nonsteady state conditions. We investigated two cases of transient conditions. First, the case of transient O2...... concentrations was examined using the theory of shear flow dispersion. A theoretical relationship between the change of O2 concentrations and the induced vertical O2 flux is introduced and applied to field measurements showing that changes of 5–10 μM O2 h−1 result in transient EC-fluxes of 6–12 mmol O2 m−2 d−1...

  15. Acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms at high pH and high calcium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Takahiro, E-mail: t-yoshida@rwmc.or.j [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, 2-11-1, Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)


    Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic {sup 14}C compounds in cementitious repositories. Tamagawa river sediment or Teganuma pond sediment was anaerobically cultured with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate at pH 9.5-12 at 30 {sup o}C. After 20 and 90 days, the acetate concentration of the culture medium was analyzed and found to have decreased below 5 mM at pH {<=} 11. On the other hand, it did not decrease when either sediment was incubated in the absence of nitrate. These results suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate under more alkaline conditions than the reported pH range in which nitrate-reducing bacteria can exhibit activity. Acetate biodegradation was also examined at a high calcium concentration. Sediments were anaerobically cultured at pH 9.5 with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate in solution, equilibrated with ordinary Portland cement hydrate, in which the Ca concentration was 14.6 mM. No decrease in acetate concentration after incubation of the sediments was observed, nor was it lower than in the absence of cementitious composition, suggesting that kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms is lowered by a high Ca concentration. - Research highlights: {yields} Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic {sup 14}C compounds in cementitious repositories. {yields} Nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate at pH {<=} 11. {yields} Kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms might be lowered by a high Ca concentration.

  16. Effects of different concentrations of isoflurane pretreatment on respiratory mechanics, oxygenation and hemodynamics in LPS-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome model of juvenile piglets. (United States)

    Fu, Haibin; Sun, Minli; Miao, Changhong


    This study was prospectively designed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of isoflurane (ISO) pretreatment on respiratory mechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) model of juvenile piglets. Twenty-four piglets (9-14 kg, 5-6 weeks old) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6): LPS group, which was injected with LPS (20 μg/kg) to induce ARDS; 0.5 ISO-LPS, 1.0 ISO-LPS, and 1.3 ISO-LPS groups, which were pretreated with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.3 minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) ISO for 30 min before immediate LPS infusion, respectively. After establishment of ARDS, respiratory mechanism, oxygenation and hemodynamics parameters were measured at baseline, and 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after induction of ARDS. After induction of ARDS, there were increases in alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2), oxygenation index (OI), mean airway pressure (MAP), dead space-to-tidal volume ratio, heart rate (HR), dP/dtmax, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary vascular permeability index, and PaCO2, and decreases in PaO2/FIO2, respiratory rate (RR), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) compared with baseline (P(time) respiratory mechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics in piglets with LPS-induced ARDS.

  17. Effects of bottom water oxygen concentrations on mercury distribution and speciation in sediments below the oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Mason, R.P.; Jayachandran, S.; Vudamala, K.; Armoury, K.; Sarkar, Arindam; Chakraborty, S.; Bardhan, P.; Naik, R.

    and introduced into the machine. Controlled heating stages are applied to dry and then thermally decompose the sample. The decomposition products are then carried through a catalyst bed with a continuous flow of oxygen (99.9% pure). The interfering decomposed... stations in Hollweg et al. (2009) had a ratio that was 5-10 times lower than that of the Chesapeake Bay. The results in this study may be attributed to strong complexation reaction of Hg with Corg under suboxic conditions which probably prevented Me...

  18. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment (United States)

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth


    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  19. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  20. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei


    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  1. Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: physiological ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring (United States)

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.


    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [(14)C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations.

  2. High-flow oxygen for treatment of cluster headache: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Cohen, Anna S; Burns, Brian; Goadsby, Peter J


    Cluster headache is an excruciatingly painful primary headache syndrome, with attacks of unilateral pain and cranial autonomic symptoms. The current licensed treatment for acute attacks is subcutaneous sumatriptan. To ascertain whether high-flow inhaled oxygen was superior to placebo in the acute treatment of cluster headache. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 109 adults (aged 18-70 years) with cluster headache as defined by the International Headache Society. Patients treated 4 headache episodes with high-flow inhaled oxygen or placebo, alternately. Patients were randomized to the order in which they received the active treatment or placebo. Patients were recruited and followed up between 2002 and 2007 at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, England. Inhaled oxygen at 100%, 12 L/min, delivered by face mask, for 15 minutes at the start of an attack of cluster headache or high-flow air placebo delivered alternately for 4 attacks. The primary end point was to render the patient pain free, or in the absence of a diary to have adequate relief, at 15 minutes. Secondary end points included rendering the patient pain free at 30 minutes, reduction in pain up to 60 minutes, need for rescue medication 15 minutes after treatment, overall response to the treatment and overall functional disability, and effect on associated symptoms. Fifty-seven patients with episodic cluster headache and 19 with chronic cluster headache were available for the analysis. For the primary end point the difference between oxygen, 78% (95% confidence interval, 71%-85% for 150 attacks) and air, 20% (95% confidence interval, 14%-26%; for 148 attacks) was significant (Wald test, chi(5)(2) = 66.7, P Treatment of patients with cluster headache at symptom onset using inhaled high-flow oxygen compared with placebo was more likely to result in being pain-free at 15 minutes. Identifier: ISRCTN94092997.

  3. High altitude genetic adaptation in Tibetans: no role of increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity


    Tashi, Tsewang; Feng, Tang; Koul, Parvaiz; Amaru, Ricardo; Hussey, Dottie; Lorenzo, Felipe R.; Rili, Ge; Prchal, Josef T.


    High altitude exerts selective evolutionary pressure primarily due to its hypoxic environment, resulting in multiple adaptive responses. High hemoglobin-oxygen affinity is postulated to be one such adaptive change, which has been reported in Sherpas of the Himalayas. Tibetans have lived on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau for thousands of years and have developed unique phenotypes, such as protection from polycythemia which has been linked to PDH2 mutation, resulting in downregulation of HIF pathw...

  4. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT


    Alexis Espinoza Salinas; Raúl Aguilera Eguía; Cristian Cofre Bolados; Edson Zafra Santos; Gustavo Pavéz Von Martens


    Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR), low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT) in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxyg...

  5. Damage induced by high energy multiply charged oxygen ions in oxide coated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)]. E-mail:; Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kulkarni, V.R. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Bogle, K.A. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Shinde, N.S. [Ecotopia Science Institute, Division of Energy Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)


    P-type oxide coated silicon samples of resistivity 120 {omega} cm were irradiated with 60 MeV oxygen ions of fixed charge states 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}, 6{sup +} and 7{sup +} at an equal fluence of, {phi}, {approx}10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The induced damage was estimated by Hall voltage, Hall coefficient, carrier concentration and lifetime of minority carriers. The results indicate that Hall voltage (V {sub H}) and Hall coefficient (R {sub H}) increases, while carrier concentration (n) decreases with the charge state of impinging oxygen ions. The V {sub H} increases from 22 mV to 76.5 mV at typical current of 0.5 mA, R {sub H} from 0.42 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 3}/C to 2.16 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 3}/C and n decreases from 9 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} to 2.88 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for the different charge states. This fact is an evidence that the oxygen ions with an individual fixed charge state passing through very thin 40 A layer of silicon dioxide, induces significant damage at the SiO{sub 2}-Si interface through the mechanism of electronic stopping power. The lifetime of minority charge carriers, {tau} (bulk property), remains constant at around 6 {mu}s for all the charge states of the 60 MeV energy oxygen ion irradiated samples at a constant fluence of, {phi}, 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Oxygen deficient ZnO 1-x nanosheets with high visible light photocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Guo, Hong-Li; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Xie, Xiao; Xu, An-Wu


    Zinc oxide is one of the most important wide-band-gap (3.2 eV) materials with versatile properties, however, it can not be excited by visible light. In this work, we have developed an exquisite and simple way to prepare oxygen-deficient ZnO 1-x nanosheets with a gray-colored appearance and excellent visible light photocatalytic activity. Detailed analysis based on UV-Vis absorption spectra, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra confirms the existence of oxygen vacancies in ZnO 1-x. The incorporation of oxygen defects could effectively extend the light absorption of ZnO 1-x into the visible-light region due to the fact that the energy of the localized state is located in the forbidden gap. Thus, our obtained ZnO 1-x shows a higher photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) compared to defect-free ZnO under visible light illumination. Additionally, the high content of ˙OH radicals with a strong photo-oxidation capability over the ZnO 1-x nanosheets significantly contributes to the improvement in the photocatalytic performance. Our oxygen deficient ZnO 1-x sample shows a very high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO even after 5 cycles without any obvious decline. The results demonstrate that defect engineering is a powerful tool to enhance the optoelectronic and photocatalytic performances of nanomaterials.

  7. Ultra-small, highly stable, and membrane-impermeable fluorescent nanosensors for oxygen. (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Dong; Stolwijk, Judith A; Sperber, Michaela; Meier, Robert J; Wegener, Joachim; Wolfbeis, Otto S


    We report on the preparation of ultra-small fluorescent nanosensors for oxygen via a one-pot approach. The nanoparticles have a hydrophobic core capable of firmly hosting hydrophobic luminescent oxygen probes. Their surface is composed of a dense and long-chain poly(ethylene glycol) shell, which renders them cell-membrane impermeable but yet highly sensitive to oxygen, and also highly stable in aqueous solutions and cell culture media. These features make them potentially suitable for sensing oxygen in extracellular fluids such as blood, interstitial and brain fluid, in (micro) bioreactors and micro- or nanoscale fluidic devices. Four kinds of nanosensors are presented, whose excitation spectra cover a wide spectral range (395-630 nm), thus matching many common laser lines, and with emission maxima ranging from 565 to 800 nm, thereby minimizing interference from background luminescence of biomatter. The unquenched lifetimes are on the order of 5.8-234 μs, which-in turn-enables lifetime imaging and additional background separation via time-gated methods.

  8. Effect of phytoremediation on concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 1998–2014 (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Effinger, Thomas N.


    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site near Charleston, South Carolina, USA, have been monitored since the installation of a phytoremediation system of hybrid poplar trees in 1998. Between 2000 and 2014, the concentrations of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene (BT&N) in groundwater in the planted area have decreased. For example, in the monitoring well containing the highest concentrations of BT&N, benzene concentrations decreased from 10,200 µg/L to less than 4000 µg/L, toluene concentrations decreased from 2420 µg/L to less than 20 µg/L, and naphthalene concentrations decreased from 6840 µg/L to less than 3000 µg/L. Concentrations of BT&N in groundwater in all wells were observed to be lower during the summer months relative to the winter months of a particular year during the first few years after installing the phytoremediation system, most likely due to increased transpiration and contaminant uptake by the hybrid poplar trees during the warm summer months; this pathway of uptake by trees was confirmed by the detection of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene in trees during sampling events in 2002, and later in the study in 2012. These data suggest that the phytoremediation system affects the groundwater contaminants on a seasonal basis and, over multiple years, has resulted in a cumulative decrease in dissolved-phase contaminant concentrations in groundwater. The removal of dissolved organic contaminants from the aquifer has resulted in a lower demand on dissolved oxygen supplied by recharge and, as a result, the redox status of the groundwater has changed from anoxic to oxic conditions. This study provides much needed information for water managers and other scientists on the viability of the long-term effectiveness of phytoremediation in decreasing groundwater contaminants and increasing dissolved oxygen at sites contaminated by benzene, toluene, and naphthalene.

  9. High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Severe winter meteorological conditions promote dense water formation over the shelves of the North Aegean Sea. The newly formed dense water fills the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, contributing to their ventilation and the downward transport of organic and inorganic material. The great bathymetric variability imposes limitations on the deep circulation and the communication between the various basins and makes the North Aegean Sea an appropriate area for the monitoring of oxygen consumption in the deep layers. Historical hydrographic data suggest that there was extensive production of dense water in the North Aegean Sea on two occasions during the last decade, the winters of 1987 and 1992-1993. Our data series from August 1986 to September 1989 and from March 1997 to February 1999, permitted us to follow, step by step, the oxygen consumption and the nutrient regeneration in the deep basins of the northern Aegean Sea during these periods of isolation. The organic matter reaching the bottom layer just after the deep water formation event is rich in labile and easily oxidizable material and its decomposition leads to a significant oxygen uptake during the first year of stagnation. The further decomposition of the remaining semi-labile and refractory material turns over on greater time scales, by consuming lesser amounts of oxygen. A more significant oxygen decrease is recorded in the eastern basin (Lemnos Basin of the North Aegean Trough, than in the central (Athos Basin and the western (North Sporades Basin ones and is attributed to the irregular contribution of the Black Sea Water (BSW to the water masses formed on the different shelves of the North Aegean Sea. Our results and the existing data on the Turkish straits showed that dissolved organic matter is the major constituent responsible for this high oxygen consumption. The slightly different particulate organic carbon fluxes to these depressions play a secondary role.

  10. Carbon Nanofibers Modified Graphite Felt for High Performance Anode in High Substrate Concentration Microbial Fuel Cells (United States)

    Shen, Youliang; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Shuiliang; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Suqi; Hou, Haoqing


    Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF) composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm−2 at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm−2, was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration. PMID:24883348

  11. Carbon nanofibers modified graphite felt for high performance anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Shen, Youliang; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Shuiliang; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Suqi; Hou, Haoqing


    Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF) composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm(-2) at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm(-2), was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration.

  12. Modeling, simulation, and high-autonomy control of a Martian oxygen production plant (United States)

    Schooley, L. C.; Cellier, F. E.; Wang, F.-Y.; Zeigler, B. P.


    Progress on a project for the development of a high-autonomy intelligent command and control architecture for process plants used to produce oxygen from local planetary resources is reported. A distributed command and control architecture is being developed and implemented so that an oxygen production plant, or other equipment, can be reliably commanded and controlled over an extended time period in a high-autonomy mode with high-level task-oriented teleoperation from one or several remote locations. During the reporting period, progress was made at all levels of the architecture. At the remote site, several remote observers can now participate in monitoring the plant. At the local site, a command and control center was introduced for increased flexibility, reliability, and robustness. The local control architecture was enhanced to control multiple tubes in parallel, and was refined for increased robustness. The simulation model was enhanced to full dynamics descriptions.

  13. Mixing effects on nitrogen and oxygen concentrations and the relationship to mean residence time in a hyporheic zone of a riffle-pool sequence (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Clinton Davis,


    Flow paths and residence times in the hyporheic zone are known to influence biogeochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification. The exchange across the sediment-water interface may involve mixing of surface water and groundwater through complex hyporheic flow paths that contribute to highly variable biogeochemically active zones. Despite the recognition of these patterns in the literature, conceptualization and analysis of flow paths and nitrogen transformations beneath riffle-pool sequences often neglect to consider bed form driven exchange along the entire reach. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) were monitored in the hyporheic zone beneath a riffle-pool sequence on a losing section of the Truckee River, NV. Spatially-varying hyporheic exchange and the occurrence of multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells are shown to influence concentrations of DO and NO3- and the mean residence time (MRT) of riffle and pool areas. Distinct patterns observed in piezometers are shown to be influenced by the first large flow event following a steady 8 month period of low flow conditions. Increases in surface water discharge resulted in reversed hydraulic gradients and production of nitrate through nitrification at small vertical spatial scales (0.10 to 0.25 m) beneath the sediment-water interface. In areas with high downward flow rates and low MRT, denitrification may be limited. The use of a longitudinal two-dimensional flow model helped identify important mechanisms such as multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells and spatially varying MRT, an important driver for nitrogen transformation in the riverbed. Our observations of DO and NO3- concentrations and model simulations highlight the role of multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells on MRT and nitrogen transformations in the hyporheic zone of riffle-pool sequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  15. [Influence of centrophenoxin administered for one year in high dose on maximal oxygen consumption in aged persons (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Schmid, P; Schlick, W


    The influence of centrophenoxin (meclofenoxate) administration in a high daily dosage of 3 grams has been investigated in 10 persons with a mean age of 64 throughout 12 months. The mean age of the control group was 59. The function of bone marrow and a number of indicators of renal and hepatic function has shown no harmful changes after this long term treatment with an extremely high daily dosage. To investigate a possible influence on aging we chose the oral glucose tolerance test, a test battery for pulmonary function and the maximum oxygen consumption capacity. A highly significant (2P smaller than 0,335) influence of the drug for increasing the maximum oxygen input has been found. The hypothesis is presented, that this effect is due to an increase in cardiac functional capacity. Furthermore a significant decrease in fasting glucose levels has been found, while the glucose concentration one and two hours after administration of 100 grams of oral glucose have shown no significant changes. Body weight revealed a small but significant decrease. Side effects: we found a mild gastric pain in 4 patients that disappeared after 20 minutes. 5 Patients complained of a very small increase in jitteriness.

  16. High performance solution-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by oxygen plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.


    Solution-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors(TFTs) with high performance were fabricated using O2-plasma treatment of the films prior to high temperature annealing. The O2-plasma treatment resulted in a decrease in oxygen vacancy and residual hydrocarbon concentration in the a-IGZO films, as well as an improvement in the dielectric/channel interfacial roughness. As a result, the TFTs with O2-plasma treated a-IGZO channel layers showed three times higher linear field-effect mobility compared to the untreated a-IGZO over a range of processing temperatures. The O2-plasma treatment effectively reduces the required processing temperature of solution-deposited a-IGZO films to achieve the required performance.

  17. An Automatic High Efficient Method for Dish Concentrator Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang


    for the alignment of faceted solar dish concentrator. The isosceles triangle configuration of facet’s footholds determines a fixed relation between light spot displacements and foothold movements, which allows an automatic determination of the amount of adjustments. Tests on a 25 kW Stirling Energy System dish concentrator verify the feasibility, accuracy, and efficiency of our method.

  18. Crystal Structures and Electronic Properties of Oxygen-rich Titanium Oxides at High Pressure. (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Qu, Xin; Wang, Yanchao; Yang, Jinghai; Ma, Yanming


    Pressure is well-known to significantly change the bonding patterns of materials and lift the reactivity of elements, leading to the synthesis of unconventional compounds with fascinating properties. Titanium-oxygen (Ti-O) compounds (e.g., TiO 2 ) are attracting increasing attention due to their attractive electronic properties and extensive industrial applications (e.g., photocatalysis and solar cells). Using the effective CALYPSO structure searching method combined with first-principles calculations, we theoretically explored various oxygen-rich Ti-O compounds at pressures ranging from 0 to 200 GPa. Our results revealed, unexpectedly, that pressure stabilizes two hitherto unknown stoichiometric oxygen-rich Ti 2 O 5 and TiO 3 compounds. Ti 2 O 5 crystallized in P-42 1 c structure, whose remarkable feature is that it contains a peroxide group (O2 2- ) with an O-O distance of 1.38 Å at 150 GPa. The trioxide TiO 3 is an ionic metal and is the oxygen-richest compound known thus far in the Ti-O system. It adopts a high symmetry (space group Pm-3n) structure consisting of a 12-fold coordinated face-sharing TiO 12 icosahedron, where Ti has the highest coordination number with O among all Ti-O structures. The underlying mechanisms for the stabilization of Ti 2 O 5 and TiO 3 lie in the higher coordination number and denser structure packing. Our current results unravel the unusual oxygen-rich stoichiometry of Ti-O compounds and provide further insight into the diverse electronic properties of Ti oxides under high pressure.

  19. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.


    [1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide...... a trusted subset of the SAR scenes across the central Arctic allow the separation of the ice concentration uncertainty due to emissivity variations and sensor noise from other error sources during the winter of 2003-2004. Depending on the algorithm, error standard deviations from 2.5 to 5.0% are found...... with sensor noise between 1.3 and 1.8%. This is in accord with variability estimated from analysis of SSM/I time series. Algorithms, which primarily use 85 GHz information, consistently give the best agreement with both SAR ice concentrations and ship observations. Although the 85 GHz information is more...

  20. Design philosophy and construction of a high concentration compound parabolic concentrator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Roos_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19653 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Roos_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 THE DESIGN PHILOSOPHY AND CONSTRUCTION... and actual efficiency will be determined using a hemispherical cavity calorimeter. Keywords: CPC, compound parabolic concentrator, sandwich 1. Introduction A 25m2 target-aligned research heliostat has been developed at CSIR [1] to provide the concentrated...

  1. Effects of Acute Bleeding Followed by Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 or a Crystalloid on Propofol Concentrations, Cerebral Oxygenation, and Electroencephalographic and Haemodynamic Variables in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Silva


    Full Text Available Bleeding changes the haemodynamics, compromising organ perfusion. In this study, the effects of bleeding followed by replacement with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES or lactated Ringer’s (LR on cerebral oxygenation and electroencephalogram-derived parameters were investigated. Twelve young pigs under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia were bled 30 mL/kg and, after a 20-minute waiting period, volume replacement was performed with HES (GHES; N=6 or LR (GRL; N=6. Bleeding caused a decrease of more than 50% in mean arterial pressure (P<0.01 and a decrease in cerebral oximetry (P=0.039, bispectral index, and electroencephalogram total power (P=0.04 and P<0.01, resp., while propofol plasma concentrations increased (P<0.01. Both solutions restored the haemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation similarly and were accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram total power. No differences between groups were found. However, one hour after the end of the volume replacement, the cardiac output (P=0.03 and the cerebral oxygenation (P=0.008 decreased in the GLR and were significantly lower than in GHES (P=0.02. Volume replacement with HES 130/0.4 was capable of maintaining the cardiac output and cerebral oxygenation during a longer period than LR and caused a decrease in the propofol plasma concentrations.

  2. Oxidation reduction potential as a parameter to regulate micro-oxygen injection into anaerobic digester for reducing hydrogen sulphide concentration in biogas. (United States)

    Nghiem, Long D; Manassa, Patrick; Dawson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Shona K


    This study aims to evaluate the use of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) to regulate the injection of a small amount of oxygen into an anaerobic digester for reducing H2S concentration in biogas. The results confirm that micro-oxygen injection can be effective for controlling H2S formation during anaerobic digestion without disturbing the performance of the digester. Biogas production, composition, and the removal of volatile solids (VS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were monitored to assessment the digester's performance. Six days after the start of the micro-oxygen injection, the ORP values increased to between -320 and -270 mV, from the natural baseline value of -485 mV. Over the same period the H2S concentration in the biogas decreased from over 6000 ppm to just 30 ppm. No discernible changes in the VS and COD removal rates, pH and alkalinity of the digestate or in the biogas production or composition were observed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Time needed to achieve changes in oxygen concentration at the T-Piece resuscitator during respiratory support in preterm infants in the delivery room. (United States)

    Follett, Graeme; Cheung, Po-Yin; Pichler, Gerhard; Aziz, Khalid; Schmölzer, Georg M


    To measure the time needed to achieve changes in fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2) from the oxygen blender to the facemask during simulated neonatal resuscitation. Two oxygen analyzers were placed at each end of the T-Piece. During simulated ventilation, the duration to achieve the set oxygen concentration at the facemask was measured. This was repeated at different gas flow rates (5 L/min, 8 L/min or 10 L/min) and different FiO2 changes (0.21 to 1.0 to 0.21, with stepwise increases and decreases in 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 increments). A total of 1134 measurements (378 measurements for each flow) were recorded. Overall, the mean (± SD) time required to achieve FiO2 changes at 5 L/min, 8 L/min and 10 L/min was 36±15 s, 31±14 s and 28±14 s, respectively. There was a lag time of approximately 30 s to achieve the FiO2 at the facemask. This delay needs to be considered when making serial adjustments to FiO2 during neonatal resuscitation.

  4. Biomass-oxygen gasification in a high-temperature entrained-flow gasifier. (United States)

    Zhou, Jinsong; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Hui; Cao, Xiaowei; Mei, Qinfeng; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa


    The technology associated with indirect biomass liquefaction is currently arousing increased attention, as it could ensure a supply of transportation fuels and reduce the use of petroleum. The characteristics of biomass-oxygen gasification in a bench-scale laminar entrained-flow gasifier were studied in the paper. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of some key factors, including reaction temperature, residence time and oxygen/biomass ratio, on the gasification. The results indicated that higher temperature favored H2 and CO production. Cold gas efficiency was improved by N10% when the temperature was increased from 1000 to 1400 degrees C. The carbon conversion increased and the syngas quality was improved with increasing residence time. A shorter residence resulted in incomplete gasification. An optimal residence time of 1.6 s was identified in this study. The introduction of oxygen to the gasifier strengthened the gasification and improved the carbon conversion, but lowered the lower heating value and the H2/CO ratio of the syngas. The optimal oxygen/biomass ratio in this study was 0.4. The results of this study will help to improve our understanding of syngas production by biomass high-temperature gasification.

  5. Nanoporous PtFe alloys as highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (United States)

    Duan, Huimei; Hao, Qin; Xu, Caixia


    Nanoporous PtFe alloys with two different bimetallic ratios are fabricated by selectively dealloying PtFeAl ternary alloys, characterized by nanoscaled bicontinuous network skeleton with interconnected hollow channels extending in all three dimensions. The reactive components in PtFeAl ternary alloy were sequentially leached out in a highly controllable manner, generating nanoporous architecture with different bimetallic ratios and the typical ligament size as small as 5 nm. These nanoporous PtFe alloys exhibit much enhanced electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction compared with the PtFe/C and Pt/C catalysts. The specific and mass activities for oxygen reduction follow the order of nanoporous Pt75Fe25 > nanoporous Pt55Fe45 > PtFe/C > Pt/C. In the absence of any catalyst support, the structure stability of nanoporous PtFe alloys is greatly enhanced with less loss of the electrochemical surface area and the oxygen reduction activity upon long-term potential scan tests compared with PtFe/C and Pt/C catalysts. The as-made nanoporous PtFe alloys thus hold great application potential as promising cathode electrocatalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells with the advantages of easy preparation along with superior oxygen reduction activity and durability.

  6. Humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen in bronchiolitis reduces need for invasive ventilation but not intensive care admission. (United States)

    Goh, Chong Tien; Kirby, Lynette J; Schell, David N; Egan, Jonathan R


    To describe the changes to paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission patterns and ventilation requirements for children with bronchiolitis following the introduction of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen outside the PICU. Retrospective study comparing patients high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use (year 2008) to those immediately following the introduction of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use (year 2011) and those following further consolidation of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use outside the PICU (year 2013). Humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use up to 1 L/kg/min in the hospital did not reduce PICU admission. Intubation rates were reduced from 22.2% in 2008 to 7.8% in 2013. There was a non-significant trend towards decreased length of stay in the PICU while hospital length of stay showed a significant decrease following the introduction of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen. Age high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. Humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen utilised outside of the PICU in our institution for children with bronchiolitis did not reduce admission rates or length of stay to the PICU but was associated with a decreasing need for invasive ventilation and reduced hospital length of stay. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.


    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  8. Differential concentration-specific effects of caffeine on cell viability, oxidative stress, and cell cycle in pulmonary oxygen toxicity in vitro. (United States)

    Tiwari, Kirti Kumar; Chu, Chun; Couroucli, Xanthi; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Lingappan, Krithika


    Caffeine is used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature neonates. Hyperoxia contributes to the development of BPD, inhibits cell proliferation and decreases cell survival. The mechanisms responsible for the protective effect of caffeine in pulmonary oxygen toxicity remain largely unknown. A549 and MLE 12 pulmonary epithelial cells were exposed to hyperoxia or maintained in room air, in the presence of different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 1mM) of caffeine. Caffeine had a differential concentration-specific effect on cell cycle progression, oxidative stress and viability, with 1mM concentration being deleterious and 0.05 mM being protective. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during hyperoxia was modulated by caffeine in a similar concentration-specific manner. Caffeine at 1mM, but not at the 0.05 mM concentration decreased the G2 arrest in these cells. Taken together this study shows the novel funding that caffeine has a concentration-specific effect on cell cycle regulation, ROS generation, and cell survival in hyperoxic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential concentration-specific effects of caffeine on cell viability, oxidative stress, and cell cycle in pulmonary oxygen toxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Kirti Kumar; Chu, Chun; Couroucli, Xanthi; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Caffeine at 0.05 mM decreases oxidative stress in hyperoxia. • Caffeine at 1 mM decreases cell viability, increases oxidative stress in hyperoxia. • Caffeine at 1 but not 0.05 mM, abrogates hyperoxia-induced G2/M arrest. - Abstract: Caffeine is used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature neonates. Hyperoxia contributes to the development of BPD, inhibits cell proliferation and decreases cell survival. The mechanisms responsible for the protective effect of caffeine in pulmonary oxygen toxicity remain largely unknown. A549 and MLE 12 pulmonary epithelial cells were exposed to hyperoxia or maintained in room air, in the presence of different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 mM) of caffeine. Caffeine had a differential concentration-specific effect on cell cycle progression, oxidative stress and viability, with 1 mM concentration being deleterious and 0.05 mM being protective. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during hyperoxia was modulated by caffeine in a similar concentration-specific manner. Caffeine at 1 mM, but not at the 0.05 mM concentration decreased the G2 arrest in these cells. Taken together this study shows the novel funding that caffeine has a concentration-specific effect on cell cycle regulation, ROS generation, and cell survival in hyperoxic conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Takuya; Ono, Yoshiaki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Lee, Janice C., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present results from Keck/NIRSPEC and Magellan/MMIRS follow-up spectroscopy of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.2 identified in our Subaru narrowband survey. We successfully detect H{alpha} emission from seven LAEs, and perform a detailed analysis of six LAEs free from active galactic nucleus activity, two out of which, CDFS-3865 and COSMOS-30679, have [O II] and [O III] line detections. They are the first [O II]-detected LAEs at high-z, and their [O III]/[O II] ratios and R23-indices provide the first simultaneous determinations of ionization parameter and oxygen abundance for LAEs. CDFS-3865 has a very high ionization parameter (q{sub ion}=2.5{sup +1.7}{sub -0.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1}) and a low oxygen abundance (12+ log (O/H)=7.84{sup +0.24}{sub -0.25}) in contrast with moderate values of other high-z galaxies such as Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). COSMOS-30679 also possesses a relatively high ionization parameter (q{sub ion}=8{sup +10}{sub -4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} cm s{sup -1}) and a low oxygen abundance (12+ log (O/H)=8.18{sup +0.28}{sub -0.28}). Both LAEs appear to fall below the mass-metallicity relation of z {approx} 2 LBGs. Similarly, a low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) < 8.4 is independently indicated for typical LAEs from a composite spectrum and the [N II]/H{alpha} index. Such high ionization parameters and low oxygen abundances can be found in local star-forming galaxies, but this extreme local population occupies only {approx}0.06% of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic galaxy sample with a number density {approx}100 times smaller than that of LAEs. With their high ionization parameters and low oxygen abundances, LAEs would represent an early stage of galaxy formation dominated by massive stars in compact star-forming regions. High-q{sub ion} galaxies like LAEs would produce ionizing photons efficiently with a high escape fraction achieved by density-bounded H II regions, which would significantly contribute to

  11. Dissolved oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the waters of Botany Bay and Georges and Cooks Rivers vary mainly as a result of tidal water movements, algal and macrophytic growth and decay, and effects of storms...

  12. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit


    The tight relation between arterial oxygen content and maximum oxygen uptake (Vv(o2max)within a given person at sea level is diminished with altitude acclimatization. An explanation often suggested for this mismatch is impairment of the muscle O(2) extraction capacity with chronic hypoxia......, and is the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4,100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial muscle...... O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia...

  13. Numerical analysis of the effects of a high gradient magnetic field on flowing erythrocytes in a membrane oxygenator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori, E-mail:; Okamoto, Eiji, E-mail:


    This study was carried out to clarify the effect of a high gradient magnetic field on pressure characteristics of blood in a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator in a solenoid coil by means of numerical analysis. Deoxygenated erythrocytes are paramagnetic, and oxygenated erythrocytes are diamagnetic. Blood changes its magnetic susceptibility depending on whether it is carrying oxygen or not. Motion of blood was analyzed by solving the continuous equation and the Navier–Stokes equation. It was confirmed that oxygenation of deoxygenated blood in the downstream side of the applied magnetic field was effective for pressure rise in a non-uniform magnetic field. The pressure rise was enhanced greatly by an increase in magnetic field intensity. The results suggest that a membrane oxygenator works as an actuator and there is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator in a non-uniform magnetic field. - Highlights: • Effects of a gradient magnetic field on erythrocytes in an oxygenator were analyzed. • Blood changes magnetic susceptibility depending on if it is carrying oxygen or not. • Oxygenation of deoxygenated blood is effective for pressure rise in a magnetic field. • A membrane oxygenator works as an actuator. • There is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator.

  14. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda


    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure...

  15. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  16. Perioperative high inspired oxygen fraction therapy reduces surgical site infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats. (United States)

    Kroin, Jeffrey S; Li, Jinyuan; Goldufsky, Josef W; Gupta, Kajal H; Moghtaderi, Masoomeh; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Shafikhani, Sasha H


    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections, accounting for ~17 % of all hospital-acquired infections. Although short-term perioperative treatment with high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) has shown clinical benefits in reducing SSI in colorectal resection surgeries, the true clinical benefits of FiO2 therapy in reducing SSI remain unclear because randomized controlled trials on this topic have yielded disparate results and inconsistent conclusions. To date, no animal study has been conducted to determine the efficacy of short-term perioperative treatments with high (FiO2>60 %) versus low (FiO2oxygen in reducing SSI. In this report, we designed a rat model for muscle surgery to compare the effectiveness of short-term perioperative treatments with high (FiO2=80 %) versus a standard low (FiO2=30 %) oxygen in reducing SSI with Pseudomonas aeruginosa - one of the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogens, responsible for nosocomial SSIs. Our data demonstrate that 5 h perioperative treatment with 80 % FiO2 is significantly more effective in reducing SSI with P. aeruginosa compared to 30 % FiO2 treatment. We further show that whilst 80 % FiO2 treatment does not affect neutrophil infiltration into P. aeruginosa-infected muscles, neutrophils in the 80 % FiO2-treated and infected animal group are significantly more activated than neutrophils in the 30 % FiO2-treated and infected animal group, suggesting that high oxygen perioperative treatment reduces SSI with P. aeruginosa by enhancing neutrophil activation in infected wounds.

  17. High-performance platinized carbon electrodes for oxygen reduction in power sources with alkaline electrolytes (United States)

    Manoharan, R.; Sarma, D. D.; Shukla, A. K.

    A high-performance, oxygen-reducing electrode, made from physically and chemically tailored coconut-shell charcoal substrate catalysed with 7 wt.% platinum, is reported. The electrode can be loaded with current densities of 2000 - 5200 A/m 2, with negligible deterioration, for periods of up to 1200 h. Extensive electron spectroscopic studies have been conducted to characterise the electroactive species present on the surface of the electrodes during service.

  18. Survival and recovery of apheresis platelets stored in a polyolefin container with high oxygen permeability. (United States)

    Ezuki, S; Kanno, T; Ohto, H; Herschel, L; Ito, T; Kawabata, K; Seino, O; Ikeda, K; Nollet, K E


    Oxygen permeability is important in platelet storage media. We compared a new polyolefin container with enhanced oxygen permeability (PO-80; Kawasumi, Tokyo, Japan) to a widely used alternative (PL2410; Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, USA). In vitro characteristics of paired platelet concentrates (PCs; mean 4.2 x 10(11)/250 ml plasma/bag) stored in PO-80 or PL2410 were assessed through 9 days of storage. In vivo recovery and survival of 7-day-old autologous PCs were assessed according to the Murphy method. Laboratory assessment of platelet quality favoured PO-80 during 9 days of storage with statistically significant differences in glucose consumption (2.75 vs. 4.93 mmol/10(12)/24 h in the interval 120-168 h), lactate generation (4.37 vs. 8.11 mmol/10(12)/24 h in the interval 120-168 h), pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) (59.3 vs. 38.1 mmHg at day 1), and HCO(3)(-) (14.7 vs. 13.4 mmol/l at day 1). Statistically significant differences were not seen in aggregation, hypotonic shock response or pH. In vivo assessment of autologous platelets stored 7 days in the PO-80 container revealed that recovery was 82.1% and survival was 81.0% of fresh control. Seven-day stored PCs in PO-80 were shown in vivo to be non-inferior to fresh platelets, with upper confidence limits (UCL(95)) in recovery and survival of stored PCs below the maximum acceptable difference (MAD); 15.3% UCL(95) oxygen-permeable container were stable at least 7 days. The in vivo study supports the suitability of PO-80 for 7-day platelet storage.

  19. Highly branched platinum nanolance assemblies by polyallylamine functionalization as superior active, stable, and alcohol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalysts (United States)

    Fu, Gengtao; Jiang, Xian; Gong, Mingxing; Chen, Yu; Tang, Yawen; Lin, Jun; Lu, Tianhong


    The chemical functionalization of platinum (Pt) nanostructures is becoming a new trend in electrocatalysts designs. Meanwhile, highly branched Pt nanostructures are highly exciting electrocatalysts with high activity and stability owing to their specific physical and chemical properties. In this work, the polyallylamine (PAH) functionalized Pt nanolance assemblies (Pt NLAs) have been successfully synthesized by chemical reduction of PAH-PtII complex using formaldehyde (HCHO) in a two-phase water-complex system. The as-prepared Pt NLAs are highly branched and three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected nanostructures, which are composed of many long Pt nanolances in various directions. PAH functionalization improves the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt NLAs for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) because of high interface proton concentration on the Pt surface and excellent anti-oxidation ability of the Pt nanolances. Meanwhile, the PAH molecules bound on the Pt NLAs surface act as barrier networks to restrain accessibility of alcohol, exhibiting a high ORR selectivity. In addition, the PAH functionalized Pt NLAs show excellent durability for the ORR due to their particular 3D interconnected structure. The work demonstrates that the PAH functionalized Pt NLAs are indeed promising cathodic electrocatalysts for practical application in direct alcohol fuel cells.The chemical functionalization of platinum (Pt) nanostructures is becoming a new trend in electrocatalysts designs. Meanwhile, highly branched Pt nanostructures are highly exciting electrocatalysts with high activity and stability owing to their specific physical and chemical properties. In this work, the polyallylamine (PAH) functionalized Pt nanolance assemblies (Pt NLAs) have been successfully synthesized by chemical reduction of PAH-PtII complex using formaldehyde (HCHO) in a two-phase water-complex system. The as-prepared Pt NLAs are highly branched and three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected nanostructures

  20. High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael J. Currie; Jonathan K. Mapel; Timothy D. Heidel; Shalom Goffri; Marc A. Baldo


    The cost of photovoltaic power can be reduced with organic solar concentrators. These are planar waveguides with a thin-film organic coating on the face and inorganic solar cells attached to the edges...

  1. Prediction of dissolved oxygen concentration in hypoxic river systems using support vector machine: a case study of Wen-Rui Tang River, China. (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoliang; Shang, Xu; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua


    Accurate quantification of dissolved oxygen (DO) is critically important for managing water resources and controlling pollution. Artificial intelligence (AI) models have been successfully applied for modeling DO content in aquatic ecosystems with limited data. However, the efficacy of these AI models in predicting DO levels in the hypoxic river systems having multiple pollution sources and complicated pollutants behaviors is unclear. Given this dilemma, we developed a promising AI model, known as support vector machine (SVM), to predict the DO concentration in a hypoxic river in southeastern China. Four different calibration models, specifically, multiple linear regression, back propagation neural network, general regression neural network, and SVM, were established, and their prediction accuracy was systemically investigated and compared. A total of 11 hydro-chemical variables were used as model inputs. These variables were measured bimonthly at eight sampling sites along the rural-suburban-urban portion of Wen-Rui Tang River from 2004 to 2008. The performances of the established models were assessed through the mean square error (MSE), determination coefficient (R 2 ), and Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model efficiency. The results indicated that the SVM model was superior to other models in predicting DO concentration in Wen-Rui Tang River. For SVM, the MSE, R 2 , and NS values for the testing subset were 0.9416 mg/L, 0.8646, and 0.8763, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that ammonium-nitrogen was the most significant input variable of the proposal SVM model. Overall, these results demonstrated that the proposed SVM model can efficiently predict water quality, especially for highly impaired and hypoxic river systems.

  2. Ozone concentration characteristics at a high-elevation forest site (United States)

    G. Wooldridge; K. Zeller; R. Musselman


    Atmospheric ozone concentrations have been monitored at a subalpine forest ecosystem site, 3180m above mean sea level (msl), and at a 2680m msl forest-steppe ecotone site 15km to the southeast. Ozone concentrations were monitored at three heights above the ground on a 30m tower at the higher elevation site, and on a 10m tower in a large meadow downwind of this site....

  3. Pilot plant demonstration of stable and efficient high rate biological nutrient removal with low dissolved oxygen conditions. (United States)

    Keene, Natalie A; Reusser, Steve R; Scarborough, Matthew J; Grooms, Alan L; Seib, Matt; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Noguera, Daniel R


    Aeration in biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes accounts for nearly half of the total electricity costs at many wastewater treatment plants. Even though conventional BNR processes are usually operated to have aerated zones with high dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, recent research has shown that nitrification can be maintained using very low-DO concentrations (e.g., below 0.2 mg O2/L), and therefore, it may be possible to reduce energy use and costs in BNR facilities by decreasing aeration. However, the effect of reduced aeration on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is not understood. In this study, we investigated, at the pilot-scale level, the effect of using minimal aeration on the performance of an EBPR process. Over a 16-month operational period, we performed stepwise decreases in aeration, reaching an average DO concentration of 0.33 mg O2/L with stable operation and nearly 90% phosphorus removal. Under these low-DO conditions, nitrification efficiency was maintained, and nearly 70% of the nitrogen was denitrified, without the need for internal recycling of high nitrate aeration basin effluent to the anoxic zone. At the lowest DO conditions used, we estimate a 25% reduction in energy use for aeration compared to conventional BNR operation. Our improved understanding of the efficiency of low-DO BNR contributes to the global goal of reducing energy consumption during wastewater treatment operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Induced ferromagnetic and gas sensing properties in ZnO-nanostructures by altering defect concentration of oxygen and zinc vacancies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE


    Full Text Available We report on the effect of the synthesis reaction-time on the structural, optical, magnetic and sensing properties of ZnO-nanostructures. Electron paramagnetic resonance and photoluminescence analyses reveal that singly ionized oxygen vacancies (VþO...

  5. Mixed Convection Blowoff Limits as a Function of Oxygen Concentration and Upward Forced Stretch Rate for Burning Pmma Rods of Various Sizes (United States)

    Marcum, Jeremy W.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.


    Normal gravity flame blowoff limits in an axisymmetric pmma rod geometry in upward axial stagnation flow are compared with microgravity Burning and Suppression of Solids II (BASS-II) results recently obtained aboard the International Space Station. This testing utilized the same BASS-II concurrent rod geometry, but with the addition of normal gravity buoyant flow. Cast polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) rods of diameters ranging from 0.635 cm to 3.81 cm were burned at oxygen concentrations ranging from 14 to 18 by volume. The forced flow velocity where blowoff occurred was determined for each rod size and oxygen concentration. These blowoff limits compare favorably with the BASS-II results when the buoyant stretch is included and the flow is corrected by considering the blockage factor of the fuel. From these results, the normal gravity blowoff boundary for this axisymmetric rod geometry is determined to be linear, with oxygen concentration directly proportional to flow speed. We describe a new normal gravity upward flame spread test method which extrapolates the linear blowoff boundary to the zero stretch limit to resolve microgravity flammability limits, something current methods cannot do. This new test method can improve spacecraft fire safety for future exploration missions by providing a tractable way to obtain good estimates of material flammability in low gravity.

  6. New route to CeO2/LaCoO3 with high oxygen mobility for total benzene oxidation (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyun; Zuo, Jiachang; Luo, Yongjin; Jiang, Lilong


    Electrospun LaCoO3 and Ce(NO3)3·6H2O were used as precursors to synthesize CeO2/LaCoO3 (SSI-LaCoCe) with high oxygen mobility by solid state impregnation. Besides, electrospinning and ball milling technologies were also adopted to prepare the other two La-Co-Ce oxides, which are denoted as ES-LaCoCe and BM-LaCoCe, respectively. The catalysts were evaluated for total benzene oxidation in comparison with bare electrospun LaCoO3 and CeO2, and characterized by means of O2-TPSR, XRD, BET, TEM, H2-TPR, O2-TPD, and XPS. Relative to LaCoO3, an enhanced catalytic performance can be obtained for La-Co-Ce oxides. Importantly, the concentration of surface adsorbed oxygen species from the highest to the lowest is SSI-LaCoCe > BM-LaCoCe > ES-LaCoCe, which is in good agreement with the order of catalytic activity in terms of T50. The high oxygen mobility in SSI-LaCoCe can be connected with sufficient interaction between active LaCoO3 and CeO2. On the other hand, O2-TPSR analysis match well with the catalytic behaviors of La-Co-Ce oxides. Moreover, the catalyst with the best performance, SSI-LaCoCe, also represents good thermal stability during the long-term continuous test.

  7. Oxygen therapy via high flow nasal cannula in pediatric intensive care unit. (United States)

    Oto, Arzu; Erdoğan, Seher; Boşnak, Mehmet


    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of oxygen therapy via high flow nasal cannula in pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure. Patients who were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit and were administered high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy between January 2015 and January 2016 were enrolled. Arterial blood gas parameters, respiratory rates (RR), heart rates (HR), systolic, db > iastolic, and mean arterial pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP), dyspnea scores, fractional oxygen indices (FiO 2 ), and oxygen saturations (SatO 2 ) were recorded at baseline, 30 minutes, and 12 hours. The study enrolled a total of 50 patients of whom 24 (48%) were female and 26 (52%) were male. Statistically significant reductions occurred in mean HR and RR values at 30 minutes and 12 hours compared to those at 0 minute (p 2 values at 30 minutes and 12 hours compared to baseline (p 2 , PaO 2 , SBP, and DBP values at 0 minute, 30 minutes, and 12 hours were not significantly different from one another (p > 0.05). No significant correlations were found between treatment failure and age at admission; mean pediatric index of mortality (PIM II), pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM), pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD) and pediatric multiple organ dysfunction score (P-MODS); and HR, RR, SatO2, pH, PaCO2, PaO2, SBP, DBP, MAP, FiO2 at baseline (p > 0.05). Therapy was successful in 40 (80%) patients whereas there occurred a need for invasive ventilation in 10 (20%) patients. High flow nasal oxygen therapy can be used for patients with acute severe hypoxemic respiratory failure without concurrent hypercapnia when adequate equipment and monitorization tools exist.

  8. Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondakis, X.G.; Makris, N.; Leotsinidis, M.; Prinou, M.; Papapetropoulos, T.


    Three areas in the same region of northwest Peloponnesos, Greece, that had varying concentrations of manganese (Mn) in drinking water were selected for study. The Mn concentrations in areas A, B, and C were 3.6-14.6 micrograms/l, 81.6-252.6 micrograms/l, and 1 800-2 300 micrograms/l, respectively. A random sample (62 in area A, 49 in area B, and 77 in area C) of males and females who were at least 50 y of age were submitted to a thorough neurological examination and their whole-blood Mn and hair Mn concentrations were determined. Although all areas were similar with respect to social and dietary characteristics, significant differences were observed for prevalence of chronic manganese poisoning (CMnP) symptoms and hair Mn concentration. The means (both sexes) of neurological scores were 2.7, 3.9, and 5.2, respectively, for areas A, B, and C (Kruskal-Wallis, chi 2 = 6.44, 2 df, p less than .05 for males; chi 2 = 7.8, 2 df, p less than .05 for females). Hair Mn concentrations were also significantly different, the means for which were 3.51, 4.49, and 10.99 micrograms/g dry weight, respectively (both sexes (p less than .001 for each sex separately)). These results indicate that progressive increases of Mn concentration in drinking water are associated with progressively higher prevalences of neurological signs of CMnP and Mn concentration in hair of older persons.

  9. Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)


    This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

  10. Graphene oxide as efficient high-concentration formaldehyde scavenger and reutilization in supercapacitor. (United States)

    Liang, Hongyu; Bu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yutian; Zhang, Junyan


    Graphene oxide (GO) was investigated as a low-cost and high-efficient scavenger for high-concentration formaldehyde in alkali media. It showed very high removal capacity, 411 mg of formaldehyde per milligram of GO, and strong resistant to temperature changes. Additionally, the used GO can be easily renewed by a simple electrochemical method. By analyzing the componential and electrochemical characterizations of GO before and after use, the results showed that the degradation mechanism of formaldehyde is a collaborative process of chemical oxidation and physical adsorption, and the former dominates the degradation process. With the aid of oxygen-containing groups in GO, most formaldehyde can be easily oxidized by GO in alkaline media (this is equivalent to GO was reduced by formaldehyde). On the other hand, the used GO (reduced GO, noted as rGO) exhibits more ideal electronic double-layer capacitor (EDLC) feature than GO, along with higher rate capacitance (up to 136 F g(-1) at 50 A g(-1)). In short, GO is not only an efficient formaldehyde scavenger, but the used GO (rGO) can serve as promising electrical energy storage material. This study provides new insights for us to reutilize the discarded adsorbents generated from the environmental protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of oxygen-increased respirator in humans ascending to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Guanghao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mountain sickness (AMS is common for people who live in low altitude areas ascending to the high altitude. Many instruments have been developed to treat mild cases of AMS. However, long-lasting and portable anti-hypoxia equipment for individual is not yet available. Methods Oxygen-increased respirator (OIR has been designed to reduce the risk of acute mountain sickness in acute exposure to low air pressure. It can increase the density of oxygen by increasing total atmospheric pressure in a mask. Male subjects were screened, and eighty-eight were qualified to perform the experiments. The subjects were divided into 5 groups and were involved in some of the tests at 4 different altitudes (Group 1, 2: 3700 m; Group 3,4,5: 4000 m, 4700 m, 5380 m with and without OIR. These tests include heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, blood lactate (BLA and PWC (physical work capacity -170. Results The results showed that higher SpO2, lower heart rate (except during exercise and better recovery of heart rate were observed from all the subjects ’with OIR’ compared with ’without OIR’ (P Conclusions We suggested that OIR may play a useful role in protecting people ascending to high altitude before acclimatization.

  12. The reactivity of high oxygen coverages on Pd(110) in catalytic CO oxidation (United States)

    Ladas, S.; Imbihl, R.; Ertl, G.


    The catalytic oxidation of CO on a Pd(110) surface has been investigated in CO titration experiments and under steady-state conditions in the 10 -4 Torr range. The reaction was followed by means of video-LEED, work function and rate measurements. The titration experiments with the oxygen-saturated Pd(110) surface revealed a change in the reaction mechanism from a uniform reduction of the oxygen coverage at high temperature ( T ≈ 500 K) to a hole-eating mechanism at low temperature ( T production. This effect, which presumably is associated with the formation of subsurface oxygen, can be attributed to a lowering of the CO residence time caused by a decrease in the adsorption energy of CO and to a reduction of the CO sticking coefficient. Under steady-state conditions this inhibiting effect leads to the appearance of a hysteresis in the high rate branch of the kinetics of catalytic CO oxidation upon cyclic variation of the CO pressure.

  13. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi


    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  14. Methods and devices for high-throughput dielectrophoretic concentration (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A.; Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen


    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for assaying and concentrating analytes in a fluid sample using dielectrophoresis. As disclosed, the methods and devices utilize substrates having a plurality of pores through which analytes can be selectively prevented from passing, or inhibited, on application of an appropriate electric field waveform. The pores of the substrate produce nonuniform electric field having local extrema located near the pores. These nonuniform fields drive dielectrophoresis, which produces the inhibition. Arrangements of electrodes and porous substrates support continuous, bulk, multi-dimensional, and staged selective concentration.

  15. High-Flow Nasal Interface Improves Oxygenation in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Lucangelo


    Full Text Available During bronchoscopy hypoxemia is commonly found and oxygen supply can be delivered by interfaces fed with high gas flows. Recently, the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC has been introduced for oxygen therapy in adults, but they have not been used so far during bronchoscopy in adults. Forty-five patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving oxygen: 40 L/min through a Venturi mask (V40, N=15, nasal cannula (N40, N=15, and 60 L/min through a nasal cannula (N60, N=15 during bronchoscopy. Gas exchange and circulatory variables were sampled before (FiO2 = 0.21, at the end of bronchoscopy (FiO2 = 0.5, and thereafter (V40, FiO2 = 0.35. In 8 healthy volunteers oxygen was randomly delivered according to V40, N40, and N60 settings, and airway pressure was measured. At the end of bronchoscopy, N60 presented higher PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, and SpO2 than V40 and N40 that did not differ between them. In the volunteers (N60 median airway pressure amounted to 3.6 cmH2O. Under a flow rate of 40 L/min both the Venturi mask and HFNC behaved similarly, but nasal cannula associated with a 60 L/min flow produced the better results, thus indicating its use in mild respiratory dysfunctions.

  16. Experimental determination of oxygen diffusion in liquid iron at high pressure (United States)

    Posner, Esther S.; Rubie, David C.; Frost, Daniel J.; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd


    Oxygen diffusion experiments in liquid iron have been performed at 3-18 GPa and 1975-2643 K using a multi-anvil apparatus. Diffusion couples consisted of a pure iron rod and a sintered disk of Fe0.85O0.15 placed end-to-end in a vertical orientation. Images and chemical spot analyses were acquired along the full length of the quenched sample on lines perpendicular to the diffusion interface. Exsolution features that formed during quenching consist mostly of spherical oxide blobs of at least two size populations, as well as feathery dendritic textures in more oxygen-rich regions near the top of the samples. Diffusion during heating (i.e. prior to reaching the peak annealing temperature, Tf) is treated numerically to refine Arrhenian parameters from simultaneous least-squares fits to several concentration profiles obtained from experiments at constant pressure and variable Tf. Diffusion coefficients range from ∼ 6 ×10-9 to ∼ 2 ×10-8 m2s-1 over the P-T range of the study, with activation enthalpies of less than 100 kJ mol-1. We find a very weak effect of pressure on oxygen diffusion with an activation volume of 0.1 ± 0.1 cm3mol-1, in agreement with computational studies performed above 100 GPa. Arrhenian extrapolation of diffusion coefficients for oxygen to P-T conditions of the Earth's outer core yields faster average diffusion rates (∼ 3 ×10-8 m2s-1) than for Si or Fe in silicon-rich liquid iron alloys or pure liquid iron (∼ 5 ×10-9 m2s-1) reported previously. Oxygen diffusion data are used to constrain the maximum size of descending liquid metal droplets in a magma ocean that is required for chemical equilibration to be achieved. Our results indicate that if the Earth's core composition is representative of equilibrium chemical exchange with a silicate magma ocean, then it could only have been accomplished by large-scale break-up of impactor cores to liquid iron droplet sizes no larger than a few tens of centimeters.

  17. High pressure inertial focusing for separation and concentration of bacteria at high throughput (United States)

    Cruz, F. J.; Hjort, K.


    Inertial focusing is a phenomenon where particles migrate across streamlines in microchannels and focus at well-defined, size dependent equilibrium points of the cross section. It can be taken into advantage for focusing, separation and concentration of particles at high through-put and high efficiency. As particles decrease in size, smaller channels and higher pressures are needed. Hence, new designs are needed to decrease the pressure drop. In this work a novel design was adapted to focus and separate 1 µm from 3 µm spherical polystyrene particles. Also 0.5 µm spherical polystyrene particles were separated, although in a band instead of a single line. The ability to separate, concentrate and focus bacteria, its simplicity of use and high throughput make this technology a candidate for daily routines in laboratories and hospitals.

  18. High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy can be used safely in the general paediatric ward using Paediatric Early Warning Scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsing, IE; Tinnevelt, Marcel; Jansen, Nicolaas J.G.; Koomen, E


    High Flow Nasal Cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) is nowadays widely used at paediatric intensive care units (PICU) to provide a safe and comfortable (warm and humidified) oxygen delivery in children with respiratory distress. At general paediatric wards HFNC is hardly used because intensive observation

  19. Evolution of oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) during high-temperature CdTe solar cell fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meysing, Daniel M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Warren, Charles W.; Abbas, Ali; Burst, James M.; Mahabaduge, Hasitha P.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Walls, John M.; Lonergan, Mark C.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Wolden, Colin A.


    Oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) produced by reactive sputtering has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional CdS for use as the n-type window layer in CdTe solar cells. Here, complementary techniques are used to expose the window layer (CdS or CdS:O) in completed superstrate devices and combined with a suite of materials characterization to elucidate its evolution during high temperature device processing. During device fabrication amorphous CdS:O undergoes significant interdiffusion with CdTe and recrystallization, forming CdS1-yTey nanocrystals whose Te fraction approaches solubility limits. Significant oxygen remains after processing, concentrated in sulfate clusters dispersed among the CdS1-yTey alloy phase, accounting for ~30% of the post-processed window layer based on cross-sectional microscopy. Interdiffusion and recrystallization are observed in devices with un-oxygenated CdS, but to a much lesser extent. Etching experiments suggest that the CdS thickness is minimally changed during processing, but the CdS:O window layer is reduced from 100 nm to 60-80 nm, which is confirmed by microscopy. Alloying reduces the band gap of the CdS:O window layer to 2.15 eV, but reductions in thickness and areal density improve its transmission spectrum, which is well matched to device quantum efficiency. The changes to the window layer in the reactive environments of device fabrication are profoundly different than what occurs by thermal annealing in an inert environment, which produced films with a band gap of 2.4 eV for both CdS and CdS:O. These results illustrate for the first time the significant changes that occur to the window layer during processing that are critical to the performance of CdTe solar cells.

  20. An Ultraflexible Silicon-Oxygen Battery Fiber with High Energy Density. (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Jiao, Yiding; Lu, Lijun; Wang, Lie; Chen, Taiqiang; Peng, Huisheng


    To satisfy the rapid development of portable and wearable electronics, it is highly desired to make batteries with both high energy densities and flexibility. Although some progress has been made in recent decades, the available batteries share critical problems of poor energy storage capacity and low flexibility. Herein, we have developed a silicon-oxygen battery fiber with high energy density and ultra-high flexibility by designing a coaxial architecture with a lithiated silicon/carbon nanotube hybrid fiber as inner anode, a polymer gel as middle electrolyte and a bare carbon nanotube sheet as outer cathode. The fiber showed a high energy density of 512 Wh kg(-1) and could effectively work after bending for 20 000 cycles. These battery fibers have been further woven into flexible textiles for a large-scale application. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalysts Synthesized under Nanospace Confinement of Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Guo, Jianing; Li, Yang; Cheng, Yuanhui; Dai, Liming; Xiang, Zhonghua


    The output energy capacity of green electrochemical devices, e.g., fuel cells, depends strongly on the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which requires catalysts. One of the desired features for highly efficient ORR electrocatalytic materials is the richness of well-defined activate sites. Herein, we developed a facile approach to prepare highly efficient nonprecious metal and nitrogen-doped carbon-based ORR catalysts based on covalent organic polymers (COPs) synthesized in situ in the nanoconfined space of highly ordered metal organic frameworks (MOFs). The MOF templet ensured the developed electrocatalysts possess a high surface area with homogeneously distributed small metal/nitrogen active sites, as confirmed by X-ray absorption fine structure measurements and first-principles calculations, leading to highly efficient ORR electrocatalytic activity. Notably, the developed COP-TPP(Fe)@MOF-900 exhibits a 16 mV positive half-wave potential compared with the benchmarked Pt/C.

  2. High fluence laser irradiation induces reactive oxygen species generation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tong-Sheng


    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been used for therapies such as curing spinal cord injury, healing wound et al. Yet, the mechanism of LPLI remains unclear. Our previous study showed that low fluences laser irradiation induces human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) proliferation, but high fluences induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. In order to study the mechanism of apoptosis induced by high fluences LPLI further, we have measured the dynamics of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using H IIDCFDA fluorescence probes during this process. ASTC-a-1 cells apoptosis was induced by He-Ne laser irradiation at high fluence of 120J/cm2. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to perform fluorescence imaging. The results demonstrated that high fluence LPLI induced the increase of mitochondria ROS. Our studies contribute to clarify the biological mechanism of high fluence LPLI-induced cell apoptosis.

  3. Formation of Nanocones on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite by Oxygen Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Vesel


    Full Text Available Improvement in hemocompatibility of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG by formation of nanostructured surface by oxygen plasma treatment is reported. We have showed that by appropriate fine tuning of plasma and discharge parameters we are able to create nanostructured surface which is densely covered with nanocones. The size of the nanocones strongly depended on treatment time. The optimal results in terms of material hemocompatibility were obtained after treatment with oxygen plasma for 15 s, when both the nanotopography and wettability were the most favorable, since marked reduction in adhesion and activation of platelets was observed on this surface. At prolonged treatment times, the rich surface topography was lost and thus also its antithrombogenic properties. Chemical composition of the surface was always more or less the same, regardless of its morphology and height of the nanocones. Namely, on all plasma treated samples, only a few atomic percent of oxygen was found, meaning that plasma caused mostly etching, leading to changes in the surface morphology. This indicates that the main preventing mechanism against platelets adhesion was the right surface morphology.

  4. High Precision Oxygen Three Isotope Analysis of Wild-2 Particles and Anhydrous Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (United States)

    Nakashima, D.; Ushikubo, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Joswiak, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Matrajt, G.; Kita, N. T.


    One of the most important discoveries from comet Wild-2 samples was observation of crystalline silicate particles that resemble chondrules and CAIs in carbonaceous chondrites. Previous oxygen isotope analyses of crystalline silicate terminal particles showed heterogeneous oxygen isotope ratios with delta(sup 18)O to approx. delta(sup 17)O down to -50% in the CAI-like particle Inti, a relict olivine grain in Gozen-sama, and an olivine particle. However, many Wild-2 particles as well as ferromagnesian silicates in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) showed Delta(sup 17)O values that cluster around -2%. In carbonaceous chondrites, chondrules seem to show two major isotope reservoirs with Delta(sup 17)O values at -5% and -2%. It was suggested that the Delta(sup 17)O = -2% is the common oxygen isotope reservoir for carbonaceous chondrite chondrules and cometary dust, from the outer asteroid belt to the Kuiper belt region. However, a larger dataset with high precision isotope analyses (+/-1-2%) is still needed to resolve the similarities or distinctions among Wild-2 particles, IDPs and chondrules in meteorites. We have made signifi-cant efforts to establish routine analyses of small particles (isotope analyses of Wild-2 particles and anhydrous chondritic IDPs, and discuss the relationship between the cometary dust and carbonaceous chondrite chondrules.

  5. Hierarchically porous carbons with optimized nitrogen doping as highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction (United States)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Brüller, Sebastian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus


    Development of efficient, low-cost and stable electrocatalysts as the alternative to platinum for the oxygen reduction reaction is of significance for many important electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells, metal-air batteries and chlor-alkali electrolysers. Here we report a highly active nitrogen-doped, carbon-based, metal-free oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst, prepared by a hard-templating synthesis, for which nitrogen-enriched aromatic polymers and colloidal silica are used as precursor and template, respectively, followed by ammonia activation. Our protocol allows for the simultaneous optimization of both porous structures and surface functionalities of nitrogen-doped carbons. Accordingly, the prepared catalysts show the highest oxygen reduction reaction activity (half-wave potential of 0.85 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode with a low loading of 0.1 mg cm-2) in alkaline media among all reported metal-free catalysts. Significantly, when used for constructing the air electrode of zinc-air battery, our metal-free catalyst outperforms the state-of the-art platinum-based catalyst.

  6. Wine evolution and spatial distribution of oxygen during storage in high-density polyethylene tanks. (United States)

    del Alamo-Sanza, María; Laurie, V Felipe; Nevares, Ignacio


    Porous plastic tanks are permeable to oxygen due to the nature of the polymers with which they are manufactured. In the wine industry, these types of tanks are used mainly for storing wine surpluses. Lately, their use in combination with oak pieces has also been proposed as an alternative to mimic traditional barrel ageing. In this study, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in a wine-like model solution, and the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of high-density polyethylene tanks (HDPE), was analysed by means of a non-invasive opto-luminescence detector. Also, the chemical and sensory evolution of red wine, treated with oak pieces, and stored in HDPE tanks was examined and compared against traditional oak barrel ageing. The average OTR calculated for these tanks was within the commonly accepted amounts reported for new barrels. With regards to wine evolution, a number of compositional and sensory differences were observed between the wines aged in oak barrels and those stored in HDPE tanks with oak barrel alternatives. The use of HDPE tanks in combination with oak wood alternatives is a viable alternative too for ageing wine. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. High urinary phthalate concentration associated with delayed pubarche in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K; Mouritsen, A


    in pubertal timing among girls, although controversies exist. We determined the concentration of 12 phthalate metabolites in first morning urine samples from 725 healthy Danish girls (aged 5.6-19.1 years) in relation to age, pubertal development (breast and pubic hair stage) and reproductive hormone levels...... (luteinizing hormone, oestradiol and testosterone). Furthermore, urinary phthalates were determined in 25 girls with precocious puberty (PP). In general, the youngest girls with less advanced pubertal development had the highest first morning urinary concentration of the monobutyl phthalate isoforms (¿MBP......). This trend was statistically significant when all phthalate metabolites (except MEP) were summarized and expressed as quartiles. No association between phthalates and breast development was observed. In addition, there were no differences in urinary phthalate metabolite levels between girls with PP...

  8. Highly Concentrated Seed Mediated Synthesis of Monodispersed Gold Nanorods (Postprint) (United States)


    resolution TEM images (Figure 5c) also confirm that the single crystalline structures of Au-NRs from this process production is identical to that of... structural characteristics of the Au NR product. The volume of seed solution is varied from 1S to 500S and reactant concentration was increased from 1G to... TEM images of Au-NRs obtained from different condition. The scale bar is 100 nm. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces Research Article DOI: 10.1021

  9. Nitrobacter winogradskyi transcriptomic response to low and high ammonium concentrations. (United States)

    Sayavedra-Soto, Luis; Ferrell, Rebecca; Dobie, Michael; Mellbye, Brett; Chaplen, Frank; Buchanan, Alex; Chang, Jeffrey; Bottomley, Peter; Arp, Daniel


    Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb-255 is a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium that can grow solely on nitrite (NO2(-)) as a source of energy and nitrogen. In most natural situations, NO2(-) oxidation is coupled closely to ammonium (NH4(+)) oxidation by bacteria and archaea and, conceptually, N. winogradskyi can save energy using NH4(+) to meet its N-biosynthetic requirements. Interestingly, NH4(+) delayed the growth of N. winogradskyi when at concentrations higher than 35 mM, but grew well at concentrations below 25 mM NH4(+) while adjusting the expression of 24% of its genes. Notable genes that changed in expression included those with roles in nitrogen and carbon assimilation. Contrary to expectations, higher expression of glutamate synthase (GOGAT), instead of glutamate dehydrogenase, was detected at higher NH4(+) concentration. Genes in assimilatory NO2(-) metabolism and the degradation of glycogen and biofilm/motility were downregulated when N. winogradskyi was grown in the presence of NH4(+). Nitrobacter winogradskyi grown in medium with 25 mM NH4(+) upregulated genes in post-translational modification, protein turnover, biogenesis and chaperons. The data suggest that N. winogradskyi physiology is modified in the presence of NH4(+) and is likely to be modified during coupled nitrification with NH3 oxidizers. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P


    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  11. Determination of the relative resistance to ignition of selected turbopump materials in high-pressure, high-temperature, oxygen environments, volume 1 (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Benz, Frank J.


    Advances in the design of the liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen engines for the Space Transportation System call for the use of warm, high-pressure oxygen as the driving gas in the liquid oxygen turbopump. The NASA Lewis Research Center requested the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to design a test program to determine the relative resistance to ignition of nine selected turbopump materials: Hastelloy X, Inconel 600, Invar 36, Monel K-500, nickel 200, silicon carbide, stainless steel 316, and zirconium copper. The materials were subjected to particle impact and to frictional heating in high-pressure oxygen.

  12. High pressure inertial focusing for separating and concentrating bacteria at high throughput (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Hooshmand Zadeh, S.; Graells, T.; Andersson, M.; Malmström, J.; Wu, Z. G.; Hjort, K.


    Inertial focusing is a promising microfluidic technology for concentration and separation of particles by size. However, there is a strong correlation of increased pressure with decreased particle size. Theory and experimental results for larger particles were used to scale down the phenomenon and find the conditions that focus 1 µm particles. High pressure experiments in robust glass chips were used to demonstrate the alignment. We show how the technique works for 1 µm spherical polystyrene particles and for Escherichia coli, not being harmful for the bacteria at 50 µl min-1. The potential to focus bacteria, simplicity of use and high throughput make this technology interesting for healthcare applications, where concentration and purification of a sample may be required as an initial step.

  13. High-CHO diet increases post-exercise oxygen consumption after a supramaximal exercise bout (United States)

    Ferreira, G.A.; Bertuzzi, R.; De-Oliveira, F.R.; Pires, F.O.; Lima-Silva, A.E.


    We investigated if carbohydrate (CHO) availability could affect the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after a single supramaximal exercise bout. Five physically active men cycled at 115% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) until exhaustion with low or high pre-exercise CHO availability. The endogenous CHO stores were manipulated by performing a glycogen-depletion exercise protocol 48 h before the trial, followed by 48 h consuming either a low- (10% CHO) or a high-CHO (80% CHO) diet regime. Compared to the low-CHO diet, the high-CHO diet increased time to exhaustion (3.0±0.6 min vs 4.4±0.6, respectively, P=0.01) and the total O2 consumption during the exercise (6.9±0.9 L and 11.3±2.1, respectively, P=0.01). This was accompanied by a higher EPOC magnitude (4.6±1.8 L vs 6.2±2.8, respectively, P=0.03) and a greater total O2 consumption throughout the session (exercise+recovery: 11.5±2.5 L vs 17.5±4.2, respectively, P=0.01). These results suggest that a single bout of supramaximal exercise performed with high CHO availability increases both exercise and post-exercise energy expenditure. PMID:27783812

  14. The nitritation performance of biofilm reactor for treating domestic wastewater under high dissolved oxygen. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Zebing; Ma, Jing; Du, Jia; Chen, Guanghui; Bian, Wei; Li, Jun; Zhao, Baihang


    The objective of this study was to investigate the nitritation performance in a biofilm reactor for treating domestic wastewater. The reactor was operated in continuous feed mode from phases 1 to 3. The dissolved oxygen (DO) was controlled at 3.5-7 mg/L throughout the experiment. The biofilm reactor showed excellent nitritation performance after the inoculation of nitrifying sludge, with the hydraulic retention time being reduced from 24 to 7 hr. Above 90% nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) was maintained in phase 1. Afterwards, nitratation occurred with the low NH4(+)-N concentration in the reactor. The improvement of NH4(+)-N concentration to 20-35 mg/L had a limited effect on the recovery of nitritation. However, nitritation recovered rapidly when sequencing batch feed mode was adopted in phase 4, with the effluent NH4(+)-N concentration above 7 mg/L. The improvement of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) activity and the combined inhibition effect of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) on the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were two key factors for the rapid recovery of nitritation. Sludge activity was obtained in batch tests. The results of batch tests had a good relationship with the long term operation performance of the biofilm reactor. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Defect chemistry modelling of oxygen-stoichiometry, vacancy concentrations, and conductivity of (La1-xSrx)(y)MnO3 +/-delta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F.W.


    are calculated by the small polaron model containing only ionic species - the B-ion may be Mn-B' (Mn2+), Mn-B(x) (Mn3+), and Mn-B(Mn4+). The A/B-ratio = y greatly influences the oxygen stoichiometry, oxygen ion vacancy- and cation vacancy concentrations and the total conductivity. Calculations are given...... for the range 0.87 less than or equal to y less than or equal to 1.13 for a Sr doping of 10% at 1000 degrees C. The defect model can simultaneously describe the observed stoichiometry and conductivity dependence on pO(2), if the electronic mobility is decreased by up to 50% at pO(2) 10...

  16. Physiology of Aspergillus niger in Oxygen-Limited Continuous Cultures: Influence of Aeration, Carbon Source Concentration and Dilution Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diano, Audrey; Peeters, J.; Dynesen, Jens Østergaard


    . Indeed, at these conditions, a decrease in the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity leads to an accumulation of NADH and to a decreased ATP production which uncouples catabolism and anabolism, influences the intracellular pH and leads to production and excretion of organic acids. Moreover, mannitol...... is being produced in order to ensure reoxidation of NADH, and this is the main cellular response to balance the ratio NADH/NAD at low oxygen availability. Mannitol production is also coupled to low specific growth rate, which suggests a control of carbon catabolite repression on the mannitol pathway...

  17. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration. (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang


    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  18. [Oxygen therapy in diving accidents]. (United States)

    Piepho, T; Ehrmann, U; Werner, C; Muth, C M


    Diving accidents represent a departure from the routine practice of emergency physicians. The incidence of non-fatal diving accidents is reported as 1-2 per 10,000 dives. Apart from adequate intravenous hydration, oxygen is the only medication with a proven effect in the treatment of diving accidents. After a typical diving accident, administration of oxygen at an inspired concentration (F(I)O(2) 1.0) as high as possible is recommended. Many divers bring along their own oxygen administration systems to the diving sites and these are often better suited for the treatment of diving accidents than the oxygen systems of many emergency responders. Pressure regulators supplying low constant flow oxygen, nasal prongs and inhalation masks are inappropriate. When using artificial ventilation bags with face masks, an oxygen flow of at least 15 l/min should be used. Demand regulators are simple to use and able to deliver a F(I)O2 of 1.0. Their ease of use has earned them high marks in the emergency management of diving accidents and their similarity to standard diving equipment has also aided relatively widespread acceptance. Circulation breathing systems are more technologically complex oxygen delivery systems which permit CO2 absorption and re-breathing at low oxygen flow. In contrast to the demand modules, the likelihood of mistakes during their usage is higher. In diving accidents, the administration of normobaric oxygen, already begun in the field, is the most important therapy and should not be interrupted. Presented with an inadequate supplemental oxygen supply, the inspired oxygen concentration should not be decreased, rather the duration of the oxygen administration should be reduced. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be the mainstay of further treatment.

  19. New PSA high concentration solar furnace SF40 (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Cañadas, Inmaculada; Zarza, Eduardo


    A new solar furnace has been designed and built at Plataforma Solar de Almería. In this work, its main components such as heliostat, concentrator, attenuator and test table, and the method used to align them are described. Other equipment like the auxiliary systems necessary for the solar operation, vacuum chamber and gas system are outlined too. Finally, the thermal characteristics of the focus were measured during a test campaign, where different planes along the optical axis were scanned with a radiometer, and the peak flux was obtained and is presented in the last section of this report.

  20. The anaesthesia of fish by high carbon-dioxide concentrations (United States)


    A practical and economical method for anaesthetizing adult salmon and steelhead trout in the fish trucks used in the Grand Coulee fish salvage program is described. The method consists in generating a predetermined carbon-dioxide concentration in the 1000-gallon tanks of the trucks through the successive addition of predissolved sodium bicarbonate and dilute sulphuric acid in proper quantities. Carbon-dioxide anaesthesia effectively solved the acute problem of species segregation in the fish salvage program and, with minor modifications, could be used with equal success in certain hatchery operations necessitating the handling of large fish.

  1. Recycling of spent Cu-based oxygen carriers into high-strength ceramic proppants


    Kukurugya, Frantisek; Bergmans, Jef; Snellings, Ruben; Spooren, Jeroen


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) technology can play a significant role in decreasing costs for CO2 capturing in the future. The technology relies on the use of an oxygen carrier (OC) material, which becomes a solid waste material after it is deactivated. The aim of this study was to verify the possibility to produce high-strength ceramic proppants from a spent Cu-based OC, consisting mainly of α-Al2O3 and a minor content of CuAl2O4. Experiments were carried out with both pure α-Al2O3 and a ...

  2. Ground state atomic oxygen in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: a quantitative study (United States)

    Britun, Nikolay; Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Silva, Tiago; Snyders, Rony


    The ground state density of oxygen atoms in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has been studied quantitatively. Both time-resolved and space-resolved measurements were conducted. The measurements were performed using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF), and calibrated by optical emission actinometry with multiple Ar emission lines. The results clarify the dynamics of the O ground state atoms in the discharge afterglow significantly, including their propagation and fast decay after the plasma pulse, as well as the influence of gas pressure, O2 admixture, etc.

  3. Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations. (United States)

    Hallmann, Caspar A; Foppen, Ruud P B; van Turnhout, Chris A M; de Kroon, Hans; Jongejans, Eelke


    Recent studies have shown that neonicotinoid insecticides have adverse effects on non-target invertebrate species. Invertebrates constitute a substantial part of the diet of many bird species during the breeding season and are indispensable for raising offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that the most widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, has a negative impact on insectivorous bird populations. Here we show that, in the Netherlands, local population trends were significantly more negative in areas with higher surface-water concentrations of imidacloprid. At imidacloprid concentrations of more than 20 nanograms per litre, bird populations tended to decline by 3.5 per cent on average annually. Additional analyses revealed that this spatial pattern of decline appeared only after the introduction of imidacloprid to the Netherlands, in the mid-1990s. We further show that the recent negative relationship remains after correcting for spatial differences in land-use changes that are known to affect bird populations in farmland. Our results suggest that the impact of neonicotinoids on the natural environment is even more substantial than has recently been reported and is reminiscent of the effects of persistent insecticides in the past. Future legislation should take into account the potential cascading effects of neonicotinoids on ecosystems.

  4. Aspartic acid as an internal CO2 reservoir in Zea mays: Effect of oxygen concentration and of far-red illumination. (United States)

    Créach, E; Michel, J P; Thibault, P


    By placing leaf segments first in CO2 in the dark, then in pure nitrogen either in the dark and afterwards in the light or immediately in the light, the existence of internal CO2 pools which can be used for photosynthesis had been demonstrated. In Zea mays L. there are two such pools: one which in the absence of any energy source is short-lived (t1/2 ca. 2 min), and another which is relatively long-lived (t1/2 ca. 50 min).Under different oxygen concentrations the level of the short-lived CO2 pool exibited a parallel variation with the level of aspartic acid. Only a fraction of the total aspartic acid (60%) constituted the active pool, the quantity of which was equal to the short-lived CO2. In the absence of O2 but under far-red irradiation (maximum 740 nm), a net synthesis of aspartic acid was observed; its extent depended on the intensity of the light.The similarity in the response to O2 and to long-wavelength irradiation suggests that aspartate synthesis is regulated by ATP, the high-energy compound common to both oxidative and cyclic phosphorylations. The formation of aspartic acid observed in the dark under N2+1% CO2 immediately following illumination under pure N2 suggests use of ATP accumulated in the preceding light period, in aspartate synthesis.Even though Zea mays is predominantly a "malate former", it appears that aspartate must also be considered as a readily available donor of CO2 since, when aspartate is present, O2 release is always immediate while, when it is not, O2 release is delayed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abrahão-Neto


    Full Text Available The effect of pH (from 4.0 to 5.0, temperature (T (from 30 oC to 40 oC and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO (from 0.2 to 6.0 mg O2/L on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH (EC and Invertase (EC formation by S. cerevisiae were studied. The best culture conditions for G6PDH and Invertase formation were: 2.55 L culture medium (yeast extract, 3.0 g/L; 5peptone, 5.0 g/L; glucose, 2.0 g/L; sucrose, 15.0 g/L; Na2HPO4.12 H2O, 2.4 g/L; (NH42SO4, 5.1 g/L and MgSO4. 7H2O, 0.075 g/L; 0.45 L inoculum (0.70 g dry cell/L; pH = 4.5; T = 35 oC and DO = 4.0 mg/L. G6PDH was highly sensitive to pH, T and DO variation. The increase in G6PDH production was about three times when the DO ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 mg O2/L. Moreover, by shifting pH from 5.0 to 4.5 and temperature from 30 oC to 35 oC, G6PDH formation increased by 57% and 70%, respectively. Invertase activity (IA of whole cells decreased at least 50% at extremes values of DO (2.0 and 6.0 mg O2/L and pH (4.0 and 5.0. Furthermore, IA oscillated during the fermentation due to the glucose repression/derepression mechanism

  6. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation


    Jiang, Dongsheng; Bu, Xueqin; Sun, Bing; Lin, Guiping; Zhao, Hongtao; Cai, Yan; Fang, Ling


    The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT) and pressure d...

  7. Amorphous Cobalt Vanadium Oxide as a Highly Active Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution. (United States)

    Liardet, Laurent; Hu, Xile


    The water-splitting reaction provides a promising mechanism to store renewable energies in the form of hydrogen fuel. The oxidation half-reaction, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), is a complex four-electron process that constitutes an efficiency bottleneck in water splitting. Here we report a highly active OER catalyst, cobalt vanadium oxide. The catalyst is designed on the basis of a volcano plot of metal-OH bond strength and activity. The catalyst can be synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. The most active pure-phase material ( a- CoVO x ) is X-ray amorphous and provides a 10 mA cm -2 current density at an overpotential of 347 mV in 1 M KOH electrolyte when immobilized on a flat substrate. The synthetic method can also be applied to coat a high-surface-area substrate such as nickel foam. On this three-dimensional substrate, the a- CoVO x catalyst is highly active, reaching 10 mA cm -2 at 254 mV overpotential, with a Tafel slope of only 35 mV dec -1 . This work demonstrates a- CoVO x as a promising electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and validates M-OH bond strength as a practical descriptor in OER catalysis.

  8. Ignition Resistance of Polymeric Materials to Particle Impact in High-Pressure Oxygen (United States)

    Forsyth, Elliot T.; Stolzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)


    Particle impact ignition has been the primary cause of numerous fires in oxygen systems. This ignition phenomenon is known to occur where particles are present in high-velocity gas, and where impact occurs on a flammable material. The particle impact ignition behavior of many metals has been widely studied, but the particle impact ignition behavior of polymeric materials is relatively unknown. Particle impact ignition in polymeric materials is a concern as these materials are commonly used in component seat and seal applications, where high-velocity particle impacts can occur. This study evaluates several polymeric materials and compares the minimum temperature required for ignition (threshold temperature) of these materials: Kel-F 81 (CTFE), Teflon (PTFE), PEEK, Vespel SP-21, and Nylon 6/6. The materials were configured as targets in the White Sands Test Facility high-velocity particle impact test system. Gaseous oxygen was flowed at 4000 psi and sonic velocity, and the targets were impacted with 2000-micron aluminum 2017 particles. This paper discusses the results of these tests and ranks the materials according to their threshold temperatures at these conditions.

  9. IASCC susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels and alloy 690 in high dissolved oxygen water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Chopra, O.K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States); Dietz Rago, N.L. [Argonne National Lab., Chemical Engineering Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States); Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne, Illinois (United States)


    The influences of grain boundary engineering, alloying elements, and neutron dose on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels and Alloy 690 were investigated. Flat dog-bone specimens irradiated in the Halden boiling heavy water reactor to {approx}2 dpa were tested in slow strain rate tensile tests in high dissolved oxygen water at 289 {sup o}C. The area fractions of intergranular or transgranular fracture were measured using a scanning electron microscope. All tested materials showed significant hardening and loss of ductility after irradiation. The area fractions of the intergranular cracking decreased with increase of uniform elongation, and were used to rank IASCC susceptibility. The grain boundary engineering treatment employed in this study does not have a significant impact on IASCC susceptibility for austenitic SSs at {approx}2 dpa, but does affect the cracking behavior of Alloy 690. High-sulfur and low-carbon SSs are more susceptible to IASCC. Oxygen content also contributes to the IASCC susceptibility in high-purity Type 304L SS. (author)

  10. Daily Oxygen/O3 Treatment Reduces Muscular Fatigue and Improves Cardiac Performance in Rats Subjected to Prolonged High Intensity Physical Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Filippo


    Full Text Available Rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of O2 and running on a treadmill covered an average distance of 482.8 ± 21.8 m/week as calculated during 5-week observation. This distance was increased in rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of an oxygen/O3 mixture at a dose of 100; 150; and 300 μg/kg with the maximum increase being +34.5% at 300 μg/kg and still present after stopping the administration of oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (−13%, the heart rate (−6%, the gastrocnemius and cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis and reduced by 49% the left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness measurements. Systolic and diastolic functions were improved in exercised oxygen/O3 rats compared to O2 rats. Oxygen/O3 treatment led to higher MPI index starting from the dose of 150 μg/kg (p<0.05 and more effective (+14% at a dose of 300 μg/kg oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 dose-dependently increased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD and GPx1 and of eNOS compared to the exercised O2 rats. The same doses resulted in decrease of LDH levels, CPK, TnI, and nitrotyrosine concentration in the heart and gastrocnemius tissues, arguing a beneficial effect of the ozone molecule against the fatigue induced by a prolonged high intensity exercise.

  11. Combining tree-ring metal concentrations and lead, carbon and oxygen isotopes to reconstruct peri-urban atmospheric pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doucet, A; Savard, M M; Bégin, C; Marion, J; Smirnoff, A; Ouarda, T B M J


    In this study, we analysed the tree-ring metal concentrations and isotope ratios of five stands located in three contrasted settings to infer the diffuse air pollution history of the northern part of the Windsor...

  12. Where the O2 goes to: preservation of human fetal oxygen delivery and consumption at high altitude. (United States)

    Postigo, Lucrecia; Heredia, Gladys; Illsley, Nicholas P; Torricos, Tatiana; Dolan, Caitlin; Echalar, Lourdes; Tellez, Wilma; Maldonado, Ivan; Brimacombe, Michael; Balanza, Elfride; Vargas, Enrique; Zamudio, Stacy


    Fetal growth is decreased at high altitude (> 2700 m). We hypothesized that variation in fetal O(2) delivery might account for both the altitude effect and the relative preservation of fetal growth in multigenerational natives to high altitude. Participants were 168 women of European or Andean ancestry living at 3600 m or 400 m. Ancestry was genetically confirmed. Umbilical vein blood flow was measured using ultrasound and Doppler. Cord blood samples permitted calculation of fetal O(2) delivery and consumption. Andean fetuses had greater blood flow and oxygen delivery than Europeans and weighed more at birth, regardless of altitude (+208 g, P 200 g lower for Europeans at any given level of blood flow or O(2) delivery. Fetal haemoglobin concentration was increased, decreased, and the fetal / curve was left-shifted at 3600 m. Fetuses receiving less O(2) extracted more (r(2) = 0.35, P < 0.0001). These adaptations resulted in similar fetal O(2) delivery and consumption across all four groups. Increased umbilical venous O(2) delivery correlated with increased fetal O(2) consumption per kg weight (r(2) = 0.50, P < 0.0001). Blood flow (r(2) = 0.16, P < 0.001) and O(2) delivery (r(2) = 0.17, P < 0.001) correlated with birth weight at 3600 m, but not at 400 m (r(2) = 0.04, and 0.03, respectively). We concluded that the most pronounced difference at high altitude is reduced fetal blood flow, but fetal haematological adaptation and fetal capacity to increase O(2) extraction indicates that deficit in fetal oxygen delivery is unlikely to be causally associated with the altitude- and ancestry-related differences in fetal growth.

  13. Athletic activity and hormone concentrations in high school female athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wojtys, Edward M; Jannausch, Mary L; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Harlow, Siobán D; Sowers, MaryFran R


    .... To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls...

  14. Large scintillation cells for high sensitivity radon concentration measurements (United States)

    Cohen, B. L.; El Ganayni, M.; Cohen, E. S.


    Methods for improving the sensitivity of scintillation cells for radon concentration measurements were studied with emphasis on improving light collection efficiency. This allows the length and hence the volume of the cell to be increased. Variables studied were choice of scintillator material, its method of application and thickness, length of cell, cell material, type and configuration of reflectors, choice of photomultipliers, and factors affecting background. Response from various areas of the cell surface was studied with an alpha source and with radon filling. Coating the window with phosphor was found to be counter-productive. The optimum results obtained were with the inside of the cell (other than the window) covered with a thick layer of ZnS(Ag), or with a thick layer of reflective material coated with a thin layer of phosphor. With it, a 10 cm diameter plexiglass cell can be extended to at least 50 cm length without difficulty from insufficient pulse height.

  15. Changes and relations of photosynthesis and iron cycling in anoxic paddy soil amended with high concentrations of sulfate. (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Jia, Rong; Qu, Dong; Li, Ming


    Sulfate contamination is an increasingly serious environmental problem related to microbial reduction processes in anoxic paddy soil. This study revealed the changes and interrelations of ferric iron [Fe(III)] reduction, ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation, and oxygenic photosynthesis in an anoxic paddy soil (Fe-accumuli-Stagnic Anthrosols) amended with a range of high sulfate concentrations. Soil slurries mixed with 0 (control), 50, 100, 200, and 400 mmol kg(-1) Na2SO4 were incubated anaerobically under dark and light conditions. The changes in chlorophyll a (Chl a), Fe(II), pH levels, and the chlorophyll absorption spectrum were determined over a 42-day period. Fe(II) concentrations increased with the addition of sulfate under dark conditions, while Fe(III) reduction potential was enhanced by increasing sulfate addition. The effect of light on Fe(II) concentration was observed after 16 days of incubation, when Fe(II) started to decrease markedly in the control. The decrease in Fe(II) slowed with increasing sulfate addition. The concentrations of Chl a increased in all treatments after 16 days of incubation under light conditions. There was a reduction in Chl a accumulation with increasing sulfate at the same incubation time. The absorption peaks of chlorophyll remained shorter than the 700-nm wavelength throughout the incubation period. The pH of all treatments decreased in the first week and then increased thereafter. The pH increased with sulfate addition and light conditions. In conclusion, contamination with high concentrations of sulfate could accelerate Fe(III) reduction while inhibiting oxygenic photosynthesis, which correspondingly slows chemical Fe(II) oxidation in an anoxic paddy soil.

  16. Zebrafish embryo tolerance to environmental stress factors-Concentration-dose response analysis of oxygen limitation, pH, and UV-light irradiation. (United States)

    Andrade, Thayres S; Henriques, Jorge F; Almeida, Ana Rita; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Scholz, Stefan; Domingues, Inês


    During the last century the increase in the mean global temperatures has been shown to impact on freshwater physicochemical parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, or ultraviolet (UV) light abundance. Changes in these parameters could modify the toxicity of environmental pollutants. Therefore, in the present study, the authors studied the tolerance (survival and sublethal endpoints) of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to variations in pH (3-12), dissolved oxygen (3.9-237 μmol/L) and UV intensity (55-467 mW/m2 ) using selected endpoints. Sublethal endpoint assessment included the quantification of hatching success, developmental delay, reduction of body length, frequency of edema, and morphological abnormalities. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s; 96-h) of 3.68 and 10.21 were determined for acid and alkaline pH, respectively. Embryo survival appeared to be relatively resistant to oxygen depletion with a 96-h LC50 of 0.42 mg/L. However, concentrations of 6 mg/L and below caused edema and developmental retardations. Continuous exposure to UV radiation affected zebrafish development by reducing survival and hatching rate and triggering a series of developmental abnormalities such as pericardial edema and deformities. A 72-h LC50 of 227 mW/m2 was derived from intensity-response modeling. By generation of concentration-response parameters the authors' data provide a basis for the subsequent assessment of combined effect of environmental stress parameters and chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:682-690. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. High-performance a -Si/c-Si heterojunction photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen and hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping


    Amorphous Si (a-Si)/crystalline Si (c-Si) heterojunction (SiHJ) can serve as highly efficient and robust photoelectrodes for solar fuel generation. Low carrier recombination in the photoelectrodes leads to high photocurrents and photovoltages. The SiHJ was designed and fabricated into both photoanode and photocathode with high oxygen and hydrogen evolution efficiency, respectively, by simply coating of a thin layer of catalytic materials. The SiHJ photoanode with sol-gel NiOx as the catalyst shows a current density of 21.48 mA/cm2 at the equilibrium water oxidation potential. The SiHJ photocathode with 2 nm sputter-coated Pt catalyst displays excellent hydrogen evolution performance with an onset potential of 0.640 V and a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 13.26%, which is the highest ever reported for Si-based photocathodes. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  18. Analytical expressions for the steady-state concentrations of glucose, oxygen and gluconic acid in a composite membrane for closed-loop insulin delivery. (United States)

    Rajendran, L; Bieniasz, L K


    The mathematical model of Abdekhodaie and Wu (J Membr Sci 335:21-31, 2009) of glucose-responsive composite membranes for closed-loop insulin delivery is discussed. The glucose composite membrane contains nanoparticles of an anionic polymer, glucose oxidase and catalase embedded in a hydrophobic polymer. The model involves the system of nonlinear steady-state reaction-diffusion equations. Analytical expressions for the concentration of glucose, oxygen and gluconic acid are derived from these equations using the Adomian decomposition method. A comparison of the analytical approximation and numerical simulation is also presented. An agreement between analytical expressions and numerical results is observed.

  19. Impact of upwelling events on the sea water carbonate chemistry and dissolved oxygen concentration in the Gulf of Papagayo (Culebra Bay, Costa Rica: Implications for coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Rixen


    Full Text Available The Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is one of the three seasonal upwelling areas of Mesoamerica. In April 2009, a 29-hour experiment was carried out at the pier of the Marina Papagayo, Culebra Bay. We determined sea surface temperature (SST, dissolved oxygen concentration, salinity, pH, and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2. The aragonite saturation state (Ωa as well as the other parameters of the marine carbonate system such as the total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and the total alkalinity (TA were calculated based on the measured pH and the pCO2. The entrainment of subsurface waters raised the pCO2 up to 645 µatm. SSTs, dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased form 26.4 to 23.7°C and from 228 to 144 µmol l-1. Ωa dropped down to values of 2.1. Although these changes are assumed to reduce the coral growth, the main reef building coral species within the region (Pocillopora spp. and Pavona clavus reveal growth rates exceeding those measured at other sites in the eastern tropical Pacific. This implies that the negative impact of upwelling on coral growth might be overcompensated by an enhanced energy supply caused by the high density of food and nutrients and more favorable condition for coral growth during the non-upwelling season.El Golfo de Papagayo, costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, es una de las tres regiones de afloramiento estacional de Mesoamérica. Las características físicas y químicas del agua que aflora no habían sido estudiadas. Durante 29 horas en Abril 2009, se estudiaron la temperatura superficial del mar (TSM, la concentración de oxígeno disuelto, salinidad, pH y la presión parcial de CO2 (pCO2, en la Marina Papagayo, Bahía Culebra. Con base en las mediciones de pH y pCO2 se calculó el estado de saturación de la aragonita (Ω y otros parámetros del sistema de carbonatos como lo es el carbono orgánico disuelto (COD y la alcalinidad total (AT. Los resultados indican que el arrastre por convecci

  20. Fiber optic Raman sensor to monitor the concentration ratio of nitrogen and oxygen in a cryogenic mixture (United States)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.; Yueh, Fang Y.; Singh, Jagdish P.; St. Cyr, William; Khijwania, Sunil K.


    A spontaneous Raman scattering optical fiber sensor was developed for a specific need of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for long-term detection and monitoring of the purity of liquid oxygen (LO2) in the oxidizer feed line during ground testing of rocket engines. The Raman peak intensity ratios for liquid nitrogen (LN2) and LO2 with varied weight ratios (LN2/LO2) were analyzed for their applicability to impurity sensing. The study of the sensor performance with different excitation light sources has helped to design a miniaturized, cost-effective system for this application. The optimal system response time of this miniaturized sensor for LN2/LO2 measurement was found to be in the range of a few seconds. It will need to be further reduced to the millisecond range for real-time, quantitative monitoring of the quality of cryogenic fluids in a harsh envioronment.

  1. Surface strontium enrichment on highly active perovskites for oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.


    Perovskite oxides have high catalytic activities for oxygen electrocatalysis competitive to platinum at elevated temperatures. However, little is known about the oxide surface chemistry that influences the activity near ambient oxygen partial pressures, which hampers the design of highly active catalysts for many clean-energy technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells. Using in situ synchrotron-based, ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry changes, we show that the coverage of surface secondary phases on a (001)-oriented La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC) film becomes smaller than that on an LSC powder pellet at elevated temperatures. In addition, strontium (Sr) in the perovskite structure enriches towards the film surface in contrast to the pellet having no detectable changes with increasing temperature. We propose that the ability to reduce surface secondary phases and develop Sr-enriched perovskite surfaces of the LSC film contributes to its enhanced activity for O 2 electrocatalysis relative to LSC powder-based electrodes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Facile synthesis of high strength hot-water wood extract films with oxygen-barrier performance (United States)

    Chen, Ge-Gu; Fu, Gen-Que; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang


    Biobased nanocomposite films for food packaging with high mechanical strength and good oxygen-barrier performance were developed using a hot-water wood extract (HWE). In this work, a facile approach to produce HWE/montmorillonite (MMT) based nanocomposite films with excellent physical properties is described. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of the MMT content on the structure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites and the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physical properties of the HWE-MMT films. The experimental results suggested that the intercalation of HWE and CMC in montmorillonite could produce compact, robust films with a nacre-like structure and multifunctional characteristics. This results of this study showed that the mechanical properties of the film designated FCMC0.05 (91.5 MPa) were dramatically enhanced because the proportion of HWE, MMT and CMC was 1:1.5:0.05. In addition, the optimized films exhibited an oxygen permeability below 2.0 cm3 μm/day·m2·kPa, as well as good thermal stability due to the small amount of CMC. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for further development of high-performance nanocomposites which are based on natural polymers (HWE) and assembled layered clays (MMT). These films offer great potential in the field of sustainable packaging.

  3. Electronic kinetics of molecular nitrogen and molecular oxygen in high-latitude lower thermosphere and mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kirillov


    Full Text Available Total quenching rate coefficients of Herzberg states of molecular oxygen and three triplet states of molecular nitrogen in the collisions with O2 and N2 molecules are calculated on the basis of quantum-chemical approximations. The calculated rate coefficients of electronic quenching of O2* and N2* molecules show a good agreement with available experimental data. An influence of collisional processes on vibrational populations of electronically excited N2 and O2 molecules is studied for the altitudes of high-latitude lower thermosphere and mesosphere during auroral electron precipitation. It is indicated that molecular collisions of metastable nitrogen N2(A3Σu* with O2 molecules are principal mechanism in electronic excitation of both Herzberg states c1Σu&minus, A'3Δu, A3Σu+ and high vibrational levels of singlet states a1Δg and b1Σg+ of molecular oxygen O2 at these altitudes.

  4. Microbial nar-GFP cell sensors reveal oxygen limitations in highly agitated and aerated laboratory-scale fermentors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Govind


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small-scale microbial fermentations are often assumed to be homogeneous, and oxygen limitation due to inadequate micromixing is often overlooked as a potential problem. To assess the relative degree of micromixing, and hence propensity for oxygen limitation, a new cellular oxygen sensor has been developed. The oxygen responsive E. coli nitrate reductase (nar promoter was used to construct an oxygen reporter plasmid (pNar-GFPuv which allows cell-based reporting of oxygen limitation. Because there are greater than 109 cells in a fermentor, one can outfit a vessel with more than 109 sensors. Our concept was tested in high density, lab-scale (5 L, fed-batch, E. coli fermentations operated with varied mixing efficiency – one verses four impellers. Results In both cases, bioreactors were maintained identically at greater than 80% dissolved oxygen (DO during batch phase and at approximately 20% DO during fed-batch phase. Trends for glucose consumption, biomass and DO showed nearly identical behavior. However, fermentations with only one impeller showed significantly higher GFPuv expression than those with four, indicating a higher degree of fluid segregation sufficient for cellular oxygen deprivation. As the characteristic time for GFPuv expression (approx 90 min. is much larger than that for mixing (approx 10 s, increased specific fluorescence represents an averaged effect of oxygen limitation over time and by natural extension, over space. Conclusion Thus, the pNar-GFPuv plasmid enabled bioreactor-wide oxygen sensing in that bacterial cells served as individual recirculating sensors integrating their responses over space and time. We envision cell-based oxygen sensors may find utility in a wide variety of bioprocessing applications.

  5. Rosemary and oxygen scavenger in active packaging for prevention of high-pressure induced lipid oxidation in pork patties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolumar Garcia, Jose Tomas; Lapena Gomez, David; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt


    Three different packaging systems: vacuum packaging, rosemary active packaging, and oxygen scavenger packaging were compared for their ability to counteract lipid oxidation in pork patties upon storage at 5 °C for 60 days following high pressure processing (HPP) (700 MPa, 10 min, 5 °C). Lipid...... oxidation was studied at the surface and the inner part by measuring secondary lipid oxidation products (TBARs) and the tendency to form radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Lipid oxidation was lower in the inner part than at the surface for all three packaging systems. Rosemary active...... packaging was the most effective method to protect pork patties from the HPP-induced lipid oxidation, while oxygen scavenger packaging was not effective since residual oxygen remained in the package in the initial period of storage. The kinetics of the oxygen trapping by oxygen scavengers appears...

  6. Monitoring cerebral oxygenation and local field potential with a variation of isoflurane concentration in a rat model. (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Shin, Teo Jeon; Kim, Seonghyun; Bae, Jayyoung; Cho, Dongrae; Ham, Jinsil; Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl; Jeong, Seongwook; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae Gwan


    We aimed to investigate experimentally how anesthetic levels affect cerebral metabolism measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and to identify a robust marker among NIRS parameters to discriminate various stages of anesthetic depth in rats under isoflurane anesthesia. In order to record the hemodynamic changes and local field potential (LFP) in the brain, fiber-optic cannulae and custom-made microelectrodes were implanted in the frontal cortex of the skull. The NIRS and LFP signals were continuously monitored before, during and after isoflurane anesthesia. As isoflurane concentration is reduced, the level of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin concentrations of the frontal cortex decreased gradually, while deoxyhemoglobin increased. The reflectance ratio between 730nm and 850nm and burst suppression ratio (BSR) correspond similarly with the change of oxyhemoglobin during the variation of isoflurane concentration. These results suggest that NIRS signals in addition to EEG may provide a possibility of developing a new anesthetic depth index.

  7. High-Performance Near-Infrared Luminescent Solar Concentrators. (United States)

    Rondão, Raquel; Frias, Ana R; Correia, Sandra F H; Fu, Lianshe; de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S; Carlos, Luís D


    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) appear as candidates to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells and contribute to reduce the size of PV systems, decreasing, therefore, the amount of material needed and thus the cost associated with energy conversion. One way to maximize the device performance is to explore near-infrared (NIR)-emitting centers, resonant with the maximum optical response of the most common Si-based PV cells. Nevertheless, very few examples in the literature demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating LSCs emitting in the NIR region. In this work, NIR-emitting LSCs are reported using silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis(trihexylsilyloxide) (SiNc or NIR775) immobilized in an organic-inorganic tri-ureasil matrix (t-U(5000)). The photophysical properties of the SiNc dye incorporated into the tri-ureasil host closely resembled those of SiNc in tetrahydrofuran solution (an absolute emission quantum yield of ∼0.17 and a fluorescence lifetime of ∼3.6 ns). The LSC coupled to a Si-based PV device revealed an optical conversion efficiency of ∼1.5%, which is among the largest values known in the literature for NIR-emitting LSCs. The LSCs were posteriorly coupled to a Si-based commercial PV cell, and the synergy between the t-U(5000) and SiNc molecules enabled an effective increase in the external quantum efficiency of PV cells, exceeding 20% in the SiNc absorption region.

  8. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng


    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  9. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick


    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  10. Design requirements for high-efficiency high concentration ratio space solar cells (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Patterson, R.


    A miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator system concept was developed for low cost, multikilowatt space solar arrays. The system imposes some requirements on solar cells which are new and different from those imposed for conventional applications. The solar cells require a circular active area of approximately 4 mm in diameter. High reliability contacts are required on both front and back surfaces. The back area must be metallurgically bonded to a heat sink. The cell should be designed to achieve the highest practical efficiency at 100 AMO suns and at 80 C. The cell design must minimize losses due to nonuniform illumination intensity and nonnormal light incidence. The primary radiation concern is the omnidirectional proton environment.

  11. Polarizing Oxygen Vacancies in Insulating Metal Oxides under a High Electric Field (United States)

    Youssef, Mostafa; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Yildiz, Bilge


    We demonstrate a thermodynamic formulation to quantify defect formation e