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Sample records for high concentration calcium-citrate-phosphate

  1. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  2. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  3. Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)

    1992-06-01

    This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

  4. High-efficiency solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Dorman, J.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of solar concentrator is presented using liquid lenses and simple translational tracking mechanism. The concentrator achieves a 100:1 nominal concentration ratio and is compared in performance with a flat-plate collector having two sheets of glazing and non-selective coating. The results of the thermal analysis show that higher temperatures can be obtained with the concentrator than is possible with the non-concentrator flat-plate type. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency far exceeds that of the comparative flat-plate type for all operating conditions.

  5. High-concentration protein formulations: How high is high?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Kuhn, Alexander B; Schäfer, Lars V; Karow-Zwick, Anne R; Blech, Michaela

    2017-10-01

    High-concentration protein formulation (HCPF) is a term that is used to describe protein formulations, mostly monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs, at high protein concentration. The concentration is rarely defined, with typical ranges varying between 50 and 150mg/ml for mAbs. The term HCPF is meant to include and express specific solution properties of formulations that are prone to appear at high protein concentrations such as high viscosity, high opalescence, phase separation, gel formation or the increased propensity for protein particle formation. Thus the term HCPF can be understood as a descriptor of protein formulations, usually at high protein (monoclonal antibody) concentrations, which have specific solution, stability and colloidal properties that differ from formulations at low protein concentration (e.g. at 10mg/ml). The current paper highlights in brief the development challenges that might occur for high-concentration protein/monoclonal antibody formulations. In particular, the maximum concentration regimes achievable in HCPF remained unclear. Based on geometrical considerations involving packing of monoclonal antibodies in a lattice we map out a maximum concentration range that might be theoretically achievable. Different geometrical assumptions and packing models are compared and their relevance is critically discussed, in particular concerning the influence of the physicochemical properties of the monoclonal antibodies on their solubility, which is neglected in the simple geometrical model. According to our estimates, monoclonal antibody concentration above 500mg/ml will be very challenging to achieve. Our results have implications for setting up realistic drug product development strategies and for preparing convincing drug target product profiles for development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    that low free water availability contributes to cellulase inhibition. Of the hydrolytic enzymes involved, those acting on the cellulose substrate, that is, exo- and endoglucanases, were the most inhibited. The β -glucosidases were shown to be less sensitive to high monosaccharide concentrations except......Biological degradation of biomass on an industrial scale culminates in high concentrations of end products. It is known that the accumulation of glucose and cellobiose, end products of hydrolysis, inhibit cellulases and decrease glucose yields. Aside from these end products, however, other...

  7. High-dimensional entanglement concentration of twisted photon pairs High-dimensional entanglement concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. X.; Wu, Q. P.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, Dada et al. reported on the experimental entanglement concentration and violation of generalized Bell inequalities with orbital angular momentum (OAM) [Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011)]. Here we demonstrate that the high-dimensional entanglement concentration can be performed in arbitrary OAM subspaces with selectivity. Instead of violating the generalized Bell inequalities, the working principle of present entanglement concentration is visualized by the biphoton OAM Klyshko picture, and its good performance is confirmed and quantified through the experimental Shannon dimensionalities after concentration.

  8. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  9. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development

    OpenAIRE

    Tomar, Dheeraj S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K.; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-or...

  10. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-order intermolecular interactions, non-native aggregation, and concentration-dependent fluctuations of various antibody regions. This article reviews our current understanding of molecular origins of viscosity behaviors of antibody solutions. We discuss general strategies and guidelines to select low viscosity candidates or optimize lead candidates for lower viscosity at early drug discovery stages. Moreover, strategies for formulation optimization and excipient design are also presented for candidates already in advanced product development stages. Potential future directions for research in this field are also explored.

  11. High microparticle concentration in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweintzger, S; Schlagenhauf, A; Rinner, B; Bernhard, H; Novak, M; Leschnik, B; Muntean, W

    2010-11-01

    We investigated if differences in the microparticle concentration and activity between newborn cord plasma and adult plasma exist. To enumerate and characterize microparticles (MP) FACS and ELISA were used.The effect of microparticles derived tissue factor (TF) on thrombin generation was measured indirectly by CAT (calibrated automated thrombography). The flow cytometric measurements revealed an increased microparticle concentration in newborn cord compared with adult plasma. By the use of ELISA a significantly increased procoagulant activity of microparticles was found in newborn cord plasma as compared to adult plasma. Initiation of thrombin generation by adding phospholipids alone resulted in a significant lower prolongation of the lag time, time to peak in cord plasma, while the decrease of endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and peak was comparable between newborns and adults. Our results show a higher impact of microparticles on the haemostatic system of newborns than on that of adults. The three methods suggest a somewhat increased microparticle activity in newborn cord plasma, but argue against strong platelet activation during birth.

  12. Factors Impeding Enzymatic Wheat Gluten Hydrolysis at High Solid Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased

  13. High Iridium concentration of alkaline rocks of Deccan and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report here an unusually high concentration of iridium in some alkali basalts and alkaline rocks of Deccan region having an age of about 65Ma, similar to the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The alkali basalts of Anjar, in the western periphery of Deccan province, have irid-ium concentration as high as 178pg/g ...

  14. Placental weight in pregnancies with high or low hemoglobin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sandra; Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Haavaldsen, Camilla; Eskild, Anne

    2016-11-01

    To study the associations of maternal hemoglobin concentrations with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio. In this retrospective cohort study, we included all singleton pregnancies during the years 1998-2013 at a large public hospital in Norway (n=57062). We compared mean placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio according to maternal hemoglobin concentrations: 13.5g/dl. The associations of maternal hemoglobin concentrations with placental weight and placental to birthweight ratio were estimated by linear regression analyses, and adjustments were made for gestational age at birth, preeclampsia, parity, maternal age, diabetes, body mass index, smoking, offspring sex and year of birth. In pregnancies with maternal hemoglobin concentrations hemoglobin concentrations 9-13.5g/dl and 655.5g (SD 147.7g) for hemoglobin concentrations >13.5g/dl (ANOVA, phemoglobin concentrations hemoglobin concentrations 9-13.5g/dl (0.193 (SD 0.040)) and >13.5g/dl (0.193 (SD 0.043)). Adjustments for our study factors did not alter the estimates notably. Placental weight decreased with increasing maternal hemoglobin concentrations. The high placental to birthweight ratio with low maternal hemoglobin concentrations suggests differences in placental growth relative to fetal growth across maternal hemoglobin concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High acrylate concentrations in the mucus of Phaeocystis globosa colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, D.J B; Schotten, M; Gieskes, W.W C; Forney, L.J; Gottschal, J.C; van Rijssel, M

    1998-01-01

    Acrylate produced from dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) by Phaeocystis has been claimed to inhibit bacterial growth. However, the concentrations of acrylate measured in seawater during Phaeocystis blooms are not high enough to expect inhibition of bacterial growth. In this study, the total

  16. Low concentrations of methamphetamine detectable in urine in the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemionek, John F; Addison, Joseph; Past, Marilyn R

    2009-04-01

    Twenty-two urine specimens reported by military drug-testing laboratories for the presence of high concentrations of amphetamine only were subject to further analysis for the presence of methamphetamine. The 22 urine specimens had concentrations of amphetamine in the range of 28,028 to 241,142 ng/mL. The specimens were also assayed for the respective isomeric ratio of d (S) and l (R) amphetamine and methamphetamine. The results suggest that urine specimens containing high concentrations of amphetamine in which the urine concentration ratio of methamphetamine to amphetamine is less than 0.5% with similar isomeric distribution of d-(S) and l-(R) amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, may not necessarily indicate polydrug use.

  17. High concentration photovoltaic systems applying III-V cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubi, Ghassan; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fracastoro, Gian Vincenzo [Department of Energetics, Politecnico of Turin, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    High concentration systems make use of the direct solar beam and therefore are suitable for application in regions with high annual direct irradiation values. III-V PV cells with a nominal efficiency of up to 39% are readily available in today's market, with further efficiency improvements expected in the years ahead. The relatively high cost of III-V cells limits their terrestrial use to applications under high concentration, usually above 400 suns. In this way the relatively high cell cost is compensated through the low amount for cells needed per kW nominal system output. This paper presents a state of the art of high concentration photovoltaics using III-V cells. This PV field accounts already for more than 20 developed systems, which are commercially available or shortly before market introduction. (author)

  18. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-12-31

    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy.

  19. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  20. Outdoor Characterisation of High Efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVETTONI Mauro; VIRTUANI Alessandro; Kenny, Robert; Daniel J. Farrell; Chatten, Amanda J.; Barnham, Keith W J

    2008-01-01

    This work presents recent results on outdoor characterisation of high efficiency luminescent solar concentrators. Outdoor measurements at 25°C and corrected to 1000 W/m2 have been compared with indoor characterization according to the international standards for conventional photovoltaic devices. Dependence of electrical parameters with temperature is also shown, together with results of various 1-day monitoring campaigns of luminescent concentrators performance under varying irradiance condi...

  1. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  3. Chronic Diarrhea Associated with High Teriflunomide Blood Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, André; Frenette, Anne Julie; Doré, Maxime

    2016-06-01

    To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient's general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of consciousness. Therefore, hospitalization was required. Teriflunomide blood concentration was 156 mg/L. After 11 days of cholestyramine washout therapy, teriflunomide blood concentration was reduced to 6 mg/L. As the teriflunomide levels decreased, diarrhea improved. All other possible causes of diarrhea were ruled out. The patient's diarrhea finally resolved 26 days after treatment with cholestyramine. Diarrhea is a known adverse effect of leflunomide. In this report, the severe diarrhea was associated with high blood teriflunomide concentrations. Available data suggests an association between teriflunomide concentrations greater than 50 mg/L and lower disease activity, but toxic teriflunomide levels still have to be clarified. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal therapeutic levels of teriflunomide. However, therapeutic drug monitoring of teriflunomide blood concentrations may be helpful to improve effectiveness and to prevent toxicity in patients taking leflunomide for RA, particularly in those with suboptimal therapeutic response to leflunomide or in patients with toxicity suspected to be induced by leflunomide.

  4. Stability of human telomere quadruplexes at high DNA concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejnovská, Iva; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Brázdová, Marie; Sagi, Janos

    2014-04-01

    For mimicking macromolecular crowding of DNA quadruplexes, various crowding agents have been used, typically PEG, with quadruplexes of micromolar strand concentrations. Thermal and thermodynamic stabilities of these quadruplexes increased with the concentration of the agents, the rise depended on the crowder used. A different phenomenon was observed, and is presented in this article, when the crowder was the quadruplex itself. With DNA strand concentrations ranging from 3 µM to 9 mM, the thermostability did not change up to ∼2 mM, above which it increased, indicating that the unfolding quadruplex units were not monomolecular above ∼2 mM. The results are explained by self-association of the G-quadruplexes above this concentration. The ΔG(°) 37 values, evaluated only below 2 mM, did not become more negative, as with the non-DNA crowders, instead, slightly increased. Folding topology changed from antiparallel to hybrid above 2 mM, and then to parallel quadruplexes at high, 6-9 mM strand concentrations. In this range, the concentration of the DNA phosphate anions approached the concentration of the K(+) counterions used. Volume exclusion is assumed to promote the topological changes of quadruplexes toward the parallel, and the decreased screening of anions could affect their stability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  6. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system solar cell at >660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  7. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  8. Production of glucose syrups in highly concentrated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der M.E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrolysis of maltodextrins in a high concentration (up to 70%), by means of enzymatic and acid catalysis. The study revealed that the equilibrium compositions of the catalyzed reactions were kinetically determined by the selectivity of the catalyst, the substrate

  9. The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelenburg, F. A. C.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schuitemaker, H.; Moorer, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture (80% ethanol and 5% isopropanol) was determined for a broad series of lipid-enveloped (LE) and non-lipid-enveloped (NLE) viruses covering all relevant blood-borne viruses. LE viruses were represented by human immunodeficiency virus

  10. High Iridium concentration of alkaline rocks of Deccan and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    and implications to K/T boundary. P N Shukla, N Bhandari∗, Anirban Das, A D Shukla and J S Ray. Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. ∗e-mail: bhandari@prl.ernet.in. We report here an unusually high concentration of iridium in some alkali basalts and alkaline rocks of Deccan region having an age ...

  11. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  12. Effects of high concentration of chromium stress on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of high concentration of chromium (Cr) stress on physiological and biochemical characters and accumulation of Cr in Pingyang Tezao tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kutze 'Pingyangtezao'] through a pot experiment. The results show that the indicators of photosynthesis were all suppressed with ...

  13. High concentration of antimitochondrial antibodies predicts progressive primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, Robert; Pelszynska, Maria; Prokopowicz, Danuta; Rogalska, Magdalena; Grygoruk, Urszula

    2005-09-28

    To evaluate the serum concentration of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) as a prognostic indicator of progressive primary biliary cirrhosis (pPBC). Serum concentrations of AMA subtypes (anti-M2, anti-M4, and anti-M9), biochemical indices of liver function and Mayo risk factor (MRF) were determined in 30 women with diagnosed primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) selected among 348 females with elevated alkaline phosphatase but without signs of hepatic decompensation. They were followed up for 5 years for possible development of hepatic decompensation. Anti-M2 concentration was significantly correlated with bilirubin and albumin levels as well as MRF, whereas anti-M4 was significantly correlated with albumin level, prothrombin time and MRF. During the 5-year follow-up, progressive PBC (pPBC) was diagnosed in 3 among 23 patients available for evaluation. These 3 patients were positive for both anti-M2 and anti-M4. Anti-M2 serum concentration exceeded 1 300 RU/mL in patients with pPBC and only in 1 among 20 non-progressive PBC persons (5%). Anti-M4 serum concentration exceeded 400 RU/mL in 2 of the progressive patients and none in the non-progressive group. In contrast, anti-M9 serum concentration was below 100 RU/mL in all patients with pPBC, and higher than 100 RU/mL in 11 women (55%) among the non-progressive group. Females with elevated alkaline phosphatase and high anti-M2 and anti-M4 concentrations are at a high risk for developing pPBC. Quantitative AMA detection should be considered as a method for early diagnosis of pPBC.

  14. Concentric circular focusing reflector realized using high index contrast gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenjing; Huang, Yongqing; Fei, Jiarui; Duan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kai; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-11-01

    A non-periodic concentric circular high index contrast grating (CC-HCG) focusing reflector on 500 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is fabricated and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed mirror is realized with phase modulation of wave front in a high reflectivity region. The circular structure based HCG focusing reflector has a spot of high concentration at the 10.87 mm with normal incidence for radially polarization, along with the center wavelength set at 1550 nm. The FWHM spot size of the focusing beam decreases to 260 μm, and the intensity increases to 1.26 compared with the incident beam. The focusing efficiency of about 80% is observed at 1550 nm in the experimental measurement.

  15. High concentration biotherapeutic formulation and ultrafiltration: Part 1 pressure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Herb; Arias, Joshua; Zou, Yu

    2017-01-01

    High therapeutic dosage requirements and the desire for ease of administration drive the trend to subcutaneous administration using delivery systems such as subcutaneous pumps and prefilled syringes. Because of dosage volume limits, prefilled syringe administration requires higher concentration liquid formulations, limited to about 30 cP or roughly 100-300 g L-1 for mAb's. Ultrafiltration (UF) processes are routinely used to formulate biological therapeutics. This article considers pressure constraints on the UF process that may limit its ability to achieve high final product concentrations. A system hardware analysis shows that the ultrafiltration cassette pressure drop is the major factor limiting UF systems. Additional system design recommendations are also provided. The design and performance of a new cassette with a lower feed channel flow resistance is described along with 3D modeling of feed channel pressure drop. The implications of variations in cassette flow channel resistance for scaling up and setting specifications are considered. A recommendation for a maximum pressure specification is provided. A review of viscosity data and theory shows that molecular engineering, temperature, and the use of viscosity modifying excipients including pH adjustment can be used to achieve higher concentrations. The combined use of a low pressure drop cassette with excipients further increased final concentrations by 35%. Guidance is provided on system operation to control hydraulics during final concentration. These recommendations should allow one to design and operate systems to routinely achieve the 30 cP target final viscosity capable of delivery using a pre-filled syringe. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:113-124, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: jasouza@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 g U/c m3 by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 g U/c m3 for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian- Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  19. Towards operating direct methanol fuel cells with highly concentrated fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. S.; Yang, W. W.; Chen, R.; Wu, Q. X.

    A significant advantage of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is the high specific energy of the liquid fuel, making it particularly suitable for portable and mobile applications. Nevertheless, conventional DMFCs have to be operated with excessively diluted methanol solutions to limit methanol crossover and the detrimental consequences. Operation with diluted methanol solutions significantly reduces the specific energy of the power pack and thereby prevents it from competing with advanced batteries. In view of this fact, there exists a need to improve conventional DMFC system designs, including membrane electrode assemblies and the subsystems for supplying/removing reactants/products, so that both the cell performance and the specific energy can be simultaneously maximized. This article provides a comprehensive review of past efforts on the optimization of DMFC systems that operate with concentrated methanol. Based on the discussion of the key issues associated with transport of the reactants/products, the strategies to manage the supply/removal of the reactants/products in DMFC operating with highly concentrated methanol are identified. With these strategies, the possible approaches to achieving the goal of concentrated fuel operation are then proposed. Past efforts in the management of the reactants/products for implementing each of the approaches are also summarized and reviewed.

  20. Prediction of colloidal stability of high concentration protein formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Blume, Alfred; Wagner, Michael

    2015-05-01

    A major aspect determining the colloidal properties of proteins in solution is the interaction between them and with surrounding molecules. These interactions can be described by the concentration dependency of the protein diffusivity (kD), as derived by dynamic light scattering and was determined for different solutions of monoclonal antibodies varying in pH, ionic strength and presence/absence of co-solute(s). Concerning colloidal stability, protein solutions of different kD values are evaluated, based on their initial solution opalescence, to assess protein association. The current investigation shows that solution conditions with large kD values, indicating high repulsive protein-protein interactions, show lower initial opalescence, compared to solution conditions with low kD values. Upon applying stirring stress, to assess colloidal stability, the trend is such that, the higher kD values are, the more stable the protein solutions are, as long as the thermodynamic and conformational stability is not impaired. Besides, kD allows ranking of solution conditions for highly concentrated immunoglobulin solutions up to concentrations of ∼200 mg mL(-1) with regard to protein self-association and thus opalescent properties. The present study shows that the protein interaction parameter kD can be used as a surrogate parameter for a qualitative prediction of protein association and, thus, colloidal protein stability.

  1. High concentration methanol fuel cells: Design and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christian E.; Wang, Chao-Yang

    Use of highly concentrated methanol fuel is required for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) to compete with the energy density of Li-ion batteries. Because one mole of H 2O is needed to oxidize one mole of methanol (CH 3OH) in the anode, low water crossover to the cathode or even water back flow from the cathode into the anode is a prerequisite for using highly concentrated methanol. It has previously been demonstrated that low or negative water crossover can be realized by the incorporation of a low-α membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which is essentially an MEA designed for optimal water management, using, e.g. hydrophobic anode and cathode microporous layers (aMPL and cMPL). In this paper we extend the low-α MEA concept to include an anode transport barrier (aTB) between the backing layer and hydrophobic aMPL. The main role of the aTB is to act as a barrier to CH 3OH and H 2O diffusion between a water-rich anode catalyst layer (aCL) and a methanol-rich fuel feed. The primary role of the hydrophobic aMPL in this MEA is to facilitate a low (or negative) water crossover to the cathode. Using a previously developed 1D, two-phase DMFC model, we show that this novel design yields a cell with low methanol crossover (i.e. high fuel efficiency, ∼80%, at a typical operating current density of ∼80-90% of the cell limiting current density), while directly feeding high concentration methanol fuel into the anode. The physics of how the aTB and aMPL work together to accomplish this is fully elucidated. We further show that a thicker, more hydrophilic, more permeable aTB, and thicker, more hydrophobic, and less permeable aMPL are most effective in accomplishing low CH 3OH and H 2O crossover.

  2. Optimal design of high concentration reflected photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Yi; Lin, Yuli

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a fabrication and design process of a high concentration reflected photovoltaic (HCRPV) using 3x3 array modules with the light guide tube and III-V solar cells are demonstrated. The developed and designed of 3x3 array modules with the light guide tube following key design aims are all satisfied with highly uniform irradiance on the solar cell absorber and maximum light collective efficiency. With the use of the maximum peak power output from the tracking system which had two phases of X-Y axis and θ-axis tracking the sun position precisely and getting. With an optimized high concentration reflected photovoltaic systems of 3x3 array modules with the light guide tube, the optimal condition and measured characteristics and efficiency was conducted. This improved HCRPV performance is attributed to the enhanced collection light power from a big reflected mirror area. The HCRPV module was then fabricated using Aluminum material and it was coated with silver material. From the simulation results, the light collective efficiency can be reached to about 94.9% with uniform irradiance. From the measurement results, the power can be calculated to be 2.62W˜2.74W, which is about 90% of the power of solar cell (3W) used.

  3. Mapping Global Atmospheric CO2 Concentration at High Spatiotemporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Jing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite measurements of the spatiotemporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are a key component for better understanding global carbon cycle characteristics. Currently, several satellite instruments such as the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, SCanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY, and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 can be used to measure CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions. However, because of cloud effects, a single satellite can only provide limited CO2 data, resulting in significant uncertainty in the characterization of the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In this study, a new physical data fusion technique is proposed to combine the GOSAT and SCIAMACHY measurements. On the basis of the fused dataset, a gap-filling method developed by modeling the spatial correlation structures of CO2 concentrations is presented with the goal of generating global land CO2 distribution maps with high spatiotemporal resolution. The results show that, compared with the single satellite dataset (i.e., GOSAT or SCIAMACHY, the global spatial coverage of the fused dataset is significantly increased (reaching up to approximately 20%, and the temporal resolution is improved by two or three times. The spatial coverage and monthly variations of the generated global CO2 distributions are also investigated. Comparisons with ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON measurements reveal that CO2 distributions based on the gap-filling method show good agreement with TCCON records despite some biases. These results demonstrate that the fused dataset as well as the gap-filling method are rather effective to generate global CO2 distribution with high accuracies and high spatiotemporal resolution.

  4. Effect of high soil copper concentration on mycorrhizal grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Amaia; Santos, Erika S.; Viegas, Wanda; Aran, Diego; Pereira, Sofia H.; Vidigal, Patricia; Lopes, Carlos M.; Abreu, M. Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Repeated application of Copper (Cu) based fungicides in vineyards since the end of the 19th century has led to a significant increase in the concentration of this chemical element in many viticultural soils. Although Cu is an essential micronutrient for most organisms, it can be toxic for the development and survival of plants and soil (micro)organisms at high concentrations and eventually lead to yield loses in viticulture, as it negatively affects key physiological and biogeochemical processes. However, some soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), have developed adaptive mechanisms for persistence in environments with supra-optimal levels of essential elements or in the presence of harmful ones, as well as for increasing plant tolerance to such abiotic stress conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a high total soil concentration of Cu on microbial soil activity as well as on the development of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal grapevines. A microcosm assay was set up under greenhouse and controlled conditions. Touriga Nacional grapevine variety plants grafted onto 1103P rootstocks were inoculated either with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mosseae, or were left as non-inoculated controls. After three months, they were transplanted to containers filled with 4 kg of a sandy soil (pH: 7.0; electrical conductivity: 0.08 mS/cm; [organic C]: 5.6 g/kg; [N-NO3]: 1.1 mg/kg; [N-NH4]: 2.5 mg/kg; [extractable K]: 45.1 mg/kg; [extractable P]: 52.3 mg/kg), collected near to a vineyard in Pegões (Portugal). Two treatments were carried out: with and without Cu application. The soil with high Cu concentration was prepared by adding 300 mg Cu/kg (in the form of an aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O) followed by an incubation during four weeks in plastic bags at room temperature in dark. Physico-chemical soil characteristics (pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients concentration in available fraction), soil

  5. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  6. High manganese concentrations in rocks at Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Nina L.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Wiens, Roger C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Ollila, Ann M.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Clark, Benton C.; Gellert, Ralf; Mangold, Nicolas; Maurice, Sylvestre; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Nachon, Marion; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Berger, Jeffrey; Clegg, Samuel M.; Forni, Olivier; Hardgrove, Craig; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton E.; Sautter, Violaine

    2014-01-01

    The surface of Mars has long been considered a relatively oxidizing environment, an idea supported by the abundance of ferric iron phases observed there. However, compared to iron, manganese is sensitive only to high redox potential oxidants, and when concentrated in rocks, it provides a more specific redox indicator of aqueous environments. Observations from the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity rover indicate abundances of manganese in and on some rock targets that are 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than previously observed on Mars, suggesting the presence of an as-yet unidentified manganese-rich phase. These results show that the Martian surface has at some point in time hosted much more highly oxidizing conditions than has previously been recognized.

  7. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  8. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.

    2016-05-13

    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  9. Coagulation pretreatment of highly concentrated acrylonitrile wastewater from petrochemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongju; Qin, Lin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Jiding

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. Several chemical methods for the pretreatment of AN wastewater are available in laboratory scale. However, the harsh reaction conditions and high operational cost make these methods undesirable. Until now, four-effect evaporation is the only pretreatment method used for AN wastewater in industry despite its huge energy consumption and high cost. It is difficult to find an energy-saving pretreatment technique from the perspective of industrial application. In this study, a safe and low-cost coagulation technique was developed for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. Three types of inorganic coagulant and three types of polymer coagulant were investigated for the coagulation treatment of highly concentrated AN wastewater from petrochemical plants. The effects of coagulant type, dosage, and coagulation conditions on the pretreatment efficiency of AN wastewater were investigated. The results show that a combination of inorganic and polymer coagulants is effective for the pretreatment of AN wastewater.

  10. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  11. Acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms at high pH and high calcium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Takahiro, E-mail: t-yoshida@rwmc.or.j [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, 2-11-1, Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic {sup 14}C compounds in cementitious repositories. Tamagawa river sediment or Teganuma pond sediment was anaerobically cultured with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate at pH 9.5-12 at 30 {sup o}C. After 20 and 90 days, the acetate concentration of the culture medium was analyzed and found to have decreased below 5 mM at pH {<=} 11. On the other hand, it did not decrease when either sediment was incubated in the absence of nitrate. These results suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate under more alkaline conditions than the reported pH range in which nitrate-reducing bacteria can exhibit activity. Acetate biodegradation was also examined at a high calcium concentration. Sediments were anaerobically cultured at pH 9.5 with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate in solution, equilibrated with ordinary Portland cement hydrate, in which the Ca concentration was 14.6 mM. No decrease in acetate concentration after incubation of the sediments was observed, nor was it lower than in the absence of cementitious composition, suggesting that kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms is lowered by a high Ca concentration. - Research highlights: {yields} Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic {sup 14}C compounds in cementitious repositories. {yields} Nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate at pH {<=} 11. {yields} Kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms might be lowered by a high Ca concentration.

  12. Carbon Nanofibers Modified Graphite Felt for High Performance Anode in High Substrate Concentration Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youliang; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Shuiliang; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Suqi; Hou, Haoqing

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF) composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm−2 at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm−2, was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration. PMID:24883348

  13. Carbon nanofibers modified graphite felt for high performance anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youliang; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Shuiliang; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Suqi; Hou, Haoqing

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF) composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm(-2) at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm(-2), was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration.

  14. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  15. An Automatic High Efficient Method for Dish Concentrator Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-01-01

    for the alignment of faceted solar dish concentrator. The isosceles triangle configuration of facet’s footholds determines a fixed relation between light spot displacements and foothold movements, which allows an automatic determination of the amount of adjustments. Tests on a 25 kW Stirling Energy System dish concentrator verify the feasibility, accuracy, and efficiency of our method.

  16. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide...... a trusted subset of the SAR scenes across the central Arctic allow the separation of the ice concentration uncertainty due to emissivity variations and sensor noise from other error sources during the winter of 2003-2004. Depending on the algorithm, error standard deviations from 2.5 to 5.0% are found...... with sensor noise between 1.3 and 1.8%. This is in accord with variability estimated from analysis of SSM/I time series. Algorithms, which primarily use 85 GHz information, consistently give the best agreement with both SAR ice concentrations and ship observations. Although the 85 GHz information is more...

  17. Design philosophy and construction of a high concentration compound parabolic concentrator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Roos_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19653 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Roos_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 THE DESIGN PHILOSOPHY AND CONSTRUCTION... and actual efficiency will be determined using a hemispherical cavity calorimeter. Keywords: CPC, compound parabolic concentrator, sandwich 1. Introduction A 25m2 target-aligned research heliostat has been developed at CSIR [1] to provide the concentrated...

  18. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  19. High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael J. Currie; Jonathan K. Mapel; Timothy D. Heidel; Shalom Goffri; Marc A. Baldo

    2008-01-01

    The cost of photovoltaic power can be reduced with organic solar concentrators. These are planar waveguides with a thin-film organic coating on the face and inorganic solar cells attached to the edges...

  20. Ozone concentration characteristics at a high-elevation forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Wooldridge; K. Zeller; R. Musselman

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric ozone concentrations have been monitored at a subalpine forest ecosystem site, 3180m above mean sea level (msl), and at a 2680m msl forest-steppe ecotone site 15km to the southeast. Ozone concentrations were monitored at three heights above the ground on a 30m tower at the higher elevation site, and on a 10m tower in a large meadow downwind of this site....

  1. Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondakis, X.G.; Makris, N.; Leotsinidis, M.; Prinou, M.; Papapetropoulos, T.

    1989-05-01

    Three areas in the same region of northwest Peloponnesos, Greece, that had varying concentrations of manganese (Mn) in drinking water were selected for study. The Mn concentrations in areas A, B, and C were 3.6-14.6 micrograms/l, 81.6-252.6 micrograms/l, and 1 800-2 300 micrograms/l, respectively. A random sample (62 in area A, 49 in area B, and 77 in area C) of males and females who were at least 50 y of age were submitted to a thorough neurological examination and their whole-blood Mn and hair Mn concentrations were determined. Although all areas were similar with respect to social and dietary characteristics, significant differences were observed for prevalence of chronic manganese poisoning (CMnP) symptoms and hair Mn concentration. The means (both sexes) of neurological scores were 2.7, 3.9, and 5.2, respectively, for areas A, B, and C (Kruskal-Wallis, chi 2 = 6.44, 2 df, p less than .05 for males; chi 2 = 7.8, 2 df, p less than .05 for females). Hair Mn concentrations were also significantly different, the means for which were 3.51, 4.49, and 10.99 micrograms/g dry weight, respectively (both sexes (p less than .001 for each sex separately)). These results indicate that progressive increases of Mn concentration in drinking water are associated with progressively higher prevalences of neurological signs of CMnP and Mn concentration in hair of older persons.

  2. Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

  3. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  4. Methods and devices for high-throughput dielectrophoretic concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A.; Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen

    2010-02-23

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for assaying and concentrating analytes in a fluid sample using dielectrophoresis. As disclosed, the methods and devices utilize substrates having a plurality of pores through which analytes can be selectively prevented from passing, or inhibited, on application of an appropriate electric field waveform. The pores of the substrate produce nonuniform electric field having local extrema located near the pores. These nonuniform fields drive dielectrophoresis, which produces the inhibition. Arrangements of electrodes and porous substrates support continuous, bulk, multi-dimensional, and staged selective concentration.

  5. High pressure inertial focusing for separation and concentration of bacteria at high throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F. J.; Hjort, K.

    2017-11-01

    Inertial focusing is a phenomenon where particles migrate across streamlines in microchannels and focus at well-defined, size dependent equilibrium points of the cross section. It can be taken into advantage for focusing, separation and concentration of particles at high through-put and high efficiency. As particles decrease in size, smaller channels and higher pressures are needed. Hence, new designs are needed to decrease the pressure drop. In this work a novel design was adapted to focus and separate 1 µm from 3 µm spherical polystyrene particles. Also 0.5 µm spherical polystyrene particles were separated, although in a band instead of a single line. The ability to separate, concentrate and focus bacteria, its simplicity of use and high throughput make this technology a candidate for daily routines in laboratories and hospitals.

  6. High urinary phthalate concentration associated with delayed pubarche in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K; Mouritsen, A

    2012-01-01

    in pubertal timing among girls, although controversies exist. We determined the concentration of 12 phthalate metabolites in first morning urine samples from 725 healthy Danish girls (aged 5.6-19.1 years) in relation to age, pubertal development (breast and pubic hair stage) and reproductive hormone levels...... (luteinizing hormone, oestradiol and testosterone). Furthermore, urinary phthalates were determined in 25 girls with precocious puberty (PP). In general, the youngest girls with less advanced pubertal development had the highest first morning urinary concentration of the monobutyl phthalate isoforms (¿MBP......). This trend was statistically significant when all phthalate metabolites (except MEP) were summarized and expressed as quartiles. No association between phthalates and breast development was observed. In addition, there were no differences in urinary phthalate metabolite levels between girls with PP...

  7. Highly Concentrated Seed Mediated Synthesis of Monodispersed Gold Nanorods (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-17

    resolution TEM images (Figure 5c) also confirm that the single crystalline structures of Au-NRs from this process production is identical to that of... structural characteristics of the Au NR product. The volume of seed solution is varied from 1S to 500S and reactant concentration was increased from 1G to... TEM images of Au-NRs obtained from different condition. The scale bar is 100 nm. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces Research Article DOI: 10.1021

  8. Nitrobacter winogradskyi transcriptomic response to low and high ammonium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayavedra-Soto, Luis; Ferrell, Rebecca; Dobie, Michael; Mellbye, Brett; Chaplen, Frank; Buchanan, Alex; Chang, Jeffrey; Bottomley, Peter; Arp, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb-255 is a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium that can grow solely on nitrite (NO2(-)) as a source of energy and nitrogen. In most natural situations, NO2(-) oxidation is coupled closely to ammonium (NH4(+)) oxidation by bacteria and archaea and, conceptually, N. winogradskyi can save energy using NH4(+) to meet its N-biosynthetic requirements. Interestingly, NH4(+) delayed the growth of N. winogradskyi when at concentrations higher than 35 mM, but grew well at concentrations below 25 mM NH4(+) while adjusting the expression of 24% of its genes. Notable genes that changed in expression included those with roles in nitrogen and carbon assimilation. Contrary to expectations, higher expression of glutamate synthase (GOGAT), instead of glutamate dehydrogenase, was detected at higher NH4(+) concentration. Genes in assimilatory NO2(-) metabolism and the degradation of glycogen and biofilm/motility were downregulated when N. winogradskyi was grown in the presence of NH4(+). Nitrobacter winogradskyi grown in medium with 25 mM NH4(+) upregulated genes in post-translational modification, protein turnover, biogenesis and chaperons. The data suggest that N. winogradskyi physiology is modified in the presence of NH4(+) and is likely to be modified during coupled nitrification with NH3 oxidizers. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  10. High pressure inertial focusing for separating and concentrating bacteria at high throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Hooshmand Zadeh, S.; Graells, T.; Andersson, M.; Malmström, J.; Wu, Z. G.; Hjort, K.

    2017-08-01

    Inertial focusing is a promising microfluidic technology for concentration and separation of particles by size. However, there is a strong correlation of increased pressure with decreased particle size. Theory and experimental results for larger particles were used to scale down the phenomenon and find the conditions that focus 1 µm particles. High pressure experiments in robust glass chips were used to demonstrate the alignment. We show how the technique works for 1 µm spherical polystyrene particles and for Escherichia coli, not being harmful for the bacteria at 50 µl min-1. The potential to focus bacteria, simplicity of use and high throughput make this technology interesting for healthcare applications, where concentration and purification of a sample may be required as an initial step.

  11. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-05-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  12. New PSA high concentration solar furnace SF40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Cañadas, Inmaculada; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    A new solar furnace has been designed and built at Plataforma Solar de Almería. In this work, its main components such as heliostat, concentrator, attenuator and test table, and the method used to align them are described. Other equipment like the auxiliary systems necessary for the solar operation, vacuum chamber and gas system are outlined too. Finally, the thermal characteristics of the focus were measured during a test campaign, where different planes along the optical axis were scanned with a radiometer, and the peak flux was obtained and is presented in the last section of this report.

  13. The anaesthesia of fish by high carbon-dioxide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-01-01

    A practical and economical method for anaesthetizing adult salmon and steelhead trout in the fish trucks used in the Grand Coulee fish salvage program is described. The method consists in generating a predetermined carbon-dioxide concentration in the 1000-gallon tanks of the trucks through the successive addition of predissolved sodium bicarbonate and dilute sulphuric acid in proper quantities. Carbon-dioxide anaesthesia effectively solved the acute problem of species segregation in the fish salvage program and, with minor modifications, could be used with equal success in certain hatchery operations necessitating the handling of large fish.

  14. Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Caspar A; Foppen, Ruud P B; van Turnhout, Chris A M; de Kroon, Hans; Jongejans, Eelke

    2014-07-17

    Recent studies have shown that neonicotinoid insecticides have adverse effects on non-target invertebrate species. Invertebrates constitute a substantial part of the diet of many bird species during the breeding season and are indispensable for raising offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that the most widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, has a negative impact on insectivorous bird populations. Here we show that, in the Netherlands, local population trends were significantly more negative in areas with higher surface-water concentrations of imidacloprid. At imidacloprid concentrations of more than 20 nanograms per litre, bird populations tended to decline by 3.5 per cent on average annually. Additional analyses revealed that this spatial pattern of decline appeared only after the introduction of imidacloprid to the Netherlands, in the mid-1990s. We further show that the recent negative relationship remains after correcting for spatial differences in land-use changes that are known to affect bird populations in farmland. Our results suggest that the impact of neonicotinoids on the natural environment is even more substantial than has recently been reported and is reminiscent of the effects of persistent insecticides in the past. Future legislation should take into account the potential cascading effects of neonicotinoids on ecosystems.

  15. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  16. Athletic activity and hormone concentrations in high school female athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wojtys, Edward M; Jannausch, Mary L; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Harlow, Siobán D; Sowers, MaryFran R

    2015-01-01

    .... To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls...

  17. Large scintillation cells for high sensitivity radon concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. L.; El Ganayni, M.; Cohen, E. S.

    1983-07-01

    Methods for improving the sensitivity of scintillation cells for radon concentration measurements were studied with emphasis on improving light collection efficiency. This allows the length and hence the volume of the cell to be increased. Variables studied were choice of scintillator material, its method of application and thickness, length of cell, cell material, type and configuration of reflectors, choice of photomultipliers, and factors affecting background. Response from various areas of the cell surface was studied with an alpha source and with radon filling. Coating the window with phosphor was found to be counter-productive. The optimum results obtained were with the inside of the cell (other than the window) covered with a thick layer of ZnS(Ag), or with a thick layer of reflective material coated with a thin layer of phosphor. With it, a 10 cm diameter plexiglass cell can be extended to at least 50 cm length without difficulty from insufficient pulse height.

  18. High-Performance Near-Infrared Luminescent Solar Concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondão, Raquel; Frias, Ana R; Correia, Sandra F H; Fu, Lianshe; de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S; Carlos, Luís D

    2017-04-12

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) appear as candidates to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells and contribute to reduce the size of PV systems, decreasing, therefore, the amount of material needed and thus the cost associated with energy conversion. One way to maximize the device performance is to explore near-infrared (NIR)-emitting centers, resonant with the maximum optical response of the most common Si-based PV cells. Nevertheless, very few examples in the literature demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating LSCs emitting in the NIR region. In this work, NIR-emitting LSCs are reported using silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis(trihexylsilyloxide) (SiNc or NIR775) immobilized in an organic-inorganic tri-ureasil matrix (t-U(5000)). The photophysical properties of the SiNc dye incorporated into the tri-ureasil host closely resembled those of SiNc in tetrahydrofuran solution (an absolute emission quantum yield of ∼0.17 and a fluorescence lifetime of ∼3.6 ns). The LSC coupled to a Si-based PV device revealed an optical conversion efficiency of ∼1.5%, which is among the largest values known in the literature for NIR-emitting LSCs. The LSCs were posteriorly coupled to a Si-based commercial PV cell, and the synergy between the t-U(5000) and SiNc molecules enabled an effective increase in the external quantum efficiency of PV cells, exceeding 20% in the SiNc absorption region.

  19. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  20. Design requirements for high-efficiency high concentration ratio space solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Patterson, R.

    1980-01-01

    A miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator system concept was developed for low cost, multikilowatt space solar arrays. The system imposes some requirements on solar cells which are new and different from those imposed for conventional applications. The solar cells require a circular active area of approximately 4 mm in diameter. High reliability contacts are required on both front and back surfaces. The back area must be metallurgically bonded to a heat sink. The cell should be designed to achieve the highest practical efficiency at 100 AMO suns and at 80 C. The cell design must minimize losses due to nonuniform illumination intensity and nonnormal light incidence. The primary radiation concern is the omnidirectional proton environment.

  1. Protein aggregation under high concentration/density state during chromatographic and ultrafiltration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Ejima, Daisuke; Akuta, Teruo

    2017-02-01

    Local transient high protein concentration or high density condition can occur during processing of protein solutions. Typical examples are saturated binding of proteins during column chromatography and high protein concentration on the semi-permeable membrane during ultrafiltration. Both column chromatography and ultrafiltration are fundamental technologies, specially for production of pharmaceutical proteins. We summarize here our experiences related to such high concentration conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Kovalenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on “water / diesel fuel” border in the presence of 0.5 wt % sorbitan monooleate of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension “surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel”, the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of “spectral resonance” between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C. It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product

  3. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha by high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Siti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activities in methanolic extracts of W. somnifera fruits, roots and leaves (WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt. Methods WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt was prepared by using 80% aqueous methanol and total polyphenols, flavonoids as well as DPPH radical scavenging activities were determined by spectrophotometric methods and phenolic acid profiles were determined by HPLC methods. Results High concentrations of both phenolics and flavonoids were detected in all parts of the plant with the former ranging between 17.80 ± 5.80 and 32.58 ± 3.16 mg/g (dry weight and the latter ranging between 15.49 ± 1.02 and 31.58 ± 5.07 mg/g. All of the three different plant parts showed strong DPPH radical scavenging activities (59.16 ± 1.20 to 91.84 ± 0.38%. Eight polyphenols (gallic, syringic, benzoic, p-coumaric and vanillic acids as well as catechin, kaempferol and naringenin have been identified by HPLC in parts of the plant as well. Among all the polyphenols, catechin was detected in the highest concentration (13.01 ± 8.93 to 30.61 ± 11.41 mg/g. Conclusion The results indicating that W. somnifera is a plant with strong therapeutic properties thus further supporting its traditional claims. All major parts of W. somnifera such as the roots, fruits and leaves provide potential benefits for human health because of its high content of polyphenols and antioxidant activities with the leaves containing the highest amounts of polyphenols specially catechin with strong antioxidant properties.

  4. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) by high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nadia; Hossain, Monzur; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2011-08-19

    Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities in methanolic extracts of W. somnifera fruits, roots and leaves (WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt). WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt was prepared by using 80% aqueous methanol and total polyphenols, flavonoids as well as DPPH radical scavenging activities were determined by spectrophotometric methods and phenolic acid profiles were determined by HPLC methods. High concentrations of both phenolics and flavonoids were detected in all parts of the plant with the former ranging between 17.80 ± 5.80 and 32.58 ± 3.16 mg/g (dry weight) and the latter ranging between 15.49 ± 1.02 and 31.58 ± 5.07 mg/g. All of the three different plant parts showed strong DPPH radical scavenging activities (59.16 ± 1.20 to 91.84 ± 0.38%). Eight polyphenols (gallic, syringic, benzoic, p-coumaric and vanillic acids as well as catechin, kaempferol and naringenin) have been identified by HPLC in parts of the plant as well. Among all the polyphenols, catechin was detected in the highest concentration (13.01 ± 8.93 to 30.61 ± 11.41 mg/g). The results indicating that W. somnifera is a plant with strong therapeutic properties thus further supporting its traditional claims. All major parts of W. somnifera such as the roots, fruits and leaves provide potential benefits for human health because of its high content of polyphenols and antioxidant activities with the leaves containing the highest amounts of polyphenols specially catechin with strong antioxidant properties.

  5. Factors influencing the crystallisation of highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions: A DSC study

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Masalova; Karina Kovalchuk

    2012-01-01

    Highly concentrated emulsions are used in a variety of applications, including the cosmetics, food and liquid explosives industries. The stability of these highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallisation of the emulsions was initiated by exposing the emulsions to a low temperature. The effects of surfactant type, electrolyte concentration and electrolyte composition in the aqueous phase on emulsion crystallisation temperature were s...

  6. Association of serum BDNF concentration with high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    東, 宏一郎; 大澤, 祐介; 田畑, 尚吾; 堀澤, 栞里; 勝川, 史憲; 石田, 浩之; 小熊, 祐子; 河合, 俊英; 小口, 修司; 太田, 敦美; 菊池, 春人; 村田, 満; 松本, 秀男

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association of serum BDNF concentration with high-intensity interval training, 12 healthy male volunteers, aged 28-48 years, completed 16-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) using ergometer...

  7. High maternal hemoglobin concentration in first trimester as risk factor for pregnancy induced hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Aghamohammadi, Azar; Zafari, Mandana; Tofighi, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Background: High maternal hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was considered a risk factor for the developing of pregnancy hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high maternal Hb concentration in first trimesters associated with pregnancy induced hypertension in Iranian nulliparous women.

  8. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  9. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  10. High glucose concentrations partially release hexokinase from inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, S; Beutler, E

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of glucose by human erythrocyte hexokinase follows classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; hexokinase manifests maximum activity at 5 mM glucose, and no further increase in activity can be measured at higher glucose concentrations. However, the erythrocytes of diabetics and normal erythrocytes incubated with high concentrations of glucose contain increased concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate. To elucidate the mechanism of accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate when erythrocyte...

  11. Melatonin in Arabidopsis thaliana acts as plant growth regulator at low concentrations and preserves seed viability at high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ismaél Gatica; Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Cerutti, Soledad; Arana, María Verónica; Silva, María Fernanda

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of melatonin in plants, several roles have been described for different species, organs, and developmental stages. Arabidopsis thaliana, being a model plant species, is adequate to contribute to the elucidation of the role of melatonin in plants. In this work, melatonin was monitored daily by UHPLC-MS/MS in leaves, in order to study its diurnal accumulation as well as the effects of natural and artificial light treatments on its concentration. Furthermore, the effects of exogenous application of melatonin to assess its role in seed viability after heat stress and as a regulator of growth and development of vegetative tissues were evaluated. Our results indicate that melatonin contents in Arabidopsis were higher in plants growing under natural radiation when compared to those growing under artificial conditions, and its levels were not diurnally-regulated. Exogenous melatonin applications prolonged seed viability after heat stress conditions. In addition, melatonin applications retarded leaf senescence. Its effects as growth promoter were dose and tissue-dependent; stimulating root growth at low concentrations and decreasing leaf area at high doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. High-concentration-gradient dispersion in porous media : experiments, analysis and approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Schotting; H. Moser; S.M. Hassanizadeh

    1997-01-01

    textabstractVarious experimental and theoretical studies have shown that Fick's law, based on the assumption of a linear relation between solute dispersive mass flux and concentration gradient, is not valid when high concentration gradients are encountered in a porous medium. The value of the

  13. Whey protein particles modulate mechanical properties of gels at high protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Berg, van den L.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the influence of dense whey protein particles on the mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels at high protein concentrations (16–22% (w/w)). Incorporation of dense whey protein particles in the gel, while keeping the total protein concentration constant, leads to a

  14. Critical phenomena in ethylbenzene oxidation in acetic acid solution at high cobalt(II) concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrichkov, AA; Zakharov, [No Value

    Critical phenomena in ethylbenzene oxidation in an acetic acid solution at high cobalt(ill) concentrations (from 0.01 to 0.2 mol L-1) were studied at 60-90 degrees C by the gasometric (O-2 absorption), spectrophotometric (Co-III accumulation), and chemiluminescence (relative concentration of radical

  15. Rheology of dilute acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.R. Ehrhardt; T.O. Monz; T.W. Root; R.K. Connelly; Tim Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2010-01-01

    The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20–35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction...

  16. Methods to assess high-resolution subsurface gas concentrations and gas fluxes in wetland ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Kühl, Michael; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for measurements of soil gas concentrations and surface fluxes of greenhouse gases at high temporal and spatial resolution in wetland ecosystem has lead to the introduction of several new analytical techniques and methods. In addition to the automated flux chamber methodology for high......-resolution estimates of greenhouse gas fluxes across the soil-atmosphere interface, these high-resolution methods include microsensors for quantification of spatiotemporal concentration dynamics in O2 and N2O at micrometer scales, fiber-optic optodes for long-term continuous point measurements of O2 concentrations...... and peat soils are highly heterogeneous, containing a mosaic of dynamic macropore systems created by both macrofauna and flora leading to distinct spatial and temporal variations in gas concentration on a scale of millimeters and minutes. Applications of these new methodologies allow measurements...

  17. An incidence of very high phosphate concentrations in the waters around Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, C.V.G.; Murty, P.S.N.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Abnormally high concentrations of inorganic phosphates were encountered in the samples collected from the vicinity of the Andamans, during the cruises of INS kistna in September 1963, as a part of IIOE. Samples for analysis were taken from all...

  18. Optimization of high-concentration endostatin formulation: Harmonization of excipients' contributions on colloidal and conformational stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujing; Zhang, Xinyi; Wu, Guoliang; Tian, Zhou; Qian, Feng

    2017-09-15

    Recently, increasing research efforts have been devoted into developing high-concentration protein drugs for subcutaneous injection, especially for those with short half-lives and high-dose requirement. Proteins at high concentrations normally present increased colloidal and structural instability, such as aggregation, fibrillation and gelation, which significantly challenges the high-concentration formulation development of protein drugs. Here we used endostatin, a 20kD recombinant protein, as a model drug for high-concentration formulation optimization. The colloidal and conformational stability of endostatin at high concentration of 30mg/mL were investigated in formulations containing various excipients, including saccharides (mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose), salts (ArgHCl and NaCl), and surfactants (tween 20 and 80). Protein fibrillation was characterized and semi-quantified by optical polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the amount of fiber formation at elevated temperature of 40°C was determined. The soluble protein aggregates were characterized by dynamic and static light scattering before and after dilution. The conformational stability were characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry. We observed that the soluble aggregation, fibrillation and gelation, induced by conformational and colloidal instabilities of the protein solution, could be substantially optimized by using suitable stabilizers such as combinations of saccharides and surfactants; while formation of gel and soluble aggregates at high protein concentration (e.g., 30mg/mL) and elevated temperature (40°C) could be prevented by avoiding the usage of salts. It's worth emphasizing that some stabilizers, such as salts and surfactants, could show opposite contributions in conformational and colloidal stabilities of endostatin. Therefore, cautions are needed when one attempts to correlate

  19. Effect of high dietary sulfur on enzyme activities, selenium concentrations and body weights of cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, A.A.; Lovejoy, D.; Sharma, A.K.; Sharma, R.N.; Prior, M.G.; Lillie, L.E.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a moderate increase in dietary sulphur (S) in cattle. Twelve animals were initially fed a basal concentrate (S=0.2%) and then divided into two groups; one fed basal and the other high S (S=0.75%) concentrates. Health, body weight gains, and activities of erythrocyte enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), plasma- asparate aminotransferase (AST), and whole blood concentrations of selenium (Se) were monitored at various stages of the study. Marked increases in the activities of GSH-Px, SOD and G6PD from the pretrial values were observed upon initial feeding of basal concentrate diet. Sex related differences were not evident in enzyme activities and Se concentrations of the blood. A high linear correlation (r=0.92) between averages of GSH-Px activity and Se concentration of blood was observed in both sexes. Increasing the amount of S in the concentrate diet (from 0.2 to 0.75%) did not produce any statistically significant change in enzyme activities and Se concentrations, body weight gains, and health of the cattle during the 85 days feeding period. The results indicate that a moderate increase in the dietary S would not impair Se and copper status or cause related disorders in cattle. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-10-01

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Research on Catalytic Oxidation Pretreatment of Organic Pesticide Wastewater with High Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide wastewater has the characteristics of high organic pollutant, high concentration, deep color and high toxicity, which has become difficult to treat the organic wastewater with high concentration at home and abroad. This article uses three methods of US(ultrasonic, Fenton(Fe2+&H2O2and combination of US&Fenton were used in the comparative research on the treatment of organic pesticide wastewater with high concentration. Experimental conditions: time of 130 min, ultrasonic power of 280W, frequency of 418kHz, pH value of 3.5, H2O2concentration of 0.3mol/l; dosing mode: two thirds was added at 0 min, the rest one third was added at 65 min. The results showed that the treatment effect of the combination of US&Fenton was significantly better than that of independent US and independent Fenton; after the treatment on the organic pesticide wastewater with high concentration, the degradation rate of COD reached 85%, the chromaticity degradation rate reached 99%; the ratio of COD/BOD was about 1.4, with better biodegradability, which has provided a good condition for the subsequent biochemical treatment. Solved the problem of pesticide wastewater was difficult and expensive to degradation.

  2. Highly Efficient Cpf1-Mediated Gene Targeting in Mice Following High Concentration Pronuclear Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn E. Watkins-Chow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cpf1 has emerged as an alternative to the Cas9 RNA-guided nuclease. Here we show that gene targeting rates in mice using Cpf1 can meet, or even surpass, Cas9 targeting rates (approaching 100% targeting, but require higher concentrations of mRNA and guide. We also demonstrate that coinjecting two guides with close targeting sites can result in synergistic genomic cutting, even if one of the guides has minimal cutting activity.

  3. Physical modeling of concentration distributions around twin high-rise buildings with a district heating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, M.; Lawson, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of three high-rise building configurations on the diffusion of emissions released near the downstream base of the buildings. The building configurations included an isolated high-rise building, two high-rise buildings separated in the streamwise direction, and two high-rise buildings separated in the streamwise direction, but situated atop a terrace-shaped lower level. For each configuration, the emission source location, building height and/or building separation was systematically varied while tracer concentration measurements were obtained both downstream and on the surface of the buildings. When the source was within the downwind wake of the twin building models, the source elevation did not strongly influence the building surface distributions although the maximum concentrations appeared at different elevations. Compared to the effect of an isolated building, the twin buildings resulted in higher concentrations in the near-wake of the downwind building.

  4. Analysis of concentration patterns in volcanic rocks: Insights into dynamics of highly explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, D.; Petrelli, M.; Poli, G.

    2006-10-01

    In this contribution we present new data resulting from the analysis of concentration patterns of mixed juvenile fragments ejected by a highly explosive volcanic eruption that occurred on Salina Island (Aeolian Islands, Italy) and our aim is to identify the fluid-dynamic regime characterizing the magma mixing process. Concentration patterns are studied by calculating the power spectrum of concentration variability along transects crossing the magma mixing structures. Results indicate that the slope of power spectrum has an average value of about -5/3, according to Kolmogorov law of turbulence, and suggest that the magma mixing process, in the studied conditions, can be approximated by considering the passive scalar mixing hypothesis in homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow. These results represent a first step towards a better understanding of magma mixing processes associated to highly explosive volcanic eruptions and this first step is taken by studying concentration patterns in volcanic rocks by coupling petrological and non-linear dynamics methods.

  5. Prodigious Effects of Concentration Intensification on Nanoparticle Synthesis: A High-Quality, Scalable Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, Curtis B.

    2015-12-23

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Realizing the promise of nanoparticle-based technologies demands more efficient, robust synthesis methods (i.e., process intensification) that consistently produce large quantities of high-quality nanoparticles (NPs). We explored NP synthesis via the heat-up method in a regime of previously unexplored high concentrations near the solubility limit of the precursors. We discovered that in this highly concentrated and viscous regime the NP synthesis parameters are less sensitive to experimental variability and thereby provide a robust, scalable, and size-focusing NP synthesis. Specifically, we synthesize high-quality metal sulfide NPs (<7% relative standard deviation for Cu2-xS and CdS), and demonstrate a 10-1000-fold increase in Cu2-xS NP production (>200 g) relative to the current field of large-scale (0.1-5 g yields) and laboratory-scale (<0.1 g) efforts. Compared to conventional synthesis methods (hot injection with dilute precursor concentration) characterized by rapid growth and low yield, our highly concentrated NP system supplies remarkably controlled growth rates and a 10-fold increase in NP volumetric production capacity (86 g/L). The controlled growth, high yield, and robust nature of highly concentrated solutions can facilitate large-scale nanomanufacturing of NPs by relaxing the synthesis requirements to achieve monodisperse products. Mechanistically, our investigation of the thermal and rheological properties and growth rates reveals that this high concentration regime has reduced mass diffusion (a 5-fold increase in solution viscosity), is stable to thermal perturbations (64% increase in heat capacity), and is resistant to Ostwald ripening.

  6. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  7. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  8. Denitrification of a landfill leachate with high nitrate concentration in an anoxic rotating biological contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Susana; Teixeira, Pilar; Oliveira, Rosário; Mota, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    The denitrification performance of a lab-scale anoxic rotating biological contactor (RBC) using landfill leachate with high nitrate concentration was evaluated. Under a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 2, the reactor achieved N-NO(3)(-) removal efficiencies above 95% for concentrations up to 100 mg N-NO(3)(-) l(-1). The highest observed denitrification rate was 55 mg N-NO(3)(-) l(-1) h(-1) (15 g N-NO(3)(-) m(-2) d(-1)) at a nitrate concentration of 560 mg N-NO(3)(-) l(-1). Although the reactor has revealed a very good performance in terms of denitrification, effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations were still high for direct discharge. The results obtained in a subsequent experiment at constant nitrate concentration (220 mg N-NO(3)(-) l(-1)) and lower C/N ratios (1.2 and 1.5) evidenced that the organic matter present in the leachate was non-biodegradable. A phosphorus concentration of 10 mg P-PO(4)(3-) l(-1) promoted autotrophic denitrification, revealing the importance of phosphorus concentration on biological denitrification processes.

  9. Clearly Transparent Nanopaper from Highly Concentrated Cellulose Nanofiber Dispersion Using Dilution and Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kasuga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanopaper prepared from holocellulose pulp is one of the best substrates for flexible electronics because of its high thermal resistance and high clear transparency. However, the clearness of nanopaper decreases with increasing concentration of the starting cellulose nanofiber dispersion—with the use of a 2.2 wt % dispersion, for example—resulting in translucent nanopaper with a high haze of 44%. To overcome this problem, we show that the dilution of this high-concentration dispersion with water followed by sonication for 10 s reduces the haze to less than 10% while maintaining the high thermal resistance of the nanopaper. Furthermore, the combination of water dilution and a short sonication treatment improves the clearness of the nanopaper, which would translate into cost savings for the transportation and storage of this highly concentrated cellulose nanofiber dispersion. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the electrical conductivity of clear transparent nanopaper prepared from an initially high-concentration dispersion by dropping and heating silver nanowire ink on the nanopaper. These achievements will pave the way toward the realization of the mass production of nanofiber-based flexible devices.

  10. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Orikawa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS dewatered sludge. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The hydrothermal treatment was investigated under 10-60 min of treatment time, 180-200 °C of temperature, 10-22 %-TS of sewage sludge concentration. The results showed that the DOC in each conditions increased through hydrothermal treatment. The highest DOC obtained was 67 % of total carbon concentration, when the temperature was 180 °C, treatment time was 60 min and sewage sludge concentration was 10 %-TS. Furthermore, the viscosity of treated sewage sludge was decreased by hydrothermal treatment. In batch anaerobic digestion test, methane gas production was confirmed. In addition, this study evaluated the energy balance of this system. Thus, the results of this study indicated that the possibility of application of hydrothermal treatment to high concentrated sewage sludge for anaerobic digestion process. Keywords: anaerobic reaction, hydrothermal treatment, sewage sludge, solubilization

  11. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  12. Radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer with high-concentration barium sulfate compared with moderate-concentration barium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Azuma, M; Kuroda, C; Kubo, T; Yabunaka, K; Yamazaki, H; Katsuda, T; Takeda, Y

    2009-06-01

    Recently, high-concentration barium sulfate has been developed and is used in many medical facilities. This study compared radiation dose using high-concentration and moderate-concentration barium sulfate. The dose was evaluated with an experimental method using a gastric phantom and with a clinical examination. In the former, the dose and X-ray tube load were measured on the phantom with two concentrations of barium sulfate. In the latter, the fluoroscopic dose-area product (DAP), the radiographic DAP and their sum, the total DAP, were investigated in 150 subjects (112 males, 38 females) treated with both concentrations of barium sulfate. The effective dose was calculated by the software of PCXMC in every case. The results of the experimental evaluation indicated that the effective dose and X-ray tube load were greater with high-concentration barium sulfate than with moderate-concentration barium sulfate (p barium sulfate than with high-concentration barium sulfate (p barium sulfate. We conclude that high-concentration barium sulfate does not increase radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer.

  13. Exploration of the horizontally staggered light guides for high concentration CPV applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimoglu, Ozgur; Turan, Rasit

    2012-08-13

    The material and processing costs are still the major drawbacks of the c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology. The wafer cost comprises up to 35-40% of the total module cost. New approaches and system designs are needed in order to reduce the share of the wafer cost in photovoltaic energy systems. Here we explore the horizontally staggered light guide solar optics for use in Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) applications. This optical system comprises a lens array system coupled to a horizontal light guide which directs the incoming light beam to its edge. We have designed and simulated this system using a commercial ray tracing software (Zemax). The system is more compact, thinner and more robust compared to the conventional CPV systems. Concentration levels as high as 1000x can easily be reached when the system is properly designed. With such a high concentration level, a good acceptance angle of + -1 degree is still be conserved. The analysis of the system reveals that the total optical efficiency of the system could be as high as %94.4 without any anti-reflection (AR) coating. Optical losses can be reduced by just accommodating a single layer AR coating on the initial lens array leading to a %96.5 optical efficiency. Thermal behavior of high concentration linear concentrator is also discussed and compared with a conventional point focus CPV system.

  14. The ability of Typha domingensis to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufarrege, M M; Hadad, H R; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance and removal efficiency of Typha domingensis exposed to high concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn in single and combined treatments were studied. Sediment and two plants were disposed in each plastic reactor. The treatments were 100 and 500 mg L(-1) of Cr, Ni, and Zn (single solutions); 100 mg L(-1) Cr + Ni + Zn (multi-metal solutions) and 500 mg L(-1) Cr + Ni + Zn (multi-metal solutions); and a control. Even though the concentrations studied were extremely high, simulating an accidental metal dump, the three metals were efficiently removed from water. The highest removal was registered for Cr. The presence of other metals favored Cr and did not favor Ni and Zn removal from water. After 25 days, senescence and chlorosis of plants were observed in Ni and Comb500 treatments, while Cr and Zn only caused growth inhibition. T. domingensis accumulated high metal concentrations in tissues. The roots showed higher metal concentration than submerged parts of leaves. Cr translocation to aerial parts was enhanced by the presence of Ni and Zn. Our results demonstrate that in the case of an accidental dump of high Cr, Ni, and Zn concentrations, a wetland system dominated by T. domingensis is able to retain metals, and the macrophyte is able to tolerate them the time necessary to remove them from water. Thus, the environment will be preserved since the wetland would act as a cushion.

  15. Clinical study on high concentrations of sodium hyaluronate eye drops for moderate to severe dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jing Tian; Qin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy of high concentrations of sodium hyaluronate(3g/L SH)for moderate to severe dry eye. METHODS: Forty moderate to severe dry eye patients were included in the study according to the diagnosis criteria and randomized into two groups. The patients of the trial group received topical administration of high concentration sodium hyaluronate(3g/L), and those of the control group received sodium hyaluronate(1g/L)plus recombinant human epidermal growth factor. The dry eye s...

  16. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Long Tao; Zhang Guo Yi

    2001-01-01

    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  17. High hydrostatic pressure enables almost 100% refolding of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor from inclusion bodies at high concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Fangxia; Feng, Cui; Li, Xiunan; Shi, Hong; Su, Zhiguo

    2017-05-01

    Protein refolding from inclusion bodies (IBs) often encounters a problem of low recovery at high protein concentration. In this study, we demonstrated that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) could simultaneously achieve high refolding concentration and high refolding yield for IBs of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rhCNTF), a potential therapeutic for neurodegenerative diseases. The use of dilution refolding obtained 18% recovery at 3 mg/mL, even in the presence of 4 M urea. In contrast, HHP refolding could efficiently increase the recovery up to almost 100% even at 4 mg/mL. It was found that in the dilution, hydrophobic aggregates were the off-path products and their amount increased with the protein concentration. However, HHP could effectively minimize the formation of hydrophobic aggregates, leading to almost complete conversion of the rhCNTF IBs to the correct configuration. The stable operation range of concentration is 0.5-4.0 mg/mL, in which the refolding yield was almost 100%. Compared with the literatures where HHP failed to increase the refolding yield beyond 90%, the reason could be attributed to the structural difference that rhCNTF has no disulfide bond and is a monomeric protein. After purification by one-step of anionic chromatography, the purity of rhCNTF reached 95% with total process recovery of 54.1%. The purified rhCNTF showed similar structure and in vitro bioactivity to the native species. The whole process featured integration of solubilization/refolding, a high refolding yield of 100%, a high concentration of 4 mg/mL, and a simple chromatography to ensure a high productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of high-milk-protein powders upon rehydration under various salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J

    2011-01-01

    Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A high-accuracy measurement method of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid based on microdialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dachao; Xu, Qingmei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Ridong; Xu, Kexin; Yu, Haixia

    2017-11-01

    A high-accuracy microdialysis method that can provide the reference values of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid for the accurate evaluation of non-invasive and minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring is reported in this study. The parameters of the microdialysis process were firstly optimized by testing and analyzing three main factors that impact microdialysis recovery, including the perfusion rate, temperature, and glucose concentration in the area surrounding the microdialysis probe. The precision of the optimized microdialysis method was then determined in a simulation system that was designed and established in this study to simulate variations in continuous glucose concentration in the human body. Finally, the microdialysis method was tested for in vivo interstitial glucose concentration measurement.

  20. Effects of drinking water with high iodine concentration on the intelligence of children in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Liang; Lam, Lawrence T; Zeng, Qiang; Han, Shu-qing; Fu, Gang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drinking water with high concentrations of iodine on the intelligence of children in Tianjin, China. It was a population-based health survey utilizing a random cluster sampling design conducted in June 2005. Participants were recruited from the total population of primary school children attending years 1-4 with ages ranging from 8 to 10 years. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed using the combined Raven's test, second edition. Linear regression analyses were applied to test for any association between water iodine concentration and IQ. A total of 1229 students were recruited with a mean IQ of 105.8 (95% CI: 104.2-107.3). Water analyses indicated iodine concentrations were high in one rural region and exceedingly high in another with median values of 137.5 and 234.7 microg/l, respectively. There was a significant association between residing in the very high water iodine region and a reduction of IQ by an average of about nine points (P = 0.022), after adjusting for the potential confounding factors. Exposure to high iodine concentrations in drinking water has detrimental effects on the intelligence of children.

  1. [Short gel method for pretreatment of protein samples with high concentration of detergent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shouzhi; Zhang, Tao; Zhai, Linhui; Sun, Yulin; Xu, Ping; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2014-09-01

    In proteomic research, to improve protein solubility of membrane proteins and nuclear proteins, buffers containing high concentration of detergent, such as 4% SDS, were widely used. However, high concentration of detergent might severely interfere with the downstream proteomic analysis, including protein quantitation and trypsin digestion. To improve the proteomic compatibility of buffers with high concentration of detergent, we used short gel method to pretreat buffers containing detergent. Protein samples were first separated by a short (2-2.5 mm) SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and proteins were quantitated by comparing with bovine serum albumin standards via optical density analysis. The gel was then cut and peptides were recovered using in-gel digestion. The quantitative linearity range of this method was 1 to 8 μg. The quantitation was accurate and reproducible. After short gel analysis, recovered peptides generated high mass spectrometry signals. In conclusion, short gel method eliminated the interference of high concentration detergent in the proteomics analysis, and it was suitable for protein samples' pretreatment, and was worth to apply in proteomic research.

  2. Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Direct Liquid-Immersed Solar Receiver for High Concentrating Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrator solar cells that operate at high solar concentration level must be cooled. In this paper, direct liquid immersion cooling of triple-junction solar cells (InGaP/InGaAs/Ge is proposed as a heat dissipation solution for dense-array high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV systems. The advantages of triple-junction CPV cells immersed in a circulating dielectric liquid and dish HCPV technology are integrated into a CPV system to improve the system electrical conversion efficiency. An analytical model for the direct liquid-immersed solar receiver with triple-junction CPV cells is presented. The main outputs of the model are the components temperatures of the receiver and the system electrical efficiency. The influence of concentration factor, mass flow rate, and inlet liquid temperature on the operating temperature of the triple-junction CPV cells and the system electrical conversion efficiency are discussed. It is shown that the system electrical conversion efficiency is very high for a wide range of operating conditions. The three operating parameters have a major effect on the operating temperature of the triple-junction CPV cells and, by extension, system output power. The flow rate selection should match concentration factor to keep the triple-junction CPV cells temperature lower and increase the electrical conversion efficiency of the dense-array HCPV system.

  4. Investigating DOC export dynamics using high-frequency instream concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; Keller, Toralf; Musolff, Andreas; Frei, Sven; Park, Ji-Hyung; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2014-05-01

    Being able to monitor DOC concentrations using in-situ high frequency measurements makes it possible to better understand concentration-discharge behavior under different hydrological conditions. We developed a UV-Vis probe setup for modified/adapted use under field conditions. The quasi mobile probe setup allows a more flexible probe deployment. New or existing monitoring sites can easily be equipped for quasi-continuous monitoring or measurements can be performed at changing locations, without the need for additional infrastructure. We were able to gather high frequency data on DOC dynamics for one year in two streams in the Harz mountains in Germany. It proved that obtaining accurate DOC concentrations from the UV-Vis probes required frequent maintenance and probe calibration. The advantage of the setup over standard monitoring protocols becomes evident when comparing net exports over a year. In addition to mass improved balance calculations the high-frequency measurements can reveal intricate hysteretic relationships between discharge and concentrations that can provide valuable insights into the hydrologic dynamics and mechanisms that govern the delivery of DOC to the receiving waters. Measurements with similar probes from two additional catchments in Southern Germany and South Korea will be used to illustrate different discharge-concentration relationships and what can be learned from them about the hydrologic mechanisms that control the dynamics of DOC export.

  5. Effects of high temperature stress at different development stages on soybean isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennupati, Pratyusha; Seguin, Philippe; Liu, Wucheng

    2011-12-28

    Soybean contains a range of compounds with putative health benefits including isoflavones and tocopherols. A study was conducted to determine the effects on these compounds of high temperature stress imposed at specific development stages [i.e., none, pre-emergence, vegetative, early reproductive (R1-4), late-reproductive (R5-8), or all stages]. Two cultivars (AC Proteina and OAC Champion) were grown in growth chambers set at contrasting temperatures [i.e., stress conditions of 33/25 °C (day/night temperature) and control conditions of 23/15 °C] in order to generate these treatments. Isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations in mature seeds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. In both cultivars isoflavone response was greatest when stress occurred during the R5-8 stages and during all development stages, these treatments reducing total isoflavone concentration by an average of 85% compared to the control. Stress imposed at other stages also affected isoflavone concentration although the response was smaller. For example, stress during the vegetative stages reduced total isoflavones by 33% in OAC Champion. Stress imposed pre-emergence had an opposite effect increasing daidzein concentration by 24% in AC Proteina. Tocopherol concentrations were affected the most when stress was imposed during all stages of development, followed by stress restricted to stages R5-8; response to stress during other stages was limited. The specific response of tocopherols differed, α-tocopherol being increased by high temperature by as much as 752%, the reverse being observed for δ-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol. The present study demonstrates that while isoflavone and tocopherol concentrations in soybeans are affected the most by stress occurring during seed formation, concentrations can also be affected by stress occurring at other stages including stages as early as pre-emergence.

  6. Enhanced Enzymatic Production of Cephalexin at High Substrate Concentration with in situ Product Removal by Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengchao Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalexin (CEX was synthesized with 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA and D(–-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME using immobilized penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli. It was found that substrate concentration and in situ product could remarkably influence the ratio of synthesis to hydrolysis (S/H and the efficiency of CEX synthesis. The optimal ratio of enzyme to substrate was 65 IU/mM 7-ADCA. High substrate concentration improved the 7-ADCA conversion from 61 to 81 % in the process without in situ product removal (ISPR, while in the synthetic process with ISPR, high substrate concentration increased the 7-ADCA conversion from 88 to 98 %. CEX was easily separated from CEX/β-naphthol complex and its purity and overall yield were 99 and 70 %, respectively.

  7. Inhibition of hyaluronan hydrolysis catalysed by hyaluronidase at high substrate concentration and low ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astériou, Trias; Vincent, Jean-Claude; Tranchepain, Frédéric; Deschrevel, Brigitte

    2006-04-01

    Hyaluronidase and high levels of hyaluronan are found together in tumours. It is highly likely that hyaluronidase activity controls the balance between high molecular mass hyaluronan and oligosaccharides, and thus plays an important role in cancer development. The hyaluronan hydrolysis catalysed by bovine testicular hyaluronidase was studied as a model. The kinetics was investigated at pH 5 and 37 degrees C using the colorimetric N-acetyl-d-glucosamine reducing end assay method. While the substrate dependence obtained in the presence of 0.15 mol L(-1) ionic strength exhibited a Michaelis-Menten behaviour, an atypical behaviour was observed under low ionic strength: for increasing hyaluronan concentrations, the initial reaction rate increased, reached a maximum and then decreased to a very low level, close to zero at high substrate concentrations. One of the various hypotheses examined to explain this atypical behaviour is the formation of non-specific complexes between hyaluronan and hyaluronidase based on electrostatic interactions. This hypothesis is the only one that can explain all the experimental results including the variation of the reaction medium turbidity as a function of time and the influence on the initial reaction rate of the hyaluronan concentration over hyaluronidase concentration. However, phenomena such as the high viscosity of highly concentrated hyaluronan solutions or the steric exclusion of hyaluronidase from hyaluronan solutions may contribute to the atypical behaviour. Finally, the biological implications of the non-linear and non-monotonous shape of the hyaluronan-hyaluronidase substrate dependence in the regulation of the hyaluronan chain molecular mass are discussed, in particular in the case of cancer development.

  8. Niacin alters the ruminal microbial composition of cattle under high-concentrate condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20, high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80, and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN. Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding. Ruminal fluid was sampled at the end of each period for microbial DNA extraction. Overall, our findings revealed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA was induced and the α-diversity of ruminal bacterial community decreased in the cattle of HC group. Adding niacin in HC could relieve the symptoms of SARA in the cattle but the ruminal pH value and the Shannon index of ruminal bacterial community of HCN group were still lower than those of HF group. Whatever the diet was, the ruminal bacterial community of cattle was dominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. High-concentrate diet significantly increased the abundance of Prevotella, and decreased the abundance of Paraprevotella, Sporobacter, Ruminococcus and Treponema than HF. Compared with HC, HCN had a trend to decrease the percentage of Prevotella, and to increase the abundance of Succiniclasticum, Acetivibrio and Treponema. Increasing concentrate ratio could decrease ruminal pH value, and change the ruminal microbial composition. Adding niacin in HC could increase the ruminal pH value, alter the ruminal microbial composition.

  9. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  10. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  11. The effect of high lead concentrations on the mortality, mass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-02-02

    Feb 2, 1998 ... in decomposition rate in lead contaminated leaf litter. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high lead concentrations, administered in the form of lead nitrate, on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio faev;s, and to determine whether these animals could distinguish between lead con- taminated and ...

  12. The effect of high lead concentrations on the mortality, mass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... high and could give a possible explanation for the mortalities and mass losses observed, as lead at those concentrations could have disturbed the normal physiological functioning of the animals. The isopods avoided lead contaminated leaves in the behavioural tests, which could cause accumulation of leaf litter and thus ...

  13. Arsenic immobilization by biological scorodite crystallization: effect of high ferric concentration and foreign seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biological scorodite is produced at 80°C and 1g L-1 As5+, using iron oxidizing bacteria Acidianus Sulfidivorans, with a molar ratio Fe/As of 1 and without the use of seeds. We investigated the effect of high ferrous concentration, Fe/As higher than 1, and the use of foreign seeds (gypsum) on

  14. The effect of substrate concentration fluctuation on the performance of high-rate denitrifying reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Jiqiang; Shan, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiyao; Zhang, Meng

    2014-09-01

    A high-rate denitrifying process is sensitive to the operation conditions and the substrate concentration fluctuation can lead to the deterioration or even collapse of process performance. The results of this study showed that the effect of substrate concentration fluctuation on the high-rate denitrification process was related to the substrate concentration and shock duration. The effect of substrate concentration was greater than that of shock duration and nitrate conversion was more sensitive than methanol conversion. The response of denitrification performance was related to the loading saturation (maximum loading rate/loading capacity ratio). When the loading saturation was lower than 32%, the high-rate denitrification process could stay in pseudo steady state, otherwise it would easily lose stability. The response of denitrification performance could be divided into three periods. The performance deterioration of high-rate denitrifying process could be attributed to the overload trigger and the toxicity of free nitrous acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-concentration oxygen and surgical site infections in abdominal surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunil V; Coughlin, Shaun C; Malthaner, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    There has been recent interest in using high-concentration oxygen to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs). Previous meta-analyses in this area have produced conflicting results. With the publication of 2 new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were not included in previous meta-analyses, an updated review is warranted. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis on RCTs comparing high- and low- concentration oxygen in adults undergoing open abdominal surgery. We completed independent literature reviews using electronic databases, bibliographies and other sources of grey literature to identify relevant studies. We assessed the overall quality of evidence using grade guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed on pooled data from included studies. A priori subgroup analyses were planned to explain statistical and clinical heterogeneity. Overall, 6 studies involving a total of 2585 patients met the inclusion criteria. There was no evidence of a reduction in SSIs with high-concentration oxygen (risk ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.50-1.19, p = 0.24). We observed substantial heterogeneity among studies. There is moderate evidence that high-concentration oxygen does not reduce SSIs in adults undergoing open abdominal surgery.

  16. High glucose concentration does not modulate the formation of arterial medial calcification in experimental uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Yamashita, Maho; Horimai, Chihiro; Hayashi, Matsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    High phosphate-induced phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) into osteogenic cells is critical for the formation of arterial medial calcification in chronic kidney disease. Because vascular calcification is also prevalent in type 2 diabetes, we examined whether glucose concentration affects high phosphate-induced SMC phenotypic switching and calcification. First, the formation of arterial medial calcification was compared among 4 groups: adenine-fed uremic rats, streptozotocin-injected hyperglycemic rats, adenine-fed and streptozotocin-injected uremic/hyperglycemic rats, and control rats. Calcification was obvious in uremic and uremic/hyperglycemic rats, whereas it was undetectable in the others. Aortic calcium contents were significantly elevated in uremic and uremic/hyperglycemic rats, but they were not different between the two groups. Moreover, hyperglycemia had no effects on the reduced expression of SMC differentiation markers including smooth muscle α-actin and SM22α and on the increased expression of osteogenic markers, such as Runx2, in uremic rats. Second, cultured SMCs were incubated in the medium with various concentrations of phosphate (0.9-4.5 mmol/l) and glucose (5-50 mmol/l), and calcium deposition was measured. Although high phosphate dose-dependently increased calcium contents, they were unaffected by glucose concentration. Results suggest that glucose concentration does not directly modulate high phosphate-induced SMC phenotypic switching and arterial medial calcification. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Aichi virus shedding in high concentrations in patients with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Baumgarte, Sigrid; de Souza Luna, Luciano Kleber; Eschbach-Bludau, Monika; Lukashev, Alexander N; Drosten, Christian

    2011-08-01

    We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32 × 1012 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2.0%) of 499 outpatients sampled in northern Germany, 2004. These data substantiate Aichi virus pathogenicity in humans.

  18. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  19. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Simplified yet highly accurate enzyme kinetics for cases of low substrate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härdin, Hanna M.; Zagaris, Antonios; Krab, Klaas; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    2009-01-01

    Much of enzyme kinetics builds on simplifications enabled by the quasi-steady-state approximation and is highly useful when the concentration of the enzyme is much lower than that of its substrate. However, in vivo, this condition is often violated. In the present study, we show that, under

  1. Low powdered activated carbon concentrations to improve MBR sludge filterability at high salinity and low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remy, M.J.J.; Temmink, B.G.; Brink, van den P.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that powdered activated carbon (PAC), when applied at very low dosages and long SRTs, reduces membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBRs). This effect was related to stronger flocs which are less sensitive to shear. Low temperature and high salt concentration

  2. High groundwater nitrate concentrations inhibit eutrophication of sulphate-rich freshwater wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, E.C.H.E.T.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Salm, A.L. van der; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 60 years, pollution of the groundwater with NO3- has greatly increased in many parts of Europe, as a consequence of excessive use of manure and synthetic fertilisers. Monitoring of groundwater-fed wetlands indicated that sediments with high NO3- concentrations had the lowest Fe and

  3. A selective electrocatalyst?based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    OpenAIRE

    FENG, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of se...

  4. TREATMENT OF HIGH ETHANOL CONCENTRATION WASTEWATER BY CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS: ENHANCED COD REMOVAL AND BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Caballero, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A numb...

  5. Consolidated bioprocessing of highly concentrated Jerusalem artichoke tubers for simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihao; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Fengxian; Dy Ryu, Dewey; Bao, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of Jerusalem artichoke tuber (Jat) for ethanol production is one of the most promising options for an alternate biofuel technology development. The technical barriers include the weak saccharolytic enzyme (inulinase) activity of the fermentation strain, and the well mixing of the high viscous fermentation slurry at the highly concentrated Jat loading. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was found to produce relatively large amount of inulinase for hydrolysis of inulin in Jat, and the helical ribbon stirring bioreactor used provided well mixing performance under the high Jat loading. Even a highly concentrated Jat loading up to 35% (w/w) in the helical ribbon bioreactor for CBP was allowed. The results obtained from this study have demonstrated a feasibility of developing a CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for ethanol production at a high yield 128.7 g/L and the theoretical yield 73.5%, respectively. This level of ethanol yield from Jat is relatively higher than others reported so far. The results of this study could provide a practical CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for economically sustainable alternate biofuel production using highly concentrated inulin containing biomass feedstock such as Jat, at least 35%. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  7. Development of a TDLAS sensor for temperature and concentration of H2 O in high speed and high temperature flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehe, Suzanne; O'Byrne, Sean

    2017-06-01

    The development of a sensor for simultaneous temperature concentration of H2 O and temperature in high speed flows is presented. H2 O is a desirable target sensing species because it is a primary product in combustion systems; both temperature and concentration profiles can be used to assess both the extent of the combustion and the flow field characteristics. Accurate measurements are therefore highly desirable. The sensor uses a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) scanned at 50 kHz from 7172 to 7186 cm-1. Temperatures and concentrations are extracted from the spectra by fitting theoretical spectra to the experimental data. The theoretical spectra are generated using GENSPECT in conjunction with line parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database. To validate the theoretical spectra, experimental spectra of H2 O were obtained at known temperatures (290-550 K) and pressures (30 torr) in a heated static gas cell. The results show that some theoretical lines deviate from the experimental lines. New line-strengths are calculated assuming that the line assignments and broadening parameters in HITRAN are correct. This data is essential for accurate H2 O concentration and temperature measurements at low pressure and high temperature conditions. US Air Force Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development Grant FA2386-16-1-4092.

  8. Design and Optimization of Fresnel Lens for High Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical optimization design is proposed, in which the solar direct light spectrum and multijunction cell response range are taken into account in combination, particularly for the Fresnel concentrators with a high concentration and a small aspect ratio. In addition, the change of refractive index due to temperature variation in outdoor operation conditions is also considered in the design stage. The calculation results show that this novel Fresnel lens achieves an enhancement of energy efficiency of about 10% compared with conventional Fresnel lens for a given solar spectrum, solar cell response, and corrected sunshine hours of different ambient temperature intervals.

  9. Protein-poly(amino acid) complex precipitation for high-concentration protein formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinomaru, Takaaki; Maruyama, Takuya; Izaki, Shunsuke; Handa, Kenji; Kimoto, Tomoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-08-01

    A method for concentration of protein solutions is required for high-dosage protein formulation. Here, we present a precipitation-redissolution method by poly(amino acid) for proteins, including therapeutic enzymes, antibodies, and hormones. The proteins were fully precipitated by the addition of poly-L-lysine or poly-L-glutamic acid at low ionic strength, after which precipitate was dissolved at physiological ionic strength. The activities and secondary structures of redissolved proteins, especially antibodies, were almost identical to the native state. The precipitation-redissolution method is a simple and rapid technique for concentration of protein formulations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Extremely high intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate and NAD(H) in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Takumi; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2017-03-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation and UV radiation, and oxidative stress caused by such radiations. NADP(H) seems to be important for this resistance (Slade and Radman, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 75:133-191; Slade, Radman, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 75:133-191, 2011), but the mechanism underlying the generation of NADP(H) or NAD(H) in D. radiodurans has not fully been addressed. Intracellular concentrations of NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), and NADPH in D. radiodurans are also not determined yet. We found that cell extracts of D. radiodurans catalyzed reduction of NAD(P)(+) in vitro, indicating that D. radiodurans cells contain both enzymes and a high concentration of substrates for this activity. The enzyme and the substrate were attributed to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate of which intracellular concentration was extremely high. Unexpectedly, the intracellular concentration of NAD(H) was also much greater than that of NADP(H), suggesting some significant roles of NADH. These unusual features of this bacterium would shed light on a new aspect of physiology of this bacterium.

  11. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-01-26

    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  12. Spectral and Concentration Sensitivity of Multijunction Solar Cells at High Temperature: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Steiner, Myles A.; Perl, Emmett E.; Simon, John

    2017-06-14

    We model the performance of two-junction solar cells at very high temperatures of ~400 degrees C and beyond for applications such as hybrid PV/solar-thermal power production, and identify areas in which the design and performance characteristics behave significantly differently than at more conventional near-room-temperature operating conditions. We show that high-temperature operation reduces the sensitivity of the cell efficiency to spectral content, but increases the sensitivity to concentration, both of which have implications for energy yield in terrestrial PV applications. For other high-temperature applications such as near-sun space missions, our findings indicate that concentration may be a useful tool to enhance cell efficiency.

  13. Texture analysis integrated to infrared light sources for identifying high fringe concentrations in digital photoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño Toro, Hermes; Briñez de León, Juan Carlos; Restrepo Martínez, Alejandro; Branch Bedoya, John W.

    2017-09-01

    In digital photoelasticity images, regions with high fringe densities represent a limitation for unwrapping the phase in specific zones of the stress map. In this work, we recognize such regions by varying the light source wavelength from visible to far infrared, in a simulated experiment based on a circular polariscope observing a birefringent disk under diametral compression. The recognition process involves evaluating the relevance of texture descriptors applied to data sets extracted from regions of interest of the synthetic images, in the visible electromagnetic spectrum and different sub-bands of the infrared. Our results show that extending photoelasticity assemblies to the far infrared, the stress fields could be resolved in regions with high fringe concentrations. Moreover, we show that texture descriptors could overcome limitations associated to the identification of high-stress values in regions in which the fringes are concentrated in the visible spectrum, but not in the infrared.

  14. Influence of a High-Pressure Comminution Technology on Concentrate Yields in Copper Ore Flotation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saramak D.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the issues of flotation process effectiveness in relationship to the operating conditions of a high-pressure comminution process course. Experimental programme covering a flotation laboratory batch tests was a verification technique of a high-pressure crushing operations course. The most favorable values of flotation concentrate weight recoveries were obtained for the pressing force 6 kN and 4% of the feed moisture. It was also determined the model of the concentrate weight recovery as a function of pressing force in the press and feed moisture content. This model was the basis for the optimization of effects of copper ore flotation processes preceded in high-pressure crushing operation in roller presses.

  15. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  16. High concentrations of H2O2 make aerobic glycolysis energetically more favourable than cellular respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over eight decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2 above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP in response to the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources. This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  17. Picosecond pulse radiolysis of direct and indirect radiolytic effects in highly concentrated halide aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzyk, Anna; Schmidhammer, Uli; El Omar, Abdel Karim; Jeunesse, Pierre; Larbre, Jean-Philippe; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2011-08-25

    Recently we measured the amount of the single product, Br(3)(-), of steady-state radiolysis of highly concentrated Br(-) aqueous solutions, and we showed the effect of the direct ionization of Br(-) on the yield of Br(3)(-). Here, we report the first picosecond pulse-probe radiolysis measurements of ionization of highly concentrated Br(-) and Cl(-) aqueous solutions to describe the oxidation mechanism of the halide anions. The transient absorption spectra are reported from 350 to 750 nm on the picosecond range for halide solutions at different concentrations. In the highly concentrated halide solutions, we observed that, due to the presence of Na(+), the absorption band of the solvated electron is shifted to shorter wavelengths, but its decay, taking place during the spur reactions, is not affected within the first 4 ns. The kinetic measurements in the UV reveal the direct ionization of halide ions. The analysis of pulse-probe measurements show that after the electron pulse, the main reactions in solutions containing 1 M of Cl(-) and 2 M of Br(-) are the formation of ClOH(-•) and BrOH(-•), respectively. In contrast, in highly concentrated halide solutions, containing 5 M of Cl(-) and 6 M of Br(-), mainly Cl(2)(-•) and Br(2)(-•) are formed within the electron pulse without formation of ClOH(-•) and BrOH(-•). The results suggest that, not only Br(-) and Cl(-) are directly ionized into Br(•) and Cl(•) by the electron pulse, the halide atoms can also be rapidly generated through the reactions initiated by excitation and ionization of water, such as the prompt oxidation by the hole, H(2)O(+•), generated in the coordination sphere of the anion. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Rapid method for surveying CO concentrations in high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flachsbart, P.G.; Ott, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid method for employing personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in high-rise buildings is described. The purpose is to determine whether or not a CO problem exists in a building, and, if so, what corrective actions should be taken. The methodology was applied to a 15-story building in Palo Alto, CA, where elevated CO concentrations were discovered on the first 11 floors. The source appeared to be an underground parking garage. A follow-up survey four years later revealed that mitigative measures designed to reduce these concentrations had been successful. The survey methodology is inexpensive and can be applied to a number of buildings in a city.

  19. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  20. Osmotic and diffusio-osmotic flow generation at high solute concentration. I. Mechanical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Sophie; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2017-05-21

    In this paper, we explore various forms of osmotic transport in the regime of high solute concentration. We consider both the osmosis across membranes and diffusio-osmosis at solid interfaces, driven by solute concentration gradients. We follow a mechanical point of view of osmotic transport, which allows us to gain much insight into the local mechanical balance underlying osmosis. We demonstrate in particular how the general expression of the osmotic pressure for mixtures, as obtained classically from the thermodynamic framework, emerges from the mechanical balance controlling non-equilibrium transport under solute gradients. Expressions for the rejection coefficient of osmosis and the diffusio-osmotic mobilities are accordingly obtained. These results generalize existing ones in the dilute solute regime to mixtures with arbitrary concentrations.

  1. Biodegradation of high concentrations of phenol by baker’s yeast in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol, as a pure substance, is used in many fields because of its disinfectant, germicidal, local anesthetic, and peptizing properties. Aqueous solutions of phenol are produced as waste in industries and discharged into the environment. Therefore, elevated concentrations of phenol may be found in air or water because of industrial discharge or the use of phenolic products. Method: The strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in this project were natural strains previously purchased from Razavy company. They were grown at 30°C on Petri plates containing yeast extract glucose (YGC and then purified by being spread onto new plates, and isolated colonies were obtained. These colonies provided the basis of selection. Prepared strains were applied in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs as first seed. The experiment conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. After the determined runs were performed using Design-Expert software, data were analyzed using mentioned software as well. Results: This study evaluated the capability of baker’s yeast to remove phenol in high concentrations. The tested strains showed excellent tolerance to phenol toxicity at concentrations up to 6100 mg/L. Study of the batch degradation process showed that the phenol removal rate could exceed 99.9% in 24 hours at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The results showed catechol is the first intermediate product of phenol degradation. In survey results of the Design–Expert software, R2 and Adeq precision were 0.97 and 25.65, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ASBR performs robustly under variable influent concentrations of inhibitory compounds. The high removal performance despite the high phenol concentration may be a result of reactor operating strategies. Based on the progressive increase of inlet phenol concentration, allowing for an enhanced biomass acclimation in a short time, results at the microbiological levels

  2. Generation of high-titer viral preparations by concentration using successive rounds of ultracentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Christine V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral vectors provide a method of stably introducing exogenous DNA into cells that are not easily transfectable allowing for the ectopic expression or silencing of genes for therapeutic or experimental purposes. However, some cell types, in particular bone marrow cells, dendritic cells and neurons are difficult to transduce with viral vectors. Successful transduction of such cells requires preparation of highly concentrated viral stocks, which permit a high virus concentration and multiplicity of infection (MOI during transduction. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G envelope protein is common practice for both lentiviral and retroviral vectors. The VSV-G glycoprotein adds physical stability to retroviral particles, allowing concentration of virus by high-speed ultracentrifugation. Here we describe a method report for concentration of virus from large volumes of culture supernatant by means of successive rounds of ultracentrifugation into the same ultracentrifuge tube. Method Stable retrovirus producer cell lines were generated and large volumes of virus-containing supernatant were produced. We then tested the transduction ability of virus following varying rounds of concentration by ultra-centrifugation. In a second series of experiments lentivirus-containing supernatant was produced by transient transfection of 297T/17 cells and again we tested the transduction ability of virus following multiple rounds of ultra-centrifugation. Results We report being able to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus for as many as four rounds of ultracentrifugation while observing an additive increase in viral titer. Even after four rounds of ultracentrifugation we did not reach a plateau in viral titer relative to viral supernatant concentrated to indicate that we had reached the maximum tolerated centrifugation time, implying that it may be possible to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus even further should it be necessary

  3. Impact of High Concentration Solutions on Hydraulic Properties of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of landfill high concentration solutions erosion on geosynthetic clay liner (GCL materials permeability. The permeation tests on the GCL, submerged using different kinds of solutions with different concentrations, were carried out systematically by taking these chemical solutions as permeant liquids. Based on seasonal variations of ion concentrations in Chenjiachong landfill leachate (Wuhan Province, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, and KCl were selected as chemical attack solutions to carry out experimental investigations under three concentrations (50 mM, 100 mM, 200 mM and soak times (5, 10, and 20 days. The variation law of the GCL hydraulic conductivity under different operating conditions was analyzed. The relationship between GCL hydraulic conductivity, chemical solutions categories, concentrations, and soak times were further discussed. The GCL hydraulic conductivity, when soaked and permeated with high concentration chemical solutions, increases several times or exceeds two orders of magnitude, as compared with the permeation test under normal conditions that used water as the permeant liquid. This reveals that GCL is very susceptible to chemical attack. For four chemical solutions, the chemical attack effect on GCL hydraulic conductivity is CaCl2 > MgCl2 > KCl > NaCl. The impact of soak times on GCL hydraulic conductivity is the cooperative contribution of the liner chemical attack reaction and hydration swelling. A longer soak time results in a more advantageous hydration swelling effect. The chemical attack reaction restrains the hydration swelling of the GCL. Moreover, the GCL hydraulic conductivity exponentially decreases with the increased amplitude of thickness.

  4. Pretreatment with hypertonic NaCl protects MDCK cells against high urea concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhofer, W; Müller, E; Burger-Kentischer, A; Fraek, M L; Thurau, K; Beck, F

    1998-02-01

    In antidiuresis, the cells of the renal medulla are exposed to high extracellular concentrations of NaCl and urea. Since urea equilibrates with the intracellular compartment and is known to perturb intracellular macromolecules, high urea concentrations may well disturb the structure and function of cell proteins. Two types of organic substances are believed to counteract the adverse effects of high intracellular urea concentrations: specific organic osmolytes of the trimethylamine family [betaine and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC)], which accumulate in renal medullary cells during prolonged periods of antidiuresis and cytoprotective heat shock proteins (HSPs), the tissue content of two of which (HSPs 27 and 72) is much higher in the inner medulla than in the iso-osmotic renal cortex. To evaluate the contribution of trimethylamines and HSPs to cytoprotection in the presence of high urea concentrations, the effect of HSP induction and osmolyte accumulation prior to exposure to high urea concentrations was examined in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Accumulation of organic osmolytes and synthesis of HSP27 and HSP72 was initiated by hypertonic stress (increasing the osmolality of the medium from 290 to 600 mosmol/kg H2O by NaCl addition). Control, non-conditioned cells remained in the isotonic medium for the same period. Upon subsequent exposure to an additional 600 mM urea in the medium for 24 h, 90% of the osmotically conditioned cells but only 15% of non-conditioned cells survived. The HSP72 and trimethylamine contents of the NaCl-conditioned MDCK cells, but not HSP27 content, correlated positively with cell survival. To separate the effects of organic osmolytes and HSP72, chronically NaCl-adapted MDCK cells were returned to isotonic medium for 1 or 2 days, so depleting them of trimethylamine osmolytes. HSP72, with its longer half life, remained elevated. Subsequent exposure of these cells to 600 mM urea in the medium resulted in about 80% survival. These

  5. An approach to the subslab depressurization remedial action in a high (222)Rn concentration dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, J J; Cortina, D; Durán, I; Sorribas, R

    2010-03-01

    Galicia (NW Spain) is a radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula. Measurements were carried out at a rural dwelling, with an annual average of radon concentration over 4000 Bq m(-3) and a maximum of 9000 Bq m(-3), found during a radon screening campaign held in the Autonomous Community of Galicia. We performed a detailed study to identify the main contamination source and the behaviour of the radon concentration, in which a linear dependence with temperature was verified, once corrected for relative humidity. We used different passive methods (charcoal canisters and two types of etched track detectors) as well as a radon concentration monitor that provided continuous measurement. Subsequent to this characterization, and in order to reduce the high radon concentration, a remedial action was developed using different passive and forced ventilation methods. A modified subslab depressurization technique was found to be the most effective remedy, providing a radon concentration reduction of around 96%. This method also has the advantages of being inexpensive and reliable over time. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-entropy alloys: Interrelations between electron concentration, phase composition, lattice parameter, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorban', V. F.; Krapivka, N. A.; Firstov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    An analysis of more than 200 high-entropy alloys (HEA) allowed us to find interrelations between the electron concentration, phase composition, lattice parameter, and properties of solid solutions with bcc and fcc crystal lattices. Main conditions for the appearance of high-entropy chemical compounds, such as Laves, σ, and μ phases were determined. The necessary condition for the formation of 100% high-entropy σ phase is the formation of σ phase in two-component alloys for different combinations of elements, which are components of the HEA, and the electron concentration should be 6.7-7.3 electrons per atom. To form a 100% high-entropy Laves phase, the following conditions should be fulfilled: the total negative enthalpy of mixing of alloy is about -7 kJ/mol and less; the difference between the atom sizes in a pair is more than 12%; the enthalpy of the mixing of two present elements is less than -30 kJ/mol; and the average electron concentration is 6-7 electrons per atom. It was shown that the ratios of lattice parameters of solid-solution HEA, which were experimentally determined, to the lattice parameter of the most refractory metal in the HEA determine the value of the modulus of elasticity.

  7. Effects of high-intensity exercise on leptin and testosterone concentrations in well-trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert R; Durand, Robert J; Acevedo, Edmund O; Johnson, Lisa G; Synovitz, Linda B; Kraemer, Ginger R; Gimpel, Terry; Castracane, V Daniel

    2003-08-01

    A number of investigations have examined the effect of exercise on leptin concentrations, because leptin is associated with obesity, satiety, and reproductive function. High-intensity exercise is known to increase testosterone, an inhibitor of leptin. The objective of the study was to determine whether the leptin responses to a progressive, intermittent exercise protocol were related to serum testosterone concentrations. Most previous studies have examined leptin responses to low or moderately high exercise intensities. A second objective was to determine whether leptin responses were different than previous experiments using intermittent moderate and high-intensity exercise. Well-trained runners completed strenuous intermittent exercise consisting of treadmill running at 60, 75, 90, and 100% VO(2 max) and a subsequent resting control trial was also conducted. There were significant increases in mean serum levels of leptin and testosterone with both quickly returning to baseline during recovery, but no relationship between the two hormones was found. After examining individual data for both hormones, it was discovered that subjects could be classified as leptin responders or nonresponders, whereas testosterone increased in all subjects. Responders had elevated serum leptin levels at baseline and exhibited increases after high-intensity exercise, whereas nonresponders did not show changes in leptin during exercise. Data suggest testosterone levels do not acutely affect leptin responses to exercise or 1-h of recovery. Moreover, varied leptin responses to intense exercise in comparable well-trained runners was observed and was associated with baseline leptin concentrations.

  8. Investigation on the improved radiation hardness of silicon detectors with high oxygen concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Michael; Lindström, G

    2000-01-01

    We present an investigation on the influence of the oxygen concentration on radiation-induced changes in the effective doping concentration of silicon detectors. Diodes fabricated from silicon with interstitial oxygen content ranging from below 2*10/sup 14/ to 9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ have been irradiated with fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/. Our main interest focused on the so-called stable damage component in the change of the effective doping concentration being of prime importance for the application of silicon detectors in high-energy physics experiments. We demonstrate, that with a high oxygen enrichment the donor removal is appreciably reduced, reaching a value of only 10601130f the initial doping concentration for [O/sub i/]=9*10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/, while for normal detector grade material with [O/sub i/] below 5*10/sup 16/ cm /sup -3/ that value is 60-90Furthermore, we show that the fluence proportional introduction of stable acceptors is independent of the oxygen concentratio...

  9. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Ylitervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1 and very high (100–200 g·L−1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  10. A modified coaxial electrospinning for preparing fibers from a high concentration polymer solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new process technology modified from conventional coaxial electrospinning process has been developed to prepare polymer fibers from a high concentration solution. This process involves a pure solvent concentrically surrounding polymer fluid in the spinneret. The concentric spinneret was constructed simply by inserting a metal needle through a high elastic silica gel tube. Two syringe pumps were used to drive the core polymer solution and the sheath solvent. Using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as the polymer model, which normally has an electrospinnable concentration of 10% w/v in ethanol, it was possible to electrospin 35% w/v of PVP in the same solvent, when pure N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc was used as sheath fluid. The resultant fibers have a smooth surface morphology and good structural uniformity. The diameter of the fibers was 2.0±0.25 µm when the DMAc-to-polymer-solution flow rate ratio was set as 0.1. The process technology reported here opens a new window to tune the polymer fibers obtained by the electrospinning, and is useful for improving productivity of the electrospinning process.

  11. High Pb concentration stress on Typha latifolia growth and Pb removal in microcosm wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiu; Chen, Fengzhen; Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Chaohua

    2015-01-01

    When constructed wetlands are used to treat high-Pb wastewater, Pb may become a stress to wetland plants, which subsequently reduces treatment performance and the other ecosystem services. To facilitate the design and operation of constructed wetlands for treatment of Pb-rich wastewater, we investigated the irreversible inhibitory level of Pb for Typha latifolia through experiments in microcosm wetlands. Seven horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands were built with rectangular plastic tanks and packed with marble chips and sand. All wetlands were transplanted with nine stems of Typha latifolia each. The wetlands were batch operated in a greenhouse with artificial wastewater (10 L each) for 12 days. Influent to the seven wetlands had different concentrations of Pb: 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that leaf chlorophyll relative content, relative growth rate, photosynthetic characteristics, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and content of malondialdehyde were not affected when initial Pb concentration was at 100 mg/L and below. But when initial Pb concentration was above 100 mg/L, all of them were seriously affected. We conclude that high Pb concentrations wastewater could inhibit the growth of Typha latifolia and decrease the removal rate of wetlands.

  12. Bioslurry treatment for soils contaminated with very high concentrations of 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark E; Kruczek, Jessica; Schuster, Rachel L; Sheehan, Pamela L; Arienti, Per M

    2003-06-27

    Past and current DoD activities have resulted in the contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater with various explosive compounds. This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of a soil bioslurry process for remediation of soil with very high concentrations of 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl). A 99.9% reduction in tetryl concentrations (from 100,000 to below 100 mg/kg) was achieved in 180 to 200 days. A variety of process modifications (i.e. addition of fertilizer, microbial biomass, purging with nitrogen, etc.) that were performed during the course of the experiment did not increase the tetryl biodegradation rate beyond the rates of degradation without modifications. Subsequent batches of soil added as a 25% (v/v) replacement of the slurry were also degraded. These results indicate the potential for this process to remediate highly contaminated soils at many former and current ammunition manufacturing sites.

  13. Strategies for the production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol has attracted attention as an alternative to petroleum-derived fuel. Seaweeds have been proposed as some of the most promising raw materials for bioethanol production because they have several advantages over lignocellulosic biomass. However, because seaweeds contain low contents of glucans, i.e., polysaccharides composed of glucose, the conversion of only the glucans from seaweed is not sufficient to produce high concentrations of ethanol. Therefore, it is also necessary to produce ethanol from other specific carbohydrate components of seaweeds, including sulfated polysaccharides, mannitol, alginate, agar and carrageenan. This review summarizes the current state of research on the production of ethanol from seaweed carbohydrates for which the conversion of carbohydrates to sugars is a key step and makes comparisons with the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. This review provides valuable information necessary for the production of high concentrations of ethanol from seaweeds. PMID:23314751

  14. Graded Carrier Concentration Absorber Profile for High Efficiency CIGS Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Parisi; Riccardo Pernice; Vincenzo Rocca; Luciano Curcio; Salvatore Stivala; Cino, Alfonso C.; Giovanni Cipriani; Vincenzo Di Dio; Giuseppe Ricco Galluzzo; Rosario Miceli; Busacca, Alessandro C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an innovative CIGS-based solar cells model with a graded doping concentration absorber profile, capable of achieving high efficiency values. In detail, we start with an in-depth discussion concerning the parametrical study of conventional CIGS solar cells structures. We have used the wxAMPS software in order to numerically simulate cell electrical behaviour. By means of simulations, we have studied the variation of relevant physical and chemical parameters—characteristic of suc...

  15. Aggregation of Normal and Sickle Hemoglobin in High Concentration Phosphate Buffer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kejing; Ballas, Samir K.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2004-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutant form of hemoglobin, hemoglobin S, that polymerizes under hypoxic conditions. The extent and mechanism of polymerization are thus the subject of many studies of the pathophysiology of the disease and potential treatment strategies. To facilitate such studies, a model system using high concentration phosphate buffer (1.5 M–1.8 M) has been developed. To properly interpret results from studies using this model it is important to understand the similaritie...

  16. Photonic sensing in highly concentrated biotechnical processes by photon density wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Roland; Sandmann, Michael; Reich, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Photon Density Wave (PDW) spectroscopy is introduced as a new approach for photonic sensing in highly concentrated biotechnical processes. It independently quantifies the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient calibration-free and as a function of time, thus describing the optical properties in the vis/NIR range of the biomaterial during their processing. As examples of industrial relevance, enzymatic milk coagulation, beer mashing, and algae cultivation in photo bioreactors are discussed.

  17. Simulation of high concentration of iron in dense shelf water in the Okhotsk Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Uchimoto, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Nishioka, Jun; MITSUDERA, Humio; MISUMI, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; WAKATSUCHI, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    An ocean general circulation model coupled with a simple biogeochemical model was developed to simulate iron circulation in and around the Sea of Okhotsk. The model has two external sources of iron: dust iron at the sea surface and sedimentary iron at the seabed shallower than 300 m. The model represented characteristic features reasonably well, such as high iron concentration in the dense shelf water (DSW) and its mixing, which extends southward in the intermediate layer from the northwester...

  18. Manufacture of a Dairy Dessert from Ultra-High Temperature Milk Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to initiate development of a nonrefrigerated dairy dessert product. Milk was concentrated by pressure-driven filtration and then sterilized using ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing. Following sterilization, samples were aseptically inoculated with rennet to coagulate the milk, which was then stored at room temperature. These processing steps produced a dairy dessert that did not require refrigeration. I investigated the influence of total solids, milk fat,...

  19. Multi-criteria manufacturability indices for ranking high-concentration monoclonal antibody formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Velayudhan, Ajoy; Thornhill, Nina F; Farid, Suzanne S

    2017-09-01

    The need for high-concentration formulations for subcutaneous delivery of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can present manufacturability challenges for the final ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) step. Viscosity levels and the propensity to aggregate are key considerations for high-concentration formulations. This work presents novel frameworks for deriving a set of manufacturability indices related to viscosity and thermostability to rank high-concentration mAb formulation conditions in terms of their ease of manufacture. This is illustrated by analyzing published high-throughput biophysical screening data that explores the influence of different formulation conditions (pH, ions, and excipients) on the solution viscosity and product thermostability. A decision tree classification method, CART (Classification and Regression Tree) is used to identify the critical formulation conditions that influence the viscosity and thermostability. In this work, three different multi-criteria data analysis frameworks were investigated to derive manufacturability indices from analysis of the stress maps and the process conditions experienced in the final UF/DF step. Polynomial regression techniques were used to transform the experimental data into a set of stress maps that show viscosity and thermostability as functions of the formulation conditions. A mathematical filtrate flux model was used to capture the time profiles of protein concentration and flux decay behavior during UF/DF. Multi-criteria decision-making analysis was used to identify the optimal formulation conditions that minimize the potential for both viscosity and aggregation issues during UF/DF. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2043-2056. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Perodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Perodicals, Inc.

  20. Influence of Typha domingensis in the removal of high P concentrations from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A; Mufarrege, M M; Hadad, H R; Bonetto, C A

    2015-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the removal of high P concentration from water by vegetated and unvegetated wetlands. Reactors containing 4 kg of sediment and two plants of Typha domingensis (vegetated treatments) and reactors containing only sediment (unvegetated treatments) were arranged. Reactors were dosed with 100 and 500 mg L(-1) of P-PO4. The studied concentrations tried to simulate an accidental dump. Controls without P addition were also disposed. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for phosphorus. Sediment (0-3 (surface), 3-7 (medium) and 7-10 cm (deep)) and plant samples (roots, rhizomes, submerged leaves and aerial leaves) were collected at the beginning and at end of the experiment and were analyzed for total phosphorus. P fractionation was performed in the surface sediment layer. Relative growth rate (RGR) was calculated in each treatment considering initial and final plant height. P was efficiently removed from water in both, vegetated and unvegetated treatments. However, the major P removal was achieved in vegetated treatments. T. domingensis has a high capacity to tolerate and accumulate high P concentrations, especially in leaves, causing P accumulation in sediment to be significantly low in vegetated treatments. P accumulation was produced in the surface sediment layer (0-3 cm) in all treatments, mainly retained as iron-bound P. Present results point the large removal capacity of phosphate of systems planted with T. domingensis. Therefore T. domingensis is suitable for phytoremediation practice, being capable to tolerate high P concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of chemical or physical catalysts on high concentration bleaching agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Liporoni, Priscila C Suzy; Munin, Egberto; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bleaching efficacy of high concentration bleaching agents activated by chemical or physical catalysts. This study was divided into two parts. Part 1 evaluated the efficacy of tooth whitening after treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP Maxx) that was activated by different light-curing units: halogen lamp (conventional and bleach mode) (Optilux 501C, Demetron/Kerr), LED first generation (Ultrablue IV, DMC), LED/diode laser (Ultrablue IV, DMC), LED second generation (Bluephase 16i, Ivoclar Vivadent), and no light source (control group). Part 2 provided an analysis of the effect of chemical and physical catalysts on high concentration bleaching agents: 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP Maxx) + 20% sodium hydroxide; 35% hydrogen peroxide + 7% sodium bicarbonate; 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Xtra Boost); 35% hydrogen peroxide + halogen lamp; 35% hydrogen peroxide + 20% sodium hydroxide + halogen lamp; 35% hydrogen peroxide + 7% sodium bicarbonate + halogen lamp; 38% hydrogen peroxide + halogen lamp; and 35% hydrogen peroxide. Blocks obtained from human molars were randomly divided into groups (n = 5) in accordance with bleaching treatments. The efficacy of bleaching was measured using a spectrophotometer. Three bleaching sessions were performed. The results were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (5%). For both parts of the study, activated vs. non-activated bleaching did not differ significantly for all sessions tested. Activating systems did not improve the whitening effectiveness of high concentration bleaching agents.

  2. High concentrations of heavy metals in PM from ceramic factories of Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Pio, Casimiro

    2010-06-01

    In this study, physicochemical characterization of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) was performed in an urban-industrial site background (Bailén, Southern Spain), highly influenced by the impact of emission plumes from ceramic factories. This area is considered one of the towns with the highest PM 10 levels and average SO 2 concentration in Spain. A three stages methodology was used: 1) real-time measurements of levels of PM 10 and gaseous pollutants, and sampling of PM; 2) chemical characterization using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, CI and TOT, and source apportionment analysis (receptor modelling) of PM; and 3) chemical characterization of emission plumes derived from representative factories. High ambient air concentrations were found for most major components and trace elements compared with other industrialized towns in Spain. V and Ni are considered fingerprints of PM derived from the emissions of brick factories in this area, and were shown to be of particular interest. This highlights the high V and Ni concentrations in PM 10 (122 ngV/m 3 and 23.4 ngNi/m 3), with Ni exceeding the 2013 annual target value for the European Directive 2004/107/EC (20 ng/m 3). The methodology of this work can be used by Government departments responsible for Environment and Epidemiology in planning control strategies for improving air quality.

  3. Cleaning Process Research of MVR High Concentration Salty Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical vapor re-compression (MVR evaporation system for the treatment of the highly-concentrated inorganic salt wastewater was investigated, and its process characteristics were analyzed taking sodium chloride salt wastewater as the treated solution. In this paper, by adding “H2O2 oxidation + filter +flash evaporation + hot filter” technology on the basis of original traditional MVR treatment system, the optimum technological conditions were determined through the experiment: The pH value is 8.5; the oxidation time is 24.0h; H2O2 amount accounting for 1% of the total wastewater under the condition of outlet test MVR system respectively fell 88.5% and 90.1% than the traditional process of effluent COD and NH3-N removal rate. MVR system for the sodium chloride salt qualified rate was increased from 83.2% to 98.2%. On the other hand, this process avoided the highly-concentrated outside of mother liquor by flashing evaporation recycling volatile solvent; the optimization process results were found to be consistent with published practical industrial data. Compared with the new process MVR system, the operation load of MVR system was lower. Therefore, the system can be used to treat the highly-concentrated inorganic salt wastewater and save energy. Therefore, the cleaning process can achieve remarkable energy saving and consumption, and reduce the pollution and the pollution and environmental protection effect.

  4. Inferring DOC export mechanisms from high-frequency, instream UV-VIS concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; Musolff, Andreas; Keller, Toralf; Fleckenstein, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The flux of soil-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a significant term in terrestrial carbon budgets and, as a result, a dominant link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in streams and rivers have been increasing in many parts of the world. Providers of drinking water from surface water reservoirs are increasingly facing problems as elevated DOC concentrations cause higher costs for removal and potentially to toxic by-products during chlorination. Mitigating these problems requires a mechanistic understanding of the controls and dynamics of DOC export from catchments. High frequency measurements using UV-vis absorbance as a proxy for DOC concentrations allow for improved evaluation of DOC concentration-discharge relationships in catchments. In addition, several UV-vis absorbance proxies (both single and multiple wavelength) can be used as an indicator of DOC quality. These relationships allow quantification of net DOC export, and may additionally provide new insights into the mechanisms that control DOC export dynamics. We aimed to evaluate the response and interaction of DOC concentrations and quality between a riparian zone soil and stream under different hydrological conditions. UV-vis sensors were installed in both the riparian soil and stream of two headwater catchments, the Hassel and Rappbode, in the Harz Mountains in Germany. The two headwater catchments are approximately equal in size, however, differ in their land-use. The Hassel catchment is dominated by agricultural land-use, whereas the Rappbode catchment is mainly forested. The DOC concentration-discharge relationships show intricate hysteretic behavior, which differs between locations and shifts in time. The rich data-set will allow for a characterization of space and time patterns of DOC export as well as changes in its quality, providing valuable new insights into the hydrologic mechanisms that govern the delivery of DOC to streams.

  5. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration and Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Loren E; Smith, Derek K; Blume, Jeffrey D; Linton, MacRae F; Billings, Frederic T

    2017-12-09

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction and damage play important roles in the development of AKI. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and improve endothelial function and repair. Statins enhance HDL's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. We hypothesized that a higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration is associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery and that perioperative statin exposure potentiates this association. We tested our hypothesis in 391 subjects from a randomized clinical trial of perioperative atorvastatin to reduce AKI after cardiac surgery. A 2-component latent variable mixture model was used to assess the association between preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration and postoperative change in serum creatinine, adjusted for known AKI risk factors and suspected confounders. Interaction terms were used to examine the effects of preoperative statin use, preoperative statin dose, and perioperative atorvastatin treatment on the association between preoperative HDL and AKI. A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was independently associated with a decreased postoperative serum creatinine change (P=0.02). The association between a high HDL concentration and an attenuated increase in serum creatinine was strongest in long-term statin-using patients (P=0.008) and was further enhanced with perioperative atorvastatin treatment (P=0.004) and increasing long-term statin dose (P=0.003). A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery. Preoperative and perioperative statin treatment enhanced this association, demonstrating that pharmacological potentiation is possible during the perioperative period. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00791648. © 2017 The Authors

  6. Response of Salvinia cucullata to high NH4(+) concentrations at laboratory scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans; Kantawanichkul, Suwasa

    2012-05-01

    Growth, morphology, NH(4)(+) uptake and mineral allocation in Salvinia cucullata Roxb. ex Bory grown with different amounts of NH(4)(+) were investigated. Plants of uniform size were grown on full strength Smart and Barko medium with different NH(4)(+) concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 15 mM) and incubated in a greenhouse for four weeks. Salvinia cucullata grew well in the medium with 0.5-1 mM NH(4)(+) with a relative growth rate of 0.11-0.12 d(-1) without exhibiting NH(4)(+) toxicity symptoms. With an NH(4)(+) concentration above 5 mM, plant growth was suppressed and signs of NH(4)(+) toxicity were observed. NH(4)(+) toxicity symptoms were obvious in plants supplied with 10 mM and 15 mM NH(4)(+). These plants had low growth rates, short roots, low numbers of roots and showed chlorosis. Rotted roots and stems were also found in plants fed with 15 mM NH(4)(+). This species had a high uptake rate even though the NH(4)(+) concentrations increased, making it an ideal candidate for growth in eutrophic environments. The high NH(4)(+) concentration had a negative effect on K uptake resulting in low K concentration in the plant tissue, but the plants increased N content in plant tissue. Thus, harvested plants can be used as soil fertilizer or for animal feed. Furthermore, maintaining plant biomass can improve the efficiency of water treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ge doped GaN with controllable high carrier concentration for plasmonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Sachet, Edward; Bobea, Milena; Bryan, Zachary; Bryan, Isaac; Maria, Jon-Paul; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Nenstiel, Christian; Hoffmann, Axel [Institut fűr Festkörperphsyik, TU-Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-09

    Controllable Ge doping in GaN is demonstrated for carrier concentrations of up to 2.4 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Low temperature luminescence spectra from the highly doped samples reveal band gap renormalization and band filling (Burstein-Moss shift) in addition to a sharp transition. Infrared ellipsometry spectra demonstrate the existence of electron plasma with an energy around 3500 cm{sup −1} and a surface plasma with an energy around 2000 cm{sup −1}. These findings open possibilities for the application of highly doped GaN for plasmonic devices.

  8. A SIMPLE WAY OF ACHIEVING A HIGH CELL CONCENTRATION IN RECOMBINANT Escherichia coli CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gombert A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - A cultivation strategy based on some previous knowledge of the metabolism of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS containing the troponin C gene cloned into plasmid pET was developed and applied through the use of simple fermentation equipment and a feed-forward control strategy in order to achieve a high cell concentration ¾ 92 g l-1 dry cell weight ¾ and a high cell productivity ¾ 3.7 g l-1 h-1.

  9. A high-performance photovoltaic concentrator array - The mini-dome Fresnel lens concentrator with 30 percent efficient GaAs/GaSb tandem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, M. F.; Brinker, D. J.; Flood, D. J.; Avery, J. E.; Fraas, L. M.; Fairbanks, E. S.; Yerkes, J. W.; O'Neill, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    A high-efficiency, lightweight space photovoltaic concentrator array is described. Previous work on the minidome Fresnel lens concentrator concept is being integrated with Boeing's 30 percent efficient tandem GaAs/GaSb concentrator cells into a high-performance photovoltaic array. Calculations indicate that, in the near term, such an array can achieve 300 W/sq m at a specific power of 100 W/kg. Emphasis of the program has now shifted to integrating the concentrator lens, tandem cell, and supporting panel structure into a space-qualifiable array. A description is presented of the current status of component and prototype panel testing and the development of a flight panel for the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP PLUS) flight experiment.

  10. Fast time resolution measurements of high concentrations of iodine above a Laminaria Digitata seaweed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Adams, Thomas; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We report observations of extremely large concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) measured in situ above a seaweed bed composed of laminaria digitata (90%) and laminaria hyperborea (10%) growing in its natural habitat. Measurements were made off the coast of Roscoff in Brittany, France, during day-time low tides on several days in September and November 2012 with the greatest tidal amplitudes. Iodine was quantified using a portable, battery-powered broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) deployed from the in-shore research vessel "Aurelia" operated by the Station Biologique de Roscoff. For the 5 second integration times used here, the BBCEAS instrument has a detection limit for iodine of 12 pptv (parts per trillion by volume). The boat was anchored above the seaweed bed before it was exposed to air by the ebbing tide; the boat was grounded on the seaweed bed around the tidal minimum, and then refloated as the incoming tide covered the seaweed. I2 concentrations were strongly anti-correlated with water depth. Initially little I2 was seen above background levels whilst the blades of the seaweed plants were floating on the water surface. However several hundred pptv of I2 was observed within a few minutes of the plants' stipes breaking the surface and first blades coming to rest on rocks out of the water. Iodine concentrations increased further as the tide ebbed, typically peaking around 1500 pptv around the tidal minimum (by which time the seaweed had been exposed for 45 minutes). I2 concentrations decreased rapidly back to background levels as the returning tide submerged the seaweeds. The concentration profiles showed a lot of high frequency structure, with I2 concentrations commonly varying by a factor 2 (or more) within 60 seconds. Additionally the profiles of I2 emitted from the seaweeds immediately below the instrument's inlet typically sat on a smoothly-varying background of approximately 100 pptv, which we attribute to I2 from other more

  11. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combustion Processes Indoors: a Source of High OH Radical Concentrations Through the Photolysis of Hono

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, V.; Gomez Alvarez, E.; Glor, M.; Gligorovski, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Quivet, E.; Strekowski, R.; Zetzsch, C.; Held, A. B.; Wortham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) is one of the most important oxidant species in the atmosphere controlling its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are photolysis of ozone and photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO), among the others. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as the main OH formation pathway. The possibility for OH formation through photolytic pathways in the indoor environment has been, up to now, ignored (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2012). Models and indirect measurements to the present time predicted concentrations of OH radicals in the order of 104 -105 cm-3. Recently, by direct measurements we have detected high OH radical concentrations of 1.8 106 cm-3 in a classroom in Marseille and we demonstrated that its main source is the photolysis of HONO (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2013). The concentrations of HONO are quite high indoors, reaching levels in the order of a few tens of ppbV (Gómez Alvarez et al., 2013). This is mainly due to 1) direct combustion sources and 2) heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on the numerous surfaces present in the indoor environment. HONO levels of 30 ppb were measured in a previous campaign carried out in Bayreuth in July 2012 as direct emissions from the combustion of a candle. The combination between so high concentrations of HONO and higher than expected light transmissions indoors (or indoor artificial lighting) could have a significant impact on the OH concentrations indoors which could feasibly become considerably higher than we measured in our school campaign (Gomez Alvarez et al., 2013). In order to evaluate these upper limits under combustion conditions in the indoor environment, we have carried out a campaign in the LOTASC chamber (Bayreuth, Germany). For this aim, the exhaust fumes from the burning of a commonly used domestic candle have been introduced in the chamber. The chamber was irradiated under well research indoor lighting conditions. A thorough characterization of light intensities

  13. Time evolution of atmospheric particle number concentration during high-intensity pyrotechnic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Javier; Yubero, Eduardo; Nicolás, Jose F.; Caballero, Sandra; Galindo, Nuria

    2014-10-01

    The Mascletàs are high-intensity pyrotechnic events, typical of eastern Spanish festivals, in which thousands of firecrackers are burnt at ground level in an intense, short-time (<8 min) deafening spectacle that generates short-lived, thick aerosol clouds. In this study, the impact of such events on air quality has been evaluated by means of particle number concentration measurements performed close to the venue during the June festival in Alicante (southeastern Spain). Peak concentrations and dilution times observed throughout the Mascletàs have been compared to those measured when conventional aerial fireworks were launched 2 km away from the monitoring site. The impact of the Mascletàs on the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.3 μm was higher (maximum ∼2·104 cm-3) than that of fireworks (maximum ∼2·103 cm-3). The effect of fireworks depended on whether the dominant meteorological conditions favoured the transport of the plume to the measurement location. However, the time required for particle concentrations to return to background levels is longer and more variable for firework displays (minutes to hours) than for the Mascletàs (<25 min).

  14. Production of Mannitol from a High Concentration of Glucose by Candida parapsilosis SK26.001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Wenting; Mu, Wanmeng; Miao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    A novel strain, SK26.001, which can produce mannitol from a high concentration of glucose without the addition of fructose, was isolated from sugarcane juice. This strain was identified as Candida parapsilosis based on 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis and the morphological and physiological-biochemical characteristics of the strain. Under optimized fermentation conditions, the mannitol concentration in shake flasks reached 68.5 g/L. When batch fermentation was performed, the fed glucose was completely consumed after 72 h, resulting in a final mannitol concentration of 80.3 g/L. Fed-batch fermentation was then performed with glucose feed. During the fed-batch process, ammonia water was added to maintain the pH at 4.0. The mannitol concentration in the fermenter reached 97.1 g/L after 120 h, with a total glucose consumption of 284 g/L.

  15. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  16. High Concentrations of Ozone Air Pollution on Mount Everest: Health Implications for Sherpa Communities and Mountaineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, John L; Moore, G W Kent; Koutrakis, Petros; Wolfson, Jack M; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Semple, John L., G.W. Kent Moore, Petros Koutrakis, Jack M. Wolfson, Paolo Cristofanelli, and Paolo Bonasoni. High concentrations of ozone air pollution on Mount Everest: health implications for Sherpa communities and mountaineers. High Alt Med Biol. 17:365-369, 2016.-Introduction: Populations in remote mountain regions are increasingly vulnerable to multiple climate mechanisms that influence levels of air pollution. Few studies have reported on climate-sensitive health outcomes unique to high altitude ecosystems. In this study, we report on the discovery of high-surface ozone concentrations and the potential impact on health outcomes on Mount Everest and the high Himalaya. Surface ozone measurements were collected during ascending transects in the Mount Everest region of Nepal with passive nitrite-coated Ogawa filter samplers to obtain 8-hour personal exposures (2860-5364 m asl). In addition, the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid, a GAW-WMO Global Station sited in the Khumbu Valley (5079 m asl), collected ozone mixing ratios with photometric gas analyzer. Surface ozone measurements increased with altitude with concentrations that exceed 100 ppb (8-hour exposure). Highest values were during the spring season and the result of diverse contributions: hemispheric background values, the descent of ozone-rich stratospheric air, and the transport of tropospheric pollutants occurring at different spatial scales. Multiple climate factors, including descending stratospheric ozone and imported anthropogenic air masses from the Indo-Gangetic Plain, contribute to ambient ozone exposure levels in the vicinity of Mount Everest that are similar to if not higher than those reported in industrialized cities.

  17. Chlorpromazine, haloperidol, metoclopramide and domperidone release prolactin through dopamine antagonism at low concentrations but paradoxically inhibit prolactin release at high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, G. M.; Delitala, G.; Grossman, A.; Stubbs, W. A.; Yeo, T.

    1980-01-01

    1. The effects of chlorpromazine, haloperidol, metoclopramide and domperidone on the release of prolactin from perfused columns of dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells were studied. 2. Chlorpromazine, haloperidol, metoclopramide and domperidone antagonized the dopamine-mediated inhibition of prolactin release at low concentrations. 3. Each dopamine antagonist displaced the dose-response curve for dopamine-induced suppression of prolactin release to the right in a parallel manner. 4. At higher concentrations, the four drugs became less effective as dopamine antagonists. 5. At high concentrations in the absence of dopamine, chlorpromazine, haloperidol, metoclopramide and domperidone paradoxically suppressed prolactin secretion by an unknown mechanism. PMID:6110459

  18. Adaptation of a mixed culture of acidophiles for a tank biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing a high concentration of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeongsik; Silva, Rene A; Park, Jeonghyun; Lee, Eunseong; Park, Jayhyun; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-05-01

    We adapted a mixed culture of acidophiles to high arsenic concentrations to confirm the possibility of achieving more than 70% biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing high arsenic (As) concentration. The biooxidation process was applied to refractory gold concentrates containing approximately 139.67 g/kg of total As in a stirred tank reactor using an adapted mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The percentage of the biooxidation process was analyzed based on the total As removal efficiency. The As removal was monitored by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, conducted every 24 h. The results obtained with the adapted culture were compared with the percentage of biooxidation obtained with a non-adapted mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, and with their respective pure cultures. The percentages of biooxidation obtained during 358 h of reaction were 72.20%, 38.20%, 27.70%, and 11.45% for adapted culture, non-adapted culture, and pure cultures of A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans, respectively. The adapted culture showed a peak maximum percentage of biooxidation of 77% at 120 h of reaction, confirming that it is possible to obtain biooxidation percentages over 70% in gold concentrates containing high As concentrations. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiometabolic risk factors are associated with high urinary enterolactone concentration, independent of urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L

    2014-09-01

    The study objective was to evaluate independent and interactive associations of dietary fiber intake and high urinary enterolignans with cardiometabolic risk factors. The analysis included 2260 adults (≥20 y of age) from the 2003-2010 NHANES. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate obesity and clinically defined cardiometabolic risk factors in relation to dietary fiber intake and urinary enterolignan concentrations. Three sets of models were created: 1) independent associations, 2) mutually adjusted associations, and 3) interactions. Models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and energy intake. High concentrations were considered to be above the 90th percentile of urinary enterolignan concentrations. Increasing dietary fiber intake was associated with high blood pressure (P = 0.02) and low serum HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.03). High urinary enterodiol concentration was not associated with obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors. High urinary enterolactone concentration was inversely associated with obesity (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.66), abdominal obesity (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.87), high serum C-reactive protein (CRP; OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.74), high serum triglycerides (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), low serum HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74). In mutually adjusted models, enterolactone associations observed in independent models remained similar, but associations for dietary fiber intake were attenuated, with the exception of blood pressure. In interaction models, there were 2 significant interactions: between high urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake for high serum CRP (P = 0.04) and high plasma glucose (P = 0.04). Overall, being in the highest 10% of urinary enterolactone concentration was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of dietary fiber intake and enterodiol concentration. Future studies are

  20. APPLICATION OF TRICKLING FILTER FOR SEWAGE TREATMENT WITH HIGH AMMONIA NITRO GEN CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dąbrowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research about the possibility of using trickling filter for high ammonia concentration sewage treatment. The study was conducted with the use of reject water generated during anaerobic sewage sludge stabilization in dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. They are usually returned to the beginning of WWTP. The value of BOD in reject water was approximately the same as in domestic and municipal sewage. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was varied from 145,0 to 390,0 mgN-NH4+/l and phosphorus from 16.0 to 38.0 mgP/l. The study used the Gunt test system CE701e, which allows controlling basic parameters of the treatment with trickling filter. Significant reduction of organic matter, total nitrogen and ammonium was observed during treatment. Average removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen ranged from 73.6 to 80.3%. In the case of the Kjeldahl nitrogen removal efficiencies ranged from 74.4 to 79.8%. Because of the aerobic conditions during the treatment of phosphorus removal efficiency was low and varied from 32.0 to 33.7%. The research confirmed the efficiency of trickling filter for treatment sewage with high concentration of ammonia nitrogen.

  1. Factors influencing the crystallisation of highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions: A DSC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Masalova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated emulsions are used in a variety of applications, including the cosmetics, food and liquid explosives industries. The stability of these highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallisation of the emulsions was initiated by exposing the emulsions to a low temperature. The effects of surfactant type, electrolyte concentration and electrolyte composition in the aqueous phase on emulsion crystallisation temperature were studied. Surfactant type affected the emulsion crystallisation temperature in the following order: PIBSA-MEA=PIBSA-UREA < PIBSA-MEA/SMO < PIBSA-IMIDE < SMO. These results are in the same sequence as results obtained for the stability of these emulsions in aging studies, that is, PIBSA-MEA was the most stable with age and SMO was the least. The effect of the surfactant type on emulsion crystallisation can probably be attributed to the differing strengths of the surfactant–electrolyte interactions, which result in different molecular packing geometry and differing mobility of the surfactant lipophilic portion at the interface. These results enhance our understanding of the factors that affect the stability of explosive emulsions.

  2. Analysis of serotonin concentrations in human milk by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Maeda, Tomoji; Tairabune, Tomohiko; Tomita, Takashi; Sanbe, Atsushi; Takeda, Rika; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kudo, Kenzo

    2017-03-25

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in milk volume homeostasis in the mammary gland during lactation; 5-HT in milk may also affect infant development. However, there are few reports on 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. To address this issue, we developed a simple method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) for measuring 5-HT concentrations in human breast milk. Breast milk samples were provided by four healthy Japanese women. Calibration curves for 5-HT in each sample were prepared with the standard addition method between 5 and 1000 ng/ml, and all had correlation coefficients >0.999. The recovery of 5-HT was 96.1%-101.0%, with a coefficient of variation of 3.39%-8.62%. The range of 5-HT concentrations estimated from the calibration curves was 11.1-51.1 ng/ml. Thus, the HPLC-FD method described here can effectively extract 5-HT from human breast milk with high reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Effect of Silybum marianum and Silibinin on Endothelial Cells Submitted to High Glucose Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Olga M; Gouveia, Neire M; Ramos, Sonia; Martín, M Angeles; Goya, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum Gaertn. (Milk thistle) has been used since ancient times for the relief of liver diseases characterized by intense oxidative stress such as inflammatory liver disease and cirrhosis. As oxidative stress by hyperglycemia is involved in micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes, our aim was to assess the protective effect of milk thistle seed extract against oxidative stress induced by a high glucose concentration on endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cells). High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis shows flavonolignans silychristin and silibinin A and B as major components. No cell toxicity was observed for concentrations up to 100 µg/mL of milk thistle extract for 24 h. Concentrations of 5-25 µg/mL of the extract were used to assess the protective effect on EA.hy926 cells treated with 30 mM glucose for 24 h. Oxidative damage by 30 mM glucose was shown as a significant decrease in reduced glutathione and a significant increase in protein carbonyls and antioxidant enzyme activities. S. marianum extract recovered reduced glutathione and balanced the elevated carbonyls and enzyme activity. Silibinin alone also recovered reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes. S. marianum protects endothelial cell against oxidative damage by modulating antioxidant enzyme activity, reduced glutathione, and protein carbonyl levels. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Pd/ZnO nanorods based sensor for highly selective detection of extremely low concentration hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Singh Bhati, Vijendra; Ranwa, Sapana; Singh, Jitendra; Kumar, Mahesh

    2017-03-22

    We report highly hydrogen selective Pd contacted ZnO nanorods based sensor detecting low concentration even at low operating temperature of 50 °C. The sensor performance was investigated for various gases such as H2, CH4, H2S and CO2 at different operating temperatures from 50 °C to 175 °C for various gas concentrations ranging from 7 ppm to 10,000 ppm (1%). The sensor is highly efficient as it detects hydrogen even at low concentration of ~7 ppm and at operating temperature of 50 °C. The sensor's minimum limit of detection and relative response at 175 °C were found 7 ppm with ~38.7% for H2, 110 ppm with ~6.08% for CH4, 500 ppm with ~10.06% for H2S and 1% with ~11.87% for CO2. Here, Pd exhibits dual characteristics as metal contact and excellent catalyst to hydrogen molecules. The activation energy was calculated for all the gases and found lowest ~3.658 kJ/mol for H2. Low activation energy accelerates desorption reactions and enhances the sensor's performance.

  5. [Research on a novel high-precision methane concentration detection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lin-li; Zhou, Han-chang; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-12-01

    In the gas concentration detection process using the characteristic spectrum absorption method, in order to improve the detection accuracy of the gas concentration, it often has to use the high-quality narrowband modulated laser and modulate wavelength to align with the characteristic absorption peaks of measured gas. But by this way, the cost of the laser and system requirements will be greatly increased. To use the existing portable, low-cost semiconductor laser conditions, at the same time it can obtain higher precision, conversion window differential absorption optical structure and the algorithm of differential characteristic absorption ratio was designed. Selection reason of position of the wavelength characteristic was analyzed, and steps to implement the processing algorithm were given. Systematically utilizing the combination method of conversion window and absorption gas chamber, by the method for calculating the ratio of the light intensity response, the light intensity from non-characteristic absorption peak position was divided out. So it achieved a similar detecting effect was achieved that used a narrow-band laser aligned to the feature absorption peak position. Experiments adopted MW-IR-1650 infrared laser, type SSM17-2 stepper motor control module, C30659 infrared detectors, and other devices. In the experiments, different concentrations of methane gas were tested, and experimental results show that the relative error of measurement was less than 2.0% within the range from 200 to 5000 ppm. In summary, it's proved that the system has high accuracy and stability.

  6. Modeling and measuring the indoor randon concentrations in high-rise buildings in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, C K; Yeung, H S

    1999-06-01

    A newly constructed, uninhabited high-rise building has been measured for its indoor and outdoor radon concentrations at similar locations on each of the 18 floor levels. Grab sampling technique has been used so that many locations can be measured within short period of time to minimize the variations due to temperature, pressure and humidity. Air exchange rates inside rooms were obtained by tracer gas method. Standard concrete samples were manufactured in laboratory to simulate the concrete used in the construction of the high-rise building. The concrete samples were measured for their radon exhalation rates by calculating the initial growth rates of radon inside an airtight container. The air exchange rates have been found to increase with floor levels, whilst the indoor and outdoor radon concentrations decreased with floor levels. Using a model utilizing a simple mass balance equation, the indoor radon concentration inside a room on each of the 18 floor levels has been calculated and the results agreed very well with measurements.

  7. Modeling and measuring the indoor radon concentrations in high-rise buildings in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, C.K.; Yeung, H.S

    1999-06-01

    A newly constructed, uninhabited high-rise building has been measured for its indoor and outdoor radon concentrations at similar locations on each of the 18 floor levels. Grab sampling technique has been used so that many locations can be measured within short period of time to minimize the variations due to temperature, pressure and humidity. Air exchange rates inside rooms were obtained by tracer gas method. Standard concrete samples were manufactured in laboratory to simulate the concrete used in the construction of the high-rise building. The concrete samples were measured for their radon exhalation rates by calculating the initial growth rates of radon inside an airtight container. The air exchange rates have been found to increase with floor levels, whilst the indoor and outdoor radon concentrations decreased with floor levels. Using a model utilizing a simple mass balance equation, the indoor radon concentration inside a room on each of the 18 floor levels has been calculated and the results agreed very well with measurements.

  8. Metal dynamics and tolerance of Typha domingensis exposed to high concentrations of Cr, Ni and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufarrege, M M; Hadad, H R; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A

    2014-07-01

    Typha domingensis was exposed to a 100mgL(-1) Cr+100mgL(-1) Ni+100mgL(-1) Zn solution. Metal tolerance and metal accumulation in plant tissues and sediment were studied over time. Although removal rates were different, the three metals were efficiently removed from water. Leaf and root tissues showed high metal concentration. However, the sediment showed the highest accumulation. During the first hours of contact, metals were not only accumulated by sediment and roots but they were also taken up by the leaves in direct contact with the solution. Over time, metals were translocated from roots to leaves and vice versa. Metals caused growth inhibition and a decrease in chlorophyll concentration and affected anatomical parameters. Despite these sub-lethal effects, T. domingensis demonstrated that it could accumulate Cr, Ni and Zn efficiently and survive an accidental dump of high concentrations of contaminants in systems such as natural and constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong

  10. Concentration of Potentially Preventable Spending Among High-Cost Medicare Subpopulations: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jose F; Joynt Maddox, Karen E; Beaulieu, Nancy; Wild, Robert C; Jha, Ashish K

    2017-10-17

    Little is known about whether potentially preventable spending is concentrated among a subset of high-cost Medicare beneficiaries. To determine the proportion of total spending that is potentially preventable across distinct subpopulations of high-cost Medicare beneficiaries. Beneficiaries in the highest 10% of total standardized individual spending were defined as "high-cost" patients, using a 20% sample of Medicare fee-for-service claims from 2012. The following 6 subpopulations were defined using a claims-based algorithm: nonelderly disabled, frail elderly, major complex chronic, minor complex chronic, simple chronic, and relatively healthy. Potentially preventable spending was calculated by summing costs for avoidable emergency department visits using the Billings algorithm plus inpatient and associated 30-day postacute costs for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs). The amount and proportion of potentially preventable spending were then compared across the high-cost subpopulations and by individual ACSCs. Medicare. 6 112 450 Medicare beneficiaries. Proportion of spending deemed potentially preventable. In 2012, 4.8% of Medicare spending was potentially preventable, of which 73.8% was incurred by high-cost patients. Despite making up only 4% of the Medicare population, high-cost frail elderly persons accounted for 43.9% of total potentially preventable spending ($6593 per person). High-cost nonelderly disabled persons accounted for 14.8% of potentially preventable spending ($3421 per person) and the major complex chronic group for 11.2% ($3327 per person). Frail elderly persons accounted for most spending related to admissions for urinary tract infections, dehydration, heart failure, and bacterial pneumonia. Potential misclassification in the identification of preventable spending and lack of detailed clinical data in administrative claims. Potentially preventable spending varied across Medicare subpopulations, with the majority concentrated among

  11. Process evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis with filtrate recycle for the production of high concentration sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Rusli, Jannov; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Jameel, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Process simulation and lab trials were carried out to demonstrate and confirm the efficiency of the concept that recycling hydrolysate at low total solid enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the options to increase the sugar concentration without mixing problems. Higher sugar concentration can reduce the capital cost for fermentation and distillation because of smaller retention volume. Meanwhile, operation cost will also decrease for less operating volume and less energy required for distillation. With the computer simulation, time and efforts can be saved to achieve the steady state of recycling process, which is the scenario for industrial production. This paper, to the best of our knowledge, is the first paper discussing steady-state saccharification with recycling of the filtrate form enzymatic hydrolysis to increase sugar concentration. Recycled enzymes in the filtrate (15-30% of the original enzyme loading) resulted in 5-10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to the case in which recycled enzymes were denatured. The recycled hydrolysate yielded 10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to pure sugar simulated hydrolysate at the same enzyme loading, which indicated hydrolysis by-products could boost enzymatic hydrolysis. The high sugar concentration (pure sugar simulated) showed inhibition effect, since about 15% decrease in carbohydrate conversion was observed compared with the case with no sugar added. The overall effect of hydrolysate recycling at WinGEMS simulated steady-state conditions with 5% total solids was increasing the sugar concentration from 35 to 141 g/l, while the carbohydrate conversion was 2% higher for recycling at steady state (87%) compared with no recycling strategy (85%). Ten percent and 15% total solid processes were also evaluated in this study.

  12. Fish bioconcentration studies with column-generated analyte concentrations of highly hydrophobic organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechtriem, Christian; Böhm, Leonard; Bebon, Rebecca; Bruckert, Hans-Jörg; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The performance of aqueous exposure bioconcentration fish tests according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline 305 requires the possibility of preparing stable aqueous concentrations of the test substances. For highly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs; octanol-water partition coefficient [log K OW ] > 5), testing via aqueous exposure may become increasingly difficult. A solid-phase desorption dosing system was developed to generate stable concentrations of HOCs without using solubilizing agents. The system was tested with hexachlorobenzene (HCB), o-terphenyl (oTP), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA) (log K OW 5.5-7.8) in 2 flow-through fish tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analysis of the test media applied during the bioconcentration factor (BCF) studies showed that stable analyte concentrations of the 4 HOCs were maintained in the test system over an uptake period of 8 wk. Bioconcentration factors (L kg -1 wet wt) were estimated for HCB (BCF 35 589), oTP (BCF 12 040), and PCB 153 (BCF 18 539) based on total water concentrations. No bioconcentration could be determined for DBA, probably because of the rapid metabolism of the test item. The solid-phase desorption dosing system is suitable to provide stable aqueous concentrations of HOCs required to determine the bioconcentration in fish and represents a viable alternative to the use of solubilizing agents for the preparation of test solutions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:906-916. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  13. Carbon dioxide as working fluid for medium and high-temperature concentrated solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Duong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the benefits and drawbacks of using carbon dioxide in solar thermal systems at medium and high operating temperatures. For medium temperatures, application of CO2 in non-imaging-optics based compound parabolic concentrators (CPC combined with evacuated-tube collectors is studied. These collectors have been shown to obtain efficiencies higher than 40% operating at around 200℃ without the need of tracking. Validated numerical models of external compound parabolic concentrators (XCPCs are used to simulate their performance using CO2 as working fluid. For higher temperatures, a mathematical model is implemented to analyze the operating performance of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTC using CO2 at temperatures between 100℃ and 600℃.

  14. Subcutaneous absorption kinetics of two highly concentrated preparations of recombinant human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Susgaard, Søren

    1993-01-01

    hours. Samples were taken every 30 minutes for 6 hours and then hourly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bioavailability (F) and absorption dynamics of human GH were measured. The relative absorption fractions estimated from the areas under the individual serum concentration curves from 0 to 24 hours......Abstract OBJECTIVE: The relative bioavailability of two highly concentrated (12 IU/ml) formulations of biosynthetic human growth hormone (GH) administered subcutaneously was compared. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study. Conventional GH therapy was withdrawn 72 hours before each study period...... of signs of endogenous GH secretion. INTERVENTIONS: At the start of each study period, GH 3 IU/m2 was injected subcutaneously. The two formulations, PenFill and PenSet, differ in the buffers used and in the relative content of mannitol and glycine. Serum profiles of GH were monitored frequently for 24...

  15. Green synthesis of highly concentrated aqueous colloidal solutions of large starch-stabilised silver nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Betts, Jonathan W; Kelly, Stephen M; Hector, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to prepare a range of aqueous silver colloidal solutions, using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, water-soluble starch as a combined crystallising, stabilising and solubilising agent, and water as the solvent. The diameter of silver nanoplatelets increases with higher concentrations of AgNO3 and starch. The silver nanoparticles are also more uniform in shape the greater the diameter of the nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions with a very high concentration of large, flat, hexagonal silver nanoplatelets (~230 nm in breadth) have been used to deposit and fix an antibacterial coating of these large starch-stabilised silver nanoplates on commercial cotton fibres, using a simple dip-coating process using water as the solvent, in order to study the dependence of the antibacterial properties of these nanoplatelets on their size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-11-08

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel's susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

  17. High Ice Water Concentrations in the 19 August 2015 Coastal Mesoconvective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Harrah, Steven; Switzer, George F.; Strickland, Justin K.; Hunt, Patricia J.

    2017-01-01

    During August 2015, NASA's DC-8 research aircraft was flown into High Ice Water Content (HIWC) events as part of a three-week campaign to collect airborne radar data and to obtain measurements from microphysical probes. Goals for this flight campaign included improved characterization of HIWC events, especially from an airborne radar perspective. This paper focuses on one of the flight days, in which a coastal mesoscale convective system (MCS) was investigated for HIWC conditions. The system appears to have been maintained by bands of convection flowing in from the Gulf of Mexico. These convective bands were capped by a large cloud canopy, which masks the underlying structure if viewed from an infrared sensing satellite. The DC-8 was equipped with an IsoKinetic Probe that measured ice concentrations of up to 2.3 g m(exp -3) within the cloud canopy of this system. Sustained measurements of ice crystals with concentrations exceeding 1 g m(exp -3) were encountered for up to ten minutes of flight time. Airborne Radar reflectivity factors were found to be weak within these regions of high ice water concentrations, suggesting that Radar detection of HIWC would be a challenging endeavor. This case is then investigated using a three-dimensional numerical cloud model. Profiles of ice water concentrations and radar reflectivity factor demonstrate similar magnitudes and scales between the flight measurements and model simulation. Also discussed are recent modifications to the numerical model's ice-microphysics that are based on measurements during the flight campaign. The numerical model and its updated ice-microphysics are further validated with a simulation of a well-known case of a supercell hailstorm measured during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment. Differences in HIWC between the continental supercell and the coastal MCS are discussed.

  18. The Influence of High Aerosol Concentration on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Temperature Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaykin, M.N.; Kadygrove, E.N.; Golitsyn, G.S.

    2005-03-18

    Investigations of the changing in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) radiation balance as cased by natural and anthropogenic reasons is an important topic of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The influence of aerosol on temperature stratification of ABL while its concentration was extremely high within a long period of time was studied experimentally. The case was observed in Moscow region (Russia) with the transport of combustion products from peat-bog and forest fires in July-September, 2002. At this time the visibility was some times at about 100-300 m. Aerosol concentration measured by Moscow University Observatory and A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics field station in Zvenigorod (55.7 N; 36.6 E) for several days was in 50-100 times more than background one (Gorchakov at al 2003). The high aerosol concentration can change the radiation balance at ABL, and so to change thermal stratification in ABL above the mega lopolis. For the analysis the data were used of synchronous measurements by MTP-5 (Microwave Temperature Profiler operating at wavelength 5 mm) in two locations, namely: downtown Moscow and country-side which is 50 km apart to the West (Zvenigorod station). (Kadygrov and Pick 1998; Westwater at al 1999; Kadygrov at al 2002). Zvenigorod station is located in strongly continental climate zone which is in between of the climates of ARM sites (NSANorth Slope of Alaska and SGP-Southern Great Plains). The town of Zvenigorod has little industry, small traffic volume and topography conductive to a good air ventilation of the town. For these reasons Zvenigorod can be considered as an undisturbed rural site. For the analysis some days were chosen with close meteorological parameters (average temperature, humidity, wind, pressure and cloud form) but strongly differing in aerosol concentration level.

  19. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Max Goodson

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (T2D has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects.We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175 and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537.HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83% of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64% were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness.HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  20. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, J Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Shi, Ping; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Song, Xiaoqing; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Type II diabetes (T2D) has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects. We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years) using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175) and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83%) of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64%) were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness. HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  1. Observations of high droplet number concentrations in Southern Ocean boundary layer clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chubb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud physics data collected during the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO campaigns provide a snapshot of unusual wintertime microphysical conditions in the boundary layer over the Southern Ocean. On 29 June 2011, the HIAPER sampled the boundary layer in a region of pre-frontal warm air advection between 58 and 48° S to the south of Tasmania. Cloud droplet number concentrations were consistent with climatological values in the northernmost profiles but were exceptionally high for wintertime in the Southern Ocean at 100–200 cm−3 in the southernmost profiles. Sub-micron (0.06  < D <  1 µm aerosol concentrations for the southern profiles were up to 400 cm−3. Analysis of back trajectories and atmospheric chemistry observations revealed that while conditions in the troposphere were more typical of a clean remote ocean airmass, there was some evidence of continental or anthropogenic influence. However, the hypothesis of long-range transport of continental aerosol fails to explain the magnitude of the aerosol and cloud droplet concentration in the boundary layer. Instead, the gale force surface winds in this case (wind speed at 167 m above sea level was  > 25 m s−1 were most likely responsible for production of sea spray aerosol which influenced the microphysical properties of the boundary layer clouds. The smaller size and higher number concentration of cloud droplets is inferred to increase the albedo of these clouds, and these conditions occur regularly, and are expected to increase in frequency, over windy parts of the Southern Ocean.

  2. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors affecting biotic mercury concentrations and biomagnification through lake food webs in the Canadian high Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescord, Gretchen L., E-mail: glescord@gmail.com [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6 (Canada); Kirk, Jane L. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Acadia University, 15 University Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa; Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) or the biomagnification of Hg through their food webs. We estimated the food web structure of six high Arctic lakes near Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, using stable carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopes and measured Hg (total Hg (THg) in char, the only fish species, and methylmercury (MeHg) in chironomids and zooplankton) concentrations in biota collected in 2010 and 2011. Across lakes, δ{sup 13}C showed that benthic carbon (chironomids) was the dominant food source for char. Regression models of log Hg versus δ{sup 15}N (of char and benthic invertebrates) showed positive and significant slopes, indicting Hg biomagnification in all lakes, and higher slopes in some lakes than others. However, no principal components (PC) generated using all water chemistry data and physical characteristics of the lakes predicted the different slopes. The PC dominated by aqueous ions was a negative predictor of MeHg concentrations in chironomids, suggesting that water chemistry affects Hg bioavailability and MeHg concentrations in these lower-trophic-level organisms. Furthermore, regression intercepts were predicted by the PCs dominated by catchment area, aqueous ions, and MeHg. Weaker relationships were also found between THg in small char or MeHg in pelagic invertebrates and the PCs dominated by catchment area, and aqueous nitrate and MeHg. Results from these high Arctic lakes suggest that Hg biomagnification differs between systems and that their physical and chemical characteristics affect Hg concentrations in lower-trophic-level biota. - Highlights: • Mercury (Hg) in Arctic char and invertebrates

  4. Large-area, high-intensity PV arrays for systems using dish concentrating optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Zweibel, K.; Coutts, T.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report on efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

  5. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model predictions of annual maximum pesticide concentrations in high vulnerability watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Michael F; Peranginangin, Natalia; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Chen, Wenlin

    2017-11-29

    Recent national regulatory assessments of potential pesticide exposure of threatened and endangered species in aquatic habitats have led to increased need for watershed-scale predictions of pesticide concentrations in flowing water bodies. This study was conducted to assess the ability of the uncalibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations in the flowing water bodies of highly vulnerable small- to medium-sized watersheds. The SWAT was applied to 27 watersheds, largely within the midwest corn belt of the United States, ranging from 20 to 386 km2 , and evaluated using consistent input data sets and an uncalibrated parameterization approach. The watersheds were selected from the Atrazine Ecological Exposure Monitoring Program and the Heidelberg Tributary Loading Program, both of which contain high temporal resolution atrazine sampling data from watersheds with exceptionally high vulnerability to atrazine exposure. The model performance was assessed based upon predictions of annual maximum atrazine concentrations in 1-d and 60-d durations, predictions critical in pesticide-threatened and endangered species risk assessments when evaluating potential acute and chronic exposure to aquatic organisms. The simulation results showed that for nearly half of the watersheds simulated, the uncalibrated SWAT model was able to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations within a narrow range of uncertainty resulting from atrazine application timing patterns. An uncalibrated model's predictive performance is essential for the assessment of pesticide exposure in flowing water bodies, the majority of which have insufficient monitoring data for direct calibration, even in data-rich countries. In situations in which SWAT over- or underpredicted the annual maximum concentrations, the magnitude of the over- or underprediction was commonly less than a factor of 2, indicating that the model and uncalibrated parameterization

  6. Long term stability of Li-S batteries using high concentration lithium nitrate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian D.; Carino, Emily V.; Connell, Justin G.; Han, Kee Sung; Cao, Ruiguo; Chen, Junzheng; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-10-01

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a very promising candidate for the next generation of energy storage systems required for electrical vehicles and grid energy storage applications due to its very high theoretical specific energy (2500 W h kg(-1)). However, low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li metal plating/stripping has severely limited the practical application of rechargeable Li-S batteries. In this work, a new electrolyte system based on a high concentration of LiNO3 in diglyme (G2) solvent is developed which enables an exceptionally high CE for Li metal plating/stripping and thus high stability of the Li anode in the sulfur-containing electrolyte. The tailoring of electrolyte properties for the Li anode has proven to be a highly successful strategy for improving the capacity retention and cycle life of Li-S batteries. This electrolyte provides a CE of greater than 99% for over 200 cycles of Li plating/stripping. In contrast, the Li anode cycles for less than 35 cycles (with a high CE) in the state-of-the-art 1 M LiTFSI + 0.3 M LiNO3 in 1,3-dioxolane: 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DOL:DME) electrolyte under the same conditions. The stable Li anode enabled by the new electrolyte may accelerate the applications of high energy density Li-S batteries in both electrical vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage markets.

  7. Preparation of a stable graphene dispersion with high concentration by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weina; He, Wei; Jing, Xinli

    2010-08-19

    With unique structure and extraordinary electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene fascinates the scientific community. Due to its hydrophobic feature, preparation of a stable and highly concentrated graphene dispersion without the assistance of dispersing agents has generally been considered a challenge. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most important methods for preparing a graphene dispersion. The aggregation of graphene sheets is a key reason to destabilize the resulting dispersion during conversion of aqueous GO dispersion to graphene. In this study, by replacing mechanical stirring with ultrasonic irradiation, the aggregation of various intermediates is effectively suppressed during the process of reduction of GO. Hence, a stable graphene dispersion with a high concentration of 1 mg.mL(-1) and relatively pure graphene sheets are achieved, and the as-prepared graphene paper exhibits a high electric conductivity of 712 S.m(-1). Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that ultrasound is the essence of enhancing chemical reaction rate. Fourier transformed infrared spectra and Raman spectra indicate that ultrasound has less damage to the chemical and crystal structures of graphene.

  8. Selection of Amikacin Hyper-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa After Stepwise Exposure to High Amikacin Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2017-01-01

    Aerosolized amikacin reaches high concentrations in lung fluids, which are well above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, P. aeruginosa can gain resistance to amikacin through different cumulative mechanisms; amikacin MICs are seldom reported beyond values of 1,000 μg/ml, as tested in clinical microbiology assays. To assess how high amikacin MICs can be reached by graded exposure, four amikacin-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were grown in a 4-step increased exposure to amikacin; derivative strains were further characterized by measuring their comparative growth rate, biofilm-forming ability, and susceptibility to other antibiotics. In addition, the mechanism underlying the MIC increase was assessed phenotypically, using a set of 12 aminoglycoside disks, and measuring the effect of Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, an efflux pump inhibitor. Graded exposure to amikacin increased MICs of resistant strains up to 10,000-20,000 μg/ml, without apparent fitness cost, and having variable consequences on their biofilm-forming ability, and on their susceptibility to other antibiotics. Decreased permeability may have contributed to hyper-resistance, although evidence was inconclusive and variable between strains. Amikacin-resistant P. aeruginosa is able to gain in vitro hyper-resistance with minimal changes in the specific phenotypes that were tested; the ability to achieve high-level amikacin (AMK) resistance may confound the clinical utility of this aerosolized AMK, but clinical data would be required to assess this.

  9. A method of batch-purifying microalgae with multiple antibiotics at extremely high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jichang; Wang, Song; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Kehou

    2016-01-01

    Axenic microalgal strains are highly valued in diverse microalgal studies and applications. Antibiotics, alone or in combination, are often used to avoid bacterial contamination during microalgal isolation and culture. In our preliminary trials, we found that many microalgae ceased growing in antibiotics at extremely high concentrations but could resume growth quickly when returned to an antibiotics-free liquid medium and formed colonies when spread on a solid medium. We developed a simple and highly efficient method of obtaining axenic microalgal cultures based on this observation. First, microalgal strains of different species or strains were treated with a mixture of ampicillin, gentamycin sulfate, kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin (each at a concentration of 600 mg/L) for 3 days; they were then transferred to antibiotics-free medium for 5 days; and finally they were spread on solid f/2 media to allow algal colonies to form. With this method, five strains of Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), two strains of Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae), two strains of Tetraselmis sp. (Chlorodendrophyceae) and one strain of Amphikrikos sp. (Trebouxiophyceae) were purified successfully. The method shows promise for batch-purifying microalgal cultures.

  10. Respiratory health effect of persons accidentally expose to high concentration of chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierakul, Nitipatana; Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Passaranon, Prachya; Chamchod, Charttiwut; Suntiwuth, Bralee

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the short term and long term respiratory health effects of subjects who accidentally exposed to high concentration of chlorine gas. There was an accidental leakage of sodium hypochlorite from an industrial factory in Rayong province in June 2010. Medical records of those who developed severe symptoms after exposed to high concentration of chlorine gas were reviewed. Prospective observational study was conducted after hospital discharge by interviewing with respiratory health questionnaires, physical examination, spirometry, methacholine challenge test, and home peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring at 2, 5 and 8 months after the event. Among 1,434 persons exposed to chlorine gas, 92 developed severe symptoms required hospital admission and 21 participated in the follow-up study at 2 months there after. Respiratory symptoms were noted in 18 participants. Three most common symptoms were dyspnea (81%), chest tightness (71%), and cough (67%). Obstructive defect from spirometry was identified in 2 participants, one of which also had bronchial hyper responsiveness (BHR) compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Seven participants had abnormal PEF variability. There were 10 and 5 participants left in the follow-up visit at 5 and 8 months respectively. Two participants had persistent obstructive defect with additional two subjects were noticed. Those who had BHR and abnormal PEF variability remained unchanged. Acute exposure to high concentration of chlorine gas causes both significant short and long term respiratory health effects. Most of the patients although have gradual improvement of respiratory symptoms, but some symptoms remain persistent. Few patients have lung function impairment lasting for at least 8 months.

  11. Modified water solubility of milk protein concentrate powders through the application of static high pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility.

  12. Macrocyclic olefin metathesis at high concentrations by using a phase-separation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Michaël; Holtz-Mulholland, Michael; Collins, Shawn K

    2014-09-26

    Macrocyclic olefin metathesis has seen advances in the areas of stereochemistry, chemoselectivity, and catalyst stability, but strategies aimed at controlling dilution effects in macrocyclizations are rare. Herein, a protocol to promote macrocyclic olefin metathesis, one of the most common synthetic tools used to prepare macrocycles, at relatively high concentrations (up to 60 mM) is described by exploitation of a phase-separation strategy. A variety of macrocyclic skeletons could be prepared having either different alkyl, aryl, or amino acids spacers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Assessment of a UASB reactor with high ammonia concentrations: Effect of zeolite addition on process performance

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Silvio; Martín, Julio San; Huiliñir,César; Guerrero, Lorna; Borja Padilla, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. The UASB process for wastewater treatment has been extensively studied, but the use of zeolite to improve UASB reactor performance has rarely been explored. In this study, a UASB reactor modified with natural zeolite operating at high nitrogen concentrations (0.5, 0.7 and 1 g/L) was evaluated. Two laboratory bioreactors, one with zeolite and one without, were operated at ambient temperatures ranging between 18 °C and 21 °C. The experimental phase had a start-up period of ...

  14. Chemical effects of a high CO2 concentration in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Bentzen, L.L.B.

    2008-01-01

    in terms of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrocarbon oxidation. On the basis of results of the present study, it can be expected that oxy-fuel combustion will lead to strongly increased CO concentrations in the near-burner region. The CO2 present will compete with O-2 for atomic hydrogen...... CO2. The high local CO levels may have implications for near-burner corrosion and stagging, but increased problems with CO emission in oxy-fuel combustion are not anticipated....

  15. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  16. Biodegradation of high concentrations of benzene vapors in a two phase partition stirred tank bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the biodegradation rate of benzene vapors in a two phase stirred tank bioreactor by a bacterial consortium obtained from wastewater of an oil industry refinery house. Initially, the ability of the microbial consortium for degrading benzene was evaluated before running the bioreactor. The gaseous samples from inlet and outlet of bioreactor were directly injected into a gas chromatograph to determine benzene concentrations. Carbone oxide concentration at the inlet and outlet of bioreactor were also measured with a CO2 meter to determine the mineralization rate of benzene. Influence of the second non-aqueous phase (silicon oil has been emphasized, so at the first stage the removal efficiency (RE and elimination capacity (EC of benzene vapors were evaluated without any organic phase and in the second stage, 10% of silicon oil was added to bioreactor media as an organic phase. Addition of silicon oil increased the biodegradation performance up to an inlet loading of 5580 mg/m3, a condition at which, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency were 181 g/m3/h and 95% respectively. The elimination rate of benzene increased by 38% in the presence of 10% of silicone oil. The finding of this study demonstrated that two phase partition bioreactors (TPPBs are potentially effective tools for the treatment of gas streams contaminated with high concentrations of poorly water soluble organic contaminant, such as benzene.

  17. Three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded corn stover at high substrate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2011-04-01

    The feasibility of three-stage hydrolysis of steam-exploded corn stover at high-substrate concentration was investigated. When substrate concentration was 30% and enzyme loading was 15-30 FPU/g cellulose, three-stage (9+9+12 h) hydrolysis could reach a hydrolysis yield of 59.9-81.4% in 30 h. Compared with one-stage hydrolysis for 72 h, an increase of 34-37% in hydrolysis yield could be achieved. When steam-exploded corn stover was used as the substrate for enzyme synthesis and hydrolysis was conducted at a substrate concentration of 25% with an enzyme loading of 20 FPU/g cellulose, a hydrolysis yield of 85.1% was obtained, 19% higher than that the commercial cellulase could reach under the same conditions. The removal of end products was suggested to improve the adsorption of cellulase on the substrate and enhance the productivity of enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioconversion of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed Abdel-Monaem; AlZahrani, Abdulraheem Ahmad; Noweir, Madbuli Hamed; El-Marakby, Fadia Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5-8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500 mg/L at pH values 8.0-8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8-8.5.

  19. A Pipeline for High-Throughput Concentration Response Modeling of Gene Expression for Toxicogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, John S; Grimm, Fabian A; Jima, Dereje D; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Rusyn, Ivan; Wright, Fred A

    2017-01-01

    Cell-based assays are an attractive option to measure gene expression response to exposure, but the cost of whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing has been a barrier to the use of gene expression profiling for in vitro toxicity screening. In addition, standard RNA sequencing adds variability due to variable transcript length and amplification. Targeted probe-sequencing technologies such as TempO-Seq, with transcriptomic representation that can vary from hundreds of genes to the entire transcriptome, may reduce some components of variation. Analyses of high-throughput toxicogenomics data require renewed attention to read-calling algorithms and simplified dose-response modeling for datasets with relatively few samples. Using data from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes treated with chemicals at varying concentrations, we describe here and make available a pipeline for handling expression data generated by TempO-Seq to align reads, clean and normalize raw count data, identify differentially expressed genes, and calculate transcriptomic concentration-response points of departure. The methods are extensible to other forms of concentration-response gene-expression data, and we discuss the utility of the methods for assessing variation in susceptibility and the diseased cellular state.

  20. Biodegradation of High Concentrations of Benzene Vapors in a Two Phase Partition Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the biodegradation rate of benzene vapors in a two phase stirred tank bioreactor by a bacterial consortium obtained from wastewater of an oil industry refinery house. Initially, the ability of the microbial consortium for degrading benzene was evaluated before running the bioreactor. The gaseous samples from inlet and outlet of bioreactor were directly injected into a gas chromatograph to determine benzene concentrations. Carbone oxide concentration at the inlet and outlet of bioreactor were also measured with a CO2 meter to determine the mineralization rate of benzene. Influence of the second non-aqueous phase (silicon oil has been emphasized, so at the first stage the removal efficiency (RE and elimination capacity (EC of benzene vapors were evaluated without any organic phase and in the second stage, 10% of silicon oil was added to bioreactor media as an organic phase. Addition of silicon oil increased the biodegradation performance up to an inlet loading of 5580?mg/m3, a condition at which, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency were 181?g/m3/h and 95% respectively. The elimination rate of benzene increased by 38% in the presence of 10% of silicone oil. The finding of this study demonstrated that two phase partition bioreactors (TPPBs are potentially effective tools for the treatment of gas streams contaminated with high concentrations of poorly water soluble organic contaminant, such as benzene.

  1. Numerical Modeling of the Stability of Face-Centered Cubic Metals with High Vacancy Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian P. Somerday; M. I. Baskes

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the possibility of forming an atomically porous structure in a low-density metal, e.g., Al with vacancies up to 0.20/lattice site; and to examine the effects of hydrogen and vacancy concentration on the stability of an atomically porous structure that has been experimentally produced in nickel. The approach involves numerical modeling using the Embedded-Atom Method (EAM). High vacancy concentrations cause the Al lattice to disorder at 300K. In contrast, Ni retains the face-centered-cubic structure at 300K for vacancy concentrations up to 0.15 Vac/lattice site. Unexpectedly, the lattice with 0.15 Vac/lattice site is more stable than the lattice with 0.10 or 0.20 Vac/lattice site. The Ni systems with 0.10 and 0.15 Vac/lattice site exhibit domains consisting of uniform lattice rotations. The Ni lattice with 0.15 Vac/lattice site is more stable with an initial distribution of random vacancies compared to ordered vacancies. The equilibrium lattice structures of Ni a d Al containing vacancies and H are less ordered to structures with vacancies only at 300K.

  2. Long term stability of Li-S batteries using high concentration lithium nitrate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian DG; Carino, Emily V.; Connell, Justin G.; Han, Kee Sung; Cao, Ruiguo; Chen, Junzheng; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a very promising candidate for the next generation of energy storage systems required for electrical vehicles and grid energy storage applications due to its very high theoretical specific energy (2500 W h kg-1). However, the low coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li plating/stripping of these processes have limited practical application of rechargeable Li-S batteries. In this work, a new electrolyte system based on high concentration of LiNO3 in diglyme solvent is developed which enables high CE of Li metal plating/stripping and high stability of Li anode in the sulfur containing electrolyte. Tailoring of electrolyte properties for the Li negative electrode has proven to be a successful strategy for improving the capacity retention and cycle life of Li-S batteries. This electrolyte provides a CE for Li plating/stripping of greater than 99% for over 200 cycles. In contrast, Li metal cycles for only less than 35 cycles at high CE in the standard 1 M LiTFSI + 2wt% LiNO3 in DOL:DME electrolyte under the same conditions. The stable Li metal anode enabled by the new electrolyte may accelerate the applications of high energy density Li-S batteries in both electrical vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage markets.

  3. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Schierl, Rudolf; Diemer, Juergen; Koch, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Fromme, Hermann; Nowak, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load. In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques). In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m(3) for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m(3) for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m(3) and 9.6 ng/m(3), and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m(3) and 5.9 ng/m(3) for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m(3) for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m(3) for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m(3) for La with highest median levels in discotheques. The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Squeeze flow rheometry as a novel tool for the characterization of highly concentrated protein solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermeyer, Marie-Therese; Sigloch, Heike; Bauer, Katharina C; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    This study aims at defining rheological parameters for the characterization of highly concentrated protein solutions. As a basis for comparing rheological behavior with protein solution characteristics the protein phase behavior of Lysozyme from chicken egg white with concentrations up to 225 mg/mL, changing pH values and additive concentrations was studied in a microbatch scale format. The prepared phase diagrams, scored after 40 days (t40) give insights into the kind and kinetics of the phase transitions that occur. Oscillatory frequency sweep measurements of samples with exactly the same conditions were conducted immediately after preparation (t0). The protein solutions behave viscoelastic and show a characteristic curve shape of the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G″). The graphs provide information about the cross-linking degree of the respective sample. The measured rheological parameters were sensitive concerning solution composition, protein concentration and solution inner structure. The rheological moduli G' and G″ and especially the ratio of these parameters over a frequency range from 100 to 40000 rad/sec give information about the aggregation tendency of the protein under tested conditions. We succeeded to correlate protein phase behavior with the defined rheological key parameter ωCO. This point represents the frequency value of the intersection point from G' and G″. In our study Lysozyme expressed a ωCO threshold value of 20000 rad/sec as a lower limit for stable protein solutions. The predictability of lysozyme aggregation tendency and crystallization by means of squeeze flow rheometry is shown. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. High resveratrol or quercetin concentrations reduce the oscillation index of frozen goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C.B. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of trans-resveratrol or quercetin on the ability of goat sperm to withstand being frozen. Six pools of semen obtained from six male goats were processed with different concentrations of resveratrol or quercetin (Experiment 1: 0, 15, 25, 50, 75 or 100µM resveratrol; Experiment 2: 0, 15, 25, 50, 75 or 100µM quercetin and frozen. After thawing, the semen was evaluated for sperm kinematics, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, morphology and oxidative stress following 0 and 1h of incubation. Immediately after thawing (0h, wobble (oscillation index in the groups treated with 100µM of quercetin or resveratrol was lower (P<0.05 than in those treated with 0 and 25µM resveratrol and 0µM quercetin, respectively. After 1h of incubation, the total motility in treatments with 15, 50 and 75µM quercetin, as well as the plasma membrane integrity in all quercetin concentrations were lower (P<0.05 than at 0h. In opposition, the linearity of semen samples treated with 100µM quercetin and the straightness of those treated with 75 and 100µM quercetin were lower (P<0.05 at 0h than at 1h after thawing. Thus, it can be concluded that resveratrol and quercetin at high concentrations (100µM transiently reduce the wobble of goat sperm submitted to frozen storage, and that quercetin (75 and 100µM increases the linearity and straightness over time, which can be favorable for fertility.

  6. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol values independently and inversely predict cardiac troponin T and I concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Lo Cascio, Claudia; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Bassi, Antonella; Caruso, Beatrice; Bovo, Chiara; Salvagno, Gian Luca

    2016-05-01

    This retrospective study was planned to establish potential associations between circulating values of cardiac troponins and those of conventional blood lipids. The study population consisted of patients attending an inpatient clinic of the University Hospital of Verona during the year 2015 as part of routine cardiovascular risk assessment. No exclusion criteria were applied. Serum lipids including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were measured using reference enzymatic techniques, whereas troponin T (TnT) was measured using a high-sensitivity (HS) immunoassay. A second analysis was also performed in the General Hospital of Verona, extracting data from the local laboratory database of all patients in whom troponin I (TnI) and blood lipids were simultaneously measured during the same year. In univariate analysis, HS-TnT was found to be associated with age, sex, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, but not with TG. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age (positive correlation; Pvalues >50 ng/L was higher in subjects with HDL-C values >50 ng/L was also higher in elderly subjects than in younger ones (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15-3.84). The combination of age and HDL-C explained 35% of overall variability of TnT concentration. In the second analysis, HDL-C was also found to be an independent and negative predictor of TnI in multivariate linear regression analysis (P=0.010). The combination of age and HDL-C explained approximately 28% of the overall variability of TnI concentration. Our study suggests that HDL-C values inversely predict cardiac troponins concentration irrespective of age, sex and other blood lipids.

  7. Catalytic properties of a lipase from Photobacterium lipolyticum for biodiesel production containing a high methanol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung Seok; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2009-06-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is generated via the transesterification reaction of vegetable oil or animal oil with alcohol. Currently, many reports have noted that microbial lipases might be utilized for the production of biodiesel. Among them, immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym435) is frequently utilized for its biocatalytic efficiency and availability. However, as the enzyme is unstable in a medium containing high concentrations of methanol, a multi-stepwise methanol supply is required for the efficient production of biodiesel. Photobacterium lipolyticum lipase (M37) was determined to be quite stable in a medium containing a high concentration of methanol. The enzyme activity was maintained for longer than 48 h without any loss at a methanol concentration of 10%. In an effort to evaluate enzyme performance in the production of biodiesel, we have compared M37 lipase and Novozym435 in the biodiesel production reaction using fresh or waste oil and methanol. In the 3-stepwise methanol feeding method generally conducted for Novozym435 in biodiesel production, the M37 lipase showed a similar or superior conversion yield to Novozym435. However, the M37 lipase evidenced significantly higher conversion yields in the 2 and 1 step methanol feeding reactions. Particularly in the 1 step process using 10% of methanol where almost no conversion was detected by Novozym435, the biodiesel yield achieved with M37 lipase reached a level of up to 70% of the possible maximum yield. Consequently, this methanol-tolerant lipase, M37, has been shown to be a suitable enzyme for use in the biodiesel production process.

  8. Adaptation to high salt concentrations in halotolerant/ halophilic fungi: a molecular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ePlemenitas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies of salt tolerance of eukaryotic microorganisms have until recently been limited to the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a few other moderately halotolerant yeast. Discovery of the extremely halotolerant and adaptable fungus Hortaea werneckii and the obligate halophile Wallemia ichthyophaga introduced two new model organisms into studies on the mechanisms of salt tolerance in eukaryotes. H. werneckii is unique in its adaptability to fluctuations in salt concentrations, as it can grow without NaCl as well as in the presence of up to 5 M NaCl. On the other hand, W. ichthyophaga requires at least 1.5 M NaCl for growth, but also grows in up to 5 M NaCl. Our studies have revealed the novel and intricate molecular mechanisms used by these fungi to combat high salt concentrations, which differ in many aspects between the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii and the halophilic W. ichthyophaga. Specifically, the high osmolarity glycerol signalling pathway that is important for sensing and responding to increased salt concentrations is here compared between H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga. In both of these fungi, the key signalling components are conserved, but there are structural and regulation differences between these pathways in H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga. We also address differences that have been revealed from analysis of their newly sequenced genomes. The most striking characteristics associated with H. werneckii are the large genetic redundancy, the expansion of genes encoding metal cation transporters, and a relatively recent whole genome duplication. In contrast, the genome of W. ichthyophaga is very compact, as only 4,884 protein-coding genes are predicted, which cover almost three quarters of the sequence. Importantly, there has been a significant increase in their hydrophobins, cell-wall proteins that have multiple cellular functions.

  9. Graded Carrier Concentration Absorber Profile for High Efficiency CIGS Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an innovative CIGS-based solar cells model with a graded doping concentration absorber profile, capable of achieving high efficiency values. In detail, we start with an in-depth discussion concerning the parametrical study of conventional CIGS solar cells structures. We have used the wxAMPS software in order to numerically simulate cell electrical behaviour. By means of simulations, we have studied the variation of relevant physical and chemical parameters—characteristic of such devices—with changing energy gap and doping density of the absorber layer. Our results show that, in uniform CIGS cell, the efficiency, the open circuit voltage, and short circuit current heavily depend on CIGS band gap. Our numerical analysis highlights that the band gap value of 1.40 eV is optimal, but both the presence of Molybdenum back contact and the high carrier recombination near the junction noticeably reduce the crucial electrical parameters. For the above-mentioned reasons, we have demonstrated that the efficiency obtained by conventional CIGS cells is lower if compared to the values reached by our proposed graded carrier concentration profile structures (up to 21%.

  10. [(Very) high Creatinkinase concentration after exertional whole-body electromyostimulation application: health risks and longitudinal adaptations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Teschler, Marc; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Due to its individualization, time-efficiency and effectiveness Whole-body-Electromyo-stimulation (WB-EMS) becomes increasingly popular. However, recently (very) high Creatin-kinase concentration were reported, at least after initial WB-EMS-application. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine (1) WB-EMS induced increases of CK-concentration, (2) their impact on corresponding health parameters and (3) training-induced changes of CK-levels.Twenty-six healthy, sportive volunteers without previous experience with WB-EMS were included. Initial high intense WB-EMS application (bipolar, 85 Hz; 350 ms; intermittent, 20 min) led to an increase of the CK-level by the 117fold (28.545 ± 33.611 IU/l) of baseline. CK-peaks were detected after 72-96 h. Despite this pronounced "exertional rhabdomyolysis", we did not determine rhabdomyolysis-induced complications (e.g. acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia). After 10 weeks of WB-EMS (1 session/week) CK-reaction to intensive WB-EMS-Application was significantly blunted (906 ± 500 IE/l) and averaged in the area of conventional resistance exercise.In summary, intensity of WB-EMS should be carefully increased during the initial sessions.

  11. High-speed roll-to-roll manufacturing of graphene using a concentric tube CVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S.; McNerny, Daniel Q.; Viswanath, B.; Pattinson, Sebastian W.; John Hart, A.

    2015-05-01

    We present the design of a concentric tube (CT) reactor for roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on flexible substrates, and its application to continuous production of graphene on copper foil. In the CTCVD reactor, the thin foil substrate is helically wrapped around the inner tube, and translates through the gap between the concentric tubes. We use a bench-scale prototype machine to synthesize graphene on copper substrates at translation speeds varying from 25 mm/min to 500 mm/min, and investigate the influence of process parameters on the uniformity and coverage of graphene on a continuously moving foil. At lower speeds, high-quality monolayer graphene is formed; at higher speeds, rapid nucleation of small graphene domains is observed, yet coalescence is prevented by the limited residence time in the CTCVD system. We show that a smooth isothermal transition between the reducing and carbon-containing atmospheres, enabled by injection of the carbon feedstock via radial holes in the inner tube, is essential to high-quality roll-to-roll graphene CVD. We discuss how the foil quality and microstructure limit the uniformity of graphene over macroscopic dimensions. We conclude by discussing means of scaling and reconfiguring the CTCVD design based on general requirements for 2-D materials manufacturing.

  12. High Concentration of Red Clay as an Alternative for Antibiotics in Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Jee, Seung Cheol; Sung, Jung-Suk; Park, Woojun

    2016-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in aquaculture raises environmental and food safety concerns because chronic exposure of an aquatic ecosystem to antibiotics can result in the spread of antibiotic resistance, bioaccumulation of antibiotics in the organisms, and transfer of antibiotics to humans. In an attempt to overcome these problems, high-concentration red clay was applied as an alternative antibiotic against the following common fish pathogens: Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Streptococcus equinus. The growth of A. salmonicida and V. alginolyticus was retarded by red clay, whereas that of S. equinus was promoted. Phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the attachment of red clay on cell surfaces, resulting in rapid gravitational removal and cell surface damage in both A. salmonicida and V. alginolyticus, but not in S. equinus. Different cell wall properties of grampositive species may explain the unharmed cell surface of S. equinus. Significant levels of oxidative stress were generated in only the former two species, whereas significant changes in membrane permeability were found only in S. equinus, probably because of its physiological adaptation. The bacterial communities in water samples from Oncorhynchus mykiss aquacultures supplemented with red clay showed similar structure and diversity as those from oxytetracycline-treated water. Taken together, the antibiotic effects of high concentrations of red clay in aquaculture can be attributed to gravitational removal, cell surface damage, and oxidative stress production, and suggest that red clay may be used as an alternative for antibiotics in aquaculture.

  13. High-speed roll-to-roll manufacturing of graphene using a concentric tube CVD reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S; McNerny, Daniel Q; Viswanath, B; Pattinson, Sebastian W; John Hart, A

    2015-05-21

    We present the design of a concentric tube (CT) reactor for roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on flexible substrates, and its application to continuous production of graphene on copper foil. In the CTCVD reactor, the thin foil substrate is helically wrapped around the inner tube, and translates through the gap between the concentric tubes. We use a bench-scale prototype machine to synthesize graphene on copper substrates at translation speeds varying from 25 mm/min to 500 mm/min, and investigate the influence of process parameters on the uniformity and coverage of graphene on a continuously moving foil. At lower speeds, high-quality monolayer graphene is formed; at higher speeds, rapid nucleation of small graphene domains is observed, yet coalescence is prevented by the limited residence time in the CTCVD system. We show that a smooth isothermal transition between the reducing and carbon-containing atmospheres, enabled by injection of the carbon feedstock via radial holes in the inner tube, is essential to high-quality roll-to-roll graphene CVD. We discuss how the foil quality and microstructure limit the uniformity of graphene over macroscopic dimensions. We conclude by discussing means of scaling and reconfiguring the CTCVD design based on general requirements for 2-D materials manufacturing.

  14. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  15. Clinical study on high concentrations of sodium hyaluronate eye drops for moderate to severe dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jing Tian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the efficacy of high concentrations of sodium hyaluronate(3g/L SHfor moderate to severe dry eye. METHODS: Forty moderate to severe dry eye patients were included in the study according to the diagnosis criteria and randomized into two groups. The patients of the trial group received topical administration of high concentration sodium hyaluronate(3g/L, and those of the control group received sodium hyaluronate(1g/Lplus recombinant human epidermal growth factor. The dry eye symptom scores, ocular surface disease index(OSDIscores, tear film break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test and corneal fluorescein staining score were evaluated.All the indexes were compared between the two groups 2wk before and after treatment. RESULTS: There were no significant differences of the indicators between the two groups before treatment. After 2wk treatment, the differences were statistically significant compared to former except for the Schirmer Ⅰ test. Compared with the control group, the symptom scores and the OSDI scores were lowered. No significant differences were found in the other indicators between these two groups. CONCLUSION: Topical usage of highconcentrations of sodium hyaluronate(3g/Lis beneficial for remitting the ocular symptoms in moderate to severe dry eyes, and also improve the quality of life of patients.

  16. [Design of high-efficiency double compound parabolic concentrator system in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Lu, Qi-Peng; Peng, Zhong-Qi; Ding, Hai-Quan; Gao, Hong-Zhi

    2013-05-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of system is necessary to obtain accurate blood components in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis. In order to improve SNR of analytical system, high-efficiency double compound parabolic concentrator (DCPC) system was researched, which was aimed at increasing light utilization efficiency. Firstly, with the request of collection efficiency in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis, the characteristic of emergent rays through compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) was analyzed. Then the maximum focusing angle range of the first stage CPC was determined. Secondly, the light utilization efficiency of truncated type was compared with standard DCPC, thus the best structure parameters of DCPC system were optimized. Lastly, combined with optical parameters of skin tissue, calculations were operated when incident wavelength is 1 000 nm. The light utilization efficiency of DCPC system, CPC-focusing mirror system, and non-optical collecting system was calculated. The results show that the light utilization efficiency of the three optical systems is 1.46%, 0.84% and 0.26% respectively. So DCPC system enhances collecting ability for human diffuse reflection light, and helps improve SNR of noninvasive biochemical analysis system and overall analysis accuracy effectively.

  17. High-temperature photochemical destruction of toxic organic wastes using concentrated solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellinger, B.; Graham, J.L.; Berman, J.M.; Taylor, P.H. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Application of concentrated solar energy has been proposed to be a viable waste disposal option. Specifically, this concept of solar induced high-temperature photochemistry is based on the synergistic contribution of concentrated infrared (IR) radiation, which acts as an intense heating source, and near ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) radiation, which can induce destructive photochemical processes. Some significant advances have been made in the theoretical framework of high-temperature photochemical processes (Section 2) and development of experimental techniques for their study (Section 3). Basic thermal/photolytic studies have addressed the effect of temperature on the photochemical destruction of pure compounds (Section 4). Detailed studies of the destruction of reaction by-products have been conducted on selected waste molecules (Section 5). Some very limited results are available on the destruction of mixtures (Section 6). Fundamental spectroscopic studies have been recently initiated (Section 7). The results to date have been used to conduct some relatively simple scale-up studies of the solar detoxification process. More recent work has focused on destruction of compounds that do not directly absorb solar radiation. Research efforts have focused on homogeneous as well as heterogeneous methods of initiating destructive reaction pathways (Section 9). Although many conclusions at this point must be considered tentative due to lack of basic research, a clearer picture of the overall process is emerging (Section 10). However, much research remains to be performed and most follow several veins, including photochemical, spectroscopic, combustion kinetic, and engineering scale-up (Section 11).

  18. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  19. Combined use of ionophore and virginiamycin for finishing Nellore steers fed high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoracyr José Costa Nuñez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zebu cattle fed high concentrate diets may present inconsistent performance due to the occurrence of metabolic disorders, like acidosis. The isolated use of ionophores and virginiamycin in high grain diets can improve animal performance and reduce the incidence of such disorders, but recent studies suggested that their combination may have an additive effect. Thus, 72 Nellore steers, 389 ± 15 kg initial body weight (BW, were confined and fed for 79 days to evaluate the combination of virginiamycin and salinomycin on performance and carcass traits. Animals were allocated to a randomized complete block design by BW, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two concentrate levels (73 and 91 % and two virginiamycin levels (0 and 15 mg kg-1, and salinomycin (13 mg kg-1 included in all diets. The interaction was not significant (p > 0.05. Dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, gain-to-feed ratio (G:F, starch consumed, and fecal starch content were higher (p 0.05 between treatments. Starch consumed and estimated dietary net energy for maintenance (NEm and gain (NEg were higher (p < 0.05 for virginiamycin-treated animals, with no substantial effects on carcass traits. The inclusion of virginiamycin in finishing diets containing salinomycin reduced DMI while maintaining ADG and improving NEm and NEg, suggesting an additive effect of virginiamycin and ionophores, but without affecting carcass quality.

  20. Atmospheric pitting corrosion of 304L stainless steel: the role of highly concentrated chloride solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Steven R; Mi, Na; Cook, Angus J M C; Mohammed-Ali, Haval B; Guo, Liya; Rayment, Trevor; Davenport, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of atmospheric pitting corrosion in 304L stainless steel plate was analysed using MgCl(2) droplets in relation to changes in relative humidity (RH) and chloride deposition density (CDD). It was found that highly reproducible morphologies occur that are distinct at different RH. Pitting at higher concentrations, i.e. lower RH, resulted in satellite pits forming around the perimeter of wide shallow dish regions. At higher RH, these satellite pits did not form and instead spiral attack into the shallow region was observed. Increasing CDD at saturation resulted in a very broad-mouthed pitting attack within the shallow dish region. Large data sets were used to find trends in pit size and morphology in what is essentially a heterogeneous alloy. Electrochemical experiments on 304 stainless steel wires in highly saturated solutions showed that the passive current density increased significantly above 3 M MgCl(2) and the breakdown pitting potential dropped as the concentration increased. It is proposed that the shallow dish regions grow via enhanced dissolution of the passive film, whereas satellite pits and a spiral attack take place with active dissolution of bare metal surfaces.

  1. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutate Chlorella sp. by nuclear irradiation to fix high concentrations of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Yun; Feng, Jia; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-05-01

    To improve biomass productivity and CO2 fixation of microalgae under 15% (v/v) CO2 of flue gas, Chlorella species were mutated by nuclear irradiation and domesticated with high concentrations of CO2. The biomass yield of Chlorella pyrenoidosa mutated using 500 Gy of (60)Co γ irradiation increased by 53.1% (to 1.12 g L(-1)) under air bubbling. The mutants were domesticated with gradually increased high concentrations of CO2 [from 0.038% (v/v) to 15% (v/v)], which increased the biomass yield to 2.41 g L(-1). When light transmission and culture mixing in photo-bioreactors were enhanced at 15% (v/v) CO2, the peak growth rate of the domesticated mutant (named Chlorella PY-ZU1) was increased to 0.68 g L(-1) d(-1). When the ratio of gas flow rate (L min(-1)) to 1L of microalgae culture was 0.011, the peak CO2 fixation rate and the efficiency of Chlorella PY-ZU1 were 1.54 g L(-1) d(-1) and 32.7%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health Expenditure Concentration and Characteristics of High-Cost Enrollees in CHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisakha Sen PhD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Devising effective cost-containment strategies in public insurance programs requires understanding the distribution of health care spending and characteristics of high-cost enrollees. The aim was to characterize high-cost enrollees in a state’s public insurance program and determine whether expenditure inequality changes over time, or with changes in cost-sharing policies or program eligibility. We use 1999-2011 claims and enrollment data from the Alabama Children’s Health Insurance Program, ALL Kids. All children enrolled in ALL Kids were included in our study, including multiple years of enrollment (N = 1,031,600 enrollee-months. We examine the distribution of costs over time, whether this distribution changes after increases in cost sharing and expanded eligibility, patient characteristics that predict high-cost status, and examine health services used by high-cost children to identify what is preventable. The top 10% (1% of enrollees account for about 65.5% (24.7% of total program costs. Inpatient and outpatient costs are the largest components of costs incurred by high-cost utilizers. Non-urgent emergency department costs are a relatively small portion. Average expenditure increases over time, particularly after expanded eligibility, and the share of costs incurred by the top 10% and 1% increases slightly. Multivariable logistic regression results indicate that infants and older teens, Caucasian children, and those with chronic conditions are more likely to be high-cost utilizers. Increased cost sharing does not reduce cost concentration or average expenditure among high-cost utilizers. These findings suggest that identifying and targeting potentially preventable costs among high-cost utilizers are called for to help reduce costs in public insurance programs.

  4. Ozone concentrations at a selected high-elevation forest site downwind Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    Torres-Jardón, R.*, Rosas-Pérez, I., Granada-Macías, L. M., Ruiz-Suárez, L. G. Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM, México D. F. México * rtorres@unam.mx For many years, the vegetation of forest species such as Abies religiosa in natural parks located in the southwest mountains of Mexico City has attracted much attention since these parks have been experiencing a severe decline of unclear etiology. The high ozone levels in the area and the observed naked eye macroscopic, histological and cytological injuries on these species, strongly suggest an important contribution of tropospheric ozone to this deterioration process. Apart of historical short monitoring campaigns for measuring ozone levels in these mountains, it is known just a little is known about the present exposure levels at which the local vegetation is exposed. A continuous ozone analyzer has been in operation since 2011 at a high-elevation forest site (Parque Nacional Miguel Hidalgo, PNMH; 3110 m above mean sea level) located downwind of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in order to characterize the local ozone diel amplitude and its seasonal trend, as well as the influence of MCMA on the local O3 concentrations. Hourly average ozone data in PNMH shows that in general, the diel of ozone concentrations in the forest site has a statistical significant correlation with the pattern of ozone levels observed in several monitoring sites (smog receptor sites) within the MCMA, although the high elevation O3 levels are relatively lower than those in the urban area (around 2200 m above mean sea level). It is possible that a part of the oxidants in the air masses are removed by sink deposition processes during the air mass transport across the hills. The diel amplitude of ozone concentrations is small in the cold season, increasing as the seasons advance to June. As in the city, the highest ozone concentrations occur in April or May and the lowest levels during the rainy season, which extends from

  5. The effects of high metal concentrations in soil-compost mixtures on soil enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, P R; Munroe, M D

    2010-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the impact of high-metal composts on the activities of four soil enzymes. High concentrations of metal salts (Cr, Cu, Ni or a Co-Mo-Pb combination) were added to feedstocks during the thermophilic stage of composting. These four metal-enriched composts and an unamended control compost were then mixed with soil collected from long-term agriculture plots under organic management or conventional management. The compost-soil mixtures were prepared at two rates (1:1 or 1:3 compost:soil, v/v) and incubated at 20 degrees C for three weeks. These 20 combinations plus the five composts and the two soils were added to pots and incubated for three weeks. Following incubation, soil enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, arysulfatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase) were measured using traditional assay procedures. Compared to the control, none of the high-metal composts inhibited soil enzyme activity. Notably, the Cu compost treatment produced significantly higher activity of all four enzymes in the soil compared to the control. Previous soil management influenced the activity of three enzymes, arysulfatase and dehydrogenase had greater activity in the organic soil while phosphatase activity was greater in the conventional soil. Increasing the proportion of compost in the pot had a positive effect on phosphodiesterase activity only. In conclusion, the high-metal compost treatments either enhanced or caused no adverse effects on soil enzyme activity.

  6. New spray congealing atomizer for the microencapsulation of highly concentrated solid and liquid substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Beatrice; Passerini, Nadia; Pattarino, Franco; Rodriguez, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    A new pneumatic atomizer for spray congealing, called wide pneumatic nozzle (WPN), was developed. To evaluate its performance, microparticles containing highly concentrated either solid drug (Propafenone hydrochloride, PRF) or liquid nutraceutical (Vitamin E, VE) have been prepared and characterized. The results showed that the spray congealing nozzle enabled the production of spherical and not aggregated microparticles with high yields (95% w/w) and relatively narrow size distributions; moreover, increasing the viscosity of the suspension from 50 to 500 mPa s, the particle size increased. The loading of the drug was high for microspheres (50% for PRF and 30% for VE) and the encapsulation efficiency was good for all formulations. The drug release was easily modified according to the nature of the used excipients, as both lipophilic (carnauba wax, cetearyl and stearyl alcohols) and hydrophilic (PEG 4000) carriers were employed. Moreover the results evidenced that it was possible to encapsulate actives (VE) that are in a liquid form and to enhance their availability. In conclusion the developed spray congealing nozzle was able to nebulize very viscous systems that are usually not processed by conventional apparatus and to produce microspheres with high and uniform drug content.

  7. Stability of a highly concentrated solution of epirubicin for conventional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Savry, Amandine; Correard, Florian; Montana, Marc; Sauzet, Christophe; Gauthier-Villano, Laurence; Pisano, Pascale; Pourroy, Bertrand

    2015-11-30

    Epirubicin is widely used for conventional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (cTACE) in patients with hepatocellular-carcinoma. However, there is no data about its stability in solution at concentration higher than 2 mg/L, yet needed when mixing it with a standard volume of Lipiodol(®) to produce an efficient water-in-oil emulsion. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the stability of a highly concentrated solution of epirubicin for cTACE and verify whether epirubicin solution could be prepared in advance. Fifty milligrams of epirubicin were dissolved in 6 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride and conditioned in brown polypropylene syringe. Physical and chemical stability assays including particles and HPLC-DAD analysis were performed in triplicate, using series of 5 syringes stored over 72 h at 4±2 °C followed by 4h at 22±4°C. Neither weight loss nor pH or spectrum change occurred. No haze or turbidity was observed and the number of subvisible particles was below the recommended limits. Epirubicin concentration remained above 95% of the initial value over the 72 h of storage at +4 °C followed by 4h at 22±4 °C and no degradation was observed. Epirubicin at 50mg/6 mL in 0.9% NaCl conditioned in brown propylene syringe is stable for at least 72 h at 4±2 °C with additional 4h at 22±4 °C allowing its preparation in advance for programmed cTACE and the standardization of its use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High concentrations of regional dust from deserts to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Munson, S. M.; Fernandez, D. P.; Neff, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Regional mineral dust in the American Southwest affects snow-melt rates, biogeochemical cycling, visibility, and public health. We measured total suspended particulates (TSP) across a 500-km-long sampling network of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA, forming a gradient in distance from major dust emitting areas. The two westernmost sites on the Colorado Plateau desert had similar TSP concentrations (2008-2012, daily average=126 μg m-3; max. daily average over a two-week period=700 μg m-3 at Canyonlands National Park, Utah), while the easternmost High Plains site, close to cropped and grazed areas in northeastern Colorado, had an average concentration of 143 μg m-3 in 2011-2012 (max. daily average=656 μg m-3). Such concentrations rank comparably with those of TSP in several African and Asian cities in the paths of frequent dust storms. Dust loadings at the two intervening montane sites decreased from the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, daily average=68 μg m-3) to an eastern site (Niwot Ridge, daily average=58 μg m-3). Back-trajectory analyses and satellite retrievals indicated that the three westernmost sites received most dust from large desert-source regions as far as 300 km to their southwest. These sources also sometimes sent dust to the two easternmost sites, which additionally captured dust from sources north and northwest of the central Rocky Mountains as well as locally at the Plains site. The PM10 fraction accounted for Asia.

  9. High Concentrations of Chlorantraniliprole Reduce Its Compatibility with a Key Predator, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, P R R; Torres, J B; Michaud, J P; Rodrigues, A R S

    2017-10-01

    Diamides are a novel insecticide group that act by disrupting insect muscle contraction. Recommended field rates (FRs) vary greatly among target pests and cropping systems, leading to variable risks for non-target organisms. We evaluated the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the predator Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by exposure to residues, topical application, and consumption of contaminated food. We also estimated lethal concentrations (LCs) of chlorantraniliprole in two target pests, cotton leafworm, Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), and tobacco budworm, Chloridea virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by exposing larvae to treated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., leaves and assessed residual activity at various intervals after application to cotton plants. Exposure to dried residues and ingestion of treated moth eggs resulted in similar toxicity to H. convergens, whereas topical application was a less toxic route of exposure. Regardless of exposure route, the LC50s and LC90s obtained for H. convergens were higher than those calculated for the pests. Residues at the upper limit of the LC90 for C. virescens remained effective against this pest for up to 16 d, while exhibiting minor impacts on H. convergens. In contrast, the FR concentration of C. virescens caused significant mortality in H. convergens. The results suggest that the current FR for C. virescens is too high to be safe for H. convergens, and given the LCs observed for this pest in the present study, trials to explore the potential efficacy of lower FRs are justified. Depending on the concentration and route of exposure, this insecticide has the potential to be compatible with H. convergens. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J

    2015-09-08

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  11. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Monaem Zytoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m−3 h−1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO 500 mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5.

  12. Electrical and Thermal Performance Analysis for a Highly Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30 kW highly concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T system has been constructed and tested outdoors. The HCPV/T system consists of 32 modules, each of which consists of point-focus Fresnel lens and triple-junction solar cells with a geometric concentrating ratio of 1090x. The modules are connected to produce both electrical and thermal energy. Performance analysis has been conducted from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. The experimental results show that highest photovoltaic efficiency of 30% and instantaneous thermal efficiency of 30% can be achieved at the same time, which means the total solar energy conversion efficiency of the HCPV/T system is higher than 60%. The photovoltaic efficiency increases with direct irradiance when the direct irradiance is below 580 W/m2, but it remains nearly unchanged when the direct irradiation is higher than 580 W/m2. The instantaneous thermal efficiency decreases during water heating process. However, the electrical performance of the system is not affected obviously by water temperature. Highest exergetic efficiency of 35.4% can be produced by the HCPV/T system. The exergetic efficiency is mainly affected by irradiation level, which is similar to the characteristics of photovoltaic performance.

  13. Entropy Generation in Flow of Highly Concentrated Non-Newtonian Emulsions in Smooth Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Pal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Entropy generation in adiabatic flow of highly concentrated non-Newtonian emulsions in smooth tubes of five different diameters (7.15–26.54 mm was investigated experimentally. The emulsions were of oil-in-water type with dispersed-phase concentration (Φ ranging from 59.61–72.21% vol. The emulsions exhibited shear-thinning behavior in that the viscosity decreased with the increase in shear rate. The shear-stress (τ versus shear rate (˙γ data of emulsions could be described well by the power-law model: τ=K˙γn. The flow behavior index n was less than 1 and it decreased sharply with the increase in Φ whereas the consistency index K increased rapidly with the increase in Φ . For a given emulsion and tube diameter, the entropy generation rate per unit tube length increased linearly with the increase in the generalized Reynolds number ( Re_n on a log-log scale. For emulsions with Φ ≤65.15 % vol., the entropy generation rate decreased with the increase in tube diameter. A reverse trend in diameter-dependence was observed for the emulsion with Φ of 72.21% vol. New models are developed for the prediction of entropy generation rate in flow of power-law emulsions in smooth tubes. The experimental data shows good agreement with the proposed models.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially affect the response to high zinc concentrations of two registered poplar clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingua, Guido [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' Amedeo Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: guido.lingua@mfn.unipmn.it; Franchin, Cinzia [Dipartimento di Biologia evoluzionistica sperimentale, Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 42, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Todeschini, Valeria [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' Amedeo Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy); Castiglione, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 25, I-20100 Milano (Italy); Biondi, Stefania [Dipartimento di Biologia evoluzionistica sperimentale, Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 42, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Burlando, Bruno [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' Amedeo Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy); Parravicini, Valerio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 25, I-20100 Milano (Italy); Torrigiani, Patrizia [Dipartimento di Biologia evoluzionistica sperimentale, Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 42, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Berta, Graziella [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' Amedeo Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    The effects of a high concentration of zinc on two registered clones of poplar (Populus alba Villafranca and Populus nigra Jean Pourtet), inoculated or not with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices) before transplanting them into polluted soil, were investigated, with special regard to the extent of root colonization by the fungi, plant growth, metal accumulation in the different plant organs, and leaf polyamine concentration. Zinc accumulation was lower in Jean Pourtet than in Villafranca poplars, and it was mainly translocated to the leaves; the metal inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, compromised plant growth, and, in Villafranca, altered the putrescine profile in the leaves. Most of these effects were reversed or reduced in plants pre-inoculated with G. mosseae. Results indicate that poplars are suitable for phytoremediation purposes, confirming that mycorrhizal fungi can be useful for phytoremediation, and underscore the importance of appropriate combinations of plant genotypes and fungal symbionts. - Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can improve poplar tolerance to heavy metals in phytoremediation programmes.

  15. A portable and high energy efficient desalination/purification system by ion concentration polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-10-01

    The shortage of fresh water is one of the acute challenges that the world is facing now and, thus, energy efficient desalination strategies can provide substantial answers for the water-crisis. Current desalination methods utilizing reverse-osmosis and electrodialysis mechanisms required high power consumptions/large-scale infrastructures which do not make them appropriate for disaster-stricken area or underdeveloped countries. In addition, groundwater contamination by heavy metal compounds, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, poses significant public health challenges, especially in developing countries. Existing water purification strategies for heavy metal removal are not readily applicable due to technological, environmental, and economical barriers. This presentation elucidates a novel desalination/purification process, where a continuous contaminated stream is divided into filtered and concentrated stream by the ion concentration polarization. The key distinct feature is that both salts and larger particles (cells, viruses, and microorganisms) are pushed away from the membrane, in continuous flow operations, eliminating the membrane fouling that plagues the membrane filtration methods. The power consumption is less than 5Wh/L, comparable to any existing systems. The energy and removal efficiency, and low cost manufacturability hold strong promises for portable, self-powered water purification/desalination system that can have significant impacts on water shortage in developing/rural part of the world.

  16. Dish-based high concentration PV system with Köhler optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughenour, Blake M; Stalcup, Thomas; Wheelwright, Brian; Geary, Andrew; Hammer, Kimberly; Angel, Roger

    2014-03-10

    We present work at the Steward Observatory Solar Lab on a high concentration photovoltaic system in which sunlight focused by a single large paraboloidal mirror powers many small triple-junction cells. The optical system is of the XRX-Köhler type, comprising the primary reflector (X) and a ball lens (R) at the focus that reimages the primary reflector onto an array of small reflectors (X) that apportion the light to the cells. We present a design methodology that provides generous tolerance to mis-pointing, uniform illumination across individual cells, minimal optical loss and even distribution between cells, for efficient series connection. An operational prototype has been constructed with a 3.3m x 3.3m square primary reflector of 2m focal length powering 36 actively cooled triple-junction cells at 1200x concentration (geometric). The measured end-to-end system conversion efficiency is 28%, including the parasitic loss of the active cooling system. Efficiency ~32% is projected for the next system.

  17. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Ehrenberg, Samantha; Dhamo, Lorena; Carulli, Francesco; Mauri, Michele; Bruni, Francesco; Simonutti, Roberto; Kortshagen, Uwe; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaics is gaining consensus as a renewable energy technology for producing electricity at the point of use. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could extend architectural integration to the urban environment by realizing electrode-less photovoltaic windows. Crucial for large-area LSCs is the suppression of reabsorption losses, which requires emitters with negligible overlap between their absorption and emission spectra. Here, we demonstrate the use of indirect-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures such as highly emissive silicon quantum dots. Silicon is non-toxic, low-cost and ultra-earth-abundant, which avoids the limitations to the industrial scaling of quantum dots composed of low-abundance elements. Suppressed reabsorption and scattering losses lead to nearly ideal LSCs with an optical efficiency of η = 2.85%, matching state-of-the-art semi-transparent LSCs. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that optimized silicon quantum dot LSCs have a clear path to η > 5% for 1 m2 devices. We are finally able to realize flexible LSCs with performances comparable to those of flat concentrators, which opens the way to a new design freedom for building-integrated photovoltaics elements.

  18. Effect of sorghum tannins in sheep fed with high-concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.S. Cabral Filho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of three sorghum cultivars with different concentrations of condensed tannins in sheep diets. Six adult sheep (LW=56kg with rumen and duodenal fistulas were assigned to experimental groups using two 3x3 Latin Square designs. The diets were formulated using three sorghum cultivars: LTC (low-tannin cultivar, MTC (medium-tannin cultivar and HTC (high-tannin cultivar. Microbial nitrogen (MN concentration in the duodenum was measured using a 15N trace technique. LTC, MTC and HTC diets presented values of 788, 722 and 747 (SE=20.6 g kg-1 for dry matter digestibility and 633, 535 and 530 (SE=35.8 g/kg for crude protein digestibility. The LTC diet was significantly different from the other diets (P0.05 between the diets. The presence of condensed tannins in the sorghum interfered with the sheep's nitrogen retention; however, the microbial protein supply to the duodenum of the animals was not inhibited.

  19. The protective role of low-concentration alcohol in high-fructose induced adverse cardiovascular events in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqi; Pan, Bo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Lingjuan; Huang, Xupei; Tian, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a worldwide public health issue. As fructose consumption is dramatically increasing, it has been demonstrated that a fructose-rich intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, emerging evidences suggest that low concentration alcohol intake may exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate whether low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the adverse effects on cardiovascular events induced by high fructose in mice. From the results of hematoxylin-eosin staining, echocardiography, heart weight/body weight ratio and the expression of hypertrophic marker ANP, we found high-fructose result in myocardial hypertrophy and the low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy from happening. In addition, we observed low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit mitochondria swollen induced by high-fructose. The elevated levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol in high-fructose group were reduced by low concentration alcohol. Low expression levels of SIRT1 and PPAR-γ induced by high-fructose were significantly elevated when fed with low-concentration alcohol. The histone lysine 9 acetylation (acH3K9) level was decreased in PPAR-γ promoter in high-fructose group but elevated when intake with low concentration alcohol. The binding levels of histone deacetylase SIRT1 were increased in the same region in high-fructose group, while the low concentration alcohol can prevent the increased binding levels. Overall, our study indicates that low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit high-fructose related myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac mitochondria damaged and disorders of glucose-lipid metabolism. Furthermore, these findings also provide new insights into histone acetylation-deacetylation mechanisms of low-concentration alcohol treatment that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease induced by high

  20. Cesium Isotherm Testing with Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin at High Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing a Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to provide low-activity waste (LAW) directly to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste Facility for immobilization. The pretreatment that will be conducted on tank waste supernate at the LAWPS facility entails filtration to remove entrained solids and cesium (Cs) ion exchange to remove Cs from the product sent to the WTP. Currently, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin (Microbeads AS, Skedsmokorset, Norway) is the Cs ion exchange resin of choice. Most work on Cs ion exchange efficacy in Hanford tank waste has been conducted at nominally 5 M sodium (Na). WRPS is examining the possibility of processing supernatant at high Na concentrations—up to 8 M Na—to maximize processing efficiency through the LAWPS. Minimal Cs ion exchange work has been conducted at 6 M and 8 M Na concentrations..

  1. Use of Uniformly Distributed Concentrated Sunlight for Highly Accelerated Testing of Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, G.; Bingham, C.; King, D.; Lewandowski, A.; Netter, J.; Terwilliger, K.; Adamsons, K.

    2000-12-14

    NREL has developed a new ultraviolet (UV) light concentrator that allows material samples to be subjected to uniform intensity levels of 50-100X solar UV at closely controlled sample exposure temperatures. In collaboration with industry, representative coating systems have been exposed without introducing unrealistic degradation mechanisms. Furthermore, correlations have been derived between these highly accelerated test conditions and results obtained at 1-2 suns. Such information is used to predict the degradation of materials in real-world applications. These predictions are compared with measured in-service performance losses to validate the approach. This allows valuable information to be obtained in greatly reduced timeframes, which can provide tremendous competitive advantage in the commercial marketplace.

  2. A Positron Annihilation Study of Copper Containing a High Concentration of Krypton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Evans, John H.

    1982-01-01

    Bulk Cu samples containing up to 4 at.% Kr have been produced by the Harwell combined ion implantation and sputtering method at temperatures near ambient, and then examined by the positron annihilation technique. Both angular correlation and lifetime measurements were made and, in addition......, the specimen substructure was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The main results were a very large increase in angular correlation peak counts and a single measured positron lifetime of approximately 260 ps. The possible defects which might act as positron traps, and give rise to the observed...... changes, are discussed, with particular emphasis on the very high concentration of small Kr bubbles (approximately 1.5-3 nm in diameter) in the material....

  3. Assessing the Impact of Charge Variants on Stability and Viscosity of a High Concentration Antibody Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Shantanu V; Fernandez, Jason E; Mecozzi, Vincent J; Kravets, Yana; Yang, William C; Feng, Pamela; Liu, Suli; Zang, Li; Capili, Allan D; Estey, Tia B; Gupta, Kapil

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing molecular charge variants or isoforms is essential for understanding safety, potency, and bioavailability of antibody therapeutics. However, there is little information on how they influence stability and viscosity-properties governing immunogenicity and delivery. To bridge this gap, we studied antibody stability as a function of charge variant content generated via bioreactor process. We were able to systematically vary acidic variant levels as a function of bioreactor harvest time. Importantly, we do not observe any impact on aggregation behavior of a formulated antibody at high protein concentration as a function of acidic variant level. Furthermore, we confirm that acidic variants enriched using fractionation do not influence viscosity, colloidal or conformational stability. Interestingly, variants with the most acidic isoelectric points contribute disproportionately to formulation color. We discuss our findings in context of antibody manufacturing processes that may yield increased charge variant content. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving the Output Power Stability of a High Concentration Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitors: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV system is very sensitive to fluctuating tracking errors and weather patterns. To help compensate this shortcoming, supercapacitors have been successfully incorporated into photovoltaic systems to improve their output power stability. This study examined the output power stability improvement of an HCPV module with a supercapacitor integrated into its circuit. Furthermore, the equivalent model of the experimental circuit is presented and analyzed. Experimental results suggest that integrating a supercapacitor into an HCPV module could improve its output power stability and further extend its acceptance angle. This paper provides preliminary data of the improvement and its evaluation method, which could be utilized for further improvements to an HCPV system.

  5. Ozone concentration characteristics in and over a high-altitude forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, G.L.; Zeller, K.F.; Musselman, R.C. [USDA Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four years of atmospheric ozone data from a subalpine forest site at an elevation of 3180 m above mean sea level (msl) about 55 km west of Laramie, Wyoming, U.S.A., and at a 2680 msl forest-steppe ecotone site 15 km to the southeast, have been analyzed. These sites appear to be free of any urban or industrial pollutants. Data for January through June show that the amplitude of the diurnal cycle of hourly mean values is small in winter, then increases through June. The highest monthly mean concentrations occur in April or May, and decrease in June. Episodal high O{sub 3} values were measured during spring months in connection with cutoff low pressure centers aloft and probable stratospheric intrusions. Spectral analyses yield a peak at the diurnal period and broad peaks at longer periodicities, particularly during the spring season. (orig.)

  6. Design of a 20-kWp photovoltaic concentrator experiment at Fauquier High School, Warrenton, VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-18

    The design and systems analysis of the photovoltaic concentrator system for Fauquier High School in Warrenton, Virginia, are presented. The system provides both electrical energy from the photovoltaic modules and thermal energy from the cooling of those modules. The dc electrical energy from the photovoltaic modules will be first converted to ac and then used to provide power for lighting in the vocational/technical building and the system control building. The thermal energy collected is stored in a 6500-gallon tank for use in the wintertime to provide heat for a greenhouse located adjacent to the array. The photovoltaic system supplies 20 kWp of electrical power by means of 40 6' wide by 10' long parabolic-cylinder collectors mounted in a polar mode. (WHK)

  7. Bottom-Up Cost Analysis of a High Concentration PV Module; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, K.; Woodhouse, M.; Lee, H.; Smestad, G.

    2015-04-13

    We present a bottom-up model of III-V multi-junction cells, as well as a high concentration PV (HCPV) module. We calculate $0.65/Wp(DC) manufacturing costs for our model HCPV module design with today’s capabilities, and find that reducing cell costs and increasing module efficiency offer the promising pathways for future cost reductions. Cell costs could be significantly reduced via an increase in manufacturing scale, substrate reuse, and improved manufacturing yields. We also identify several other significant drivers of HCPV module costs, including the Fresnel lens primary optic, module housing, thermal management, and the receiver board. These costs could potentially be lowered by employing innovative module designs.

  8. Osmotic and diffusio-osmotic flow generation at high solute concentration. II. Molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we explore osmotic transport by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We first consider osmosis through a membrane and investigate the reflection coefficient of an imperfectly semi-permeable membrane, in the dilute and high concentration regimes. We then explore the diffusio-osmotic flow of a solute-solvent fluid adjacent to a solid surface, driven by a chemical potential gradient parallel to the surface. We propose a novel non-equilibrium MD (NEMD) methodology to simulate diffusio-osmosis, by imposing an external force on every particle, which properly mimics the chemical potential gradient on the solute in spite of the periodic boundary conditions. This NEMD method is validated theoretically on the basis of linear-response theory by matching the mobility with their Green-Kubo expressions. Finally, we apply the framework to more realistic systems, namely, a water-ethanol mixture in contact with a silica or a graphene surface.

  9. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  10. High-concentration graphene dispersions with minimal stabilizer: a scaffold for enzyme immobilization for glucose oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenyu; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Guschin, Dmitrii A; Huang, Xing; Kuznetsov, Volodymyr; Ebbinghaus, Petra; Sarfraz, Adnan; Muhler, Martin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2014-05-05

    Modified acrylate polymers are able to effectively exfoliate and stabilize pristine graphene nanosheets in aqueous media. Starting with pre-exfoliated graphite greatly promotes the exfoliation level. The graphene concentration is significantly increased up to 11 mg mL(-1) by vacuum evaporation of the solvent from the dispersions under ambient temperature. TEM shows that 75 % of the flakes have fewer than five layers with about 18 % of the flakes consisting of monolayers. Importantly, a successive centrifugation and redispersion strategy is developed to enable the formation of dispersions with exceptionally high graphene-to-stabilizer ratio. Characterization by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy shows the flakes to be of high quality with very low levels of defects. These dispersions can act as a scaffold for the immobilization of enzymes applied, for example, in glucose oxidation. The electrochemical current density was significantly enhanced to be approximately six times higher than an electrode in the absence of graphene, thus showing potential applications in enzymatic biofuel cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Graphene oxide as efficient high-concentration formaldehyde scavenger and reutilization in supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongyu; Bu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yutian; Zhang, Junyan

    2015-04-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) was investigated as a low-cost and high-efficient scavenger for high-concentration formaldehyde in alkali media. It showed very high removal capacity, 411 mg of formaldehyde per milligram of GO, and strong resistant to temperature changes. Additionally, the used GO can be easily renewed by a simple electrochemical method. By analyzing the componential and electrochemical characterizations of GO before and after use, the results showed that the degradation mechanism of formaldehyde is a collaborative process of chemical oxidation and physical adsorption, and the former dominates the degradation process. With the aid of oxygen-containing groups in GO, most formaldehyde can be easily oxidized by GO in alkaline media (this is equivalent to GO was reduced by formaldehyde). On the other hand, the used GO (reduced GO, noted as rGO) exhibits more ideal electronic double-layer capacitor (EDLC) feature than GO, along with higher rate capacitance (up to 136 F g(-1) at 50 A g(-1)). In short, GO is not only an efficient formaldehyde scavenger, but the used GO (rGO) can serve as promising electrical energy storage material. This study provides new insights for us to reutilize the discarded adsorbents generated from the environmental protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies to decolorize high concentrations of methyl orange using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwa, Nidtaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Kuntiya, Ampin

    2013-01-01

    Batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation was used in the processing of methyl orange decolorization using growing cells of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500. This report presents the optimal conditions for methyl orange decolorization by the strain TISTR 1500 in modified MRS via a central composite design (CCD) experiment. In particular, the highest decolorization efficiencies were obtained with 13.41 g/L of meat extract, and with 10.89 g/L of yeast extract at pH 6.88 at 35 °C. Under the optimal conditions, the rate of decolorization increased to 322% of that obtained for un-optimized MRS medium. The high concentration of methyl orange (5 g/L) was completely degraded within 9 h in batch fermentation. The total methyl orange load with 8.075 g/L was also decolorized in fed-batch fermentation within 13 h, and the biomass of the strain dramatically decreased after an incubation time of 8 h due to a shortage of sucrose. In the continuous system with a dye-loading rate of 600 mg/L/h and a total of loaded azo dye of 7.2 g/L, high efficiency of methyl orange removal was significantly high, at 98%.

  13. High concentrations of KCl release noradrenaline from noradrenergic neurons in the rat anococcygeus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B.L. Araujo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high concentrations of KCl in releasing noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves and its actions on postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors. We measured the isotonic contractions induced by KCl in the isolated rat anococcygeus muscle under different experimental conditions. The contractile responses induced by KCl were inhibited by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists in 2.5 mM Ca2+ solution. Prazosin reduced the maximum effect from 100 to 53.9 ± 10.2% (P<0.05 while the pD2 values were not changed. The contractile responses induced by KCl were abolished by prazosin in Ca2+-free solution (P<0.05. Treatment of the rats with reserpine reduced the maximum effect induced by KCl as compared to the contractile responses induced by acetylcholine from 339.5 ± 157.8 to 167.3 ± 65.5% (P<0.05, and increased the pD2 from 1.57 ± 0.01 to 1.65 ± 0.006 (P<0.05, but abolished the inhibitory effect of prazosin (P<0.05. In contrast, L-NAME increased the contractile responses induced by 120 mM KCl by 6.2 ± 2.3% (P<0.05, indicating that KCl could stimulate the neurons that release nitric oxide, an inhibitory component of the contractile response induced by KCl. Our results indicate that high concentrations of KCl induce the release of noradrenaline from noradrenergic neurons, which interacts with alpha1-adrenoceptors in smooth muscle cells, producing a contractile response in 2.5 mM Ca2+ (100% and in Ca2+-free solution, part of which is due to a direct effect of KCl on the rat anococcygeus muscle.

  14. High concentrations of manganese and sulfur in deposits on Murray Ridge, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Squyres, Steven W.; Morris, Richard V.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Gellert, Ralf; Clark, Benton C.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; McLennan, Scott M.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; VanBommel, Scott; Mittelfehldt, David W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Guinness, Edward A.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bell, James F.; Farrand, William H.; Stein, Nathan; Fox, Valerie K.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Hinkle, Margaret A. G.; Calvin, Wendy M.; de Souza, Paulo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE images and Opportunity rover observations of the ~22 km wide Noachian age Endeavour Crater on Mars show that the rim and surrounding terrains were densely fractured during the impact crater-forming event. Fractures have also propagated upward into the overlying Burns formation sandstones. Opportunity’s observations show that the western crater rim segment, called Murray Ridge, is composed of impact breccias with basaltic compositions, as well as occasional fracture-filling calcium sulfate veins. Cook Haven, a gentle depression on Murray Ridge, and the site where Opportunity spent its sixth winter, exposes highly fractured, recessive outcrops that have relatively high concentrations of S and Cl, consistent with modest aqueous alteration. Opportunity’s rover wheels serendipitously excavated and overturned several small rocks from a Cook Haven fracture zone. Extensive measurement campaigns were conducted on two of them: Pinnacle Island and Stuart Island. These rocks have the highest concentrations of Mn and S measured to date by Opportunity and occur as a relatively bright sulfate-rich coating on basaltic rock, capped by a thin deposit of one or more dark Mn oxide phases intermixed with sulfate minerals. We infer from these unique Pinnacle Island and Stuart Island rock measurements that subsurface precipitation of sulfate-dominated coatings was followed by an interval of partial dissolution and reaction with one or more strong oxidants (e.g., O2) to produce the Mn oxide mineral(s) intermixed with sulfate-rich salt coatings. In contrast to arid regions on Earth, where Mn oxides are widely incorporated into coatings on surface rocks, our results demonstrate that on Mars the most likely place to deposit and preserve Mn oxides was in fracture zones where migrating fluids intersected surface oxidants, forming precipitates shielded from subsequent physical erosion.

  15. Formation of calcium phosphates by vapour diffusion in highly concentrated ionic micro-droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafisco, M. [Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Chimica ' ' G. Ciamician' ' , Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Via Solaroli 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Delgado-Lopez, J.M.; Gomez-Morales, J.; Hernandez-Hernandez, M.A.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, I. [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalograficos, IACT CSIC-UGR, Edificio Lopez Neyra, Avenida del Conocimiento, s/n 18100 Armilla (Spain); Roveri, N. [Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Chimica ' ' G. Ciamician' ' , Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    In this work we have used the sitting drop vapour diffusion technique, employing the ''crystallization mushroom '' to analyze the evolution of calcium phosphate crystallization in micro-droplets containing high initial concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The decomposition of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} solution produces vapours of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} which diffuse through the droplets containing an aqueous solution of Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}. The result is the increase of pH by means of the diffusion of NH{sub 3} gas and the doping of the calcium phosphate with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by means of the diffusion of CO{sub 2} gas. The pH of the crystallization process is monitored and the precipitates at different times are characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM and TEM techniques. The slow increase of pH and the high concentration of Ca{sup 2+} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the droplets induce the crystallization of three calcium phosphate phases: dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and carbonate-hydroxyapatite (HA). The amount of HA nanocrystals with needle-like morphology and dimensions of about 100 nm, closely resembling the inorganic phase of bones, gradually increases, with the precipitation time up to 7 days, whereas the amount of DCPD, growing along the b axis, increases up to 3 days. Then, DCDP crystals start to hydrolyze yielding OCP nanoribbons and HA nanocrystals. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations among South Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, G; Ganesan, A; Sathya, R M; Sudha, V; Mohan, V

    2009-03-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. The study population comprised of 2043 individuals aged >/=20 years randomly selected from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES), an ongoing population-based study on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in southern India. Participants with self-reported history of diabetes or heart disease or on drug therapy for dyslipidemia were excluded from the study. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index and glycemic load were assessed using a validated interviewer administered semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Both dietary glycemic load (Pcarbohydrate intake (Pglycemic load, the multivariate-adjusted mean HDL-C values were 44.1 mg per 100 ml and 41.2 mg per 100 ml (6.6% difference, P for trendcarbohydrate it was less (5% difference, P for trend=0.016). The pattern of decrease in HDL-C for the lowest to highest quintile of glycemic load was more pronounced among men (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 4.3 mg per 100 ml decrease (10.3%)) than women (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 3.2 mg per 100 ml decrease (6.9%)). Our findings indicate that both total carbohydrates and dietary glycemic load intake are inversely associated with plasma HDL-C concentrations among Asian Indians, with dietary glycemic load having a stronger association.

  17. Salivary cortisol concentration after high-intensity interval exercise: Time of day and chronotype effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Matteo; La Torre, Antonio; Saresella, Marina; Marventano, Ivana; Merati, Giampiero; Vitale, Jacopo Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Due to personal and working necessities, the time for exercise is often short, and scheduled early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Cortisol plays a central role in the physiological and behavioral response to a physical challenge and can be considered as an index of exercise stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the circadian phenotype classification on salivary cortisol concentration in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 12 M-types (N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg, weekly training volume 8 ± 1 hours) and 11 E-types (N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg, weekly training volume 7 ± 2 hours) were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of salivary cortisol secretion before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 15 min (+15 min), 30 min (+30 min), 45 min (+45 min) and 60 min (+60 min) after the completion of both morning (08.00 am) and evening (08.00 p.m.) high-intensity interval exercise. Two-way analysis of variance with Tuckey's multiple comparisons test showed significant increments over PRE-cortisol concentrations in POSTcondition both in the morning (4.88 ± 1.19 ng · mL-1 vs 6.60 ± 1.86 ng · mL-1, +26.1%, P 0.8) and in the evening (1.56 ± 0.48 ng · mL-1 vs 2.34 ± 0.37, +33.4%, P = 0.034, d > 0.6) exercise in all the 23 subject that performed the morning and the evening HIIE. In addition, during morning exercise, significant differences in cortisol concentration between M-types and E-types at POST (5.49 ± 0.98 ng · mL-1 versus 8.44 ± 1.08 ng · mL-1, +35%, P 0.8), +15 min (4.52 ± 0.42 ng · mL-1 versus 6.61 ± 0.62 ng · mL-1, +31.6%, P 0.8), +30 min (4.10 ± 1.44 ng · mL-1 versus 6.21 ± 1.60 ng · mL-1, +34.0%, P evening HIIE on post-exercise cortisol concentration were

  18. Rational design of lyophilized high concentration protein formulations-mitigating the challenge of slow reconstitution with multidisciplinary strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenjin; Krishnan, Sampathkumar; Ricci, Margaret Speed; Shih, Liang-Yu; Liu, Dingjiang; Gu, Jian Hua; Jameel, Feroz

    2013-10-01

    An increasing number of protein therapies require chronic administration at high doses (>200 mg) by subcutaneous (sc) injection. Due to the injection volume limitation (protein concentration formulations at or exceeding 100 mg/mL are required to achieve the dose. Development of a high concentration protein formulation can be challenging due to increased aggregation at higher concentration and/or chemical instability, which necessitates the development of lyophilized formulation for high protein concentration drug products. Unique challenges, such as long reconstitution time for a lyophilized high protein concentration drug product, can limit practical usage and commercial marketability of the product. In this paper, a systematic approach is presented to develop a lyophilized high concentration protein formulation. The focus is on achieving reasonable reconstitution times with multidisciplinary strategies. Many strategies have been shown to provide nominal improvement in reconstitution times, such as adding wetting agents in the diluents, incorporating high annealing steps in the lyophilization cycle and reconstituting under vacuum. The reconstitution strategy of reduced diluent volume, however, has enabled significant decrease in reconstitution time (4-7-fold) of lyophilized high protein concentration formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chlorpromazine, haloperidol, metoclopramide and domperidone release prolactin through dopamine antagonism at low concentrations but paradoxically inhibit prolactin release at high concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, G M; Delitala, G; Grossman, A; Stubbs, W A; Yeo, T

    1980-01-01

    1. The effects of chlorpromazine, haloperidol, metoclopramide and domperidone on the release of prolactin from perfused columns of dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells were studied. 2. Chlorpromazine, haloperidol, metoclopramide and domperidone antagonized the dopamine-mediated inhibition of prolactin release at low concentrations. 3. Each dopamine antagonist displaced the dose-response curve for dopamine-induced suppression of prolactin release to the right in a parallel manner. 4. At high...

  20. 27 CFR 18.52 - Production of high-proof concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beverage use may not be produced in a concentrate plant. (b) Determination. A proprietor shall determine... concentrate. 18.52 Section 18.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations...

  1. Controlling for apolipoprotein A-I concentrations changes the inverse direction of the relationship between high HDL-C concentration and a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Wild, Sarah H; Byrne, Christopher D

    2013-12-01

    The independent effect of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration to confer cardiovascular disease protection has been questioned. We investigated whether the inverse association between HDL-C concentration and a measure of preclinical atherosclerosis was modified by other risk factors. Cross-sectional data were analysed from an occupational cohort of 12,031 men who had measurements of cardiovascular risk factors and a cardiac computed tomography (CT) estimation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis. Logistic regression was used to describe associations between both HDL-C and Apo-A-I concentrations and their ratio as exposures, and CAC scores > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100, as outcomes. 1351 (11.2%), 665 (5.5%) and 230 (1.9%) of participants had a CAC score > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100, respectively. Adjusting for age, glucose, triglyceride, LDL-C, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, prior cerebrovascular accident, prior coronary artery disease, prior hypertension, alcohol consumption, smoking status and exercise, a negative association existed between HDL-C and CAC score. (E.g. odds ratio (OR) for top compared to bottom HDL-C quartile for CAC > 0 = 0.78 [95%CI 0.64, 0.94], p = 0.01). Further adjustment for Apo A-I changed the direction of the association between HDL-C and CAC score > 0 (OR for top compared to bottom quartiles 1.61 [95%CI 1.18, 2.21], p = 0.003). Sensitivity analyses showed that point estimates for ORs were very similar regardless of CAC score threshold (CAC > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100). Controlling for Apo A-I concentrations changes the inverse direction of relationship between high HDL-C concentration and a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Concurrent microbial reduction of high concentrations of nitrate and perchlorate in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Shalom; Bruner, Tali; Oren, Yoram; Gilron, Jack; Ronen, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    We investigated effective simultaneous removal of high loads of nitrate and perchlorate from synthetic groundwater using an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB). The aim of this research was to characterize both transport aspects and biodegradation mechanisms involved in the treatment process of high loads of the two anions. Biodegradation process was proven to be efficient with over 99% efficiency of both perchlorate and nitrate, regardless of their load. The maximum biodegradation rates were 18.3 (mmol m(-2)  h(-1) ) and 5.5 (mmol m(-2)  h(-1) ) for nitrate and perchlorate, respectively. The presence of a biofilm on the bio-side of the membrane only slightly increased the nitrate and perchlorate transmembrane flux as compared to the measured flux during a Donnan dialysis experiment where there is no biodegradation of perchlorate and nitrate in the bio-compartment. The nitrate flux in presence of a biofilm was 18.3 (±1.9) (mmole m(-2)  h(-1) ), while without the biofilm, the flux was 16.9 (±1.5) (mmole m(-2)  h(-1) ) for the same feed inlet nitrate concentration of 4 mM. The perchlorate transmembrane flux increased similarly by an average of 5%. Samples of membrane biofilm and suspended bacteria from the bio-reactor were analyzed for diversity and abundance of the perchlorate and nitrate reducing bacteria. Klebsiella oxytoca, known as a glycerol fermenter, accounted for 70% of the suspended bacteria. In contrast, perchlorate and nitrate reducing bacteria predominated in the biofilm present on the membrane. These results are consistent with our proposed two stage biodegradation mechanism where glycerol is first fermented in the suspended phase of the bio-reactor and the fermentation products drive perchlorate and nitrate bio-reduction in the biofilm attached to the membrane. These results suggest that the niche exclusion of microbial populations in between the reactor and membrane is controlled by the fluxes of the electron donors and

  3. Real-time measurement of aerosol particle concentration at high temperatures; Hiukkaspitoisuuden reaaliaikainen mittaaminen korkeassa laempoetilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J.; Hautanen, J.; Laitinen, A. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Physics

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a new method for continuous aerosol particle concentration measurement at elevated temperatures (up to 800-1000 deg C). The measured property of the aerosol particles is the so called Fuchs surface area. This quantity is relevant for diffusion limited mass transfer to particles. The principle of the method is as follows. First, aerosol particles are charged electrically by diffusion charging process. The charging takes place at high temperature. After the charging, aerosol is diluted and cooled. Finally, aerosol particles are collected and the total charge carried by the aerosol particles is measured. Particle collection and charge measurement take place at low temperature. Benefits of this measurement method are: particles are charged in-situ, charge of the particles is not affected by the temperature and pressure changes after sampling, particle collection and charge measurement are carried out outside the process conditions, and the measured quantity is well defined. The results of this study can be used when the formation of the fly ash particles is studied. Another field of applications is the study and the development of gasification processes. Possibly, the method can also be used for the monitoring the operation of the high temperature particle collection devices. (orig.)

  4. Experimental Study of Confined Low-, Medium- and High-Strength Concrete Subjected to Concentric Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of 23 low-, medium- and high-strength concrete columns is presented in this paper. Square-confined concrete columns without longitudinal reinforcement were designed, and tested under concentric axial compression. The columns were made of concrete with a compressive strength ranging between 30 MPa and 70 MPa. The test parameters in the study are concrete compressive strengths and confining steel properties, i.e. spacing, volumetric ratios and configurations. The effects of these parameters on the strength and ductility of square-confined concrete were evaluated. Of the specimens tested in this study, the columns made with higher-strength concrete produced less strength enhancement and ductility than those with lower-strength concrete. The steel configurations were found to have an important role in governing the strength and ductility of the confined high-strength concrete. Moreover, several models of strength enhancement for confined concrete available in the literature turned out to be quite accurate in predicting the experimental results.

  5. High Concentration of Zinc in Sub-retinal Pigment Epithelial Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengyel,I.; Flinn, J.; Peto, T.; Linkous, D.; Cano, K.; Bird, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Frederickson, C.; van Kuijk, F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in Western societies, is the accumulation of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits (sub-RPE deposits), including drusen and basal laminar deposits, in Bruch's membrane (BM). The nature and the underlying mechanisms of this deposit formation are not fully understood. Because we know that zinc contributes to deposit formation in neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that zinc might be involved in deposit formation in AMD. Using zinc specific fluorescent probes and microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence we showed that sub-RPE deposits in post-mortem human tissues contain unexpectedly high concentrations of zinc, including abundant bio-available (ionic and/or loosely protein bound) ions. Zinc accumulation was especially high in the maculae of eyes with AMD. Internal deposit structures are especially enriched in bio-available zinc. Based on the evidence provided here we suggest that zinc plays a role in sub-RPE deposit formation in the aging human eye and possibly also in the development and/or progression of AMD.

  6. Hierarchically-structured silver nanoflowers for highly conductive metallic inks with dramatically reduced filler concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Ajmal, C.; K. P., Faseela; Singh, Swati; Baik, Seunghyun

    2016-10-01

    Silver has long been employed as an electrically conductive component, and morphology-dependent properties have been actively investigated. Here we present a novel scalable synthesis method of flower-shaped silver nanoparticles (silver nanoflowers, Ag NFs). The preferential affinity of citrate molecules on (111) surface of silver enabled spontaneous anisotropic growth of Ag NFs (bud size: 250~580 nm, single crystalline petal thickness: 9~22 nm) with high reproducibility and a high yield of >99.5%. The unique hierarchical structure resulted in coalescence of petals over 80~120 °C which was practically employed in conductive inks to construct percolation pathways among Ag NFs. The ink with only 3 wt% of Ag NFs provided two orders of magnitude greater conductivity (1.008 × 105 Scm-1), at a low curing temperature of 120 °C, compared with the silver nanoparticle ink with a much higher silver concentration (50 wt%). This extraordinary property may provide an excellent opportunity for Ag NFs for practical applications in printable and flexible electronics.

  7. Implantation of high concentration noble gases in cubic zirconia and silicon carbide: A contrasted radiation tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velişa, Gihan, E-mail: gihan@tandem.nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Debelle, Aurélien; Thomé, Lionel; Mylonas, Stamatis [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay (France); Vincent, Laetitia [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay (France); Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8622, Bât. 220, 91405 Orsay (France); Boulle, Alexandre [Science des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, CNRS UMR 7315, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France); Jagielski, Jacek [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); National Center for Nuclear Research, PL-05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Pantelica, Dan [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-08-01

    The modifications of the microstructure of yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia and silicon carbide single crystals implanted with high concentrations of noble gas ions and subsequently annealed at high temperature were characterized using RBS/C, XRD and TEM. It is found that the annealing behavior is strongly dependent on both the material and the implanted noble gases. Ar-implanted yttria-stabilized zirconia shows no significant microstructural modification upon annealing at 800 °C, e.g. dislocations are still present and the size of the Ar bubbles does not evolve. This is in strong contrast with previous observations on helium-implanted zirconia, where the formation of bubbles and elongated fractures were observed. In the case of SiC, thermal annealing at 1000 °C shows an enhanced damage recovery when He is implanted as compared to Ar implantation and the recrystallization of the matrix is accompanied with the release of noble gas atoms. This difference can be ascribed to different atomic radii, and thus mobility of implanted species.

  8. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  9. Experimental investigation of nucleate pool boiling characteristics of high concentrated alumina/water nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Jagdeep M.; Shrivastava, Ramakant

    2018-01-01

    In Present study, the critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient of alumina nanoparticles with the base fluid as deionised water is measured. The selected concentrations of nanofluids for the experimentation are from 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 wt%. The main objective to select higher concentration is that to study the surface morphology of heater surface at higher concentrations and its effect on critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient. It is observed that the critical heat flux enhancement rate decreases as concentration increases and surface roughness of heater surface decreases after 1.2 wt% concentration of nanofluids.

  10. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  11. Pediatric Loss of Control Eating and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Lisa M; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Kelly, Nichole R; Schvey, Natasha A; Marwitz, Shannon E; Mehari, Rim D; Brady, Sheila M; Demidowich, Andrew P; Broadney, Miranda M; Galescu, Ovidiu A; Pickworth, Courtney K; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-02-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating in youth is associated with excess body weight and adiposity. After adjusting for fat mass, youth with LOC eating have higher blood pressure and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to youth without LOC eating. Increased inflammation may account for this relationship, although few data have examined this hypothesis. Therefore, this study explored the association between LOC eating and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation. We investigated hsCRP concentrations in relation to LOC eating in a convenience sample of 194 youth (age 14.3 ± 2.1 years; 63.9% female; BMI-z 1.64 ± 1.06). The presence of LOC eating in the past month was assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Serum hsCRP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiposity was measured by air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We compared hsCRP in those with and without LOC eating in analyses accounting for sex, adiposity, height, depressive symptoms, and eating psychopathology. Youth with LOC eating had significantly greater hsCRP than youth without LOC eating (p = 0.02), after accounting for all covariates. The number of LOC eating episodes in the past month was positively associated with hsCRP (p = 0.01). The relationship between LOC eating and hsCRP was not mediated by depressive symptoms or eating psychopathology (ps > 0.05). Youth with disinhibited eating may manifest increased chronic inflammation. Those with LOC eating may be an important subgroup at risk for adverse health outcomes associated with both chronic inflammation and obesity. Future research should examine whether hsCRP concentrations mediate the relationship between LOC eating and its association with cardiometabolic risk.

  12. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  13. Phenotypic modifications in Staphylococcus aureus cells exposed to high concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio D.A. Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cells are known to change the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids as a phenotypic response to environmental conditions and to the presence of toxic compounds such as antibiotics. In the present study, Staphylococcus aureus cells collected during the exponential growth phase were challenged with 50 and 100 mg/L of vancomycin and teicoplanin, which are concentrations high enough to kill the large majority of the cell population. Colony-forming unit counts showed biphasic killing kinetics, typical for persister cell enrichment, in both antibiotics and concentrations tested. However, fluorescence microscopy showed the existence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC cells in a larger number than that of possible persister cells.The analysis of the fatty acid composition of the cells showed that, following antibiotic exposure up to 6 h, the survivor cells have an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids, a significant reduced percentage of branched fatty acids and an increased iso/anteiso branched fatty acid ratio when compared to cells exhibiting a regular phenotype. This should result in lower membrane fluidity. However, cells exposed for 8-24 h presented an increased branched/saturated and lower iso/anteiso branched fatty acid ratios, and thus increased membrane fluidity. Furthermore, the phenotypic changes were transmitted to daughter cells grown in drug-free media. The fact that VBNC cells presented nearly the same fatty acid composition as those obtained after cell growth in drug-free media, which could only be the result of growth of persister cells, suggest that VBNC and persister phenotypes share the same type of response to antibiotics at the lipid level.

  14. Mangiferin binding to serum albumin is non-saturable and induces conformational changes at high concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, P.G.; Barbosa, A.F. [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Unifal-MG, R. Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, 37130-000 Alfenas, MG (Brazil); Saraiva, L.A. [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Camps, I. [Physics Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Silveira, N.J.F. da [Bioinformatics Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Veloso, M.P. [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Santos, M.H., E-mail: poliany.santos@gmail.com [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Schneedorf, J.M., E-mail: zemasfs@gmail.com [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Unifal-MG, R. Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, 37130-000 Alfenas, MG (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The binding interaction between mangiferin (MGF), which a natural xanthone isolated from mangoes, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied with absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling. The data were analyzed to assess the binding mechanism, effect of pH and ionic strength, conformational changes in the protein and electrical charge transfer involved. The MGF-BSA complex exhibited positive cooperativity with a 1:1 stoichiometry (K{sub d}=0.38 mmol L{sup -1}) for the first binding site and a non-saturable binding at high ligand concentrations. Furthermore, the data also suggest an increase in drug bioavailability in the acidic region and relatively low ionic strength values, which are close to physiological levels. The data suggest a specific electrostatic interaction together with hydrophobic effects and H-bonding displayed in MGF binding to the BSA IIA subdomain. Synchronous fluorescence spectra indicate that there are conformational changes in the polypeptide backbone upon ligand binding. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that there is an irreversible charge transfer between MGF and BSA that is modulated by diffusion on the electrode surface, where two electrons are transferred. These results can help the knowledge of the pharmacokinetic activities of natural or chemical xanthone-based drugs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MGF-BSA complex exhibited positive cooperativity beyond 1:1 stoichiometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction of MGF with BSA is non-saturable at higher ligand concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding was accomplished by H-bonding, hydrophobic and electrostatic forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apparent binding constant for MGF-BSA was 0.38 mmol L{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MGF binds electrostatically to BSA, different from a hydrophobic interaction to HSA.

  15. Effects of ammonium concentration and charge exchange on ammonium recovery from high strength wastewater using a microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Geleij, M.; Bruning, H.; Zeeman, G.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonium recovery using a 2 chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated at high ammonium concentration. Increasing the ammonium concentration (from 0.07 g to 4 g ammonium-nitrogen/L) by addition of ammonium chloride did not affect the performance of the MFC. The obtained current densities by

  16. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  17. Physical stability of highly concentrated injectable drugs solutions used in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closset, M; Hecq, J D; Soumoy, L; Simar, J; Gonzalez, E; Charlet, L; Declave, C; Gillet, P; Galanti, L

    2017-05-01

    The intensive care department of the institution use drug solutions within higher concentration to avoid fluid overload. The purpose of the study is to prove the physical stability of different injectable drugs within high concentration (amiodarone 25mg/mL, isosorbide 0.60mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16mg/mL, noradrenalin 0.120 and 0.240mg/mL, salbutamol 0.06mg/mL and sodium valproate 12mg/mL) to ensure the patients safety. Five of 30 or 50mL polypropylene syringes were prepared for each solution under aseptic conditions and stored at room temperature. Immediately after the preparation (hour 0) and after 1, 4, 8, 24 and 48hours, 2mL of each solution were withdrawn from each syringe and placed in glass tubes to proceed to the stability test. All specimens were visually inspected in front of a black and of a white background and aliquots of each solution were centrifuged to proceed to microscopic inspection with a ten-fold magnification. The pH of each solution was measured with glass electrode pH-meter (Inolab level 1, WTW Weilhem, Germany with biotrode electrode, Hamilton, Bonaduz, Switzerland) and spectrophotometric measurements (Genesys 10 series, New-York, USA) were performed at three wavelengths (350, 410 and 550nm) to avoid the apparition of turbidity. For all the drugs included in the study, there was no significant change in pH, no color change, no turbidity or opacity and no precipitation observed in the solutions during the storage at room temperature for 48hours. No microaggregates were detected by microscope neither revealed by a change of absorbance. Within these limits, the preparations of amiodarone in 5% glucose polypropylene syringes and isosorbide, lorazepam, noradrenalin, salbutamol, valproate in 0.9% sodium chloride polypropylene syringes are physically stable at room temperature for 48hours. These results allow us to consider a study of chemical stability by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie

  18. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations are critical for fibrin glue adherence in rat high-risk colon anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Portilla-de Buen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Fibrin glues have not been consistently successful in preventing the dehiscence of high-risk colonic anastomoses. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations in glues determine their ability to function as sealants, healers, and/or adhesives. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin on bursting pressure, leaks, dehiscence, and morphology of high-risk ischemic colonic anastomoses using fibrin glue in rats. METHODS: Colonic anastomoses in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 250-350 g treated with fibrin glue containing different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin were evaluated at post-operative day 5. The interventions were low-risk (normal or high-risk (ischemic end-to-end colonic anastomoses using polypropylene sutures and topical application of fibrinogen at high (120 mg/mL or low (40 mg/mL concentrations and thrombin at high (1000 IU/mL or low (500 IU/mL concentrations. RESULTS: Ischemia alone, anastomosis alone, or both together reduced the bursting pressure. Glues containing a low fibrinogen concentration improved this parameter in all cases. High thrombin in combination with low fibrinogen also improved adherence exclusively in low-risk anastomoses. No differences were detected with respect to macroscopic parameters, histopathology, or hydroxyproline content at 5 days post-anastomosis. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin glue with a low fibrinogen content normalizes the bursting pressure of high-risk ischemic left-colon anastomoses in rats at day 5 after surgery.

  19. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Pre-Concentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under...

  20. La/Ce-codoped Bi2O3 composite photocatalysts with high photocatalytic performance in removal of high concentration dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuangshuang; He, Hongbo; Fan, Qizhe; Yu, Changlin; Yang, Kai; Huang, Weiya; Zhou, Yang; Xie, Yu

    2017-10-01

    A series of La/Ce-codoped Bi2O3 composite photocatalysts were fabricated via hydrothermal-calcination process. The as-prepared products were intensively characterized by some physicochemical characterizations like N2 physical adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (UV-Vis DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoelectrochemical measurements, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated that La and Ce doping induced obvious crystal phase transformation in Bi2O3, from monoclinic to tetragonal phase. La and Ce codoping also gave rise to the obvious synergetic effects, e.g., the lattice contraction of Bi2O3, the decrease of crystal size and the increase of surface area. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared catalysts was evaluated by removal of dye acid orange II with high concentration under visible light irradiation. Results showed that La/Ce-codoped Bi2O3 displayed much higher photocatalytic performance than that of bare Bi2O3, single La or Ce doped Bi2O3 samples. The superior photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the improved texture and surface properties and the synergistic effects of La and Ce codoping on suppressing the recombination of photo-generated electrons (e-) and holes (h+). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. High-throughput automatic flow method for determination of trace concentrations of aluminum in dialysis concentrate solutions using salicylaldehyde picolinoylhydrazone as a turn-on fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Arnau; Oliver, Miquel; Rosende, María; Mánuel-Vez, Manuel P; Miró, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    A simple and expedient flow-based assembly capitalizing on programmable flow is herein proposed for reliable determination of trace level concentrations of aluminum as a potential contaminant in dialysis concentrate solutions without any prior sample clean-up/preconcentration procedure. Using salicylaldehyde picolinoylhydrazone in weakly acidic media as a turn-on fluorescent probe, the manifold is devised to handle three samples concurrently in stopped-flow reaction mode for simultaneous improvement of the analytical sensitivity and sample throughput. Analytical parameters influencing the sensitivity and repeatability of the assays, namely, probe concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time were investigated using a multivariate optimization protocol composed of a full factorial screening design followed by a Doehlert matrix model. The analysis of the Pareto chart and surface response revealed that the reaction time and amount of fluorescent probe were critical parameters for reliable assays of aluminum at the low ng mL(-1) level. Under the optimized chemical and physical variables, a detection limit of 1.1ngmL(-1) Al(III) at the 3s(blank) level, relative standard deviations better than 1.0%, a dynamic linear range of 5.0-80 ng mL(-1) and a sample throughput up to 25 h(-1) were obtained with no need for either sample preconcentration or the use of organized supramolecular systems. Demonstrated with the analysis of hemodialysis and peritoneal concentrate solutions, and dialysis waters, the flow-through method copes with the requirements of regulatory bodies (e.g., European Pharmacopeia) for quality control of aluminum in high salinity containing dialysis concentrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and impact of hooks of high droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP, droplet concentration (Nd in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally elongated "hook"-shaped features that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data, and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx. A particularly strong hook yields insights into the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN from the lower free troposphere (FT. The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation-mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL, in agreement with near-coast VOCALS measurements of polluted layers in the FT. The aerosol particles in this hook originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago-region (33–35° S emissions to the remote marine FT. To provide pollution CCN that can sustain hooks, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high-pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases as the hook evolves over time due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF

  3. Investigations into formation of atmospheric sulfate under high PM 10 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Kiran, Y. N. V. M.; Shandilya, Kaushik K.

    This study was primarily initiated to understand the consistently low levels of SO 2 in cities in India in spite of rising SO 2 emissions. A literature review suggested the possibility of chemical transformation of SO 2 to SO 4. Thus, the objective of research was to understand the formation of SO 4 as a function of SO 2, and other constituents of atmosphere such as PM 10, water content, Ca (in aerosol) and pH (of aerosol). For this purpose, air quality monitoring was conducted at five locations in the city of Kanpur, India (during October 1999-April 2000) representing various land-use patterns. It was found that the SO 4 levels were considerably high (2.8-43.6 μg m -3) compared to levels in cities in the US (1.9-3.6 μg m -3, Sandberg et al. (J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 26 (1976) 559; 15.7-18.4 μg m -3, Altshuller (J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 26 (1976) 318; 4.0-14.0 μg m -3 Dockery et al. (J. Med. 329 (1993) 1753), UK (3.2-9.0 μg m -3, QUARG, 1996 http://www.environment.detr.gov.uk/airq/consult/naqs/index.htm), and 25 locations in Europe (0.34-1.68 μg m -3 (1991-1999), EMEP website), but were comparable to the levels observed at Agra (14.67 μg m -3, Kulshrestha et al. Indian J. Radio Space Phys. 24 (1995) 178) and at New Delhi (12.9-27.5 μg m -3, Shandilya, M.E. Thesis, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India, 2000). The high SO 4 levels could provide a plausible explanation for low SO 2 concentration levels in the city of Kanpur. It was concluded that high levels of PM 10, Ca and high pH of aerosols in atmosphere provide a conducive environment for conversion of SO 2 to SO 4. It was also concluded that the important migration pathway in study area for the transformation of SO 2 to SO 4 appears to be oxidation of SO 2 on the surfaces (of particulate) available in the ambient atmosphere.

  4. High concentrations of radon. Specifically affected buildings; Hohe Radonkonzentrationen. Besonders betroffene Gebaeudetypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Winfried [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a concept for the prognosis of exceeding probabilities of thresholds of radon in dwellings in different building types. A transfer model for the interface subsoil - building was used as a basis. The partial datasets obtained by stratification of five relevant building characteristics can be de-scribed by a 3-parametric-lognormal distribution good in most times. The available data permit statistical predictions to 60 combinations of building characteristics for the region ''east'' and 85 combinations of building characteristics for the region ''West''. The uncertainties for the probability of exceeding a threshold were estimated from the data with bootstrapping. The importance of different building characteristics for the presence of enhanced radon concentrations can be predicted from the results of this estimation. Therefore, targeting of affected buildings is possible on this basis. Regional prognoses of exceeding probabilities for building types with high presence can also be created by the use of transfer factors. A Strategy to reduce the health risk from radon in the long run might be derived, where alongside the delineation of radon prone areas, special attention should be paid to a set out building characteristics, also outside the radon prone areas.

  5. Handspinning Enabled Highly Concentrated Carbon Nanotubes with Controlled Orientation in Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoik; Watanabe, Kei; Kim, Myungwoong; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Song, Kyung-Hun; Lee, Jung Soon; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-11-23

    The novel method, handspinning (HS), was invented by mimicking commonly observed methods in our daily lives. The use of HS allows us to fabricate carbon nanotube-reinforced nanofibers (CNT-reinforced nanofibers) by addressing three significant challenges: (i) the difficulty of forming nanofibers at high concentrations of CNTs, (ii) aggregation of the CNTs, and (iii) control of the orientation of the CNTs. The handspun nanofibers showed better physical properties than fibers fabricated by conventional methods, such as electrospinning. Handspun nanofibers retain a larger amount of CNTs than electrospun nanofibers, and the CNTs are easily aligned uniaxially. We attributed these improvements provided by the HS process to simple mechanical stretching force, which allows for orienting the nanofillers along with the force direction without agglomeration, leading to increased contact area between the CNTs and the polymer matrix, thereby providing enhanced interactions. HS is a simple and straightforward method as it does not require an electric field, and, hence, any kinds of polymers and solvents can be applicable. Furthermore, it is feasible to retain a large amount of various nanofillers in the fibers to enhance their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, HS provides an effective pathway to create new types of reinforced nanofibers with outstanding properties.

  6. High concentrations and photochemical fate of oxygenated hydrocarbons in the global troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Kanakidou, M.; Crutzen, P. J.; Jacob, D. J.

    1995-11-01

    OXYGENATED species in the atmosphere are important sources of free radicals and are intricately linked with the fate of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), which are themselves necessary for tropospheric ozone formation1,2. With the exception of formaldehyde, oxygenated hydrocarbons have rarely been measured in the free troposphere. Here we report airborne measurements indicating the presence of high concentrations (compared to those of routinely measured C2-C6 tropospheric hydrocarbons3,4) of acetone and methanol. We use a three-dimensional model to show that acetone photochemistry provides a quantitatively significant (up to 50%) pathway for sequestering NO x in the form of peroxyacetylnitrate, a relatively unreactive temporary reservoir of NO x . Furthermore, in the dry regions of the upper troposphere, acetone can provide a large primary source of HOx (OH + HO2) radicals, resulting in increased ozone production. This surprisingly significant contribution of such oxygenated hydrocarbons to tropospheric NOx, HO x and ozone cycling is likely to be affected by their changing natural and anthropogenic emissions due to land-use change, biomass burning and alcohol-based biofuel use.

  7. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  8. High concentrations of biological aerosol particles and ice nuclei during and after rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. A.; Prenni, A. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Pöhlker, C.; Mason, R. H.; Robinson, N. H.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Tobo, Y.; Després, V. R.; Garcia, E.; Gochis, D. J.; Harris, E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Ruzene, C.; Schmer, B.; Sinha, B.; Day, D. A.; Andreae, M. O.; Jimenez, J. L.; Gallagher, M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Bertram, A. K.; Pöschl, U.

    2013-07-01

    Bioaerosols are relevant for public health and may play an important role in the climate system, but their atmospheric abundance, properties, and sources are not well understood. Here we show that the concentration of airborne biological particles in a North American forest ecosystem increases significantly during rain and that bioparticles are closely correlated with atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). The greatest increase of bioparticles and IN occurred in the size range of 2-6 μm, which is characteristic for bacterial aggregates and fungal spores. By DNA analysis we found high diversities of airborne bacteria and fungi, including groups containing human and plant pathogens (mildew, smut and rust fungi, molds, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae). In addition to detecting known bacterial and fungal IN (Pseudomonas sp., Fusarium sporotrichioides), we discovered two species of IN-active fungi that were not previously known as biological ice nucleators (Isaria farinosa and Acremonium implicatum). Our findings suggest that atmospheric bioaerosols, IN, and rainfall are more tightly coupled than previously assumed.

  9. Environmentally friendly technologies for obtaining high sugars concentrations from invasive woody species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gullón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficient utilization and conversion of inexpensive invasive raw materials into bioethanol following a biorefinery approach is a priority in the research field of renewable fuel. With this purpose, Acacia dealbata wood samples were pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate under optimized conditions, and the resulting solids were employed as a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzymatic assays were performed according to a complete factorial experimental design, in which the effects of two independent variables (liquor to solid ratio and enzyme to substrate ratio on the kinetics and yields of the xylan and cellulose saccharification were assessed. The Response Surface Methodology was employed for optimizing the experimental conditions. High sugar concentrations (around 80 g/L, and favorable polysaccharide conversions (CCG = 79.4% and XnCX = 77.9%. were predicted by the model under the selected operational conditions (6 g liquor/g substrate, 22 FPU/g. The results reported in this work compare well with other studies dealing with either other ionic liquids or classical pretreatments, using the same raw material or other woody substrates.

  10. The Immediate Pulmonary Disease Pattern following Exposure to High Concentrations of Chlorine Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi P. Balte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Classification of pulmonary disease into obstructive, restrictive, and mixed patterns is based on 2005 ATS/ERS guidelines and modified GOLD criteria by Mannino et al. (2003, but these guidelines are of limited use for simple spirometry in situations involving mass casualties. Aim. The purpose of this study was to apply these guidelines to patients who underwent simple spirometry following high concentration of chlorine gas inhalation after a train derailment in Graniteville, South Carolina. Methods. We retrospectively investigated lung functions in ten patients. In order to classify pulmonary disease pattern, we used 2005 ATS/ERS guidelines and modified GOLD criteria along with our own criteria developed using available simple spirometry data. Results. We found predominant restrictive pattern in our patients with both modified GOLD and our criteria, which is in contrast to other chlorine exposure studies where obstructive pattern was more common. When compared to modified GOLD and our criteria, 2005 ATS/ERS guidelines underestimated the frequency of restrictive disease. Conclusion. Diagnosis of pulmonary disease patterns is of importance after irritant gas inhalation. Acceptable criteria need to be developed to evaluate pulmonary disease through simple spirometry in events leading to mass casualty and patient surge in hospitals.

  11. Struvite Crystallization of Anaerobic Digestive Fluid of Swine Manure Containing Highly Concentrated Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimal operation factors for struvite crystallization for removing and recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestive fluid of swine manure containing highly concentrated nitrogen was determined. Every experiment for the struvite crystallization reaction was conducted by placing 1,000 mL of digestion fluid in a 2,000 mL Erlenmeyer flask at various temperatures, pH, and mixing speed. Except for special circumstances, the digestion fluid was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 10 min and then the supernatant was used for the experiment at room temperature and 100 rpm. The optimal mole ratio of PO43−:Mg2+ was 1:1.5, and the pH effect ranging from 9 to 11 was similar, when mixed for 1 hour. Under this condition, the removal efficiency of NH4+-N and PO43−-P was 40% and 88.6%, respectively. X-shaped crystal was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, struvite crystal structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis.

  12. High concentrations of biological aerosol particles and ice nuclei during and after rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols are relevant for public health and may play an important role in the climate system, but their atmospheric abundance, properties, and sources are not well understood. Here we show that the concentration of airborne biological particles in a North American forest ecosystem increases significantly during rain and that bioparticles are closely correlated with atmospheric ice nuclei (IN. The greatest increase of bioparticles and IN occurred in the size range of 2–6 μm, which is characteristic for bacterial aggregates and fungal spores. By DNA analysis we found high diversities of airborne bacteria and fungi, including groups containing human and plant pathogens (mildew, smut and rust fungi, molds, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae. In addition to detecting known bacterial and fungal IN (Pseudomonas sp., Fusarium sporotrichioides, we discovered two species of IN-active fungi that were not previously known as biological ice nucleators (Isaria farinosa and Acremonium implicatum. Our findings suggest that atmospheric bioaerosols, IN, and rainfall are more tightly coupled than previously assumed.

  13. Performance and Degradation of A Lithium-Bromine Rechargeable Fuel Cell Using Highly Concentrated Catholytes

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-air batteries have been considered as ultimate solutions for the power source of long-range electrified transportation, but state-of-the-art prototypes still suffer from short cycle life, low efficiency and poor power output. Here, a lithium-bromine rechargeable fuel cell using highly concentrated bromine catholytes is demonstrated with comparable specific energy, improved power density, and higher efficiency. The cell is similar in structure to a hybrid-electrolyte Li-air battery, where a lithium metal anode in nonaqueous electrolyte is separated from aqueous bromine catholytes by a lithium-ion conducting ceramic plate. The cell with a flat graphite electrode can discharge at a peak power density around 9mW cm-2 and in principle could provide a specific energy of 791.8 Wh kg-1, superior to most existing cathode materials and catholytes. It can also run in regenerative mode to recover the lithium metal anode and free bromine with 80-90% voltage efficiency, without any catalysts. Degradation of the sol...

  14. Modified mean-field theory of the magnetic properties of concentrated, high-susceptibility, polydisperse ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyova, Anna Yu.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.; Camp, Philip J.

    2017-11-01

    The effects of particle-size polydispersity on the magnetostatic properties of concentrated ferrofluids are studied using theory and computer simulation. The second-order modified mean-field (MMF2) theory of Ivanov and Kuznetsova [Phys. Rev. E 64, 041405 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.041405] has been extended by calculating additional terms of higher order in the dipolar coupling constant in the expansions of the initial magnetic susceptibility and the magnetization curve. The theoretical predictions have been tested rigorously against results from Monte Carlo simulations of model monodisperse, bidisperse, and highly polydisperse ferrofluids. Comparisons have been made between systems with the same Langevin susceptibility and the same saturation magnetization. In all cases, the new theoretical magnetization curve shows better agreement with simulation data than does the MMF2 theory. As for the initial susceptibility, MMF2 theory is most accurate for the monodisperse model, while the new theory works best for polydisperse systems with a significant proportion of large particles. These results are important for the analysis and characterization of recently synthesized polydisperse ferrofluids with record-breaking values of the initial magnetic susceptibility.

  15. The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis severity is highly age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrez, Iris; Van Steen, Kristel; Segaert, Siegfried; Gils, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis disease severity is poorly investigated, and currently etanercept serum concentration monitoring that is aiming to optimize the psoriasis treatment lacks evidence. In this prospective study, we investigated the relation between etanercept exposure and disease severity via measuring etanercept concentrations at five consecutive time points in 56 psoriasis patients. Disease severity assessments included the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and etanercept and anti-etanercept antibody concentrations were determined every 3 months for a period of 1 year. The present study demonstrated that the association between etanercept concentration and psoriasis severity is age-dependent: when patients were stratified into three groups, patients in the youngest age group (-50 years) showed a lower PASI at a higher etanercept concentration (β = -0.26), whereas patients in the oldest age group (+59 years) showed the opposite trend (β =0.22). Similar age effects were observed in the relation of etanercept concentration with BSA (P=0.02) and PGA (P=0.02). The influence of age and length of time in therapy on the etanercept concentration-disease severity relation was unaffected by body mass index (BMI) or any other possible confounder. Incidence of anti-etanercept antibodies was low (2%). The age-dependent relation between etanercept serum concentrations is both unexpected and intriguing and needs further investigation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. High Dialysate Calcium Concentration May Cause More Sympathetic Stimulus During Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Zaida N C; Silva, Bruno C; Reis, Luciene Dos; Castro, Manuel C M; Ramos, Camila D; Costa-Hong, Valeria; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Dominguez, Wagner V; Oliveira, Ivone B; Moysés, Rosa M A; Elias, Rosilene M

    2016-01-01

    Acute activation of sympathetic activation during hemodialysis is essential to maintain blood pressure (BP), albeit long-term overactivity contributes to higher mortality. Low heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, and abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) are associated with higher mortality in patients on hemodialysis. In this study, we assessed HRV and ABI pre and post dialysis in incident patients on hemodialysis using high (1.75mmol/l) and low (1.25mmol/l) dialysate calcium concentration (DCa). HRV was measured as the ratio between low frequency and high frequency power (LF/HF). Thirty patients (age 47±16 years, 67% men) were studied in two consecutive mid-week hemodialysis sessions. Mean BP variation was positive with DCa 1.75 and negative with DCa 1.25 [4.0 (-6.0, 12.2 mmHg) vs. -3.2 (-9.8, 1.3 mmHg); p=0.050]. Reduction of ABI from pre to post HD was related to higher sympathetic activity (p=0.031). The increase in LF/HF ratio was higher with DCa 1.75 (58.3% vs. 41.7% in DCa 1.75 and 1.25, respectively, RR 2.8; p=0.026). Although higher DCa is associated with better hemodynamic tolerability during hemodialysis, this occurs at the expense of increased sympathetic activity. Higher sympathetic activity was associated with a decrease of ABI during hemodialysis. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. High Dialysate Calcium Concentration May Cause More Sympathetic Stimulus During Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida N. C. Jimenez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute activation of sympathetic activation during hemodialysis is essential to maintain blood pressure (BP, albeit long-term overactivity contributes to higher mortality. Low heart rate variability (HRV, a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, and abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI are associated with higher mortality in patients on hemodialysis. In this study, we assessed HRV and ABI pre and post dialysis in incident patients on hemodialysis using high (1.75mmol/l and low (1.25mmol/l dialysate calcium concentration (DCa. Methods: HRV was measured as the ratio between low frequency and high frequency power (LF/HF. Thirty patients (age 47±16 years, 67% men were studied in two consecutive mid-week hemodialysis sessions. Results: Mean BP variation was positive with DCa 1.75 and negative with DCa 1.25 [4.0 (-6.0, 12.2 mmHg vs. -3.2 (-9.8, 1.3 mmHg; p=0.050]. Reduction of ABI from pre to post HD was related to higher sympathetic activity (p=0.031. The increase in LF/HF ratio was higher with DCa 1.75 (58.3% vs. 41.7% in DCa 1.75 and 1.25, respectively, RR 2.8; p=0.026. Conclusion: Although higher DCa is associated with better hemodynamic tolerability during hemodialysis, this occurs at the expense of increased sympathetic activity. Higher sympathetic activity was associated with a decrease of ABI during hemodialysis.

  18. Membrane processes application on the Symphytum officinale and Geranium robertianum extracts concentration to obtain high antioxidative activity compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the successful application of membranes processes to obtain the good quality extracts with compounds of high antioxidative activity and therapeutic value. This study provided investigations on the phenolic compounds from two plant species used in Romanian ethno-medicine and evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Three extracts prepared from Geranium robertianum and Symphytum officinale were concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. The levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC. The freeradical scavenging activity of concentrated extracts was determined by DPPH method. The preliminary tests of cytotoxic activity for the concentrated extracts have been carried out on human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma cell line (Hep-2p and normal monkey kidneys cells (RM. The results showed that all concentrated extracts had a very low cytotoxicity against healthy cells, but a significant cytotoxic effect on Hep-2p tumor cells. The concentrated extracts have a high antioxidant activity (% DPPH inhibition > 80%.

  19. Ionic exchange treatment of water with high salt concentration; Tratamiento por intercambio ionico de aguas con altas concentraciones de sales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendueles, M.; Fernandez, A.; Fidalgo, J.M.; Diaz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    Ion Exchange at high solution concentration has not been studied deeply, so as the principal applications of this operation try the recovery or the exchange of ions at low solution concentration. In this work theoretical fundamentals of ion exchange at high solution concentration has been developed. counter and co-ion behavior, in comparison with traditional ion exchange has been studied. Some industrial applications of this operation is shown, principally the potassium recovery from and industrial wastewater from the brines of a crystallization process, one application developed by this work group. (Author) 14 refs.

  20. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and

  1. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  2. The effects of high soil CO2 concentrations on leaf reflectance of maize plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide gas at higher concentrations is known to kill vegetation and can also lead to asphyxiation in humans and animals. The objective of this study is to test whether soil CO2 concentrations ranging from 2% to 50% can be detected using vegetative spectral reflectance. A greenhouse

  3. Metallographic examination of hardened layers after surface treatments by highly concentrated plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Савелійович Самотугін

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of carbon and alloy steels with various carbon contents before and after the gradient hardening by means of highly concentrated plasma jet have been investigated. It is shown that the resulting structure after the surface hardening has a substantially smaller grain size as compared to the bulk hardening. The steels with different carbon content, that is hypoeutectic steels 45 and 50HN, eutectic steels – M76, U8, hypereutectoid steels – 90HF, U10 have been researched. Processing was carried out under the optimal conditions to ensure the highest hardness of the surface without melting. Metalgraphical studies were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopes. High-dispersed martensite is the main structural component for hypoeutectic steels. Despite the fact that the heating temperature and the cooling rate in different parts of the plasma exposure zone differ greatly, the structure of the tempered zone is uniform by both the degree of dispersion and by the values of hardness. Plasma treatment of eutectic steels results in fine-grained structure of martensite of mainly lamellar morphology. High-dispersed martensite with microparticles of secondary carbides is characteristic of the hardened zones for hypereutectic steels. But austenite grains do not grow at heating as it usually happens in bulk hardening. The structure of the transition zone corresponds to part-hardened steels. So excess ferrite as well as martensite retains in hypoeutectic steels while excess cementite retains in hypereutectic steels. Eutectic steels are free from the intercritical interval, and the transition zone does not practically develop, there being a very sharp boundary between the zone of full hardening and the parent metal. Due to this structure of the plasma hardening zone of the surface layer there arises 3,5...4,5-fold increase in the hardness of the steel as compared with the normalized condition. This is due to the increase in

  4. The Copper concentration variation to physical properties of high copper amalgam alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminatun Aminatun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of copper (Cu inside amalgam is to increase hardness and impact force and to decrease thermal expansion coefficient. In general, amalgam which is used in dentistry and available in the market is contain Cu 22%, while the maximum Cu concentration is 30%. It is necessary to determine the concentration Cu does generate the best physical properties to be used as dental restorative agent. Amalgam is made by mixing blended-metal Ag-Sn-Cu (with Cu concentration of 13%, 21%, 22%, and 29% and Hg, stirred manually in a bowl for 15 minutes,leave it in temperature 27°C for 24 hours to become hardened. The result of X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD, analyzed by Rietveld method and Rietica program, shows amalgam with Cu 29% concentration for Cu3Sn compound density is 31.790 sma/Å3, for Ag2Hg3 compound is 41.733 sma/ Å3, a Cu3Sn relative weight percentage of 43.23%, Ag2Hg3 of 54.54%, Cu 7Hg6 of 2.23% and hardness of Cu 29% is 90.700 ± 0.005 kgf/mm2. These numbers are the highest values on Cu 29% concentrations compared to other copper concentration variants. Whereas amalgam thermal expansion coefficient on Cu 29% is (2.17 ± 0.9110-3 mm/°C is the lowest value compared to other Cu concentration. The conclution is that adding Cu concentration into amalgam will increase density value, Cu3Sn relative weight percentage, hardness level and will decrease amalgam thermal expansion coefficient. Amalgam 29% Cu concentration has better physical properties compared to amalgam Cu 22% concentration.

  5. [Measurements of CO2 concentration at high temperature and pressure environments using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ting-Dong; Gao, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Min-Rui; Wang, Gui-Shi; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-07-01

    The present research was planned to develop a method for species concentration measurements under high temperature and pressure environments. The characteristics of CO2 spectrum at high temperature and pressure were studied at first. Based on the research above, tunable diode-laser absorption of CO2 near 2.0 microm incorporating fixed-wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection was used to provide a method for sensitive and accurate measurements of gas temperature and CO2 concentration at high temperature and pressure. Measurements were performed in a well-controlled high temperature and pressure static cell. The results show that the average error of the CO2 concentration measurements at 5 atm, 500 K and 10 atm, 1000 K is 4. 49%. All measurements show the accuracy and potential utility of the method for high temperature and pressure diagnostics.

  6. Effect of acarbose on postprandial blood glucose concentrations in healthy cats fed low and high carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranee; Rand, Jacquie S; Coradini, Marcia; Morton, John M

    2015-10-01

    Feeding a low carbohydrate diet is recommended for diabetic cats; however, some cats may require diets containing moderate-to-high carbohydrate and may benefit from the use of therapeutic agents to improve glycemic control. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on postprandial plasma glucose concentration when combined with commercially available feline diets high and low in carbohydrate. Twelve healthy, adult, non-obese, neutered cats were enrolled. Plasma glucose concentrations were assessed over 24 h after feeding high and low carbohydrate diets, with and without acarbose, during single and multiple meal tests, in a crossover study. Commercially available feline diets were used, which were high and low in carbohydrate (providing 51% and 7% of metabolizable energy, respectively). In cats fed the high carbohydrate diet as a single meal, mean 24 h glucose concentrations were lower when acarbose was administered. Mean glucose concentrations were lower in the first 12 h when acarbose was given once daily, whereas no significant difference was observed in mean results from 12-24 h. Acarbose had little effect in cats eating multiple meals. Compared with consumption of the high carbohydrate diet with acarbose, lower mean 24 h and peak glucose concentrations were achieved by feeding the low carbohydrate diet alone. In healthy cats meal-fed diets of similar composition to the diets used in this study, acarbose has minimal effect when a low carbohydrate diet is fed but reduces postprandial glucose concentrations over 24 h when a high carbohydrate diet is fed. However, mean glucose concentrations over 24 h are still higher when a high carbohydrate diet with acarbose is fed relative to the low carbohydrate diet without acarbose. Future studies in diabetic cats are warranted to confirm these findings. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  7. Sodium Butyrate Ameliorates High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Inflammation in the Rumen Epithelium of Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongyu; Liu, Xinxin; Yan, Jinyu; Aabdin, Zain Ul; Bilal, Muhammad Shahid; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2017-01-25

    To investigate the effect of sodium butyrate on high-concentrate diet-induced local inflammation of the rumen epithelium, 18 midlactating dairy goats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a low-concentrate diet group as the control (concentrate:forage = 4:6), a high-concentrate (HC) diet group (concentrate:forage = 6:4), and a sodium butyrate (SB) group (concentrate:forage = 6:4, with 1% SB by weight). The results showed that, with the addition of sodium butyrate, the concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid (2.62 × 104 ± 2.90 × 103 EU/mL) was significantly lower than that in the HC group (4.03 × 104 ± 2.77 × 103 EU/mL). The protein abundance of pp65, gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2,9 in the rumen epithelium were significantly down-regulated by SB compared with those in the HC group. With sodium butyrate administration, the concentration of NH3-N (19.2 ± 0.890 mM) in the rumen fluid was significantly higher than that for the HC group (12.7 ± 1.38 mM). Severe disruption of the rumen epithelium induced by HC was also ameliorated by dietary SB. Therefore, local inflammation and disruption of the rumen epithelium induced by HC were alleviated with SB administration.

  8. Growth, morphology, ammonium uptake and nutrient allocation of Myriophyllum brasiliense Cambess. under high NH₄⁺ concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunkaew, Piyanart; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    2011-11-01

    The effects of high NH(4)(+) concentration on growth, morphology, NH(4) (+) uptake and nutrient allocation of Myriophyllum brasiliense were investigated in hydroponic culture. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 4 weeks using four levels of NH(4)(+) concentration: 1, 5, 10 and 15 mM. M. brasiliense grew well with a relative growth rate of c.0.03 day(-1) at NH(4)(+) concentration up to 5 mM. At the higher NH(4)(+) concentrations the growth of the plants was stunted and the plants had short roots and few new buds, especially when grown in 15 mM NH(4)(+) where the submerged leaves were lost and there were rotten roots and submerged stems. To avoid NH(4)(+) toxicity, the plants may have a mechanism to prevent cytoplasmic NH(4)(+) accumulation in plant cells. The net uptake of NH(4)(+) significantly decreased and the total N significantly increased in the plants treated with 10 and 15 mM NH(4)(+), respectively. The plant may employ NH(4)(+) assimilation and extrusion as a mechanism to compensate for the high NH(4)(+) concentrations. However, the plants may show nutrient deficiency symptoms, especially K deficiency symptoms, after they were exposed to NH(4)(+) concentration higher than 10 mM. The present study provides a basic ecophysiology of M. brasiliense that it can grow in NH(4)(+) enriched water up to concentrations as high as 5 mM.

  9. High iodine concentration attenuates RET/PTC3 oncogene activation in thyroid follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ana Paula Zen Petisco; Fuziwara, Cesar Seigi; Kimura, Edna Teruko

    2009-11-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently associated with a RET gene rearrangement that generates a RET/PTC oncogene. RET/PTC is a fusion of the tyrosine kinase domain of RET to the 5' portion of a different gene. This fusion results in a constitutively active MAPK pathway, which plays a key role in PTC development. The RET/PTC3 fusion is primarily associated with radiation-related PTC. Epidemiological studies show a lower incidence of PTC in radiation-exposed regions that are associated with an iodine-rich diet. Since the influence of excess iodine on the development of thyroid cancer is still unclear, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of high iodine concentrations on RET/PTC3-activated thyroid cells. PTC3-5 cells, a rat thyroid cell lineage harboring doxycycline-inducible RET/PTC3, were treated with 10(-3) M NaI. Cell growth was analyzed by cell counting and the MTT assay. The expression and phosphorylation state of MAPK pathway-related (Braf, Erk, pErk, and pRet) and thyroid-specific (natrium-iodide symporter [Nis] and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor [Tshr]) proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Thyroid-specific gene expression was further analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction. A significant inhibition of proliferation was observed, along with no significant variation in cell death rate, in the iodine-treated cells. Further, iodine treatment attenuated the loss of Nis and Tshr gene and protein expression induced by RET/PTC3 oncogene induction. Finally, iodine treatment reduced Ret and Erk phosphorylation, without altering Braf and Erk expression. Our results indicate an antioncogenic role for excess iodine during thyroid oncogenic activation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the effect of iodine on thyroid follicular cells, particularly how it may play a protective role during RET/PTC3 oncogene activation.

  10. High Serum IgG4 Concentrations in Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Popławska-Kita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Since recent reports suggest that Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT may be associated with IgG4-related disease, we aimed to find out whether the measurement of serum IgG4 allows for the identification of distinct types of HT, with different clinical, sonographic, and serologic characteristics. Methods. The group studied consisted of 53 patients with HT and 28 healthy individuals who underwent thyroid ultrasonography and body composition analysis. Serum concentrations of IgG4, TSH, anti-peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb, anti-TSH receptor antibodies, TNF-α, TGF-β1, Fas Ligand, TRAIL, and chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL11, and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA or radioimmunoassay. Results. The group with IgG4 level >135 IU/ml accounted for 32.5% of the patients. The signs of fibrosis were present in 27.0% of the high-IgG4 patients and in 9.1% of the normal-IgG4 group. The patients with elevated IgG4 required higher doses of L-thyroxine and had significantly lower level of TPOAb (P=0.02 than the non-IgG4-HT individuals and higher TNF-α level in comparison with the controls (P=0.01. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the measurement of serum IgG4 allows for an identification of patients with more rapid progression of HT, requiring higher doses of L-thyroxine. Low TPOAb level and the absence of coexisting autoimmune diseases may suggest distinct pathomechanism of this type of thyroiditis.

  11. Estimation of porphyrin concentration in the kerogen fraction of shales using high-resolution reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Peter N.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Sundararaman, P.

    1991-01-01

    An interpretive model for estimating porphyrin concentration in bitumen and kerogen from spectral reaflectance data in the visible and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum is derived and calibrated. Preliminary results obtained using the model are consistent with concentrations determined from the bitumen extract and suggest that 40 to 60 percent of the total porphyrin concentration remains in the kerogen after extraction of bitumen from thermally immature samples. The reflectance technique will contribute to porphyrin and kerogen studies and can be applied at its present level of development to several areas of geologic and paleo-oceanographic research.

  12. Seasonal development of ion concentration in a high alpine snow pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, M.; Haslhofer, J.; Nickus, U.; Schellander, H.

    With samples taken from 49 snow pits on a glacier in the Tyrolean Alps the seasonal development of concentration and total deposition of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, sodium and calcium was studied. Concentrations are of the order of a few microequivalents per liter in the winter months including March and rise sharply during April. It is shown that this increase is connected to the intensity of atmospheric convection. All ions were eluted from the snow pack at a rapid rate when snow melt set in, leading to June concentrations comparable to those of early winter. With this general background common to all, the behavior of individual ions, notably ammonium and calcium, is discussed.

  13. Associations of high and low milk protein concentrations with energy allocation, milk production, and concentrations of blood plasma metabolites and hormones in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, M L; Marett, L C; Macmillan, K L; Morton, J M; Hannah, M C; Fisher, A D; Auldist, M J

    2016-12-01

    A positive association between milk protein concentration (MPC) and reproductive performance in dairy cows has been shown in several studies globally. This association may positively influence farm productivity and profitability, particularly in seasonally calving, pasture-based herds. However, the differences in milk production and energy allocation, physical characteristics, and blood plasma nutrient status between cows with differing MPC have not been examined, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association remain undefined. The objective of this study was to examine associations between MPC and nutrient partitioning in primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows managed under pasture-based dairying conditions, and to identify differences that may indicate the underlying mechanisms. Data were collected from 85 cows at regular intervals during the early part of the 2013 to 2014 seasonal lactation, including daily milk yield, weekly milk composition, weekly body condition score measurements, as well as weekly blood plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. Cows were retrospectively separated into quartiles based on their average MPC during the first 120d of lactation, and comparisons were made between cows within the highest (high; 3.22 to 3.40%) and the lowest (low; 2.87 to 3.00%) MPC quartiles. The high-MPC cows had lower daily milk yields, yet did not differ in the daily yields of milk solids (protein + fat) compared with the low-MPC cows. After parturition, the high-MPC cows had greater blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin compared with the low-MPC cows and maintained their body condition score, despite no differences in these variables prepartum. These results indicate an increased partitioning of nutrients toward milk synthesis at the expense of body condition for cows in the low MPC quartile. However, average daily energy outputs in milk were similar in the high- and low-MPC cows. The high

  14. High-dose regimen to achieve novel target trough concentration in teicoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Takashi; Takesue, Yoshio; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Ichki, Kaoru; Wada, Yasunao; Komatsu, Miyuki; Tsuchida, Toshie; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Mika; Kimura, Takeshi; Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of severe MRSA infections such as endocarditis, more than 20 mg/L of plasma trough concentration (C(min)) is recommended for teicoplanin; however, in the treatment of common MRSA infections, recommended C(min) remains more than 10 mg/L. In this study, we set C(min) as 15-30 mg/L to obtain a favorable clinical outcome in the treatment of common MRSA infections, and investigated the optimal loading regimen that achieved the target C(min) in patients with normal renal function. Seventy-eight patients received the high-dose regimen A (6 mg/kg every 12-h for initial two days) and 60 patients received the high-dose regimen B (the first five loading doses of 10-12 mg/kg at 12-h intervals for initial three days, followed by 6 mg/kg once daily). The mean C(min) on the 4th day was 13.7 ± 5.3 mg/L in regimen A, and 20.0 ± 6.6 mg/L in regimen B (P < 0.001), and the proportion of patients achieving the 15-30 mg/L was 25.6% and 68.3% (P < 0.001). Clinical response at end-of treatment were 66.7% and 85.0% (P = 0.014). The patients of initial C(min) with ≥15 mg/L had tended to be higher clinical response than those with <15 mg/L (80.9% vs 68.6%, P = 0.084). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects in regimen A and B (nephrotoxicity; 1.3% vs 3.3%, P = 0.413, hepatotoxicity; 5.1% vs 3.3%, P = 0.608). In conclusion, to obtain C(min) 15-30 mg/L, the first five loading doses of 10-12 mg/kg at 12-h intervals was required in patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Brinkman, G.; Drury, E.; Mowers, M.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the analysis of concentrating solar power (CSP) in two studies -- The SunShot Vision Study and the Renewable Electricity Futures Study -- and the potential role of CSP in a future energy mix.

  16. Affordable Practical High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Concentrator Blanket Assembly for Ultra-Lightweight Solar Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed NASA Phase 1 effort on the development of our innovative Functional Advanced Concentrator Technology...

  17. High concentration of ghrelin in children with growth hormone deficiency and neurosecretory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawerska, Renata; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Czkwianianc, Elżbieta; Hilczer, Maciej; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The role of endogenous ghrelin in the growth process of children is unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess ghrelin concentrations in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), neurosecretory dysfunction (NSD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS) in comparison to healthy controls. One hundred and forty seven children (61 girls and 86 boys), aged 3.7-16.8 years (mean±SD: 10.7±3.44 years) with short stature (below -2.0 SD) were qualified into the study. In each child, fasting ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) concentrations were measured and growth hormone (GH) secretion was assessed after falling asleep and during two GH-stimulating tests. According to maximal GH concentrations, children were qualified into GHD, NSD and ISS group. Additionally, depending on biological development, the children were divided on younger and older subgroups. The control group consisted of 19 healthy children with normal height and body mass. Ghrelin concentrations in GHD (1847.5±1444.3 pg/mL) and NSD (1809.3±983.5 pg/mL) were significantly higher than in ISS (1218.1±646.8 pg/mL) and in Controls (924.9±318.4 pg/mL). A comparison of ghrelin concentrations in older and younger children within the same diagnostic group, showed statistically higher ghrelin levels in younger than in older children (except of NSD group, in which the difference reached the border of statistical significance). Ghrelin concentration is elevated in GHD and NSD children. Independently of GH and IGF-I secretion disorders type, ghrelin concentrations decrease with the children' age. The higher concentration of ghrelin in ISS than in Controls suggests the presence of GH-independent factors increasing ghrelin secretion by X/A cells in the gastric oxyntic mucosa.

  18. The suicide rate in the concentration camps was extraordinarily high: a comment on Bronisch and Lester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports, based on limited reports from inmates who survived the Nazi concentration camps, have claimed that suicide was rare in the concentration camps. Using slightly more detailed, but nonetheless still limited, data from survivors of the camps, it is estimated that the suicide rates in the camp were most likely 25,000 per 100,000 per year or higher and, therefore, enormous!

  19. INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

    2008-09-11

    The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

  20. High Concentration of Heat Pumps in Suburban Areas and Reduction of Their Impact on the Electricity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges of the near future for a more renewable Dutch electricity infrastructure is the embedding of high concentrations of heat pumps in currently built domestic residences. In the Dutch situation demand of electricity occurs simultaneously with demand of heat, high electricity peak

  1. Effects of Using Light-Weight Concrete on Indoor Radon Concentration in High-Rise Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Koo, S.Y

    1999-07-01

    Light-weight concrete (LWC) (or drywall construction) has been used for partition walls in public housing in Hong Kong for about 10 years. A previous laboratory investigation showed that all types of LWC had considerably smaller Rn exhalation rates than those from normal concrete (NC), and could thus theoretically reduce the indoor Rn concentrations and the corresponding radiation dose from Rn. In the present investigation, a survey of Rn exhalation rates and indoor Rn concentrations at 39 dwelling sites built using LWC were carried out using charcoal canisters and {gamma}-spectroscopy. The mean Rn exhalation rate and the mean Rn concentration were around 1.6 mBq.s{sup -1}.m{sup -2} and 19 Bq.m{sup -3}, respectively, which were significantly smaller thanthe corresponding values of 12 mBq.s{sup -1}.m{sup -2} and 33 Bq.m{sup -3} for NC sites. The statistical t-test showed that both the mean Rn exhalation rate and the mean Rn concentration for NC and LWC sites walls were different at the 100% confidence level. The Rn exhalation rate from an LWC surface was, on average, only about 14% of that from an NC surface, while the Rn concentration in an LWC site was, on average, about 58% of that in an NC site, which were significant. A person living at an LWC site receives an average annual equivalent dose smaller than one living at an NC site by an amount as large as 1 mSv. Therefore, the use of LWC for partition walls can be a simple and economical way to reduce the indoor Rn concentrations and the corresponding radiation dose from Rn. Furthermore, the mean Rn concentration theoretically predicted from the mean Rn exhalation rate agreed excellently with that from measurements. (author)

  2. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Formation of High Concentration of H2 Generated by Gas Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Baiwei; Wu Bing; Zhao Yatong; Ashraf Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-01-01

    In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating hig...

  3. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-07-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57-96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0-2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  4. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-03-03

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57–96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0–2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  5. Highly stabilized partially premixed flames of propane in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2018-01-11

    Partially premixed turbulent flames with non-homogeneous jet of propane were generated in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner in order to investigate the effect of the coflow on the stability and flame structure. The flame stability is first mapped and then high-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, SPIV, plus OH planar laser-induced fluorescence, OH-PLIF, measurements were conducted on a subset of four flames. The jet equivalence ratio Φ = 2, Jet exit Reynolds number Re = 10,000, and degree of premixing are kept constant for the selected flames, while the coflow velocity, Uc, is progressively changed from 0 to 15 m/s. The results showed that the flame is stable between two extinction limits of mixture inhomogeneity, and the optimum stability is obtained at certain degree of mixture inhomogeneity. Increasing Φ, increases the span between these two extinction limits, while these limits converge to a single point (corresponding to optimum mixture inhomogeneity) with increasing Re. Regardless the value of Φ, increasing the coflow velocity improves the flame stability. The correlation between recessed distance of the burner tubes and the fluctuation of the mixture fraction, Δξ, shows that at Δξ around 40% of the flammability limits leads to optimum flame stability. The time averaged SPIV results show that the coflow induces a big annular recirculation zone surrounds the jet flames. The size and the location of this zone is seen to be sensitive to Uc. However, the instantaneous images show the existence of a small vortical structure close to the shear layer, where the flame resides there in the case of no-coflow. These small vertical structures are seen playing a vital role in the flame structure, and increasing the flame corrugation close to the nozzle exit. Increasing the coflow velocity expands the central jet at the expense of the jet velocity, and drags the flame in the early flame regions towards the recirculation zone, where the flame tracks

  6. Patients treated with first-generation HCV protease inhibitors exhibit high ribavirin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau, Sandra; Nguyen-Khac, Eric; Solas, Caroline; Bennis, Youssef; Capron, Dominique; Duverlie, Gilles; Brochot, Etienne

    2015-05-01

    Anemia is a well-known RBV-related event in HCV therapy which is exacerbated by the addition of telaprevir and boceprevir. This retrospective study evaluated and compared ribavirin exposure and parameters able to influence hemoglobin decrease in a large population of patients treated with dual or triple therapy. Patients on triple therapy had higher ribavirin concentrations at week 12 of treatment (3460 ng/mL vs. 1843 ng/mL; P 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in eGFR at week 12 was higher among patients on triple therapy: 32%, 14%, and 5% for boceprevir, telaprevir, and dual therapy, respectively (P = .025 and .026). No correlation was observed between boceprevir and telaprevir concentrations and hemoglobin or eGFR decrease. Exacerbation of anemia in patients on triple therapy is related to higher ribavirin concentrations. We provide an explanation for this increase in plasma RBV concentration. Triple therapy with PEG-IFN, RBV, and telaprevir or boceprevir will remain the only HCV treatment option for many patients. Our data show that the RBV dose can be decreased while maintaining adequate plasma concentrations and reducing anemia. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. A high plasma concentration of TNF-alpha is associated with dementia in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Andersen-Ranberg, K.; Jeune, B.

    1999-01-01

    Background Inflammatory mechanisms and immune activation have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-associated diseases such as dementia and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in a large co...... demonstrates that, even in apparently healthy subjects, age-associated immune activation indicated by raised levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines may reflect age-associated pathological processes that develop over decades.......Background Inflammatory mechanisms and immune activation have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-associated diseases such as dementia and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in a large...... cohort of centenarians and to look for its possible associations with cognitive function, atherosclerosis, and general health status. Furthermore, we investigated whether the concentration of TNF-alpha was correlated with the blood concentration of leucocyte subsets or the plasma concentrations...

  8. DYS-REGULATION OF EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS TURNOVER BY HIGH GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN CULTURED HUMAN GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHOLLAH HOSSEINI

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic glomerulopathy is generally believed to be the major cause for the development of chronic renal failure in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic glomerulosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and type IV collagen in the mesangium. In this study, the effect of high glucose (33.6 mM on fibronectin and type IV collagen concentrations in the supernatant of human glomerular mesangial cell culture was studied. The concentrations of fibronection and type IV collagen in tissue culture supernatant, assayed by ELISA techniques increased significantly (P<0.01 by the high glucose level (33.6 mM after 6 days incubation. Direct cell counting and thymidine incorporation methods showed that high glucose concentrations (33.6 mM, 56 mM and 112 mM inhibit the mesangial cell (MC proliferation in concentration-dependent manner. To study the osmotic effect of high glucose concentrations, the mesangial cells were also cultured in the presence of manitol and it was found that manitol did not have effect on cellular proliferation but increased fibronectin and type IV collagen concentrations significantly (P<0.05 in the supernatants. These results indicate that the increase of synthesis and/or decrease degradation of fibronectin and type IV collagen by MCs may, in part, result from changes in osmolarity induced by high glucose concentration. These results suggest that elevation of fibronectin and type IV collagen production and/or decrease their degradation by the mesangial cells may play an important role in the accumulation of these extracellular matrix proteins which is common to diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

  9. Sediment suspension in oscillatory flow: measurements of instantaneous concentration at high shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staub, Carsten; Jonsson, Ivar G; Svendsen, Ib A.

    1996-01-01

    Different syphon type suspended load probes were used together with a specially developed ''carousel'' sampler for measurements of the instantaneous sediment concentration in turbulent oscillatory flow over a sand bed, Shields parameters were well above the ripple/flat bed transition region......, resulting in intense sediment transport over a flat bed, The measurements were performed at different levels in a large oscillating water tunnel. They showed some characteristic features of the temporal concentration variation at fixed levels, including a pronounced effect of the orientation of the suction...... concentration are also presented. The analysis is partly based on Wilson's finding that in sheet flow the equivalent bed roughness is nearly proportional with the Shields parameter, resulting in a roughness/grain diameter ratio much larger than 2.5, the figure often adopted for a flat bed, but without sheet...

  10. The reduction of indoor radon concentration by using lightweight concrete in high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Stokes, M.J. [City Univ., Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science; Lo, T. [City Univ., Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Building and Construction

    1996-12-31

    The radon exhalation rates from surfaces of different types of lightweight concrete used in the building industry in Hong Kong have been studied using standardised activated charcoal canisters and {gamma} spectroscopy. It is found that all the lightweight concretes investigated have considerably smaller radon exhalation rates than those from ordinary concrete. Considering a concrete room of a typical size for Hong Kong, the possible reduction in the indoor radon concentrations has been calculated to be greater than 15 Bq.m{sup -3} when lightweight concrete is used instead of ordinary concrete for the non-construction walls. The average indoor radon concentration in Hong Kong is about 45 Bq.m{sup -3}. Therefore, a simple and economic way to reduce the indoor radon concentrations and the corresponding radiation dose from radon has been demonstrated. This technique applies to future buildings. (Author).

  11. High tacrolimus blood concentrations early after lung transplantation and the risk of kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikma, M A; Hunault, C C; van de Graaf, E A; Verhaar, M C; Kesecioglu, J; de Lange, D W; Meulenbelt, J

    2017-05-01

    Lung transplant recipients often develop acute kidney injury (AKI) evolving into chronic kidney disease (CKD). The immunosuppressant tacrolimus might be associated with the emergence of AKI. We analyzed the development and recovery of kidney injury after lung transplantation and related AKI to whole-blood tacrolimus trough concentrations and other factors causing kidney injury. We retrospectively studied kidney injury in 186 lung-transplantation patients at the UMC Utrecht between 2001 and 2011. Kidney function and whole-blood tacrolimus trough concentrations were determined from day 1 to 14 and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperative. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), septic shock, and nephrotoxic medications were evaluated as covariates for AKI. We analyzed liver injury and drug-drug interactions. AKI was present in 85 (46%) patients. Tacrolimus concentrations were supra-therapeutic in 135 of 186 patients (73%). AKI in the first week after transplantation was related to supra-therapeutic tacrolimus concentrations (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.06-2.27), ≥3 other nephrotoxic drugs (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.02-3.77), infection (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.31-4.70), and cystic fibrosis (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.16-4.06). Recovery rate of AKI was lower than expected (19%), and the cumulative incidence of severe CKD at 1 year was 15%. After lung transplantation, AKI is common and often evolves into severe CKD, which is a known cause of morbidity and mortality. Supra-therapeutic whole-blood tacrolimus trough concentrations are related to the early onset of AKI. Conscientious targeting tacrolimus blood concentrations might be vital in the early phase after lung transplantation. What is known about this subject? • Lung transplant recipients often develop acute kidney injury evolving into chronic kidney disease increasing both morbidity and mortality. • To date, the pathophysiology of kidney injury after lung transplantation has not been fully elucidated. • The immunosuppressant

  12. High within-individual variation in total mercury concentration in seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Diamond, Antony W

    2008-11-01

    To our knowledge, no rigorous assessment of the variation in mercury concentrations within individual seabirds has been made using multiple body feathers. We analyzed five feathers from individual Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan), common terns (Sterna hirundo L.), and Leach's storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa Veillot) and found levels of within-individual variability higher than population or time-series variation. Using a randomization procedure, we found a large range of possible mercury concentrations if only one feather per individual had been sampled. Researchers should report within-individual variability in future studies.

  13. Continuum modeling of hydrodynamic particle–particle interactions in microfluidic high-concentration suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    -concentration field coupled to the continuity and Navier–Stokes equation for the solution. The hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for through the concentration dependence of the suspension viscosity, of the single-particle mobility, and of the momentum transfer from the particles to the suspension. The model...... is applied on a magnetophoretic and an acoustophoretic system, respectively, and based on the results, we illustrate three main points: (1) for relative particle-to-fluid volume fractions greater than 0.01, the hydrodynamic interaction effects become important through a decreased particle mobility...

  14. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthi, Dieter; Le Floch, Martine; Bereiter, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition of air trapped in ice cores from Antarctica. So far, the Antarctic Vostok and EPICA Dome C ice cores have provided a composite record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650......,000 years. Here we present results of the lowest 200 m of the Dome C ice core, extending the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by two complete glacial cycles to 800,000 yr before present. From previously published data and the present work, we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide...

  15. Pulse number controlled laser annealing for GeSn on insulator structure with high substitutional Sn concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moto, Kenta; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu, E-mail: miyao@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsumura, Ryo [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JSPS, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Department of Gigaphoton Next GLP, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-06-27

    Crystalline GeSn-on-insulator structures with high Sn concentration (>8%), which exceeds thermal equilibrium solid-solubility (∼2%) of Sn in Ge, are essential to achieve high-speed thin film transistors and high-efficiency optical devices. We investigate non-thermal equilibrium growth of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) on quartz substrates by using pulsed laser annealing (PLA). The window of laser fluence enabling complete crystallization without film ablation is drastically expanded (∼5 times) by Sn doping above 5% into Ge. Substitutional Sn concentration in grown layers is found to be increased with decreasing irradiation pulse number. This phenomenon can be explained on the basis of significant thermal non-equilibrium growth achieved by higher cooling rate after PLA with a lower pulse number. As a result, GeSn crystals with substitutional Sn concentration of ∼12% are realized at pulse irradiation of single shot for the samples with the initial Sn concentration of 15%. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy measurements reveal the high quality of the grown layer. This technique will be useful to fabricate high-speed thin film transistors and high-efficiency optical devices on insulating substrates.

  16. Analysis of Antibody Aggregate Content at Extremely High Concentrations Using Sedimentation Velocity with a Novel Interference Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kristian; Krause, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies represent the most important group of protein-based biopharmaceuticals. During formulation, manufacturing, or storage, antibodies may suffer post-translational modifications altering their physical and chemical properties. Such induced conformational changes may lead to the formation of aggregates, which can not only reduce their efficiency but also be immunogenic. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the amount of size variants to ensure consistency and quality of pharmaceutical antibodies. In many cases, antibodies are formulated at very high concentrations > 50 g/L, mostly along with high amounts of sugar-based excipients. As a consequence, all routine aggregation analysis methods, such as size-exclusion chromatography, cannot monitor the size distribution at those original conditions, but only after dilution and usually under completely different solvent conditions. In contrast, sedimentation velocity (SV) allows to analyze samples directly in the product formulation, both with limited sample-matrix interactions and minimal dilution. One prerequisite for the analysis of highly concentrated samples is the detection of steep concentration gradients with sufficient resolution: Commercially available ultracentrifuges are not able to resolve such steep interference profiles. With the development of our Advanced Interference Detection Array (AIDA), it has become possible to register interferograms of solutions as highly concentrated as 150 g/L. The other major difficulty encountered at high protein concentrations is the pronounced non-ideal sedimentation behavior resulting from repulsive intermolecular interactions, for which a comprehensive theoretical modelling has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first SV analysis of highly concentrated antibodies up to 147 g/L employing the unique AIDA ultracentrifuge. By developing a consistent experimental design and data fit approach, we were able to provide a reliable estimation of the minimum

  17. Analysis of antibody aggregate content at extremely high concentrations using sedimentation velocity with a novel interference optics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Schilling

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies represent the most important group of protein-based biopharmaceuticals. During formulation, manufacturing, or storage, antibodies may suffer post-translational modifications altering their physical and chemical properties. Such induced conformational changes may lead to the formation of aggregates, which can not only reduce their efficiency but also be immunogenic. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the amount of size variants to ensure consistency and quality of pharmaceutical antibodies. In many cases, antibodies are formulated at very high concentrations > 50 g/L, mostly along with high amounts of sugar-based excipients. As a consequence, all routine aggregation analysis methods, such as size-exclusion chromatography, cannot monitor the size distribution at those original conditions, but only after dilution and usually under completely different solvent conditions. In contrast, sedimentation velocity (SV allows to analyze samples directly in the product formulation, both with limited sample-matrix interactions and minimal dilution. One prerequisite for the analysis of highly concentrated samples is the detection of steep concentration gradients with sufficient resolution: Commercially available ultracentrifuges are not able to resolve such steep interference profiles. With the development of our Advanced Interference Detection Array (AIDA, it has become possible to register interferograms of solutions as highly concentrated as 150 g/L. The other major difficulty encountered at high protein concentrations is the pronounced non-ideal sedimentation behavior resulting from repulsive intermolecular interactions, for which a comprehensive theoretical modelling has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first SV analysis of highly concentrated antibodies up to 147 g/L employing the unique AIDA ultracentrifuge. By developing a consistent experimental design and data fit approach, we were able to provide a reliable

  18. Highly sensitive contactless conductivity microchips based on concentric electrodes for flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Renato S; Piazzetta, Maria H O; Gobbi, Angelo L; Segato, Thiago P; Cabral, Murilo F; Machado, Sergio A S; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2013-12-18

    In this communication, we describe for the first time the integration of concentric electrodes (wrapping around the microchannel) in microchips. The use of such electrodes has been shown to be effective towards improvement of the sensitivity and detectability in pressure-driven flow platforms incorporating C(4)D.

  19. Confinement dependent chemotaxis in two-photon polymerized linear migration constructs with highly definable concentration gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Olsen, Mark Holm; Svane, Inge Marie

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cell chemotaxis is known to follow chemoattractant concentration gradients through tissue of heterogeneous pore sizes, but the dependence of migration velocity on pore size and gradient steepness is not fully understood. We enabled chemotaxis studies for at least 42 hours at confinement...

  20. Development of solar concentrators for high-power solar-pumped lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T H; Ohkubo, T; Yabe, T

    2014-04-20

    We have developed unique solar concentrators for solar-pumped solid-state lasers to improve both efficiency and laser output power. Natural sunlight is collected by a primary concentrator which is a 2  m×2  m Fresnel lens, and confined by a cone-shaped hybrid concentrator. Such solar power is coupled to a laser rod by a cylinder with coolant surrounding it that is called a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL). Performance of the cylindrical LLGL has been characterized analytically and experimentally. Since a 14 mm diameter LLGL generates efficient and uniform pumping along a Nd:YAG rod that is 6 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length, 120 W cw laser output is achieved with beam quality factor M2 of 137 and overall slope efficiency of 4.3%. The collection efficiency is 30.0  W/m2, which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. The overall conversion efficiency is more than 3.2%, which can be comparable to a commercial lamp-pumped solid-state laser. The concept of the light-guide lens can be applied for concentrator photovoltaics or other solar energy optics.

  1. Estimation of CO concentration in high temperature PEM fuel cells using electrochemical impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    This work presents the results of using the electrochemical impedance to analyse the behaviour of a BASF Celtec P2100 MEA operated under varying operating conditions with different temperatures and gas concentrations. Figure 1 shows the experimental setup used for these measurements....

  2. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  3. Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and high-density lipoprotein concentrations: A community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In cross-sectional studies and short-term clinical trials, it has been suggested that there is a positive dose-response relation between alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations. However, prospective data have been limited. Objective: We sought to determine the association between tota...

  4. High bone density in adolescents with obesity is related to fat mass and serum leptin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B R; Belli, Dominique C; Puigdefabregas, Julie Wacker Bou; Rizzoli, René; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Beghetti, Maurice; McLin, Valérie A

    2014-06-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased bone mass, but the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed to explore the relation between bone mineral density and factors known to influence bone formation in obese and lean adolescents. We recruited 24 obese and 25 lean adolescents in a case-control study. Total body bone mineral density (TB-BMD) z scores and body composition were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations. Physical activity (PA) level was quantified using accelerometer. TB-BMD z score was higher, whereas 25-OH-D and PA levels were lower in obese compared with lean subjects (TB-BMD z score 1.06 ± 0.96 vs 0.26 ± 0.91, P = 0.004; 25-OH-D 9.9 ± 6.4 vs 18.5 ± 7.4 ng mL, P BMD z score was not related to 25-OH-D or PA levels, but was positively correlated with leptin concentration and fat mass (P BMD was higher in adolescents with obesity and associated with higher serum leptin concentrations. Furthermore, adolescents with obesity have lower vitamin D serum concentrations than lean controls, probably owing to its distribution in adipose tissue.

  5. Resting Serum Concentration of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    F. A. Niyi-Odumosu1, O. A. Bello1, S. A. Biliaminu2, B. V. Owoyele1, T. O. Abu3,. O. L. Dominic4. Departments of 1Physiology, 2Chemical Pathology, 3Chemistry and 4 Human Kinetics Education, University of. Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Summary: There is an inverse relationship between regular physical activity and concentration ...

  6. The effect of high lead concentrations on the mortality, mass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-02-02

    Feb 2, 1998 ... In the acute toxicity tests the isopods were exposed to 0, 15,30,45,60,75,90 and 105 g/kg lead nitrate. Behavioural ... toxicity tests the various concentrations differed significantly concerning mortality and weight loss of surviving isopods. .... which died during the experiment was not determined. The following ...

  7. Review and advances of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) part I: Design, fabrication, and testing with high concentration methanol solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Faghri, Amir

    2013-03-01

    A review of the experimental studies on passive and semi-passive direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is conducted, with an emphasis on high concentration methanol and pure methanol. Key issues such as methanol transport, water management, oxygen transport, and carbon dioxide release in the DMFC are analyzed in detail. The design and fabrication, development approaches, challenges and opportunities on DMFCs passively fed with high concentration methanol are discussed. The advances of DMFC stacks and prototype developments are presented. Several unresolved issues and challenges in DMFCs are identified and reviewed in detail.

  8. Variations in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progeny response to high aluminium concentrations in solution culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, R J A; Hanafi, M M; Omar, S R Syed; Rafii, M Y

    2011-03-01

    Aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity is an important soil constraint that limits crop yield. The objectives of this study were to investigate how growth, physiology, nutrient content and organic acid concentration is affected by Al, and to assess the degree of Al tolerance in different oil palm progeny (OPP). Four OPPs ['A' (Angola dura × Angola dura), 'B' (Nigerian dura × Nigerian dura), 'C' (Deli dura × AVROS pisifera) and 'D' (Deli dura × Dumpy AVROS pisifera)] were grown in different Al concentrations (0, 100 and 200 μm) in aerated Hoagland solution, pH 4.4, for 80 days. We observed a severe reduction (57.5%) in shoot dry weight, and root tips were reduced by 46.5% in 200 μm Al. In 'B' and 'C', the majority of macro- and micronutrients in plants were reduced significantly by 200 μm Al, with Mg being lowered by more than 50% in roots and shoots. The 200 μm Al treatment resulted in a 56.50% reduction in total leaf area, a 20% reduction in net photosynthesis and a 17% reduction in SPAD chlorophyll value in the third leaf. Root tips (0-5 mm) showed a significant increase in oxalic acid content with increasing Al concentration (∼ 5.86-fold); progeny 'A' had the highest concentration of oxalic acid. There was a significant interaction between Al concentration × OPP on total leaf number, root volume, lateral root length, Mg and K in root and shoot tissues, and Ca and N in shoots. The OPPs could be ranked in their tolerance to Al as: 'A' > 'D' > 'B' > 'C'. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H.; Dorn, H.-P.; Bachner, M.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Gomm, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Nehr, S.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2012-07-01

    During recent field campaigns, hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations that were measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were up to a factor of ten larger than predicted by current chemical models for conditions of high OH reactivity and low NO concentration. These discrepancies, which were observed in forests and urban-influenced rural environments, are so far not entirely understood. In summer 2011, a series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, in order to investigate the photochemical degradation of isoprene, methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein (MACR) and aromatic compounds by OH. Conditions were similar to those experienced during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, in 2006, where a large difference between OH measurements and model predictions was found. During experiments in SAPHIR, OH was simultaneously detected by two independent instruments: LIF and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Because DOAS is an inherently calibration-free technique, DOAS measurements are regarded as a reference standard. The comparison of the two techniques was used to investigate potential artifacts in the LIF measurements for PRD-like conditions of OH reactivities of 10 to 30 s-1 and NO mixing ratios of 0.1 to 0.3 ppbv. The analysis of twenty experiment days shows good agreement. The linear regression of the combined data set (averaged to the DOAS time resolution, 2495 data points) yields a slope of 1.02 ± 0.01 with an intercept of (0.10 ± 0.03) × 106 cm-3 and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. This indicates that the sensitivity of the LIF instrument is well-defined by its calibration procedure. No hints for artifacts are observed for isoprene, MACR, and different aromatic compounds. LIF measurements were approximately 30-40% (median) larger than those by DOAS after MVK (20 ppbv) and toluene (90 ppbv) had been added. However, this discrepancy has a

  10. Comparison of OH concentration measurements by DOAS and LIF during SAPHIR chamber experiments at high OH reactivity and low NO concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fuchs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent field campaigns, hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations that were measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF were up to a factor of ten larger than predicted by current chemical models for conditions of high OH reactivity and low NO concentration. These discrepancies, which were observed in forests and urban-influenced rural environments, are so far not entirely understood. In summer 2011, a series of experiments was carried out in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich, Germany, in order to investigate the photochemical degradation of isoprene, methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK, methacrolein (MACR and aromatic compounds by OH. Conditions were similar to those experienced during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD, China, in 2006, where a large difference between OH measurements and model predictions was found. During experiments in SAPHIR, OH was simultaneously detected by two independent instruments: LIF and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. Because DOAS is an inherently calibration-free technique, DOAS measurements are regarded as a reference standard. The comparison of the two techniques was used to investigate potential artifacts in the LIF measurements for PRD-like conditions of OH reactivities of 10 to 30 s−1 and NO mixing ratios of 0.1 to 0.3 ppbv. The analysis of twenty experiment days shows good agreement. The linear regression of the combined data set (averaged to the DOAS time resolution, 2495 data points yields a slope of 1.02 ± 0.01 with an intercept of (0.10 ± 0.03 × 106 cm−3 and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.86. This indicates that the sensitivity of the LIF instrument is well-defined by its calibration procedure. No hints for artifacts are observed for isoprene, MACR, and different aromatic compounds. LIF measurements were approximately 30–40% (median larger than those by DOAS after MVK (20 ppbv and

  11. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling the high fluoride concentration in groundwater: a case study at the Boden block area, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, R K; Swain, S K; Mishra, Sulagna; Sharma, Prachi; Patnaik, Tanushree; Singh, V K; Dehury, B N; Jha, Usha; Patel, R K

    2012-05-01

    The present investigation reports the assessment of hydrochemical/geochemical processes controlling the concentration of fluoride in groundwater of a village in India (Boden block, Orissa). Boden block is one of the severely affected fluoride-contaminated areas in the state of Orissa (India). The sampling and subsequent analysis of water samples of the study area was carried out following standard prescribed methods. The results of the analysis indicate that 36.60% groundwater F(-) concentration exceeds the limit prescribed by the World Health Organization for drinking water. The rock interaction with groundwater containing high concentration of HCO(3)(-) and Na(+) at a higher pH value of the medium could be one of the important reasons for the release of F(-) from the aquatic matrix into groundwater. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on Chadha rectangular diagram shows that most of the groundwater samples having fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg L(-1) belongs to the Na-K-HCO(3) type. The saturation index values evaluated for the groundwater of the study area indicated that it is oversaturated with respect to calcite, whereas the same is undersaturated with respect to fluorite content. The deficiency of calcium ion concentration in the groundwater from calcite precipitation favors fluorite dissolution leading to excess of fluoride concentration. The risk index was calculated as a function of fluoride level in drinking water and morbidity of fluorosis categorizes high risk for villages of Amera and Karlakote panchayat of Boden block.

  12. Preservation of high glycolytic phenotype by establishing new acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines at physiologic oxygen concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheard, Michael A., E-mail: msheard@chla.usc.edu [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Ghent, Matthew V., E-mail: mattghent@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Health Sciences Campus, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Cabral, Daniel J., E-mail: dcabral14@gmail.com [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Lee, Joanne C., E-mail: joannebarnhart@gmail.com [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Khankaldyyan, Vazgen, E-mail: khangaldian@yahoo.com [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Ji, Lingyun, E-mail: lingyun.ji@med.usc.edu [Developmental Therapeutics Program, USC-CHLA Institute for Pediatric Clinical Research, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Wu, Samuel Q., E-mail: swu@chla.usc.edu [Medical Genetics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Kang, Min H., E-mail: min.kang@ttuhsc.edu [Cancer Center and Departments of Cell Biology & Biochemistry, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Cancer cells typically exhibit increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and they continue to exhibit some elevation in glycolysis even under aerobic conditions. However, it is unclear whether cancer cell lines employ a high level of glycolysis comparable to that of the original cancers from which they were derived, even if their culture conditions are changed to physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations. From three childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients we established three new pairs of cell lines in both atmospheric (20%) and physiologic (bone marrow level, 5%) oxygen concentrations. Cell lines established in 20% oxygen exhibited lower proliferation, survival, expression of glycolysis genes, glucose consumption, and lactate production. Interestingly, the effects of oxygen concentration used during cell line initiation were only partially reversible when established cell cultures were switched from one oxygen concentration to another for eight weeks. These observations indicate that ALL cell lines established at atmospheric oxygen concentration can exhibit relatively low levels of glycolysis and these levels are semi-permanent, suggesting that physiologic oxygen concentrations may be needed from the time of cell line initiation to preserve the high level of glycolysis commonly exhibited by leukemias in vivo. - Highlights: • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher glycolytic expression and function. • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher proliferation and lower cell death. • The divergent metabolic phenotypes selected in 5% and 20% oxygen are semi-permanent.

  13. High-concentration versus titrated oxygen therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchord, Anil M; Argyle, Rachel; Beynon, Rhys; Perrin, Kyle; Sharma, Vishal; Weatherall, Mark; Simmonds, Mark; Heatlie, Grant; Brooks, Nicholas; Beasley, Richard

    2012-02-01

    The optimal approach to oxygen therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is uncertain. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken in which 136 patients presenting with their first STEMI uncomplicated by cardiogenic shock or marked hypoxia were randomized to receive high-concentration (6 L/min via medium concentration mask) or titrated oxygen (to achieve oxygen saturation 93%-96%) for 6 hours after presentation. The main outcome variables were 30-day mortality and infarct size assessed by troponin T level at 72 hours. Secondary outcomes included a meta-analysis of mortality data from this study and previous randomized controlled trials, and infarct size was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at 4 to 6 weeks. There were 1 of 68 and 2 of 68 deaths in the high-concentration and titrated oxygen groups, respectively; a meta-analysis including these data with those from the 2 previous studies showed an odds ratio for mortality of high-concentration oxygen compared with room air or titrated oxygen of 2.2 (95% CI 0.8-6.0). There was no significant difference between high-concentration versus titrated oxygen in troponin T (ratio of mean levels 0.74, 95% CI 0.50-1.1, P = .14), infarct mass (mean difference -0.8 g, 95% CI -7.6 to 6.1, P = .82), or percent infarct mass (mean difference -0.6%, 95% CI -5.6 to 4.5, P = .83). This study found no evidence of benefit or harm from high-concentration compared with titrated oxygen in initially uncomplicated STEMI. However, our estimates have wide CIs, and as a result, large randomized controlled trials are required to resolve the clinical uncertainty. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of a PEG precipitation method for solubility screening: A tool for developing high protein concentration formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Kantor, Angela; Warne, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Previous publications demonstrated that the extrapolated solubility by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method (Middaugh et al., J Biol Chem 1979; 254:367–370; Juckes, Biochim Biophys Acta 1971; 229:535–546; Foster et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1973; 317:505; Mahadevan and Hall, AIChE J 1990; 36:1517–1528; Stevenson and Hageman, Pharm Res 1995; 12:1671–1676) has a strong correlation to experimentally measured solubility of proteins. Here, we explored the utility of extrapolated solubility as a method to compare multiple protein drug candidates when nonideality of a highly soluble protein prohibits accurate quantitative solubility prediction. To achieve high efficiency and reduce the amount of protein required, the method is miniaturized to microwell plate format for high-throughput screening application. In this simplified version of the method, comparative solubility of proteins can be obtained without the need of concentration measurement of the supernatant following the precipitation step in the conventional method. The monoclonal antibodies with the lowest apparent solubilities determined by this method are the most difficult to be concentrated, indicating a good correlation between the prediction and empirical observations. This study also shows that the PEG precipitation method gives results for opalescence prediction that favorably compares to experimentally determined opalescence levels at high concentration. This approach may be useful in detecting proteins with potential solubility and opalescence problems prior to the time-consuming and expensive development process of high concentration formulation. PMID:23740802

  15. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiber, Laura, E-mail: scheiber.ls@gmail.com [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Cendón, Dioni I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences (BEES), University of New South Wales (UNSW), NSW 2052 (Australia); Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí Franquès, sn., Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Juan Carlos [Cobre Las Cruces S.A., Carretera SE-3410 km 4, 41860 Gerena, Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH{sub 4}), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH{sub 4}, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH{sub 4}, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ{sup 15}N{sub NH4} values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water

  16. Effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were performed at high sugar concentration (170 g l(-1)) using Agave tequilana Weber blue variety with and without added nitrogen from different sources (ammonium sulfate; glutamic acid; a mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids) during the exponential phase of growth. All the additions increased the fermentation rate and alcohol efficiency. The level of synthesis of volatile compounds depended on the source added. The concentration of amyl alcohols and isobutanol were decreased while propanol and acetaldehyde concentration increased. The most efficient nitrogen sources for fermentation rate were ammonium sulfate and the mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids. The level of volatile compounds produced depended upon types of nitrogen. The synthesis of some volatile compounds increased while others decreased with nitrogen addition. The addition of nitrogen could be a strategy for improving the fermentation rate and efficiency in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar Agave tequilana concentration. Furthermore, the sensory quality of the final product may change because the synthesis of the volatile compounds is modified.

  17. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on performance and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, N; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2009-02-01

    Forty-eight bulls (335 +/- 8.6 kg of initial BW) were randomly assigned to 4 glycerin levels (0, 4, 8, and 12% of concentrate DM) with the objective of evaluating the effects of glycerin supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrates were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric (assuming a glycerin ME content of 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM). Concentrate and straw were fed for ad libitum intake. Bull BW and feed consumption were recorded monthly. Additionally, rumen and blood samples were collected every month. Bulls were slaughtered after 91 d of study (460 +/- 11 kg of final BW). Hot carcass weight, carcass backfat, and conformation were recorded. The area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and intramuscular fat content of LM were determined. Glycerin level did not affect daily concentrate intake (6.89 +/- 0.34 kg/d of DM), straw intake (1.38 +/- 0.069 kg/d of DM), total DMI (8.27 +/- 0.32 kg/d of DM), ADG (1.36 +/- 0.087 kg/d), or G:F (0.17 +/- 0.009). Similarly, rumen molar proportions of propionic, acetic, and butyric acids, and rumen liquid osmolality were unaffected by treatment. However, a decreased rumen pH (P glycerin in concentrate compared with those receiving 0, 4, or 12%. No changes were observed in carcass and meat quality. The ME content of glycerin (86% glycerol) can be assumed to be 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. In addition, feeding concentrate containing up to 12.1% of glycerin does not lead to detrimental effects on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality variables.

  18. High YKL-40 serum concentration is correlated with prognosis of Chinese patients with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association between serum YKL-40 and prognosis of breast cancer in a Chinese population. Expression of YKL-40 of 120 Chinese patients with breast cancer and 30 controls (benign breast lesions was measured in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry and in serum by ELISA. Differences in YKL-40 positivity grouped by specific patients' characteristics were compared using Pearson Chi-square test for rates of intratumoral staining, one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post-hoc comparison, or two-sample t-test for mean YKL-40 serum concentrations. Factors associated with overall survival were identified by univariate and multivariate cox-regression analyses. YKL-40 was elevated in approximately 75% of Chinese patients with breast cancer. A significantly higher percentage of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had larger tumor size, higher TNM stage, and/or lymph node metastasis. Significantly higher mean YKL-40 serum concentrations were observed in patient subgroups with invasive lobular carcinoma (P<0.0167, higher TNM stage (P<0.001, and positive lymph node metastasis (P<0.001. The estimated mean survival time of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors was significantly shorter than for patients with YKL-40 negative tumors (55.13 months vs 65.78 months, P = 0.017. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis identified a significant association of overall survival time with YKL-40 serum concentration. Patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had significantly shorter disease free survival times than those with YKL-40 negative tumors. We propose that the potential utility of YKL-40 intratumoral staining or serum concentration as a biomarker for breast cancer is greatest within 5 years of diagnosis.

  19. Three-phase metal kinetics in terrestrial invertebrates exposed to high metal concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Bednarska, Agnieszka J. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Models of metal toxicokinetics are critically evaluated using both newly generated data in the NoMiracle project as well as those originating from older studies. The analysis showed that the most frequently used one-compartment two-phase toxicokinetic model, with one assimilation and one elimination rate constant, does not describe correctly certain data sets pertaining particularly to the pattern of assimilation of trace elements. Using nickel toxicokinetics in carabid beetles and earthworms as examples, we showed that Ni in fact exhibits a three-phase kinetics with a short phase of fast metal accumulation immediately after exposure, followed by partial elimination to an equilibrium concentration at a later stage of a metal exposure phase, and by final elimination upon transfer to an uncontaminated food/soil. A similar phenomenon was also found for data on cadmium kinetics in ground beetles and copper kinetics in earthworms in data already published in the literature that was not accounted for in the earlier analysis of the data. The three-phase model suggests that the physiology of controlling body metal concentrations can change shortly after exposure, at least in some cases, by increasing the elimination rate and/or decreasing metal assimilation. Hence, the three-phase model, that allows for different assimilation and/or elimination rates in different phases of exposure to a toxicant, may provide insight into temporal changes in the physiology of metal handling. Consequently, this alternative model should always be tested when describing metal toxicokinetics when temporal patterns of internal metal concentration exhibit an initial 'overshoot' in body metal concentrations.

  20. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  1. High concentrations of single-walled carbon nanotubes lower soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lixia; Son, Yowhan; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Kang, Yu Jin; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun

    2013-02-01

    Nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) may enter the soil environment with unknown consequences resulting from the development of nanotechnology for a variety of applications. We determined the effects of SWCNTs on soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass through a 3-week incubation of urban soils treated with different concentrations of SWCNTs ranging from 0 to 1000 μg g(-1) soil. The activities of cellobiohydrolase, β-1,4-glucosidase, β-1,4-xylosidase, β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, L-leucine aminopeptidase, and acid phosphatase and microbial biomass were measured in soils treated with powder and suspended forms of SWCNTs. SWCNTs of concentrations at 300-1000 μg g(-1) soil significantly lowered activities of most enzymes and microbial biomass. It is noteworthy that the SWCNTs showed similar effects to that of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), but at a concentration approximately 5 times lower; we suggest that this is mainly due to the higher surface area of SWCNTs than that of MWCNTs. Indeed, our results show that surface area of CNTs has significant negative relationship with relative enzyme activity and biomass, which suggests that greater microorganism-CNT interactions could increase the negative effect of CNTs on microorganisms. Current work may contribute to the preparation of a regulatory guideline for the release of CNTs to the soil environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Concentration of carbon dioxide by a high-temperature electrochemical membrane cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M. P.; Winnick, J.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a molten carbonate carbon dioxide concentrator (MCCDC) cell, as a device for removal of CO2 from manned spacecraft cabins without fuel expenditure, is investigated. The test system consists of an electrochemical cell (with an Li2CO3-38 mol pct K2CO3 membrane contained in a LiAlO2 matrix), a furnace, and a flow IR analyzer for monitoring CO2. Operation of the MCCDC-driven cell was found to be suitable for the task of CO2 removal: the cell performed at extremely low CO2 partial pressures (at or above 0.1 mm Hg); cathode CO2 efficiencies of 97 percent were achieved with 0.25 CO2 inlet concentration at 19 mA sq cm, at temperatures near 873 K. Anode concentrations of up to 5.8 percent were obtained. Simple cathode and anode performance equations applied to correlate cell performance agreed well with those measured experimentally. A flow diagram for the process is included.

  3. Simultaneous determination of serum mannose and glucose concentrations in dog serum using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Katayama, K; Arai, T; Sako, T; Tazaki, H

    2008-02-01

    Serum mannose and glucose concentrations in dogs before and after eating a meal were determined simultaneously with a recently established HPLC method combined with a UV and fluorescence detection system of p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE)-derivatized monosaccharides. In this newly established HPLC method, detection limits were 0.09 micromol/L for mannose and 0.04 mmol/L for glucose. Linearity of peak areas vs. amounts of mannose and glucose in the range of 0.27-320 micromol/L and 0.13-64 mmol/L were observed, respectively. The value of the glucose content measured by the HPLC method was in good agreement with that of the commonly used enzymatic method (control). Serum glucose concentrations in dogs 90 min after the meal were almost the same as those before the meal, whereas serum mannose concentrations decreased significantly after the meal. This HPLC method may be useful for determination of monosaccharides in animal blood.

  4. Kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis growth on high glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbert-Molina, M A; Prata, A M R; Pessanha, L G; Silveira, M M

    2008-11-01

    The kinetic and general growth features of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis were evaluated. Initial glucose concentration (S0) in fermentation media varied from 10 to 152 g/l. The results afforded to characterize four morphologically and physiologically well-defined culture phases, independent of S0 values: Phase I, vegetative growth; Phase II, transition to sporulation; Phase III, sporulation; and Phase IV, spores maturation and cell lysis. Important process parameters were also determined. The maximum specific growth rates (microX,m) were not affected with S0 up to 75 g/l (1.0-1.1 per hour), but higher glucose concentrations resulted in growth inhibition by substrate, revealed by a reduction in microX,m values. These higher S0 values led to longer Phases III and IV and delayed sporulation. Similar biomass concentrations (Xm=15.2-15.9 g/l) were achieved with S0 over 30.8 g/l, with increasing residual substrate, suggesting a limitation in some other nutrients and the use of glucose to form other metabolites. In this case, with S0 from 30.8 to 152 g/l, cell yield (YX/S) decreased from 0.58 to 0.41 g/g. On the other hand, with S0=10 g/l growth was limited by substrate, and YX/S has shown its maximum value (0.83 g/g).

  5. Structure function for high-concentration biophantoms of polydisperse scatterer sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Aiguo; O'Brien, William

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic backscattering coefficient (BSC) has been used extensively to characterize tissue. In most cases, sparse scatterer concentrations are assumed. However, many types of tissues have dense scattering media. This study addresses the problem of dense media scattering by taking into account the correlation among scatterers using the structure functions. The effect of scatterer polydispersity on the structure functions is investigated. Structure function models based on polydisperse scatterers are theoretically developed and experimentally evaluated against the structure functions obtained from cell pellet biophantoms. The biophantoms were constructed by placing live cells of known concentration in coagulation media to form a clot. The BSCs of the biophantoms were estimated using single-element transducers over the frequency range from 11 to 105 MHz. Experimental structure functions were obtained by comparing the BSCs of two cell concentrations. The structure functions predicted by the models agreed with the experimental structure functions. Fitting the models yielded cell radius estimates that were consistent with direct light microscope measures. The results demonstrate the role of scatterer position correlation on dense media scattering, and the significance of scatterer polydispersity on structure functions. This work may lead to more accurate modeling of ultrasonic scattering in dense medium for improved tissue characterization.

  6. Numerical study of magnetic nanoparticles concentration in biofluid (blood) under influence of high gradient magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Habibi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad_habibi_4@yahoo.co [Mechanical Engineering Department, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 19395-1999, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Majid [Mechanical Engineering Department, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 19395-1999, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Ferrofluids are widely used in pharmaceutical industries as magnetic separation tools, anti-cancer drug carriers and micro-valve applications. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of a magnetic field on the volume concentration of magnetic nanoparticles of a non-Newtonian biofluid (blood) as a drug carrier. The effect of particles on the flow field is considered. The governing non-linear differential equations, concentration and Naviar-stokes are coupled with the magnetic field. To solve these equations, a finite volume based code is developed and utilized. The results show accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles near the magnetic source until it looks like a solid object. The accumulation of nanoparticles is due to the magnetic force that overcomes the fluid drag force. As the magnetic strength and size of the magnetic particles increase, the accumulation of nanoparticles increases, as well. The magnetic susceptibility of particles also affects the flow field and the contour of the concentration considerably.

  7. Hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations determined by high performance liquid chromatography in biological fluids from patients with xanthinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulieu, R; Bory, C; Baltassat, P; Divry, P

    1984-09-15

    In the present paper, we report the biochemical features of six cases of xanthinuria. For these studies, the concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine have been measured in urine, plasma and also erythrocyte samples by a rapid, sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The analyses of plasma and erythrocyte samples require a very sensitive method relative to physiological concentrations and rigorous sampling conditions in order to achieve accurate results. In the cases reported in the literature, total oxypurine levels (hypoxanthine + xanthine) have been generally measured in plasma and urine by an enzymatic spectrophotometric method. In our studies, using HPLC, we found that xanthine is the major oxypurine compound in plasma and urine samples from patients with xanthinuria. In erythrocytes, a biological sample which has not been analysed up to now, we found that xanthine is present at high concentrations whereas it is not detectable in erythrocytes from healthy subjects.

  8. Feasibility of Topical Applications of Natural High-Concentration Capsaicinoid Solutions in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouraux, Andre; Deumens, Ronald; Leerink, Marjolein; le Polain de Waroux, Bernard; Joëlle, Quetin-Leclercq

    2016-01-01

    Background. Capsaicin, one of several capsaicinoid compounds, is a potent TRPV1 agonist. Topical application at high concentration (high concentration, >1%) induces a reversible disappearance of epidermal free nerve endings and is used to treat peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP). While the benefit of low-concentration capsaicin remains controversial, the 8%-capsaicin patch (Qutenza®, 2010, Astellas, Netherlands) has shown its effectiveness. This patch is, however, costly and natural high-concentration capsaicinoid solutions may represent a cheaper alternative to pure capsaicin. Methods. In this retrospective study, 149 patients were screened, 132 were included with a diagnosis of neuropathic pain, and eighty-four were retained in the final analyses (median age: 57.5 years [IQR25–75: 44.7–67.1], male/female: 30/54) with PNP who were treated with topical applications of natural high-concentration capsaicinoid solutions (total number of applications: 137). Indications were postsurgical PNP (85.7%) and nonsurgical PNP (14.3%) (posttraumatic, HIV-related, postherpetic, and radicular PNP). Objectives. To assess the feasibility of topical applications of natural high-concentration capsaicinoid solutions for the treatment of PNP. Results. The median treated area was 250 cm2 [IQR25–75: 144–531]. The median amount of capsaicinoids was 55.1 mg [IQR25–75: 28.7–76.5] per plaster and the median concentration was 172.3 μg/cm2 [IQR25–75: 127.6–255.2]. Most patients had local adverse effects on the day of treatment, such as mild to moderate burning pain and erythema. 13.6–19.4% of the patients experienced severe pain or erythema. Following treatment, 62.5% of patients reported a lower pain intensity or a smaller pain surface, and 35% reported a sustained pain relief lasting for at least 4 weeks. Conclusion. Analgesic topical treatment with natural high-concentration capsaicinoid is feasible and may represent a low cost alternative to alleviate PNP in

  9. Feasibility of Topical Applications of Natural High-Concentration Capsaicinoid Solutions in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Bauchy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Capsaicin, one of several capsaicinoid compounds, is a potent TRPV1 agonist. Topical application at high concentration (high concentration, >1% induces a reversible disappearance of epidermal free nerve endings and is used to treat peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP. While the benefit of low-concentration capsaicin remains controversial, the 8%-capsaicin patch (Qutenza®, 2010, Astellas, Netherlands has shown its effectiveness. This patch is, however, costly and natural high-concentration capsaicinoid solutions may represent a cheaper alternative to pure capsaicin. Methods. In this retrospective study, 149 patients were screened, 132 were included with a diagnosis of neuropathic pain, and eighty-four were retained in the final analyses (median age: 57.5 years [IQR25–75: 44.7–67.1], male/female: 30/54 with PNP who were treated with topical applications of natural high-concentration capsaicinoid solutions (total number of applications: 137. Indications were postsurgical PNP (85.7% and nonsurgical PNP (14.3% (posttraumatic, HIV-related, postherpetic, and radicular PNP. Objectives. To assess the feasibility of topical applications of natural high-concentration capsaicinoid solutions for the treatment of PNP. Results. The median treated area was 250 cm2 [IQR25–75: 144–531]. The median amount of capsaicinoids was 55.1 mg [IQR25–75: 28.7–76.5] per plaster and the median concentration was 172.3 μg/cm2 [IQR25–75: 127.6–255.2]. Most patients had local adverse effects on the day of treatment, such as mild to moderate burning pain and erythema. 13.6–19.4% of the patients experienced severe pain or erythema. Following treatment, 62.5% of patients reported a lower pain intensity or a smaller pain surface, and 35% reported a sustained pain relief lasting for at least 4 weeks. Conclusion. Analgesic topical treatment with natural high-concentration capsaicinoid is feasible and may represent a low cost alternative to alleviate

  10. The Risk of Preeclampsia According to High Thyroid Function in Pregnancy Differs by hCG Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; Chaker, Layal; Medici, Marco; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Visser, Theo J; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-12-01

    During pregnancy, there is an increased demand for thyroid hormone. The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important physiological stimulator of thyroid function. Already high-normal maternal free T 4 concentrations are associated with a higher risk of preeclampsia. The objective of the investigation was to study our hypothesis that hCG concentrations can distinguish a physiological form of high thyroid function from a more pathological form of high thyroid function and that the risk of preeclampsia would differ accordingly. TSH, free T 4 , hCG, or thyroperoxidase antibody concentrations were determined in pregnant women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. The study was conducted in the general community. A nonselected sample of 5146 pregnant women participated in the study. There were no interventions. Preeclampsia was measured. Women with high hCG-associated high thyroid function did not have a higher risk of preeclampsia than women with normal thyroid function. In contrast, women with low hCG and high thyroid function had a 3.4- to 11.1-fold higher risk of preeclampsia. These risk estimates were amplified in women with a high body mass index. Women with a low hCG and suppressed TSH (hCG was not associated with preeclampsia, and results remained similar after exclusion of thyroperoxidase antibody-positive women. This study suggests that, in contrast to women with a high hCG associated high thyroid function, women with low hCG and high thyroid function during pregnancy are at a higher risk of developing preeclampsia. The additional measurement of hCG may therefore help to distinguish a more pathological form of high thyroid function and women at a high risk of preeclampsia.

  11. Highly Active Liquid Waste concentration using the formaldehyde de-nitration process in the French reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretault, P.; Schneider, J. [AREVA-SGN, 1 Rue des Herons, Montigny le Bretonneux Cedex, 78182 (France); Huel, C.; Bosse, E. [AREVA-NC (France); Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France)

    2009-06-15

    The Highly Active Liquid Waste generated by a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is mainly composed of the raffinate from the first stage of the uranium/plutonium extraction process. This stream contains the vast majority of the fission products and minor actinides which are finally vitrified. The HALW stream is concentrated in order to limit the volume of the interim storage between the extraction process and the vitrification and also to reduce the required evaporation duty of the vitrification process itself. The potential difficulties of this concentration step are the corrosion risk associated to the handling of acidic solution and the possible troubles linked to the formation and precipitation of solid particles. In addition, a highly robust design is a key demand for such high active processes since absolutely no direct maintenance operation will ever be possible after the active commissioning. In La Hague plant operated by AREVA NC the HALW are concentrated using the formaldehyde de-nitration process that was first used at the end of the 50's in the former Marcoule plant. The principle of the process is as follows: - The HALW are concentrated in a kettle type evaporator operated at constant level in a semi-continuous mode, - All along the evaporation sequence, the nitric acid contained in the waste is reduced into nitrous fumes by reaction with formaldehyde. This maintains the free acidity of the concentrate close to 2.5 N, a sufficiently low value to reduce the corrosion risk while minimizing the precipitation of solid compounds, - The nitrous fumes are recombined into nitric which is further purified, concentrated and eventually recycled into the highly active part of the main process. This paper describes with more details the chemical reactions involved, the equipment used and the operating mode of the de-nitration process. It also gives an overview of the 50-years-long operating experience in terms of equipment lifetime, process efficiency and

  12. IDENTIFYING THE CAUSE OF HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF TBA IN GROUNDWATER AT GASOLINE SPIILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring at gasoline spills in Orange County, California has revealed that TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is often present at high concentrations in ground water. To manage the hazard associated with the presence of TBA, staff of the UST Local Oversight Program (LOP) of the Oran...

  13. Limiting nutrient emission from a cut rose closed system by high-flux irrigation and low nutrient concentrations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Berg, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A two-year project was aimed at decreasing nutrient emission from closed nutrient systems by using high irrigation rates in order to allow lower EC levels in the presence of accumulated Na and Cl. Experimental variables were growing media, irrigation frequencies, EC and NaCl concentrations for cut

  14. Modeling of Hydrodynamics of a Highly Concentrated Granular Medium on the Basis of a Power-Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvab Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the movement of the granular medium at a high concentration on the basis of the “power” of the liquid. Based on the original partial slip boundary conditions on the walls of protection obtained with experimental and numerical data to flow in the channel at a flow obstacle.

  15. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  16. Radial metal concentration profiles in trees growing on highly contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superville, Pierre-Jean; de Winter, Niels; Phung, Anh Tuan; Proix, Nicolas; Baeyens, Willy; Gao, Yue

    2017-04-01

    The soil around Metaleurop, a big smelter, is heavily contaminated by Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu. In order to compare the impact of different soil amendments on the metal availability to trees, the polluted soil section was divided in a reference parcel and two others with either sulfo-calcic or silico-aluminous ash amendments. Five different tree species were planted on the parcels and the uptake of heavy metals in these trees was studied. Total and labile metal fractions were assessed in each of the 3 parcels. The mobility and assimilation of the metals was highest in the non-amended, reference soil parcel which had the lowest pH, organic matter and carbonate content. In all soils, pH decreased while organic matter content and mobility of the metals increased over time. Highest bulk concentrations of trace metals were found in white willow trees (Salix alba L.). Laser ablation-ICPMS was used to study changes in metal accumulation over a period of 10 years after planting the trees. The radial metal profiles in the trunk core samples varied between elements and tree species, however, in all willow trees the radial Cd and Zn profiles were significantly correlated. Radial pollutant concentration patterns are discussed in terms of seasonal effects, health status, tree species and metal mobility in the soil. For Cd and Zn, the profiles were influenced by their mobility in the soils. In general, periodical patterns were observed for Pb. Cu concentration profiles were decreasing over time, with the strongest decrease in the initial growth period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Population PK/PD model of homocysteine concentrations after high-dose methotrexate treatment in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke Rühs

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine concentrations have been associated with methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity. Based on methotrexate and homocysteine plasma concentrations of 494 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with high-dose methotrexate in the TOTAL XV study, a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD model was built with NONMEM. Several compartment and indirect response models were investigated. The pharmacokinetic disposition of methotrexate was best described by a two-compartment model. Homocysteine concentrations were included by an indirect response model where methotrexate inhibition of the homocysteine elimination rate was described by an E(max model. The homocysteine baseline level was found to be age-dependent. Simulations revealed that folinate rescue therapy does not affect peak concentrations of homocysteine but leads to a modestly reduced homocysteine exposure. In conclusion, our PK/PD model describes the increase of methotrexate-induced HCY concentrations with satisfactory precision and can be applied to assess the effect of folinate regimens on the HCY concentration-time course.

  18. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukbar, B. K., E-mail: bchukbar@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm{sup –3} in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  19. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Formation of High Concentration of H2 Generated by Gas Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Baiwei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating high concentration of H2.Therefore, this paper uses the chemical kinetic calculation software, ChemKin, and the 20L spherical explosion experimental device to simulate the generating process and formation conditions of H2 in gas explosion. The experimental results show that: the decomposition of water vapor is the main base element reaction (R84 which leads to the generation of H2.The free radical H is the key factor to influence the formation of H2 generated from gas explosion. With the gradual increase of gas explosion concentration, the explosive reaction becomes more incomplete, and then the generating quantity of H2 increases gradually. Experimental results of 20L spherical explosion are consistent with the change trend about simulation results, which verifies the accuracy of simulation analysis. The results of explosion experiments show that when gas concentration is higher than 9%, the incomplete reaction of methane explosion increases which leads to the gradual increase of H2 formation.

  20. Influence of land use on metal concentrations in playa sediments and amphibians in the Southern High Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venne, Louise S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, MS 1163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: louise.venne@tiehh.ttu.edu; Cobb, George P. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, MS 1163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, MS 1163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Smith, Loren M. [Wildlife and Fisheries Management Institute, Texas Tech University, MS 2125, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, MS 1163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The Southern High Plains (SHP) is a semi-arid region in which playa wetlands are the focal points of biodiversity. Playas are highly influenced by surrounding land use. Most of the SHP is in agricultural production (primarily cotton) with a history of arsenic-containing herbicide use. Metals influence reproduction and development in amphibians. We analyzed metal residues in playa sediment and whole body tissue of Spea spp. and Bufo cognatus metamorphs from two land uses: cropland and native grassland. Cd and Ni concentrations in B. cognatus tissues differed between land uses. Metal concentrations in Spea spp. tissues did not differ between land uses. Ba was higher in Spea spp. than B. cognatus collected from the same grassland playas, indicating differential habitat use. No correlations between sediment and tissue concentrations were found. Land use appeared to have little influence on metal concentrations and levels were below those known to cause effects in amphibians. - Land use surrounding playas has little effect on metal concentrations in sediments.

  1. [Effects of drought stress, high temperature and elevated CO2 concentration on the growth of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Fu-Yan; Qiao, Yun-Zhou; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Dong, Bao-Di; Shi, Chang-Hai; Liu, Meng-Yu

    2014-09-01

    The impacts of climate change on the grain yield, photosynthesis, and water conditions of winter wheat were assessed based on an experiment, in which wheat plants were subjected to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations, ambient and elevated temperatures, and low and high water conditions independently and in combination. The CO2 enrichment alone had no effect on the photosynthesis of winter wheat, whereas higher temperature and drought significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate. Water conditions in flag leaves were not significantly changed at the elevated CO2 concentration or elevated temperature. However, drought stress decreased the relative water content in flag leaves, and the combination of elevated temperature and drought reduced the water potential in flag leaves. The combination of elevated CO2 concentration, elevated temperature, and drought significantly reduced the photosynthetic rate and water conditions, and led to a 41.4% decrease in grain yield. The elevated CO2 concentration alone increased the grain yield by 21.2%, whereas the elevated temperature decreased the grain yield by 12.3%. The grain yield was not affected by the combination of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature, but the grain yield was significantly decreased by the drought stress if combined with any of the climate scenarios applied in this study. These findings suggested that maintaining high soil water content might be a vital means of reducing the potential harm caused by the climate change.

  2. Weak Interactions Govern the Viscosity of Concentrated Antibody Solutions: High-Throughput Analysis Using the Diffusion Interaction Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian D.; Petry, Chris; Yadav, Sandeep; Demeule, Barthélemy; Ciaccio, Natalie; Moore, Jamie M.R.; Shire, Steven J.; Gokarn, Yatin R.

    2012-01-01

    Weak protein-protein interactions are thought to modulate the viscoelastic properties of concentrated antibody solutions. Predicting the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated antibodies from their dilute solution behavior is of significant interest and remains a challenge. Here, we show that the diffusion interaction parameter (kD), a component of the osmotic second virial coefficient (B2) that is amenable to high-throughput measurement in dilute solutions, correlates well with the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. We measured the kD of 29 different mAbs (IgG1 and IgG4) in four different solvent conditions (low and high ion normality) and found a linear dependence between kD and the exponential coefficient that describes the viscosity concentration profiles (|R| ≥ 0.9). Through experimentally measured effective charge measurements, under low ion normality where the electroviscous effect can dominate, we show that the mAb solution viscosity is poorly correlated with the mAb net charge (|R| ≤ 0.6). With this large data set, our results provide compelling evidence in support of weak intermolecular interactions, in contrast to the notion that the electroviscous effect is important in governing the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated mAb solutions. Our approach is particularly applicable as a screening tool for selecting mAbs with desirable viscosity properties early during lead candidate selection. PMID:22828333

  3. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  4. Greater cognitive decline with aging among elders with high serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were evaluated. "Lower cognitive function" was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated in prospective studies.

  5. Characterizing Reversible Protein Association at Moderately High Concentration Via Composition-Gradient Static Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Daniel; Pollastrini, Joseph; Cao, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of weakly self-associating macromolecules at concentrations beyond a few g/L is challenging on account of the confounding effect of thermodynamic nonideality on the association signal. When the reversible association comprises only 1 or 2 oligomeric species in equilibrium with the monomer, the nonideality may be accounted for in a relatively rigorous manner, but if more association states are involved, the analysis becomes quite complex. We show that under reasonable assumptions, the nonideality in a composition-gradient static light scattering measurement may be accounted for in a simple fashion. The correction is applied to determining the stoichiometry and binding affinity of a protein previously characterized via sedimentation equilibrium and dynamic light scattering. The results of the new analysis are remarkably self-consistent and in line with the expectations for the form of self-association predicted previously from analysis of the surface residuals, establishing composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering with nonideality corrections as a critical technology for characterizing associative interactions in concentrated solutions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Do adults with high gliadin antibody concentrations have subclinical gluten intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, J A; Gudjónsson, H; Freysdóttir, J; Jónsdóttir, I; Valdimarsson, H

    1992-02-01

    Gliadin antibodies of the IgG and IgA isotypes and IgG subclasses were measured in 200 adults who were randomly selected from the Icelandic National Register. Those with the highest gliadin antibody concentrations were invited with negative controls to participate in a clinical evaluation. Neither the study subjects nor the physicians who recorded and evaluated the clinical findings were aware of the antibody levels. Significantly higher proportion of the gliadin antibody positive individuals reported unexplained attacks of diarrhoea (p = 0.03), and IgA gliadin antibodies were associated with increased prevalence of chronic fatigue (p = 0.0037). The gliadin antibody positive group also showed significantly decreased transferrin saturation, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin compared with the gliadin antibody negative controls. Serum folic acid concentrations were significantly lower in the IgA gliadin antibody positive individuals. On blind global assessment 15 of the 48 participants were thought to have clinical and laboratory features that are compatible with gluten sensitive enteropathy, and 14 of these were in the gliadin antibody positive group (p = 0.013). Complaints that have not been associated with gluten intolerance had similar prevalence in both groups with the exception of persistent or recurrent headaches that were more common in the gliadin antibody positive group. These findings raise the possibility that a subclinical form of gluten intolerance may be relatively common.

  7. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-concentration graphene dispersion stabilized by block copolymers in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Hyang Moo; Cheong, In Woo

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a comprehensive study for the preparation of graphene dispersions by liquid-phase exfoliation using amphiphilic diblock copolymers; poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(styrene) (PEO-b-PS), poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PEO-b-PVP), and poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(pyrenemethyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PPy) with similar block lengths. Block copolymers were prepared from PEO using the Steglich coupling reaction followed by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Graphite platelets (G) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used as graphene sources. The dispersion stability of graphene in ethanol was comparatively investigated by on-line turbidity, and the graphene concentration in the dispersions was determined gravimetrically. Our results revealed that the graphene dispersions with PEO-b-PVP were much more stable and included graphene with fewer defects than that with PEO-b-PS or PEO-b-PPy, as confirmed by turbidity and Raman analyses. Gravimetry confirmed that graphene concentrations up to 1.7 and 1.8mg/mL could be obtained from G and rGO dispersions, respectively, using PEO-b-PVP after one week. Distinctions in adhesion forces of PS, VP, PPy block units with graphene surface and the variation in solubility of the block copolymers in ethanol medium significantly affected the stability of the graphene dispersion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. STUDY OF CHEMICAL INTERACTION OF MAGNESIA CEMENT WITH HIGH CONCENTRATION MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. In activating MgO by electrolyte salts, as a result of formation of non water-resist magnesium silicate hydrate are obtained the durable cement stone having the low water-resist. I. P. Vyrodov considers [9; 5], that magnesia cement curing in mixing with sufficiently concentrated (C > 20 % solutions MgCl2 is caused with the crystallization of oxyhydrochloride composition: 3MgO∙MgCl2∙11Н2О, 5MgO∙MgCl2∙13Н2О and 7MgO∙MgCl2∙15Н2О. In the lower concentration parts of MgCl2 solution is formed a transitional compound of Mg[(OHnCl2-n] with isomorphous Mg(OH2 structure. At very low Cl concentration only Mg(OH2 is practically formed. Purpose. The Formation of water-resist magnesium silicate hydrates for obtaining of fast curing and solid structure of the magnesia stone. Conclusion. The dependence of the formation of the magnesia stone from the ratio (MgO/MgCl2 of the magnesia cement (MgO and the magnesium chloride solution (MgCl2 of different density has been identified in order to obtain the best content for oxyhydrochloride 3MgO•MgCl2•11Н2О, 5MgO•MgCl2•13Н2О and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2. In putting into the system MgO∙–∙H2О of the silicic acid or fine ground quartz grains with size of less than 20 – 30 microns, over 1 month for the magnesium silicate hydrates formation is needed, where from 2 to 5 % of the total number of newgrowths are created. The study is proved by the expert opinion, that magnesium silicate hydrates do not have binding properties, unlike calcium silicate hydrates, and the main role in the system curing is played with the Mg(OH2 gel recrystallization, which provides the acceptable stone strength (R ≈ 30MPa in a few years. It has been also established, that in mixing of cement with low concentration MgO solutions of less than 1,5 mol/l (or 13% 1,1g/sm3, the final product in the stone structure is Mg(OH2. With increasing the sealer (MgCl2 solution there is formed by turn in

  10. Ultra-High Efficiency, High-Concentration PV System Based On Spectral Division Between GaInP/GaInAs/Ge And BPC Silicon Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, P.; Mohedano, R.; Buljan, M.; Miñano, J. C.; Sun, Y.; Falicoff, W.; Vilaplana, J.; Chaves, J.; Biot, G.; López, J.

    2011-12-01

    A novel HCPV nonimaging concentrator concept with high concentration (>500×) is presented. It uses the combination of a commercial concentration GaInP/GaInAs/Ge 3J cell and a concentration Back-Point-Contact (BPC) concentration silicon cell for efficient spectral utilization, and external confinement techniques for recovering the 3J cell's reflection. The primary optical element (POE) is a flat Fresnel lens and the secondary optical element (SOE) is a free-form RXI-type concentrator with a band-pass filter embedded it, both POE and SOE performing Köhler integration to produce light homogenization. The band-pass filter sends the IR photons in the 900-1200 nm band to the silicon cell. Computer simulations predict that four-terminal terminal designs could achieve ˜46% added cell efficiencies using commercial 39% 3J and 26% Si cells. A first proof-of concept receiver prototype has been manufactured using a simpler optical architecture (with a lower concentration, ˜100× and lower simulated added efficiency), and experimental measurements have shown up to 39.8% 4J receiver efficiency using a 3J with peak efficiency of 36.9%.

  11. Conformational Analysis of Proteins in Highly Concentrated Solutions by Dialysis-Coupled Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houde, Damian; Esmail Nazari, Zeinab; Bou-Assaf, George M

    2016-01-01

    When highly concentrated, an antibody solution can exhibit unusual behaviors, which can lead to unwanted properties, such as increased levels of protein aggregation and unusually high viscosity. Molecular modeling, along with many indirect biophysical measurements, has suggested that the cause...... for these phenomena can be due to short range electrostatic and/or hydrophobic protein-protein interactions. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a useful tool for investigating protein conformation, dynamics, and interactions. However, "traditional" continuous dilution labeling HDX......-MS experiments have limited utility for the direct analysis of solutions with high concentrations of protein. Here, we present a dialysis-based HDX-MS (di-HDX-MS) method as an alternative HDX-MS labeling format, which takes advantage of passive dialysis rather than the classic dilution workflow. We applied...

  12. Feasibility of using ammonia-water mixture in high temperature concentrated solar power plants with direct vapour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Knudsen, Thomas; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    is to use direct vapour generation with water/steam as both the heat transfer fluid in the solar receivers and the cycle working fluid. This enables to operate the plant with higher turbine inlet temperatures. Available literature suggests that it is feasible to use ammonia-water mixture at high...... temperatures without corroding the equipment by using suitable additives with the mixture. This paper assesses the thermodynamic feasibility of using ammonia-water mixture in high temperature (450 °C) and high pressure (over 100 bar) concentrated solar power plants with direct vapour generation. The following......Concentrated solar power plants have attracted an increasing interest in the past few years – both with respect to the design of various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant performance...

  13. High glucose concentration induces elevated expression of anti-oxidant and proteolytic enzymes in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomoko; Yamane, Ken; Minamoto, Atsushi; Tsukamoto, Hidetoshi; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Izumi, Shunsuke; Hoppe, George; Sears, Jonathan E; Mishima, Hiromu K

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the differential protein expression patterns of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exposed to increased glucose concentrations. Cultured human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were exposed for 4 days with normal blood glucose concentration (5.5 mM D-glucose), followed by exposure to either normal (5.5 mM) or high (33 mM) concentrations of D-glucose for 48h. Protein extracts of glucose-treated RPE cells were then subjected to comparative proteome analysis based on 2-D gel electrophoresis. Protein spots were visualized by silver staining. The differentially expressed proteins were excised and digested in-gel with trypsin, then analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The expression levels of cathepsin B, glutathione peroxidase and heat shock protein 27 were increased, and that of protein disulfide isomerase decreased in high glucose treated RPE compared to normal glucose. The isoelectric point of copper/zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) shifted toward acidic region in response to high glucose. Cu/Zn-SOD activity in high glucose group was significantly lower than that in normal glucose group (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test). Systematic survey of protein expression has revealed that RPE cells respond to acute, pathologically high glucose levels by the elevated expression of anti-oxidant and proteolytic enzymes.

  14. High concentration hydrate in disseminated forms obtained in Shenhu area, north slope of South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.; Wu, N.; Zhang, G.; Liang, J.; Lu, J. [Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, H. [China Geological Survey, Beijing (China); Su, X. [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China); Schultheiss, P.; Holland, M. [Geotek, Daventry (United Kingdom); Rose, K. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The geological and tectonic settings, the temperature and pressure regimes, and the methane-generating potential from the thick organic-rich sediments of the north slope of the South China Seas are all favorable properties for gas hydrate formation. The Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey (GMGS) has been performing geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations for gas hydrate in the northern South China Sea since 2001. In order to determine the nature and distribution of gas hydrates, a gas hydrate drilling expedition was initiated in the Shenhu area of the north slope of the South China Sea in April and June of 2007. The purpose of the expedition was to detect gas hydrates and quantify its nature, distribution and concentration. The study involved the use of different observation and measurement techniques to provide multiple lines of evidence for gas hydrate. Pressure cores provided benchmark spot measurements of actual methane concentration, gas hydrate concentration, and background chlorinity. In order to detect the presence of dissociating/dissociated gas hydrate throughout the hole, infrared imaging of non-pressurized cores were utilized. Porewater freshening analysis from chlorinity variations was employed to quantify the gas hydrate at the centimeter scale. Gas hydrate saturations from the pressure and non-pressurized cores within the cored intervals were then compared to the resistivity, acoustic, and other well logs for a complete hydrate picture of the borehole. The expedition also involved the collection of samples from both non-pressure and pressure cores that were likely to contain gas hydrate and preserved them in liquid nitrogen. The paper discussed the general operations and strategy; coring plan; preservation of gas hydrate samples in liquid nitrogen; core temperature measurement; porewater sampling, porewater analysis, and gas hydrate from porewater freshening. Other procedures that were discussed included gas sampling and analyses

  15. The importance of inclusion of kinetic information in the extrapolation of high-to-low concentrations for human limit setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Bos, Peter M J

    2017-10-10

    Human health risk assessment of inhalation exposures generally includes a high-to-low concentration extrapolation. Although this is a common step in human risk assessment, it introduces various uncertainties. One of these uncertainties is related to the toxicokinetics. Many kinetic processes such as absorption, metabolism or excretion can be subject to saturation at high concentration levels. In the presence of saturable kinetic processes of the parent compound or metabolites, disproportionate increases in internal blood or tissue concentration relative to the external concentration administered may occur resulting in nonlinear kinetics. The present paper critically reviews human health risk assessment of inhalation exposure. More specific, it emphasizes the importance of kinetic information for the determination of a safe exposure in human risk assessment of inhalation exposures assessed by conversion from a high animal exposure to a low exposure in humans. For two selected chemicals, i.e. methyl tert-butyl ether and 1,2-dichloroethane, PBTK-modelling was used, for illustrative purposes, to follow the extrapolation and conversion steps as performed in existing risk assessments for these chemicals. Human health-based limit values based on an external dose metric without sufficient knowledge on kinetics might be too high to be sufficiently protective. Insight in the actual internal exposure, the toxic agent, the appropriate dose metric, and whether an effect is related to internal concentration or dose is important. Without this, application of assessment factors on an external dose metric and the conversion to continuous exposure results in an uncertain human health risk assessment of inhalation exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  17. A case of nighttime high ozone concentration over the greater Athens area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrakis, Anastasios [Dept. of Economic and Regional Dept., Panteion Univ., Athens (Greece); Flocas, Helena A.; Mavromatidis, Elias; Kallos, George; Theoharatos, George [Dept. of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Univ. of Athens (Greece); Christides, Anastasios [Bureau of Pollution Control and Environmental Quality of the Dept. Association of Thriassion Plain, Elefsis (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    A case of abrupt and significant increase of surface ozone was examined, which is recorded during the night of October 9{sup th}, 2003, over the arca of the Thriassion Plain - Greece, being accompanied by the occurrence of a wind outbreak during the same period. As this increase cannot be explained by the ordinary diurnal evolution of tropospheric ozone concentration, the possibility of downward stratospheric ozone transport was investigated. It was indeed found that the case is associated with tropopause folding and subsequent stratospheric air intrusion in the upper troposphere over Greece. With the aid of mesoscale modeling, being also supported by the hydraulic theory, it was found that the intense wind outbreak is associated with the development of disturbances in the lee side of the neighbouring mountain ranges. These disturbances contribute to the free troposphere - atmospheric boundary layer interaction, facilitating the transportation of stratospheric air close to the surface, thus resulting to the observed tropospheric ozone increase. (orig.)

  18. Porous Nanomaterials for Ultrabroadband Omnidirectional Anti-Reflection Surfaces with Applications in High Concentration Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yuan

    2016-12-06

    Materials for nanoporous coatings that exploit optimized chemistries and self-assembly processes offer capabilities to reach ≈98% transmission efficiency and negligible scattering losses over the broad wavelength range of the solar spectrum from 350 nm to 1.5 μm, on both flat and curved glass substrates. These nanomaterial anti-reflection coatings also offer wide acceptance angles, up to ±40°, for both s- and p-polarization states of incident light. Carefully controlled bilayer films have allowed for the fabrication of dual-sided, gradient index profiles on plano-convex lens elements. In concentration photovoltaics platforms, the resultant enhancements in the photovoltaics efficiencies are ≈8%, as defined by experimental measurements on systems that use microscale triple-junction solar cells. These materials and their applications in technologies that require control over interface reflections have the potential for broad utility in imaging systems, photolithography, light-emitting diodes, and display technologies.

  19. Highly Variable Plasma Concentrations of Voriconazole in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Tom; Jonker, Martine; de Waal, Marjolein; Egberts, Toine C. G.; Ververs, Tessa T.; Boelens, Jaap J.; Bierings, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are of great concern in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Voriconazole is usually the drug of first choice for treating or preventing invasive aspergillosis. Optimum trough levels (Ctroughs) are between 1 and 5 mg/liter. It is unclear whether these levels are reached with currently advised pediatric dosing schedules. Between 2007 and 2011, 11 patients voriconazole in the HSCT unit of UMC Utrecht. For children 12 years) (P = 0.034). The intrapatient variability in Ctrough ranged between 1 and 238%. Voriconazole was discontinued in six patients due to toxicity. These patients had a median Ctrough of 0.5 mg/liter at the initial dose (ranging from 0.5 to 2.6 mg/liter), and a medium maximal concentration of 4 mg/liter was reached. Inter- and intrapatient variability is a major concern in voriconazole treatment and necessitates therapeutic drug monitoring of dosing, especially in young children. PMID:23114771

  20. Stability evaluation of (18)F-FDG at high radioactive concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leah R; Martin, Katherine J; Jacobson, Mark S; Hung, Joseph C; Mosman, Elton A

    2012-03-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the concentration of ethanol, a known radiolytic stabilizer, needed to maintain stability for 12 h at an (18)F-FDG concentration of 19.7-22.6 GBq/mL (533-610 mCi/mL) at the end of synthesis (EOS). (18)F(-) was formed by the (18)O(p, n)(18)F reaction using 16.5-MeV protons on a cyclotron. (18)F-FDG was synthesized using a synthesis platform. The final product was formulated in 15 mL of phosphate buffer. The synthesis took 22 min, delivering up to 336.7 GBq (9.1 Ci) of (18)F-FDG at the EOS. A series of 9 runs, 19.7-22.6 GBq/mL (533-610 mCi/mL), was completed. Three runs were doped with 0.1% ethanol, 3 with 0.2% ethanol, and 3 with no ethanol added. The radiochemical purity (RCP) was tested at about 1-h increments over a 12-h period. RCP was found by radio-thin-layer chromatography using aluminum-backed silica gel plates, acetonitrile, and water 90:10. An (18)F-FDG standard of 1 mg/mL was used to confirm radiochemical identity. The chromatography plates were analyzed on a radio-thin-layer chromatograph using a β-detector. Residual solvents were also tested using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and a capillary column. Other quality control measurements performed were pH and appearance. The 3 runs doped with 0.1% ethanol failed RCP after 5 h. The 3 runs using an ethanol concentration of 0.2% maintained stability through 12 h beyond the EOS. For these 3 runs, the radiolytic impurities were relatively constant at 6.1% ± 0.7% after 3 h. The runs using no ethanol failed RCP at 1 h. The pH varied between 5.3 and 6.1. Visual inspection was always clear and particulate-free. For the runs with 0.2% and 0.1% ethanol, the residual solvents were 0.21% ± 0.02% and 0.10% ± 0.02%, respectively. Regardless of ethanol concentration, chemical purity and identity passed quality control measurements. With the addition of 0.2% ethanol, (18)F-FDG (19.7-22.6 GBq/mL [533-610 mCi/mL]) kept stability through 12 h beyond the EOS

  1. Microfluidic Concentric Gradient Generator Design for High-Throughput Cell-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra Tsur, Elishai; Zimerman, Michal; Maor, Idan; Elrich, Avner; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2017-01-01

    Gradients of diffusible signaling molecules play important role in various processes, ranging from cell differentiation to toxicological evaluation. Microfluidic technology provides an accurate control of tempospatial conditions. However, current microfluidic platforms are not designed to handle multiple gradients and cell populations simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a rapidly adaptable microfluidic design able to expose multiple cell populations to an array of chemical gradients. Our design is based on pressure-equilibrated concentric channels and a pressure-dissipating control layer, facilitating the seeding of multiple cell populations in a single device. The design was numerically evaluated and experimentally validated. The device consists of 8 radiating stimuli channels and 12 circular cell culture channels, creating an array of 96 different continuous gradients that can be simultaneously monitored over time.

  2. Ultra-Fast Low Concentration Detection of Candida Pathogens Utilizing High Resolution Micropore Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Candida species are the fourth most common cause of nosocomial blood stream infections in the United States, early diagnostic tools for invasive candidemia are lacking. Due to an increasing rate of candidemia, a new screening system is needed to detect the Candida species in a timely manner. Here we describe a novel method of detection using a solid-state micro-scale pore similar to the operational principles of a Coulter counter. With a steady electrolyte current flowing through the pore, measurements are taken of changes in the current corresponding to the shape of individual yeasts as they translocate or travel through the pore. The direct ultra-fast low concentration electrical addressing of C. albicans has established criteria for distinguishing individual yeast based on their structural properties, which may reduce the currently used methods’ complexity for both identification and quantification capabilities in mixed blood samples

  3. Greater cognitive decline with aging among elders with high serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-A Kim

    Full Text Available Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were evaluated. "Lower cognitive function" was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST score (<25th percentile of DSST score, cutpoint 28 symbols substituted. Higher levels of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide modified the associations between age and lower cognitive function (Pinteraction<0.01, 0.03, <0.01, and 0.02, respectively. Elders in the 3rd tertile of these chemicals demonstrated a greater risk of lower cognitive function with aging, compared to those in the combined 1st and 2nd tertiles. Among those with highest OC pesticides (3rd tertile, the odds ratio for the risk of lower cognitive function was about 6 to 11 for the highest quintile of age (80-85 years vs. the first quintile of age (60-63 years, while the association between age and lower cognitive function became flatter in those with lower OC pesticides (combined 1st and 2nd tertiles. Both DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated

  4. Bromate peak distortion in ion chromatography in samples containing high chloride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappoe, Michael K; Naeeni, Mohammad Hosein; Lucy, Charles A

    2016-04-29

    In this study, the effect of column overload of the matrix ion, chloride, on the elution peak profiles of trace bromate is investigated. The resultant peak profiles of chloride and bromate are explained on the basis of competitive Langmuir isotherms. The Thermo IonPac AS9-HC, AS19 and AS23 columns are recommended by the manufacturer for bromate (a carcinogen) analysis. Under trace conditions, these columns provide baseline resolution of bromate from matrix ions such as chloride (Rs=2.9, 3.3 and 3.2, respectively for the three columns). Injection of 10-300 mM chloride with both hydroxide and carbonate eluents resulted in overload on these columns. On the basis of competitive Langmuir isotherms, a deficiency in the local concentration of the more retained eluent in addition to analyte overload leads to fronting of the overloaded analyte peak. The peak asymmetries (B/A10%) for chloride changed from 1.0 (Gaussian) under trace conditions to 0.7 (fronting) at 300 mM Cl(-) for IonPac AS9-HC, 0.9-0.6 for AS19 and 0.8-0.5, for AS23, respectively. The 10mM bromate peak is initially near Gaussian (B/A10%=0.9) but becomes increasingly distorted and pulled back into the chloride peak as the concentration of chloride increased. Increasing the eluent strength reduced the pull-back effect on bromate and fronting in chloride in all cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High dietary salt does not significantly affect plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayorh Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dahl salt-sensitive rat, but not the Dahl salt-resistant rat, develops hypertension and hypovitaminosis D when fed a high salt diet. Since the salt-sensitive rat and salt-resistant rat were bred from the Sprague Dawley rat, the aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that salt-resistant and Sprague Dawley rats would be similar in their vitamin D endocrine system response to high salt intake. Findings Sprague Dawley, salt-sensitive, and salt-resistant rats were fed high (80 g/kg, 8% or low (3 g/kg, 3% salt diets for three weeks. The blood pressure of Sprague Dawley rats increased from baseline to week 3 during both high and low salt intake and the mean blood pressure at week 3 of high salt intake was higher than that at week 3 of low salt intake (P Conclusions These data indicate that the effect of high salt intake on the vitamin D endocrine system of Sprague Dawley rats at week 3 was similar to that of salt-resistant rats. The salt-sensitive rat, thus, appears to be a more appropriate model than the Sprague Dawley rat for assessing possible effects of salt-sensitivity on vitamin D status of humans.

  6. Assessment of Impact of High Particulate Concentration on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate of Lungs of Sand Stone Quarry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Purohit

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the impact of high particulate concentration on peak expiratory flow rate of lungs of sand stone quarry workers. The workers were engaged in different types of activities such as drilling, loading and dressing. These different working conditions had different concentrations of RSPM, leading to different exposure levels in workers. It was found that exposure duration and exposure concentrations were the main factors responsible for damage to the respiratory tracts of the workers. The particles were deposited at various areas of the respiratory system and reduced the peak flow rate. It was also revealed from the study that most of the workers suffered from silicosis if the exposure duration was more than 20 years.

  7. Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 %: human aqueous humor concentration detected by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Angelo; Vagge, Aldo; Salis, Annalisa; Fucile, Carmen; Marini, Valeria; Martelli, Antonietta; Giuffrida, Sebastiano; Iester, Michele; Damonte, Gianluca; Mattioli, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor concentrations of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 % in patients undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients requiring cataract extraction received one drop (50 µL) of bromfenac 0.09 % solution in the eye to be operated, before bedtime the day before surgery or the morning of the surgery. The last administration was recorded. At the time of paracentesis, an aqueous humor sample was collected with a 30-gauge needle attached to a TB syringe and was later analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for drug concentration. 188 treated volunteers and 48 control, untreated, subjects were included in the study. The mean aqueous concentration of bromfenac in the treated group was 37.60 ± 68.86 and 0 nM (nmol/L) in the control group (p humor up to about 12 h after instillation.

  8. Mechanisms of surface wave energy dissipation over a high-concentration sediment suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykovski, Peter; Trowbridge, John; Kineke, Gail

    2015-03-01

    Field observations from the spring of 2008 on the Louisiana shelf were used to elucidate the mechanisms of wave energy dissipation over a muddy seafloor. After a period of high discharge from the Atchafalaya River, acoustic measurements showed the presence of 20 cm thick mobile fluid-mud layers during and after wave events. While total wave energy dissipation (D) was greatest during the high energy periods, these periods had relatively low normalized attenuation rates (κ = Dissipation/Energy Flux). During declining wave-energy conditions, as the fluid-mud layer settled, the attenuation process became more efficient with high κ and low D. The transition from high D and low κ to high κ and low D was caused by a transition from turbulent to laminar flow in the fluid-mud layer as measured by a Pulse-coherent Doppler profiler. Measurements of the oscillatory boundary layer velocity profile in the fluid-mud layer during laminar flow reveal a very thick wave boundary layer with curvature filling the entire fluid-mud layer, suggesting a kinematic viscosity 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than that of clear water. This high viscosity is also consistent with a high wave-attenuation rates measured by across-shelf energy flux differences. The transition to turbulence was forced by instabilities on the lutocline, with wavelengths consistent with the dispersion relation for this two-layer system. The measurements also provide new insight into the dynamics of wave-supported turbidity flows during the transition from a laminar to turbulent fluid-mud layer.

  9. Sub-chronic inhalation of high concentrations of manganese sulfate induces lower airway pathology in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Brian A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxicity and pulmonary dysfunction are well-recognized problems associated with prolonged human exposure to high concentrations of airborne manganese. Surprisingly, histological characterization of pulmonary responses induced by manganese remains incomplete. The primary objective of this study was to characterize histologic changes in the monkey respiratory tract following manganese inhalation. Methods Subchronic (6 hr/day, 5 days/week inhalation exposure of young male rhesus monkeys to manganese sulfate was performed. One cohort of monkeys (n = 4–6 animals/exposure concentration was exposed to air or manganese sulfate at 0.06, 0.3, or 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days. Another eight monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days and held for 45 or 90 days before evaluation. A second cohort (n = 4 monkeys per time point was exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 and evaluated after 15 or 33 exposure days. Evaluations included measurement of lung manganese concentrations and evaluation of respiratory histologic changes. Tissue manganese concentrations were compared for the exposure and control groups by tests for homogeneity of variance, analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison. Histopathological findings were evaluated using a Pearson's Chi-Square test. Results Animals exposed to manganese sulfate at ≥0.3 mg Mn/m3 for 65 days had increased lung manganese concentrations. Exposure to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for ≥15 exposure days resulted in increased lung manganese concentrations, mild subacute bronchiolitis, alveolar duct inflammation, and proliferation of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Bronchiolitis and alveolar duct inflammatory changes were absent 45 days post-exposure, suggesting that these lesions are reversible upon cessation of subchronic high-dose manganese exposure. Conclusion High-dose subchronic manganese sulfate inhalation is

  10. Confirmation of the sterilization effect using a high concentration of ozone gas for the bio-clean room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Takuji; Nagano, Katsunori; Nogami, Toshihiro; Matsuki, Noritomo; Kosaka, Noriyoshi; Shintani, Hideharu; Katoh, Miyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A high-level aseptic environment must be maintained in bio-cleanrooms used for the manufacture of sterile products. In the past, formaldehyde gas was most commonly used to sterilize bio-cleanrooms, but due to strict residual limitations there has been a need to develop a less toxic alternative choice. The authors have developed a revolutionary new sterilization system using a high concentration of ozone gas and used this system to sterilize an actual bio-cleanroom. This system integrates the ozone gas generator with the air conditioning system by proper control. The design specifications for the system included an ozone gas concentration of 200 ppm or more, relative humidity of 80% or more, and a sterilizing time of 120 min. Blow vents and suction ports were placed to ensure a uniform airflow which would extend through the entire room during ozone gas sterilization. Tests regarding long-term material exposure to ozone gas were conducted when the system was introduced to distinguish usable and unusable materials. In an actually constructed cleanroom, simulations were used to predict the evenness of the diffusion of ozone gas concentration and relative humidity during ozone gas sterilization, and measurements of the actual indoor ozone gas concentration, temperature and relative humidity during sterilization revealed that the ozone concentration and relative humidity needed for sterilization had been achieved generally throughout the entire environment. In addition, the CT value (mg/m(3) (=ppm) × min) , derived by multiplying the ozone gas concentration during ozone gas sterilization by the sterilization time, was equal to or greater than the target value of 24 × 10(3) (ppm·min) . When the results of sterilization in a cleanroom were confirmed using a biological indicator (BI) , negative results were obtained at all measurement points, demonstrating that sterilization was being performed effectively in the actual factory at which the ozone gas sterilization system

  11. Stability of buffer-free freeze-dried formulations: A feasibility study of a monoclonal antibody at high protein concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garidel, Patrick; Pevestorf, Benjamin; Bahrenburg, Sven

    2015-11-01

    We studied the stability of freeze-dried therapeutic protein formulations over a range of initial concentrations (from 40 to 160 mg/mL) and employed a variety of formulation strategies (including buffer-free freeze dried formulations, or BF-FDF). Highly concentrated, buffer-free liquid formulations of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to be a viable alternative to conventionally buffered preparations. We considered whether it is feasible to use the buffer-free strategy in freeze-dried formulations, as an answer to some of the known drawbacks of conventional buffers. We therefore conducted an accelerated stability study (24 weeks at 40 °C) to assess the feasibility of stabilizing freeze-dried formulations without "classical" buffer components. Factors monitored included pH stability, protein integrity, and protein aggregation. Because the protein solutions are inherently self-buffering, and the system's buffer capacity scales with protein concentration, we included highly concentrated buffer-free freeze-dried formulations in the study. The tested formulations ranged from "fully formulated" (containing both conventional buffer and disaccharide stabilizers) to "buffer-free" (including formulations with only disaccharide lyoprotectant stabilizers) to "excipient-free" (with neither added buffers nor stabilizers). We evaluated the impacts of varying concentrations, buffering schemes, pHs, and lyoprotectant additives. At the end of 24 weeks, no change in pH was observed in any of the buffer-free formulations. Unbuffered formulations were found to have shorter reconstitution times and lower opalescence than buffered formulations. Protein stability was assessed by visual inspection, sub-visible particle analysis, protein monomer content, charge variants analysis, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All of these measures found the stability of buffer-free formulations that included a disaccharide stabilizer comparable to buffer

  12. Further evidence that some male-based neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with high intrauterine testosterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that reading disability (RD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share a measure of genetic overlap. They also share some epidemiological features, and have all been suspected of multifactorial (genetic and environmental) threshold origins. It has also been hypothesized that ASD, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified, and ADHD are partially caused by high maternal intrauterine testosterone levels. Here I offer a new method of testing this latter hypothesis on some of these disorders (RD, ADHD, and ASD). All these disorders occur more commonly in males. If the intrauterine testosterone hypothesis was correct, then probands should have a statistically significant excess of brothers among their siblings. Data are adduced here to test this. When treated as individual disorders, the data are significant only in the case of RD. However, the data are highly significant when pooled as RD + ADHD or RD + ADHD + ASD. Taken alone, the data on ASD are not significant. These results suggest that: (1) taxonomically, RD and ADHD are moresimilar to one another than either is to ASD; and (2) probands in the pooled samples have a very highly significant excess of brothers. This result stands in need of explanation. Provisionally, the data may be interpreted as suggesting that RD may be caused by high intrauterine testosterone levels, and confirming the hypothesis that ADHD is partially caused by high intrauterine testosterone.

  13. Is high indoor radon concentration correlated with specific activity of radium in nearby soil? A study in Kosovo and Metohija.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulan, Ljiljana; Stajic, Jelena M; Bochicchio, Francesco; Carpentieri, Carmela; Milic, Gordana; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Zunic, Zora S

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents indoor radon concentrations and specific activities of natural radionuclides measured in soils of Kosovo and Metohija. The measurements of radon concentration were performed during two consecutive 6-month periods in two rooms of 63 houses using CR-39 detectors. The annual radon concentration ranged from 30 to 810 Bq m-3 with the average value of 128 Bq m-3. Almost 15% of the houses had radon concentration higher than 200 Bq m-3. The difference between radon concentrations measured in the two 6-month periods was analyzed, showing, as expected, a slightly higher radon concentration in the "winter period" than in the "summer period". The variation between different rooms of the same houses was also analyzed, showing that 20% of the dwellings had a significantly higher radon concentration (>100 Bq m-3) in one room compared to the other (the coefficient of variation ranged up to 96%). The specific activities of natural radionuclides in the nearby soil were determined by gamma spectrometry. The estimated average value (and standard deviation) of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K specific activities were 32 (13), 35 (16), and 582 (159) Bq kg-1, respectively. The correlation between indoor 222Rn and 226Ra content in soil was investigated. Only a weak correlation was found (Spearman's rho = 0.220) indicating that other factors might affect diffusion and accumulation of radon indoors, as confirmed also by the high variability between the rooms of the same houses.

  14. Residential radon exposure and esophageal cancer. An ecological study from an area with high indoor radon concentration (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the correlation between municipal esophageal cancer relative risk and municipal residential radon concentration in a high radon emission Spanish area. We performed an ecological study at municipal level in Galicia, Spain. For each municipality we estimated the median radon concentration and the relative risk (RR) for esophageal cancer mortality for males and females. The relative risk was calculated using a Bayesian approach. Homes with data on radon concentration were selected through stratified random sampling. To be included, each municipality had to have at least five radon measurements. We obtained Spearman's correlations for median residential radon concentration and esophageal cancer mortality RR for males and females, separately. We included 129 municipalities, covering the 79% of Galician population. 14% of municipalities had radon concentrations above the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level. We found a statistically significant correlation among residential radon and esophageal cancer mortality RR for males (p radon measurements the correlation pattern remained. This is the first study analyzing the association between residential radon and esophageal cancer. The results suggesting a possible effect of residential radon on esophageal cancer mortality should be explored through more robust epidemiological designs such as case-control studies.

  15. Treatment of highly concentrated tannery wastewater using electrocoagulation: Influence of the quality of aluminium used for the electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elabbas, S.; Ouazzani, N.; Mandi, L. [Laboratoire d’Hydrobiologie, Ecotoxicologie et Assainissement (LHEA, URAC 33), Faculté de Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Centre National d’Etude et de Recherche sur l’Eau et l’Energie (CNEREE), Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 511, Marrakech (Morocco); Berrekhis, F. [Equipe de Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 2400, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco); Perdicakis, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, Université de Lorraine—CNRS, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54602 Villers-lès Nancy Cedex (France); Pontvianne, S.; Pons, M-N.; Lapicque, F. [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP) UMR 7274, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy cedex (France); Leclerc, J-P, E-mail: jean-pierre.leclerc@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP) UMR 7274, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy cedex (France)

    2016-12-05

    Highlights: • COD and Cr(III) species can be simultaneously removed by electrocoagulation. • Cu-containing Al alloy is more efficient than pure Al as electrodes. • Dilution of too concentrated tannery wastewater is required for efficient treatment. - Abstract: This paper deals with the ability of electrocoagulation (EC) to remove simultaneously COD and chromium from a real chrome tanning wastewater in a batch stirred electro-coagulation cell provided with two aluminium-based electrodes (aluminium/copper/magnesium alloy and pure aluminium). Effects of operating time, current density and initial concentration of Cr(III) and COD have been investigated. The concentrations of pollutants have been successfully reduced to environmentally acceptable levels even if the concentrated effluent requires a long time of treatment of around 6 h with a 400 A/m{sup 2} current density. The aluminium alloy was found to be more efficient than pure aluminium for removal of COD and chromium. Dilution of the waste has been tested for treatment: high abatement levels could be obtained with shorter time of treatment and lower current densities. Energy consumption of the electrocoagulation process was also discussed. The dilution by half of the concentrated waste leads to a higher abatement performance of both COD and chromium with the best energy efficiency.

  16. Inhibitory effect of high calcium concentration on municipal solid waste leachate treatment by the activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; He, Pin Jing; Pu, Hong Xia; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2017-05-01

    This research focused on the inhibitory effects of Ca on the aerobic biological treatment of landfill leachate containing extremely high Ca concentrations. When the Ca concentration in leachate to be treated was more than 4500 mg l-1, the total organic carbon removal rate was significantly reduced and the processing time to achieve the same removal efficiency was 1.4 times that in the control treatment without added Ca. In contrast, the total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) removal efficiencies were positively related to the Ca concentration, increasing from 65.2% to 81.2% and from 69.2% to 83.7%, respectively, when the dosage of added Ca increased from zero to 8000 mg l-1. During aerobic treatment, the reductions of solution Ca concentration were in the range of 1003-2274 mg l-1 and were matched with increases in the Ca content in the residual sludge. The inhibition threshold of Ca in the leachate treated by the activated sludge process appeared to be 4500 mg l-1, which could be realized by controlling the influent Ca concentration and using an appropriate sludge return ratio in the activated sludge process.

  17. Effects of CO2 on stomatal conductance: do stomata open at very high CO2 concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Yorio, N. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Potato and wheat plants were grown for 50 d at 400, 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide (CO2). and sweetpotato and soybean were grown at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in controlled environment chambers to study stomatal conductance and plant water use. Lighting was provided with fluorescent lamps as a 12 h photoperiod with 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 PAR. Mid-day stomatal conductances for potato were greatest at 400 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-day conductances for wheat were greatest at 400 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-dark period conductances for potato were significantly greater at 10000 micromoles mol-1 than at 400 or 1000 micromoles mol-1, whereas dark conductance for wheat was similar in all CO2 treatments. Temporarily changing the CO2 concentration from the native 1000 micromoles mol-1 to 400 micromoles mol-1 increased mid-day conductance for all species, while temporarily changing from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 also increased conductance for potato and sweetpotato. Temporarily changing the dark period CO2 from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 increased conductance for potato, soybean and sweetpotato. In all cases, the stomatal responses were reversible, i.e. conductances returned to original rates following temporary changes in CO2 concentration. Canopy water use for potato was greatest at 10000, intermediate at 400, and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2, whereas canopy water use for wheat was greatest at 400 and similar at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Elevated CO2 treatments (i.e. 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1) resulted in increased plant biomass for both wheat and potato relative to 400 micromoles mol-1, and no injurious effects were apparent from the 10000 micromoles mol-1 treatment. Results indicate that super-elevated CO2 (i.e. 10000 micromoles mol-1) can increase stomatal conductance in some species, particularly during the dark period, resulting in

  18. Silica-immobilized Methylobacterium sp. NP3 and Acinetobacter sp. PK1 degrade high concentrations of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khongkhaem, P; Intasiri, A; Luepromchai, E

    2011-05-01

    To immobilize Methylobacterium sp. NP3 and Acinetobacter sp. PK1 to silica and determine the ability of the immobilized bacteria to degrade high concentrations of phenol. The phenol degradation activity of suspended and immobilized Methylobacterium sp. NP3 and Acinetobacter sp. PK1 bacteria was investigated in batch experiments with various concentrations of phenol. The bacterial cells were immobilized by attachment to or encapsulation in silica. The encapsulated bacteria had the highest phenol degradation rate, especially at initial phenol concentrations between 7500 and 10000 mg l(-1) . Additionally, the immobilized cells could continuously degrade phenol for up to 55 days. The encapsulation of a mixed culture of Methylobacterium sp. NP3 and Acinetobacter sp. PK1 is an effective and easy technique that can be used to improve bacterial stability and phenol degradation. Wastewater from various industries contains high concentrations of phenol, which can cause wastewater treatment failure. Silica-immobilized bacteria could be applied in bioreactors to initially remove the phenol, thereby preventing phenol shock loads to the wastewater treatment system. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Production of high concentrations of H2O2 in a bioelectrochemical reactor fed with real municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems can be used to energy-efficiently produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. Organic compounds in the wastewater are oxidized by microorganisms using the anode as electron acceptor. H2O2 is produced by reduction of oxygen on the cathode. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time production of high concentrations of H2O2 production from real municipal wastewater. A concentration of 2.26 g/L H2O2 was produced in 9 h at 8.3 kWh/kgH2O2. This concentration could potentially be useful for membrane cleaning at membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants. With an acetate-containing nutrient medium as anode feed, a H2O2 concentration of 9.67 g/L was produced in 21 h at an energy cost of 3.0 kWh/kgH2O2. The bioelectrochemical reactor used in this study suffered from a high internal resistance, most likely caused by calcium carbonate deposits on the cathode-facing side of the cation exchange membrane separating the anode and cathode compartments.

  20. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical...

  1. Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraj B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human and animal studies linking fluoride with diminished intelligence have been published. Although adverse effects of high intake of fluoride on intelligence and mental acuity continue to be reported, they are still controversial. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between fluoride in drinking water and children's intelligence. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 41 children were selected from the high fluoride area with 2.5mg/l (ppm fluoride in the drinking water and 85 children were selected from low fluoride area with 0.4mg/l (ppm fluoride in the drinking water. The intelligence quotient (IQ of each child was measured by the Raven's test. The history of illnesses affecting the nervous system, head trauma, birth weight (2.5kg or  2.5kg, residental history, age and sex of children were investigated by questionnaires completed by the children's parents. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In the high fluoride area the mean IQ of children (87.911 was significantly lower than in the low fluoride area (98.912.9 (P=0.025. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, exposure of children to high levels of fluoride may carry the risk of impaired development of intelligence.

  2. PKU : high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Fokkema, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early

  3. PKU: High plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjema, K.; Rijn, M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Burgerhof, J.G.M.; Heiner-Fokkema, M.R.; Spronsen, F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU

  4. High dielectric permittivity elastomers from well-dispersed expanded graphite in low concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Kostrzewska, Malgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The development of elastomer materials with a high dielectric permittivity has attracted increased interest over the last years due to their use in for example dielectric electroactive polymers. For this particular use, both the electrically insulating properties - as well as the mechanical...

  5. Inactivation of high concentration of pathogens in land-applied food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Mexico, as in other developing countries, the most important pollution and management problems of food-processing sludge are the high levels of pathogen microorganisms within the sludge and the lack of sites for its disposal. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of calcium oxide in the inactivation of ...

  6. The effect of high intensity mixing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of concentrated cellulose fiber suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Samaniuk; C. Tim Scott; Thatcher W. Root; Daniel J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a high shear environment was examined. The conversion of cellulose to glucose in samples mixed in a torque rheometer producing shear flows similar to those found in twin screw extruders was greater than that of unmixed samples. In addition, there is a synergistic effect of mixing and enzymatic hydrolysis; mixing...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the Commonwealth... implemented strategies will not create carbon monoxide violations elsewhere in the vicinity after the measures...

  8. Technology Enabling Ultra High Concentration Multi-Junction Cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedair, S. M.; Colter, Peter

    2016-03-30

    The project goal is to enable multijunction cells to operate at greater than 2000× suns intensity with efficiency above forty percent. To achieve this goal the recipients have developed a robust high-bandgap tunnel junction, reduce series resistance, and integrated a practical heat dissipation scheme.

  9. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  10. A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage. PMID:24242252

  11. Effect of Essential Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Structure and Function of Catalase at High Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mirmiranpoor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of changes in structure and activity of catalase, as an antioxidant enzymatic protein, in combination with glucose and essential unsaturated fatty acids is the aim of present study. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the activity and structure of catalase, a solution of this enzyme with 10 mg/mL concentration in phosphate buffer (0.1 M and pH = 7.4, in the presence and absence of 50 mmol glucose was prepared, filtered, and then incubated for 4 months at 37°C with and without fatty acids including linolenic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids, separately. Samples were taken from each tube of solution, every 14 days for 4 months, to assess the fluorescence emission, circular dichroism (CD and activity. Results: According to the results, catalase showed increase in fluorescence emission and decrease in activity after incubation with glucose in comparison with pure protein. Moreover, catalase showed alteration in CD after incubation with glucose during 4 months. After incubation with glucose and each of the mentioned unsaturated fatty acids, alterations of catalase were neared toward normal level in fluorescence emission, CD, and activity in comparison with pure protein. Conclusion: Functional and structural protection of catalase against damages from hyperglycemic environment with addition of essential unsaturated fatty acids was proved in our investigation.

  12. Highly improved synthesis of gold nanobipyramids by tuning the concentration of hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Ying; Zhu, Jian; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu, E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com [Xi’an Jiaotong University, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology (China)

    2016-07-15

    Fabrication of gold nanobipyramids (Au BPs) has attracted great attention because they exhibit more advantageous plasmonic properties. In this study, Au BPs were synthesized by the well-known seeded growth in the presence of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The effects of the ingredients, including HCl, silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}), l-Ascorbic acid (AA), and seeds on the structure and yield of the Au BPs were systemically investigated. The results showed that the abundant HCl could improve the yield of Au BPs and decrease the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance wavelength. Under the circumstance of higher concentration of AA and AgNO{sub 3}, more byproducts were resulted. In addition, the effect of HCl under different ratios of seed solution to AA has also been studied. The results showed that the yield was less sensitive to HCl when the amount of seed solution was small. If substantial AA was added to the system, then abundant HCl should be introduced correspondingly to improve the yield of Au BPs.

  13. Highly concentrated, stable nitrogen-doped graphene for supercapacitors: Simultaneous doping and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Baojiang [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin (China); Tian Chungui; Wang Lei; Sun Li; Chen Chen; Nong Xiaozhen [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin (China); Qiao Yingjie, E-mail: qiaoyingjie@hrbeu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Fu Honggang, E-mail: fuhg@vip.sina.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin (China)

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we developed a concentrated ammonia-assisted hydrothermal method to obtain N-doped graphene sheets by simultaneous N-doping and reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the surface chemistry and the structure of N-doped graphene sheets were also investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of N-doped graphene reveals that the highest doping level of 7.2% N is achieved at 180 Degree-Sign C for 12 h. N binding configurations of sample consist of pyridine N, quaternary N, and pyridine-N oxides. N doping is accompanied by the reduction of GO with decreases in oxygen levels from 34.8% in GO down to 8.5% in that of N-doped graphene. Meanwhile, the sample exhibits excellent N-doped thermal stability. Electrical measurements demonstrate that products have higher capacitive performance than that of pure graphene, the maximum specific capacitance of 144.6 F/g can be obtained which ascribe the pseudocapacitive effect from the N-doping. The samples also show excellent long-term cycle stability of capacitive performance.

  14. High concentration calcitriol induces endoplasmic reticulum stress related gene profile in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ak, Handan; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2017-04-01

    Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is known for its anticancer properties including induction of apoptosis as well as the inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. Understanding the mechanisms of action for calcitriol will help with the development of novel treatment strategies. Since vitamin D exerts its cellular actions via binding to its receptor and by altering expressions of a set of genes, we aimed to evaluate the effect of calcitriol on transcriptomic profile of breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that calcitriol alters endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, therefore in this study we have focused on ER-stress-related genes to reveal calcitriols action on these genes in particular. We have treated breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with previously determined IC50 concentrations of calcitriol and evaluated the transcriptomic alterations via microarray. During analysis, only genes altered by at least 2-fold with a P value < 0.05 were taken into consideration. Our findings revealed an ER-stress-associated transcriptomic profile induced by calcitriol. Induced genes include genes with a pro-survival function (NUPR1, DNAJB9, HMOX1, LCN2, and LAMP3) and with a pro-death function (CHOP (DDIT3), DDIT4, NDGR1, NOXA, and CLGN). These results suggest that calcitriol induces an ER-stress-like response inducing both pro-survival and pro-death transcripts in the process.

  15. Development of human corneal epithelium on organized fibrillated transparent collagen matrices synthesized at high concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidu, Aurélien; Ghoubay-Benallaoua, Djida; Lynch, Barbara; Haye, Bernard; Illoul, Corinne; Allain, Jean-Marc; Borderie, Vincent M; Mosser, Gervaise

    2015-08-01

    Several diseases can lead to opacification of cornea requiring transplantation of donor tissue to restore vision. In this context, transparent collagen I fibrillated matrices have been synthesized at 15, 30, 60 and 90 mg/mL. The matrices were evaluated for fibril organizations, transparency, mechanical properties and ability to support corneal epithelial cell culture. The best results were obtained with 90 mg/mL scaffolds. At this concentration, the fibril organization presented some similarities to that found in corneal stroma. Matrices had a mean Young's modulus of 570 kPa and acellular scaffolds had a transparency of 87% in the 380-780 nm wavelength range. Human corneal epithelial cells successfully colonized the surface of the scaffolds and generated an epithelium with characteristics of corneal epithelial cells (i.e. expression of cytokeratin 3 and presence of desmosomes) and maintenance of stemness during culture (i.e. expression of ΔNp63α and formation of holoclones in colony formation assay). Presence of cultured epithelium on the matrices was associated with increased transparency (89%). Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extremely high UV-C radiation resistant microorganisms from desert environments with different manganese concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino-Lima, Ivan Glaucio; Fujishima, Kosuke; Navarrete, Jesica Urbina; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Azua-Bustos, Armando; Rothschild, Lynn Justine

    2016-10-01

    Desiccation resistance and a high intracellular Mn/Fe ratio contribute to ionizing radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. We hypothesized that this was a general phenomenon and thus developed a strategy to search for highly radiation-resistant organisms based on their natural environment. While desiccation is a typical feature of deserts, the correlation between radiation resistance and the intracellular Mn/Fe ratio of indigenous microorganisms or the Mn/Fe ratio of the environment, has not yet been described. UV-C radiation is highly damaging to biomolecules including DNA. It was used in this study as a selective tool because of its relevance to early life on earth, high altitude aerobiology and the search for life beyond Earth. Surface soil samples were collected from the Sonoran Desert, Arizona (USA), from the Atacama Desert in Chile and from a manganese mine in northern Argentina. Microbial isolates were selected after exposure to UV-C irradiation and growth. The isolates comprised 28 genera grouped within six phyla, which we ranked according to their resistance to UV-C irradiation. Survival curves were performed for the most resistant isolates and correlated with their intracellular Mn/Fe ratio, which was determined by ICP-MS. Five percent of the isolates were highly resistant, including one more resistant than D. radiodurans, a bacterium generally considered the most radiation-resistant organism, thus used as a model for radiation resistance studies. No correlation was observed between the occurrence of resistant microorganisms and the Mn/Fe ratio in the soil samples. However, all resistant isolates showed an intracellular Mn/Fe ratio much higher than the sensitive isolates. Our findings could represent a new front in efforts to harness mechanisms of UV-C radiation resistance from extreme environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure and Supersaturation of Highly Concentrated Solutions of Buckyball in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fileti, E. E.; Chaban, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Solubilization of fullerenes is of high interest because of their wide usage in both fundamental research and numerous applications. This paper reports molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of saturated and supersaturated solutions of C-60 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1IM......-long real-time dynamics. The ion-molecular structure patterns in saturated and supersaturated solutions are distinguished in terms of radial distribution functions and cluster analysis of the solute particles. The cation separated solute pair is found to be a common structure in both saturated......][BF4], room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). The simulations cover a wide range of temperatures between 280 and 500 K at ambient pressure. Unlike in simpler solvents, C-60 in [C4C1IM][BF4] forms highly supersaturated solutions, whose internal arrangement remains unaltered during nearly a microsecond...

  18. The relationship between high density lipoprotein subclass profile and plasma lipids concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HDL particles posses multiple antiatherogenic activities and the identification and differentiation of individual HDL subclasses may be useful in documentation and understanding of metabolic changes of different HDL subclasses. The major plasma lipids exist and are transported in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Hence, alterations in plasma lipids levels can interfere with the composition, content, and distribution of plasma lipoprotein subclasses that affect atherosclerosis risk. The research review major discussed the relationship between plasma lipids levels and HDL subclasses distribution. The general shift toward smaller size of HDL particle size in HTG, HCL and MHL subjects, and the changes were more prominent with the elevation of TG and TC levels which imply that HDL maturation might be abnormal and RCT pathway might be weaken, and these changes were more seriously in MHL subjects. Plasma contents of small sized HDL particles significantly higher, whereas those of large sized HDL particles were significantly lower with elevation of TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios. Increased in the TC/HDL-C ratio alone did not influence the distributions of HDL subclasses significantly when the TG/HDL-C ratio was low (TG/HDL-C ≤ 2.5. Hence, the TG/HDL-C ratio might be more sensitive to reflect the alteration of HDL subclass distribution than the TC/HDL-C ratio. In LDL-C/HDL-C ≤ 2.3 group, the pattern of distribution in HDL subclass was in agreement with the normolipidemic subjects. Moreover, considering the relative ease of measuring TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, as opposed to measuring HDL subclasses, these 3 ratios together may be a good indicator of HDL subclass distribution. The protective effect of increased apoA-I levels against the reduction of HDL2b caused by elevated TG concentration. On one hand, plasma HDL-C and apoA-I appear to play a coordinated role in the assembly of HDL particles and the determination of their

  19. Manipulation of Muscle Glycogen Concentrations Using High and Low Carbohydrate Diets and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    one week prior to his participation. At this time, any food allergies or intolerances were ident ..ied as well as individual food likes and dislikes...high in carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars (i.e., sucrose, fructose, lactose ) and complex carbohydrates (i.e., starches, dietary fiber...supercompensation of muscle glycogen because the Carbohydrate Loading Phase did not immediately follow the Glycogen Depletion Phase and in fact preceded it for

  20. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  1. Magneto-Hydrodynamic Fractionation (MHF) for continuous and sheathless sorting of high-concentration paramagnetic microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Rezai, Pouya

    2017-06-01

    Sorting cells, microorganisms and particles from a solution is of paramount importance in many biological applications. An ideal sorting device should work at high throughput, involve simple design, avoid energy consumption, operate without a diluting sheath flow and perform separation with high purity. However, currently available sorting methods such as pinched flow fractionation, hydrodynamic filtration, magnetophoresis and deterministic lateral displacement meet only a few of the above-mentioned characteristics. In this paper, we report a hybrid technique combining magnetic focusing of particles in a thin microchannel and their hydrodynamic fractionation at a downstream expansion region, to devise a sheathless and high-throughput Magneto-Hydrodynamic Fractionation (MHF) method. First, sheathless magnetic focusing of 11 μm microparticles against the wall of the thin microchannel was investigated over a wide range of flow rates (0.5-5 mL h-1). Then, a mixture of 5 μm and 11 μm paramagnetic particles was injected into the device at a flow rate of 5 mL h-1 to demonstrate their sorting. Both of these magnetic particles were aligned along the wall of the channel and hence focused in the device, however their centers were lying on different streamlines due to their different sizes. Therefore, they were separated into distinct streamlines upon entering into the expansion region. Using this device, we achieved a high throughput sorting of more than 104 particles per second with an approximate on-chip fractionation purity of 98%. This technique has a great potential for separation of more than two magnetic particles for application in immunomagnetic affinity-based sorting of multiple biological substances.

  2. High concentration of basidiolichens in a single family of agaricoid mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrey, James D; Lücking, Robert; Sipman, Harrie J M; Chaves, José L; Redhead, Scott A; Bungartz, Frank; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2009-10-01

    The Agaricales is the largest and most diverse order of mushroom-forming Basidiomycota, with over 100 natural groups recognized in recent Fungal Tree of Life studies. Most agarics are either saprotrophic or ectomycorrhizal fungi, but the family Hygrophoraceae is in part characterized by a unique and remarkable diversity of lichenized forms. The most familiar of these is the chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia, whose phylogenetic position in the Agaricales has been established. Recent limited evidence suggested that Hygrophoraceae also contains cyanolichens in the genus Dictyonema, which indicates a remarkable concentration and diversity of lichen-formers in a single family of agarics. To demonstrate the relationships of lichen-formers to other fungi in the family, we assembled ribosomal sequences from 52 species representing recognized groups within the Hygrophoraceae, among them new sequences representing Acantholichen and most species and forms of Dictyonema. The molecular data were evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, Bayesian, and distance analyses, including coding of ambiguous regions by means of INAASE and ARC, all of which indicate that Dictyonema and Acantholichen form a monophyletic clade derived from the primarily bryophilous genus Arrhenia and sister to the enigmatic Athelia pyriformis, a species unrelated to the Atheliales for which we are proposing a new genus name Eonema. The chlorolichen genus Lichenomphalia may be polyphyletic. Fungi in the Dictyonema-Acantholichen clade are typically tropical, entirely lichenized, and associate with cyanobacterial photobionts. Our data indicate a transition from agaricoid-omphalinoid basidiomes observed in Arrhenia to stereoid-corticioid forms in Dictyonema, and also support a previous suggestion of a connection between loss of clamp connections and lichenization. The diverse basidiome and thallus morphologies and nutritional ecologies of these fungi indicate a remarkable evolutionary flexibility that appears to