WorldWideScience

Sample records for high concentrate diets

  1. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  2. Steatohepatitis is developed by a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol without increasing iron concentration in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Katsuko; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2016-04-01

    Iron overload to the liver is known to be a pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis through oxidative stress. High-fat diets have been reported to increase iron concentration in livers that developed steatohepatitis in experimental animals. However, the effect of high-fat diets on hepatic iron concentration is controversial. We hypothesized that a diet high in lard, cholesterol, and sucrose (Western diet) leads to the development of steatohepatitis without increasing hepatic iron concentration. Rats were given either a control or the Western diet for 12 weeks. The Western diet increased triacylglycerol concentration and oxidative stress markers such as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of heme oxygenase-1 in the liver. The Western diet also increased the mRNA expression of macrophage-1 antigen, cluster of differentiation (CD) 45, and CD68 in the liver, and nuclear factor κB level in liver nuclear fraction, suggesting the development of hepatic inflammation. Histological observation also indicated fatty liver and hepatic inflammation in the rats given the Western diet. In contrast, the Western diet decreased iron concentration in the liver. These results clearly indicated that the diet high in lard, cholesterol, and sucrose induces steatohepatitis without increasing hepatic iron concentration.

  3. Combined use of ionophore and virginiamycin for finishing Nellore steers fed high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoracyr José Costa Nuñez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Zebu cattle fed high concentrate diets may present inconsistent performance due to the occurrence of metabolic disorders, like acidosis. The isolated use of ionophores and virginiamycin in high grain diets can improve animal performance and reduce the incidence of such disorders, but recent studies suggested that their combination may have an additive effect. Thus, 72 Nellore steers, 389 ± 15 kg initial body weight (BW, were confined and fed for 79 days to evaluate the combination of virginiamycin and salinomycin on performance and carcass traits. Animals were allocated to a randomized complete block design by BW, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with two concentrate levels (73 and 91 % and two virginiamycin levels (0 and 15 mg kg-1, and salinomycin (13 mg kg-1 included in all diets. The interaction was not significant (p > 0.05. Dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, gain-to-feed ratio (G:F, starch consumed, and fecal starch content were higher (p 0.05 between treatments. Starch consumed and estimated dietary net energy for maintenance (NEm and gain (NEg were higher (p < 0.05 for virginiamycin-treated animals, with no substantial effects on carcass traits. The inclusion of virginiamycin in finishing diets containing salinomycin reduced DMI while maintaining ADG and improving NEm and NEg, suggesting an additive effect of virginiamycin and ionophores, but without affecting carcass quality.

  4. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  5. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( diets with reduced NE had greater ( diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance compared with pigs fed a corn-SBM diet, and NE in diets containing canola meal does not have to be similar to that of corn-SBM diets. However, inclusion of CM-CV containing 4.43 µmol/g glucosinolates in the diets resulted in improved growth performance compared with inclusion of CM

  6. Ingestive behavior of lambs or hoggets fed on high-concentrate diets of maize or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanches Venturini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behaviour of lambs or hoggets, finished in confinement on high-concentrate diets based on maize or sorghum grain. A total of 32 animals were used, 16 lambs (milk teeth and 16 hoggets (2 teeth, which were distributed in a completely randomised experimental design and a 2 x 2 factorial scheme (two categories x two types of grain. In the categories under evaluation (lambs and hoggets, a significant difference (P≤0.05 was found for total chewing time, idle time and other activities (expressed in min/day and as a percentage, number of meals per day, time spent per meal and for the weight of dry matter or NDF ingested per meal (g/DM per REF and g/NDF per REF respectively. For the grain under test (maize or sorghum, significant differences (P≤0.05 were seen in feeding time, total chewing time and idle time (expressed in min/day and as a percentage and for feed efficiency (g DM/h and NDF/h. Differences in the nutritional demands of lambs and hoggets, and in the composition of high-concentrate diets of maize or sorghum, cause changes in some characteristics of the ingestive behaviour of the animals.

  7. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  8. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  9. The Utilization of Indigofera sp as the sole foliage in goat diets supplemented with high carbohydrate or high protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera sp is a tree leguminous forage species known to be adaptable to the drought climate and saline soil and so it has potential as alternative feed resource to support the ruminant animal production. This study aimed to study the responses of goats fed Indigofera sp as the sole foliages in their diets. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred goats (6 months of age;16 ± 2,1 kg BW were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing fresh or wilted leaves of Indigifera sp. as the sole foliages and supplemented with high carbohydrate (HCC or protein (HPCconcentrates. Consumable parts i.e. leaves and twigs of about 8 to 10 months of age of Indigofera sp. were harvested by hand plucking every day in the morning. The experiment was a 2 x 2 factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design. The ruminal pH ranged from 6.14-6.85 and were not affected (P > 0.05 by wilting nor by the type of concentrates. Wilting did not affect (P > 0.05 the concentration of ruminal NH3-N, but it was significantly higher (P 0.05. Goats in the HCC group,however,numerically have higher total VFA concentration (178.5-183.75 mmol L-1 than those in the HPC group (142.21-174.64 mmol L-1. The apparent digestibility coeficients of DM, OM, CP and energy of the diet were not different (P > 0.05 when contained wilted or fresh Indigofera foliage. Significant increases (P 0.05 among dietary treatments, but the ADG of goats in the HCC group (60-63 g d-1 were significantly lower (P 0.05. BUN was not affected by wilting process, but providing high protein concentrates significantly (P < 0.05 increased the BUN concentration. It is concluded that foliage of Indigofera sp could be used as the sole forage in intensive production of goats. Wilting the foliage prior to feeding seemed to be unnecessary, since this process does not improve the animal productivity in term of daily gain and efficiency of feed utilization.

  10. High concentrate diet induced mucosal injuries by enhancing epithelial apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Tao

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that lipopolysaccharide and volatile fatty acids (VFA accumulate in the digestive tract of ruminants fed diets containing high portions of grain. Compared to the ruminal epithelium, the hindgut epithelium is composed of a monolayer structure that is more "leaky" for lipopolysaccharide and susceptible to organic acid-induced damage. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in epithelial structure, apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats fed a high-concentrate diet for 6 weeks.Eight local Chinese goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups: one group was fed a high-concentrate diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, HC and the other group was fed a low-concentrate diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, LC for 6 wks. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and hindgut mucosa tissues were collected. Histological techniques, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the tissues structure, cell apoptosis and local inflammation in the hindguts.Feeding HC diet for 6 wks resulted in a significant decrease of ruminal pH (p<0.01, and ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly increased in HC goats (p<0.05. Obvious damage was observed to mucosal epithelium of the hindgut and the intercellular tight junctions in HC, but not in LC, goats. The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05, and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase. In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05, and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07 in HC goats. The level of NF-κB protein was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats. Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon.Feeding a high-concentrate diet to goats for 6 wks led to hindgut mucosal injuries via activating epithelial cells apoptosis

  11. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Tao

    Full Text Available High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD group and low concentrate diet (LCD group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, fatty acid synthetase (FASN and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.

  12. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (i...

  13. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on performance and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, N; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2009-02-01

    Forty-eight bulls (335 +/- 8.6 kg of initial BW) were randomly assigned to 4 glycerin levels (0, 4, 8, and 12% of concentrate DM) with the objective of evaluating the effects of glycerin supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrates were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric (assuming a glycerin ME content of 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM). Concentrate and straw were fed for ad libitum intake. Bull BW and feed consumption were recorded monthly. Additionally, rumen and blood samples were collected every month. Bulls were slaughtered after 91 d of study (460 +/- 11 kg of final BW). Hot carcass weight, carcass backfat, and conformation were recorded. The area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and intramuscular fat content of LM were determined. Glycerin level did not affect daily concentrate intake (6.89 +/- 0.34 kg/d of DM), straw intake (1.38 +/- 0.069 kg/d of DM), total DMI (8.27 +/- 0.32 kg/d of DM), ADG (1.36 +/- 0.087 kg/d), or G:F (0.17 +/- 0.009). Similarly, rumen molar proportions of propionic, acetic, and butyric acids, and rumen liquid osmolality were unaffected by treatment. However, a decreased rumen pH (P glycerin in concentrate compared with those receiving 0, 4, or 12%. No changes were observed in carcass and meat quality. The ME content of glycerin (86% glycerol) can be assumed to be 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. In addition, feeding concentrate containing up to 12.1% of glycerin does not lead to detrimental effects on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality variables.

  14. A high-fat diet increases body weight and circulating estradiol concentrations but does not improve bone structural properties in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J; Gregoire, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    Bone health is influenced by body mass and estrogen. The objective of the study was to determine whether high-fat diet-induced obesity affects bone structure and alters markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase body weight gain and serum estradiol levels in OVX mice but would not improve bone structural parameter in OVX mice. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were either sham operated or OVX at the age of 4 months and then fed either a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat) or a high-fat diet (45% energy as fat with extra fat from lard) ad libitum for 11 weeks. Ovariectomy increased body weight, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase concentration, and expression of cathepsin K in bone; decreased serum estradiol concentration; and induced significant bone loss manifested by decreased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn.D), trabecular number, and trabecular thickness with increased trabecular separation and structural model index (P diet increased body weight (P weight, OVX mice consuming the high-fat diet had lower BV/TV, Conn.D, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and higher structural model index and trabecular separation than did sham mice fed the normal-fat diet. These findings indicate that increased body weight and elevated serum estradiol concentration induced by a high-fat diet do not mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  16. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and car

  17. Behavior and inflammation of the rumen and cecum in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets with different concentrate presentation forms with or without straw supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devant, M; Penner, G B; Marti, S; Quintana, B; Fábregas, F; Bach, A; Arís, A

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks. Bulls were slaughtered after 64 d of exposure to treatments, lesions on the rumen and liver were assessed, and samples of the rumen and cecum were collected. Straw supplementation tended ( = 0.08) to increase concentrate intake (8.0 vs. 7.4 ± 0.26 kg/d), increased ( straw. Provision of straw increased ruminal pH, but the magnitude of the change was greater when the concentrate was provided as meal compared with pellets (interaction, straw was not supplemented, all rumen samples had papillae fusion, whereas only 16.7% of bulls fed pellets and straw had papillae fusions (interaction, straw compared with bulls without straw. For the ruminal epithelium, straw provision tended to increase the relative expression ratio of (which stimulates peptide YY, PYY, and serotonin secretion; = 0.06) and α (which modulates immune reactions and behavior; = 0.09) and increased and (tight junction proteins; straw had increased ( straw supplementation in bulls fed high-concentrate diets modifies behavior and affects rumen macroscopic morphology and expression of epithelial genes that could be related to behavior and inflammation.

  18. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed high concentrations of crude glycerin in low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, V B; Leite, R F; Almeida, M T C; Paschoaloto, J R; Carvalho, E B; Lanna, D P D; Perez, H L; Van Cleef, E H C B; Homem Junior, A C; Ezequiel, J M B

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of total corn replacement with crude glycerin on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets with low starch. Forty non-castrated Santa Ines lambs (23.5 ± 3.56 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design with five dietary treatments: 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5%, or 30% crude glycerin, replacing corn. Animals were slaughtered at a BW of 38 kg after 72 ± 20 days. The addition of up to 30% crude glycerin reduced carcass weight and yield (P ≤ 0.02). Odd-chain fatty acids, oleic, palmitoleic, total unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were increased (P ≤ 0.01) while CLA tended to increase in glycerin-fed lambs (P = 0.06). Crude glycerin decreased stearic, palmitic, transvaccenic, total saturated fatty acids, and atherogenicity index (P glycerin in low-starch diets reduced carcass weights, nevertheless improved meat quality by increasing unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acid contents.

  19. Feeding a High Concentration Diet Induces Unhealthy Alterations in the Composition and Metabolism of Ruminal Microbiota and Host Response in a Goat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Canfeng; Tian, Jing; Tian, Ping; Cong, Rihua; Luo, Yanwen; Geng, Yali; Tao, Shiyu; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2017-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the impact of long-term feeding a high-concentrate (HC) diet on rumen microbiota, metabolome, and host cell functions. In this study, a combination of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics techniques, 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the changes of ruminal microbiota composition, ruminal metabolites, and related genes expression in rumen epithelial cells of lactating goats received either a 35% concentrate diet or a 65% concentrate diet for 4 or 19 weeks, respectively. Results show that feeding a HC diet reduced the microbiota diversity and led to the disorders of metabolism in the rumen. The concentrations of lactate, phosphorus, NH3-N and endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide in ruminal fluids, and plasma histamine, lactate and urine N (UN) were increased significantly in goats fed with a HC diet. A significant increase of genes expression related to volatile fatty acids transport, cell apoptosis, and inflammatory responses were also observed in goats fed with a HC diet. Correlation analysis revealed some potential relationships between bacteria abundance and metabolites concentrations. Our findings indicate that a HC diet can induce ruminal microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorders, thus increasing risks to host health and potential harm to the environment. PMID:28210249

  20. Ruminal fermentation of Nellore steers fed crude glycerine replacing starch vs. fibre-based energy ingredient in low or high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Fonseca Lage

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve ruminally cannulated steers (401.0 ± 41.5 kg and 24 mo were used in a replicated arrangement truncated Latin Square with six animals in six treatments and four periods to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine (CG; 80.3% of glycerol with starch or fiber-based energy ingredients in the concentrate on DMI, DM (DMD and NDF digestibility (NDFD and ruminal parameters. Experimental periods were 19 days (14 days for adaptation and 5 days to sampling. Diets were: CO - without CG and corn as ingredient of concentrate; CGC - inclusion of CG (10% of DM with corn in the concentrate; and CGSH - inclusion of CG (10% of DM with soybean hulls (SH in the concentrate. All three diets were offered at low (LC or high (HC concentrate level, CL (40 or 60%. Animals fed LC or HC diets had similar DMI, DMD and NDFD. Animals fed diets with CG associated with corn or SH had higher propionate concentrations and lower A:P ratio. Diets with HC increase the propionate but do not affect the NDFD. CG (10% of DM can be used to replace corn or SH in diets with 40 or 60% of concentrate, without affect NDFD.

  1. Effect of virginiamycin on ruminal fermentation in cattle during adaptation to a high concentrate diet and during an induced acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M L; Nagaraja, T G; Sun, Y D; Wallace, N; Towne, E G; Kemp, K E; Hutcheson, J P

    1999-08-01

    The objective of Exp. 1 was to compare the effects of virginiamycin (VM; 0, 175, or 250 mg x animal(-1) x d(-1)) and monensin/tylosin (MT; 250/ 90 mg x animal(-1) x d(-1)) on ruminal fermentation products and microbial populations in cattle during adaptation to an all-concentrate diet. Four ruminally cannulated, Holstein steers were used in a 4x4 Williams square design with 21-d periods. Steers were stepped up to an all-concentrate diet fed at 2.5% of BW once daily. Ruminal pH, protozoal counts, and NH3-N and VFA concentrations generally were unaffected by VM or MT. Mean counts of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus bovis were lower (PVirginiamycin seemed to control the growth of ruminal lactic acid-producing bacteria and, therefore, has the potential to moderate ruminal fermentation in situations that could lead to rapid production of lactic acid.

  2. A High-Concentrate Diet Induced Milk Fat Decline via Glucagon-Mediated Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Cao, Yang; Xie, Zhenglu; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet to meet lactation demands; however, long-term concentrate feeding is unhealthy and decreases milk fat. Therefore, we investigated the effects of liver lipid metabolism on milk fat synthesis. Ten lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly into HC and LC (low-concentrate) diet groups. After 20 weeks of feeding, milk fat declined, and lipopolysaccharide levels in the jugular, portal, and hepatic veins increased in the HC group. Liver consumption and release of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) into the bloodstream also decreased. AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) was up-regulated significantly in the livers of the HC-fed cows. The HC diet also up-regulated the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and its downstream targets involved in fatty acid oxidation, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1,2 (CPT-1, CPT-2), liver-fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO). The HC diet increased blood glucagon (GC) levels, and liver glucagon receptor (GCGR) expression was elevated. Cumulatively, a long-term HC diet decreased plasma concentrations of NEFA via the GC/GCGR-AMPK-PPARα signalling pathway and reduced their synthesis in the liver. The decreased NEFA concentration in the blood during HC feeding may explain the decline in the milk fat of lactating cows. PMID:28287130

  3. Effects of feeding frequency on intake, ruminal fermentation, and feeding behavior in heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, V; González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2007-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 385 +/- 6.2 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to determine the effect of feeding frequency on intake, water consumption, ruminal fermentation, and feeding and animal behavior. The treatments consisted of different feeding frequencies: a) once daily (T1); b) twice daily (T2); c) 3 times daily (T3); and d) 4 times daily (T4). Heifers were offered ad libitum access to concentrate and barley straw. Feeding frequency did not affect DMI (P >0.10), but water consumption tended to increase linearly as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.08). Average ruminal pH was not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, but at 12 h after feeding ruminal pH was greater for T2 than for the other treatments. Total VFA concentration and VFA proportions were not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, except valerate proportion, which increased linearly (P = 0.05) as feeding frequency increased. The concentration of ammonia-N was affected (P 0.05), except for observational behavior, for which there was a linear decrease as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.02). Heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, independent of feeding frequency. However, meal criteria tended to be affected (P = 0.07) by feeding frequency, with T2 (39.4 min) showing the longest intermeal interval. Total daily meal time, meal frequency, and meal size were not affected by feeding frequency (P >0.10), whereas meal length and eating rate showed cubic tendencies (P = 0.10 and P = 0.06, respectively) as feeding frequency increased. These results suggest that in the present experimental conditions, with heifers fed high-concentrate diets and with noncompetitive feeding, a smaller range of ruminal pH values was observed when feed was offered twice daily. Although heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, more stable ruminal conditions were probably achieved by feeding twice daily due to the rumination pattern, which was more constant during

  4. Increasing sodium bicarbonate level in high-concentrate diets for heifers. II. Effects on chewing and feeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2008-05-01

    Four Holstein heifers (264 ± 12 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (BICARB) (0%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%, of concentrate dry matter (DM) basis) on chewing and feed intake behavior when fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrate (13.41% CP, 13.35% NDF) and barley straw were fed once a day at 0830 h ad libitum. Feed bunks placed on scales and video recording were used to measure 24-h feed intake and chewing behavior, respectively. The patterns of feeding behavior (feed intake, meal size and length) and chewing behavior (eating, ruminating and total chewing) were studied by dividing the day into 12 intervals of 2-h each, beginning at feeding (interval 1 through 12). Number of meals per day and eating rate decreased linearly with increasing buffer level, but meal length increased linearly. No treatment effects were observed in sum of daily meal lengths or average meal size. The treatment × interval interaction was significant on meal size, length and feed intake. The size and length of those meals occurring during the 4 h post-feeding increased linearly. However, meal size tended to decrease in the evening between 8 and 12 h, whereas feed intake decreased linearly from 6 to 10 h and from 12 to 14 h post-feeding. Buffer concentration did not affect the percentage of time spent ruminating, eating or drinking per day but the buffer level × interval interaction was significant. Time spent eating expressed as min per kg of DM or organic matter (OM) intake increased linearly with buffer levels. Proportion of time spent eating increased linearly during the intervals between 0 and 4 h post-feeding. Time spent ruminating decreased linearly during the 2 h post-feeding, and also in the evening from 12 to 14 h, and at night from 18 to 22 h post-feeding, but the effect was quadratic between 8 and 10 h when intermediate buffer levels showed the greatest ruminating

  5. High concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation affects the immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Xu, Xiaodong; Su, Ge; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a high concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation on the performance, milk composition, and vital immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in sows and piglets. The experiment started on day 107 of gestation and lasted until the piglets were weaned on day 21 of lactation. 48 sows were divided into two groups and fed either a basal diet with 44 IU/kg of vitamin E or a basal diet supplemented with additional vitamin E, total content of 250 IU/kg. Sow milk and blood samples were obtained on day 0 (farrowing) and on day 21 of lactation. One 21-day-old piglet per litter was selected to collect plasma. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with 250 IU/kg vitamin E improved the average daily gain (ADG) and weaning weight of piglets (P E (P E than in those from the control group. The high concentration of vitamin E supplementation to the sows enhanced the concentrations of α-tocopherol in the sow milk and plasma as well as piglet plasma (P E at high concentration improved the weight of piglets at weaning, and enhanced humoral immune function and antioxidant activity in sows and piglets.

  6. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Wessels

    Full Text Available In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH. To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2 and four-fold (L4 higher Leu contents than the recommended amount (control. We found that the L4 diet led to a pronounced increase in BCKDH activity in the brain (2.5-fold, P < 0.05, liver (1.8-fold, P < 0.05 and cardiac muscle (1.7-fold, P < 0.05, whereas we found no changes in enzyme activity in the pancreas, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa. The L2 diet had only weak effects on BCKDH activity. Both high Leu diets reduced the concentrations of free valine and isoleucine in nearly all tissues. In the brain, high Leu diets modified the amount of tryptophan available: for serotonin synthesis. Compared to the controls, pigs treated with the high Leu diets consumed less food, showed increased plasma concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced levels of circulating serotonin. In conclusion, excessive Leu can stimulate BCKDH activity in several tissues, including the brain. Changes in cerebral tryptophan, along with the changes in amino acid-derived metabolites in the plasma may limit the use of high Leu diets to treat muscle atrophy or to increase muscle growth.

  7. Effect of a grazing period prior to finishing on a high concentrate diet on meat quality from bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, L; O'Sullivan, M G; Kerry, J P; Picard, B; McGee, M; O'Riordan, E G; Moloney, A P

    2017-03-01

    Bulls and steers (n=60) were assigned to a pre-finishing grazing period and subsequently finished on concentrates or offered concentrates without grazing until slaughter (19months). Colour and pH of longissimus thoracis were measured (48h post-slaughter), and samples collected for proximate composition, collagen, sarcomere length, muscle fibre and enzymatic profile analysis. Steaks for texture, cook loss and sensory were aged (14days). Castration increased intramuscular fat content, cook loss and myosin isoforms IIa and I proportions, and decreased IIx proportion (P<0.05). Steer meat was positively correlated to overall tenderness, texture and acceptability (P<0.05). The presence of a pre-finishing grazing period decreased intramuscular fat and increased the proportion of IIa compared with animals on concentrates, while no differences were found in sensory. Muscle colour, collagen, sarcomere length and instrumental texture were not modified by diet or castration. In conclusion, beef sensory characteristics were unaffected by diet, whereas castration resulted in a small improvement; however all the treatments produced an acceptable product.

  8. Protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinides Panayiotis P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to assess the effect of chronic administration of protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS on the plasma cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein (ApoE deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE deficient mice were divided into the following treatment groups: protonated NSAS 1.4% (w/w, untreated control and 2% (w/w stigmastanol mixed with high-cholesterol/high-fat diet. Animals were treated for 12 weeks, blood samples were withdrawn every 4 weeks for determination of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. At the end of the study the aortic roots were harvested for assessment of atherosclerotic lesions. NSAS at 1.4% (w/w and stigmastanol at 2% (w/w treatment groups showed significant decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations at all time points relative to the control animals. The lesion sum area in 1.4% (w/w NSAS and 2% (w/w stigmastanol groups were significantly less from the control animals. In conclusion, in this study, the effectiveness of chronic administration of protonated NSAS material in the reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and decrease in development of atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated in Apo-E deficient mice model.

  9. Long-term effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA on milk quality and hepatic gene expression in lactating goats fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Dong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The mechanism underlying the decline in milk quality during periods of feeding high-concentrate diets to dairy ruminants is not well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic changes in the liver that contribute to the input of substrate precursors to the mammary gland after feeding a high-concentrate diet to lactating goats for a long period. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups. For 9 weeks, the treatment group was fed a high-concentrate diet (60% concentrate of dry matter, HC and the control group was fed a low-concentrate diet (40% concentrate of dry matter, LC. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and liver tissues were sampled, microarray techniques and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate metabolic parameters and gene expression in liver. RESULTS: Feeding a 60%-concentrate diet for 9 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH. Changes in fat and protein content also occurred, which negatively affected milk quality. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.058, non-esterified fatty acid (p = 0.071, and glucose (p = 0.014 increased markedly in HC group. Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly elevated in the treatment group (p<0.05. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor protein gene was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05 in the liver. The expression of genes for interleukin 1β, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin mRNA was significantly increased (p<0.05 in the HC group. GeneRelNet analysis showed that gene expression involved in inflammatory responses and the metabolism of lipids, protein, and carbohydrate were significantly altered by feeding a high-concentrate diet for 9 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the acute phase response and the inflammatory response may contribute to nutrient partitioning and re-distribution of energy in the liver, and ultimately lead to a decline in milk quality.

  10. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  11. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (pdiet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (pDHA) were significantly increased (pDHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or MIX-O.

  12. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  13. Performance of feedlot steers fed diets containing laidlomycin propionate or monensin plus tylosin, and effects of laidlomycin propionate concentration on intake patterns and ruminal fermentation in beef steers during adaptation to a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Malcolm, K J; Duff, G C

    1992-10-01

    Two hundred eighty-eight beef steers (British x Continental x Brahman) were fed a 90% concentrate diet containing either no ionophore (control), laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of dietary DM, or monensin plus tylosin (31 and 12 mg/kg of DM, respectively). Neither of the two levels of laidlomycin propionate nor monensin plus tylosin affected (P greater than .10) ADG or feed:gain ratio. Monensin plus tylosin reduced (P less than .01) daily DMI for the 161-d trial period compared with the other three treatments. Laidlomycin propionate at 6 mg/kg increased (P less than .05) DMI relative to the control, laidlomycin propionate at 12 mg/kg, and monensin plus tylosin diets during the 2nd wk of the trial and from d 57 to 84. Treatments did not affect carcass measurements. In a second experiment, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed diets containing no ionophore or laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of DM. Samples were obtained for two consecutive days while the dietary concentrate level was 75%, after which the diet was switched abruptly to 90% concentrate, and samples were collected on several days during a 21-d period. The rate at which steers consumed their daily allotment of feed was not altered markedly by laidlomycin propionate. Likewise, laidlomycin propionate did not affect total ruminal VFA concentrations or proportions. Ruminal concentrations of D-lactate were reduced (P less than .10) by 6 but not by 12 mg/kg of laidlomycin propionate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the expression of immune related genes in the livers of dairy cows fed a high concentrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Chang

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications critically regulate the expression of immune-related genes in response to inflammatory stimuli. It has been extensively reported that a high concentrate (HC diet can trigger systemic inflammation in dairy cows, yet it is unclear whether epigenetic regulation is involved in the expression of immune genes in the livers of dairy cows. This study aimed to investigate the impact of epigenetic modifications on the expression of immune-related genes.In eight mid-lactating cows, we installed a rumen cannula and catheters of the portal and hepatic veins. Cows were randomly assigned to either the treatment group fed a high concentrate (HC diet (60% concentrate + 40% forage, n = 4 or a control group fed a low concentrate (LC diet (40% concentrate + 60% forage, n = 4.After 10 weeks of feeding, the rumen pH was reduced, and levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the rumen, and portal and hepatic veins were notably increased in the HC group compared with the LC group. The expression levels of detected immune response-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins, were significantly up-regulated in the livers of cows fed a HC diet. Chromatin loosening at the promoter region of four candidate immune-related genes (TLR4, LPS-binding protein, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A3 was elicited, and was strongly correlated with enhanced expression of these genes in the HC group. Demethylation at the promoter region of all four candidate immune-related genes was accompanied by chromatin decompaction.After HC diet feeding, LPS derived from the digestive tract translocated to the liver via the portal vein, enhancing hepatic immune gene expression. The up-regulation of these immune genes was mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, which involve chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that modulating epigenetic mechanisms could provide novel ways to treat systemic inflammatory

  15. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Phuoc Thanh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control, or diets of (DM basis 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO, or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO, or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O. The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05. No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05. Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01. Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01. The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were significantly increased (p<0.01 in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38% and MIX-O (0.23% compared to the control group (0.01%. Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA. While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI and thrombogenicity index (TI seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  16. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Anna G; Kluge, Holger; Hirche, Frank; Kiowski, Andreas; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Corrent, Etienne; Bartelt, Jörg; König, Bettina; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu) displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2) and four-fold (L4) higher Leu contents than the recommended amount (control). We found that the L4 diet led to a pronounced increase in BCKDH activity in the brain (2.5-fold, P serotonin synthesis. Compared to the controls, pigs treated with the high Leu diets consumed less food, showed increased plasma concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced levels of circulating serotonin. In conclusion, excessive Leu can stimulate BCKDH activity in several tissues, including the brain. Changes in cerebral tryptophan, along with the changes in amino acid-derived metabolites in the plasma may limit the use of high Leu diets to treat muscle atrophy or to increase muscle growth.

  17. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-degradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, G J; Koch, L E; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-rumen-degradable protein (RDP) diet when dietary fiber content is manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six cannulated Holstein heifers (486.98±15.07kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 2 F:C, low- (45% forage; LF) and high-forage (90% forage; HF) diets and to a fiber proportion sequence [33% grass hay and wheat straw (HS), 67% corn silage (CS; low fiber); 50% HS, 50% CS (medium fiber); and 67% HS, 33% CS (high fiber)] within forage proportion administered according to a split-plot, 3×3 Latin square design (16-d periods). Heifers fed LF had greater apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility coefficients (dC), neutral detergent fiber, and cellulose than those fed LC diets. Substituting CS with HS resulted in a linear reduction in dry matter, organic matter, and cellulose dC. Nitrogen dC was not different between F:C or with increasing proportions of HS in diets, but N retention tended to decrease linearly as HS was increased in the diets. Predicted microbial protein flow to the duodenum decreased linearly with HS addition and protozoa numbers HS interacted linearly, exhibiting a decrease as HS increased for LF, whereas no effects were observed for HF. Blood urea N increased linearly as HS was incorporated. The LF-fed heifers had a greater ruminal volatile fatty acids concentration. We noted a tendency for a greater dry matter, and a significantly higher liquid fraction turnover rate for HF diets. There was a linear numerical increase in the liquid and solid fraction turnover rate as fiber was added to the diets. Rumen fermentation parameters and fractional passages (solid and liquid) rates support the reduction in dC, N retention, and microbial protein synthesis observed as more dietary fiber is added to the rations of dairy heifers precision-fed a constant proportion of rumen

  18. Effects of low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant gilts on maternal cortisol concentrations and the adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal reactivity in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, W; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, M; Gräbner, M; Nürnberg, G; Bellmann, O; Hennig, U; Rehfeldt, C; Metges, C C

    2013-06-01

    Inadequate maternal nutrition during gestation may cause an adverse environment for the fetus leading to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) systems later in life. In the present study, we investigated the effects of diets with low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios on cortisol concentrations of pregnant gilts as well as the long-term effects on the function of the HPA and SAM axes in their offspring. Throughout gestation, 33 German Landrace gilts were fed high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%), or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein diets, which were made isocaloric by adjusting the carbohydrate content. The salivary cortisol concentrations of the sows were measured in the course of the gestation period. The offspring were cross-fostered, and the plasma cortisol and catecholamine concentrations of the offspring were determined on postnatal d (PND) 1 and 27 and under specific challenging conditions: after weaning (PND 29) and after ACTH and insulin challenges (PND 68 and 70, respectively). Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding and neurotransmitter concentrations were measured in stress-related brain regions, and histological analyses of the adrenal were performed. Maternal salivary cortisol concentrations increased throughout gestation (P pigs show a considerable plasticity to cope with maternal malnutrition.

  19. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  20. Effect of limit feeding high- and low-concentrate diets with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on digestibility and on dairy heifer growth and first-lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, G J; Zanton, G I; Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J

    2009-10-01

    Growth and digestibility were examined for heifers limit fed high- (HC; 60%) and low-concentrate (LC; 20%) diets with or without yeast culture (YC) addition in 2 experiments. A third experiment was undertaken to monitor first-lactation production of heifers limit fed HC or LC diets. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein heifers were individually fed at controlled intakes for 133 d to maintain a targeted average daily gain of 0.80 kg/d for all 4 treatments [HC; LC with and without Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Yea-Sacc(1026) (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY), 1 g/kg as fed]. Targeted average daily gain was achieved for all treatments during the individual feeding period (0.80 +/- 0.01 kg/d). Average dry matter intake needed to maintain constant gain was slightly reduced for HC and YC treatments. Reduced dry matter intake and similar targeted average daily gain resulted in a tendency for improved feed efficiency of HC-fed heifers. Skeletal measurements and targeted average daily gain were not affected by concentrate level or YC. The objective of experiment 2 was to elucidate effects of concentrate level and YC on nutrient digestibility. Four young (284.35 +/- 4.51 d) and 4 older (410.28 +/- 2.14 d) heifers were allocated to the 4 treatments used in experiment 1. Heifers fed the HC diet had increased dry matter digestibility (75.67 vs.72.96 +/- 0.72%), and YC addition increased dry matter digestibility (74.97 vs. 73.65 +/- 0.71%). Intake of N and apparent N digestibility were similar for all treatments. High-concentrate diets and YC addition decreased wet and dry matter output of feces. Urine excretion was not different; therefore, total manure output was lower for HC-fed heifers as compared with LC-fed heifers. Results suggest that HC diets can improve feed efficiency without affecting growth when limit fed to dairy heifers. Yeast culture increased dry matter digestibility in HC- and LC-fed heifers; HC diets were more digestible and reduced fecal output, with YC enhancing this

  1. Concentration of volatile sulphur-containing compounds along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed a high-sulphur or a low-sulphur diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Canibe, Nuria; Finster, Kai

    2010-01-01

    of their production or concentration along the GI-tract of the pig, and to what extent these parameters are influenced by the sulphur content of the diet. In order to address these questions, two diets with different sulphur content were formulated. Growing pigs were fed one of each diet during a minimum of three...... weeks after which they were killed and gas samples were removed from eight segments of the intact GI-tract and analysed for VSC, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. The concentration of individual VSC in gas samples from the intact GI-tract varied between segments. The total concentration of VSC...

  2. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ren-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-You; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lu-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is the main active ingredient of anthocyanidin. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C3G on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22), and were fed with standard diet or high fat diet. Five weeks later, 17 high-fat diet-induced obese rats were randomly given C3G [100 mg/(kg·d)] or normal saline via intragastric administration for 5 weeks. Five weeks later, body weight, visceral adiposity and food intake were measured. Blood samples were collected for detecting fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and adiponectin. Insulin resistance index, atherosclerosis index and average feed efficiency ratio were calculated. C3G supplementation markedly decreased body weight, visceral adiposity, average feed efficiency ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and atherosclerosis index in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. C3G supplementation normalized serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Cyanidin-3-glucoside can reduce body weight gain, and attenuate obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats via up-regulating serum adiponectin level.

  3. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qumar, Muhammad; Khiaosa-ard, Ratchaneewan; Pourazad, Poulad; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Kandler, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline) and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8) or interruptedly (Int; n = 8). Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1) and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4). Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline), while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides evidence of

  4. Genome-wide analysis identifies colonic genes differentially associated with serum leptin and insulin concentrations in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Choo, Jinsil; Yoon, Joon; Chu, Jae Ryang; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Seungyeoun; Park, Taesung; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is known to increase the risk of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and colorectal cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that leptin and insulin are key molecules linking obesity with diseases of the lower intestine. Here, we identified serum phenotype-associated genes in the colon of diet-induced obese mice as early biomarkers of obesity-associated colonic diseases. C57BL/6J mice were fed with either normal diet (ND, 15% of fat calories) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% of fat calories) for 8 weeks. Serum concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin were measured as obesity-related phenotypic markers. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of colon tissue were determined, followed by statistical analyses to detect differentially expressed and serum phenotype-associated genes. HFD-fed mice showed higher serum concentrations of leptin (P insulin (P insulin, IGF-1, and adiponectin, respectively. We identified 17 leptin-associated genes and 4 insulin-associated genes that inversely responded to HFD and ND. Among these, leptin-associated Peli3 (Pellino E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3), Creb1 (cAMP responsive element binding protein 1), and Enpp2 (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, autotaxin) and insulin-associated Centg1 (AGAP2, ArfGAP with GTPase domain) are reported to play a role either in obesity or colonic diseases. mRNA expression of these genes was validated by RT-qPCR. Our data suggest Peli3, Creb1, Enpp2, and Centg1 as potential early biomarker candidates for obesity-induced pathophysiological changes in the colon. Future studies verifying the function of these candidates are needed for the prevention, early detection, and treatment of colon diseases.

  5. The effect of different high-fat diets on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in male, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J; Pillay, K; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

    2015-04-01

    Poultry diets are formulated with additional animal fat or vegetable oils to improve growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. High-fat diet feeding in rats and fish has been shown to result in alterations in the phospholipid composition and cholesterol content of the erythrocyte membrane, in turn affecting erythrocyte osmotic fragility. In contrast, the few studies performed using high-fat diet feeding in avian species show no changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. This study made use of the Japanese quail as no data exists on investigation of this species with respect to high-fat diet feeding and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Fifty-seven male quail were randomly divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet (commercial poultry feed) or one of five high-fat diets (commercial poultry feed with 22% of either coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soya bean oil or sunflower oil on a weight/weight basis) for 12 weeks. All birds on the high-fat diets were significantly heavier (p quail erythrocytes. Feeding quail high-energy diets of varying degrees of fatty acid saturation was well tolerated and did not seem to affect the overall health status of the birds. Resistance of avian erythrocytes to modification by excess dietary fat may be a general characteristic of avian erythrocytes.

  6. Genome-wide analysis identifies colonic genes differentially associated with serum leptin and insulin concentrations in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Joon; Chu, Jae Ryang; Bae, Yun Jung; Lee, Seungyeoun; Park, Taesung; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is known to increase the risk of ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and colorectal cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that leptin and insulin are key molecules linking obesity with diseases of the lower intestine. Here, we identified serum phenotype-associated genes in the colon of diet-induced obese mice as early biomarkers of obesity-associated colonic diseases. C57BL/6J mice were fed with either normal diet (ND, 15% of fat calories) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% of fat calories) for 8 weeks. Serum concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin were measured as obesity-related phenotypic markers. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of colon tissue were determined, followed by statistical analyses to detect differentially expressed and serum phenotype-associated genes. HFD-fed mice showed higher serum concentrations of leptin (P < 0.001) and insulin (P < 0.01) than those in the ND group, whereas serum IGF-1 and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the two dietary groups. Among differentially expressed genes affected by HFD, 135, 128, 110, and 341 genes were associated with serum levels of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, and adiponectin, respectively. We identified 17 leptin-associated genes and 4 insulin-associated genes that inversely responded to HFD and ND. Among these, leptin-associated Peli3 (Pellino E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3), Creb1 (cAMP responsive element binding protein 1), and Enpp2 (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, autotaxin) and insulin-associated Centg1 (AGAP2, ArfGAP with GTPase domain) are reported to play a role either in obesity or colonic diseases. mRNA expression of these genes was validated by RT-qPCR. Our data suggest Peli3, Creb1, Enpp2, and Centg1 as potential early biomarker candidates for obesity-induced pathophysiological changes in the colon. Future studies verifying the function of these candidates are needed

  7. The Impact of Feeding Diets of High or Low Energy Concentration on Carcass Measurements and the Weight of Primal and Subprimal Lean Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pigs from four sire lines were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.15 to 3.21 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal-based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.41 to 3.45 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Barrows (N = 2,178 and gilts (N = 2,274 were fed either high energy (HE or low energy (LE diets from 27 kg BW to target BWs of 118, 127, 131.5 and 140.6 kg. Carcass primal and subprimal cut weights were collected. The cut weights and carcass measurements were fitted to allometric functions (Y = A CWB of carcass weight. The significance of diet, sex or sire line with A and B was evaluated by linearizing the equations by log to log transformation. The effect of diet on A and B did not interact with sex or sire line. Thus, the final model was B where Diet = −0.5 for the LE and 0.5 for HE diets and A and B are sire line-sex specific parameters. cut weight = (1+bD(Diet A(CW Diet had no affect on loin, Boston butt, picnic, baby back rib, or sparerib weights (p>0.10, bD = −0.003, −0.0029, 0.0002, 0.0047, −0.0025, respectively. Diet affected ham weight (bD = −0.0046, p = 0.01, belly weight (bD = 0.0188, p = 0.001 three-muscle ham weight (bD = −0.014, p = 0.001, boneless loin weight (bD = −0.010, p = 0.001, tenderloin weight (bD = −0.023, p = 0.001, sirloin weight (bD = −0.009, p = 0.034, and fat-free lean mass (bD = −0.0145, p = 0.001. Overall, feeding the LE diets had little impact on primal cut weight except to decrease belly weight. Feeding LE diets increased the weight of lean trimmed cuts by 1 to 2 percent at the same carcass weight.

  8. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  9. Loss of circadian rhythm of circulating insulin concentration induced by high-fat diet intake is associated with disrupted rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kazue; Hikosaka, Maki; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-04-01

    Peripheral clock genes show a circadian rhythm is correlated with the timing of feeding in peripheral tissues. It was reported that these clock genes are strongly regulated by insulin action and that a high-fat diet (HFD) intake in C57BL/6J mice for 21days induced insulin secretion during the dark phase and reduced the circadian rhythm of clock genes. In this study, we examined the circadian expression patterns of these clock genes in insulin-resistant animal models with excess secretion of insulin during the day. We examined whether insulin resistance induced by a HFD intake for 80days altered blood parameters (glucose and insulin concentrations) and expression of mRNA and proteins encoded by clock and functional genes in the liver using male ICR mice. Serum insulin concentrations were continuously higher during the day in mice fed a HFD than control mice. Expression of lipogenesis-related genes (Fas and Accβ) and the transcription factor Chrebp peaked at zeitgeber time (ZT)24 in the liver of control mice. A HFD intake reduced the expression of these genes at ZT24 and disrupted the circadian rhythm. Expression of Bmal1 and Clock, transcription factors that compose the core feedback loop, showed circadian variation and were synchronously associated with Fas gene expression in control mice, but not in those fed a HFD. These results indicate that the disruption of the circadian rhythm of insulin secretion by HFD intake is closely associated with the disappearance of circadian expression of lipogenic and clock genes in the liver of mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium). People who have kidney ... consume. Alternative Names Hypertension - diet Images DASH diet Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein ...

  11. Circulating Concentrations of Adipocytokines and Their Receptors in the Isolated Corpus Cavernosum and Femoral Artery from Trained Rats on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponton, Amanda C S; Silva, Fábio H; Araujo, Hygor N; Valgas da Silva, Carmem P; de Moraes, Camila; Antunes, Edson; Zanesco, Angelina; Delbin, Maria A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate different signaling pathways by which exercise training would interfere in endothelial function in obesity. Therefore, we examined adipocytokine levels and their receptors in the corpus cavernosum and femoral artery from trained rats on a high-fat diet. Functional experiments were performed in control sedentary and trained rats, and sedentary (h-SD) and trained male Wistar rats on a high-fat diet (h-TR). Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated in vascular tissue. Circulating adipocytokines and their receptors were analyzed. In the h-SD group, the maximal responses to acetylcholine (ACh) were reduced in the femoral artery and corpus cavernosum as well as the electrical field stimulation, accompanied by an increase in circulating insulin, leptin, TNF-α, MCP-1, and PAI-1. Downregulation of ObR protein expression in the femoral artery was observed without alterations in AdipoR1 and TNFR1 in both preparations. A positive effect was observed in the h-TR group regarding the relaxation response to ACh and circulating adipocytokines, resulting in increased NO production and reduced ROS generation. Exercise restored the ObR protein expression only in the femoral artery. Aerobic exercise training ameliorated the inflammatory adipocytokines and restored the relaxation responses in the corpus cavernosum and femoral artery in rats on a high-fat diet. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied whethe

  13. Does Long-Term High Fat Diet Always Lead to Smaller Hippocampi Volumes, Metabolite Concentrations, and Worse Learning and Memory? A Magnetic Resonance and Behavioral Study in Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Setkowicz

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with more than 600 million affected individuals. Human studies have demonstrated some alterations in brains of otherwise healthy obese individuals and elevated risk of neurodegenerative disease of old age; these studies have also pointed to slightly diminished memory and executive functions among healthy obese individuals. Similar findings were obtained in animal models of obesity induced by high fat diet. On the other hand, low carbohydrate high fat diets are currently promoted for losing weight (e.g., Atkin's style diets. However, the long-term effects of such diets are not known. Additionally, high fat diets leading to (mild ketonemia were shown to improve brain function in elderly humans and in some animal models.To evaluate the hypothesis that long-term use of a high fat diet was associated with decreases in spatial memory, smaller hippocampi and hippocampi metabolite concentrations in Wistar rats.Twenty five male Wistar rats were put on high fat diet (HFD; 60% calories from fat, 30% from carbohydrates on their 55th day of life, while 25 control male rats (CONs remained on chow. Adequate levels of essential nutrients were provided. Both groups underwent memory tests in 8-arm radial maze at 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th month. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to measure concentrations of tNAA (marker of neuronal integrity at one month and one year, whereas MRI was used to evaluate hippocampal volumes.Obese rats (OBRs consumed similar amount of calories as CONs, but less proteins. However, their protein intake was within recommended amounts. Throughout the experiment OBRs had statistically higher concentrations of blood ketone bodies than CONs, but still within normal values. At post-mortem assessment, OBRs had 38% larger fat deposits than CONs (p<0.05, as evaluated by volume of epididymis fat, an acknowledged marker of fat deposits in rats. Contrary to our expectations, OBRs had better scores of

  14. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  15. Modified Atkins diet may reduce serum concentrations of antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kverneland, M; Taubøll, E; Selmer, K K; Iversen, P O; Nakken, K O

    2015-03-01

    Modified Atkins diet is a treatment option for patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy that is not suitable for surgery. In the last few years, we have tried dietary treatment added to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adult patients with severe epilepsy. To examine a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between the modified Atkins diet and AEDs. In four patients, AED serum concentrations were measured before onset and after 4 and 12 weeks on the diet. The patients used combinations of two or three AEDs, including carbamazepine, clobazam, lamotrigine, nitrazepam, oxcarbazepine, valproate, zonisamide, and topiramate. The patients did not change the type or dose of their AEDs during the diet period. After 12 weeks on the diet, the average serum concentrations of the respective AEDs were reduced by 35% (range 6-46%) compared to prediet values. Modified Atkins diet used as add-on therapy to AEDs in four patients with drug resistant seizures caused a considerable decrease in AED serum concentrations. In individual patients, this could be of clinical relevance, and we recommend that AED serum concentrations should be closely monitored when offering this diet to adults with epilepsy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  17. The Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Neurodegeneration, TNF-α Concentration in Hypothalamus, and CSF-to-Plasma Ratio of Insulin in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nameni, Ghazaleh; Hajiluian, Ghazaleh; Shahabi, Parviz; Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Mesgari-Abbasi, Mehran; Hemmati, Mohammad-Reza; Vatandoust, Seyed Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    There is growing evidence that obesity can lead to neurodegeneration induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Moreover, obesity is associated with reduced transport of insulin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Insulin deficiency in the brain especially in the hypothalamus region has neurodegenerative and obesity-promoting effects. Because of the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of vitamin D, in the current experimental study, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on neurodegeneration, TNF-α concentration in the hypothalamus, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to serum ratio of insulin in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. At the first phase of the study, the rats were divided into two groups: (1) normal diet (ND, 10% fat) and (2) high-fat diet (HFD, 59% fat) and were fed for 16 weeks. In the second phase, each group was subdivided into four groups including the following: ND, normal diet + vitamin D, HFD, and HFD + vitamin D. Weight was measured and recorded weekly. Vitamin D supplementation for 5 weeks at 500 IU/kg dosage was used. One week after vitamin D supplementation, daily food intake was recorded. At week 22, blood was collected to determine fasting serum glucose, vitamin D, and insulin concentrations, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. CSF samples were also collected to measure insulin concentrations, and the hypothalamus was dissected to determine TNF-α concentration. HFD significantly increased TNF-α concentrations and degenerated neurons in the hypothalamus (P = 0.02). We also observed a significant reduction of CSF-to-serum ratio of insulin in HFD group (P = 0.03). The HOMA-IR test indicated significant increment of insulin resistance in HFD-fed rats (P = 0.006). Vitamin D supplementation in HFD group significantly reduced weight (P = 0.001) and food intake (P = 0.008) and increased CSF-to-serum ratio of insulin

  18. Ruminal degradability and ciliates protozoa population in rumen of Nellore steers fed with high concentrated diet supplemented with live yeast, monensin and salinomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Hernades Ortolan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Nelore steers had been used, with average alive weight of 190±32 kg, in experimental delineation by 4x4 latin square, whith the objective of evaluate the effect of the yeast monensin and salinomycin on the parameters of ruminal degradability and the ciliates protozoa population present in the animals rumen. The diet offered to the animals was composed by sorghum silage and concentrated (30:70, respectively, where the four different treatments had been submitted in accordance with the used additive: 5,0g of yeast culture (Beef Sacc®; 0.42g of salinomycin (Coxistac®; 2.0g of monensin (Rumensin® and the control, without additive. The experimental period was subdivided in 21 days of adaptation and seven of harvest, totalized 28 days of experimental period. It had increase of the value for fraction “b” in the dry matter, the treatment with yeast culture, and the salinomycin treatment (P<0,05. The treatment with yeast significantly increased the number of rumen ciliates protozoa (P<0,05.

  19. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P meals and eating rate were less (P meat quality was observed.

  20. Effect of high dietary zinc oxide on the caecal and faecal short-chain fatty acids and tissue zinc and copper concentration in pigs is reversible after withdrawal of the high zinc oxide from the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, P; Büsing, K; Dobenecker, B; Nöckler, K; Zeyner, A

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) used in high ('pharmacological') levels to prevent diarrhoea in pigs is assumed to reduce copper (Cu) in tissues and inhibits large intestinal microbial fermentation. To test it, German Landrace pigs were weaned on d28 of age and fed diets containing either 100 (LowZinc, LZn, n = 10) or 3100 mg ZnO/kg (HighZinc, HZn, n = 10). The mixed feed (13.0 MJ ME, 18.5% crude protein) was based on wheat, barley, soya bean meal and maize. After 4 weeks, the HZn group was further fed 100 mg ZnO/kg for another 2 weeks. Caecal contents, faeces and tissues were collected after 4 weeks (n = 5 and n = 10 respectively) and 6 weeks (n = 5 and n = 5 respectively). Faeces and caecal content were analysed for dry matter (DM), pH, ammonia, lactic acid (LA) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on native water basis. anova was performed to elucidate significant differences at p 0.05) were recorded in caecal contents after 6 weeks. In faeces, acetic acid remained lower in the HZn group in comparison with LZn (p = 0.006), as did the A:P ratio (p = 0.004). Zn concentration in liver, kidneys and ribs, and Cu concentrations in kidneys increased in HZn. Withdrawal of ZnO resulted in reversibility of the changes. The effect on butyric acid should be discussed critically regarding the energetic support for the enterocytes. High Zn and Cu tissue concentrations should be considered by pet food producers.

  1. Body composition and energy utilization by steers of diverse genotypes fed a high-concentrate diet during the finishing period: II. Angus, Boran, Brahman, Hereford, and Tuli sires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1998-02-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of Angus (A), Boran (BO), Brahman (BR), Hereford (H), or Tuli (T) sires on body composition, composition of gain, and energy utilization of crossbred steers during the finishing period. Beginning at 300 kg, 96 steers were adjusted to a high-corn diet and individual feeding. Steers were assigned, by sire breed, to be killed as an initial slaughter group or fed either a limited amount or ad libitum for 140 d then killed. Organ weights, carcass traits, and body composition were evaluated. The statistical model included sire breed (S), treatment (Trt), and the S x Trt interaction. Ad libitum feed intake was least for BO- and T-, intermediate for BR- and H-, and greatest for A-sired steers. Rates of weight, fat, and energy gains were similar for A-, H-, and BR-sired steers but less (P .12). Rates of water, fat, and protein gain increased linearly with increased rate of BW gain, but relationships differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Linear regression analyses indicated energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy use for energy gain differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Evaluation by nonlinear regression indicated that heat production increased exponentially and energy gain increased asymptotically as feed intake increased above maintenance.

  2. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined.

  3. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Jenssen, M.T.S. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo (Norway); Alexander, J. [Office of the Director-General, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Meltzer, H.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Brantsæter, A.L., E-mail: Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B{sub ln} 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B{sub ln} 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different

  4. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2015-01-01

    meat (CARB). RESULTS: The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P CARB diet. Also, the MEAT diet caused an 8% higher HDL......-cholesterol concentration (P CARB diet. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacylglycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P ....004, respectively) and 0.9 g higher with the MEAT diet than with the CARB diet (P = 0.005). CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P

  5. Effect of Crude Protein Levels in Concentrate and Concentrate Levels in Diet on Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Van Dung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of concentrate mixtures with crude protein (CP levels 10%, 13%, 16%, and 19% and diets with roughage to concentrate ratios 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (w/w were determined on dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, and fermentation metabolites using an in vitro fermentation technique. In vitro fermented attributes were measured after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation respectively. The digestibility of DM and OM, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA increased whereas pH decreased with the increased amount of concentrate in the diet (p<0.001, however CP levels of concentrate did not have any influence on these attributes. Gas production reduced with increased CP levels, while it increased with increasing concentrate levels. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and microbial CP production increased significantly (p<0.05 by increasing CP levels and with increasing concentrate levels in diet as well, however, no significant difference was found between 16% and 19% CP levels. Therefore, 16% CP in concentrate and increasing proportion of concentrate up to 80% in diet all had improved digestibility of DM and organic matter, and higher microbial protein production, with improved fermentation characteristics.

  6. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, Anna G.; Holger Kluge; Frank Hirche; Andreas Kiowski; Alexandra Schutkowski; Etienne Corrent; Jörg Bartelt; Bettina König; Stangl, Gabriele I.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu) displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2) and four...

  7. Effect of diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acid concentration on recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Holloway, A W; Harvatine, K J

    2015-11-01

    Diet-induced milk fat depression is caused by highly fermentable and high-unsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets, and results in reduced milk fat concentration and yield, reduced de novo FA, and increased trans isomers of the alternate biohydrogenation pathways. The hypothesis of the current experiment was that a diet higher in fermentability and lower in unsaturated FA (UFA) would accelerate recovery compared with a high-UFA and lower-fermentability diet. Eight ruminally cannulated and 9 noncannulated multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated Latin square design. During each period milk fat depression was induced for 10 d by feeding a low-fiber, high-UFA diet [25.9% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 3.3% C18:2]. Following the induction phase, cows were switched to recovery treatments for 18 d designed to correct dietary fermentability, UFA, or both fermentability and UFA concentration. Treatments during recovery were (1) correction of fiber and UFA diet [control; 31.8% NDF and 1.65% C18:2], (2) a diet predominantly correcting fiber, but not UFA [high oil (HO); 31.3% NDF and 2.99% C18:2], and (3) a diet predominantly correcting UFA, but not fiber concentration [low fiber (LF); 28.4% NDF and 1.71% C18:2]. Milk and milk component yield, milk FA profile, ruminal pH, and 11 rumen microbial taxa were measured every third day during recovery. Milk yield decreased progressively in HO and control, whereas it was maintained in the LF diet. Milk fat concentration increased progressively during recovery in all treatments, but was on average 9% lower in LF than control from d 12 to 18. Milk fat yield increased progressively in all treatments and was not different between control and LF at any time point, but was lower in HO than control on d 15. Milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreased progressively in all treatments, but was higher in HO than control from d 3 to 18 [136 ± 50 and 188 ± 57% (mean ± SD

  8. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  9. Meta-analysis of the response of growing pigs to the isoleucine concentration in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Milgen, J; Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Brossard, L; Primot, Y; Corrent, E

    2012-10-01

    The efficiency of nitrogen utilization will be highest when the amino acid (AA) supply approaches the requirement of the animal. With the availability of different crystalline AA, it is theoretically possible to formulate low-protein diets for growing pigs in which seven AA are co-limiting for performance. In such a diet, the concentration of Lys, Met, Met + Cys, Thr, Trp and Val and a seventh AA would exactly match the requirement. To determine the extent to which low-protein diets can be used, it is important to have reliable information about the requirements for these AA. Isoleucine is often considered the seventh-limiting AA in diets for growing pigs; however, information about the Ile requirement is limited and sometimes conflicting. The purpose of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of the available literature information to determine the Ile requirement in growing pigs. A total of 46 Ile dose-response experiments were identified that used at least four concentrations of Ile in the diet. Because of differences in experimental design, both the Ile concentration and the response criteria were standardized. In 13 dose-response experiments, there was no indication of a response to an increasing Ile concentration. For the other 33 experiments, a response to the increasing Ile concentration was observed and the Ile requirement estimates ranged from 53% to 114% of that of the National Research Council (1998). An Ile concentration below the requirement resulted in important reductions in both feed intake and growth. A 10% reduction in the Ile concentration (below the requirement) resulted in a 15% reduction in feed intake and a 21% reduction in daily gain. The use of blood products in the diet was the main factor determining whether a response to the Ile concentration was observed or not. Blood meal and blood cells are protein sources with a very low Ile concentration, but with high or very high concentrations of Leu, Val, Phe and His. Some of these AA

  10. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  11. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  12. Combined high-fat diet and sustained high sucrose consumption promotes NAFLD in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Tovar, Armando R; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Noriega, Lilia G; Hiriart, Marcia; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Castillo-Hernandez, María del Carmen; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Uribe, Misael; Torres, Nimbe

    2015-01-01

    The study of NAFLD in humans has several limitations. Using murine models helps to understand disease pathogenesis. Evaluate the impact of 4 different diets in the production of NAFLD with emphasis on a combined high-fat plus sustained high sucrose consumption. Eight week-old male Wistar rats were divided in four groups and fed for 90 days with the following diets: 1) Control chow diet (C); 2) High-fat cholesterol diet (HFC) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 3) High-fat cornstarch diet (HFCO) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 4) Chow diet + 20% sucrose in drinking water (HSD). Metabolic changes, leptin levels, liver histology, hepatic and plasma lipid composition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and liver gene expression of FAS, SREBP-1 and PPAR-α were evaluated. The HFC diet had the highest grade of steatosis (grade 2 of 3) and HSD showed also steatosis (grade 1). Liver weight TG and colesterol concentrations in liver were greater in the HFC diet. There were no increased levels of iron in the liver. Rats in HFC gained significantly more weight (P < 0.001). All experimental groups showed fasting hyperglycemia. HFC had the highest glucose level (158.5 ± 7 mg/dL) (P < 0.005). The HSD and the HFCO diets developed also hyperglycemia. HSD had significantly higher fasting hyperinsulinemia. Serum leptin was higher in the HFC diet (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the HFC diet with combination of high fat and high sucrose is more effective in producing NAFLD compared with a high sucrose diet only.

  13. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Jover, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Richard, Sylvain; Virsolvy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD), have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. Objective We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. Design and results The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L.) Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Conclusions Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome–induced cardiovascular trouble. PMID:27834185

  14. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Jover, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Richard, Sylvain; Virsolvy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD), have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L.) Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome-induced cardiovascular trouble.

  15. Dietary supplementation with a specific melon concentrate reverses vascular dysfunction induced by cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is associated with high incidence of cardiovascular diseases partially consecutive to vascular dysfunction. Therapeutic strategies consisting of multidisciplinary interventions include nutritional approaches. Benefits of supplementation with a specific melon concentrate, enriched in superoxide dismutase (SOD, have previously been shown on the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in a nutritional hamster model of obesity. Objective: We further investigated arterial function in this animal model of metabolic syndrome and studied the effect of melon concentrate supplementation on arterial contractile activity. Design and results: The study was performed on a hamster model of diet-induced obesity. After a 15-week period of cafeteria diet, animals were supplemented during 4 weeks with a specific melon concentrate (Cucumis melo L. Contractile responses of isolated aorta to various agonists and antagonists were studied ex vivo. Cafeteria diet induced vascular contractile dysfunction associated with morphological remodeling. Melon concentrate supplementation partially corrected these dysfunctions; reduced morphological alterations; and improved contractile function, especially by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and expression of endogenous SOD. Conclusions: Supplementation with the specific melon concentrate improves vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. This beneficial effect may be accounted for by induction of endogenous antioxidant defense. Such an approach in line with nutritional interventions could be a useful strategy to manage metabolic syndrome–induced cardiovascular trouble.

  16. Even High-Fat Mediterranean Diet Good for You: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159958.html Even High-Fat Mediterranean Diet Good for You: Review Still protected ... July 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even a high-fat Mediterranean diet may protect against breast cancer, diabetes ...

  17. Evaluation of total dietary fiber concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Amy K; Larsen, Jennifer A; Owens, Tammy J; Nelson, Richard W; Kass, Philip H; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2015-09-01

    To determine total dietary fiber (TDF) concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Dry (n = 11) and canned (8) canine therapeutic diets. Insoluble and soluble dietary fiber (IDF and SDF), high-molecular-weight SDF (HMWSDF), and low-molecular-weight SDF (LMWSDF) concentrations were determined. Variables were compared among diets categorized by product guide indication, formulation (dry vs canned), and regulatory criteria for light and low-fat diets. SDF (HMWSDF and LMWSDF) comprised a median of 30.4% (range, 9.4% to 53.7%) of TDF; LMWSDF contributed a median of 11.5% (range, 2.7% to 33.8%) of TDF. Diets for diabetes management had higher concentrations of IDF and TDF with lower proportions of SDF and LMWSDF contributing to TDF, compared with diets for treatment of fat-responsive disease. Fiber concentrations varied within diet categories and between canned and dry versions of the same diet (same name and manufacturer) for all pairs evaluated. Diets classified as light contained higher TDF and IDF concentrations than did non-light diets. All canned diets were classified as low fat, despite providing up to 38% of calories as fat. Diets provided a range of TDF concentrations and compositions; veterinarians should request TDF data from manufacturers, if not otherwise available. Consistent responses to dry and canned versions of the same diet cannot necessarily be expected, and diets with the same indications may not perform similarly. Many diets may not provide adequate fat restriction for treatment of dietary fat-responsive disease.

  18. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  19. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned...... to eat a Palaeolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, or a diabetes diet designed in accordance with current diabetes dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. The patients were recruited from primary health-care units and included three...... concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, visfatin, resistin, glucagon, insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Results: Seven participants started with the Palaeolithic diet...

  20. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet.

  1. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  2. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. METHODS: In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned...... to eat a Palaeolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, or a diabetes diet designed in accordance with current diabetes dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. The patients were recruited from primary health-care units and included three...

  3. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet.

  4. A High-Saturated-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet Aggravates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Chun-Mei; Cao, Si-Si; Zhou, Li-Ping; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited. We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (42% fat calories; 30% sucrose calories) for 12 wk. Blood, liver, and bone were collected for correspondent parameters measurement. Ovariectomy decreased bone mineral density in the tibia head (TH) by 62% and the femoral end (FE) by 49% (P loss in OVX rats by an additional 41% in the TH and 37% in the FE (P loss in the HFS-OVX rats was accompanied by increased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations by 28% (P < 0.05). The HFS diet induced cathepsin K by 145% but reduced osteoprotegerin mRNA expression at the FE of the HFS-sham rats by 71% (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression by 136% and 170% at the FE of the LFS- and HFS-OVX rats, respectively (P < 0.05). The HFS diet aggravated ovariectomy-induced lipid deposition and oxidative stress (OS) in rat livers (P < 0.05). Trabecular bone mineral density at the FE was negatively correlated with rat liver malondialdehyde concentrations (R(2) = 0.39; P < 0.01). The detrimental actions of the HFS diet and ovariectomy on bone properties in rats occurred mainly in cancellous bones and were characterized by a high degree of bone resorption and alterations in OS. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

  6. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Fukuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet, high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5, or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10 for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

  7. High-Protein Diets and Renal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2015-01-01

    review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase...

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  9. Elemental concentrations in kidney and liver of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet determined by particle induced X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Debastiani, Rafaela; Amaral, Livio; Yoneama, Maria Lucia; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2014-01-01

    The importance of trace elements in human health is well known and their main source is daily diet. Nowadays, one of the biggest issues is the presence of these micronutrients in levels much higher than required, leading to potential toxic effects. The aim of this work was to investigate the elemental content in organs of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet using PIXE. Twelve male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: control group (standard chow) and cafeteria group (high-caloric diet). After 17 weeks, samples of different organs (kidney and liver) were collected and prepared for PIXE analysis. The Fe concentration in kidney and liver was statistically higher in animals that received the cafeteria diet (p cafeteria diet in relation to standard diet (p cafeteria diet in kidney, and for P, S and Zn (p < 0.005) in liver.

  10. High-efficiency solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Dorman, J.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of solar concentrator is presented using liquid lenses and simple translational tracking mechanism. The concentrator achieves a 100:1 nominal concentration ratio and is compared in performance with a flat-plate collector having two sheets of glazing and non-selective coating. The results of the thermal analysis show that higher temperatures can be obtained with the concentrator than is possible with the non-concentrator flat-plate type. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency far exceeds that of the comparative flat-plate type for all operating conditions.

  11. Diets high and low in glycemic index versus high monounsaturated fat diets: effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, N D; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M

    1999-06-01

    To examine the relative effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates, and monounsaturated fats on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM subjects. Fourteen male and seven female variably controlled NIDDM subjects recruited by advertisement. Free living outpatients. A repeated measures, within-subject design was used such that each subject consumed three diets: (a) a high-GI diet (53% CHO -21% fat, 63 GI units (glucose= 100)); (b) a low-GI diet (51% CHO -23% fat, 43 GI units); and (c) a high-mono high-GI diet (42% CHO -35% fat, 59 GI units) in random order and cross-over fashion for four weeks. Approximately 45% energy was provided as key foods which differed in published GI values and specifically excluded legumes. Dietary fibre intake was > 30 g/d on each diet. At the end of each dietary intervention, we measured fasting plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, total glycated plasma protein, fructosamine, LDL and HDL particle size as well as 24 h urinary excretion of glucose and C-peptide. HDL-cholesterol was higher on the low-GI and high-mono high-GI diets compared to the high-GI diet (P < 0.05 for overall diet effect). There were no other significant differences in metabolic control between diets, even when adjusted for BMI, glucose control or gender. Body weight and saturated fat intake remained stable between dietary interventions. High-mono high-GI and high-CHO, low-GI diets are superior to high-CHO, high-GI diets with respect to HDL metabolism but no effect was noted on glucose metabolism in variably controlled NIDDM subjects.

  12. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Betaine supplementation prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet: effects on one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; da Silva, Robin P; Lamarre, Simon G; Kelly, Karen B; Jacobs, René L; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of betaine supplementation on the regulation of one-carbon metabolism and liver lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in rats. Rats were fed one of three different liquid diets: control diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet supplemented with betaine. The control and high-fat liquid diets contained, respectively, 35 and 71 % of energy derived from fat. Betaine supplementation involved the addition of 1 % (g/L) to the diet. After three weeks on the high-fat diet the rats had increased total liver fat concentration, liver triglycerides, liver TBARS and plasma TNF-α. The high-fat diet decreased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine concentration and the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio compared to the control as well as altering the expression of genes involved in one-carbon metabolism. Betaine supplementation substantially increased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine concentration (~fourfold) and prevented fatty liver and hepatic injury induced by the high-fat diet. It was accompanied by the normalization of the gene expression of BHMT, GNMT and MGAT, which code for key enzymes of one-carbon metabolism related to liver fat accumulation. In conclusion, the regulation of the expression of MGAT by betaine supplementation provides an additional and novel mechanism by which betaine supplementation regulates lipid metabolism and prevents accumulation of fat in the liver.

  14. Contaminant and nutrient concentrations of natural ingredient rat and mouse diet used in chemical toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G N; Knapka, J J

    1987-08-01

    The NIH-07 open formula natural ingredient rat and mouse ration is the standard diet for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity studies conducted for the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Contaminant and nutrient concentrations were determined in 2 to 94 lots of this diet used in the NTP toxicology studies. All nutrient concentrations were equivalent to or greater than the requirements for rats and mice as set forth by the National Research Council. Aflatoxins, Hg, chlorinated hydrocarbons except methoxychlor, organophosphates except malathion, estrogenic activity, and Salmonella sp. were not present at the detectable levels. Fluorine, As, Cd, Pb, Se, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosomorpholine, nitrate, nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, ethylene dibromide, methoxychlor, malathion, and trypsin inhibitor activity were present at or above the detectable levels. Five lots of diet had nitrosamine content of 100 to 273 ppb and 7 lots had 2.08 to 3.37 ppm of Pb. All other lots of NIH-07 diet used for NTP toxicology studies contained low levels of the contaminants. After determination of the contaminant concentrations in the 94 lots of diet and the contaminant concentrations in natural ingredients used in formulating NIH-07 diet, maximum allowable levels of contaminants were established and a flexible scoring system for acceptability of each lot of diet for chemical toxicology studies was developed. By prescreening ingredients such as fish meal for heavy metals and nitrosamines, and applying the flexible scoring system proposed, more than 95% of the lots of NIH-07 diet produced during the last 3 years had scores of greater than or equal to 95 out of 100 points and were considered acceptable for toxicology studies.

  15. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, A M; Hindle, V A; Klop, A; Cone, J W

    2010-06-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in duodenum and ileum received a low-starch (12% of ration dry matter) and a high-starch (33% of ration dry matter) diet. Starch level was increased by exchanging dried sugar beet pulp by ground maize. After a 2-week adaptation period, feed intake, rumen fermentation parameters (in vivo and in situ), intestinal flows, faecal excretion of organic matter, starch and NDF were estimated. When the high-starch diet was fed, dry matter intake was higher (19.0 kg/day vs. 17.8 kg/day), and total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch and NDF was lower when the low-starch diet was fed. Maize starch concentration had no significant effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration nor on the site of digestion of organic matter and starch and rate of passage of ytterbium-labelled forage. On the high-starch diet, an extra 1.3 kg of maize starch was supplied at the duodenum in relation to the low-starch diet, but only an extra 0.3 kg of starch was digested in the small intestine. Digestion of NDF was only apparent in the rumen and was lower on the high-starch diet than on the low-starch diet, mainly attributed to the reduction in sugar beet pulp in the high-starch diet. It was concluded that without the correction for the reduction in NDF digestion in the rumen, the extra supply of glucogenic (glucose and propionic acid) and ketogenic nutrients (acetic and butyric acid) by supplemented starch will be overestimated. The mechanisms responsible for these effects need to be addressed in feed evaluation.

  16. Comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas contendo alta proporção de concentrado e diferentes fontes de fibra em detergente neutro Lamb feeding behavior and nutrient digestibility of high concentrate diets with different neutral detergent fiber sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Quirino Mendes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar os efeitos da substituição da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura pela FDN da casca de soja em dietas com alta proporção de concentrado sobre o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No primeiro experimento, 60 cordeiros com 16,4 ± 0,3 kg de peso corporal e idade inicial de 67 ± 2 dias foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 + 1, composto de duas fontes de FDN (bagaço de cana in natura ou casca de soja, dois teores de FDN (14 ou 18% e uma dieta controle contendo 100% de concentrado. No segundo experimento, cinco cordeiros foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 5 × 5 e submetidos às mesmas dietas do experimento 1. As dietas contendo as fontes de fibra promoveram maior consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica e FDN e maior tempo de ingestão, ruminação e mastigação (minutos/dia em comparação à dieta contendo 100% de concentrado. As dietas contendo o bagaço de canade-açúcar in natura proporcionaram maior atividade de ruminação que aquelas com casca de soja. Entretanto, a utilização da casca de soja proporcionou menor atividade de mastigação e maior digestibilidade dos nutrientes em relação ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura. A casca de soja pode ser utilizada como única fonte adicional de FDN em dietas contendo alto teor de concentrado para cordeiros.Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of replacing the neutral detergent fiber from sugarcane bagasse with soybean hulls neutral detergent fiber in high concentrate diets on lamb feeding behavior and apparent nutrient digestibility. In the first experiment, 60 ram lambs with 16.4 ± 0.3 kg body weight and 67 ± 2 days old were allotted to a complete randomized block design as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments, consisting of two neutral detergent fiber sources

  17. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is known to regulate host energy homeostasis and can be influenced by high-calorie diets. However, changes affecting the ecosystem at the functional level are still not well characterized. We measured shifts in cecal bacterial communities in mice fed a carbohydrate or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks at the level of the following: (i) diversity and taxa distribution by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing; (ii) bulk and single-cell chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared- (FT-IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy and (iii) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase). FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the impact of the diet on cecal chemical fingerprints is greater than the impact of microbiota composition. Diet-driven changes in biochemical fingerprints of members of the Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae were also observed at the level of single cells, indicating that there were distinct differences in cellular composition of dominant phylotypes under different diets. Metaproteome and metabolome analyses based on the occurrence of 1760 bacterial proteins and 86 annotated metabolites revealed distinct HF diet-specific profiles. Alteration of hormonal and anti-microbial networks, bile acid and bilirubin metabolism and shifts towards amino acid and simple sugars metabolism were observed. We conclude that a HF diet markedly affects the gut bacterial ecosystem at the functional level.

  18. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ...) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase...

  19. Haemolymph glucose concentrations of juvenile rock lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, feeding on different carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, C A; Marsden, I D; Davison, W; Taylor, H H

    2005-02-01

    Postprandial changes in haemolymph glucose concentration ([Glc]H) were measured in 4-day-fasted juvenile intermoult spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, provided with meals composed of glycogen, maltose, sucrose, glucose, or fructose in a gelatine base, or with gels of the algal glycans agar, alginate and carrageenan. Baseline [Glc]H was 0.61+/-0.02 mmol L(-1). After consumption of glycogen, maltose or sucrose, [Glc]H approximately doubled, peaked after 3 h and returned to baseline between 12 and 24 h. Glucose and fructose meals were followed by periods of sustained hyperglycaemia lasting more than 24 h (peaking at approximately 2.5 times baseline at 6 and 3 h respectively). Suggested explanations for augmented hyperglycaemic responses to glucose and fructose are: 1) these monosaccharides by-passed contact digestion and absorption in the R-cells of the digestive gland, directing them away from storage and toward transepithelial scavenging routes; or 2) glucose and fructose directly elicited release of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone via a chemosensory reflex. Agar and alginate induced significant postprandial glycaemic responses, consistent with reports of carbohydrases in this species and indicating their potential for inclusion in artificial diets as both binders and energy sources. Carrageenan, a highly sulphated galactan, did not produce a glycaemic response. The measurement of glycaemic responses is a quick method of obtaining nutritional information on carbohydrates considered for inclusion in formulated diets prior to lengthy growth trials.

  20. Effects of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet on feeding behaviour in young Blond d'Aquitaine bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, M M; Martin, C; Garcia, F; Menassol, J B; Dubroeucq, H; Veissier, I; Micol, D

    2008-11-01

    The activities of bulls, their feeding behaviour and their ruminal pH were examined at several stages during the finishing period, according to the forage-to-concentrate ratio of their diet. Twenty-four bulls of the Blond d'Aquitaine breed (initial body weight = 326 ± 21 kg) were assigned to six balanced pens with a space allowance of 9.4 m2 per bull during the finishing period. They were fed three different diets with achieved forage-to-concentrate ratios of (i) 8% straw and 92% concentrate, (ii) 44% hay and 56% concentrate and (iii) 57% maize silage and 43% concentrate. Bulls had ad libitum access to feed dispensed once daily. Offered and refusals were weighed on 5 consecutive days per week. The bulls were slaughtered at the common final live weight of 650 kg and the finishing period lasted 138, 181 and 155 days for straw-concentrate, hay-concentrate and maize silage-concentrate diets, respectively. The time budget was estimated four times by scan sampling with a 10-min interval. Feeding behaviour was appraised using data from electronic feeding gates. Ruminal pH was measured from a ruminal fluid sample collected by rumenocentesis. On average, the bulls spent 78% of the time lying or standing still, and 11% of the time eating. The forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet influenced only those activities directly linked to feeding, i.e. eating and drinking. Bulls fed a high-concentrate diet spent less time eating than the other bulls (47 min v. >2 h) and took shorter meals (7 min v. 17 min). The bulls fed the straw-concentrate diet spread their meals over the entire day, whereas the others maintained two major peaks of eating activity, the main one in the morning after feed dispensing, the other one at the end of the diurnal period. Intake rate ranged widely between diets, from 58 g/min on average for the diets based on hay or maize silage up to 173 g/min for the high-concentrate diet. The concentrate-diet bulls also had a lower ruminal pH during the first 2

  1. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  2. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with LQR resulted in a 17% better efficiency of ME use for gain (P efficiency of energy retention as fat (P efficiency, however, should be viewed with caution because it is related to visceral fat deposition, a nonedible tissue.

  3. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  4. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  5. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  6. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  7. Effect of ethyl pyruvate on skeletal muscle metabolism in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek, Robert A; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Wierzba, Tomasz H; Kaczor, Jan J

    2013-07-01

    Impaired mitochondrial capacity may be implicated in the pathology of chronic metabolic diseases. To elucidate the effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on skeletal muscles metabolism we examined changes in activities of mitochondrial and antioxidant enzymes, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation (an indirect marker of oxidative stress) during the development of obesity. After 6 weeks feeding of control or high fat diet, Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control diet, control diet and ethyl pyruvate, high fat diet, and high fat diet and ethyl pyruvate. Ethyl pyruvate was administered as 0.3% solution in drinking water, for the following 6 weeks. High fat diet feeding induced the increase of activities 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and fumarase. Moreover, higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation, were noted. Ethyl pyruvate supplementation did not affect the mitochondrial enzymes' activities, but induced superoxide dismutase activity and sulfhydryl groups oxidation. All of the changes were observed in soleus muscle, but not in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Additionally, positive correlations between fasting blood insulin concentration and activities of catalase (p = 0.04), and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.01) in soleus muscle were noticed. Prolonged ethyl pyruvate consumption elevated insulin concentration, which may cause modifications in oxidative type skeletal muscles.

  8. Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on performance and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, J R; Faulkner, D B; Retallick, K M; Shike, D W

    2014-12-01

    Angus×Simmental crossbred heifers (n=150) and steers (n=100) were used to evaluate 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) a corn-based growing diet (CRN); 2) a high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; 3) a high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend; 4) a low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; and 5) a low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend in a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Low-protein and low-fat diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isofat to CRN (16.0% CP and 3.0% fat), and high-protein and high-fat diets were formulated to have 20.0% CP and 5.0% fat, respectively. Calves were weaned at 85±1.2 d, blocked by weight, and allotted to pens (10 calves/pen) within sex (10 pens of steers and 15 pens of heifers). The objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of protein or fat or their interaction in coproducts used in growing diets fed to early-weaned calves affects feedlot performance or carcass composition. Starting on d 0, calves (141±1.2 d of age) were fed experimental diets for 112 d and then fed a common feedlot diet for an additional 112 d. Body weight, hip height, and ultrasound data were collected at the end of each 112-d feeding phase. Carcass data included HCW, LM area (LMA), 12th-rib back fat (BF), marbling score (MS), KPH, and USDA quality grade. There was no fat×protein interaction (P≥0.27); therefore, only main effects are discussed. No effects (P≥0.47) of CRN, protein, or fat were detected for BW at d 112 or 224. Increased dietary protein resulted in greater (P=0.04) ADG at d 112 compared to calves fed low protein. Feeding cattle CRN decreased (P=0.04) DMI and increased (Pcalf diets but that increased dietary fat and low dietary protein increased MS.

  9. Persistent Chromatin Modifications Induced by High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Amy; Trac, Candi; Du, Juan; Natarajan, Rama; Schones, Dustin E

    2016-05-13

    Obesity is a highly heritable complex disease that results from the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Formerly obese individuals are susceptible to metabolic disorders later in life, even after lifestyle changes are made to mitigate the obese state. This is reminiscent of the metabolic memory phenomenon originally observed for persistent complications in diabetic patients, despite subsequent glycemic control. Epigenetic modifications represent a potential mediator of this observed memory. We previously demonstrated that a high fat diet leads to changes in chromatin accessibility in the mouse liver. The regions of greatest chromatin changes in accessibility are largely strain-dependent, indicating a genetic component in diet-induced chromatin alterations. We have now examined the persistence of diet-induced chromatin accessibility changes upon diet reversal in two strains of mice. We find that a substantial fraction of loci that undergo chromatin accessibility changes with a high fat diet remains in the remodeled state after diet reversal in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, the vast majority of diet-induced chromatin accessibility changes in A/J mice are transient. Our data also indicate that the persistent chromatin accessibility changes observed in C57BL/6J mice are associated with specific transcription factors and histone post-translational modifications. The persistent loci identified here are likely to be contributing to the overall phenotype and are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-06-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NEL /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NEL /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  12. Milho úmido, bagaço de cana e silagem de milho em dietas de alto teor de concentrado: 2. composição corporal e taxas de deposição dos tecidos High moisture corn, sugarcane bagasse and corn silage in high concentrate diets: 2. empty body chemical composition and tissues deposition rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Berndt

    2002-09-01

    245 kg were fed an adaptation diet for 33 days. After that period four animals were slaughtered to obtain initial body composition. The other 28 animals were allotted to the four treatments for a 124 days experimental feeding period. The experimental design was randomized blocks in 2 X 2 factorial arrangement (two roughage sources X two corn grain sources with seven replicates, testing the following treatments: corn silage+high moisture corn (Si-MU; corn silage+dry corn grain (Si-MS; sugarcane bagasse+high moisture corn (Ba-MU and sugarcane bagasse+dry corn grain (Ba-MS. There were no interactions between roughage and grain source for any variable evaluated. Corn silage was superior than sugarcane bagasse for daily empty body gain, and for deposition rates of all chemical components and energy. High moisture corn increased fat and energy content in the gain as well as the rate of lipid deposition. Data demonstrated that sugarcane bagasse is a poor roughage source in high concentrate diets when compared to whole plant corn silage. Results are also consistent with an increase in net energy content of ensiled corn grain.

  13. Exigências líquidas de energia e proteína de tourinhos Santa Gertrudes confinados, recebendo alto concentrado Energy and protein requirements of Santa Gertrudis young bulls in feedlot, fed high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de energia e proteína para ganho de tourinhos Santa Gertrudes, 33 tourinhos, com idade de 12 meses e peso inicial médio de 314,6±33,2kg, foram confinados durante 115 dias, após 56 dias de adaptação. Seis animais foram abatidos após adaptação, para determinação da composição química corporal inicial. Os animais receberam dietas contendo 80% de concentrado, avaliando-se a inclusão de 0; 4,5; e 9,0% do subproduto concentrado da produção de lisina na matéria seca. As exigências de energia líquida de ganho (ELg foram estimadas em função do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e do ganho de PCVZ (GPCVZ, e as exigências líquidas de proteína para ganho (PLg foram estimadas em função do GPCVZ e da energia retida (ER. As equações obtidas para ELg e PLg foram: ELg (Mcal/dia = 0,0061×PCVZ0,75×GPCVZ0,578; e PLg (g/dia = 208,1×GPCVZ - 1,0868×ER. A exigência de energia líquida encontrada para ganho de 1kg de PV foi de 3,93; 4,88 e 5,76Mcal, e a exigência de proteína metabolizável foi de 367,81; 393,59 e 391,63g, respectivamente, para animais com 300, 400 e 500kg de peso corporal. O valor de exigência líquida para mantença foi obtido por meio da regressão do logaritmo da produção de calor (PC, em função da ingestão de energia metabolizável, chegando-se ao valor de 75,6kcal/PVz0,75/dia. Concluiu-se que, devido ao aumento do teor de gordura na composição do ganho, animais de maior peso de corpo vazio apresentam maiores exigências líquidas de energia.The objective of this study was to determine the energy and protein requirements for gain of Santa Gertrudis young bulls. Thirty-three 12-month-year-old animals, with initial body weight of 314.6±33.2kg, were kept in individual pens during 115 days, after 56 days of adaptation. Six animals were slaughtered after adaptation and determined the chemical composition of initial body. The concentrate proportion in the diet was 80%, on dry

  14. Desempenho e características da carcaça de tourinhos Santa Gertrudes confinados, recebendo dietas com alto concentrado e níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Santa Gertrudis bulls, fed high concentrate diets with increasing levels of dehydrated citrus pulp pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wignez Henrique

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela polpa cítrica peletizada sobre o desempenho e as características da carcaça de tourinhos Santa Gertrudes confinados. Vinte e oito animais, com nove meses de idade e peso inicial de 277 kg, foram confinados em baias individuais. O período experimental foi de 92 dias, após 21 dias de adaptação. Os animais receberam dietas contendo 20% da matéria seca como silagem de milho, com 40% de grãos. Foram testados os níveis de 0, 25, 40 e 55% de participação da polpa cítrica peletizada na matéria seca da dieta. Não houve efeito do nível de polpa cítrica na dieta sobre ganho de peso, ingestão diária de matéria seca, eficiência alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo e peso da gordura renal-pélvica-inguinal. Os pesos do fígado e da carcaça foram significativamente maiores com o aumento da polpa cítrica na dieta, que também determinou decréscimo linear na espessura de gordura sobre a 12ª costela. O pH das fezes foi semelhante entre os níveis de participação da polpa cítrica. Não foi verificada a ocorrência de abscessos no fígado em nenhum tratamento, apesar da dieta conter alto teor de concentrado. A polpa cítrica peletizada pode compor até 55% da matéria seca de dietas, substituindo o milho em grão, para tourinhos em terminação recebendo altos níveis de concentrado, apenas com diminuição da espessura de gordura.The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of corn grain by dehydrated citrus pulp pellets on the performance and carcass characteristics of Santa Gertrudis young bulls fed high concentrate diets. Twenty-eight bulls, with average age of nine months and an initial weight of 277 kg, were kept in individual pens and fed during 92 days, after 21 days of adaptation. The animals were fed a diet with 20% of the dry matter as corn silage, with 40% of grain. Treatments

  15. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pfat diet group was significantly increased compared with that of normal control rats (6.62 mmol/L vs. 4.96 mmol/L, Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  16. PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (250-300 g were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection. They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1 Standard diet (STD, (2 Red bean diet (KM, and (3 Soy bean diet (KD for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day,after injection (day 17th and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45thIt was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 % in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 % in KD groups, but standard diet (STD were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

  17. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees.

  18. Exercise and a High Fat Diet Synergistically Increase the Pantothenic Acid Requirement in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that both exercise and dietary composition increase the utilization of, and thus the requirement for, certain water-soluble vitamins. However, there have been no studies evaluating the combined impacts of exercise and dietary composition on vitamin utilization. In this experiment, rats were fed a pantothenic acid (PaA)-restricted (0.004 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet containing 5% (ordinary amount of dietary fat) or 20% fat (high fat), and were forced to swim until exhaustion every other day for 22 d. PaA status was assessed by urinary excretion, which reflects body stores of water-soluble vitamins. The urinary excretion of PaA in rats fed a 5% fat diet was not affected by swimming (5% fat + non-swimming vs. 5% fat + swim; p>0.05). Excretion of PaA was decreased by the high-fat diet (5% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + non-swim; pswim vs. 20% fat + swim; p<0.05). There was a significant interaction between exercise and a high-fat diet. Plasma PaA concentrations showed changes similar to those seen for urinary excretion. The experiment was then repeated using rats fed a PaA-sufficient (0.016 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet, and PaA excretion was again synergistically decreased by the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet synergistically increases the requirement for PaA.

  19. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  20. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Schwarz, J.; Even, P.C.; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Azzout-Marniche, D.; Tome, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  1. [High fat diet induces obesity and alters the expression of MCHR1 and OB-Rb in the adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinrong; Yan, Jianqun; Chen, Ke; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the effect of high-fat (HF) diet on the body weight and the mRNA expression of melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) and leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in the adipose tissue in rats, the two important and opposite factors in regulating the body weight. Post-weaning rats were divided into 3 groups: the NC group were fed a normal-chow diet (NC) (13% calories from fat), the HF group with a HF-diet (47% calories from fat) and the PHF group pair-fed a HF-diet (47% calories from fat). At the end of 8th week, the gained bodyweight, the plasma melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and leptin, and the expression levels of MCHR1 and OB-Rb in the adipose tissue were measured. Both the HF-diet and pair-fed HF-diet enhanced the body weight (Ptissue, HF-diet resulted in significant increase in MCHR1 (PHF group,P0.05). Chronic intake of iso-caloric HF-diet and ad libitum HF-diet obviously results in increase in the body weight, serum leptin, and MCH concentration. Diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders are possibly correlated with up-regulated expression of MCHR1 and down-regulated expression of OB-Rb in the adipose tissue.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  3. Design and development of a high-concentration photovoltaic concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, R C

    1982-04-01

    The design and development of a high concentration photovoltaic concentrator module is discussed. The design concept described herein incorporates a curved groove domed Fresnel lens, a high concentration etched multiple vertical junction (EMVJ) solar cell and a passively cooled direct-bonded copper cell mount all packaged in a plastic module. Two seven inch diameter 1200x domed Fresnel lenses were fabricated using single point diamond turning technology. Testing at both GE and Sandia confirmed optical transmission efficiencies of over 83%. Samples of the latest available EMVJ cells were mounted and installed, with a domed Fresnel lens, into a prototype module. Subsequent testing demonstrated net lens-cell efficiencies of 10 to 13%. As a result of this program, salient conclusions have been formulated as to this technology.

  4. Fattening performance, metabolic indicators, and muscle composition of bulls fed fiber-rich versus starch-plus-lipid-rich concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, M M; Renand, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Bauchart, D; Hocquette, J F; Mounier, L; Noël, T; Micol, D; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the responses in fattening performance and meat composition for high-concentrate diets rich in either starch and lipids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) or fibrous by-products. A total of 140 Charolais bulls (initially 319 ± 27 kg BW) were allocated to 3 high-concentrate diets and were fattened for up to 18 mo. The diet treatments included concentrate mixtures rich in either fiber (FR; n = 56) or starch plus linseed (diets SL and SLR; n = 56 and n = 28, respectively) and barley straw. The concentrate mix was offered ad libitum in SL and FR diets but was kept isoenergetic to the FR diet in the SLR diet. Bulls were weighed every 15 d. Feed intake was measured daily. Carcass composition was assessed for all animals slaughtered at 699 ± 65 kg BW. Meat nutritional quality traits (e.g., fat content and fatty acid composition focusing on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were measured on the longissimus thoracis, rectus abdominis, and semitendinosus muscles. Metabolic enzyme activity (phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome-c oxidase) was measured on these muscles and on liver. The SL diet bulls had greater fattening performance, BW gain (P = 0.006), and efficiency for growth (P = 0.025) at an energy intake similar to that of FR diet bulls. They also had heavier carcasses with a greater proportion of fat. However, liver samples showed no difference in specific metabolic activity. Compared to bulls fed the SL diet, bulls fed SLR consumed 15% less energy and had lower BW gain (P < 0.001) but were slightly more efficient for growth (P = 0.010). They had lower carcass weight but a greater muscle-to-fat ratio. Compared to bulls fed the FR diet, SLR bulls had lower than planned NEg intake and lower BW gain but did not have differences in body composition. Compared to the FR diet, the SL diet led to a greater omega-3 fatty acid content because of a greater supply of dietary linoleic acid, especially in lean muscle.

  5. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-07-01

    Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy-based control diet or that diet containing 3-7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. The high-fat diet elevated (P obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation, and phosphorylation of lipids. This porcine model may be used to study interactive mechanisms between excess fat intake and selenoprotein function. © 2015 American Society for

  6. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that RFI is reasonably repeatable for a wide range of dietary starch levels fed to mid-lactation cows, so that cows that have low RFI when fed high corn diets will likely also have low RFI when fed diets high in nonforage fiber sources. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High Dietary Copper Increases Catecholamine Concentrations in the Hypothalami and Midbrains of Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Zhao, Chunyu; Zhang, Cai; Yang, Lianyu

    2016-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of high dietary copper on catecholamine concentration and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) activity in hypothalami and midbrains of growing pigs. Forty-five crossbred weanling pigs with an average body weight of 7.5 kg were randomly assigned to three groups of 15 each to receive a control diet containing 10 mg/kg Cu (diet A) and diets containing 125 (diet B) or 250 (diet C) mg Cu/kg DM for 45 days. Compared to the control, Cu supplementation at both 125 and 250 mg Cu/kg DM increased average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency. High dietary copper increased midbrain and hypothalami dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations and midbrain dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity. However, increasing dietary Cu had no effect on hypothalami dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity.

  8. Argan oil reduces, in rats, the high fat diet-induced metabolic effects of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sour, S; Belarbi, M; Sari, N; Benammar, C H; Baghdad, C H; Visioli, F

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder which is of worldwide concern. In addition to calorie control, some specific dietary components might help resolving some of the complication of obesity, by providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effect of argan oil supplementation on plasma lipid profile and oxidant-antioxidant status of rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity compared with rats fed a normal diet (ND). We used an animal model of high fat diet-induced obesity to study the metabolic effects of argan oil and we measured several markers lipid and redox statuses. Consumption of a high-fat diet led to an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TAG) concentrations; however, argan oil blunted the increases of TC, LDL-C and TG, glucose, and insulin. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower, whereas plasma hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, and susceptibility of LDL to copper-induced oxidation were higher in obese rats compared with normal rats. Administration of argan oil ameliorated all these indices of redox status. Proper diet and lifestyle should be foremost implemented to reduce the lipoprotein metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant status alterations brought about by obesity. In addition, argan oil reduces the metabolic effects of obesity and its use might be promoted within the context of a balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-10-01

    This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P hens.

  10. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the liver response in young pigs to a high-fat diet (containing 25% animal fat) and diet restriction (equivalent to 60% of maintenance) using differential proteome analysis. The objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents...... to a high-fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss. The high-fat diet increased (P diet had normal glucose tolerance and liver lipid content despite a general increase (P ....05) in plasma lipids (i.e., NEFA, triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol, and lipoproteins). In addition, diet restriction in young pigs induced a modest BW loss (0.7 kg/d; P

  11. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  12. Switching adolescent high-fat diet to adult control diet restores neurocognitive alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Boitard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al., 2014; Boitard et al., 2012; Boitard et al., 2015. Here, we assessed whether the effects of adolescent HF consumption on brain function are permanent or reversible. After adolescent exposure to HF, switching to a standard chow diet restored levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and normalized enhanced HPA axis reactivity, amygdala activity and avoidance memory. Therefore, while the adolescent period is highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity, adult exposure to a standard diet appears sufficient to reverse alterations of brain function.

  13. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  14. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwoo Chun

    Full Text Available A high phosphorus (HP diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα, a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054 in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty

  15. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are naturally low in salt, cholesterol, and saturated fats. You will also include foods that are high ... AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of ...

  16. Elemental concentrations in kidney and liver of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet determined by particle induced X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimer Leffa, Daniela [Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, 88806-000 Criciúma, SC (Brazil); Iochims dos Santos, Carla Eliete; Debastiani, Rafaela; Amaral, Livio; Yoneama, Maria Lucia; Ferraz Dias, Johnny [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Moraes Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, 88806-000 Criciúma, SC (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The importance of trace elements in human health is well known and their main source is daily diet. Nowadays, one of the biggest issues is the presence of these micronutrients in levels much higher than required, leading to potential toxic effects. The aim of this work was to investigate the elemental content in organs of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet using PIXE. Twelve male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: control group (standard chow) and cafeteria group (high-caloric diet). After 17 weeks, samples of different organs (kidney and liver) were collected and prepared for PIXE analysis. The Fe concentration in kidney and liver was statistically higher in animals that received the cafeteria diet (p < 0.001). The Al and Si kidney contents were significantly higher for cafeteria diet in relation to standard diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the standard diet showed significant differences for Cl and K (p < 0.05) in comparison to cafeteria diet in kidney, and for P, S and Zn (p < 0.005) in liver.

  17. Changes in lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, and LDL subclasses with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Elizabeth R; Witztum, Joseph L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-11-01

    Low-fat diets have been shown to increase plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a preferential lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in plasma, as well as small dense LDL particles. We sought to determine whether increases in plasma Lp(a) induced by a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet are related to changes in OxPL and LDL subclasses. We studied 63 healthy subjects after 4 weeks of consuming, in random order, a high-fat low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet and a LFHC diet. Plasma concentrations of Lp(a) (P diet compared with the HFLC diet whereas LDL peak particle size was significantly smaller (P Diet-induced changes in Lp(a) were strongly correlated with changes in OxPL/apoB (P diet were also correlated with decreases in medium LDL particles (P diet is associated with increases in OxPLs and with changes in LDL subclass distribution that may reflect altered metabolism of Lp(a) particles.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic activity of adenosine triphosphate in rabbits fed a high-fat diet and hyperlipidemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianshan; Liang, Libin; Tong, Tong; Qin, Yuguo; Xu, Yanping; Tong, Xinglong

    2016-10-01

    Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C were measured on the 20th day and 30th day. Heart, liver and aorta were subjected histopathological examination. Twenty outpatients diagnosed primary hyperlipidemia took ATP at a dose of 60 mg twice a day for 1 week. Results Feeding rabbits with a high-fat diet resulted in a significant elevation of lipid parameters including TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C compared to the normal diet group (p ATP treatment significantly decreased serum TG level (p ATP significantly reduced the thickness of fat layer in cardiac epicardium (p ATP for 1 week, hyperlipidemia patients exhibited a significant decrease of TG (p ATP selectively decreases serum TG levels in high-fat diet rabbits and hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, ATP supplementation may provide an effective approach to control TG level.

  19. 长期饲喂高精料日粮对泌乳期山羊血液生化参数及组织中糖代谢相关基因表达的影响%Effect of long-term feeding of high concentrate diet on plasma biochemical parameters and expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in lactating goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海波; 赵茹茜; 王绍庆; 贾媛媛; 端木永前; 陶诗煜; 倪迎冬; 张源淑; 庄苏; 沈向真

    2014-01-01

    为了研究长期饲喂高精料日粮对泌乳期山羊血液生化指标和糖代谢的影响,选择8只安装永久性瘤胃瘘管的健康经产泌乳中期山羊,分别饲喂精粗比为40∶60(low concentrate,LC,n=4)和60∶40(high concentrate, HC,n=4)的日粮。实验期共8周,实验期间采集瘤胃液,血液;实验结束时采集肝脏,肌肉,脂肪组织置于液氮速冻后于-70℃保存待测。结果显示,饲喂高精料日粮2周后山羊瘤胃液pH 显著降低,采食后瘤胃液pH 持续低于5.8超过3 h,8周后瘤胃液pH 升高维持在6.0以上,但仍低于LC组山羊。与LC组山羊相比较,HC组山羊血液中葡萄糖、游离脂肪酸含量均升高(P<0.05,P=0.071),谷草转氨酶含量有上升的趋势(0.05<P<0.1);HC组肝脏中葡萄糖转运蛋白4(Glut4)mRNA 表达有上升的趋势(P=0.06),脂肪和肌肉中丙酮酸羧化酶(PC)、线粒体型磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧激酶(PCK2)均呈上升趋势(P=0.066,P=0.069)。长期饲喂高精料日粮引起泌乳山羊能量代谢异常,并伴随血液代谢异常及组织糖代谢基因表达的变化。%In order to investigate the effect of feeding high concentrate diets for a long-term on plasma biochemi-cal parameters and expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in different tissues,8 healthy multipa-rous goats in mid-lactation were rumen-cannulated in and were randomly allocated to two groups,one receiving a diet with low concentrate (LC,concentrate∶roughage,%= 40∶60)as the LC group (n= 4),and another receiving high concentrate diet (HC,concentrate∶roughage,%= 60∶40)as the HC group (n= 4).The ex-periment lasted for 8 weeks.At the end of experiment,tissues including liver,muscle and fat were sampled and immediately immersed in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -70℃for later gene expression analysis.After feeding the high-concentrate diet for 2

  20. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  1. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  2. Short-term high-fat diet increases postprandial trimethylamine-N-oxide in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutagy, Nabil E; Neilson, Andrew P; Osterberg, Kristin L; Smithson, Andrew T; Englund, Tessa R; Davy, Brenda M; Hulver, Matthew W; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-10-01

    The gut microbiota plays an obligatory role in the metabolism of nutrients containing trimethylamine moieties, such as L-carnitine and choline, leading to the production of the proatherogenic trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We hypothesized that a short-term, high-fat diet would increase fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of TMAO in response to a high-fat meal challenge. Following a 2-week eucaloric control diet, 10 nonobese men (18-30 years) consumed a eucaloric, high-fat diet (55% fat) for 5 days. Plasma TMAO was measured after a 12-hour fast and each hour after for 4 hours following a high-fat meal (63% fat) at baseline and after the high-fat diet using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. Fasting plasma TMAO did not increase significantly following the high-fat diet (1.83 ± 0.21 vs 1.6 ± 0.24 μmol/L). However, plasma TMAO was higher at hour 1 (2.15 ± 0.28 vs 1.7 ± 0.30 μmol/L), hour 2 (2.3 ± 0.29 vs 1.8 ± 0.32 μmol/L), hour 3 (2.4 ± 0.34 vs 1.58 ± 0.19 μmol/L), and hour 4 (2.51 ± 0.33 vs 1.5 ± 0.12 μmol/L) (all P fasting plasma TMAO concentrations but appears to increase postprandial TMAO concentrations in healthy, nonobese, young men. Future studies are needed to determine the mechanisms responsible for these observations.

  3. Producing a highly concentrated coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokudzu, K.; Atsudzima, T.; Kiyedzuka, Y.

    1983-06-03

    Coal from wet and dry grinding is loaded into a mixer with a mixer arm with the acquisition of a highly concentrated suspension. Foamers (for instance, alkylbenzolsulfonate) and foam stabilizers (for instance diethanolamide of lauric acid) are added in a ratio of 10 to (2 to 5). The high fluidity of the suspension is maintained by injecting air into the suspension and an 80 percent concentration of the suspension is achieved.

  4. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  5. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  6. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  7. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  8. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet (the ketogenic diet) exaggerates biotin deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Matsui, Tomoyoshi; Ando, Saori; Ishii, Yoshie; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a cofactor for several carboxylases. The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, is used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and promote weight loss. In Japan, the infant version of the ketogenic diet is known as the "ketone formula." However, as the special infant formulas used in Japan, including the ketone formula, do not contain sufficient amounts of biotin, biotin deficiency can develop in infants who consume the ketone formula. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ketogenic diet on biotin status in mice. Male mice (N = 32) were divided into the following groups: control diet group, biotin-deficient (BD) diet group, ketogenic control diet group, and ketogenic biotin-deficient (KBD) diet group. Eight mice were used in each group. At 9 wk, the typical symptoms of biotin deficiency such as hair loss and dermatitis had only developed in the KBD diet group. The total protein expression level of biotin-dependent carboxylases and the total tissue biotin content were significantly decreased in the KBD and BD diet groups. However, these changes were more severe in the KBD diet group. These findings demonstrated that the ketogenic diet increases biotin bioavailability and consumption, and hence, promotes energy production by gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which results in exaggerated biotin deficiency in biotin-deficient mice. Therefore, biotin supplementation is important for mice that consume the ketogenic diet. It is suggested that individuals that consume the ketogenic diet have an increased biotin requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a low- or a high-carbohydrate diet on performance, energy system contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flavio O; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Kiss, Maria Augusta; Bishop, David

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high- or low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet on performance, aerobic and anaerobic contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise. Six physically-active men first performed a cycling exercise bout at 115% maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion after following their normal diet for 48 h (∼50% of CHO, control test). Seventy-two hours after, participants performed a muscle glycogen depletion exercise protocol, followed by either a high- or low-CHO diet (∼70 and 25% of CHO, respectively) for 48 h, in a random, counterbalanced order. After the assigned diet period (48 h), the supramaximal cycling exercise bout (115% maximal oxygen consumption) to exhaustion was repeated. The low-CHO diet reduced time to exhaustion when compared with both the control and the high-CHO diet (-19 and -32%, respectively, p diet was accompanied by a lower total aerobic energy contribution (-39%) compared with the high-CHO diet (p 0.05). The low-CHO diet was associated with a lower blood lactate concentration (p 0.05). In conclusion, a low-CHO diet reduces both performance and total aerobic energy provision during supramaximal exercise. As peak K(+) concentration was similar, but time to exhaustion shorter, the low-CHO diet was associated with an earlier attainment of peak plasma K(+) concentration.

  10. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P sunflower oil (ANOVA, P sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  11. Ammonia, volatile fatty acids, phenolics, and odor offensiveness in manure from growing pigs fed diets reduced in protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, E R; Yokoyama, M; Hengemuehle, S; von Bermuth, R D; van Kempen, T; Trottier, N L

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether reducing dietary CP concentration decreases fecal VFA, manure ammonia (NH3) emission and odor, and urinary phenolic metabolites. Six barrows were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a Latin square design. Treatments consisted of four corn-soybean meal based diets containing 15, 12, 9, and 6% CP, a casein-based diet containing 15% CP, and a protein-free diet (0% protein). Crystalline AA were included in the 12, 9, and 6% CP diets. The casein-based and protein-free diets were used to determine basal endogenous contribution of VFA, phenolics, NH3, and manure odor. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages to allow total collection of feces and urine. Feces and urine were collected and pooled within pig and period. Feces and urine were analyzed for VFA and phenolic metabolite concentrations, respectively. Feces and urine were then mixed, stored, and fermented at room temperature for 30 d. For NH3 determination, headspace air was sampled from manure slurries at 24, 48, and 72 h after fermentation. Slurry samples were placed into vials, capped, and randomized before odor panel evaluation. Odor offensiveness was classified on severity: 1 = non-offensive; 2 = mildly offensive; 3 = moderately offensive; 4 = strongly offensive; and 5 = extremely offensive. Reducing dietary CP increased (P ranking of 2.58 (i.e., mild-moderately offensive). Compared with the 15% CP diet, manure from the 9 and 6% CP diets was found to be more offensive (P rankings of 2.92 and 3.10, respectively. Odor qualitative rank for the 12% CP, protein-free diet, and casein-based diet did not differ from that of the 15% CP diet. These results indicate that reduction in dietary CP concentrations decreases manure NH3 emission, but it does not diminish manure odor offensiveness and fecal VFA concentrations.

  12. Plasma carnosine, but not muscle carnosine, attenuates high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, Sanne; Stegen, Bram; Aldini, Giancarlo; Altomare, Alessandra; Cannizzaro, Luca; Orioli, Marica; Gerlo, Sarah; Deldicque, Louise; Ramaekers, Monique; Hespel, Peter; Derave, Wim

    2015-09-01

    There is growing in vivo evidence that the dipeptide carnosine has protective effects in metabolic diseases. A critical unanswered question is whether its site of action is tissues or plasma. This was investigated using oral carnosine versus β-alanine supplementation in a high-fat diet rat model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats received a control diet (CON), a high-fat diet (HF; 60% of energy from fat), the HF diet with 1.8% carnosine (HFcar), or the HF diet with 1% β-alanine (HFba), as β-alanine can increase muscle carnosine without increasing plasma carnosine. Insulin sensitivity, inflammatory signaling, and lipoxidative stress were determined in skeletal muscle and blood. In a pilot study, urine was collected. The 3 HF groups were significantly heavier than the CON group. Muscle carnosine concentrations increased equally in the HFcar and HFba groups, while elevated plasma carnosine levels and carnosine-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts were detected only in the HFcar group. Elevated plasma and urine N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine in HF rats was reduced by ∼50% in the HFcar group but not in the HFba group. Likewise, inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA was decreased by 47% (p muscle carnosine, is involved in preventing early-stage lipoxidation in the circulation and inflammatory signaling in the muscle of rats.

  13. Onion peel tea ameliorates obesity and affects blood parameters in a mouse model of high-fat-diet-induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUNAGA, SHOGO; Azuma, Kazuo; Watanabe, Mayumi; Tsuka, Takeshi; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of onion peel tea (OPT) in a mouse model of high-fat-diet-induced obesity. BALB/c mice were fed a high-fat diet for three weeks, followed by a normal diet with or without OPT for 28 days. OPT suppressed the increases in body weight and level of epididymal fat tissue; it also significantly reduced the serum concentrations of total cholesterol on day 14 and those of glucose and leptin on day 28. The results indicate that OPT has anti-obesity effects in an ...

  14. Feed consumption, diet digestibility and mineral utilization in captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) fed different levels of concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Choubey, M; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Kumar, V; Swarup, D

    2013-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to know the level of concentrates in the diet of Antelope cervicapra at which diet digestibility and mineral utilization were optimum. Fifteen blackbucks (25-33 kg BW) were distributed into three groups of five each. Fresh oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders were offered ad libitum to all the animals. In addition, animals in groups II and III received concentrate mixture at the rate of 0.5 and 1% of BW, whereas animals in group I received no concentrates. As the level of concentrates increased, consumption of fodder decreased resulting in decreased consumption of neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), acid detergent fibre (ADFom), hemicellulose and cellulose. However, overall total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was not significantly different between the groups. Digestibility of DM, OM and gross energy (GE) increased while that of NDFom and ADFom decreased with increased level of concentrates in the diet. Intake of P, Zn, Cu and Mn increased with increased level of concentrate supplementation; however, consumption of Ca and Fe followed the reverse trend. Absorption of P and Zn increased with increased level of concentrate supplementation. Serum concentration of Zn increased when concentrate was supplemented at the rate of 0.5% BW beyond which there was no further improvement. Increasing the level of concentrates in the diet was resulted in increased serum glucose and cholesterol levels. Forage-only diet was inadequate in supply of energy, P and zinc. Supplementation of concentrates at the rate of 0.5% BW was able to meet the requirement of these nutrients. Supplementation at the rate of 1% BW supplied energy and P in excess of requirement. It was concluded that the feeding of concentrates to the captive blackbuck fed forage-based diets should be restricted to 0.5% of BW.

  15. Effect of feeding exercised horses on high-starch or high-fat diets for 390 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, A; Bessert, J; Gropp, J M

    2002-09-01

    Our hypothesis was that, because horses have not evolved as fat eaters, there may be negative metabolic long-term effects of feeding a high fat diet. The objective of the present study was to identify these long-term effects and compare them with the effects of isoenergetic long-term high starch feeding. This randomised block study with 20 exercised horses looked at the effect of feeding either a high starch (HS) or a high fat (HF) diet type in 3 periods during stabling (Stable 1), pasture, and stabling (Stable 2) over 390 days. The horses received a HS or HF concentrate, straw, hay and 6 h pasture/day in the pasture period. HF horses gained weight (2% of initial bwt) and, therefore, fat intake was reduced (from 1.43 to 0.88 g/kg bwt/day). Blood plasma glucose, total protein, albumins, gamma-globulins, free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol concentrations were higher but urea concentration was lower with HF compared to HS feeding (Pdiet type. There were period effects (Pdisadvantages of feeding on high fat compared with high starch diets.

  16. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed.

  17. Performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Nellore bulls receiving high concentrate diets with different tannin levelsDesempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos Nelore confinados recebendo dietas de alto teor de concentrado com diferentes níveis de tanino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Alves de Freitas Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of evaluating the nutrients intake, the performance and carcass characteristics of confined bovines, submitted to high grain diets with the inclusion of different levels of tannin concentrate. Twenty-seven non castrated Nelore were used. The average age and weight at the beginning of the experiment were 18 to 20 months and 317.7 ± 29.8 kg. Treatments had similar formulation, but varying only in the inclusion of tannin, where the control treatment had no tannin added, and the treatment 2 (0.2 TAN had 0.2% and the treatment 3 (0.4 TAN had 0.4% in the dry matter. Non hydrolyzed sugar cane bagasse was the only roughage used (13% of the diet dry matter. The other 87% of the diet was composed by a concentrate (corn grain, whole cottonseed, soybean meal, urea and mineral nucleus. It was used a completely randomized design. Treatments did not present statistical differences (P > 0.05 for nutrients intake, feed conversion, weight gain and carcass characteristics. Then the use of concentrated tannin up to 0.4% of the diet is not recommended. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo de nutrientes, o desempenho e as características de carcaça de bovinos em confinamento submetidos a dietas com alto teor de concentrado, adicionados de diferentes níveis de um produto comercial de tanino. Foram utilizados 27 bovinos da raça Nelore, machos não castrados com idade de 18 a 20 meses e peso médio de 317,7 kg ± 29,8 kg no inicio do experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram de formulações semelhantes, variando apenas na inclusão de tanino, sendo o tratamento controle sem adição de tanino, o tratamento 2 (0,2 TAN com 0,2% e o tratamento 3 (0,4 TAN com 0,4% da matéria seca. O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar cru foi utilizado como fonte exclusiva de volumoso e representava 13% da matéria seca da dieta, sendo os 87% restantes composto por concentrado (milho, caroço de algodão, farelo de soja, uréia e núcleo mineral. O

  18. A whey-supplemented, high-protein diet versus a high-carbohydrate diet: effects on endurance cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2006-02-01

    This study compared a training diet recommended for endurance athletes (H-CHO) with an isoenergetic high protein (whey supplemented), moderate carbohydrate (H-Pro) diet on endurance cycling performance. Over two separate 7-d periods subjects (n = 7) ingested either H-CHO (7.9 +/- 1.9 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) carbohydrate; 1.2 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) fat; 1.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) protein) or H-Pro (4.9 +/- 1.8 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 1.3 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 3.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) diet in a randomized, balanced order. On day 8 subjects cycled (self-paced) for a body weight dependent (60 kJ/bm) amount of work. No differences occurred between energy intake (P = 0.422) or fat intake (P = 0.390) during the two dietary conditions. Performance was significantly (P = 0.010) impaired following H-Pro (153 +/- 36) compared with H-CHO (127 +/- 34 min). No differences between treatments were observed for physiological measures taken during the performance trials. These results indicate an ergolytic effect of a 7-d high protein diet on self-paced endurance cycling performance.

  19. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  20. High-fat and ketogenic diets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2013-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Epidemiologic data suggest that malnutrition is a common feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and being overweight or obese confers a survival advantage in this patient population. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse models, a high-fat diet has been shown to lead to weight gain and prolonged survival. However, little research has been conducted to test whether nutritional interventions might ameliorate the disease course in humans. Here we review the currently available evidence supporting the potential role of dietary interventions as a therapeutic tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ultimately, determining whether a high-fat or ketogenic diet could be beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will require large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

  1. Utilização do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar em dietas com elevada proporção de concentrados para novilhos Nelore em confinamento Levels of sugarcane bagasse in diets with high concentrate for Nellore steers in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Leme

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos submetidos a dietas de alto concentrado contendo 15, 21 ou 27% da matéria seca em bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos Nelore, com peso médio em jejum de 279 kg e 24 meses de idade, confinados por um período de 98 dias. Não foram observados efeitos significativos para as características de ganho médio diário (média =1,461 kg e eficiência alimentar. Foi observado efeito linear entre matéria seca ingerida e níveis de bagaço, com maior consumo nos tratamentos com menor percentagem de bagaço. Consistente com o comportamento do consumo, o peso do fígado também apresentou efeito linear, em função dos níveis de bagaço, sendo maior nos tratamentos com maior proporção de concentrado. As características peso de carcaça quente, gordura renal e pélvica, área de olho de lombo e espessura de gordura subcutânea não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Entretanto, observou-se comportamento linear do rendimento de carcaça, em função dos níveis de bagaço, sendo maior nos tratamentos com maior proporção de concentrado, consistente com o nível energético da ração. Os resultados indicam a viabilidade do uso de 15 ou 21% de bagaço como único volumoso, em dietas com elevada proporção de concentrado contendo milho, polpa de citrus e farelo de soja para novilhos Nelore em confinamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle fed high concentrate diets containing 15, 21 or 27% of sugarcane bagasse in the dry matter. Twenty-four Nellore steers with 279 kg of shrunk body weight and 24 months of age, two per pen, were fed for 98 days. No significant effects were observed for average daily gain (mean =1.461 kg and feed efficiency among the treatments. It was observed a linear effect between dry matter intake and levels of bagasse, with greater intake in treatments with

  2. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  3. Effect of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentration, puberty and semen quality in male buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, L V; Malla, B A; Sharma, A N; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Nitin; Tyagi, A K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentrations, puberty, sperm fatty acid profile and semen quality in male buffalo. Eighteen male buffalo calves were distributed randomly in three different groups and fed concentrate mixture along with green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios as per requirements. Basis ration of animals in group I was supplemented with 4% of prilled fat (PFA), while in group II and group III were added 4.67% of Calcium salt from Soybean (CaSFA) and Linseed oil (CaLFA), respectively. Male buffalo fed omega-3 PUFA high diet significantly increased concentrations of IGF-1 and testosterone in plasma as compared to two other diets (pdiet (CaLFA) had the largest influence as compared to other diets (PFA and CaSFA). Feeding of n-3 PUFA rich diet significantly increased the DHA (C22:6n-3) content in sperm (pdiet increased IGF-1 and testosterone secretion, reduced pubertal age and improved both fresh and post-thawing semen quality in male buffalo.

  4. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: a diet-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Rasa; Hayes, Jennifer H; Raatz, Susan K; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Khaliq, Waseem; Jacobs, David R; Key, Nigel S; Morawski, Bozena M; Kaiser, Daniel; Bank, Alan J; Gross, Myron

    2015-02-01

    Habitual intake of black tea has been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trial results evaluating the effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have been inconsistent. Several factors could explain these mixed results, in particular, uncontrolled confounding caused by lifestyle factors (eg, diet). This diet-controlled clinical trial estimates the effect of black tea flavonoid consumption on cholesterol concentrations in 57 borderline hypercholesterolemic individuals (total cholesterol concentrations between 190 and 260 mg/dL [4.9 and 6.7 mmol/L]). A double-blind, randomized crossover trial was conducted in Minneapolis, MN, from April 2002 through April 2004 in which key conditions were tightly controlled to minimize possible confounding. Participants consumed a controlled low-flavonoid diet plus 5 cups per day of black tea or tea-like placebo during two 4-week treatment periods. The flavonoid-free caffeinated placebo matched the tea in color and taste. Differences in cholesterol concentrations at the end of each treatment period were evaluated via linear mixed models. Differences among those treated with tea vs placebo were 3.43 mg/dL (0.09 mmol/L) (95% CI -7.08 to 13.94) for total cholesterol, -1.02 mg/dL (-0.03 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.34 to 9.30) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.58 mg/dL (0.02 mmol/L) (95% CI -2.98 to 4.14) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 15.22 mg/dL (0.17 mmol/L) (95% CI -40.91 to 71.35) for triglycerides, and -0.39 mg/dL (-0.01 mmol/L) (95% CI -11.16 to 10.38) for low-density lipoprotein plus high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased by -0.1 units (95% CI -0.41 to 0.21). No results were statistically or clinically significant. The intake of 5 cups of black tea per day did not alter the lipid profile of borderline hypercholesterolemic subjects

  5. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-10-02

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  6. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    Different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity and measure the effect on different parameters in two experiments. In exp. I, three diets (A, commercial control diet; B, high insoluble fibre content; and C, high soluble fibre content) were fed to 10...... significantly more in a hunger test than birds on diets B and C, indicating that these two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Stereotypic pecking was most frequently seen in birds fed A and never observed in birds fed B. Birds on diet C appeared scruffier in their plumage...... fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce...

  7. Impact of chromium histidinate on high fat diet induced obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzcu Zeynep

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium (Cr is an essential trace element that has garnered interest for use as a weight loss aid, but its molecular mechanism in obesity is not clear. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of chromium histidinate (CrHis on glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 and the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE expressions in liver of rats fed high fat diet (HFD. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40, 8 wk-old were divided into four groups. Group I was fed a standard diet (12% of calories as fat; Group II was fed a standard diet and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d; Group III was fed a HFD (40% of calories as fat; Group IV was fed HFD and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d. Results Rats fed HFD possessed greater serum insulin (40 vs.33 pmol/L and glucose (158 vs. 143 mg/dL concentration and less liver Cr (44 vs.82 μg/g concentration than rats fed the control diet. However, rats supplemented with CrHis had greater liver Cr and serum insulin and lower glucose concentration in rats fed HFD (P P P Conclusion These findings demonstrate that supplementation of CrHis is protective against obesity, at least in part, through Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 in rats fed high fat diet.

  8. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl, then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day. The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA. High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL. The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p < 0.01. A positive correlation between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and fasting ghrelin levels was demonstrated. Our data indicate that a high-salt diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  9. Serum metabolites, ghrelin and leptin are modified by age and/or diet in weanling kittens fed either a high- or moderate-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Belsito, Katherine R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in utero and postnatal exposure of a high-protein (HP; n=9) or moderate-protein (MP; n=16) diet on growth, and serum metabolite, ghrelin and leptin concentrations during the first 4 months of life in kittens. It was hypothesized that blood indices would be modified due to diet. Blood samples were collected from kittens at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Kittens were weaned at 8 weeks of age onto the same diet as the dam. Body weight was measured weekly from birth and daily food intake for each litter was recorded post-weaning. Serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, total protein and triglycerides were greater (Pkittens fed the HP diet. Serum cholesterol concentrations were greater (P kittens at 4 weeks of age. Moderate-protein fed kittens tended to have greater (P kittens affect circulating concentrations of peptides important in appetite regulation. Further research testing the effects of in utero and early postnatal nutrient exposure on feline obesity risk in adulthood is needed.

  10. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  11. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    that low free water availability contributes to cellulase inhibition. Of the hydrolytic enzymes involved, those acting on the cellulose substrate, that is, exo- and endoglucanases, were the most inhibited. The β -glucosidases were shown to be less sensitive to high monosaccharide concentrations except...

  12. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (Pbetaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (Pbetaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (Pbetaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (Pbetaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  13. Histopathological changes in rat pancreas and skeletal muscle associated with high fat diet induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickin Gulen, M; Guven Bagla, A; Yavuz, O; Hismiogullari, A A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a high fat diet on the development of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and secretion have been widely investigated. We investigated the effects of a high fat diet on the pancreas and skeletal muscle of normal rats to explore diet-induced insulin resistance mechanisms. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: a control group fed standard chow, a group fed a 45% fat diet and a group fed a 60% fat diet for 3 weeks to measure acute effects; an additional three groups were fed the same diet regimens for 8 weeks to measure chronic effects. The morphological effects of the two high fat diets were examined by light microscopy. Insulin in pancreatic islets was detected using immunohistochemistry. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and insulin staining intensity in islets increased significantly with acute administration of high fat diets, whereas staining intensity decreased with chronic administration of the 45% fat diet. Islet areas increased significantly with chronic administration. High fat diet administration led to islet degeneration, interlobular adipocyte accumulation and vacuolization in the pancreatic tissue, as well as degeneration and lipid droplet accumulation in the skeletal muscle tissue. Vacuolization in the pancreas and lipid droplets in skeletal muscle tissue increased significantly with chronic high fat diet administration. We suggest that the glucolipotoxic effects of high fat diet administration depend on the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid content in the diet and to the total fat content of the diet.

  14. Effect of a novel microbial phytase on production performance and tibia mineral concentration in broiler chickens given low-calcium diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Walk, C L; Ghosh, T K; Bedford, M R; Haldar, S

    2013-01-01

    1. In a 42-d feeding trial, 264 one-d-old, as hatched, Cobb 400 broiler chickens (6 pens per group, n = 11 per pen in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) were fed on two concentrations of dietary calcium (Ca) (9.0 and 7.5 g/kg in starter, 7.5 and 6 g/kg in grower phases) and supplemental phytase (0 and 500 U/kg diet). 2. During d 0-21, the high Ca + phytase diet improved body weight. During d 0-42, feed intake was increased by the low Ca diet and decreased by phytase supplementation. Feed conversion ratio during d 0-21 was improved by the high Ca + phytase diet. 3. At d 42, Ca in duodenal digesta was reduced by low dietary Ca and supplemental phytase. High dietary Ca reduced P in duodenal and jejunal digesta. Phytase reduced digesta P and increased serum P concentration. 4. Relative tibia length decreased with low dietary Ca and increased with phytase. The robusticity index of tibia was improved by the low Ca diet and phytase supplementation. Phytase supplementation increased tibia ash and concentrations of Ca, magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in tibia. The low Ca diet increased Mg, Mn and Fe and reduced Cu and Zn in tibia. 5. It was concluded that 7.5 g Ca/kg during weeks 0-3 and 6 g Ca/kg during weeks 3-6 sustained broiler performance and bone ash, while phytase supplementation facilitated tibia mineralisation, particularly during the grower phase.

  15. δ-Opioid receptor activation stimulates normal diet intake but conversely suppresses high-fat diet intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yuri; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2014-02-15

    The central opioid system is involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates food intake. Here, we show that activation of central δ-opioid receptor not only stimulated normal diet intake but conversely suppressed high-fat diet intake as well. [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE), an agonist selective for the δ-receptor, increased normal diet intake after central administration to nonfasted male mice. The orexigenic activity of DPDPE was inhibited by blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), D-type prostanoid receptor 1 (DP(1)), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor type 1 (Y1) for PGD(2) and NPY, respectively, suggesting that this was mediated by the PGD(2)-NPY system. In contrast, DPDPE decreased high-fat diet intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. DPDPE-induced suppression of high-fat diet intake was blocked by antagonists of melanocortin 4 (MC(4)) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors but not by knockout of the L-PGDS gene. These results suggest that central δ-opioid receptor activation suppresses high-fat diet intake via the MC-CRF system, independent of the orexigenic PGD(2) system. Furthermore, orally administered rubiscolin-6, an opioid peptide derived from spinach Rubisco, suppressed high-fat diet intake. This suppression was also blocked by centrally administered naltrindole, an antagonist for the δ-receptor, suggesting that rubiscolin-6 suppressed high-fat diet intake via activation of central δ-opioid receptor.

  16. High-dimensional entanglement concentration of twisted photon pairs High-dimensional entanglement concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. X.; Wu, Q. P.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, Dada et al. reported on the experimental entanglement concentration and violation of generalized Bell inequalities with orbital angular momentum (OAM) [Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011)]. Here we demonstrate that the high-dimensional entanglement concentration can be performed in arbitrary OAM subspaces with selectivity. Instead of violating the generalized Bell inequalities, the working principle of present entanglement concentration is visualized by the biphoton OAM Klyshko picture, and its good performance is confirmed and quantified through the experimental Shannon dimensionalities after concentration.

  17. Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: a controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; Stonehouse Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Hanekom, Susanna M; White, Zelda

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the effects of a high walnut diet and a high unsalted cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, parallel, controlled study design, sixty-four subjects having the metabolic syndrome (twenty-nine men, thirty-five women) with a mean age of 45 (sd 10) years and who met the selection criteria were all fed a 3-week run-in control diet. Hereafter, participants were grouped according to gender and age and then randomized into three groups receiving a controlled feeding diet including walnuts, or unsalted cashew nuts or no nuts for 8 weeks. Subjects were required to have lunch at the metabolic ward of the Nutrition Department of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). Both the walnut and the unsalted cashew nut intervention diets had no significant effect on the HDL-cholesterol, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, serum fructosamine, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentrations when compared to the control diet. Low baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the cashew nut group may have masked a possible nut-related benefit. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.04) in the cashew nut group compared to the control group. By contrast, serum fructosamine was unchanged in the cashew nut group while the control group had significantly increased (P = 0.04) concentrations of this short-term marker of glycaemic control. Subjects displayed no improvement in the markers of the metabolic syndrome after following a walnut diet or a cashew nut diet compared to a control diet while maintaining body weight.

  18. Niacin alters the ruminal microbial composition of cattle under high-concentrate condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20, high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80, and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN. Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding. Ruminal fluid was sampled at the end of each period for microbial DNA extraction. Overall, our findings revealed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA was induced and the α-diversity of ruminal bacterial community decreased in the cattle of HC group. Adding niacin in HC could relieve the symptoms of SARA in the cattle but the ruminal pH value and the Shannon index of ruminal bacterial community of HCN group were still lower than those of HF group. Whatever the diet was, the ruminal bacterial community of cattle was dominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. High-concentrate diet significantly increased the abundance of Prevotella, and decreased the abundance of Paraprevotella, Sporobacter, Ruminococcus and Treponema than HF. Compared with HC, HCN had a trend to decrease the percentage of Prevotella, and to increase the abundance of Succiniclasticum, Acetivibrio and Treponema. Increasing concentrate ratio could decrease ruminal pH value, and change the ruminal microbial composition. Adding niacin in HC could increase the ruminal pH value, alter the ruminal microbial composition.

  19. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  20. Local e extensão da digestão em terneiros desmamados alimentados "Ad Libitum" com dietas ricas em concentrado contendo diferentes fontes de proteína suplementar Site and extent of digestion by weaned calves fed "Ad Libitum" on high concentrate-rich diets with different supplemental protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados nove terneiros da raça Holandesa (139 ± 2,4kg, fistulados no duodeno, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado para estudar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes protéicas (2% de uréia ou 10% de farinha de carne na dieta total de dietas ricas em concentrado (milho e farelo de soja sobre o local e extensão da digestão do alimento, em condições de consumo ad libitum. A relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas foi de 30:70. A digestibilidade ruminal e total da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e nitrogênio, assim como o fluxo duodenal de nitrogênio microbiano e residual do alimento, e a eficiência da síntese protéica microbiana foram semelhantes nos dois tratamentos (P>0,10. A digestibilidade ruminal do amido também foi semelhante, mas a digestibilidade total foi menor no tratamento com uréia (PNine weaned Holstein calves (139 ± 2.4kg fitted with duodenal cannulas were used in a completly ramdomized design to study the effects of supplemental protein sources (2% of urea or 10% of meat meal of high concentrate diets (corn and soybean meal on site and extent of digestion of feed, in ad libitum feeding conditions. The forage:concentrate ratio was 30:70. The ruminal and total digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and nitrogen, as well as microbial and feed residual nitrogen duodenal flow, and the microbial protein synthesis efficiency were similar for both treatments (P>0.10. The ruminal digestibility of starch was also similar, but total digestibility was lower for urea treatment (P<0.10. However, this is probably due more to the limited capacity of ruminants to digest starch in the intestines than to an effect of the protein supplement. The use of urea or meat meal, as supplemental protein sources for corn and soybean meal based diets, formulated to supply the growth requirements of calves fed ad libitum, did not affect the digestion process.Thus, the choise of the protein

  1. Microbial phytase in finisher diets of White Pekin ducks: effects on growth performance, plasma phosphorus concentration, and leg bone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, J I; Adeola, O; Stroshine, R

    1999-03-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the growth response of White Pekin ducks to inclusion of microbial phytase in finisher diet. In Exp. 1, 1-d-old male ducks (240 total) were reared in litter-floor pens and fed regular starter diet until 3 wk of age. At 3 wk of age, ducks were randomly divided into six groups of 10 ducks each and each group was fed one of four diets. Three finisher diets containing 16% CP and 0.18% available phosphorus (AP) without supplemental P were formulated with microbial phytase (Natuphos) added at 0, 750, or 1,500 phytase units/kg of diet. The fourth diet was a control finisher diet that was supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (DCP) to supply dietary AP of 0.41%. Group BW and feed intake were measured weekly to assess growth response. At 6 wk of age, leg bones (tibia, femur, metatarsus) from five randomly selected ducks were removed and analyzed for bone characteristics. In Exp. 2, a total of 120 ducks reared as in Exp. 1 were randomly divided into six groups of five ducks each and fed one of four diets. A basal finisher diet was formulated to contain 16% CP and 0.18% AP. Monosodium phosphate was added to the basal diet to give dietary AP levels of 0.18, 0.27, and 0.36%. The fourth diet was the basal diet supplemented with microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg of diet). Ducks were fed these diets from 3 to 6 wk of age. At the end of the study, ducks were bled by cardiac puncture and blood plasma was analyzed for P concentration. Leg bones from all ducks were removed and analyzed for bone characteristics as in Exp. 1. Feed intake increased linearly with increased level of dietary phytase, whereas the weight gain response was quadratic only during the last week of Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, there was a quadratic response for weight gain due to dietary AP. Weight gain due to phytase (750 units) was not different from ducks fed diets at 0 or 0.18% AP. Plasma P concentration increased linearly as dietary AP increased. Plasma P levels

  2. Effects of a fish-based diet on the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Fuke, Tomoya; Ugi, Satoshi; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-06-30

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and researchers have recently reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can increase the serum adiponectin concentration, suggesting that dietary factors, such as fish intake, may have an influence on the serum adiponectin concentration. In general, Japanese subjects consume twice as much fish as people in other countries. We hypothesized that incremental change in serum omega-3 PUFA levels by fish intake is an important regulator of serum adiponectin even in Japanese subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among fish consumption, serum omega-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), levels, and serum adiponectin levels. We recruited 17 healthy Japanese volunteers (seven men and 10 women) for an 8-week fish-diet intervention (omega-3 PUFA 3.0 g/day) without affecting total energy intake, and measured serum adiponectin concentration and fatty acid profiles. Fish-diet intervention significantly increased the serum adiponectin concentration in women (from 13.5+/-4.6 to 15.8+/-5.2 microg/mL, p diet intervention (57.3+/-86.6 vs 150.9+/-46.7 microg/mL, p=0.011), suggesting that changes in omega-3 PUFA concentration may explain the different response between sexes. A fish-based diet intervention increased the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese female subjects. The increment in serum omega-3 PUFA may regulate the serum adiponectin concentration.

  3. Satiety hormone and metabolomic response to an intermittent high energy diet differs in rats consuming long-term diets high in protein or prebiotic fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A; Maurer, Alannah D; Eller, Lindsay K; Hallam, Megan C; Shaykhutdinov, Rustem; Vogel, Hans J; Weljie, Aalim M

    2012-08-03

    Large differences in the composition of diet between early development and adulthood can have detrimental effects on obesity risk. We examined the effects of an intermittent high fat/sucrose diet (HFS) on satiety hormone and serum metabolite response in disparate diets. Wistar rat pups were fed control (C), high prebiotic fiber (HF) or high protein (HP) diets (weaning to 16 weeks), HFS diet challenged (6 weeks), and finally reverted to their respective C, HF, or HP diet (4 weeks). At conclusion, measurement of body composition and satiety hormones was accompanied by (1)H NMR metabolic profiles in fasted and postprandial states. Metabolomic profiling predicted dietary source with >90% accuracy. The HF group was characterized by lowest body weight and body fat (Pdiet is associated with higher gut hormone secretion that could reflect the known effects of prebiotics on gut microbiota and their fementative end products, the short chain fatty acids. Rats reared on a HF diet appear to experience fewer adverse effects from an intermittent high fat diet in adulthood when rematched to their postnatal diet. Metabolite profiles associated with the diets provide a distinct biochemical signature of their effects.

  4. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  5. Effect of Herbal Acupuncture with Sang-hwang(Phellinus linteus on High Fat Diet-induced Obesity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has fairly good weight-reducing effect in treating simple obesity due to the neuroendocrine regulation. In this study, the anti-obesity effects of herbal acupuncture (HA with Sang-hwang (Phellinus linteus at Fuai (SP16 were investigated in the rat fed on high-fat (HF diet. Sang-hwang mushroom has been proven to have anti-carcinogenic effects and Sang-hwang extracts are highly effective in treatment and preventive treatment of AIDS, diabetes and high blood-pressure. To determine whether the Sang-hwang herbal acupuncture may have the anti-obesity effect, male Sprague-Dawley (4-wk-old rats were fed a HF diet for 5 wk, which produced significant weight gain compared to rats were fed a normal diet, and then herbal acupuncture were treated for 3 wk in HF diet group. The body weight, food consumption, food effeciency ratio (FER, body fat mass, plasma nitric oxide (NO were investigated in rats fed on normal diet, HF diet, and HF diet with HA (HF-diet-HA groups. NO has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of food intake. In addition, the expression of appetite peptides such as orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY and the anorectic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK were observed in the hypothalamus. HF-HA group reduced body weight gain, FER, body fat contents and NO concentration compared to HF diet group. The expression of NPY was reduced in arcuate nucleus (ARC, and CCK was increased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN after treatment of HA. In conclusion, Sang-hwang HA reduced adipocity, plasma NO and hypothalamic NPY, but increased CCK expression in the HF diet-induced obesity rat, therefore HA may have anti-obesity action through regulating body weight and appetite peptide of the central nervous system.

  6. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    AlSharari, Shakir D.; Al-Rejaie, Salim S.; Abuohashish, Hatem M.; Ahmed, Mohamed M.; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The li...

  7. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis triggered by high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Nesa, Mushammat; Mahmood, Aza K

    2007-01-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is an uncommon disorder characterized by elevated thyroid hormone, muscle weakness or paralysis, and intracellular shifts of potassium leading to hypokalemia. This article presents a case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a 22-year old Hispanic man with nonfamilial thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis triggered by a high carbohydrate diet. Laboratory studies showed elevated thyroid hormone, decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypokalemia. Rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels by giving antithyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil and prompt potassium therapy with frequent measurements of serum potassium levels during therapy to avoid catastrophic hyperkalemia when potassium starts to shift back from intracellular to extracellular compartments can lead to successful outcome.

  8. Marked hyperleptinemia after high-fat diet associated with severe glucose intolerance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahren, B.; Scheurink, A.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    We asked whether the likelihood for mice of the C57BL/6J strain to develop glucose intolerance when fed a high-fat diet is related to the increase in circulating levels of leptin or free fatty acids (FFA). We therefore administered a high-fat diet (58% fat) or a control diet (11% fat) for 1.5 years.

  9. Sugary, High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue Previous research has linked higher density to increased ... Western-style diet may develop more dense breast tissue, possibly increasing their risk for breast cancer, Spanish ...

  10. Effect of concentrate supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth of Brahman crossbred cattle fed a basal diet of grass and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Do Van; Ba, Nguyen Xuan; Doyle, Peter T; Hai, Dau Van; Lane, Peter A; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Eo; Van, Nguyen Huu; Parsons, David

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Vietnam to test the hypothesis that total dry matter (DM) intake and liveweight (LW) gain would increase in a curvilinear manner with increasing amounts of concentrate offered. There were five treatments: a basal diet of Guinea grass fed at 1 % of LW and rice straw fed ad libitum (T0), or this diet supplemented with concentrate at 0.6 (T1), 1.2 (T2), 1.8 (T3), or 2.4 % of LW (T4). The concentrate comprised locally available ingredients, namely cassava chips, rice bran, crushed rice grain, fishmeal, salt, and urea, mixed manually. Concentrate intake increased from T0 to T3, but there was no difference in concentrate intake between T3 and T4. Total feed intake increased in a curvilinear manner from 4.0 to 6.4 kg DM/d as the quantity of concentrate consumed increased. The substitution of concentrate for grass and rice straw increased with increasing consumption of concentrate and was as high as 0.49 kg DM reduction per kg of concentrate consumed. LW gain increased curvilinearly, with significant differences between T0 (0.092 kg/d), T1 (0.58 kg/d) and T2 (0.79 kg/d); but there were no significant differences in LW gain between T2, T3 (0.83 kg/d) and T4 (0.94 kg/d).With increasing amount of concentrate in the diet, the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and crude fat increased, but NDF digestibility decreased. Based on these results, young Vietnamese Brahman-cross growing cattle will respond to a locally-sourced concentrate mix offered at a level of up to 1.2 % of LW.

  11. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. II. Feeding of silage and concentrate from January to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 56 male reindeer calves, with a mean initial live weight of 39 kg (SD=4.6, was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the concentrate:silage ratio on the performance during feeding to slaughter. Forty four of the calves were divided in four groups, two groups each being allotted to diets with low, 60% (LC, or high, 80% (HC proportions of a commercial pelleted feed. The remaining twelve calves were slaughtered at the start of the experiment. The experimenral period lasted from January to March. The proportions of concentrate to silage were based on the dry matter (DM content. The silage, 44% DM, was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Animal health was good throughour the experimenr. Small amounts of lichens were mixed into the diets during the first rwo weeks of feeding and may have contributed to the lack of adapta-tionai problems. The mean daily intakes of DM and metabolisable energy were higher (P<0.01 for calves offered the HC-diet. Despite the higher feed intakes, the increased proportion of concentrate in the diet did not significantly alter live weight gains or carcass weight gains. However, the greater fat deposition (P<0.05 and better carcass gradings indicated a better condition of the animals at slaughtet when less silage was fed. This experiment was the the final part of a three year study of silage based diets for reindeer intended for slaughter and the general conclusion is that the best role of grass silage of this quality is as a limited part of the ration. The silage may, however, play an important role during the adaptation period and further detailed studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of silage as a part of the diet to reindeer.

  12. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (Pdiets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (Pdiet decreased (Pdiets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants.

  13. Gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and triglyceride concentration in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, has been shown to exert a variety of effects, including anti-oxidative, anti- carcinogenic, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we attempted to determine whether gallic acid affects metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes. Diet-induced obesity mice were treated intraperitoneally once per day with gallic acid (10 mg/kg/day). After 2 weeks of treatment, the mice were sacrificed to collect the blood for metabolic parameter assessments, and the adipose tissues and liver to weigh and analyze. The triglyceride concentrations were significantly improved in the gallic acid group relative to those measured in the control group. And most importantly, the blood glucose concentrations in the gallic acid group were significantly improved. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of the gallic acid group, adipocyte size was reduced, PPARγ expression was induced, and the Akt signaling pathway was activated. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in the obesity mice, thereby showing evidence of anti-hyperglycemic activity. The findings of an upregulation of PPARγ expression and Akt activation also contribute to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of gallic acid on glucose metabolism.

  14. High cholesterol diet increases osteoporosis risk via inhibiting bone formation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li YOU; Zheng-yan SHENG; Chuan-ling TANG; Lin CHEN; Ling PAN; Jin-yu CHEN

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high cholesterol diet on the development of osteoporosis and the underlying mechanisms in rats.Methods:Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into 3 groups:(1) the high cholesterol fed rats were fed a high cholesterol diet containing 77% normal diet food,3% cholesterol and 20% lard for 3 months; (2) ovariectomised (OVX) rats were bilaterally ovariectomised and fed a standard diet; and (3) the control rats were fed the standard diet.Bone mineral density (BMD) of the rats was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.Serum levels of oestradiol (E2),osteocalcin (BGP) and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) were measured using ELISA.Gene expression profile was determined with microarray.Mouse osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were used for in vitro study.Proliferation,differentiation and oxidative stress of the osteoblasts were investigated using MTT,qRT-PCR and biochemical methods.Results:In high cholesterol fed rats,the femur BMD and serum BGP level were significantly reduced,while the CTX level was significantly increased.DNA microarray analysis showed that 2290 genes were down-regulated and 992 genes were up-regulated in this group of rats.Of these genes,1626 were also down-regulated and 1466 were up-regulated in OVX rats.In total,370 genes were up-regulated in both groups,and 976 genes were down-regulated.Some of the down-regulated genes were found to code for proteins involved in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling pathways.The up-regulated genes were found to code for IL-6 and Ager with bone-resorption functions.Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with cholesterol (12.5-50μg/mL) inhibited the cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner.The treatment also concentration-dependently reduced the expression of BMP2 and Cbfa1,and increased the oxidative injury in MC3T3-E1 cells.Conclusion:The results suggest a close

  15. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  16. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Vargas-Robles; Amelia Rios; Monica Arellano-Mendoza; Escalante, Bruno A.; Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture c...

  17. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  18. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  19. Effects of consuming a high carbohydrate diet after eight weeks of exposure to a ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinzig Kimberly P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ketogenic diets have been utilized for weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters. The present experiments examined the effects of returning to a chow diet after prolonged ingestion of a ketogenic diet. Methods Rats were maintained on chow (CH or a ketogenic diet (KD for 8 weeks, after which the KD rats were given access to chow only (KD:CH for 8 additional weeks. Caloric intake, body weight, and plasma leptin, insulin and ghrelin were measured before and after the dietary switch. Results After 8 weeks of consuming a ketogenic diet, KD rats had increased adiposity and plasma leptin levels, and reduced insulin, as compared to CH controls. One week after the diet switch, fat pad weight and leptin levels remained elevated, and were normalized to CH controls within 8 weeks of the dietary switch. Switching from KD to chow induced a transient hypophagia, such that KD:CH rats consumed significantly fewer calories during the first week after the dietary switch, as compared to calories consumed by CH rats. This hypophagia was despite significantly increased plasma ghrelin in KD:CH rats. Finally, KD:CH rats developed hyperphagia over time, and during weeks 6-8 after the diet switch consumed significantly more calories per day than did CH-fed controls and gained more weight than CH-fed controls. Conclusion Collectively, these data demonstrate that returning to a carbohydrate-based diet after a period of consuming a ketogenic diet has post-diet effects on caloric intake, body weight gain, and insulin levels.

  20. High-fat Diet Enhances and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Deficiency Attenuates Bone Loss in Mice with Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2015-07-01

    This study determined the effects of a high-fat diet and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (Pai1(-/-)) on the bone structure in male C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in lungs. Significant reduction in bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) in femurs and vertebrae were found in LLC-bearing mice compared to non-tumor-bearing mice. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G control diet significantly reduced BV/TV, Tb.N and BMD in femurs and BV/TV in vertebrae. The high-fat diet significantly reduced BMD in vertebrae in wild-type mice but not in Pai1(-/-) mice. Compared to wild-type mice, PAI1 deficiency significantly increased BV/TV and Tb.N in femurs. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin was significantly lower and that of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) was significantly higher in LLC-bearing mice. The high-fat diet significantly reduced plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b. Deficiency in PAI1 prevented the high-fat diet-induced increases in plasma TRAP5b. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet enhances, whereas PAI1 deficiency, attenuates metastasis-associated bone loss, indicating that a high-fat diet and PAI1 contribute to metastasis-associated bone deterioration. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Digestible lysine levels in diets with high energy density for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Colina R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Materials and Methods. Seventy crossbred barrows (initial body weight of 83.36 kg were used and allotted in a randomized block design with five treatments, seven replications and two pigs per experimental unit. Pigs were fed ad libitum with diets containing 3.5 kcal/kg of ME and five levels of digestible lysine (0.46, 0.52, 0.58, 0.64 and 0.70% during four weeks. Final live weight (FLW, daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, daily lysine intake (DLI, and the amount of lysine per body weight gain (DLI/DWG, were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken from each pig to determine urea nitrogen concentration (UN in serum and slaughtered to evaluate quantitative and qualitative carcass characteristics. Results. The FLW increased linearly (p<0.05.There were no differences among treatments for DFI, DWG, FC, carcass characteristics and UN. The DLI and DLI/DWG varied significantly (p<0.001 and increased linearly (p<0.001 with each lysine level. Pigs that consumed the limiting diet in lysine (0.46% showed less DLI and DLI/DWG (p<0.001 than pigs fed the other diets. Conclusions. The amount of DLI/DWG increased with the evaluated levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density, without effects on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

  2. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of a Food Elimination Diet on Collegiate Athletes' 300-meter Run Time and Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Stockton, Susan; Breshears, Karen; Baker, David McA.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Optimal human function and performance through diet strategies are critical for everyone but especially for those involved in collegiate or professional athletics. Currently, individualized medicine (IM) is emerging as a more efficacious approach to health with emphasis on personalized diet strategies for the public and is common practice for elite athletes. One method for directing patient-specific foods in the diet, while concomitantly impacting physical performance, may be via ...

  4. High- cholesterol diet does not alter gut microbiota composition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimova, Lidiya G.; Zlatkov, Nikola; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Western diet containing both saturated fat and cholesterol impairs cardio- metabolic health partly by modulating diversity and function of the microbiota. While diet containing only high fat has comparable effects, it is unclear how diets only enriched in cholesterol impact the

  5. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available There are two independent serotonin (5-HT systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  6. High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Enhances Allograft Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, Luciana L; Yin, Dengping; Lei, Yuk Man; Chen, Luqiu; Wang, Ying; Chong, Anita S; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-05-01

    Obesity promotes a state of low-grade inflammation that exacerbates chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. In transplantation, the survival of organs transplanted into obese patients is reduced compared with allografts in lean recipients. However, whether this is due to increased alloimmunity remains to be addressed conclusively. We used a mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and assessed immune responses to allogeneic stimulation in vitro, allogeneic splenocyte immunization in vivo, and allogeneic heart transplantation. Our results indicate that HFD altered the composition and phenotype of splenic antigen-presenting cells that led to their enhanced capacity to stimulate T cells. Immunization with allogeneic splenocytes in vivo resulted in increased alloreactivity, as determined by IFNγ production. Moreover, cardiac allograft rejection in HFD mice was modestly accelerated compared to aged-matched control animals fed a low-fat diet, correlating with enhanced alloreactive T cell function. Our results highlight the increased alloresponse triggered by HFD-induced obesity and its negative impact on transplant outcome.

  7. Serotonin Improves High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nakano, Tatsuya; Saito, Ryo; Akasaka, Daisuke; Saito, Kazuki; Ogasawara, Hideki; Minashima, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Inoue, Nao; Ikeda, Ikuo; Chen, Xiangning; Miyake, Masato; Kitazawa, Haruki; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Kan; Tahara, Kohji; Nagasawa, Yuya; Rose, Michael T; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Aso, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    There are two independent serotonin (5-HT) systems of organization: one in the central nervous system and the other in the periphery. 5-HT affects feeding behavior and obesity in the central nervous system. On the other hand, peripheral 5-HT also may play an important role in obesity, as it has been reported that 5-HT regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Here we show that the intraperitoneal injection of 5-HT to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes without having any effect on food intake when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. 5-HT increased energy expenditure, O2 consumption and CO2 production. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral 5-HT is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle. Additionally, 5-HT dramatically induced an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-b and PGC-1α-c in soleus muscle. The elevation of these gene mRNA expressions by 5-HT injection was inhibited by treatment with 5-HT receptor (5HTR) 2A or 7 antagonists. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT may play an important role in the relief of obesity and other metabolic disorders by accelerating energy consumption in skeletal muscle.

  8. Low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets for growing pigs: effect on expression of amino acid transporters, serum concentration, performance, and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Buenabad, L; Castillo, G; Arce, N; Araiza, B A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-05-01

    Pigs fed protein-bound AA appear to have a higher abundance of AA transporters for their absorption in the jejunum compared with the duodenum. However, there is limited data about the effect of dietary free AA, readily available in the duodenum, on the duodenal abundance of AA transporters and its impact on pig performance. Forty-eight pigs (24.3 kg initial BW) distributed in 4 treatments were used to evaluate the effect of the CP level and form (free vs. protein bound) in which AA are added to diets on the expression of AA transporters in the 3 small intestine segments, serum concentration of AA, and performance. Dietary treatments based on wheat and soybean meal (SBM) were 1) low-CP (14%) diet supplemented with L-Lys, L-Thr, DL-Met, L-Leu, L-Ile, L-Val, L-His, L-Trp, and L-Phe (LPAA); 2) as in the LPAA but with added L-Gly as a N source (LPAA+N); 3) intermediate CP content (16%) supplemented with L-Lys HCl, L-Thr, and DL-Met (MPAA); and 4) high-CP (22%) diet (HP) without free AA. At the end of the experiment, 8 pigs from LPAA and HP were sacrificed to collect intestinal mucosa and blood samples and to dissect the carcasses. There were no differences in ADG, ADFI, G:F, and weights of carcass components and some visceral organs between treatments. Weights of the large intestine and kidney were higher in HP pigs (P protein in HP wheat-SBM diets without affecting pig performance; nonessential N does not seem to be limiting in very low-protein wheat-SBM diets for growing pigs. Also, the inclusion of free AA in the diet appears to affect their serum concentration and the expression of the AA transporter b0,+ in the duodenum of pigs.

  9. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  10. Interaction between dissolved oxygen concentration and diet composition on growth, digestibility and intestinal health of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.T.K.; Dinh, Ngu T.; Tin, Nguyen Hong; Roem, A.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the individual and combined effects of oxygen concentration and
    diet composition on the growth, nutrient utilization and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
    niloticus). Two recirculating aquaculture systems were used to create the

  11. Desempenho de Tourinhos Cruzados em Dietas de Alto Teor de Concentrado com Bagaço de Cana-de-Açúcar como Único Volumoso Performance of Young Bulls Fed High Concentrate Diets with Sugarcane Bagasse as Roughage Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa de Medeiros Bulle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de tourinhos ¾ Europeu ¼ Zebu, de raça paterna Britânica ou Continental em dietas de alto teor de concentrado contendo 9, 15 e 21% da matéria seca (MS de bagaço in natura (BIN em arranjo fatorial 2x3. Trinta e seis tourinhos com idade média de 9 meses e peso vivo inicial de 257 kg foram confinados, dois por baia, por 139 dias. Não houve efeitos da interação entre tipos raciais e níveis de fibra para nenhuma variáveil analisada. Entre os dois tipos genéticos não houve diferenças em ganho de peso vivo em jejum (PVj, os Britânicos ganhando 1,24 kg/d e os Continentais, 1,29 kg/d e a eficiência de conversão de alimentos foi a mesma 0,17. Os animais que receberam 15% BIN apresentaram ganho de peso maior (1,36 kg/d que os animais do tratamento 9% BIN (1,20 kg/d. O peso final dos animais Britânicos (428,1 kg não diferiu dos Continentais (438,4 kg, assim como o consumo de MS (em kg/dia, 7,20 e 7,54, ou em % do peso vivo, 2,11 e 2,16, respectivamente. Entre os níveis de fibra analisados, o maior peso final foi dos animais do tratamento 15% BIN (448,7 kg e o menor o dos animais do tratamento 21% BIN (424,8 kg. Os animais do tratamento 15% BIN apresentaram o maior consumo (7,93 kg MS/dia e os animais do tratamento 9% BIN o menor (6,85 kg MS/dia Estes resultados sugerem que dietas com alto nível de concentrado com BIN como única fonte de fibra podem utilizar níveis de volumosos tão baixos como 9% da MS.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of ¾ European x ¼ Zebu crossbred bulls of British or Continental paternal breed, fed high concentrate diets containing 9, 15 or 21% of the dry matter (DM with sugarcane bagasse (BIN in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Thirty-six crossbred bulls, 9 months old and 257 kg of shrink body weight were fed, two per pen, for 139 days. There was no difference in shrink body weight gain between the two genetic groups, the British animals gaining 1.24 kg/d and the

  12. Use of industrial amino acids to allow low protein concentrations in finishing diets for growing Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, E; Leclercq, B

    1998-03-01

    1. Three experiments were performed to assess the effects of decreasing protein concentration in the finishing diets for growing Muscovy ducks (8 to 12 weeks of age) by adding 4 essential amino acids (AAs, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan). Experimental diets with crude protein (CP) contents from 105 to 142 g/kg, were compared with control diets providing 150 to 160 g/kg CP. In each trial, all diets were isocaloric. No significant modification in growth or carcase quality was observed when CP was greater than 124 g/kg in diets supplemented with the 4 essential AAs. 2. There was no advantages in supplying more than 4.3 g of digestible lysine per kg of diet (12.75 MJ ME/kg). When threonine was not added, breast yield decreased significantly (-4.3%), while omitting tryptophan supplementation did not influence performance. 3. Furthermore, the experiments confirmed that reducing CP had little or no effect on food conversion efficiency and fatness in Muscovy ducklings, unlike the observed situation in broiler chickens.

  13. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf goats fed dried cassava leaves-based concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Anele, Uchenna Young; Oni, Oluwakemi Oluremilekun; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Onifade, Olufemi Sunday; Yusuf, Kafayat Omowumi; Dele, Peter Aniwe; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi

    2012-03-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of dried cassava leaves at 0%, 20%, 40% and 60%, respectively, using guinea grass as basal feed, on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. The study lasted for 116 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored in 40 male goats before and after, using a completely randomized design. At the start of the experiment, packed cell volume (PCV) ranged from 21.5% to 25.5% while haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and RBC significantly (P diets. At the end of the trial, there was a slight increase in the values of PCV and Hb in the diets (P > 0.05). Lymphocyte reduced significantly (P diets. Neutrophils, however, increased (P > 0.05) at the 0% to 40% levels and reduced at the 60% level of dried cassava leaves inclusion. At the start of the experiment, values for glucose significantly (P diets. The study revealed that inclusion of dried cassava leaves in the diets of West African Dwarf goats had no deleterious effects on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of WAD goats and could therefore be included in ruminant diets up to 60%.

  14. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  15. Association between the serum concentration of triiodothyronine with components of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, and diet in euthyroid post-menopausal women without and with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vazquez, Fabiola; Cruz-Lumbreras, Rosalía; Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Cervantes-Rodríguez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; Castelán, Francisco; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Cuevas, Estela

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between the serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), cardiovascular risk (CVR), and diet in euthyroid post-menopausal women without and with MetS. A cross-sectional study was performed in 120 voluntary women of an indigenous population from Tlaxcala-México. Euthyroid status was assessed measuring the serum concentration of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones, while that of estradiol was measured to confirm the postmenopausal condition. MetS was diagnosed using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement (AHA/NHLBI) criterion. Estimation of CVR was calculated based on the Framingham scale. Diet components were evaluated based on survey applications. Correlations, logistic regression analyses, ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis, and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between women without MetS and women with MetS having different serum concentrations of T3. Triiodothyronine was positively correlated with insulin but negatively correlated with glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and CVR. Compared to women without MetS, women with MetS and low-normal T3 concentration showed a high risk for hyperglycemia and moderate/high risk for CVR. In contrast, a high-normal T3 concentration increased the risk to have a big waist circumference, a high concentration of HDL-C, and insulin resistance. Diet analysis showed a high grade of malnutrition in women from all groups. The intake of calories was positively affected by the T3 concentration, albeit it did not affect the extent of malnutrition. In contrast to concentrations of TSH, total thyroxin (T4), and free T4, the concentration of serum T3 was strongly correlated with cardio-metabolic variables in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In comparison to women without MetS, a high-normal serum concentration of T3 in women with MetS is positively

  16. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Lavergne, Christopher; Rahimi, Sophia; Rachid, Hiba; Vu, Nina A; Plouffe, Louise J; Swist, Eleonora

    2016-04-28

    The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg) intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone) or resistance (OR, obese-resistant) were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg) or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg) Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05) in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume), and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca) concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  17. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  18. Effect of pH and level of concentrate in the diet on the production of biohydrogenation intermediates in a dual-flow continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M C; Calsamiglia, S; Cardozo, P W; Vlaeminck, B

    2009-09-01

    Milk fat depression in cows fed high-grain diets has been related to an increase in the concentration of trans-10 C(18:1) and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk. These fatty acids (FA) are produced as a result of the alteration in rumen biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA. Because a reduction in ruminal pH is usually observed when high-concentrate diets are fed, the main cause that determines the alteration in the biohydrogenation pathways is not clear. The effect of pH (6.4 vs. 5.6) and dietary forage to concentrate ratios (F:C; 70:30 F:C vs. 30:70 F:C) on rumen microbial fermentation, effluent FA profile, and DNA concentration of bacteria involved in lipolysis and biohydrogenation processes were investigated in a continuous culture trial. The dual-flow continuous culture consisted of 2 periods of 8 d (5 d for adaptation and 3 d for sampling), with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Samples from solid and liquid mixed effluents were taken for determination of total N, ammonia-N, and volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the remainder of the sample was lyophilized. Dry samples were analyzed for dry matter, ash, neutral and acid detergent fiber, FA, and purine contents. The pH 5.6 reduced organic matter and fiber digestibility, ammonia-N concentration and flow, and crude protein degradation, and increased nonammonia and dietary N flows. The pH 5.6 decreased the flow of C(18:0), trans-11 C(18:1) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and increased the flow of trans-10 C(18:1), C(18:2n-6), C(18:3n-3), trans-11,cis-15 C(18:2) and trans-10,cis-12 CLA in the 1 h after feeding effluent. The pH 5.6 reduced Anaerovibrio lipolytica (32.7 vs. 72.1 pg/10 ng of total DNA) and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens vaccenic acid subgroup (588 vs. 1,394 pg/10 ng of total DNA) DNA concentrations. The high-concentrate diet increased organic matter and fiber digestibility, nonammonia and bacterial N flows, and reduced ammonia-N concentration and flow. The high-concentrate

  19. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kabasakal Cetin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6 as the control group (C, or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7 as the experimental group (WG through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring’s plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring’s plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development.

  20. A six-week diet high in fat, fructose and salt and its influence on lipid and mineral status, in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Suliburska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fat, fructose, and salt consumption has increased in industrialized countries, but there are few studies that have investigated the effect of this eating pattern on metabolic and physiological states. The purpose of this study was thus to assess lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and to estimate iron, zinc, copper, calcium, and magnesium status in rats fed a diet high in fat, fructose, and salt, compared to the control diet. Material and methods. Wistar rats were assigned to groups fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat, fructose, and salt (M. After 6 weeks, the animals were weighed and killed. Liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, hair, and blood samples were collected. The total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin levels in serum were measured. The iron, zinc, copper, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in tissues and serum were determined. Results.It was found that the M diet led to a significant increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the serum of rats. Among rats fed the M diet, a markedly higher serum level of iron and a significantly lower serum level of zinc were observed. A significantly lower iron level in the pancreas, zinc level in the kidneys and pancreas, and copper level in the kidneys it was found in rats with the M diet. The modified diet resulted in markedly lower concentrations of magnesium in the hearts. In the hair of rats on the M diet, higher levels of iron and zinc were observed. The relative masses of the kidneys were markedly higher in rats with the M diet, as compared with the C diet. Conclusions.Diets high in fat, fructose, and salt disturb lipid status and kidney mass. This modified diet impairs mineral balance in the body.

  1. Sphingolipids in High Fat Diet and Obesity-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhwa Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient oversupply associated with a high fat diet (HFD significantly alters cellular metabolism, and specifically including sphingolipid metabolism. Sphingolipids are emerging as bioactive lipids that play key roles in regulating functions, in addition to their traditional roles as membrane structure. HFD enhances de novo sphingolipid synthesis and turnover of sphingolipids via the salvage pathway, resulting in the generation of ceramide, and more specifically long chain ceramide species. Additionally, HFD elevates sphingomyelin and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P levels in several tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and cardiovascular tissues. HFD-stimulated sphingolipid generation contributes to systemic insulin resistance, dysregulated lipid accumulation, and cytokine expression and secretion from skeletal muscle and adipose tissues, exacerbating obesity-related conditions. Furthermore, altered sphingolipid levels, particularly ceramide and sphingomyelin, are involved in obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. In this review, HFD-mediated sphingolipid metabolism and its impact on HFD-induced biology and pathobiology will be discussed.

  2. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At −5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein∶low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein∶high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  3. A high diet quality is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular events in the Malmo diet and cancer cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hlebowicz

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate if diet quality is related to incidence of cardiovascular (CV events. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A diet quality index based on the 2005 Swedish Nutrition Recommendations and the Swedish Dietary Guidelines was created and included six dietary components: saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish and shellfish, dietary fiber, fruit and vegetables, and sucrose. The index ranked 17126 participants (59% women of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (Sweden on their dietary intakes. Total index score was categorized as low, medium or high. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model associations between index score categories and index components with risk of incident CV events, with adjustment for potential confounders. The incidence of first CV events (non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke or death from ischemic heart disease was monitored from baseline (1991-1996 until December 31, 2008; 703 CV events occurred in women and 1093 in men. RESULTS: A high diet quality was associated with decreased risk of CV events when compared to a low diet quality. In multivariate analysis, the risk reduction was 32% (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.73 in men and 27% (hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.91 in women. When examined separately and mutually adjusted for each other, the individual components were either not associated with CV risk or marginally decreased risks were seen. CONCLUSION: High quality diets in line with current recommendations may reduce the risk of CV events. This study illustrates the importance of considering a combination of dietary factors when evaluating diet-disease associations.

  4. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dijk, van S.J.; Hoelen, D.; Siebelink, E.; Heijligenberg, R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims - Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and

  5. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dijk, van S.J.; Hoelen, D.; Siebelink, E.; Heijligenberg, R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims - Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and

  6. Cordyceps sinensis biomass produced by submerged fermentation in high-fat diet feed rats normalizes the blood lipid and the low testosterone induced by diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire dos Santos, Leandro; Rubel, Rosália; Bonatto, Sandro José Ribeiro; Zanatta, Ana Lucia; Aikawa, Júlia; Yamaguchi, Adriana Aya; Torres, Maria Fernanda; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Habu, Sascha; Prado, Karin Braun; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation obtained from submerged fermentation on blood lipid and low testosterone induced by high-fat diet (HFD). The experiments were carried out using a long-term intake of HFD and HFD plus Simvastatin or C. sinensis (4 months). Our results show that plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL were decreased by Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation (CSBS). A long-term intake of HFD caused a significant liver damage which has been reverted by CSBS. CSBS normalized decreasing testosterone levels observed in high-fat diet feed rats. All these findings lead us to suggest that C. sinensis was able to decrease blood lipid concentration, increase hepatoprotective activity and normalize testosterone levels. PMID:27847459

  7. Influence of infant and juvenile diets on serum cholesterol, lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein concentrations in juvenile baboons (Papio sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, G E; McMahan, C A; Kelley, J L; Farley, C M; McGill, H C

    1982-11-01

    The long-term effects of infant diet (breast milk or formula containing 2, 30, or 60 mg/dl cholesterol) and subsequent dietary cholesterol (1 mg/kcal) and fat (saturated or unsaturated) on serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations were estimated using 82 juvenile baboons 4-6 years of age. A significant interaction of infant diet (breast vs formula) with type of fat (saturated vs unsaturated) at 4-6 years of age was observed on HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations. That is, animals breast-fed as infants had higher HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations when fed unsaturated fat from weaning to 4-6 years of age than those fed saturated fat (77 vs 68 mg/dl). In contrast, animals fed formulas in infancy followed by a diet containing unsaturated fat had lower HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations at 4-6 years of age than did those fed saturated fat (67 vs 78 mg/dl). However, breast feeding or feeding formulas containing various levels of cholesterol for 3 months during infancy did not result in statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol, VLDL + LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations. Dietary cholesterol after infancy significantly increased serum total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol, apoA-I and apoB concentrations. All of these response variables also were higher in animals fed saturated fat compared to those fed unsaturated fat on the same level of cholesterol. At 4-6 years of age, regardless of diet, females had significantly higher serum VLDL + LDL cholesterol (57 vs 43 mg/dl) and apoB concentrations (39 vs 30 mg/dl) than did males.

  8. The role of high cholesterol-high fructose diet on coronary arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swier, Vicki J; Tang, Lin; Radwan, Mohamed M; Hunter, William J; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-02-01

    The effect of fructose in conjunction with high cholesterol diet in the development of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries is not well established. Microswine were fed high cholesterol (HC) or a high cholesterol-high fructose (HCHF) diet containing 18-20% calories from fructose. All swine had high levels of serum cholesterol and non-HDL, thickened intima and accumulation of collagen in the coronaries. Swine fed with HC diet had less stenosis in coronary arteries, lower serum levels of non-HDL, triglycerides, cholesterol, and blood glucose than HCHF group. Coronary lesions in the HC swine were not as progressed as in HCHF and showed low LDL-expressed lipid-laden foam cells. The M1/M2 macrophage phenotype in the HCHF swine differed with the progression of atherosclerosis, with higher density of M1-phenotype in HCHF swine. There was high expression of CCR7 (M1-phenotype) in more advanced lesions in the fibrous cap-like areas, whereas M2-macrophages were abundant in the foam-cell cores. These findings suggest that the addition of a fructose to high cholesterol diet accelerates atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries with an increase in M1-macrophages and the propensity to develop features of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Could a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids impair the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medei, Emiliano; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cordellini, Sandra; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition. To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD) - in which fatty acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories - impairs the cardiovascular system. Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters. After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight⁄final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats. The cumulative concentration- effect curve for noradrenaline in the presence of prazosin was shifted similarly in both groups. The present work shows that U-HFD did not impair the cardiovascular parameters analyzed.

  10. Could a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids impair the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medei, Emiliano; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cordellini, Sandra; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD) – in which fatty acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories – impairs the cardiovascular system. METHODS: Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters. RESULTS: After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight/final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats. The cumulative concentration-effect curve for noradrenaline in the presence of prazosin was shifted similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present work shows that U-HFD did not impair the cardiovascular parameters analyzed. PMID:21165364

  11. Extended exenatide administration enhances lipid metabolism and exacerbates pancreatic injury in mice on a high fat, high carbohydrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Rouse

    Full Text Available This study expanded upon a previous study in mice reporting a link between exenatide treatment and exocrine pancreatic injury by demonstrating temporal and dose responses and providing an initial mechanistic hypothesis. The design of the present study included varying lengths of exenatide exposure (3, 6 weeks to 12 weeks at multiple concentrations (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg with multiple endpoints (histopathology evaluations, immunoassay for cytokines, immunostaining of the pancreas, serum chemistries and measurement of trypsin, amylase, and, lipase, and gene expression profiles. Time- and dose-dependent exocrine pancreatic injury was observed in mice on a high fat diet treated with exenatide. The morphological changes identified in the pancreas involved acinar cell injury and death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy, cell adaptations (hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and cell survival (proliferation/regeneration accompanied by varying degrees of inflammatory response leading to secondary injury in pancreatic blood vessels, ducts, and adipose tissues. Gene expression profiles indicated increased signaling for cell survival and altered lipid metabolism in exenatide treated mice. Immunohistochemistry supported gene expression findings that exenatide caused and/or exacerbated pancreatic injury in a high fat diet environment potentially by further increasing high fat diet exacerbated lipid metabolism and resulting oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and determine their relevance to human disease.

  12. Physical chemistry of highly concentrated emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudazi, Reza; Qavi, Sahar; Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya

    2015-06-01

    This review explores the physics underlying the rheology of highly concentrated emulsions (HCEs) to determine the relationship between elasticity and HCE stability, and to consider whether it is possible to describe all physicochemical properties of HCEs on the basis of a unique physical approach. We define HCEs as emulsions with a volume fraction above the maximum closest packing fraction of monodisperse spheres, φm=0.74, even if droplets are not of polyhedron shape. The solid-like rheological behavior of HCEs is characterized by yield stress and elasticity, properties which depend on droplet polydispersity and which are affected by caging at volume fractions about the jamming concentration, φj. A bimodal size distribution in HCEs diminishes caging and facilitates droplet movement, resulting in HCEs with negligible yield stress and no plateau in storage modulus. Thermodynamic forces automatically move HCEs toward the lowest free energy state, but since interdroplet forces create local minimums - points beyond which free energy temporarily increases before it reaches the global minimum of the system - the free energy of HCEs will settle at a local minimum unless additional energy is added. Several attempts have been undertaken to predict the elasticity of HCEs. In many cases, the elastic modulus of HCEs is higher than the one predicted from classical models, which only take into account spatial repulsion (or simply interfacial energy). Improved models based on free energy calculation should be developed to consider the disjoining pressure and interfacial rheology in addition to spatial repulsion. The disjoining pressure and interfacial viscoelasticity, which result in the deviation of elasticity from the classical model, can be regarded as parameters for quantifying the stability of HCEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Effects of High-Protein Diets Derived from Soy and Casein on Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Wild-type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, Matthew; Mamo, John C L; Lam, Virginie; Giles, Corey; Takechi, Ryusuke

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies report that a diet high in protein influences cognitive performance, but the results are inconsistent. Studies demonstrated that protein from different food sources has differential effects on cognition. It is increasingly recognized that the integrity of cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) is pivotal for central nervous system function. However, to date, no studies have reported the effects of high-protein diets on BBB integrity. Therefore, in this study, the effects of diets enriched in casein or soy protein on BBB permeability were investigated. Immunomicroscopy analyses of cerebral parenchymal immunoglobulin G extravasation indicated significant BBB disruption in the cortex of young adult mice maintained on high-casein diet for 12 weeks, while no signs of BBB dysfunction were observed in mice fed with control or high-soy protein diet. Moreover, cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was significantly greater in mice fed the high-casein diet compared to control mice, indicating heightened astrocyte activation, whereas mice maintained on a soy-enriched diet showed no increase of GFAP abundance. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine were markedly greater in mice maintained on a high-casein diet in comparison to control mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that a diet enriched in casein but not soy protein may induce astrocyte activation through exaggerated BBB permeability by increased plasma homocysteine. The outcomes indicate the differential effects of protein sources on BBB and neuroinflammation, which may provide an important implication for dietary guidelines for protein supplementation.

  14. Switching Back to Normal Diet Following High-Fat Diet Feeding Reduces Cardiac Vulnerability to Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Littlejohns; Hua Lin; Gianni D Angelini; Halestrap, Andrew P.; M. Saadeh Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    Background: We have recently shown that hearts of mice fed high-fat diet exhibit increased vulnerability to ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) in parallel to changes in catalase protein expression, mitochondrial morphology and intracellular diastolic Ca2+. Aims: To determine whether switching from high-fat back to normal diet alters vulnerability to I/R and to investigate cardiac cellular remodelling in relation to the mechanism(s) underlying I/R injury. Methods and Results: Male C57BL/6J mice w...

  15. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  16. Effects of a Short-Term High-Nitrate Diet on Exercise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Rejc, Enrico; Pavei, Gaspare; Bonato, Matteo; Montorsi, Michela; La Torre, Antonio; Rasica, Letizia; Marzorati, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that nitrate supplementation can improve exercise performance. Most of the studies have used either beetroot juice or sodium nitrate as a supplement; there is lack of data on the potential ergogenic benefits of an increased dietary nitrate intake from a diet based on fruits and vegetables. Our aim was to assess whether a high-nitrate diet increases nitric oxide bioavailability and to evaluate the effects of this nutritional intervention on exercise performance. Seven healthy male subjects participated in a randomized cross-over study. They were tested before and after 6 days of a high (HND) or control (CD) nitrate diet (~8.2 mmol∙day−1 or ~2.9 mmol∙day−1, respectively). Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were significantly higher in HND (127 ± 64 µM and 350 ± 120 nM, respectively) compared to CD (23 ± 10 µM and 240 ± 100 nM, respectively). In HND (vs. CD) were observed: (a) a significant reduction of oxygen consumption during moderate-intensity constant work-rate cycling exercise (1.178 ± 0.141 vs. 1.269 ± 0.136 L·min−1); (b) a significantly higher total muscle work during fatiguing, intermittent sub-maximal isometric knee extension (357.3 ± 176.1 vs. 253.6 ± 149.0 Nm·s·kg−1); (c) an improved performance in Repeated Sprint Ability test. These findings suggest that a high-nitrate diet could be a feasible and effective strategy to improve exercise performance. PMID:27589795

  17. Effects of a Short-Term High-Nitrate Diet on Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Rejc, Enrico; Pavei, Gaspare; Bonato, Matteo; Montorsi, Michela; La Torre, Antonio; Rasica, Letizia; Marzorati, Mauro

    2016-08-31

    It has been reported that nitrate supplementation can improve exercise performance. Most of the studies have used either beetroot juice or sodium nitrate as a supplement; there is lack of data on the potential ergogenic benefits of an increased dietary nitrate intake from a diet based on fruits and vegetables. Our aim was to assess whether a high-nitrate diet increases nitric oxide bioavailability and to evaluate the effects of this nutritional intervention on exercise performance. Seven healthy male subjects participated in a randomized cross-over study. They were tested before and after 6 days of a high (HND) or control (CD) nitrate diet (~8.2 mmol∙day(-1) or ~2.9 mmol∙day(-1), respectively). Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were significantly higher in HND (127 ± 64 µM and 350 ± 120 nM, respectively) compared to CD (23 ± 10 µM and 240 ± 100 nM, respectively). In HND (vs. CD) were observed: (a) a significant reduction of oxygen consumption during moderate-intensity constant work-rate cycling exercise (1.178 ± 0.141 vs. 1.269 ± 0.136 L·min(-1)); (b) a significantly higher total muscle work during fatiguing, intermittent sub-maximal isometric knee extension (357.3 ± 176.1 vs. 253.6 ± 149.0 Nm·s·kg(-1)); (c) an improved performance in Repeated Sprint Ability test. These findings suggest that a high-nitrate diet could be a feasible and effective strategy to improve exercise performance.

  18. Effects of a Short-Term High-Nitrate Diet on Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Porcelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that nitrate supplementation can improve exercise performance. Most of the studies have used either beetroot juice or sodium nitrate as a supplement; there is lack of data on the potential ergogenic benefits of an increased dietary nitrate intake from a diet based on fruits and vegetables. Our aim was to assess whether a high-nitrate diet increases nitric oxide bioavailability and to evaluate the effects of this nutritional intervention on exercise performance. Seven healthy male subjects participated in a randomized cross-over study. They were tested before and after 6 days of a high (HND or control (CD nitrate diet (~8.2 mmol∙day−1 or ~2.9 mmol∙day−1, respectively. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were significantly higher in HND (127 ± 64 µM and 350 ± 120 nM, respectively compared to CD (23 ± 10 µM and 240 ± 100 nM, respectively. In HND (vs. CD were observed: (a a significant reduction of oxygen consumption during moderate-intensity constant work-rate cycling exercise (1.178 ± 0.141 vs. 1.269 ± 0.136 L·min−1; (b a significantly higher total muscle work during fatiguing, intermittent sub-maximal isometric knee extension (357.3 ± 176.1 vs. 253.6 ± 149.0 Nm·s·kg−1; (c an improved performance in Repeated Sprint Ability test. These findings suggest that a high-nitrate diet could be a feasible and effective strategy to improve exercise performance.

  19. Carcass composition of lambs finished with diets containing in natura or disabled soybean grain and two concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Castro Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the composition of carcass cuts and tissue of lambs shoulder and leg finished in feedlot receiving diets containing whole or disabled soybean grain with two concentrate levels (50% and 80% of DM. There were used 20 crossbreed entire male lambs, 120 days of age and initial body weight of 22.6 ± 2.06 kg. A completely randomized design was used, allocated in a factorial arrangement 2x2 (levels concentrate and processing of soybean grain. The slaughter criterion was body condition between 3 and 3.5. The weight of sirloin cut was superior with 80% of concentrate. In the shoulder tissue composition, the level of 50% concentrate increased the ratio of subcutaneous fat. In natura soybean provided higher values for weight and ratio of subcutaneous and total fat. For the leg tissue composition, the grain of disabled soybean showed higher muscle yield and muscle:bone ratio. Diets with 80% of concentrate, regardless of processing soybean grain, improved commercial yield and the diets containing disabled soybean more edible portion.

  20. Free water {sup 3}H concentration in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, S. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Inoue, Y.; Miyamoto, K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Takizawa, Y. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Fallout {sup 3}H concentrations in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita Prefecture are reported in this paper. Since {sup 3}H is a potential nuclear fuel for fusion reactors in future, its environmental behavior is important for dose assessment of released {sup 3}H from the plants. Tritium in foods is classified into two types; free water {sup 3}H (FWT) and organically-bound {sup 3}H (OBT). The FWT is practically separated by means of freeze-drying, while the OBT is measured with water sample collected by combustion of dried sample. The OBT concentrations in foods and human tissue samples were reported for {sup 3}H originating from nuclear weapon fallout. We already published {sup 3}H concentrations in diet samples collected in Akita City during 1985-88. Although results for the samples collected in U.S.A. and European countries in the 1970s showed higher specific activity of OBT than FWT, our recent results in Japan indicate almost the same specific activity between them. Since the measurements for the samples in 1960s and 1970s are important to understand the long-term movement of {sup 3}H in the environment, we have searched old diet samples. Recently, diet samples collected in Akita Prefecture during 1969-80 were found and obtained for {sup 3}H analysis. The samples were originally gathered for nutrition survey programs and consisted of duplicate diet samples for 1 day from 10-30 persons. Food samples excluding boiled rice which is the staple food was homogenized by electric mixers after adding tap water. Then, the food and the boiled rice samples were stored in a refrigerator at -20degC. Free water in the samples was collected with lyophilization, then {sup 3}H in the water sample was measured after purification with low-level liquid scintillation counters. The free water {sup 3}H concentrations were measured for 57 diet samples (dish excluding boiled rice) and 17 boiled rice samples. The free water {sup 3}H concentrations in diet and rice samples

  1. Copper metabolism in analbuminaemic rats fed a high-copper diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.; Berg, van den G.J.; Beynen, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    Copper metabolism in male Nagase analbuminaemic (NA) rats was compared with that in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed purified diets containing either 5 or 100 mg Cu/kg diet. Dietary copper loading increased hepatic and kidney copper concentrations in both strains to the same extent, but baseline va

  2. Impact of a High-Fat or High-Fiber Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Markers in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja N. Heinritz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF, or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric. A hypotrophic effect of the HF diet on digestive organs could be observed compared to the LF diet (p < 0.05. Higher gene copy numbers of Bacteroides (p < 0.05 and Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001 were present in intestinal contents of HF pigs, bifidobacteria were more abundant in LF pigs (p < 0.05. Concentrations of acetate and butyrate were higher in LF pigs (p < 0.05. Glucose was higher in HF pigs, while glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT showed higher concentrations upon feeding the LF diet (p < 0.001. However, C-reactive protein (CRP decreased with time in LF pigs (p < 0.05. In part, these findings correspond to those in humans, and are in support of the concept of using the pig as human model.

  3. High-protein diet induces oxidative stress in rat brain: protective action of high-intensity exercise against lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Camiletti-Moir??n, Daniel; Aparicio Garc??a-Molina, Virginia A.; Nebot Valenzuela, Elena; Medina, Gerardo; Mart??nez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Andrade, Ana; Porres-Foulquie, Jes??s; L??pez-Jurado, Mar??a; Aranda Ram??rez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    diets as well as aerobic exercise could promote antioxidant capacity and consequently reduce free radicals overproduction on brain. However, little is know regarding to the high-protein diets and high intensity exercise on oxidative stress production. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of high-protein diets and high-intensity exercise (HIE) on brain oxidative stress markers. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed i...

  4. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  5. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  6. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Thomson, Lynn M; Williams, Patricia A; Ross, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  7. Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, blood metabolites, and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, J R; Loor, J J; Moisá, S J; Gonzalez, D; Shike, D W

    2017-06-01

    Crossbred calves ( = 30; age = 95 ± 1.7 d; BW = 179 ± 18 kg) were fed 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) corn-based control, 2) low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 3) high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 4) low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend, and 5) high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend for 112 d (growing phase) followed by a common corn-based finishing diet (additional 112 d; finishing phase). Calves were biopsied at 0, 112, and 224 d for transcriptional analysis via real-time quantitative PCR of 14 genes associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis within the muscle. Serum was collected at d 0, 112, and 224 and analyzed for leptin, IGF-1, and GH concentration. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) to ascertain the effects of 2 protein levels, 2 fat levels, time, and any interactions. Increased protein and decreased fat in the growing diet resulted in a carryover effect that increased ( 0.01) gene expression of PPARγ, insulin-induced gene 1, thyroid hormone responsive SPOT14 protein, ATP citrate lyase, adiponectin, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homologue 2, fatty acid binding protein 4, fatty acid synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase as well as serum leptin concentrations between d 112 and 224. Expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 was increased ( 0.01) at d 112 in steers fed high-protein, high-fat diets compared to those fed high-protein, low-fat diets. A fat × day interaction ( 0.01) occurred for the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, resulting in a carryover effect wherein low-fat diets fed during the growing phase increased expression of both genes at the end of the finishing phase (d 224). After slaughter, cattle fed the control during the growing phase tended ( 0.09) to have greater marbling scores, whereas other carcass parameters were not different

  8. Changes of the hindgut microbiota due to high-starch diet can be associated with behavioral stress response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrez, Alexandra; Grimm, Pauline; Cézilly, Frank; Julliand, Véronique

    2015-10-01

    The digestive system of horses is adapted to a high-fiber diet consumed in small amounts over a long time. However, during training, high-starch and low-fiber diets are usually fed which may induce hindgut microbial disturbances and intestinal pain. These diets can be described as alimentary stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent changes in behavior are associated with alimentary stress and microbial composition changes of the cecal or colonic ecosystem. Six fistulated horses were used. The alimentary stress was a modification of diet from a high-fiber diet (100% hay) to a progressive low-fiber and high-starch diet (from 90% hay and 10% barley to 57% hay and 43% barley in 5 days). Cecal and colonic total anaerobic, cellulolytic, amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria were enumerated three times (twice on high-fiber diet and once on 57% hay and 43% barley diet). The behavior of horses was assessed from continuous video recording over an 18-h time period. In addition two personality traits were measured: neophobia (assessed from the reaction to the presence of a novel object placed near a feeder in a test arena) and sociability (assessed from the reaction to an unfamiliar horse in a stall). Video recordings were analyzed by scan sampling every 10 min using the following behavioral categories: lying, resting, feeding and being vigilant. In addition, we recorded time spent feeding and time spent in vigilance during the neophobia test, and time spent in vigilance and time spent in interactions with the unfamiliar horse during the sociability test. The alimentary stress induced significant increases of colonic total anaerobic bacteria, lactate-utilizing bacteria and amylolytic bacteria concentrations. When horses were fed the 57% hay–43% barley diet, time spent in vigilance tended to be positively correlated with cecal and colonic amylolytic bacteria concentrations during the sociability test and with cecal lactate-utilizing and

  9. Influence of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase on nutrient utilization in broiler starters fed diets containing varying concentrations of phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, V; Morel, P C H; Partridge, G G; Hruby, M; Sands, J S

    2006-01-01

    The influence of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase, on nutrient utilization was investigated in broilers fed starter diets containing different concentrations of phytate. The study was conducted as a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 3 concentrations of phytic acid (10.4, 11.8, and 13.6 g/kg; equivalent to 2.8, 3.3, and 3.8 g of phytate P/kg) and phytase (0, 500, 750, and 1,000 FTU/kg). One unit of phytase (FTU) is defined as the quantity of enzyme that releases 1 micromol of inorganic phosphorus/min from 0.00015 mol/L of sodium phytate at pH 5.5 at 37 degrees C. The dietary phytic acid concentrations were manipulated by the inclusion of rice bran. Increasing dietary concentrations of phytic acid resulted in reductions (P phytate concentrations. Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of protein and most amino acids were influenced by phytate (P phytate concentrations, but the trend in responses to increasing phytase additions was different at different phytate concentrations as shown by significant phytate x phytase interactions (P phytate concentration, the ileal digestibility coefficients increased with increasing phytase supplementation. At the medium and high phytate concentrations, the greatest responses were observed at 500 FTU/kg of phytase, with little improvement attributable to further additions. Ileal digestibility of P was lowered (P phytate concentrations and increased (P phytate x phytase interaction (P phytate concentrations. These data demonstrate the anti-nutritive effects of phytic acid and the potential of microbial phytase to improve energy utilization and the availability of P and amino acids in broilers fed starter diets.

  10. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The effect of a vegetarian versus conventional hypocaloric diet on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, H; Tonstad, S; Rosmus, J; Fisar, P; Mari, A; Hill, M; Pelikanova, T

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a vegetarian versus conventional diet on the serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in patients with T2D after 12 weeks of dietary intervention and to assess their relationships with metabolic parameters. Men and women with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegetarian diet without fish or meat (n = 37) or an isocaloric conventional antidiabetic diet (n = 37). Both diets were energy restricted (minus 500 kcal/day). All foods were provided to the participants. At randomization (week 0) and 12 weeks, the meal test was performed to assess the β-cell function and serum levels of 24 POPs. Dioxins and dioxin-like POPs were analyzed by isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and mass spectrometry after cleanup of the silica and carbon columns. Non-dioxin-like POPs were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Statistical analyses used were repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multivariate regression model, and Pearson's correlations. We observed a statistically nonsignificant trend toward increases in the serum levels of most POPs in response to both hypocaloric diets with no differences between groups. In the groups combined, the change in serum concentrations of total POPs was correlated to changes in HbA1c (r = +0.34; p vegetarian and conventional diets did not reduce the POP levels, possibly due to mobilization of fat stores. Our findings support the relationship between POPs and diabetes, especially β-cell function. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00883038, completed. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace glucose and lipid metabolism in high androgen and high-fat diet induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Hua-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different metabolic pathways in the development of diabetes mellitus in high-androgen female mice fed with a high-fat diet. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group(C, n = 10; the andronate-treated group (Andronate, n = 10 (treated with andronate, 1 mg/100 g body weight/day for 8 weeks; and the andronate-treated and high-fat diet group (Andronate+HFD, n = 10. The rate of glucose appearance (Ra of glucose, gluconeogenesis (GNG, and the rate of glycerol appearance (Ra of glycerol were assessed with a stable isotope tracer. The serum sex hormone levels, insulin levels, glucose concentration, and the lipid profile were also measured. Results Compared with control group, both andronate-treated groups exhibited obesity with higher insulin concentrations (P P Conclusions Andronate with HFD rat model showed ovarian and metabolic features of PCOS, significant increase in glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid profiles, as well as normal blood glucose levels. Therefore, aberrant IR, increased glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid metabolism may represent the early-stage of glucose and lipid kinetics disorder, thereby might be used as potential early-stage treatment targets for PCOS.

  13. Effect of protein levels and Zinc-biocomplex supplementation in concentrate diets on performance of young male goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial was carried out to investigate effects of protein levels and Zinc biocomplex supplementation in concentrate diets on performances of young male Etawah grade goats. Twenty-four young male goats were divided into four groups and received concentrate diets as follows: R0= 14% crude protein (CP, R1= 18% CP, R2= R0 + 60 ppm Zn and R3= R0 + 120 ppm Zn as Zn biocomplex. Initial live weight was 16.39±2.19 kg. Animals were offered King grass ad libitum and 400 g/h/d of concentrates diets for 16 week trial. The experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete design with four treatments and six replications. The concentrate diets had no significant effect on DM, TDN, NDF and ADF daily intakes (P>0.05 but significantly (P>0.05 influenced the CP and Zn daily intakes, ADG and FCR. The average DMI, TDN, NDF and ADF daily intakes for all treatments were 670, 547, 333 and 229 g, respectively. The CP daily intake for R0, R1, R2 and R3 treatments were 76.33, 91.83, 75.83 and 76.67 g, and the Zn daily intakes were 42.83, 45.50, 68.83 and 91.33 mg, respectively. The ADG for R0, R1, R2 and R3 were 71.65, 79.96, 78.17 and 82.74 g with the FCR values were 9.95, 8.50, 8.44 and 8.06, respectively. The in vivo digestibility of DM, NDF and ADF were not significant (P>0.05 but the digestibility of CP and GE were significant (P<0.05. The highest IOFC value occurred at R3 treatment. In conclusion, the improvement of CP levels from 14% to 18% in diets increased the goat performance and the supplementation of 120 ppm Zn as Zn biocomplex in diet containing 14% CP gave better performance and increased the IOFC value compared to animals receiving 18% level of CP in diet of young male goat

  14. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  15. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  16. High fat diet and inflammation - modulation of Haptoglobin level in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stefania eSpagnuolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dietary fats are well known risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of specific markers, whose brain level can be affected by diet, might contribute to unveil the intersection between inflammation/obesity and neurodegeneration. Haptoglobin (Hpt is an acute phase protein, which acts as antioxidant by binding free Haemoglobin (Hb, thus neutralizing its pro-oxidative action. We previously demonstrated that Hpt plays critical functions in brain, modulating cholesterol trafficking in neuroblastoma cell lines, beta-amyloid (Aβ uptake by astrocyte, and limiting Aβ toxicity on these cells. A major aim of this study was to evaluate whether a long term (12 or 24 weeks high-fat diet (HFD influences Hpt and Hb expression in rat hippocampus. We also assessed the development of obesity-induced inflammation by measuring hippocampal level of TNF-alpha, and the extent of protein oxidation by titrating nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr. Hpt concentration was lower (p<0.001 in hippocampus of HFD rats than in control animals, both in the 12 and in the 24 weeks fed groups. HFD was also associated in hippocampus with the increase of Hb level (p<0.01, inflammation and protein oxidative modification, as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of TNF-alpha and nitro-tyrosine. In fact, TNF-alpha concentration was higher in rats receiving HFD for 12 (p<0.01 or 24 weeks (p<0.001 compared to those receiving the control diet. N-Tyr concentration was more elevated in hippocampus of HFD than in control rats in both 12 weeks (p=0.04 and 24 weeks groups (p=0.01, and a positive correlation between Hb and N-Tyr concentration was found in each group. Finally, we found that the treatment of the human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line U-87 MG with cholesterol and fatty acids, such as palmitic and linoleic acid, significantly impairs (p<0.001 Hpt secretion in the extracellular compartment.We hypothesize that the HFD-dependent decrease of

  17. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Astrup, Arne; Tholstrup, Tine; Raben, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB). The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01739153. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Wani, Mohan R. [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhat, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: manojkbhat@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  19. Low-versus high-glycemic index diets in women: effects on caloric requirement, substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, James F; Lopez, Beth

    2007-09-01

    Lowering dietary glycemic index appears to have positive health effects in obese and/or insulin resistant individuals. However, detailed studies in lean young men show no effect. This study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a diet rich in low-glycemic carbohydrate has no effect on lipid profile, caloric requirements, fat oxidation, or insulin sensitivity in adult women when compared to one rich in high-glycemic carbohydrate. The metabolic feeding protocol used was conducted in both a free-living and in-patient setting using a randomized crossover design. Seven women were studied on each of 2 diets in which 60% of the calories were from either high- or low-glycemic carbohydrate sources. Each diet lasted 20 days with measurements of caloric requirement, resting metabolic rate, glucose and insulin responses to diet and activity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile over the last 7 days. Caloric requirement was determined by bomb calorimetry. Other techniques included indirect calorimetry, hydrodensitometry, stable isotope tracers, and the euglycemic clamp. On the low-glycemic index diet the women's caloric requirements were 11% +/- 1% higher, fat oxidation at fasted rest supplied an average of 45% +/- 4% versus 28% +/- 5% of oxidative requirements, average glucose and insulin levels were approximately 40% lower, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and leptin concentrations were lower, and various indices of insulin sensitivity were > 20% higher. In this group of adult women, a diet that lowered glycemic index well below that typically found in western diets increased both daily caloric requirement and fat oxidation, decreased insulin and glucose concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity.

  20. An evaluation of brewery waste as a replacement for concentrates in diets for growing crossbred common ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N T K; Ogle, R B

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of feeding brewery waste that replaced different levels of concentrate in diets for growing crossbred common ducks. A total of 300 ducks at 3 weeks of age were allocated in a 2 x 5 factorial experiment. Two feeding systems were compared, with the brewery waste provided separately (S) or mixed (M) with a concentrate. For the first feeding system the concentrate was fed alone (C100M), or replaced successively by brewery waste at ratios of concentrate to brewery waste: 75:25 (C75M), 50:50 (C50M) and 25:75 (C25M) on a dry matter basis, and fed ad libitum. For the second system concentrate and brewery waste were fed separately, with the same levels as in the first system. Total feed intakes for both feeding systems and intakes of brewery waste, total dry matter, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus increased significantly as concentrate was reduced (p growth performance. The highest net profits were from the separate feeding system, and for ducks fed brewery waste only (C0). It is concluded that brewery waste can replace traditional diets for crossbred common ducks based on concentrate.

  1. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  2. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not

  3. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  4. High-Fat-Diet-Induced Deficits in Dopamine Terminal Function Are Reversed by Restoring Insulin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordahl, Steve C; Jones, Sara R

    2017-02-15

    Systemically released insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to insulin receptors on several neural cell types, including dopaminergic neurons. Insulin has been shown to decrease dopamine neuron firing in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but potentiate release and reuptake at dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here we show that prolonged consumption of a high fat diet blocks insulin's effects in the NAc, but insulin's effects are restored by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which supports insulin receptor signaling. Mice fed a high fat diet (60% kcals from fat) displayed significantly higher fasting blood glucose 160 mg/dL, compared to 101 mg/dL for control-diet-fed mice, and high-fat-diet-fed mice showed reduced blood glucose clearance after an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry to measure electrically evoked dopamine in brain slices containing the NAc core, high-fat-diet-fed mice exhibited slower dopamine reuptake compared to control-diet-fed mice (2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.67 ± 0.15 μM/s, respectively). Moreover, glucose clearance rate was negatively correlated with Vmax. Insulin (10 nM to 1 μM) dose dependently increased reuptake rates in control-diet-fed mice compared with in the high-fat-diet group; however, the small molecule insulin receptor sensitizing agent, TCS 401 (300 nM), restored reuptake in high-fat-diet-fed mice to control-diet levels, and a small molecule inhibitor of the insulin receptor, BMS 536924 (300 nM), attenuated reuptake, similar to high-fat-diet-fed mice. These data show that a high-fat diet impairs dopamine reuptake by attenuating insulin signaling at dopamine terminals.

  5. META060 protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in a high-fat–diet fed mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.C.M.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.A. van den; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Darland, G.; Konda, V.; Tripp, M.L.; Bland, J.S.; Voshol, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether a reduced iso-α acid derived from an extract of Humulus lupulus L., META060, had an effect on weight gain, body composition, and metabolism in a high-fat–diet (HFD) fed mouse model. Methods: Weight gain was monitored for up to 20 wk in mice receiving a low-fat

  6. META060 protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in a high-fat-diet fed mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.A. van den; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Darland, G.; Konda, V.; Tripp, M.L.; Bland, J.S.; Voshol, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a reduced iso-alpha acid derived from an extract of Humulus lupulus L., META060, had an effect on weight gain, body composition, and metabolism in a high-fat-diet (HFD) fed mouse model. METHODS: Weight gain was monitored for up to 20 wk in mice receiving a low-fat

  7. A reduced phytate diet does not reduce endogenous fecal zinc in children on a habitual high-phytate diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Malawian children, ages 3 to 5 years, at risk for zinc deficiency and receiving a habitual maize-based high-phytate diet, received maize after phytate reduction for 40 days and had their endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) measured using stable isotope techniques before and after phytate reduction. The ...

  8. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Shweta; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0ppm As) or As (40ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans.

  9. High-Temperature, High-Concentration Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Emily; Baranowski, Lauryn; Olsen, Michele; Ndione, Paul; Netter, Judy; Goodrich, Alan; Gray, Matthew; Parilla, Philip; Ginley, David; Toberer, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) powered with concentrated solar energy have potential for use as primary energy converters or as topping-cycles for more conventional concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. Modeling based on current record modules from JPL suggests thermoelectric efficiencies of 18 % could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000 - 100°C. Integrating these state-of-the-art TEGs with a concentrating solar receiver requires simultaneous optimization of optical, thermal, and thermoelectric systems. This talk will discuss the modeling, design, and experimental testing of STEG devices under concentrated sunlight. We have developed a model that combines thermal circuit modeling with optical ray tracing to design selective absorber coatings and cavities to minimize radiation losses from the system. We have fabricated selective absorber coatings and demonstrated that these selective absorber films can minimize blackbody radiation losses at high temperature and are stable after thermal cycling to 1000°C. On-sun testing of STEG devices and thermal simulators is ongoing and preliminary results will be discussed.

  10. Nox2 Mediates Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance Induced by a High Fat Diet*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto Padron de Figueiredo, Alvaro; Salmon, Adam B.; Bruno, Francesca; Jimenez, Fabio; Martinez, Herman G.; Halade, Ganesh V.; Ahuja, Seema S.; Clark, Robert A.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Abboud, Hanna E.; El Jamali, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are consistently associated with metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes. Although the role of Nox2, a major ROS-generating enzyme, is well described in host defense and inflammation, little is known about its potential role in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet was mitigated in Nox2-null mice compared with wild-type mice after 3 or 9 months on the diet. High fat feeding increased Nox2 expression, superoxide production, and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle tissue of wild-type mice but not in Nox2-null mice. Exposure of C2C12 cultured myotubes to either high glucose concentration, palmitate, or H2O2 decreases insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Pretreatment with catalase abrogated these effects, indicating a key role for H2O2 in mediating insulin resistance. Down-regulation of Nox2 in C2C12 cells by shRNA prevented insulin resistance induced by high glucose or palmitate but not H2O2. These data indicate that increased production of ROS in insulin resistance induced by high glucose in skeletal muscle cells is a consequence of Nox2 activation. This is the first report to show that Nox2 is a key mediator of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. PMID:25825489

  11. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  12. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, Angélique; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel

    2015-10-28

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the effects of high protein intake on the development of fat deposition and partitioning in response to high-fat and/or HS feeding. A total of thirty adult male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the six dietary regimens with low and high protein, sucrose and fat contents for 5 weeks. Body weight (BW) and food intake were measured weekly. Oral glucose tolerance tests and meal tolerance tests were performed after 4th and 5th weeks of the regimen, respectively. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a calibrated meal. Blood, tissues and organs were collected for analysis of circulating metabolites and hormones, body composition and mRNA expression in the liver and adipose tissues. No changes were observed in cumulative energy intake and BW gain after 5 weeks of dietary treatment. However, high-protein diets reduced by 20 % the adiposity gain induced by HS and high-sucrose high-fat (HS-HF) diets. Gene expression and transcriptomic analysis suggested that high protein intake reduced liver capacity for lipogenesis by reducing mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (fasn), acetyl-CoA carboxylase a and b (Acaca and Acacb) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (Srebf-1c). Moreover, ketogenesis, as indicated by plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels, was higher in HS-HF-fed mice that were also fed high protein levels. Taken together, these results suggest that high-protein diets may reduce adiposity by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating ketogenesis in the liver.

  13. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle O Iranloye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet. All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels were determined. Results: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. Conclusion: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats.

  14. Production of high concentrations of yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-10

    A microbe is aerobically cultured using O/sub 2/ or a gas rich in O/sub 2/. The grown cells are washed, concentrated and a portion of the cells used as a seed culture. Thus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers' yeast) was cultured in a jar fermentor by flow down system maintaining the dissolved O/sub 2/ at 2-5 mg/L; volume of the initial medium containing 30% glucose was 350 mL and the initial washed cell concentration was 50 g dry cells/L. After 12 hours of cultivation, the volume of the medium increased to 750 mL and the cell concentration rose to 102 g dry cells/L; the yield was 49% with respect to glucose. The cells were washed and the cultivation was repeated by use of the washed cells; cell concentration reached 105 g dry cells/L.

  15. Feeding high fibre diets changes luminal environment and morphology in the intestine of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    Sows were fed three diets varying in type and level of dietary fibre (DF). The low fibre diet (LF; 17% DF) was based on wheat and barley. In the two high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF;  44% DF), the cereal part of the diet was substituted with different co......-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, pea hull, brewer's spent grain, and seed residue). The diets were fed for a four-week period to 12 sows (4 for each diet). Sows were stunned 4 h post-feeding, and digesta and tissue samples were collected from various parts of the small and large intestines...

  16. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Manny; Foster, Paul R; Keogh, Jennifer B; James, Anthony P; Mamo, John C; Clifton, Peter M

    2006-01-11

    It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Eighty three subjects, 48 +/- 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 +/- 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 +/- 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ) for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF) (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%), High Unsaturated Fat (HUF) = (50:30:20; 6%), VLCARB (4:61:35; 20%) Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 +/- 0.5, VLF-4.0 +/- 0.5, HUF -4.4 +/- 0.6 kg). Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21%) (P fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  17. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  18. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of propolis on hematological and immunological variables in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, E; Silici, S; Cetin, N; Güçlü, B K

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of 4 different levels of propolis supplementation on the hematological and immunological parameters of laying hens, a trial was conducted with 60 White Leghorn layer hens. The experiment was conducted by using a randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replicates, and 3 hens in each replicate. Treatments included basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 g of propolis/kg of diet, respectively. At the end of the 12-wk treatment period, samples of blood were collected to determine hematological and immunological values. The results showed that the addition of propolis at 3 g/kg in the diet resulted in significant increases (P propolis supplementation significantly increased (P red blood cells) compared with the other treatments. On the other hand, hemoglobin and hematocrit values and total leucocyte (white blood cells) and differential leucocytes counts were not influenced by propolis supplementation. These results indicate that the inclusion of propolis at the level of 3 g/kg of diet may have a positive effect on humoral immunity of laying hens.

  19. High sugar and butter (HSB) diet induces obesity and metabolic syndrome with decrease in regulatory T cells in adipose tissue of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Gonçalves, Juliana Lauar; Miranda, Mariana Camila Gonçalves; Martins, Vinícius Dantas; Horta, Laila Sampaio; Moreira, Thais Garcias; Godard, Ana Lucia Brunialti; Santiago, Andrezza Fernanda; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a novel diet based on standard AIN93G diet that would be able to induce experimental obesity and impair immune regulation with high concentrations of both carbohydrate and lipids. To compare the effects of this high sugar and butter (HSB) diet with other modified diets, male C57BL/6 mice were fed either mouse chow, or AIN93G diet, or high sugar (HS) diet, or high-fat (HF) diet, or high sugar and butter (HSB) diet for 11 weeks ad libitum. HSB diet induced higher weight gain. Therefore, control AIN93G and HSB groups were chosen for additional analysis. Regulatory T cells were studied by flow cytometry, and cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Although HF and HSB diets were able to induce a higher weight gain compatible with obesity in treated mice, HSB-fed mice presented the higher levels of serum glucose after fasting and the lowest frequency of regulatory T cells in adipose tissue. In addition, mice that were fed HSB diet presented higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, hyperleptinemia, increased resistin and leptin levels as well as reduced adiponectin serum levels. Importantly, we found increased frequency of CD4(+)CD44(+) effector T cells, reduction of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) and Th3 regulatory T cells as well as decreased levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in adipose tissue of HSB-fed mice. Therefore, HSB represents a novel model of obesity-inducing diet that was efficient in triggering alterations compatible with metabolic syndrome as well as impairment in immune regulatory parameters.

  20. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Watson, Walter H. [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Zhong, Hai [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); States, J. Christopher [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Arteel, Gavin E., E-mail: gavin.arteel@louisville.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a '2-hit' paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet ({+-} arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  1. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice. RESULTS: Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  2. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Karweina

    Full Text Available High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn, 164 (NZn or 2,425 (HZn mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035; the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007. In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017. The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099. The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors.

  3. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karweina, Diana; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne; Müller, Uwe; Franken, Tobias; Pieper, Robert; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Zentek, Jürgen; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2015-01-01

    High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn), 164 (NZn) or 2,425 (HZn) mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035); the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007). In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017). The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099). The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors.

  4. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  5. Concentrations of oxysterols in meat and meat products from pigs fed diets differing in the type of fat (palm oil or soybean oil) and vitamin E concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, K; Müller, G; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Brandsch, C

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether concentrations of oxysterols in pig meat are affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. 48 growth-finishing pigs were fed diets with either palm oil or soybean oil and vitamin E concentrations of 15, 40 or 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of oxysterols were analyzed in fresh and heat-processed (180 °C, 20 min) meat (M. longissimus dorsi) and in boiled sausage prepared from meat and back fat of the animals. Concentrations of oxysterols in fresh muscle were below 5 nmol/g dry matter; they were independent of the dietary fat type and vitamin E concentration. Heating caused a large increase of oxysterol concentration (up to 55 nmol/g dry matter). This effect was reduced by increasing dietary vitamin E concentration but was independent of the dietary fat. Sausage from pigs fed soybean oil had higher concentrations of oxysterols than sausage from pigs fed palm oil; vitamin E reduced concentrations of oxysterols in sausage from pigs fed soybean oil, but not in sausage from pigs fed palm oil.

  6. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  7. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin.

  8. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  9. Gamma delta T cells promote inflammation and insulin resistance during high fat diet-induced obesity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma delta T cells are resident in adipose tissue and increase during diet-induced obesity. Their possible contribution to the inflammatory response that accompanies diet-induced obesity was investigated in mice after a 5-10 week high milk fat diet. The high milk fat diet resulted in significant in...

  10. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schothorst, van, E.M; Bunschoten, J.E; Schrauwen, P; Mensink, R.P; Keijer, J

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance...

  11. Curcumin ameliorates high-fat diet-induced spermatogenesis dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yang; Yan, Wen-Jie; Yin, Tai-Lang; Yang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a type of natural active ingredient, is derived from rhizoma of Curcuma, which possesses antioxidant, antitumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate whether treatment with curcumin reduced high-fat diet (HFD)-induced spermatogenesis dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a HFD were treated with or without curcumin for 8 weeks. The testis/body weight, histological analysis and serum hormone levels were used to evaluate the effects of curcumin treatment on spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by the HFD. In addition, the expression levels of apoptosis associated proteins, Fas, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-xl, Bcl-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved-caspase 3, were determined in the testis. The results of the present study suggested that curcumin treatment attenuated decreased testis/body weight and abnormal hormone levels. Morphological changes induced by a HFD were characterized as atrophied seminiferous tubules, decreased spermatogenetic cells and interstitial cells were improved by curcumin treatment. In addition, curcumin treatment reduced apoptosis in the testis, and decreased expression of Fas, Bax and cleaved-caspase 3, as well as increased expression of Bcl-xl. In conclusion, the present study revealed that curcumin treatment reduced HFD-induced spermatogenesis dysfunction in male rats. PMID:27600729

  12. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSharari, Shakir D; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  13. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir D. AlSharari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2, Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4, Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3, caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21 and Interleukin-3 (IL-3 in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  14. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...

  15. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Souza, Gabriel Inacio de Morais Honorato de [UNIFESP; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Santos, Bruno dos [UNIFESP; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu [UNIFESP; Pinto Neto, Nelson Inacio [UNIFESP; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Esposito, Elisa; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do [UNIFESP; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Oyama, Lila Missae [UNIFESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet.Methods: Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 ...

  16. You Are What You Eat: Linking High-Fat Diet to Stem Cell Dysfunction and Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Samantha; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-05-05

    A high-fat diet is linked to elevated cancer risk, yet this link remains poorly understood. New studies in mice are now beginning to obtain mechanistic insight into how high-fat diets perturb stem cell function and cause cancers.

  17. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van;

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  18. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092–1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whol

  19. What causes high fat diet-induced postprandial inflammation: endotoxin or free fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction High fat (saturated fat) diet has been generally used to induce tissue inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity in animal models. High fat diet can also induce postprandial inflammation in humans. Importantly, postprandial inflammation is linked to elevated cardiovascular and metabo...

  20. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092–1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced

  1. Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Kim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood. Methods At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C, high prebiotic fiber (HF or high protein (HP diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR. Results Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF. Conclusion These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection.

  2. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Methods Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1–4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5–8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. Results The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Conclusions Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning

  3. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  4. Soy germ protein concentrate diet decreased body fat weight and increased hindlimb muscle weight in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hisashi; Saito, Sanshiro; Itoh, Atsushi; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of soy germ protein intake on body composition. Wistar rats were fed experimental diets for 16 weeks. These consisted of soy germ protein, soy protein, or casein. Abdominal adipose tissue weights significantly lower and hindlimb muscle weights were significantly higher in the soy germ protein group than in the casein group.

  5. High-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil affect differently pancreas function of young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, C A S; Carlos, A S; de Sousa Dos Santos, A; de Moura, E G; Nascimento-Saba, C C A

    2013-09-01

    The excessive fat intake generally might induce obesity and metabolic disturbances. Thus, the goal of the study was to assess the role of high-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil on intra-abdominal adiposity and pancreatic morphology and function of young rats. After weaning, rats were fed with a control diet (7S) or a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old, when they were sacrificed. Food intake (g/day), body mass and length, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat mass, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and area of pancreatic islets were assessed. The results were considered different with a significant level of pfat mass. The 19C group showed higher HOMA-IR (+43% and +78%) and HOMA-β (+40% and +59%) than 19S and 7S groups, respectively. Both 19S and 19C groups showed lower pancreatic islets area in relation to 7S group. Meantime, 19C presented lower percentage of pancreatic islets area in comparison to 19S (-41%) and 7S group (-70%, poil, the high fat diet promoted development of the obesity. Comparing 19C and 19S groups, the higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, present in the canola oil were worse than higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, present in the soybean oil.

  6. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity.

  7. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism.

  8. Consumption of Japanese Yam Improves Lipid Metabolism in High-Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Yuri; Tsujihara, Nobuko; Masui, Hironori; Kozai, Hana; Takeuchi, Wakako

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary Japanese yam (Dioscorea japonica Thunb.) on lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats (6 wk old) were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 6 wk and then supplemented with 26% of Japanese yam or 0.5% of its constituent diosgenin for a further 4 wk of high-cholesterol feeding (C6-J4 and C6-D4 groups, respectively). In the C6-J4 group, body weight gains significantly decreased, but skeletal muscle fiber sizes in quadriceps significantly increased compared with the other groups. Furthermore, Japanese yam supplementation resulted in the reduction of triglyceride contents in their liver, quadriceps, and intra-abdominal visceral fat. Diosgenin supplementation resulted in an increase in the numbers of skeletal muscle fibers and decrease in the fat accumulations in liver and of the lipid contents in quadriceps. Although quadriceps cholesterol contents decreased concomitantly with increased serum HDL-cholesterol in both the groups, fecal bile acid, fecal cholesterol contents, and fecal weight were higher in the C6-J4 group than in the C6-D4 group. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that Japanese yam inhibited micellar cholesterol solubility in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that Japanese yam is more effective than diosgenin in reducing fat accumulation and improving cholesterol metabolism during chronic consumption of a high-cholesterol diet.

  9. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and insul

  10. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and insul

  11. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and

  12. Detrimental effects of a high fat/high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal markers in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Wang, Xiuzhe; Schultzberg, Marianne; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Freeman, Linnea R

    2016-10-01

    High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months. All animals underwent cognitive testing for 12days in a water radial arm maze to assess spatial and working reference memory. Hippocampal tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for structural changes and inflammation, and Western blot analysis. Young and Aged rats fed the HFHC diet exhibited worse performance on a spatial working memory task. They also exhibited significant reduction of NeuN and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity as well as an increased activation of microglial cells in the hippocampal formation. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus showed higher levels of p-Tau S202/T205 and T231 in Aged HFHC rats, suggesting abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein following the HFHC diet exposure. This work demonstrates HFHC diet-induced cognitive impairment with aging and a link between high fat diet consumption and pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-16

    Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  14. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Kyung Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  15. Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) tolerates high concentrations of dietary nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD

    2007-01-01

    Nickel hyperaccumulator plants contain unusually elevated levels of Ni (> 1 000 μg Ni/g). Some insect herbivores, including Lygus hesperus (Western tarnished plant bug), have been observed feeding on the California Ni hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides. This bug may be able to utilize S. polygaloides as a host either through its feeding behavior or by physiological tolerance of Ni. This experiment determined the Ni tolerance of L. hesperus by offering insects artificial diet amended with 0,0.4, 1, 2, 4.5,10, 20 and 40 mmol Ni/L and recording survival. Survival varied due to Ni concentration, with diets containing 10 mmol Ni/L and greater resulting in significantly lower survival compared to the control (0 mmol Ni/L) treatment. Insects tolerated diet containing as much as 4.5 mmol Ni/L, a relatively elevated Ni concentration. I conclude that L. hesperus can feed on S. polygaloides because it is Ni-tolerant, probably due to physiological mechanisms that provide it with resistance to plant chemical defenses including elemental defenses such as hyperaccumulated Ni.

  16. High-fat diet determines the composition of the murine gut microbiome independently of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Marie A; Hoffmann, Christian; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Hamady, Micah; Chen, Ying-Yu; Knight, Rob; Ahima, Rexford S; Bushman, Frederic; Wu, Gary D

    2009-11-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome is affected by host phenotype, genotype, immune function, and diet. Here, we used the phenotype of RELMbeta knockout (KO) mice to assess the influence of these factors. Both wild-type and RELMbeta KO mice were lean on a standard chow diet, but, upon switching to a high-fat diet, wild-type mice became obese, whereas RELMbeta KO mice remained comparatively lean. To investigate the influence of diet, genotype, and obesity on microbiome composition, we used deep sequencing to characterize 25,790 16S rDNA sequences from uncultured bacterial communities from both genotypes on both diets. We found large alterations associated with switching to the high-fat diet, including a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in both Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. This was seen for both genotypes (ie, in the presence and absence of obesity), indicating that the high-fat diet itself, and not the obese state, mainly accounted for the observed changes in the gut microbiota. The RELMbeta genotype also modestly influenced microbiome composition independently of diet. Metagenomic analysis of 537,604 sequence reads documented extensive changes in gene content because of a high-fat diet, including an increase in transporters and 2-component sensor responders as well as a general decrease in metabolic genes. Unexpectedly, we found a substantial amount of murine DNA in our samples that increased in proportion on a high-fat diet. These results demonstrate the importance of diet as a determinant of gut microbiome composition and suggest the need to control for dietary variation when evaluating the composition of the human gut microbiome.

  17. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW, and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD. These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Synchrotron infrared imaging of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in cardiac tissue from mice fed high glycemic diets

    OpenAIRE

    Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Elizabeth A.; Fu, Shang; Weikel, Karen; Hu, Ping; Blankenberg, Francis G.; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Taylor, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Recent research findings correlate an increased risk for dieases such as diabetes, macular degeneration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with diets that rapidly raise the blood sugar levels; these diets are known as high glycemic index (GI) diets which include white breads, sodas and sweet deserts. Lower glycemia diets are usually rich in fruits, non-starchy vegetables and whole grain products. The goal of our study was to compare and contrast the effects of a low vs. high glycemic diet using...

  19. Lean rats gained more body weight from a high-fructooligosaccharide diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoting; Yingyi, Gu; Chen, Long; Lijuan, Gao; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2015-07-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are believed to be beneficial to the host growth and its gut health. This article is intended to investigate the different influences of a high-fructooligosaccharide (FOS) diet on the growth and gut microbiota of lean and obese rats. Diet-induced lean and obese rats were fed a high-FOS diet for 8 weeks. Rats' body weight (BW) and feed intake were recorded weekly, and their gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the lean rats gained more BW than the obese ones from the high-FOS diet. In the meanwhile, the gut microbiota in both lean and obese rats was altered by this diet. The abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased significantly (P diet. In conclusion, this study first reported that the lean rats gained more body weight from a high-FOS diet than the obese ones, and the increase of Bacteroidetes might help rats harvest more energy from the high-FOS diet.

  20. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  1. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  2. The effect of antibiotics and diet on enterolactone concentration and metabolome studied by targeted and non-targeted LC-MS metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2017-01-01

    with antibiotics resulted in substantially lower concentrations of ENL compared to concentrations detected in untreated animals, whereas the plasma concentrations of plant lignans were unchanged. Both diet and antibiotic treatment affected the clustering of urinary metabolites, and significantly altered......High plant lignan intake is associated with a number of health benefits, possibly induced by the lignan metabolite enterolactone (ENL). The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in converting dietary lignans into ENL, and epidemiological studies have shown that use of antibiotics is associated...... with lower levels of ENL. Here, we investigate the link between antibiotic use and lignan metabolism in pigs using LC-MS/MS. The effect of lignan intake and antibiotic use on the gut microbial community and the pig metabolome is studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and non-targeted LC-MS. Treatment...

  3. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, J; Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P

    2009-10-01

    A meta-analysis based on published experiments with lactating dairy cows was conducted to study the effects of dietary forage and concentrate factors on apparent total diet digestibility. A data set was collected that included a total of 497 dietary treatment means from 92 studies. The diets were based on grass silage or on legume or whole-crop cereal silages partly or completely substituted for grass silage. The silages were supplemented with concentrates given at a flat rate within a dietary comparison. For the statistical evaluation, the data were divided into 5 subsets to quantify silage (digestibility, 42 diets in 17 studies; fermentation characteristics, 108 diets in 39 studies) and concentrate (amount of supplementation, 142 diets in 59 studies; concentration of crude protein, 215 diets in 82 studies; carbohydrate composition, 66 diets in 23 studies) factors on total diet digestibility. The diet digestibility of dairy cows was determined by total fecal collection or by using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) at a maintenance level of feeding (OMD(m)) was estimated using sheep in vivo or corresponding in vitro digestibility values for the forage and reported ingredient and chemical composition values, with tabulated digestibility coefficients for the concentrate components of the diet. A mixed model regression analysis was used to detect the responses of different dietary factors on apparent total diet digestibility. Improved silage OMD(m) resulting from earlier harvest was translated into improved production-level OMD in cows (OMD(p)). The effects of silage fermentation characteristics on OMD(p) were quantitatively small, although sometimes significant. Concentrate supplementation improved total diet OMD(m), but this was not realized in lactating dairy cows because of linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility as concentrate intake increased. Increasing the concentrate crude protein amount

  4. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. Objective: This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Methods: Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy–based control diet or that diet containing 3–7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. Results: The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29–42% and affected (P < 0.05–0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. Conclusions: The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue

  5. The role of high-protein diets in body weight management and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Mann, Jim

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the health benefits of high-protein diets typical of most affluent and many developing countries are not consistent. Prospective epidemiological studies relating dietary protein to clinical and metabolic endpoints suggest increased weight gain and increased risk of diabetes amongst those with a high protein intake and an increased risk of cancer with high intakes of red meat, but lower blood pressure and possibly a reduced risk of heart disease with higher protein intakes. The potential for high-protein diets to confer greater benefit than other diets has been examined using ad libitum and energy restricted diets. Of greatest interest have been the comparisons between high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. Many trials have reported greater weight loss especially in the context of ad libitum diets over the short-to medium-term, sparing of lean body mass, lowering of triglyceride levels, improved HDL: total cholesterol ratio and improved glycaemic control. Limited data regarding insulin sensitivity are less consistent. A major difficulty in interpreting the results of these studies is that carbohydrate quality has not been taken into account. Furthermore, longer term comparisons of weight reducing diets differing in macronutrient composition have reported similar outcomes, suggesting that compliance is a more important consideration. Nevertheless dietary patterns with high-protein intakes are appropriate for weight reduction and weight maintenance and may be useful for those who have high triglyceride levels and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Supaporn Wannasiri; Pritsana Piyabhan; Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Rhinacanthus nasutus(R.nasutus) leaf extract on impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese ICR mice.Methods:Obesity was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them a high-fat diet(60 kcal%fat) for 12 weeks.After the first six weeks of the diet,the obese mice were administered with the water extract of R.nasutus leaves at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day for the next six weeks.Subsequently,the blood glucose,lipid profiles,insulin,leptin,and adiponectin levels were measured.The liver and adipose tissues were excised for histopathological examination and protein expression study.Results:After six weeks of the treatment,R.nasutus extract(at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day) was found to reduce the elevated blood glucose level,improve the insulin sensitivity,decrease the serum leptin,and increase the serum adiponectin levels.The obese mice treated with R.nasutus were found to have a reduction in the increased lipid concentrations in their serum and liver tissues.Moreover,treatment with R.nasutus reduced the fat accumulation in the liver and the large adipocyte size in the fat tissues.Interestingly,the administration with R.nasutus extract was marked by an increase in the hepatic peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha,fat cell adiponectin,and glucose transporter 4 proteins.Conclusions:To the best of our knowledge,the present study is the first report on the impact of R.nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  7. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Supaporn Wannasiri; Pritsana Piyabhan; Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus) leaf extract on impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese ICR mice. Methods: Obesity was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. After the first six weeks of the diet, the obese mice were administered with the water extract of R. nasutus leaves at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day for the next six weeks. Subsequently, the blood glucose, lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were measured. The liver and adipose tissues were excised for his-topathological examination and protein expression study. Results: After six weeks of the treatment, R. nasutus extract (at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day) was found to reduce the elevated blood glucose level, improve the insulin sensitivity, decrease the serum leptin, and increase the serum adiponectin levels. The obese mice treated with R. nasutus were found to have a reduction in the increased lipid concen-trations in their serum and liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with R. nasutus reduced the fat accumulation in the liver and the large adipocyte size in the fat tissues. Interestingly, the administration with R. nasutus extract was marked by an increase in the hepatic peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha, fat cell adiponectin, and glucose transporter 4 proteins. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.

  8. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and diet in a healthy elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, P L; Garry, P J; Goodwin, J S; Hooper, E M; Leonard, A G

    1982-01-01

    This study examined how high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) correlated with a 3-day food record of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol consumption in a group of 270 healthy subjects over age 60. HDL-C concentrations correlated with alcohol consumption (expressed as grams/day) (r = + .25, P less than .001), and inversely with total carbohydrate (r = - .18, P less than .01) and refined carbohydrate (r = - .17, P less than .01) ingestion (expressed as a percent of total caloric intake). Subjects consuming diets low in either total carbohydrate or refined carbohydrate had 10 to 20% higher HDL-C levels than did those consuming diets high in these food substances. The relationships between HDL-C levels and alcohol and carbohydrate ingestion were independent of other variables which correlated with HDL-C levels. Dietary fat (total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and cholesterol) did not correlate with HDL-C. LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not correlate with any dietary variable measured.

  9. Effects of high-fat diet on plasma profiles of eicosanoid metabolites in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weicang; Yang, Jun; Yang, Haixia; Sanidad, Katherine Z; Hammock, Bruce D; Kim, Daeyoung; Zhang, Guodong

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem in the US and is associated with increased risks of various human diseases. To date, the mechanisms by which obesity increases the risks of a wide range of human diseases are not well understood. Here we used a LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics, which can analyze >100 bioactive lipid mediators produced by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 enzymes, to analyze plasma profiles of lipid mediators in high-fat diet induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results show that the plasma concentrations of epoxyoctadecenoic acids (EpOMEs, also termed as leukotoxins) are significantly increased in plasma of high-fat diet-fed mice, in addition, EpOMEs are among the most abundant lipid mediators detected in mouse plasma. Since substantial studies have shown that EpOMEs and their metabolites have a large array of detrimental effects on health, enhanced levels of EpOMEs could contribute to the pathology of obesity.

  10. The effect of long-term high-fibre diets in diabetic outpatients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administering a high-fibre diet to diabetic outpa- tients in Cape ... glucose levels in the short term and to improve diabetic control in the long term has ..... dIets on glucose and lipid metabolism: a preliminary report on patients with diabetes.

  11. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  12. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Thomas L; Hu, Frank B

    2004-10-01

    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

  13. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  14. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p cholesterol levels. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver lipid deposition were significantly decreased in the LAB-treated groups (p cholesterol and bile acids levels were significantly increased after LAB administration (p cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism. PMID:21722398

  15. Activation of hindbrain neurons in response to gastrointestinal lipid is attenuated by high fat, high energy diets in mice prone to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2009-01-12

    Food intake is controlled by peripheral signals from the gastrointestinal tract and adipocytes, which are integrated within the central nervous system. There is evidence that signals from the GI tract are modulated by long term changes in diet, possibly leading to hyperphagia and increased body weight. We tested the hypothesis that diet-induced obese-prone (DIO-P) and obese-resistant (DIO-R) mice strains differ in the long term adaptive response of the gut-brain pathway to a high fat diet. Immunochemical detection of Fos protein was used as a measure of neuronal activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in response to intragastric administration of lipid in DIO-P (C57Bl6) and DIO-R (129sv) mouse strains maintained on chow or high fat, high energy diets (45% or 60% kcal from fat). Intragastric lipid administration activated neurons in the NTS in both DIO-P and DIO-R mice; the number of activated neurons was significantly greater in DIO-P than in DIO-R mice (P<0.001). However, lipid-induced activation of NTS neurons in DIO-P mice was attenuated by approximately 30% after maintenance on either 45% or 60% HF diet, for 4 or 8 weeks, compared to chow fed controls (P<0.05). In contrast, in DIO-R mice, maintenance on a HF diet (45% or 60%) had no effect on lipid-induced activation of NTS neurons. These results demonstrate that DIO-P and DIO-R mice strains differ in the adaptation of the pathway to long term ingestion of high fat diets, which may contribute to decrease satiation and increased food intake.

  16. Effect of the particle size of maize, rice, and sorghum in extruded diets for dogs on starch gelatinization, digestibility, and the fecal concentration of fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazolli, R S; Vasconcellos, R S; de-Oliveira, L D; Sá, F C; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2015-06-01

    The influence of rice, maize, and sorghum raw material particle size in extruded dry dog food on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and the fecal concentration of fermentation products was investigated. Three diets with similar nutrient compositions were formulated, each with 1 starch source. Before incorporation into diets, the cereals were ground into 3 different particle sizes (approximately 300, 450, and 600 µm); therefore, a total of 9 diets were in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (3 cereals and 3 particle sizes). Fifty-four beagle dogs (12.0 ± 0.1 kg BW) were randomly assigned to the diets, with 6 dogs per diet. The digestibility was measured with the chromium oxide method. The data were evaluated with ANOVA considering the carbohydrate source, grinding effect, and interactions. The means were compared with the Tukey test and polynomial contrasts (P gelatinization (SG) during extrusion. For rice diets, the MGD and SG did not change nutrient digestibility (P > 0.05); only GE digestibility was reduced at the largest MGD (P < 0.01). For maize and sorghum diets, the total tract apparent nutrient digestibility was reduced for foods with greater MGD and less SG (P < 0.01). A linear reduction in nutrient digestibility according to cereal particle size was observed for sorghum (r2 < 0.72; P < 0.01). Higher concentrations of fecal total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were observed for sorghum diets (P < 0.05) than for other diets. The rice diets led to the production of feces with less lactate (P < 0.05). The increase in raw material MGD did not influence fecal SCFA for rice diets, but for the dogs fed maize and sorghum foods, an increase in propionate and butyrate concentrations were observed as MGD increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, for dogs fed different particle sizes of the cereal starches in the extruded diets, the digestibility and fecal characteristics were affected, and this effect was ingredient dependent.

  17. Differential effects of a high-fat diet on serum lipid parameters and ovarian gene expression in young and aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Driele Neske; Prietsch, Lígia Antunes; Rincón, Joao Alveiro Alvarado; Moreira, Iraê de Lima; Valle, Sandra Costa; Barros, Carlos Castilho; Helbig, Elizabete; Corrêa, Marcio Nunes; Schneider, Augusto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare serum lipid profiles and ovarian gene expression between aged and younger female mice fed a control or a high-fat diet for 2 months. For this 16 female mice (C57BL/6) of 4 months (Young, n = 8) or 13 months (Old, n = 8) of age were used. The females were divided into four groups: (i) young females fed a normal diet; (ii) young females fed a high-fat diet; (iii) old females fed a normal diet; and (iv) old females fed a high-fat diet. Food intake was reduced (P < 0.05) in mice fed with a high-fat (2.9 ± 0.1 g) diet in comparison with control mice (3.9 ± 0.1 g). Body weight was higher for old females on the high-fat diet (35.1 ± 0.3 g) than for young females on the same diet (23.3 ± 0.4 g; P < 0.05). PON1 activity was lower in the high-fat than control diet group (114.3 ± 5.8 vs. 78.1 ± 6.0 kU/L, respectively) and was higher in older than younger females (85.9 ± 6.4 vs. 106.5 ± 5.3; P < 0.05, respectively). Females fed a high-fat diet had lower expression of Igf1 mRNA (P = 0.04). There was an interaction between age and diet for the expression of Gdf9 and Survivin, with lower expression in older females in both diets and young females that received the high-fat diet (P < 0.05). Concluding, the high-fat diet reduced the expression of ovarian Igf1 mRNA, and Gdf9 and Survivin mRNA in younger females, which can indicate lower fertility rates. High-density lipoprotein concentration and PON1 activity were higher in aged female mice.

  18. Obesity alters immune and metabolic profiles: New insight from obese-resistant mice on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Shannon K; Buchta, Claire M; Pearson, Nicole A; Francis, Meghan B; Meyerholz, David K; Grobe, Justin L; Norian, Lyse A

    2016-10-01

    Diet-induced obesity has been shown to alter immune function in mice, but distinguishing the effects of obesity from changes in diet composition is complicated. It was hypothesized that immunological differences would exist between diet-induced obese (DIO) and obese-resistant (OB-Res) mice fed the same high-fat diet (HFD). BALB/c mice were fed either standard chow or HFD to generate lean or DIO and OB-Res mice, respectively. Resulting mice were analyzed for serum immunologic and metabolic profiles and cellular immune parameters. BALB/c mice on HFD were categorized as DIO or OB-Res, based on body weight versus lean controls. DIO mice were physiologically distinct from OB-Res mice, whose serum insulin, leptin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and eotaxin concentrations remained similar to lean controls. DIO mice had increased macrophage(+) crown-like structures in white adipose tissue, although macrophage percentages were unchanged from OB-Res and lean mice. DIO mice also had decreased splenic CD4(+) T cells, elevated serum GM-CSF, and increased splenic CD11c(+) dendritic cells, but impaired dendritic cell stimulatory capacity (P Diet-induced obesity results in alterations in immune and metabolic profiles that are distinct from effects caused by HFD alone. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. High fat mixed lipid diet modifies protective effects of exercise on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perše, M; Injac, R; Štrukelj, B; Cerar, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term swimming exercise in conjunction with a high fat mixed lipid (HFML) diet on colon cancer (CC) development and lipid peroxidation in the large bowel. We used forty male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into one control group and four cancer groups: sedentary and swimming groups fed a standard diet (LFCO) and sedentary and swimming groups fed an HFML diet. Corticosterone was determined during the experiment. After 6 months of swimming, the rats were sacrificed and blood, heart, liver, muscle and large bowel were taken for determining the activity of serum enzymes, antioxidant capacity and CC development. The results demonstrate that exercise has a protective role in CC development. Attenuated development of CC and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the large bowel of exercised rats show that one of the protective effects of exercise on developing CC is induction of oxidative stress. However, in terms of the combined effects of dietary fat and exercise, our results indicate that the protective role of exercise on CC development is significantly depressed by an HFML diet. An HFML diet significantly reduced the protective influence of exercise on colon carcinogenesis in rats and affected the degree of peroxidation in the large bowel during exercise, as well as concentrations of serum enzymes (LDH, α-HBDH, CK, ALT and AST). Our results indicate that an HFML diet, which reflects the composition of a Western style diet, is a significant modifier of the protective effects of exercise on CC development in rats.

  20. Effect of High-Fat Diet upon Inflammatory Markers and Aortic Stiffening in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bento Chaves Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle such as increase in high-fat food consumption are an important cause for vascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of ACE and TGF-β in the aorta stiffness induced by high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were divided in two groups according to their diet for 8 weeks: standard diet (ST and high-fat diet (HF. At the end of the protocol, body weight gain, adipose tissue content, serum lipids and glucose levels, and aorta morphometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Analysis of collagen fibers by picrosirius staining of aorta slices showed that HF diet promoted increase of thin (55% and thick (100% collagen fibers deposition and concomitant disorganization of these fibers orientations in the aorta vascular wall (50%. To unravel the mechanism involved, myeloperoxidase (MPO and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE were evaluated by protein expression and enzyme activity. HF diet increased MPO (90% and ACE (28% activities, as well as protein expression of ACE. TGF-β was also increased in aorta tissue of HF diet mice after 8 weeks. Altogether, we have observed that the HF diet-induced aortic stiffening may be associated with increased oxidative stress damage and activation of the RAS in vascular tissue.

  1. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  2. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  3. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Mangge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP, a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66 were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30 and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36 groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3 treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  4. Cardiovascular function in male and female JCR:LA-cp rats: Effect of high fat/high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ian; Soler, Amanda; Joseph, Gregory; Hutcheson, Brenda; Bradford, Chastity; Zhang, Frank; Potter, Barry J; Proctor, Spencer D; Rocic, Petra

    2017-01-13

    30% of the world population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. High fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS, Western diet) correlates with metabolic syndrome prevalence. We characterized effects of the HF/HS diet on vascular (arterial stiffness, vasoreactivity, coronary collateral development) and cardiac (echocardiography) function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR). Furthermore, we determined whether male vs. female animals were affected differentially by the Western diet. Cardiovascular function in JCR male rats was impaired vs. normal rats (SD). HF/HS diet compromised cardiovascular (dys)function in JCR but not in SD male rats. In contrast, cardiovascular function was minimally impaired in JCR females on normal chow. However, cardiovascular function in JCR females on the HF/HS diet deteriorated to levels comparable to JCR males on the HF/HS diet. Similarly, oxidative stress was markedly increased in male but not female JCR rats on normal chow, but was equally exacerbated by the HF/HS diet in male and female JCR rats. These results indicate that the Western diet enhances oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and eliminates the protective effect of female sex on cardiovascular function, implying that both males and females with metabolic syndrome are at equal risk for cardiovascular disease.

  5. Nutrition facts panel use is associated with higher diet quality and lower glycated hemoglobin concentrations in US adults with undiagnosed prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Shebl, Fatma M; Hawley, Nicola L; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    The majority of US consumers use the nutrition facts panel (NFP) or health claims for food selections. Although previous studies have consistently reported positive impacts of NFP use on dietary intake, evidence regarding the effect of the use of health claims, either alone or in combination with the NFP, on diet quality and health outcomes is scarce. Our primary objective was to test for associations of the use of food labels (the NFP or health claims) with overall diet quality in individuals with prediabetes. In addition, we examined the association between food label use and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations. We conducted a weighted linear regression, which was appropriate for a complex sampling survey, with the use of cross-sectional data from 2654 US adults with undiagnosed prediabetes who participated in the 2005-2010 NHANES cycles. The following 4 categories of food label (NFP or health claims) use were identified: 1) both labels, 2) health claims only, 3) neither label, and 4) the NFP only. Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, which we used to assess diet quality, was calculated from two 24-h recalls. Blood samples for analyzing HbA1c concentrations (glycemic control) were collected in the mobile examination center. The overall diet quality scores for the use of both labels [b: -2.76 (95% CI: -5.04, -0.48); P = 0.019], of health claims only [b: -3.46 (-6.64, -0.28); P = 0.033], and of neither label [b: -4.01 (-5.75, -2.28); P < 0.001] were lower than those of NFP-only users. Moreover, HbA1c concentrations of users of both labels [b: 0.09% (95% CI: 0.03%, 0.16%); P = 0.008] and health claims only [b: 0.13% (95% CI: 0.02%, 0.25%); P = 0.021] were higher than those of NFP-only users. In participants with undiagnosed prediabetes, the use of health claims alone, of both labels, or of neither label (compared with the use of the NFP only) was associated with poorer diet quality. In addition, users of neither label and users of both labels had poorer glycemic

  6. High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Santacruz, Arlette; Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Tomé, Daniel; Sanz, Yolanda; Blachier, François; Davila, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-15

    High-protein diets are used for body weight reduction, but consequences on the large intestine ecosystem are poorly known. Here, rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic diet (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic-hypoglucidic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein). Cecum and colon were recovered for analysis. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as lactate, succinate, formate, and ethanol contents, were markedly increased in the colonic luminal contents of HP rats (P diet, whereas the amount of butyrate in feces was increased (P diet consumption allows maintenance in the luminal butyrate concentration and thus its metabolism in colonocytes despite modified microbiota composition and increased substrate availability. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Effects of four Bifidobacteria on obesity in high-fat diet induced rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare the effects of four Bifidobacteria strains(Bifidobacteria L66-5,L75-4,M13-4 and FS31-12,originated from normal human intestines) on weight gain,lipid metabolism,glucose metabolism in an obese murine model induced by high-fat diet.METHODS:Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups.Control group received standard chow,model group received high-fat diet,and intervention groups received high-fat diet added with different Bifidobacteria strains isolated from healthy volu...

  8. Effects of cafeteria diet and high fat diet intake on anxiety, learning and memory in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Renata Tavares Beschizza; Ferreira do Vales, Lucas Duarte Manhas; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2017-09-01

    The effects of cafeteria and high fat diets were investigated on animal models of behavior. Male Wistar rats were treated with Control (C), Cafeteria (CD) and High Fat (FD) diets and tested in the Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) procedures. Body weight, length, abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues were recorded. Physical parameters, weight of tissues, EPM, and MWM data were subjected to ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). There were no differences on weight and length parameters between CD and C rats up to 98 days of age. However, abdominal circumferences were higher in CD as compared to C at 35 and 70 days of age, respectively, the 5th and the 7th weeks. FD presented lower measures of weight and abdominal circumference; nevertheless there was an increase on those parameters at the end of the nutritional treatment. Even without an apparent weight gain of CD and FD these animals presented a greater accumulation of retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues. In addition, CD and FD demonstrated behaviors that can suggest lower anxiety. CD showed a better learning performance and FD showed better recall of previous learned information in the memory retention test. According to those data it was concluded that hypercaloric diet ingestion was capable of triggering metabolic alterations and possibly lowering anxiety associated to learning or memory improvement on a spatial task.

  9. Limited efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of highly refractory epileptic spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaun A; Shin, Ji Hyun; Shih, Evan J; Murata, Kristina K; Sewak, Sarika; Kezele, Michele E; Sankar, Raman; Matsumoto, Joyce H

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the ketogenic diet is effective in the treatment of epileptic spasms, even in refractory cases. However, there has been very limited demonstration of prompt and complete (video-EEG confirmed) response. We set out to describe our center's experience with the ketogenic diet in the treatment of children with highly refractory epileptic spasms, with rigorous seizure outcome assessment. Children treated with the ketogenic diet for epileptic spasms between April, 2010 and June, 2014 were retrospectively identified. Seizure burden was tabulated at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12-months of ketogenic diet exposure. Adverse events were similarly ascertained. We identified a cohort of 22 consecutive patients who received ketogenic diet therapy, with median age of onset of epileptic spasms of 5.2 (IQR 2.0-9.0) months, with diet initiation beginning a median of 26.4 (12.5-38.7) months after onset, and following a median of 7 (IQR 5-7) treatment failures. Only 2 patients exhibited a complete response during ketogenic diet exposure, and response was more reasonably attributed to alternative therapies in both cases. A modest early reduction in seizure frequency was not sustained beyond 1 month of diet exposure. The diet was well tolerated, and continued in 6 patients with subjective and/or partial response. In contrast to prior studies reporting substantial efficacy of the ketogenic diet, our findings suggest limited efficacy, albeit in a highly refractory cohort. Prospective studies in both refractory and new-onset populations, with both video-EEG confirmation of response and rigorous cognitive outcome assessment, would be of great value to more clearly define the utility of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epileptic spasms. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apoptosis induced by a low-carbohydrate and high-protein diet in rat livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Emília L; Xavier, Analucia R; Oliveira, Felipe L; Filho, Porphirio JS; Azeredo, Vilma B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diets can cause lesions in rat livers. METHODS: We randomly divided 20 female Wistar rats into a control diet group and an experimental diet group. Animals in the control group received an AIN-93M diet, and animals in the experimental group received an Atkins-based diet (59.46% protein, 31.77% fat, and 8.77% carbohydrate). After 8 wk, the rats were anesthetized and exsanguinated for transaminases analysis, and their livers were removed for flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy studies. We expressed the data as mean ± standard deviation (SD) assuming unpaired and parametric data; we analyzed differences using the Student’s t-test. Statistical significance was set at P diet group and 3.73% ± 0.50% for early apoptosis, 5.67% ± 0.72% for late apoptosis, and 3.82% ± 0.28% for non-apoptotic death in the control diet group. The mean percentage of early apoptosis was higher in the experimental diet group than in the control diet group. Immunohistochemistry for autophagy was negative in both groups. Sinusoidal dilation around the central vein and small hepatocytes was only observed in the experimental diet group, and fibrosis was not identified by hematoxylin-eosin or Trichrome Masson staining in either group. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of an experimental diet resulted in cellular and histopathological lesions in rat livers. Apoptosis was our principal finding; elevated plasma transaminases demonstrate hepatic lesions. PMID:27298559

  11. Soybean Meal and Soy Protein Concentrate in Early Diet Elicit Different Nutritional Programming Effects on Juvenile Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Erick; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    There is now strong evidence that early nutrition plays an important role in shaping later physiology. We assessed here whether soy protein concentrate (SPC) or soybean meal (SBM) in early diet would modify zebrafish responses to these products in later life. We fed zebrafish larvae with SPC-, SBM-, or a control-diet for the first 3 days of feeding and then grew all larvae on the control diet up to juveniles. Finally, we assessed the expression in juveniles of genes involved in inflammation/immunity, the breakdown of extracellular matrix, luminal digestion, and intestinal nutrient absorption/trafficking. First feeding SBM had wider, stronger, and more persistent effects on gene expression with respect to SPC. Juveniles fed with SPC at first feeding were more prone to inflammation after refeeding with SPC than fish that never experienced SPC before. Conversely, zebrafish that faced SBM at first feeding were later less responsive to refeeding with SBM through inflammation and had higher expression of markers of peptide absorption and fatty acid transport. Results indicate that some features of inflammation/remodeling, presumably at the intestine, and nutrient absorption/transport in fish can be programmed by early nutrition. These findings sustain the rationale of using zebrafish for depicting molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional programming.

  12. Effects of vitamin E from supplements and diet on colonic α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in persons at increased colon cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiting; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Askew, Leah M; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Brenner, Dean E; Ruffin, Mack T; Turgeon, D Kim; Djuric, Zora

    2015-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that γ-tocopherol has more potential for colon cancer prevention than α-tocopherol, but little is known about the effects of foods and supplements on tocopherol levels in human colon. This study randomized 120 subjects at increased colon cancer risk to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet for 6 mo. Supplement use was reported by 39% of the subjects, and vitamin E intake from supplements was twofold higher than that from foods. Serum α-tocopherol at baseline was positively predicted by dietary intakes of synthetic vitamin E in foods and supplements but not by natural α-tocopherol from foods. For serum γ-tocopherol, dietary γ-tocopherol was not a predictor, but dietary α-tocopherol was a negative predictor. Unlike with serum, the data supported a role for metabolic factors, and not a direct effect of diet, in governing concentrations of both α- and γ-tocopherol in colon. The Mediterranean intervention increased intakes of natural α-tocopherol, which is high in nuts, and decreased intakes of γ-tocopherol, which is low in olive oil. These dietary changes had no significant effects on colon tocopherols. The impact of diet on colon tocopherols therefore appears to be limited.

  13. Hesperidin ameliorates streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dilpesh P Jain; Rahul S Somani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates protective effect of hesperidin on streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high fat emulsion and high fat diet for 2 weeks to induce glucose intolerance and then injected with streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). Following 48 h of streptozotocin injection blood glucose level was estimated to confirm hyperglycemia. After 4 weeks of diabetes induction ...

  14. Dysregulation of peripheral endocannabinoid levels in hyperglycemia and obesity: Effect of high fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Isabel; Petrosino, Stefania; Racioppi, Alessandro; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2008-04-16

    Increasing evidence indicates that endocannabinoid (EC) signalling is dysregulated during hyperglycemia and obesity, particularly at the level of anandamide (AEA) and/or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations in tissues involved in the control of energy intake and processing, such as the liver, white adipose tissue and pancreas. Here we review this previous evidence and provide new data on the possible dysregulation of EC levels in organs with endocrine function (adrenal glands and thyroid), involved in energy expenditure (brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle), or affected by the consequences of metabolic disorders (heart and kidney), obtained from mice fed for 3, 8 and 14 weeks with two different high fat diets (HFDs), with different fatty acid compositions and impact on fasting glucose levels. Statistically significant elevations (in the skeletal muscle, heart and kidney) or reductions (in the thyroid) of the levels of either AEA or 2-AG, or both, were found. Depending on the diet, these changes preceded or accompanied the development of overt obesity and/or hyperglycemia. In the adrenal gland, first a reduction and then an elevation of EC levels were observed. In the brown fat, a very early elevation of both AEA and 2-AG normalized levels was observed with one of the diets, whereas delayed decreases were explained by an increase of the amount of fat tissue weight induced by the HFDs. The potential implications of these and previous findings in the general framework of the proposed roles of the EC system in the control of metabolic, endocrine and cardiovascular and renal functions are discussed.

  15. Raspberry seed flour attenuates high-sucrose diet-mediated hepatic stress and adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inhae; Espín, Juan Carlos; Carr, Timothy P; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Chung, Soonkyu

    2016-06-01

    Chronic intake of high sucrose (HS) diet exacerbates high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Previously, we have demonstrated that ellagic acid (EA), an abundant polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, exerts distinct lipid-lowering characteristics in hepatocytes and adipocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that EA supplementation inhibits HS diet-mediated hepatic toxicity and its accompanied metabolic dysregulation. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to three isocaloric HF diets (41% calories from fat) containing either no-sucrose (HF), high-sucrose (HFHS), or high-sucrose plus EA (HFHS-R) from raspberry seed flour (RSF, equivalent to 0.03% of EA), and fed for 12weeks. The inclusion of EA from RSF significantly improved HFHS diet-mediated dyslipidemia and restored glucose homeostasis levels similar to the HF diet-fed mice. Despite marginal difference in hepatic triglyceride content, the addition of EA substantially reversed the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative damage triggered by HFHS diet in the liver. These effects of EA were further confirmed in human hepatoma cells by reducing ER stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Moreover, HFHS-R diet significantly decreased visceral adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue inflammation evidenced by reduced proinflammatory gene expression and macrophage infiltration. In summary, EA supplementation from RSF was effective in reducing HFHS diet-mediated metabolic complication by attenuating hepatic ER and oxidative stresses as well as adipocyte inflammation. Our results suggest that the inclusion of EA in diets may normalize metabolic insults triggered by HS consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining Diet on Lipogenesis and Liver Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Noworolski, Susan M; Wen, Michael J; Dyachenko, Artem; Prior, Jessica L; Weinberg, Melissa E; Herraiz, Laurie A; Tai, Viva W; Bergeron, Nathalie; Bersot, Thomas P; Rao, Madhu N; Schambelan, Morris; Mulligan, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of high-fructose diets promotes hepatic fatty acid synthesis (de novo lipogenesis [DNL]) and an atherogenic lipid profile. It is unclear whether these effects occur independent of positive energy balance and weight gain. We compared the effects of a high-fructose, (25% of energy content) weight-maintaining diet to those of an isocaloric diet with the same macronutrient distribution but in which complex carbohydrate (CCHO) was substituted for fructose. Eight healthy men were studied as inpatients for consecutive 9-day periods. Stable isotope tracers were used to measure fractional hepatic DNL and endogenous glucose production (EGP) and its suppression during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Liver fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Weight remained stable. Regardless of the order in which the diets were fed, the high-fructose diet was associated with both higher DNL (average, 18.6 ± 1.4% vs 11.0 ± 1.4% for CCHO; P = .001) and higher liver fat (median, +137% of CCHO; P = .016) in all participants. Fasting EGP and insulin-mediated glucose disposal did not differ significantly, but EGP during hyperinsulinemia was greater (0.60 ± 0.07 vs 0.46 ± 0.06 mg/kg/min; P = .013) with the high-fructose diet, suggesting blunted suppression of EGP. Short-term high-fructose intake was associated with increased DNL and liver fat in healthy men fed weight-maintaining diets.

  17. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  18. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  19. Homeostasis of Retinol in Lecithin:retinol Acyltransferase Gene Knockout Mice Fed a High Retinol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Limin; Tang, Xiao-Han; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the retinoid levels and gene expression in various tissues after wild type (Wt) and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase knockout (LRAT−/−) mice were fed a high retinol diet (250 IU/gram). As compared to Wt, LRAT−/− mice exhibited a greater and faster increase in serum retinol concentration (mean±S.D., Wt, 1.3±0.2 µM to 1.5±0.3 µM in 48 hours, p>0.05; LRAT−/−, 1.3±0.2 µM to 2.2±0.3 µM in 48 hours, p

  20. High fat diet induced disturbances of energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sjoerd Adrianus Antonius van den

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are multifactorial pathologies, characterized by a complex etiology. In addition to genetics, age and sex, environmental factors such as dietary composition and lifestyle have profound effects on the development of both pathologies. Excess dietary energy intake (EI) per se has effects on energy homeostasis through physiological systems involved in maintenance of substrate balances. Moreover, the composition of the diet itself may contribute and aggravate th...

  1. Vitamin D, Iron Metabolism, and Diet in Alpinists During a 2-Week High-Altitude Climb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Śliwicka, Ewa; Hennig, Karol; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Huta-Osiecka, Anna; Nowak, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    A defensive mechanism against hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is erythropoesis. Some authors point to the contribution of vitamin D to the regulation of this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) level and its associations with iron metabolic and inflammatory indices in participants of a 2-week mountaineering expedition. The study sample included 9 alpinists practicing recreational mountain climbing. Every 2 or 3 days they set up a different base between 3200 and 3616 m with the intention of climbing 4000 m peaks in the Mont Blanc massif. Before their departure for the mountains and 2 days after returning to the sea level anthropometric parameters, hematological parameters, serum levels of 25(OH)D and iron metabolic indices were measured in all the participants. The composition of the participants' diet was also evaluated. The comparative analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass, BMI values, total iron, and 25(OH)D concentrations (pclimbing expedition contributed to the reduction of 25(OH)D levels and these changes were associated with modulation of immune processes. Moreover, the climbers' diet requires some serious modifications.

  2. Substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a amônia ruminal, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o metabolismo do nitrogênio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 420 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado, foram utilizados para avaliar a substituição total de uma fonte de proteína verdadeira (farelo de soja, em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR, por uréia ou amiréia (fontes de nitrogênio não protéico, ambas em uma dieta adequada em PDR. As dietas foram isoprotéicas (13,0% utilizando-se o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN como única fonte de volumoso (20% da MS. Foram avaliados: a concentração de amônia ruminal, nitrogênio uréico plasmático, glicose plasmática e o metabolismo do nitrogênio. Os tratamentos foram: 1 farelo de soja (FS; 2 uréia e 3 amiréia (A-150S. A concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal no fluido ruminal foi superior no tratamento com uréia, comparado ao tratamento com farelo de soja, sendo que o tratamento com amiréia não diferiu dos demais. O tratamento com amiréia apresentou maior perda de N urinário. A retenção de N (g/d e % do consumido e o valor biológico da proteína (N retido, % do N digerido foram superiores para o tratamento com uréia, comparado aos demais. A concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a concentração de glicose plasmática foram similares entre os tratamentos. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia, ajustando a PDR na dieta de bovinos de corte, demonstrou ser viável. A uréia na forma convencional apresentou vantagens em relação à amiréia.Six Nellore bulls, with initial body weight of 420 kg, were assigned to a duplicated 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, of high biological value, in a rumen degradable protein (RDP deficient diet, by urea or starea (a supposedly slow release nonprotein nitrogen source, both in a RDP adjusted diet. In natura sugarcane bagasse as the only source of forage (20% of DM. Evaluated

  3. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue [Mus musculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that a low versus high glycemic index (GI) diet on a high fat (30% kcal fat) background (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in C57BL/6J male mice. The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed high fat diet-induced bod

  4. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low

  5. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucros

  6. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue [Mus musculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that a low versus high glycemic index (GI) diet on a high fat (30% kcal fat) background (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in C57BL/6J male mice. The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed high fat diet-induced bod

  7. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue [Mus musculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Keijer, J.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that a low versus high glycemic index (GI) diet on a high fat (30% kcal fat) background (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in C57BL/6J male mice. The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed high fat diet-induced

  8. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T.; Lamendella, Regina; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Grube, Alyssa; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Zeneng; Knight, Rob; Jansson, Janet K.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2016-12-20

    Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51–53 %E)v. lower CHO (39–40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine andγ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high-v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by highv. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.

  9. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Sánchez, Marina; Bray, George A; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Peters, John C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss.

  10. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zuo; Feng He; Grant Tinsley; Pannell, Benjamin K.; Emery Ward; Paul Arciero

    2016-01-01

    Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. Methods: The experiment involve...

  11. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  12. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  13. High-fat diet induces periodontitis in mice through lipopolysaccharides (LPS receptor signaling: protective action of estrogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Blasco-Baque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fat-enriched diet favors the development of gram negative bacteria in the intestine which is linked to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Interestingly, some pathogenic gram negative bacteria are commonly associated with the development of periodontitis which, like T2D, is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, estrogens have been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis via an LPS receptor dependent immune-modulation. In this study, we evaluated whether diet-induced metabolic disease would favor the development of periodontitis in mice. In addition, the regulatory role of estrogens in this process was assessed. METHODS: Four-week-old C57BL6/J WT and CD14 (part of the TLR-4 machinery for LPS-recognition knock-out female mice were ovariectomised and subcutaneously implanted with pellets releasing either placebo or 17β-estradiol (E2. Mice were then fed with either a normal chow or a high-fat diet for four weeks. The development of diabetes was monitored by an intraperitoneal glucose-tolerance test and plasma insulin concentration while periodontitis was assessed by identification of pathogens, quantification of periodontal soft tissue inflammation and alveolar bone loss. RESULTS: The fat-enriched diet increased the prevalence of periodontal pathogenic microbiota like Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia, gingival inflammation and alveolar bone loss. E2 treatment prevented this effect and CD14 knock-out mice resisted high-fat diet-induced periodontal defects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show that mice fed with a diabetogenic diet developed defects and microflora of tooth supporting-tissues typically associated with periodontitis. Moreover, our results suggest a causal link between the activation of the LPS pathway on innate immunity by periodontal microbiota and HFD-induced periodontitis, a pathophysiological mechanism that could be targeted by estrogens.

  14. [Metabolic and hormonal indices in rats with prolonged model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, K V; Bondareva, V M; Trashkov, A P; Chistyakova, O V; Verlov, N A; Shpakov, A O

    2017-01-01

    To develop the approaches for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MS), a pathological state widespread in modern population, that involves a complex of metabolic and functional disorders, appropriate animal models of MS are required. One of these models is induced by the consumption of combined high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HC/HF) diet consisting of excess amount of easily digestible carbohydrates and saturated fats. At the same time, the character, temporal dynamics and severity of metabolic abnormalities in MS induced by HC/HF diet are still poorly understood. The aim of work was the characterization of metabolic changes in Wistar rats with MS induced by 10- and 15-week HC/HF diet that includes the consumption of 30% sucrose solution (instead of drinking water) and food rich in saturated fats. Rats that received HC/HF diet for 15 weeks had a number of features characteristic of MS, such as increased body weight and content of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, as well as the markers of impaired function of the cardiovascular system (hyperhomocysteinemia, the reduced level of vasodilator nitric oxide, the increased concentration of vasoconstrictor endothelin 1). In rats, which were on the diet for 10 weeks, the metabolic abnormalities were less pronounced, indicating an insufficiency of 10-week duration of HC/HF diet for MS induction. Thus, the model of MS induced by 15-week HC/HF diet has the characteristic features that allow for extrapolation of the obtained data to similar pathologic changes in human, and can be used to study the etiology and pathogenesis of MS and the search of effective ways of MS prevention and treatment.

  15. Sensitivity of mice to lipopolysaccharide is increased by a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Rachel L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was hypothesized that a pro-atherogenic, high saturated fat and cholesterol diet (HCD would increase the inflammatory response to E. coli endotoxin (LPS and increase its concentration in plasma after administration to mice. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed a HCD or a control diet (CD for 4 weeks, and then treated with saline, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg LPS/kg, ip. Liver injury (alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, collagen staining, circulating cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interferon-γ, factors that can bind LPS (serum amyloid A, apolipoprotein A1, LPS binding protein, and CD14, and plasma levels of LPS were measured. The hepatic response was assessed by measuring vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 proteins, and VCAM-1 and iNOS mRNAs. Hepatic mRNA encoding the LPS receptor, Toll like receptor 4, was also determined. Results Two mg LPS/kg killed 100% of mice fed HCD within 5 d, while no mice fed CD died. All mice treated with 0 to 1 mg LPS/kg survived 24 h. HCD increased plasma alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and the enzymes were increased more by LPS in HCD than CD mice. Induction of plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ by LPS was greater with HCD than CD. Hepatic VCAM-1 and iNOS protein and mRNA were induced by LPS more in mice fed HCD than CD. Tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 caused by LPS was prolonged in HCD compared with CD mice. Despite the hepatic effects of HCD, diet had no effect on the LPS plasma concentration-time profile. HCD alone did not affect circulating levels of plasma apolipoprotein A1 or LPS binding protein. However, plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A and CD14, and hepatic toll-like receptor-4 mRNA were increased in mice fed HCD. Conclusion

  16. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  17. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire L; Morrice, Philip C; Duthie, Garry G

    2011-07-01

    There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70 % of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30 % of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4 % carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35 % carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-cryptoxanthin (P diet (P diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

  18. High-fat diet transition reduces brain DHA levels associated with altered brain plasticity and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess how the shift from a healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids to a diet rich in saturated fatty acid affects the substrates for brain plasticity and function, we used pregnant rats fed with omega-3 supplemented diet from their 2nd day of gestation period as well as their male pups for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the animals were randomly assigned to either a group fed on the same diet or a group fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fats for 3 weeks. We found that the HFD increased vulnerability for anxiety-like behavior, and that these modifications harmonized with changes in the anxiety-related NPY1 receptor and the reduced levels of BDNF, and its signalling receptor pTrkB, as well as the CREB protein. Brain DHA contents were significantly associated with the levels of anxiety-like behavior in these rats.

  19. Catechins inhibit atherosclerosis in male rats on a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Susanti

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet increases eNOS expression, decreases PI3K expression, and increases p38 MAPK activity. Administration of catechin decreases eNOS expression, increases PI3K expression, and decreases p38 MAPK activity.

  20. Sirt1 Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul T. Pfluger; Daniel Herranz; Susana Velasco-Miguel; Manuel Serrano; Matthias H. Tschöp

    2008-01-01

    .... Mammalian Sirt1 is a protein deacetylase that has been involved in resveratrol-mediated protection from high-fat diet-induced metabolic damage, but direct proof for the implication of Sirt1 has remained elusive...

  1. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the digestive tract provokes oxidative stress in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-grain diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaker, J A; Xu, T L; Jin, D; Chang, G J; Zhang, K; Shen, X Z

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to measure oxidative stress parameters and to investigate the molecular mechanism triggered by grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in mid-lactation cows. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows with an average weight of 455±28kg were divided into 2 groups and subjected to 2 diets over 18wk: either a low-grain (forage-to-concentrate ratio=6:4) or a high-grain (forage-to-concentrate ratio=4:6) diet based on dry matter. Being fed a long-term high-grain diet resulted in a significant decrease in rumen pH and a significant increase in ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 4 h postfeeding in the morning. The increase was also observed in LPS concentrations in the portal vein, hepatic vein, and jugular vein blood plasma as well as reduced milk yield in a high-grain diet. Cows fed a high-grain diet had lower levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and total antioxidant capacity than cows fed a low-grain diet; however, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in both the liver and the plasma of high-grain than in low-grain cows. Positive correlations were observed between plasma LPS versus hepatic MDA, plasma MDA, and hepatic SOD activity, whereas hepatic GPx and plasma GPx were negatively correlated with plasma LPS. The relative mRNA abundances of GPX1 and CAT were significantly lower in the liver of cows fed a high-grain diet than those fed a low-grain diet, whereas SOD1 was significantly higher in cows fed a high-grain diet than cows fed a low-grain diet. The expression levels of Nrf2, NQO1, MT1E, UGT1A1, MGST3, and MT1A were downregulated, whereas NF-kB was upregulated, in cows fed a high-grain diet. Furthermore, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) total protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower than in low-grains. Our results demonstrate the relationship between the translocated LPS and the suppression of cellular antioxidant defense capacity, which lead to increased

  2. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and die

  3. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  4. The high glycemic index diet was an independent predictor to explain changes in agouti-related protein in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Dal Molin Netto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The high glycemic index diet was an independent predictor to explain changes in agouti-related protein in obese adolescents. Background & Aims: The role of diet glycemic index (GI in the control of orexigenic and anorexigenic factors of the energy balance is still not clear. The present study aimed to assess whether the habitual diet, according to different GI foods, exerts influence on regulation of energy balance markers and the effects of interdisciplinary intervention in obese adolescents. Methods: A total of 55 obese adolescents, aged from 14 to 19 years, were submited to one year of interdisciplinary therapy and were divided in two groups, according to the predominant dietary pattern of food intake: high-GI group (H-GI; n = 29 and moderate/low-GI group (M/L-GI; n = 26. Results: The concentration of orexigenic factor AgRP (p < 0.01, visceral fat (p=0.04 and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (p = 0.03 were higher in the group of H-GI when compared with M/L-GI group. Moreover, the habitual consumption of H-GI foods was an independent predictor to explain changes in AgRP concentrations. After one year of interdisciplinary therapy, the adolescents presented significant reductions in body weight, total body fat (%, visceral and subcutaneous fat and HOMA-IR, as well as a significant increase of fat free mass (%. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that habitual H-GI diet could upregulate orexigenic pathways, contributing to vicious cycle between undesirable diets, deregulates energy balance and predispose to obesity. One the other hand, one year of interdisciplinary therapy can significant improves metabolic profile and central obesity in adolescents.

  5. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces glucose intolerance and insulin unresponsiveness to a glucose load not explained by obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. la Fleur; M.C.M. Luijendijk; A.J. van Rozen; A. Kalsbeek; R.A.H. Adan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In diet-induced obesity, it is not clear whether impaired glucose metabolism is caused directly by the diet, or indirectly via obesity. This study examined the effects of different free-choice, high-caloric, obesity-inducing diets on glucose metabolism. In these free-choice diets, satura

  6. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-10-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in (TH)leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis.

  7. Efeitos da enramicina e monensina sódica sobre a digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas contendo alto nível de concentrados Effects of enramycin and sodium monensin on nutrients digestibility in bovine fed with high-concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Onofre Borges

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da administração de enramicina e monensina sódica sobre a digestão total dos nutrientes da dieta e o consumo de matéria seca digestível em bovinos. Doze fêmeas bovinas não-gestantes e não-lactantes (675 ± 63 kg PV foram distribuídas inteiramente ao acaso em três tratamentos (controle, enramicina e monensina e alimentados com dieta contendo 60% de concentrados (milho, farelo de soja e minerais e 40% de volumoso (cana-de-açúcar. A enramicina foi administrada na dose de 20 mg/animal/dia e a monensina na dose de 300 mg/animal/dia. O experimento teve duração total de 21 dias, de modo que os últimos dez dias foram utilizados para administração do marcador externo (15 g de óxido crômico/animal/dia e os últimos cinco dias para a coleta de fezes e amostragem dos alimentos. Nenhum dos antibióticos alterou os consumos de matéria seca digestível e NDT e a digestibilidade de matéria seca, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente ácido, fibra em detergente neutro, amido, energia bruta e nutrientes digestíveis totais.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of enramycin and sodium monensin administration on total digestibility of diet nutrients and digestible dry matter intake in bovine. Twelve non-pregnant and non-lactating cows (675 kg ± 63 BW were randomly assigned to three treatments: control group, enramycin-treated group or monensin-treated group. Animals received a diet containing 60% of concentrates (corn, soy bean meal and minerals and 40% of forage (sugarcane. Treatments were 20 mg/animal/day of enramycin or 300 mg/animal/day of monensin. Trial lasted 21 days, the last 10 used for external marker administration (15 g of chromic oxide/animal/day and the last 5 for feces collection and feed sampling. None of the antibiotics affected digestible dry matter and TDN intake and the digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent

  8. Differential expression of apolipoprotein D in male reproductive system of rats by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, W; Bae, H; Song, G

    2016-11-01

    Apolipoprotein D, a 29-kDa secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin superfamily, is widely expressed in various tissues and associated with lipid metabolism as a component of high-density lipoproteins. Although Apolipoprotein D binds to small hydrophobic ligands including cholesterol, little is known about effects of high-fat diet with cholesterol on expression of Apolipoprotein D in the male reproductive tract. Therefore, we investigated Apod expression in penises, prostate glands, and testes from rats fed a high-fat diet including a high amount of cholesterol. Our previous research indicated that a high-fat diet induces dyslipidemia leading to histological changes and dysfunction of male reproduction in rats. Consistent with these results, Apod mRNA expression was significantly (p high-fat diet as compared with normal diet. In addition, Apod mRNA and protein were detected predominantly in urethral epithelium and penile follicle from rats. Moreover, changes in expression of specific microRNAs (miR-229b-3p, miR-423-3p, and miR-490-3p) regulating Apod in the penises and prostate glands were negatively associated with Apod expression. Collectively, results of this study suggest that Apod is a novel regulatory gene in the male reproductive system, especially in penises of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, and that expression of Apod is regulated at the posttranscriptional level by target microRNAs.

  9. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Nutrient Analysis, Growth, and Organ Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    A diet (KSC-25) to be sterilized by irradiation was formulated to contain 66% moisture and to provide the required nutrients for growing rats. Analyses of the irradiated dry diet provided data to evaluate its nutrient content. The diet was evaluated for its ability to supply all nutrients, including water, required by immature rats. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the high-moisture diet with or without access to a water bottle. Rats (n = 16) fed an irradiated purified diet in a meal form with access to a water bottle were the control animals. Feed efficiency, food and water consumption, and growth rate data were collected during the 28-day study. Organ weights were collected on day 28. The test diet met or exceeded the National Research Council (NRC) estimated nutritional requirements for immature laboratory rats. The 66% moisture KSC-25 diet provided all nutrients, including water, required by weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats for growth equivalent to the established purified diet.

  10. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Artuch, Rafael; Corbella, Emili; Meco, José F; Vila, Ramon; Pujol, Ramon; Grinberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 mug of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 mug of folate or with one 500 mug capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (pfoods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: -15.9 to -1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: -13.3 to -2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  11. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (Pdiet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (Pdiet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet.

  12. A minipig model of high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced diabetes and atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shoumin; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Zongbao; Kusunoki, Masataka; Lian, Xin; Koike, Tomonari; Fan, Jianglin; Zhang, Qiuju

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major risk factor of the development of atherosclerosis in humans. However, studies examining mechanisms underlying diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis have been limited by the lack of suitable humanoid animal models. Pigs have a cardiovascular system that is very similar to that of humans and is useful as a model for human physiology and pathophysiology. In this study, we established a new miniature pig model for studying dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis in diabetes. Chinese Guizhou minipigs were fed a normal control diet or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFSD) for 6 months. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), insulin and glucose were quantified at monthly intervals. The induction of insulin resistance and dysfunction of the pancreatic β-cell were assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity test. The aortic fatty streak lesions were quantified following lipid staining with Sudan IV. During the feeding period, mild high plasma TC and TG were induced. At the end of 6 months, in HFSD-fed animals, the adipocytes were hypertrophic, fat deposit in the liver was observed, loss of pancreatic β-cells was observed, and the aortic fatty streak lesions were clearly present in the animals' aortas. Our study established that miniature pigs that were fed a HFSD without adding dietary cholesterol developed insulin resistance, mild diabetes and atherosclerotic lesions. HFSD-fed miniature pigs may be good animal models for research on the treatment of diabetic dyslipidaemia complicated with atherosclerosis. PMID:15312127

  13. Pollock oil supplementation modulates hyperlipidemia and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatanaka Akimasa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperlipidemia associated with obesity is closely related to the development of atherosclerosis. Both n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs; i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers supplementation modulate risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the restoration of impaired lipid metabolism. We therefore examined the effects of pollock oil, which contains a considerable amount of n-3 PUFAs as well as long-chain MUFAs, on plasma hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice (24-26 g were divided into two groups (n = 10/group and were fed a high-fat diet containing 32% lard (control group or 17% lard plus 15% pollock oil (experimental group for 6 weeks. For both groups, fat comprised 60% of the total caloric intake. Results Although body and liver masses for the two groups did not differ significantly, hepatic lipids concentrations (triglycerides and total cholesterols were lower (P P P P SREBP2, HMGCR, and ApoB and lipogenesis (SREPB1c, SCD-1, FAS, and Acacα was suppressed in the experimental group, and may have favorably affected hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by the high-fat diet. Conclusions We demonstrated that pollock oil supplementation effectively improved hyperlipidemia, attenuated hepatic steatosis, and downregulated the express of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice with diet-induced obesity.

  14. Acute and chronic changes in rat soleus muscle after high-fat high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kelsey H; Hart, David A; Smith, Ian C; Issler, Anthony M; Reimer, Raylene A; Seerattan, Ruth A; Rios, Jaqueline L; Herzog, Walter

    2017-05-01

    The effects of obesity on different musculoskeletal tissues are not well understood. The glycolytic quadriceps muscles are compromised with obesity, but due to its high oxidative capacity, the soleus muscle may be protected against obesity-induced muscle damage. To determine the time-course relationship between a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) metabolic challenge and soleus muscle integrity, defined as intramuscular fat invasion, fibrosis and molecular alterations over six time points. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFS diet (n = 64) and killed at serial short-term (3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks, 28 weeks) time points. Chow-fed controls (n = 21) were killed at 4, 12, and 28 weeks. At sacrifice, animals were weighed, body composition was calculated (DXA), and soleus muscles were harvested and flash-frozen. Cytokine and adipokine mRNA levels for soleus muscles were assessed, using RT-qPCR Histological assessment of muscle fibrosis and intramuscular fat was conducted, CD68(+) cell number was determined using immunohistochemistry, and fiber typing was assessed using myosin heavy chain protein analysis. HFS animals demonstrated significant increases in body fat by 1 week, and this increase in body fat was sustained through 28 weeks on the HFS diet. Short-term time-point soleus muscles demonstrated up-regulated mRNA levels for inflammation, atrophy, and oxidative stress molecules. However, intramuscular fat, fibrosis, and CD68(+) cell number were similar to their respective control group at all time points evaluated. Therefore, the oxidative capacity of the soleus may be protective against diet-induced alterations to muscle integrity. Increasing oxidative capacity of muscles using aerobic exercise may be a beneficial strategy for mitigating obesity-induced muscle damage, and its consequences. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  15. Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jeannie; Brinkworth, Grant D; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of an energy-reduced, isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate, high-fat (VLCHF) diet and a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HCLF) diet on weight loss and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk outcomes. Despite the popularity of the VLCHF diet, no studies have compared the chronic effects of weight loss and metabolic change to a conventional HCLF diet under isocaloric conditions. A total of 88 abdominally obese adults were randomly assigned to either an energy-restricted (approximately 6 to 7 MJ, 30% deficit), planned isocaloric VLCHF or HCLF diet for 24 weeks in an outpatient clinical trial. Body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at weeks 0 and 24. Weight loss was similar in both groups (VLCHF -11.9 +/- 6.3 kg, HCLF -10.1 +/- 5.7 kg; p = 0.17). Blood pressure, CRP, fasting glucose, and insulin reduced similarly with weight loss in both diets. The VLCHF diet produced greater decreases in triacylglycerols (VLCHF -0.64 +/- 0.62 mmol/l, HCLF -0.35 +/- 0.49 mmol/l; p = 0.01) and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (VLCHF 0.25 +/- 0.28 mmol/l, HCLF 0.08 +/- 0.17 mmol/l; p = 0.002). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the HCLF diet but remained unchanged in the VLCHF diet (VLCHF 0.06 +/- 0.58 mmol/l, HCLF -0.46 +/- 0.71 mmol/l; p response in the VLCHF diet was observed, with 24% of individuals reporting an increase of at least 10%. The apoB levels remained unchanged in both diet groups. Under isocaloric conditions, VLCHF and HCLF diets result in similar weight loss. Overall, although both diets had similar improvements for a number of metabolic risk markers, an HCLF diet had more favorable effects on the blood lipid profile. This suggests that the potential long-term effects of the VLCHF diet for CVD risk remain a concern and that blood lipid levels should be monitored. (Long-term health effects of high and

  16. Factors Impeding Enzymatic Wheat Gluten Hydrolysis at High Solid Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased

  17. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  18. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27070590

  19. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  20. [Anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar in rats subjected to a high fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, H; Kaddouri, H; Kheroua, O; Saidi, D

    2016-06-01

    The search of new anti-obesogenic treatments based on medicinal plants without or with minimal side effects is a challenge. In this context, the present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) in Wistar rats subjected to a high fat diet. Eighteen male Wistar rats (140±5g) were divided into 3 three equal groups. A witness group submitted to standard laboratory diet and two groups subjected to a high fat diet (cafeteria diet); one receives a daily gavage of apple cider vinegar (7mL/kg/d) for 30 days. Throughout the experiment monitoring the nutritional assessment, anthropometric and biochemical parameters is achieved. In the RCV vs RC group, we observed a highly significant decrease (Pdiet (cafeteria) are thwarted by taking apple cider vinegar which proves to have a satiating effect, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects, and seems prevent the atherogenic risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4 ± 2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P diets increased. Goats fed the T2, T3 and T4 diets gained 10.2, 34.1 and 52.5 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-12.7 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P  0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response.

  2. Timing of Maternal Exposure to a High Fat Diet and Development of Obesity and Hyperinsulinemia in Male Rat Offspring: Same Metabolic Phenotype, Different Developmental Pathways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Howie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Offspring born to mothers either fed an obesogenic diet throughout their life or restricted to pregnancy and lactation demonstrate obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia, irrespective of their postweaning diet. We examined whether timing of a maternal obesogenic diet results in differential regulation of pancreatic adipoinsular and inflammatory signaling pathways in offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: (1 control (CONT: fed a control diet preconceptionally and during pregnancy and lactation; (2 maternal high fat (MHF: fed an HF diet throughout their life and during pregnancy and lactation; (3 pregnancy and lactation HF (PLHF: fed a control diet throughout life until mating, then HF diet during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were fed the control diet postweaning. Plasma and pancreatic tissue were collected, and mRNA concentrations of key factors regulating adipoinsular axis signaling were determined. Results. MHF and PLHF offspring exhibited increased adiposity and were hyperinsulinemic and hyperleptinemic compared to CONT. Despite a similar anthropometric phenotype, MHF and PLHF offspring exhibited distinctly different expression for key pancreatic genes, dependent upon maternal preconceptional nutritional background. Conclusions. These data suggest that despite using differential signaling pathways, obesity in offspring may be an adaptive outcome of early life exposure to HF during critical developmental windows.

  3. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Jacob Kolling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P<0.01 and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P<0.10. No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake.

  4. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Giovani Jacob; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; da Cruz, Eduardo Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE) inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI) was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P < 0.01) and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P < 0.10). No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake. PMID:28116344

  5. Substitution of Concentrate with Mulberry Leaves in Ongole Grade Cattle Fed Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Syahrir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the substitution of concentrate with mulberry (Morus spp. leaves combined with rice straw offered to beef cattle. The study used 12 male Ongole grade cattle weighing 217+10.53 kg. Rations consisted of rice straw, mulberry leaves and concentrate. Research was carried out according to completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 4 replications for each treatment. The treatments were: P1= 50% rice straw + 50% concentrate; P2= 50% rice straw + 25% concentrate + 25% mulberry; P3= 50% rice straw + 50% mulberry. The results of the study indicated that rumen fermentation in cattlle fed on P2 ration was more effective than those receiving P1 and P3 rations. The fermentation was characterized by a higher production of total VFA and allantoin excretion in the urine. The presence of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ compound of mulberry leaves in the rumen system in treatment P2 and P3 improved digestibility of fiber fractions of rice straw-based rations. Mulberry leaves in rations also accounted for isoacids in the rumen system, which supported the development of cellulolytic bacteria. In conclusion, mulberry leaves containing concentrate had a potency to substitute concentrate when used together with fiber source feed such as rice straw.

  6. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  7. Impact of a Combined High Cholesterol Diet and High Glucose Environment on Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Taixing; Tang, Dongqi; Wang, Xing Li

    2013-01-01

    Aims Vascular complications are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. However, proper animal models of diabetic vasculopathy that recapitulate the accelerated progression of vascular lesions in human are unavailable. In the present study, we developed a zebrafish model of diabetic vascular complications and the methodology for quantifying vascular lesion formation real-time in the living diabetic zebrafish. Methods and Results Wild type zebrafish (AB) and transgenic zebrafish lines of fli1:EGFP, lyz:EGFP, gata1:dsRed, double transgenic zebrafish of gata1:dsRed/fli1:EGFP were exposed to high cholesterol diet and 3% glucose (HCD-HG) for 10 days. The zebrafish model with HCD-HG treatment was characterized by significantly increased tissue levels of insulin, glucagon, glucose, total triglyceride and cholesterol. Confocal microscopic analysis further revealed that the diabetic larvae developed clearly thickened endothelial layers, distinct perivascular lipid depositions, substantial accumulations of inflammatory cells in the injured vasculature, and a decreased velocity of blood flow. Moreover, the vascular abnormalities were improved by the treatment of pioglitazone and metformin. Conclusion A combination of high cholesterol diet and high glucose exposure induces a rapid onset of vascular complications in zebrafish similar to the early atherosclerotic vascular injuries in mammalian diabetic models, suggesting that zebrafish may be used as a novel animal model for diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:24349075

  8. Linking ileal digestible phosphorus and bone mineralization in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase and highly soluble calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Walk, C L

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestibility of P in potassium phosphate, phytase-related ileal digestible P release, bone-mineralization-based ileal digestible P equivalency of phytase, and phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization in broiler chickens at 2 dietary concentrations of highly soluble Ca (HSC). Birds were sorted by BW at d 15 posthatch and assigned to 8 cages per diet with 8 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 2 × 6 factorial of HSC at 5 or 6 g/kg and P supply treatment at 6 levels consisting of 4 added P levels (P from KH2PO4 added at 0, 0.7, 1.4, or 2.1 g/kg of diet) or 2 added phytase levels (500 or 1,000 phytase units). On d 24 posthatch, ileal digesta were collected for ileal P digestibility (IPD) determination and the left tibia was collected from the 4 heaviest birds in each cage for bone ash determination. Weight gain, G:F, and tibia ash were higher (P phytase linearly increased (P phytase showed a reduction (P phytase intake indicated that 1,000 units of added phytase released 1.701 or 1.561 g of digestible P in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. Polynomial regressions of tibia ash on digestible P or phytase intake in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg at 1,000 phytase units gave digestible P equivalency of 1.487 or 1.448 g, respectively. Thus, phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization was 87.4 and 92.8% in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively.

  9. Offspring from rat mothers fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet during gestation and lactation accumulate free fatty acids in the liver when exposed to high fat diet as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Ingvorsen, Camilla

    -fostered by the dams, so that half of the pups born by HFHS mothers was lactated by C dams and vice versa, generating four groups; CC, CH, HC and HH (first letter maternal diet during pregnancy and the second diet during lactation). At weaning all pups were transferred to chow-diet and kept on this diet until the age......Introduction: Maternal diet during gestation and lactation has been implicated as a factor that modifies the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Hepatic lipid accumulation is strongly linked to development of metabolic diseases. Free fatty acids induce ER stress, mitochondrial...... stress and are the substrate for formation of other lipotoxic species, such as ceramide, diacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. We have therefore investigated if the maternal intake of a high fat diet combined with sucrose-rich beverage alters the offsprings ability to metabolically cope with a high-fat challenge...

  10. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20......% or 50% of energy). The 2 diets were served on 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at 8.00 h, 16.30 h and 19.30 h, and analysed for triglycerides, FVII coagulant activity using human (FVII:C) or bovine thromboplastin (FVII:Bt), and FVII amidolytic activity (FVII:Am). The ratio FVII......:Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet...

  11. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Verlinde, Eline; Schrauwen, Patrick; Keijer, Jaap

    2011-08-16

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092-1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed HF diet-induced body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain, resulting in significantly reduced serum leptin and resistin levels and increased adiponectin levels. We questioned how WAT is modulated and characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycemic index-mediated effects using whole genome microarrays. This showed that the LGI diet mainly exerts its beneficial effects via substrate metabolism, especially fatty acid metabolism. In addition, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling showed reduced expression, in line with lower WAT mass. An important transcription factor showing enhanced expression is PPAR-γ. Furthermore, serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were all significantly reduced by LGI diet, and simultaneously muscle insulin sensitivity was significantly increased as analyzed by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation. Cumulatively, even though these mice were fed an HF diet, the LGI diet induced significantly favorable changes in metabolism in WAT. These effects suggest a partial overlap with pharmacological approaches by thiazolidinediones to treat insulin resistance and statins for hypercholesterolemia. It is therefore tempting to speculate that such a dietary approach might beneficially support pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance or hypercholesterolemia in humans.

  12. Effects of Antioxidants Supplemment, Astaxanthin, Vitamin E, C, in Rat Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vahidinia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.

  13. Crude protein levels in diets containing pelleted concentrate for lactating goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of crude protein (100, 130, 160 and 190 g kg-1 of dry matter of diets composed of 200 g kg-1 of Tifton 85 grass hay and 800 g kg-1 of pelleted concentrate on intake, nutrient digestibility, production and composition of milk in lactating goats. Eight female Saanen goats with 42.7 ± 1.43 kg and 57.7 ± 7.37 days of lactation and milk production of 2 ± 0.22 kg at the beginning of the experiment were housed in individual 1.32 × 3.10 m stalls and distributed into two 4 × 4-balanced Latin squares. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ether extract and total digestible nutrients showed a quadratic effect, with maximum intake of 2.030; 2.000; 305; 769; 55 and 1.574 g day-1 at the levels of 140.7; 140.8; 189.2; 140.9; 144.9 e 142.7 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrient level varied linearly, with increases estimated at 0.54; 0.50, 2.02, 0.49, 0.80 and 0.63 g/100g for each percentage unit of protein added to the diet, respectively. Milk production was affected, with increase of 0.54 g for each 1% crude protein added to the diet. Milk lactose level decreased linearly, unlike the fat level, which increased linearly. Protein level showed a quadratic behavior, with a maximum of 36.7 g per kg of milk at the level of 160.5 g per kg of DM. It is recommended to use crude protein between 135 g and 150 g per kg of dry matter of diets consisting of 800 g of pelleted concentrate (composed of soybean meal replacing the alfalfa hay as protein source per kg of DM for lactating goats producing 2 kg of milk per day.

  14. A diet high in α-linolenic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates hepatic steatosis and alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Danielle; Zahradka, Peter; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Clark, Jaime L; Taylor, Carla G

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the plant-based n-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), a dietary precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for modulating hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil, or lard. After 12 weeks, C/F and weight-matched (WM) groups had 20% less liver lipid. Body mass, liver weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and molecular markers of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, desaturation and elongation did not account for this effect. The C/F group had the highest total n-3 and EPA in hepatic phospholipids (PL), as well as one of the highest DHA and lowest arachidonic acid (n-6) concentrations. In conclusion, the C/F diet with the highest content of the plant-based n-3 ALA attenuated hepatic steatosis and altered the hepatic PL fatty acid profile.

  15. Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator Demonstrated High-Temperature Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Space applications that utilize solar thermal energy--such as electric power conversion systems, thermal propulsion systems, and furnaces--require highly efficient solar concentration systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced lightweight primary concentrators, such as inflatable thin films, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios and very high temperatures. Last year, Glenn successfully demonstrated a secondary concentrator throughput efficiency of 87 percent, with a projected efficiency of 93 percent using an antireflective coating. Building on this achievement, Glenn recently successfully demonstrated high-temperature operation of the secondary concentrator when it was used to heat a rhenium receiver to 2330 F. The high-temperature demonstration of the concentrator was conducted in Glenn's 68-ft long Tank 6 thermal vacuum facility equipped with a solar simulator. The facility has a rigid panel primary concentrator that was used to concentrate the light from the solar simulator onto the refractive secondary concentrator. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center provided a rhenium cavity, part of a solar thermal propulsion engine, to serve as the high-temperature receiver. The prototype refractive secondary concentrator, measuring 3.5 in. in diameter and 11.2 in. long, is made of single-crystal sapphire. A water-cooled splash shield absorbs spillage light outside of the 3.5-in. concentrator aperture. Multilayer foil insulation composed of tungsten, molybdenum, and niobium is used to minimize heat loss from the hightemperature receiver. A liquid-cooled canister calorimeter is used to measure the heat loss through the multilayer foil insulation.

  16. Short communication. Effect of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on the productive and economic performance of autochthonous sheep breeds fed forage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimon Ripoll-Bosch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming systems in Spain are experiencing an intensification process, characterised by a general selection criteria of enhancing prolificacy in ewes, and by increasing indoor feeding with concentrates to the detriment of grazing. This study evaluated the effects of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on productive and economic performance of a local sheep breed in different price scenarios. Ewes were fed forage hay ad libitum, without (in pre-partum period, PRE-HAY; and in post-partum period, POST-HAY or with concentrates (300 g/d in pre-partum period, PRE-CON; and 750 g/d in post-partum period, POST-CON. The inclusion of concentrate during the pre-partum period (last 10 weeks of pregnancy had no effect on the productive performance of the ewes. In contrast, the inclusion of concentrate in the post-partum period (6 weeks, resulted in greater milk yield (1009 vs. 1275 ± 89 g/d, lamb average daily gain (151±12 vs. 225±19 g/d and lamb output (kg of lamb LW weaned. However, the greater productivity thanks to the use of concentrates did not always turn into greatest profitability, since the economic margin was highly influenced by the cost of the diet and extremely subjected to variability in price of concentrates. Hence, the inclusion of concentrates in sheep meat production was not always justified in economic terms. In conclusion, the use of concentrates should only be considered as long as prices of commodities remain low, and inadvisable when prices reach a certain threshold or are subject to certain volatility in markets.

  17. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, T.M.; Dalskov, S.M. (S.M.); Van-Baak, M.A. (M.A.); Jebb, S. A.; Papadaki, A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.; Martinez, J A; HANDJIEVA-DARLENSKA, T.; Kunesova, M; Pihlsgård, M. (M.); Stender, S; Holst, C; Saris, W.H.; Astrup, A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. METHODS: We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain...

  18. High Fat Diet Alters Lactation Outcomes: Possible Involvement of Inflammatory and Serotonergic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Laura L; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Ekta Yadav; Seeley, Randy J.; Nelson D Horseman

    2012-01-01

    Delay in the onset of lactogenesis has been shown to occur in women who are obese, however the mechanism altered within the mammary gland causing the delay remains unknown. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD) has been previously determined to result decreased litters and litter numbers in rodent models due to a decrease in fertility. We examined the effects of feeding a HFD (60% kcal from fat) diet versus a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal from fat) to female Wistar rats on lactation outcomes. Fee...

  19. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  20. Fabrication and tolerances of optics for high concentration photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Ahmadpanaih, Hamed; Mendes Lopes, Joao; Zamora Herranz, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    High Concentration Photovoltaics (HCPV) require an optical system with high efficiency, low cost and large tolerance. We describe the particularities of the HCPV applications, which constrain the optics design and the manufacturing techonologies.

  1. High fat diet-induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia caused by down regulation of the transsulphuration pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napolitano Mariarosaria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy causes increased oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress is now believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the changes which occur in homocysteine (Hcy metabolism in high fat-diet induced non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats were investigated. Methods and results After feeding rats a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolisable energy as fat for 18 weeks, the concentration of homocysteine in the plasma was significantly raised while that of cysteine was lowered in the high fat as compared to the control diet fed animals. The hepatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CGS, the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of homocysteine to cysteine via the transsulphuration pathway in the liver, were also significantly reduced in the high fat-fed group. Conclusions These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with increased plasma Hcy levels caused by down-regulation of hepatic CBS and CGL activity. Thus, HHcy occurs at an early stage in high fat diet-induced NAFLD and is likely to contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the condition.

  2. Effects of soy components on blood and liver lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Lin; Cheng-Yu Tsai; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of soy protein, isoflavone, and saponin on liver and blood lipid in rats that consumed high-cholesterol diets.METHODS: High-cholesterol diets (1%) with or without soy material were fed to 6-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats for 8 wk. Blood lipids, liver lipids, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were measured. The in vitro bile acid-binding ability of soy materials was analyzed.RESULTS: The results of in vitro studies showed that soy protein isolate had a significantly higher bile acid-binding ability (8.4±0.8%) than soy saponin (3.1±0.7%) and isoflavone (1.3±0.4%, P<0.05). On the other hand, at the end of the experimental period, rats that consumed soy protein diets had lower GOT and GPT levels than rats that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets.Rats that consumed soy protein also had lower total cholesterol (TC) levels in the liver than those that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets. Rats that consumed the soy protein diet containing both saponin and isoflavone had lower hepatic TC level than those that consumed the soy protein diet without isoflavone alone.The effect of different types of proteins on triglyceride was not significant.CONCLUSION: Consumption of soy provided benefits to control lipid levels under high-cholesterol dieting conditions in this rat model of hypercholesterolemia. The major component that reduced hepatic TC was not saponin, but possibly isoflavone.

  3. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  4. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  5. The effect of high-fat--high-fructose diet on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of isoenergetic administration to adult rats of high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet for 2 weeks on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic. Body and skeletal muscle composition, energy balance, plasma lipid profile and glucose tolerance were measured, together with mitochondrial functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, together with significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin response to glucose load. Skeletal muscle triglycerides and ceramide were significantly higher in rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 content were significantly higher, while adenine nucleotide translocase content was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet. The results suggest that a high-fat--high-fructose diet even without hyperphagia is able to increase lipid flow to skeletal muscle and mitochondrial energetic efficiency, with two detrimental effects: (a) energy sparing that contributes to the early onset of obesity and (b) reduced oxidation of fatty acids and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which could generate insulin resistance.

  6. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Portilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F., is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo, including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8 isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois, the commercial strain BotaniGard® (GHA (Victor, NY, USA, and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC, were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 106, n × 107 of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 104, n × 105 were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8 are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98–4.98 viable spores per mm2.

  7. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-06-30

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²).

  8. Dietary chitosan enhances hepatic CYP7A1 activity and reduces plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min-Sun; Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Yangha

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the hypocholesterolemic action of chitosan on the diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were fed with chitosan-free diet (Control), diets containing 2% or 5% chitosan for 4 weeks. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by adding 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid to all diets. Body weight gain and food intake of rats did not differ among the groups. The chitosan treated groups showed significant improvement in the plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the control group (pCYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was increased by 123% and 165% for the 2% or 5% chitosan diets, respectively. These findings suggest that enhancement of hepatic CYP7A1 activity may be a mechanism, which can partially account for the hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary chitosan in cholesterol metabolism.

  9. Obesity, but not high-fat diet, promotes murine pancreatic cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patrick B; Ziegler, Kathryn M; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A; Wang, Sue S; Lillemoe, Keith D; Pitt, Henry A; Zyromski, Nicholas J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity accelerates pancreatic cancer growth; the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. This study evaluated the hypothesis that obesity, rather than high-fat diet, is responsible for accelerated pancreatic cancer growth. Male C57BL/6J mice were studied after 19 weeks of high-fat (60 % fat; n = 20) or low-fat (10 % fat; n = 10) diet and 5 weeks of Pan02 murine pancreatic cancer growth (flank). By two-way ANOVA, diet did not (p = 0.58), but body weight, significantly influenced tumor weight (p = 0.01). Tumor weight correlated positively with body weight (R (2) = 0.562; p pancreatic cancer growth observed in this model of diet-induced obesity. Decreased tumor apoptosis appears to play an important mechanistic role in this process. The concept that decreased apoptosis is potentiated by hypoadiponectinemia (seen in obesity) deserves further investigation.

  10. Exercise is more effective than diet control in preventing high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Kubota, Masakazu; Kuzuya, Akira; Sasaki, Kazuki; Hayashida, Naoko; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Uemura, Maiko; Kihara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shimohama, Shun; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2012-06-29

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some dietary patterns, specifically high fat diet (HFD), increase the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Thus, interventions targeting HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions may be effective in preventing the development of AD. We previously demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-overexpressing transgenic mice fed HFD showed worsening of cognitive function when compared with control APP mice on normal diet. Moreover, we reported that voluntary exercise ameliorates HFD-induced memory impairment and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. In the present study, we conducted diet control to ameliorate the metabolic abnormality caused by HFD on APP transgenic mice and compared the effect of diet control on cognitive function with that of voluntary exercise as well as that of combined (diet control plus exercise) treatment. Surprisingly, we found that exercise was more effective than diet control, although both exercise and diet control ameliorated HFD-induced memory deficit and Aβ deposition. The production of Aβ was not different between the exercise- and the diet control-treated mice. On the other hand, exercise specifically strengthened the activity of neprilysin, the Aβ-degrading enzyme, the level of which was significantly correlated with that of deposited Aβ in our mice. Notably, the effect of the combination treatment (exercise and diet control) on memory and amyloid pathology was not significantly different from that of exercise alone. These studies provide solid evidence that exercise is a useful intervention to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in transgenic model mice of AD.

  11. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), fed diets supplemented with different concentrations of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Hu, Gengdong; Zhao, Zhixiang; Meng, Shunlong; Fan, Limin; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Chen, Jiazhang

    2017-09-08

    The GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is cultured widely for the production of freshwater fish in China. Streptococcosis, which is related to pathogenic infections, occurs frequently in juvenile and adult female GIFT individuals. Resveratrol (RES) has been used in feed to control these infections in freshwater tilapia. To address the effects of RES on tilapia, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq, HiSeq. 2500) to explore the global transcriptomic response and specific involvement of hepatic mRNA of juvenile O. niloticus fed with diets containing different concentrations of (0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1g/kg) RES. A total of > 24,513,018 clean reads were generated and then assembled into 23,244 unigenes. The unigenes were annotated by comparing them against non-redundant protein sequence (Nr), non-redundant nucleotide (Nt), Swiss-Prot, Pfam, Gene Ontology database (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, and 12,578 unigenes were annotated to the GO database. A total of 1444 (0.025g/kg RES), 1526 (0.05g/kg RES), and 3135 (0.1g/kg RES) genes were detected as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs), when compared with the controls. A total of 6 (0.025 vs 0.05g/kg RES), 19 (0.025 vs 0.1g/kg RES), and 124 (0.05 vs 0.1g/kg RES) genes were detected as significant DEGs. Six genes, including dnah7x1, sox4, fam46a, hsp90a, ddit4, and nmrk2, were associated with an immune response. These findings provide information on the innate immunity of GIFT and might contribute to the development of strategies for the effective management of diseases and long-term sustainability of O. niloticus culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol