Study of application technology of ultra-high speed computer to the elucidation of complex phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekiguchi, Tomotsugu
1996-01-01
The basic design of numerical information library in the decentralized computer network was explained at the first step of constructing the application technology of ultra-high speed computer to the elucidation of complex phenomena. Establishment of the system makes possible to construct the efficient application environment of ultra-high speed computer system to be scalable with the different computing systems. We named the system Ninf (Network Information Library for High Performance Computing). The summary of application technology of library was described as follows: the application technology of library under the distributed environment, numeric constants, retrieval of value, library of special functions, computing library, Ninf library interface, Ninf remote library and registration. By the system, user is able to use the program concentrating the analyzing technology of numerical value with high precision, reliability and speed. (S.Y.)
High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: II. Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Staffelbach, G; Vermorel, O; Duchaine, F; Boussuge, J-F; Poinsot, T
2009-01-01
Present regulations in terms of pollutant emissions, noise and economical constraints, require new approaches and designs in the fields of energy supply and transportation. It is now well established that the next breakthrough will come from a better understanding of unsteady flow effects and by considering the entire system and not only isolated components. However, these aspects are still not well taken into account by the numerical approaches or understood whatever the design stage considered. The main challenge is essentially due to the computational requirements inferred by such complex systems if it is to be simulated by use of supercomputers. This paper shows how new challenges can be addressed by using parallel computing platforms for distinct elements of a more complex systems as encountered in aeronautical applications. Based on numerical simulations performed with modern aerodynamic and reactive flow solvers, this work underlines the interest of high-performance computing for solving flow in complex industrial configurations such as aircrafts, combustion chambers and turbomachines. Performance indicators related to parallel computing efficiency are presented, showing that establishing fair criterions is a difficult task for complex industrial applications. Examples of numerical simulations performed in industrial systems are also described with a particular interest for the computational time and the potential design improvements obtained with high-fidelity and multi-physics computing methods. These simulations use either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods or large eddy simulation and deal with turbulent unsteady flows, such as coupled flow phenomena (thermo-acoustic instabilities, buffet, etc). Some examples of the difficulties with grid generation and data analysis are also presented when dealing with these complex industrial applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enkelejda Miho
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The adaptive immune system recognizes antigens via an immense array of antigen-binding antibodies and T-cell receptors, the immune repertoire. The interrogation of immune repertoires is of high relevance for understanding the adaptive immune response in disease and infection (e.g., autoimmunity, cancer, HIV. Adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing (AIRR-seq has driven the quantitative and molecular-level profiling of immune repertoires, thereby revealing the high-dimensional complexity of the immune receptor sequence landscape. Several methods for the computational and statistical analysis of large-scale AIRR-seq data have been developed to resolve immune repertoire complexity and to understand the dynamics of adaptive immunity. Here, we review the current research on (i diversity, (ii clustering and network, (iii phylogenetic, and (iv machine learning methods applied to dissect, quantify, and compare the architecture, evolution, and specificity of immune repertoires. We summarize outstanding questions in computational immunology and propose future directions for systems immunology toward coupling AIRR-seq with the computational discovery of immunotherapeutics, vaccines, and immunodiagnostics.
An Automated Approach to Very High Order Aeroacoustic Computations in Complex Geometries
Dyson, Rodger W.; Goodrich, John W.
2000-01-01
Computational aeroacoustics requires efficient, high-resolution simulation tools. And for smooth problems, this is best accomplished with very high order in space and time methods on small stencils. But the complexity of highly accurate numerical methods can inhibit their practical application, especially in irregular geometries. This complexity is reduced by using a special form of Hermite divided-difference spatial interpolation on Cartesian grids, and a Cauchy-Kowalewslci recursion procedure for time advancement. In addition, a stencil constraint tree reduces the complexity of interpolating grid points that are located near wall boundaries. These procedures are used to automatically develop and implement very high order methods (>15) for solving the linearized Euler equations that can achieve less than one grid point per wavelength resolution away from boundaries by including spatial derivatives of the primitive variables at each grid point. The accuracy of stable surface treatments is currently limited to 11th order for grid aligned boundaries and to 2nd order for irregular boundaries.
High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: I. Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Montagnac, M; Vermorel, O; Staffelbach, G; Garcia, M; Boussuge, J-F; Gazaix, M; Poinsot, T
2009-01-01
Efficient numerical tools coupled with high-performance computers, have become a key element of the design process in the fields of energy supply and transportation. However flow phenomena that occur in complex systems such as gas turbines and aircrafts are still not understood mainly because of the models that are needed. In fact, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions as found today in industry focus on a reduced or simplified version of the real system (such as a periodic sector) and are usually solved with a steady-state assumption. This paper shows how to overcome such barriers and how such a new challenge can be addressed by developing flow solvers running on high-end computing platforms, using thousands of computing cores. Parallel strategies used by modern flow solvers are discussed with particular emphases on mesh-partitioning, load balancing and communication. Two examples are used to illustrate these concepts: a multi-block structured code and an unstructured code. Parallel computing strategies used with both flow solvers are detailed and compared. This comparison indicates that mesh-partitioning and load balancing are more straightforward with unstructured grids than with multi-block structured meshes. However, the mesh-partitioning stage can be challenging for unstructured grids, mainly due to memory limitations of the newly developed massively parallel architectures. Finally, detailed investigations show that the impact of mesh-partitioning on the numerical CFD solutions, due to rounding errors and block splitting, may be of importance and should be accurately addressed before qualifying massively parallel CFD tools for a routine industrial use.
Nature, computation and complexity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binder, P-M; Ellis, G F R
2016-01-01
The issue of whether the unfolding of events in the world can be considered a computation is explored in this paper. We come to different conclusions for inert and for living systems (‘no’ and ‘qualified yes’, respectively). We suggest that physical computation as we know it exists only as a tool of complex biological systems: us. (paper)
Usage of super high speed computer for clarification of complex phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekiguchi, Tomotsugu; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Nakata, Hideki; Tatebe, Osami; Takagi, Hiromitsu
1999-01-01
This study aims at construction of an efficient super high speed computer system application environment in response to parallel distributed system with easy transplantation to different computer system and different number by conducting research and development on super high speed computer application technology required for elucidation of complicated phenomenon in elucidation of complicated phenomenon of nuclear power field due to computed scientific method. In order to realize such environment, the Electrotechnical Laboratory has conducted development on Ninf, a network numerical information library. This Ninf system can supply a global network infrastructure for worldwide computing with high performance on further wide range distributed network (G.K.)
Theories of computational complexity
Calude, C
1988-01-01
This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.
A high performance, low power computational platform for complex sensing operations in smart cities
Jiang, Jiming; Claudel, Christian
2017-01-01
This paper presents a new wireless platform designed for an integrated traffic/flash flood monitoring system. The sensor platform is built around a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller and a 2.4GHz 802.15.4802.15.4 ISM compliant radio module. It can be interfaced with fixed traffic sensors, or receive data from vehicle transponders. This platform is specifically designed for solar-powered, low bandwidth, high computational performance wireless sensor network applications. A self-recovering unit is designed to increase reliability and allow periodic hard resets, an essential requirement for sensor networks. A radio monitoring circuitry is proposed to monitor incoming and outgoing transmissions, simplifying software debugging. We illustrate the performance of this wireless sensor platform on complex problems arising in smart cities, such as traffic flow monitoring, machine-learning-based flash flood monitoring or Kalman-filter based vehicle trajectory estimation. All design files have been uploaded and shared in an open science framework, and can be accessed from [1]. The hardware design is under CERN Open Hardware License v1.2.
A high performance, low power computational platform for complex sensing operations in smart cities
Jiang, Jiming
2017-02-02
This paper presents a new wireless platform designed for an integrated traffic/flash flood monitoring system. The sensor platform is built around a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller and a 2.4GHz 802.15.4802.15.4 ISM compliant radio module. It can be interfaced with fixed traffic sensors, or receive data from vehicle transponders. This platform is specifically designed for solar-powered, low bandwidth, high computational performance wireless sensor network applications. A self-recovering unit is designed to increase reliability and allow periodic hard resets, an essential requirement for sensor networks. A radio monitoring circuitry is proposed to monitor incoming and outgoing transmissions, simplifying software debugging. We illustrate the performance of this wireless sensor platform on complex problems arising in smart cities, such as traffic flow monitoring, machine-learning-based flash flood monitoring or Kalman-filter based vehicle trajectory estimation. All design files have been uploaded and shared in an open science framework, and can be accessed from [1]. The hardware design is under CERN Open Hardware License v1.2.
High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I
Zubkov, B. V.
1980-01-01
A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.
Computability, complexity, logic
Börger, Egon
1989-01-01
The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an
Hadjidoukas, P. E.; Angelikopoulos, P.; Papadimitriou, C.; Koumoutsakos, P.
2015-03-01
We present Π4U, an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjidoukas, P.E.; Angelikopoulos, P.; Papadimitriou, C.; Koumoutsakos, P.
2015-01-01
We present Π4U, 1 an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadjidoukas, P.E.; Angelikopoulos, P. [Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland); Papadimitriou, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, GR-38334 Volos (Greece); Koumoutsakos, P., E-mail: petros@ethz.ch [Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland)
2015-03-01
We present Π4U,{sup 1} an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow.
Monitoring performance of a highly distributed and complex computing infrastructure in LHCb
Mathe, Z.; Haen, C.; Stagni, F.
2017-10-01
In order to ensure an optimal performance of the LHCb Distributed Computing, based on LHCbDIRAC, it is necessary to be able to inspect the behavior over time of many components: firstly the agents and services on which the infrastructure is built, but also all the computing tasks and data transfers that are managed by this infrastructure. This consists of recording and then analyzing time series of a large number of observables, for which the usage of SQL relational databases is far from optimal. Therefore within DIRAC we have been studying novel possibilities based on NoSQL databases (ElasticSearch, OpenTSDB and InfluxDB) as a result of this study we developed a new monitoring system based on ElasticSearch. It has been deployed on the LHCb Distributed Computing infrastructure for which it collects data from all the components (agents, services, jobs) and allows creating reports through Kibana and a web user interface, which is based on the DIRAC web framework. In this paper we describe this new implementation of the DIRAC monitoring system. We give details on the ElasticSearch implementation within the DIRAC general framework, as well as an overview of the advantages of the pipeline aggregation used for creating a dynamic bucketing of the time series. We present the advantages of using the ElasticSearch DSL high-level library for creating and running queries. Finally we shall present the performances of that system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susan A. Yoon
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We present a curriculum and instruction framework for computer-supported teaching and learning about complex systems in high school science classrooms. This work responds to a need in K-12 science education research and practice for the articulation of design features for classroom instruction that can address the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS recently launched in the USA. We outline the features of the framework, including curricular relevance, cognitively rich pedagogies, computational tools for teaching and learning, and the development of content expertise, and provide examples of how the framework is translated into practice. We follow this up with evidence from a preliminary study conducted with 10 teachers and 361 students, aimed at understanding the extent to which students learned from the activities. Results demonstrated gains in students’ complex systems understanding and biology content knowledge. In interviews, students identified influences of various aspects of the curriculum and instruction framework on their learning.
Theory of computational complexity
Du, Ding-Zhu
2011-01-01
DING-ZHU DU, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Minnesota. KER-I KO, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Computer Science at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A
2014-02-11
Mechanisms for performing a complex matrix multiplication operation are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the complex matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. The first vector operand comprises a real and imaginary part of a first complex vector value. A complex load and splat operation is performed to load a second complex vector value of a second vector operand and replicate the second complex vector value within a second target vector register. The second complex vector value has a real and imaginary part. A cross multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the complex matrix multiplication operation. The partial product is accumulated with other partial products and a resulting accumulated partial product is stored in a result vector register.
Advances in computational complexity theory
Cai, Jin-Yi
1993-01-01
This collection of recent papers on computational complexity theory grew out of activities during a special year at DIMACS. With contributions by some of the leading experts in the field, this book is of lasting value in this fast-moving field, providing expositions not found elsewhere. Although aimed primarily at researchers in complexity theory and graduate students in mathematics or computer science, the book is accessible to anyone with an undergraduate education in mathematics or computer science. By touching on some of the major topics in complexity theory, this book sheds light on this burgeoning area of research.
Software Accelerates Computing Time for Complex Math
2014-01-01
Ames Research Center awarded Newark, Delaware-based EM Photonics Inc. SBIR funding to utilize graphic processing unit (GPU) technology- traditionally used for computer video games-to develop high-computing software called CULA. The software gives users the ability to run complex algorithms on personal computers with greater speed. As a result of the NASA collaboration, the number of employees at the company has increased 10 percent.
Implicit computational complexity and compilers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rubiano, Thomas
Complexity theory helps us predict and control resources, usually time and space, consumed by programs. Static analysis on specific syntactic criterion allows us to categorize some programs. A common approach is to observe the program’s data’s behavior. For instance, the detection of non...... evolution and a lot of research came from this theory. Until now, these implicit complexity theories were essentially applied on more or less toy languages. This thesis applies implicit computational complexity methods into “real life” programs by manipulating intermediate representation languages...
Computational models of complex systems
Dabbaghian, Vahid
2014-01-01
Computational and mathematical models provide us with the opportunities to investigate the complexities of real world problems. They allow us to apply our best analytical methods to define problems in a clearly mathematical manner and exhaustively test our solutions before committing expensive resources. This is made possible by assuming parameter(s) in a bounded environment, allowing for controllable experimentation, not always possible in live scenarios. For example, simulation of computational models allows the testing of theories in a manner that is both fundamentally deductive and experimental in nature. The main ingredients for such research ideas come from multiple disciplines and the importance of interdisciplinary research is well recognized by the scientific community. This book provides a window to the novel endeavours of the research communities to present their works by highlighting the value of computational modelling as a research tool when investigating complex systems. We hope that the reader...
Complex computation in the retina
Deshmukh, Nikhil Rajiv
Elucidating the general principles of computation in neural circuits is a difficult problem requiring both a tractable model circuit as well as sophisticated measurement tools. This thesis advances our understanding of complex computation in the salamander retina and its underlying circuitry and furthers the development of advanced tools to enable detailed study of neural circuits. The retina provides an ideal model system for neural circuits in general because it is capable of producing complex representations of the visual scene, and both its inputs and outputs are accessible to the experimenter. Chapter 2 describes the biophysical mechanisms that give rise to the omitted stimulus response in retinal ganglion cells described in Schwartz et al., (2007) and Schwartz and Berry, (2008). The extra response to omitted flashes is generated at the input to bipolar cells, and is separable from the characteristic latency shift of the OSR apparent in ganglion cells, which must occur downstream in the circuit. Chapter 3 characterizes the nonlinearities at the first synapse of the ON pathway in response to high contrast flashes and develops a phenomenological model that captures the effect of synaptic activation and intracellular signaling dynamics on flash responses. This work is the first attempt to model the dynamics of the poorly characterized mGluR6 transduction cascade unique to ON bipolar cells, and explains the second lobe of the biphasic flash response. Complementary to the study of neural circuits, recent advances in wafer-scale photolithography have made possible new devices to measure the electrical and mechanical properties of neurons. Chapter 4 reports a novel piezoelectric sensor that facilitates the simultaneous measurement of electrical and mechanical signals in neural tissue. This technology could reveal the relationship between the electrical activity of neurons and their local mechanical environment, which is critical to the study of mechanoreceptors
Ubiquitous Computing, Complexity and Culture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
environments, experience time, and develop identities individually and socially. Interviews with working media artists lend further perspectives on these cultural transformations. Drawing on cultural theory, new media art studies, human-computer interaction theory, and software studies, this cutting-edge book......The ubiquitous nature of mobile and pervasive computing has begun to reshape and complicate our notions of space, time, and identity. In this collection, over thirty internationally recognized contributors reflect on ubiquitous computing’s implications for the ways in which we interact with our...... critically unpacks the complex ubiquity-effects confronting us every day....
Martin, R.; Orgogozo, L.; Noiriel, C. N.; Guibert, R.; Golfier, F.; Debenest, G.; Quintard, M.
2013-05-01
In the context of biofilm growth in porous media, we developed high performance computing tools to study the impact of biofilms on the fluid transport through pores of a solid matrix. Indeed, biofilms are consortia of micro-organisms that are developing in polymeric extracellular substances that are generally located at a fluid-solid interfaces like pore interfaces in a water-saturated porous medium. Several applications of biofilms in porous media are encountered for instance in bio-remediation methods by allowing the dissolution of organic pollutants. Many theoretical studies have been done on the resulting effective properties of these modified media ([1],[2], [3]) but the bio-colonized porous media under consideration are mainly described following simplified theoretical media (stratified media, cubic networks of spheres ...). Therefore, recent experimental advances have provided tomography images of bio-colonized porous media which allow us to observe realistic biofilm micro-structures inside the porous media [4]. To solve closure system of equations related to upscaling procedures in realistic porous media, we solve the velocity field of fluids through pores on complex geometries that are described with a huge number of cells (up to billions). Calculations are made on a realistic 3D sample geometry obtained by X micro-tomography. Cell volumes are coming from a percolation experiment performed to estimate the impact of precipitation processes on the properties of a fluid transport phenomena in porous media [5]. Average permeabilities of the sample are obtained from velocities by using MPI-based high performance computing on up to 1000 processors. Steady state Stokes equations are solved using finite volume approach. Relaxation pre-conditioning is introduced to accelerate the code further. Good weak or strong scaling are reached with results obtained in hours instead of weeks. Factors of accelerations of 20 up to 40 can be reached. Tens of geometries can now be
Computational complexity of Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korshunov, Aleksei D [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2012-02-28
Boolean functions are among the fundamental objects of discrete mathematics, especially in those of its subdisciplines which fall under mathematical logic and mathematical cybernetics. The language of Boolean functions is convenient for describing the operation of many discrete systems such as contact networks, Boolean circuits, branching programs, and some others. An important parameter of discrete systems of this kind is their complexity. This characteristic has been actively investigated starting from Shannon's works. There is a large body of scientific literature presenting many fundamental results. The purpose of this survey is to give an account of the main results over the last sixty years related to the complexity of computation (realization) of Boolean functions by contact networks, Boolean circuits, and Boolean circuits without branching. Bibliography: 165 titles.
Computational complexity in entanglement transformations
Chitambar, Eric A.
In physics, systems having three parts are typically much more difficult to analyze than those having just two. Even in classical mechanics, predicting the motion of three interacting celestial bodies remains an insurmountable challenge while the analogous two-body problem has an elementary solution. It is as if just by adding a third party, a fundamental change occurs in the structure of the problem that renders it unsolvable. In this thesis, we demonstrate how such an effect is likewise present in the theory of quantum entanglement. In fact, the complexity differences between two-party and three-party entanglement become quite conspicuous when comparing the difficulty in deciding what state changes are possible for these systems when no additional entanglement is consumed in the transformation process. We examine this entanglement transformation question and its variants in the language of computational complexity theory, a powerful subject that formalizes the concept of problem difficulty. Since deciding feasibility of a specified bipartite transformation is relatively easy, this task belongs to the complexity class P. On the other hand, for tripartite systems, we find the problem to be NP-Hard, meaning that its solution is at least as hard as the solution to some of the most difficult problems humans have encountered. One can then rigorously defend the assertion that a fundamental complexity difference exists between bipartite and tripartite entanglement since unlike the former, the full range of forms realizable by the latter is incalculable (assuming P≠NP). However, similar to the three-body celestial problem, when one examines a special subclass of the problem---invertible transformations on systems having at least one qubit subsystem---we prove that the problem can be solved efficiently. As a hybrid of the two questions, we find that the question of tripartite to bipartite transformations can be solved by an efficient randomized algorithm. Our results are
Computational complexity a quantitative perspective
Zimand, Marius
2004-01-01
There has been a common perception that computational complexity is a theory of "bad news" because its most typical results assert that various real-world and innocent-looking tasks are infeasible. In fact, "bad news" is a relative term, and, indeed, in some situations (e.g., in cryptography), we want an adversary to not be able to perform a certain task. However, a "bad news" result does not automatically become useful in such a scenario. For this to happen, its hardness features have to be quantitatively evaluated and shown to manifest extensively. The book undertakes a quantitative analysis of some of the major results in complexity that regard either classes of problems or individual concrete problems. The size of some important classes are studied using resource-bounded topological and measure-theoretical tools. In the case of individual problems, the book studies relevant quantitative attributes such as approximation properties or the number of hard inputs at each length. One chapter is dedicated to abs...
Computability, complexity, and languages fundamentals of theoretical computer science
Davis, Martin D; Rheinboldt, Werner
1983-01-01
Computability, Complexity, and Languages: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science provides an introduction to the various aspects of theoretical computer science. Theoretical computer science is the mathematical study of models of computation. This text is composed of five parts encompassing 17 chapters, and begins with an introduction to the use of proofs in mathematics and the development of computability theory in the context of an extremely simple abstract programming language. The succeeding parts demonstrate the performance of abstract programming language using a macro expa
Computing in high energy physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watase, Yoshiyuki
1991-09-15
The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors.
Shute, J.; Carriere, L.; Duffy, D.; Hoy, E.; Peters, J.; Shen, Y.; Kirschbaum, D.
2017-12-01
The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center is building and maintaining an Enterprise GIS capability for its stakeholders, to include NASA scientists, industry partners, and the public. This platform is powered by three GIS subsystems operating in a highly-available, virtualized environment: 1) the Spatial Analytics Platform is the primary NCCS GIS and provides users discoverability of the vast DigitalGlobe/NGA raster assets within the NCCS environment; 2) the Disaster Mapping Platform provides mapping and analytics services to NASA's Disaster Response Group; and 3) the internal (Advanced Data Analytics Platform/ADAPT) enterprise GIS provides users with the full suite of Esri and open source GIS software applications and services. All systems benefit from NCCS's cutting edge infrastructure, to include an InfiniBand network for high speed data transfers; a mixed/heterogeneous environment featuring seamless sharing of information between Linux and Windows subsystems; and in-depth system monitoring and warning systems. Due to its co-location with the NCCS Discover High Performance Computing (HPC) environment and the Advanced Data Analytics Platform (ADAPT), the GIS platform has direct access to several large NCCS datasets including DigitalGlobe/NGA, Landsat, MERRA, and MERRA2. Additionally, the NCCS ArcGIS Desktop Windows virtual machines utilize existing NetCDF and OPeNDAP assets for visualization, modelling, and analysis - thus eliminating the need for data duplication. With the advent of this platform, Earth scientists have full access to vast data repositories and the industry-leading tools required for successful management and analysis of these multi-petabyte, global datasets. The full system architecture and integration with scientific datasets will be presented. Additionally, key applications and scientific analyses will be explained, to include the NASA Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) Reporter crowdsourcing application, the
Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding
Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva
2016-01-01
This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity. Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard. The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...
Computational Complexity of Combinatorial Surfaces
Vegter, Gert; Yap, Chee K.
1990-01-01
We investigate the computational problems associated with combinatorial surfaces. Specifically, we present an algorithm (based on the Brahana-Dehn-Heegaard approach) for transforming the polygonal schema of a closed triangulated surface into its canonical form in O(n log n) time, where n is the
Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric
2015-05-01
Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to better understand teachers' classroom practices as they attempt to navigate myriad variables in the implementation of biology units that include working with computer simulations, and learning about and teaching through complex systems ideas. Sample: Research participants were three high school biology teachers, two females and one male, ranging in teaching experience from six to 16 years. Their teaching contexts also ranged in student achievement from 14-47% advanced science proficiency. Design and methods: We used a holistic multiple case study methodology and collected data during the 2011-2012 school year. Data sources include classroom observations, teacher and student surveys, and interviews. Data analyses and trustworthiness measures were conducted through qualitative mining of data sources and triangulation of findings. Results: We illustrate the characteristics of adaptive expertise of more or less successful teaching and learning when implementing complex systems curricula. We also demonstrate differences between case study teachers in terms of particular variables associated with adaptive expertise. Conclusions: This research contributes to scholarship on practices and professional development needed to better support teachers to teach through a complex systems pedagogical and curricular approach.
Metasynthetic computing and engineering of complex systems
Cao, Longbing
2015-01-01
Provides a comprehensive overview and introduction to the concepts, methodologies, analysis, design and applications of metasynthetic computing and engineering. The author: Presents an overview of complex systems, especially open complex giant systems such as the Internet, complex behavioural and social problems, and actionable knowledge discovery and delivery in the big data era. Discusses ubiquitous intelligence in complex systems, including human intelligence, domain intelligence, social intelligence, network intelligence, data intelligence and machine intelligence, and their synergy thro
Cloud Computing for Complex Performance Codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klein, Brandon Thorin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miner, John Gifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-02-01
This report describes the use of cloud computing services for running complex public domain performance assessment problems. The work consisted of two phases: Phase 1 was to demonstrate complex codes, on several differently configured servers, could run and compute trivial small scale problems in a commercial cloud infrastructure. Phase 2 focused on proving non-trivial large scale problems could be computed in the commercial cloud environment. The cloud computing effort was successfully applied using codes of interest to the geohydrology and nuclear waste disposal modeling community.
Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices.
Green, Alexander A; Kim, Jongmin; Ma, Duo; Silver, Pamela A; Collins, James J; Yin, Peng
2017-08-03
Synthetic biology aims to develop engineering-driven approaches to the programming of cellular functions that could yield transformative technologies. Synthetic gene circuits that combine DNA, protein, and RNA components have demonstrated a range of functions such as bistability, oscillation, feedback, and logic capabilities. However, it remains challenging to scale up these circuits owing to the limited number of designable, orthogonal, high-performance parts, the empirical and often tedious composition rules, and the requirements for substantial resources for encoding and operation. Here, we report a strategy for constructing RNA-only nanodevices to evaluate complex logic in living cells. Our 'ribocomputing' systems are composed of de-novo-designed parts and operate through predictable and designable base-pairing rules, allowing the effective in silico design of computing devices with prescribed configurations and functions in complex cellular environments. These devices operate at the post-transcriptional level and use an extended RNA transcript to co-localize all circuit sensing, computation, signal transduction, and output elements in the same self-assembled molecular complex, which reduces diffusion-mediated signal losses, lowers metabolic cost, and improves circuit reliability. We demonstrate that ribocomputing devices in Escherichia coli can evaluate two-input logic with a dynamic range up to 900-fold and scale them to four-input AND, six-input OR, and a complex 12-input expression (A1 AND A2 AND NOT A1*) OR (B1 AND B2 AND NOT B2*) OR (C1 AND C2) OR (D1 AND D2) OR (E1 AND E2). Successful operation of ribocomputing devices based on programmable RNA interactions suggests that systems employing the same design principles could be implemented in other host organisms or in extracellular settings.
Bioinspired computation in combinatorial optimization: algorithms and their computational complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neumann, Frank; Witt, Carsten
2012-01-01
Bioinspired computation methods, such as evolutionary algorithms and ant colony optimization, are being applied successfully to complex engineering and combinatorial optimization problems, and it is very important that we understand the computational complexity of these algorithms. This tutorials...... problems. Classical single objective optimization is examined first. They then investigate the computational complexity of bioinspired computation applied to multiobjective variants of the considered combinatorial optimization problems, and in particular they show how multiobjective optimization can help...... to speed up bioinspired computation for single-objective optimization problems. The tutorial is based on a book written by the authors with the same title. Further information about the book can be found at www.bioinspiredcomputation.com....
Computational Modeling of Complex Protein Activity Networks
Schivo, Stefano; Leijten, Jeroen; Karperien, Marcel; Post, Janine N.; Prignet, Claude
2017-01-01
Because of the numerous entities interacting, the complexity of the networks that regulate cell fate makes it impossible to analyze and understand them using the human brain alone. Computational modeling is a powerful method to unravel complex systems. We recently described the development of a
Unified Computational Intelligence for Complex Systems
Seiffertt, John
2010-01-01
Computational intelligence encompasses a wide variety of techniques that allow computation to learn, to adapt, and to seek. That is, they may be designed to learn information without explicit programming regarding the nature of the content to be retained, they may be imbued with the functionality to adapt to maintain their course within a complex and unpredictably changing environment, and they may help us seek out truths about our own dynamics and lives through their inclusion in complex system modeling. These capabilities place our ability to compute in a category apart from our ability to e
Computing in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watase, Yoshiyuki
1991-01-01
The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors
Computational Complexity and Human Decision-Making.
Bossaerts, Peter; Murawski, Carsten
2017-12-01
The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective. To be plausible, future theories of decision-making will need to take into account both the resources required for implementing the computations implied by the theory, and the resource constraints imposed on the decision-maker by biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Computational error and complexity in science and engineering computational error and complexity
Lakshmikantham, Vangipuram; Chui, Charles K; Chui, Charles K
2005-01-01
The book "Computational Error and Complexity in Science and Engineering pervades all the science and engineering disciplines where computation occurs. Scientific and engineering computation happens to be the interface between the mathematical model/problem and the real world application. One needs to obtain good quality numerical values for any real-world implementation. Just mathematical quantities symbols are of no use to engineers/technologists. Computational complexity of the numerical method to solve the mathematical model, also computed along with the solution, on the other hand, will tell us how much computation/computational effort has been spent to achieve that quality of result. Anyone who wants the specified physical problem to be solved has every right to know the quality of the solution as well as the resources spent for the solution. The computed error as well as the complexity provide the scientific convincing answer to these questions. Specifically some of the disciplines in which the book w...
Computation of the Complex Probability Function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trainer, Amelia Jo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ledwith, Patrick John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-08-22
The complex probability function is important in many areas of physics and many techniques have been developed in an attempt to compute it for some z quickly and e ciently. Most prominent are the methods that use Gauss-Hermite quadrature, which uses the roots of the n^{th} degree Hermite polynomial and corresponding weights to approximate the complex probability function. This document serves as an overview and discussion of the use, shortcomings, and potential improvements on the Gauss-Hermite quadrature for the complex probability function.
Computing complex Airy functions by numerical quadrature
A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)
2001-01-01
textabstractIntegral representations are considered of solutions of the Airydifferential equation w''-z, w=0 for computing Airy functions for complex values of z.In a first method contour integral representations of the Airyfunctions are written as non-oscillating
Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.
2000-10-19
The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.
EPA uses high-end scientific computing, geospatial services and remote sensing/imagery analysis to support EPA's mission. The Center for Environmental Computing (CEC) assists the Agency's program offices and regions to meet staff needs in these areas.
Computing in high energy physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Oxford University (United Kingdom)
1989-07-15
Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'.
Computing in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin
1989-01-01
Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'
High Performance Computing Multicast
2012-02-01
A History of the Virtual Synchrony Replication Model,” in Replication: Theory and Practice, Charron-Bost, B., Pedone, F., and Schiper, A. (Eds...Performance Computing IP / IPv4 Internet Protocol (version 4.0) IPMC Internet Protocol MultiCast LAN Local Area Network MCMD Dr. Multicast MPI
INSPIRED High School Computing Academies
Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith
2011-01-01
If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…
A complex network approach to cloud computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travieso, Gonzalo; Ruggiero, Carlos Antônio; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura
2016-01-01
Cloud computing has become an important means to speed up computing. One problem influencing heavily the performance of such systems is the choice of nodes as servers responsible for executing the clients’ tasks. In this article we report how complex networks can be used to model such a problem. More specifically, we investigate the performance of the processing respectively to cloud systems underlaid by Erdős–Rényi (ER) and Barabási-Albert (BA) topology containing two servers. Cloud networks involving two communities not necessarily of the same size are also considered in our analysis. The performance of each configuration is quantified in terms of the cost of communication between the client and the nearest server, and the balance of the distribution of tasks between the two servers. Regarding the latter, the ER topology provides better performance than the BA for smaller average degrees and opposite behaviour for larger average degrees. With respect to cost, smaller values are found in the BA topology irrespective of the average degree. In addition, we also verified that it is easier to find good servers in ER than in BA networks. Surprisingly, balance and cost are not too much affected by the presence of communities. However, for a well-defined community network, we found that it is important to assign each server to a different community so as to achieve better performance. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics )
Computing in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.
1986-01-01
This book deals with advanced computing applications in physics, and in particular in high energy physics environments. The main subjects covered are networking; vector and parallel processing; and embedded systems. Also examined are topics such as operating systems, future computer architectures and commercial computer products. The book presents solutions that are foreseen as coping, in the future, with computing problems in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. In the experimental environment the large amounts of data to be processed offer special problems on-line as well as off-line. For on-line data reduction, embedded special purpose computers, which are often used for trigger applications are applied. For off-line processing, parallel computers such as emulator farms and the cosmic cube may be employed. The analysis of these topics is therefore a main feature of this volume
Low Computational Complexity Network Coding For Mobile Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide, Janus
2012-01-01
Network Coding (NC) is a technique that can provide benefits in many types of networks, some examples from wireless networks are: In relay networks, either the physical or the data link layer, to reduce the number of transmissions. In reliable multicast, to reduce the amount of signaling and enable......-flow coding technique. One of the key challenges of this technique is its inherent computational complexity which can lead to high computational load and energy consumption in particular on the mobile platforms that are the target platform in this work. To increase the coding throughput several...
Probabilistic data integration and computational complexity
Hansen, T. M.; Cordua, K. S.; Mosegaard, K.
2016-12-01
Inverse problems in Earth Sciences typically refer to the problem of inferring information about properties of the Earth from observations of geophysical data (the result of nature's solution to the `forward' problem). This problem can be formulated more generally as a problem of `integration of information'. A probabilistic formulation of data integration is in principle simple: If all information available (from e.g. geology, geophysics, remote sensing, chemistry…) can be quantified probabilistically, then different algorithms exist that allow solving the data integration problem either through an analytical description of the combined probability function, or sampling the probability function. In practice however, probabilistic based data integration may not be easy to apply successfully. This may be related to the use of sampling methods, which are known to be computationally costly. But, another source of computational complexity is related to how the individual types of information are quantified. In one case a data integration problem is demonstrated where the goal is to determine the existence of buried channels in Denmark, based on multiple sources of geo-information. Due to one type of information being too informative (and hence conflicting), this leads to a difficult sampling problems with unrealistic uncertainty. Resolving this conflict prior to data integration, leads to an easy data integration problem, with no biases. In another case it is demonstrated how imperfections in the description of the geophysical forward model (related to solving the wave-equation) can lead to a difficult data integration problem, with severe bias in the results. If the modeling error is accounted for, the data integration problems becomes relatively easy, with no apparent biases. Both examples demonstrate that biased information can have a dramatic effect on the computational efficiency solving a data integration problem and lead to biased results, and under
On the complexity of computing two nonlinearity measures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Find, Magnus Gausdal
2014-01-01
We study the computational complexity of two Boolean nonlinearity measures: the nonlinearity and the multiplicative complexity. We show that if one-way functions exist, no algorithm can compute the multiplicative complexity in time 2O(n) given the truth table of length 2n, in fact under the same ...
Grid computing in high energy physics
Avery, P
2004-01-01
Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software r...
Algebraic computability and enumeration models recursion theory and descriptive complexity
Nourani, Cyrus F
2016-01-01
This book, Algebraic Computability and Enumeration Models: Recursion Theory and Descriptive Complexity, presents new techniques with functorial models to address important areas on pure mathematics and computability theory from the algebraic viewpoint. The reader is first introduced to categories and functorial models, with Kleene algebra examples for languages. Functorial models for Peano arithmetic are described toward important computational complexity areas on a Hilbert program, leading to computability with initial models. Infinite language categories are also introduced to explain descriptive complexity with recursive computability with admissible sets and urelements. Algebraic and categorical realizability is staged on several levels, addressing new computability questions with omitting types realizably. Further applications to computing with ultrafilters on sets and Turing degree computability are examined. Functorial models computability is presented with algebraic trees realizing intuitionistic type...
[The Psychomat computer complex for psychophysiologic studies].
Matveev, E V; Nadezhdin, D S; Shemsudov, A I; Kalinin, A V
1991-01-01
The authors analyze the principles of the design of a computed psychophysiological system for universal uses. Show the effectiveness of the use of computed technology as a combination of universal computation and control potentialities of a personal computer equipped with problem-oriented specialized facilities of stimuli presentation and detection of the test subject's reactions. Define the hardware and software configuration of the microcomputer psychophysiological system "Psychomat". Describe its functional possibilities and the basic medico-technical characteristics. Review organizational issues of the maintenance of its full-scale production.
Computer aided operation of complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodstein, L.P.
1985-09-01
Advanced technology is having the effect that industrial systems are becoming more highly automated and do not rely on human intervention for the control of normally planned and/or predicted situations. Thus the importance of the operator has shifted from being a manual controller to becoming more of a systems manager and supervisory controller. At the same time, the use of advanced information technology in the control room and its potential impact on human-machine capabilities places additional demands on the designer. This report deals with work carried out to describe the plant-operator relationship in order to systematize the design and evaluation of suitable information systems in the control room. This design process starts with the control requirements from the plant and transforms them into corresponding sets of decision-making tasks with appropriate allocation of responsibilities between computer and operator. To further effectivize this cooperation, appropriate information display and accession are identified. The conceptual work has been supported by experimental studies on a small-scale simulator. (author)
Computer controlled high voltage system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others
1996-12-31
A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.
Computational Complexity of Bosons in Linear Networks
2017-03-01
is between one and two orders-of-magnitude more efficient than current heralded multiphoton sources based on spontaneous parametric downconversion...expected to perform tasks intractable for a classical computer, yet requiring minimal non-classical resources as compared to full- scale quantum computers...implementations to date employed sources based on inefficient processes—spontaneous parametric downconversion—that only simulate heralded single
DOE research in utilization of high-performance computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buzbee, B.L.; Worlton, W.J.; Michael, G.; Rodrigue, G.
1980-12-01
Department of Energy (DOE) and other Government research laboratories depend on high-performance computer systems to accomplish their programatic goals. As the most powerful computer systems become available, they are acquired by these laboratories so that advances can be made in their disciplines. These advances are often the result of added sophistication to numerical models whose execution is made possible by high-performance computer systems. However, high-performance computer systems have become increasingly complex; consequently, it has become increasingly difficult to realize their potential performance. The result is a need for research on issues related to the utilization of these systems. This report gives a brief description of high-performance computers, and then addresses the use of and future needs for high-performance computers within DOE, the growing complexity of applications within DOE, and areas of high-performance computer systems warranting research. 1 figure
Complex Data Modeling and Computationally Intensive Statistical Methods
Mantovan, Pietro
2010-01-01
The last years have seen the advent and development of many devices able to record and store an always increasing amount of complex and high dimensional data; 3D images generated by medical scanners or satellite remote sensing, DNA microarrays, real time financial data, system control datasets. The analysis of this data poses new challenging problems and requires the development of novel statistical models and computational methods, fueling many fascinating and fast growing research areas of modern statistics. The book offers a wide variety of statistical methods and is addressed to statistici
Multiscale modeling of complex materials phenomenological, theoretical and computational aspects
Trovalusci, Patrizia
2014-01-01
The papers in this volume deal with materials science, theoretical mechanics and experimental and computational techniques at multiple scales, providing a sound base and a framework for many applications which are hitherto treated in a phenomenological sense. The basic principles are formulated of multiscale modeling strategies towards modern complex multiphase materials subjected to various types of mechanical, thermal loadings and environmental effects. The focus is on problems where mechanics is highly coupled with other concurrent physical phenomena. Attention is also focused on the historical origins of multiscale modeling and foundations of continuum mechanics currently adopted to model non-classical continua with substructure, for which internal length scales play a crucial role.
International Symposium on Complex Computing-Networks
Sevgi, L; CCN2005; Complex computing networks: Brain-like and wave-oriented electrodynamic algorithms
2006-01-01
This book uniquely combines new advances in the electromagnetic and the circuits&systems theory. It integrates both fields regarding computational aspects of common interest. Emphasized subjects are those methods which mimic brain-like and electrodynamic behaviour; among these are cellular neural networks, chaos and chaotic dynamics, attractor-based computation and stream ciphers. The book contains carefully selected contributions from the Symposium CCN2005. Pictures from the bestowal of Honorary Doctorate degrees to Leon O. Chua and Leopold B. Felsen are included.
Computing Hypercrossed Complex Pairings in Digital Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simge Öztunç
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider an additive group structure in digital images and introduce the commutator in digital images. Then we calculate the hypercrossed complex pairings which generates a normal subgroup in dimension 2 and in dimension 3 by using 8-adjacency and 26-adjacency.
Computer simulation of complexity in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Takaya; Sato, Tetsuya
1998-01-01
By making a comprehensive comparative study of many self-organizing phenomena occurring in magnetohydrodynamics and kinetic plasmas, we came up with a hypothetical grand view of self-organization. This assertion is confirmed by a recent computer simulation for a broader science field, specifically, the structure formation of short polymer chains, where the nature of the interaction is completely different from that of plasmas. It is found that the formation of the global orientation order proceeds stepwise. (author)
A design of a computer complex including vector processors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asai, Kiyoshi
1982-12-01
We, members of the Computing Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute have been engaged for these six years in the research of adaptability of vector processing to large-scale nuclear codes. The research has been done in collaboration with researchers and engineers of JAERI and a computer manufacturer. In this research, forty large-scale nuclear codes were investigated from the viewpoint of vectorization. Among them, twenty-six codes were actually vectorized and executed. As the results of the investigation, it is now estimated that about seventy percents of nuclear codes and seventy percents of our total amount of CPU time of JAERI are highly vectorizable. Based on the data obtained by the investigation, (1)currently vectorizable CPU time, (2)necessary number of vector processors, (3)necessary manpower for vectorization of nuclear codes, (4)computing speed, memory size, number of parallel 1/0 paths, size and speed of 1/0 buffer of vector processor suitable for our applications, (5)necessary software and operational policy for use of vector processors are discussed, and finally (6)a computer complex including vector processors is presented in this report. (author)
Pentacoordinated organoaluminum complexes: A computational insight
Milione, Stefano
2012-12-24
The geometry and the electronic structure of a series of organometallic pentacoordinated aluminum complexes bearing tri- or tetradentate N,O-based ligands have been investigated with theoretical methods. The BP86, B3LYP, and M06 functionals reproduce with low accuracy the geometry of the selected complexes. The worst result was obtained for the complex bearing a Schiff base ligand with a pendant donor arm, aeimpAlMe2 (aeimp = N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(3,5-di-tert-butyl)salicylaldimine). In particular, the Al-Namine bond distance was unacceptably overestimated. This failure suggests a reasonably flat potential energy surface with respect to Al-N elongation, indicating a weak interaction with probably a strong component of dispersion forces. MP2 and M06-2X methods led to an acceptable value for the same Al-N distance. Better results were obtained with the addition of the dispersion correction to the hybrid B3LYP functional (B3LYP-D). Natural bond orbital analysis revealed that the contribution of the d orbital to the bonding is very small, in agreement with several previous studies of hypervalent molecules. The donation of electronic charge from the ligand to metal mainly consists in the interactions of the lone pairs on the donor atoms of the ligands with the s and p valence orbitals of the aluminum. The covalent bonding of the Al with the coordinated ligand is weak, and the interactions between Al and the coordinated ligands are largely ionic. To further explore the geometrical and electronic factors affecting the formation of these pentacoordianted aluminum complexes, we considered the tetracoordinated complex impAlMe2 (imp = N-isopropyl-(3,5-di-tert-butyl)salicylaldimine)), analogous to aeimpAlMe 2, and we investigated the potential energy surface around the aluminum atom corresponding to the approach of NMe3 to the metal center. At the MP2/6-31G(d) level of theory, a weak attraction was revealed only when NMe3 heads toward the metal center through the directions
Pentacoordinated organoaluminum complexes: A computational insight
Milione, Stefano; Milano, Giuseppe; Cavallo, Luigi
2012-01-01
The geometry and the electronic structure of a series of organometallic pentacoordinated aluminum complexes bearing tri- or tetradentate N,O-based ligands have been investigated with theoretical methods. The BP86, B3LYP, and M06 functionals reproduce with low accuracy the geometry of the selected complexes. The worst result was obtained for the complex bearing a Schiff base ligand with a pendant donor arm, aeimpAlMe2 (aeimp = N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-(3,5-di-tert-butyl)salicylaldimine). In particular, the Al-Namine bond distance was unacceptably overestimated. This failure suggests a reasonably flat potential energy surface with respect to Al-N elongation, indicating a weak interaction with probably a strong component of dispersion forces. MP2 and M06-2X methods led to an acceptable value for the same Al-N distance. Better results were obtained with the addition of the dispersion correction to the hybrid B3LYP functional (B3LYP-D). Natural bond orbital analysis revealed that the contribution of the d orbital to the bonding is very small, in agreement with several previous studies of hypervalent molecules. The donation of electronic charge from the ligand to metal mainly consists in the interactions of the lone pairs on the donor atoms of the ligands with the s and p valence orbitals of the aluminum. The covalent bonding of the Al with the coordinated ligand is weak, and the interactions between Al and the coordinated ligands are largely ionic. To further explore the geometrical and electronic factors affecting the formation of these pentacoordianted aluminum complexes, we considered the tetracoordinated complex impAlMe2 (imp = N-isopropyl-(3,5-di-tert-butyl)salicylaldimine)), analogous to aeimpAlMe 2, and we investigated the potential energy surface around the aluminum atom corresponding to the approach of NMe3 to the metal center. At the MP2/6-31G(d) level of theory, a weak attraction was revealed only when NMe3 heads toward the metal center through the directions
Large-scale computing techniques for complex system simulations
Dubitzky, Werner; Schott, Bernard
2012-01-01
Complex systems modeling and simulation approaches are being adopted in a growing number of sectors, including finance, economics, biology, astronomy, and many more. Technologies ranging from distributed computing to specialized hardware are explored and developed to address the computational requirements arising in complex systems simulations. The aim of this book is to present a representative overview of contemporary large-scale computing technologies in the context of complex systems simulations applications. The intention is to identify new research directions in this field and
Computations, Complexity, Experiments, and the World Outside Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadanoff, L.P
2009-01-01
Computer Models in the Sciences and Social Sciences. 1. Simulation and Prediction in Complex Systems: the Good the Bad and the Awful. This lecture deals with the history of large-scale computer modeling mostly in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's sponsorship of modeling for weapons development and innovation in energy sources. 2. Complexity: Making a Splash-Breaking a Neck - The Making of Complexity in Physical System. For ages thinkers have been asking how complexity arise. The laws of physics are very simple. How come we are so complex? This lecture tries to approach this question by asking how complexity arises in physical fluids. 3. Forrester, et. al. Social and Biological Model-Making The partial collapse of the world's economy has raised the question of whether we could improve the performance of economic and social systems by a major effort on creating understanding via large-scale computer models. (author)
Computer simulations of dendrimer-polyelectrolyte complexes.
Pandav, Gunja; Ganesan, Venkat
2014-08-28
We carry out a systematic analysis of static properties of the clusters formed by complexation between charged dendrimers and linear polyelectrolyte (LPE) chains in a dilute solution under good solvent conditions. We use single chain in mean-field simulations and analyze the structure of the clusters through radial distribution functions of the dendrimer, cluster size, and charge distributions. The effects of LPE length, charge ratio between LPE and dendrimer, the influence of salt concentration, and the dendrimer generation number are examined. Systems with short LPEs showed a reduced propensity for aggregation with dendrimers, leading to formation of smaller clusters. In contrast, larger dendrimers and longer LPEs lead to larger clusters with significant bridging. Increasing salt concentration was seen to reduce aggregation between dendrimers as a result of screening of electrostatic interactions. Generally, maximum complexation was observed in systems with an equal amount of net dendrimer and LPE charges, whereas either excess LPE or dendrimer concentrations resulted in reduced clustering between dendrimers.
Grid Computing in High Energy Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avery, Paul
2004-01-01
Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them.Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software resources, regardless of location); (4) collaboration (providing tools that allow members full and fair access to all collaboration resources and enable distributed teams to work effectively, irrespective of location); and (5) education, training and outreach (providing resources and mechanisms for training students and for communicating important information to the public).It is believed that computing infrastructures based on Data Grids and optical networks can meet these challenges and can offer data intensive enterprises in high energy physics and elsewhere a comprehensive, scalable framework for collaboration and resource sharing. A number of Data Grid projects have been underway since 1999. Interestingly, the most exciting and far ranging of these projects are led by collaborations of high energy physicists, computer scientists and scientists from other disciplines in support of experiments with massive, near-term data needs. I review progress in this
High speed computer assisted tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maydan, D.; Shepp, L.A.
1980-01-01
X-ray generation and detection apparatus for use in a computer assisted tomography system which permits relatively high speed scanning. A large x-ray tube having a circular anode (3) surrounds the patient area. A movable electron gun (8) orbits adjacent to the anode. The anode directs into the patient area xrays which are delimited into a fan beam by a pair of collimating rings (21). After passing through the patient, x-rays are detected by an array (22) of movable detectors. Detector subarrays (23) are synchronously movable out of the x-ray plane to permit the passage of the fan beam
Introduction to the LaRC central scientific computing complex
Shoosmith, John N.
1993-01-01
The computers and associated equipment that make up the Central Scientific Computing Complex of the Langley Research Center are briefly described. The electronic networks that provide access to the various components of the complex and a number of areas that can be used by Langley and contractors staff for special applications (scientific visualization, image processing, software engineering, and grid generation) are also described. Flight simulation facilities that use the central computers are described. Management of the complex, procedures for its use, and available services and resources are discussed. This document is intended for new users of the complex, for current users who wish to keep appraised of changes, and for visitors who need to understand the role of central scientific computers at Langley.
Applications of Computer Technology in Complex Craniofacial Reconstruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristopher M. Day, MD
2018-03-01
Conclusion:. Modern 3D technology allows the surgeon to better analyze complex craniofacial deformities, precisely plan surgical correction with computer simulation of results, customize osteotomies, plan distractions, and print 3DPCI, as needed. The use of advanced 3D computer technology can be applied safely and potentially improve aesthetic and functional outcomes after complex craniofacial reconstruction. These techniques warrant further study and may be reproducible in various centers of care.
Computer simulation at high pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alder, B.J.
1977-11-01
The use of either the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics method to generate equations-of-state data for various materials at high pressure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to phase diagrams, such as the generation of various types of critical lines for mixtures, melting, structural and electronic transitions in solids, two-phase ionic fluid systems of astrophysical interest, as well as a brief aside of possible eutectic behavior in the interior of the earth. Then the application of the molecular dynamics method to predict transport coefficients and the neutron scattering function is discussed with a view as to what special features high pressure brings out. Lastly, an analysis by these computational methods of the measured intensity and frequency spectrum of depolarized light and also of the deviation of the dielectric measurements from the constancy of the Clausius--Mosotti function is given that leads to predictions of how the electronic structure of an atom distorts with pressure
Characterizations and computational complexity of systolic trellis automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibarra, O H; Kim, S M
1984-03-01
Systolic trellis automata are simple models for VLSI. The authors characterize the computing power of these models in terms of turing machines. The characterizations are useful in proving new results as well as giving simpler proofs of known results. They also derive lower and upper bounds on the computational complexity of the models. 18 references.
High Performance Spaceflight Computing (HPSC)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space-based computing has not kept up with the needs of current and future NASA missions. We are developing a next-generation flight computing system that addresses...
High energy physics and grid computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Chuansong
2004-01-01
The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)
Computational complexity of the landscape II-Cosmological considerations
Denef, Frederik; Douglas, Michael R.; Greene, Brian; Zukowski, Claire
2018-05-01
We propose a new approach for multiverse analysis based on computational complexity, which leads to a new family of "computational" measure factors. By defining a cosmology as a space-time containing a vacuum with specified properties (for example small cosmological constant) together with rules for how time evolution will produce the vacuum, we can associate global time in a multiverse with clock time on a supercomputer which simulates it. We argue for a principle of "limited computational complexity" governing early universe dynamics as simulated by this supercomputer, which translates to a global measure for regulating the infinities of eternal inflation. The rules for time evolution can be thought of as a search algorithm, whose details should be constrained by a stronger principle of "minimal computational complexity". Unlike previously studied global measures, ours avoids standard equilibrium considerations and the well-known problems of Boltzmann Brains and the youngness paradox. We also give various definitions of the computational complexity of a cosmology, and argue that there are only a few natural complexity classes.
High performance computing in Windows Azure cloud
Ambruš, Dejan
2013-01-01
High performance, security, availability, scalability, flexibility and lower costs of maintenance have essentially contributed to the growing popularity of cloud computing in all spheres of life, especially in business. In fact cloud computing offers even more than this. With usage of virtual computing clusters a runtime environment for high performance computing can be efficiently implemented also in a cloud. There are many advantages but also some disadvantages of cloud computing, some ...
High energy physics and cloud computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Yaodong; Liu Baoxu; Sun Gongxing; Chen Gang
2011-01-01
High Energy Physics (HEP) has been a strong promoter of computing technology, for example WWW (World Wide Web) and the grid computing. In the new era of cloud computing, HEP has still a strong demand, and major international high energy physics laboratories have launched a number of projects to research on cloud computing technologies and applications. It describes the current developments in cloud computing and its applications in high energy physics. Some ongoing projects in the institutes of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, including cloud storage, virtual computing clusters, and BESⅢ elastic cloud, are also described briefly in the paper. (authors)
Computer science of the high performance; Informatica del alto rendimiento
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moraleda, A.
2008-07-01
The high performance computing is taking shape as a powerful accelerator of the process of innovation, to drastically reduce the waiting times for access to the results and the findings in a growing number of processes and activities as complex and important as medicine, genetics, pharmacology, environment, natural resources management or the simulation of complex processes in a wide variety of industries. (Author)
ANS main control complex three-dimensional computer model development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cleaves, J.E.; Fletcher, W.M.
1993-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) main control complex is being developed. The main control complex includes the main control room, the technical support center, the materials irradiation control room, computer equipment rooms, communications equipment rooms, cable-spreading rooms, and some support offices and breakroom facilities. The model will be used to provide facility designers and operations personnel with capabilities for fit-up/interference analysis, visual ''walk-throughs'' for optimizing maintain-ability, and human factors and operability analyses. It will be used to determine performance design characteristics, to generate construction drawings, and to integrate control room layout, equipment mounting, grounding equipment, electrical cabling, and utility services into ANS building designs. This paper describes the development of the initial phase of the 3-D computer model for the ANS main control complex and plans for its development and use
Complexity estimates based on integral transforms induced by computational units
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kůrková, Věra
2012-01-01
Roč. 33, September (2012), s. 160-167 ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : neural networks * estimates of model complexity * approximation from a dictionary * integral transforms * norms induced by computational units Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2012
Complexity vs energy: theory of computation and theoretical physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manin, Y I
2014-01-01
This paper is a survey based upon the talk at the satellite QQQ conference to ECM6, 3Quantum: Algebra Geometry Information, Tallinn, July 2012. It is dedicated to the analogy between the notions of complexity in theoretical computer science and energy in physics. This analogy is not metaphorical: I describe three precise mathematical contexts, suggested recently, in which mathematics related to (un)computability is inspired by and to a degree reproduces formalisms of statistical physics and quantum field theory.
Statistical screening of input variables in a complex computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krieger, T.J.
1982-01-01
A method is presented for ''statistical screening'' of input variables in a complex computer code. The object is to determine the ''effective'' or important input variables by estimating the relative magnitudes of their associated sensitivity coefficients. This is accomplished by performing a numerical experiment consisting of a relatively small number of computer runs with the code followed by a statistical analysis of the results. A formula for estimating the sensitivity coefficients is derived. Reference is made to an earlier work in which the method was applied to a complex reactor code with good results
Automated System for Teaching Computational Complexity of Algorithms Course
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim S. Roublev
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This article describes problems of designing automated teaching system for “Computational complexity of algorithms” course. This system should provide students with means to familiarize themselves with complex mathematical apparatus and improve their mathematical thinking in the respective area. The article introduces the technique of algorithms symbol scroll table that allows estimating lower and upper bounds of computational complexity. Further, we introduce a set of theorems that facilitate the analysis in cases when the integer rounding of algorithm parameters is involved and when analyzing the complexity of a sum. At the end, the article introduces a normal system of symbol transformations that allows one both to perform any symbol transformations and simplifies the automated validation of such transformations. The article is published in the authors’ wording.
Exponential rise of dynamical complexity in quantum computing through projections.
Burgarth, Daniel Klaus; Facchi, Paolo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya
2014-10-10
The ability of quantum systems to host exponentially complex dynamics has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to developing of protocols for computation, communication and metrology, which exploit this scaling, despite formidable technical difficulties. Here we show that the mere frequent observation of a small part of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into an exponentially complex one, capable of universal quantum computation. After discussing examples, we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics becomes universal once 'observed' as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be 'purified' into a simpler one in larger dimensions. We conclude by demonstrating that even local noise can lead to an exponentially complex dynamics.
High Performance Networks From Supercomputing to Cloud Computing
Abts, Dennis
2011-01-01
Datacenter networks provide the communication substrate for large parallel computer systems that form the ecosystem for high performance computing (HPC) systems and modern Internet applications. The design of new datacenter networks is motivated by an array of applications ranging from communication intensive climatology, complex material simulations and molecular dynamics to such Internet applications as Web search, language translation, collaborative Internet applications, streaming video and voice-over-IP. For both Supercomputing and Cloud Computing the network enables distributed applicati
Computer tomography in complex diagnosis of laryngeal cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savin, A.A.
1999-01-01
To specify the role of computer tomography in the diagnosis of malignant of the larynx. Forty-two patients with suspected laryngeal tumors were examined: 38 men and 4 women aged 41-68 years. X-ray examinations included traditional immediate tomography of the larynx. Main X-ray and computer tomographic symptoms of laryngeal tumors of different localizations are described. It is shown that the use of computer tomography in complex diagnosis of laryngeal cancer permits an objective assessment of the tumor, its structure and dissemination, and of the regional lymph nodes [ru
Complex system modelling and control through intelligent soft computations
Azar, Ahmad
2015-01-01
The book offers a snapshot of the theories and applications of soft computing in the area of complex systems modeling and control. It presents the most important findings discussed during the 5th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control, held in Cairo, from August 31-September 2, 2013. The book consists of twenty-nine selected contributions, which have been thoroughly reviewed and extended before their inclusion in the volume. The different chapters, written by active researchers in the field, report on both current theories and important applications of soft-computing. Besides providing the readers with soft-computing fundamentals, and soft-computing based inductive methodologies/algorithms, the book also discusses key industrial soft-computing applications, as well as multidisciplinary solutions developed for a variety of purposes, like windup control, waste management, security issues, biomedical applications and many others. It is a perfect reference guide for graduate students, r...
High-Performance Computing Paradigm and Infrastructure
Yang, Laurence T
2006-01-01
With hyperthreading in Intel processors, hypertransport links in next generation AMD processors, multi-core silicon in today's high-end microprocessors from IBM and emerging grid computing, parallel and distributed computers have moved into the mainstream
Parallel Computing:. Some Activities in High Energy Physics
Willers, Ian
This paper examines some activities in High Energy Physics that utilise parallel computing. The topic includes all computing from the proposed SIMD front end detectors, the farming applications, high-powered RISC processors and the large machines in the computer centers. We start by looking at the motivation behind using parallelism for general purpose computing. The developments around farming are then described from its simplest form to the more complex system in Fermilab. Finally, there is a list of some developments that are happening close to the experiments.
High energy physics computing in Japan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watase, Yoshiyuki
1989-01-01
A brief overview of the computing provision for high energy physics in Japan is presented. Most of the computing power for high energy physics is concentrated in KEK. Here there are two large scale systems: one providing a general computing service including vector processing and the other dedicated to TRISTAN experiments. Each university group has a smaller sized mainframe or VAX system to facilitate both their local computing needs and the remote use of the KEK computers through a network. The large computer system for the TRISTAN experiments is described. An overview of a prospective future large facility is also given. (orig.)
Computed tomography of von Meyenburg complex simulating micro-abscesses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sada, P.N.; Ramakrishna, B.
1994-01-01
A case is presented of a bile duct hamartoma in a 44 year old man being evaluated for abdominal pain. The computed tomography (CT) findings suggested micro-abscesses in the liver and a CT guided tru-cut biopsy showed von Meyenburg complex. 9 refs., 3 figs
Wireless Mobile Computing and its Links to Descriptive Complexity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wiedermann, Jiří; Pardubská, D.
2008-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 4 (2008), s. 887-913 ISSN 0129-0541 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : alternating Turing machine * simulation * simultaneous time-space complexity * wireless parallel Turing machine Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2008
Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS
Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.
1998-01-01
Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.
High-performance computing using FPGAs
Benkrid, Khaled
2013-01-01
This book is concerned with the emerging field of High Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC), which aims to harness the high performance and relative low power of reconfigurable hardware–in the form Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)–in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. It presents the latest developments in this field from applications, architecture, and tools and methodologies points of view. We hope that this work will form a reference for existing researchers in the field, and entice new researchers and developers to join the HPRC community. The book includes: Thirteen application chapters which present the most important application areas tackled by high performance reconfigurable computers, namely: financial computing, bioinformatics and computational biology, data search and processing, stencil computation e.g. computational fluid dynamics and seismic modeling, cryptanalysis, astronomical N-body simulation, and circuit simulation. Seven architecture chapters which...
High accuracy ion optics computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amos, R.J.; Evans, G.A.; Smith, R.
1986-01-01
Computer simulation of focused ion beams for surface analysis of materials by SIMS, or for microfabrication by ion beam lithography plays an important role in the design of low energy ion beam transport and optical systems. Many computer packages currently available, are limited in their applications, being inaccurate or inappropriate for a number of practical purposes. This work describes an efficient and accurate computer programme which has been developed and tested for use on medium sized machines. The programme is written in Algol 68 and models the behaviour of a beam of charged particles through an electrostatic system. A variable grid finite difference method is used with a unique data structure, to calculate the electric potential in an axially symmetric region, for arbitrary shaped boundaries. Emphasis has been placed upon finding an economic method of solving the resulting set of sparse linear equations in the calculation of the electric field and several of these are described. Applications include individual ion lenses, extraction optics for ions in surface analytical instruments and the design of columns for ion beam lithography. Computational results have been compared with analytical calculations and with some data obtained from individual einzel lenses. (author)
High-level language computer architecture
Chu, Yaohan
1975-01-01
High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr
Fast algorithm for computing complex number-theoretic transforms
Reed, I. S.; Liu, K. Y.; Truong, T. K.
1977-01-01
A high-radix FFT algorithm for computing transforms over FFT, where q is a Mersenne prime, is developed to implement fast circular convolutions. This new algorithm requires substantially fewer multiplications than the conventional FFT.
Complex systems relationships between control, communications and computing
2016-01-01
This book gives a wide-ranging description of the many facets of complex dynamic networks and systems within an infrastructure provided by integrated control and supervision: envisioning, design, experimental exploration, and implementation. The theoretical contributions and the case studies presented can reach control goals beyond those of stabilization and output regulation or even of adaptive control. Reporting on work of the Control of Complex Systems (COSY) research program, Complex Systems follows from and expands upon an earlier collection: Control of Complex Systems by introducing novel theoretical techniques for hard-to-control networks and systems. The major common feature of all the superficially diverse contributions encompassed by this book is that of spotting and exploiting possible areas of mutual reinforcement between control, computing and communications. These help readers to achieve not only robust stable plant system operation but also properties such as collective adaptivity, integrity an...
Computer modeling of properties of complex molecular systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulkova, E.Yu. [Moscow State University of Technology “STANKIN”, Vadkovsky per., 1, Moscow 101472 (Russian Federation); Khrenova, M.G.; Polyakov, I.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Leninskie Gory 1/3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nemukhin, A.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Leninskie Gory 1/3, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygina 4, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation)
2015-03-10
Large molecular aggregates present important examples of strongly nonhomogeneous systems. We apply combined quantum mechanics / molecular mechanics approaches that assume treatment of a part of the system by quantum-based methods and the rest of the system with conventional force fields. Herein we illustrate these computational approaches by two different examples: (1) large-scale molecular systems mimicking natural photosynthetic centers, and (2) components of prospective solar cells containing titan dioxide and organic dye molecules. We demonstrate that modern computational tools are capable to predict structures and spectra of such complex molecular aggregates.
Current topics in pure and computational complex analysis
Dorff, Michael; Lahiri, Indrajit
2014-01-01
The book contains 13 articles, some of which are survey articles and others research papers. Written by eminent mathematicians, these articles were presented at the International Workshop on Complex Analysis and Its Applications held at Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli. All the contributing authors are actively engaged in research fields related to the topic of the book. The workshop offered a comprehensive exposition of the recent developments in geometric functions theory, planar harmonic mappings, entire and meromorphic functions and their applications, both theoretical and computational. The recent developments in complex analysis and its applications play a crucial role in research in many disciplines.
NINJA: Java for High Performance Numerical Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José E. Moreira
2002-01-01
Full Text Available When Java was first introduced, there was a perception that its many benefits came at a significant performance cost. In the particularly performance-sensitive field of numerical computing, initial measurements indicated a hundred-fold performance disadvantage between Java and more established languages such as Fortran and C. Although much progress has been made, and Java now can be competitive with C/C++ in many important situations, significant performance challenges remain. Existing Java virtual machines are not yet capable of performing the advanced loop transformations and automatic parallelization that are now common in state-of-the-art Fortran compilers. Java also has difficulties in implementing complex arithmetic efficiently. These performance deficiencies can be attacked with a combination of class libraries (packages, in Java that implement truly multidimensional arrays and complex numbers, and new compiler techniques that exploit the properties of these class libraries to enable other, more conventional, optimizations. Two compiler techniques, versioning and semantic expansion, can be leveraged to allow fully automatic optimization and parallelization of Java code. Our measurements with the NINJA prototype Java environment show that Java can be competitive in performance with highly optimized and tuned Fortran code.
High-performance computing — an overview
Marksteiner, Peter
1996-08-01
An overview of high-performance computing (HPC) is given. Different types of computer architectures used in HPC are discussed: vector supercomputers, high-performance RISC processors, various parallel computers like symmetric multiprocessors, workstation clusters, massively parallel processors. Software tools and programming techniques used in HPC are reviewed: vectorizing compilers, optimization and vector tuning, optimization for RISC processors; parallel programming techniques like shared-memory parallelism, message passing and data parallelism; and numerical libraries.
Molecular computing towards a novel computing architecture for complex problem solving
Chang, Weng-Long
2014-01-01
This textbook introduces a concise approach to the design of molecular algorithms for students or researchers who are interested in dealing with complex problems. Through numerous examples and exercises, you will understand the main difference of molecular circuits and traditional digital circuits to manipulate the same problem and you will also learn how to design a molecular algorithm of solving any a problem from start to finish. The book starts with an introduction to computational aspects of digital computers and molecular computing, data representation of molecular computing, molecular operations of molecular computing and number representation of molecular computing, and provides many molecular algorithm to construct the parity generator and the parity checker of error-detection codes on digital communication, to encode integers of different formats, single precision and double precision of floating-point numbers, to implement addition and subtraction of unsigned integers, to construct logic operations...
Analyzing the Implicit Computational Complexity of object-oriented programs
Marion , Jean-Yves; Péchoux , Romain
2008-01-01
International audience; A sup-interpretation is a tool which provides upper bounds on the size of the values computed by the function symbols of a program. Sup-interpretations have shown their interest to deal with the complexity of first order functional programs. This paper is an attempt to adapt the framework of sup-interpretations to a fragment of object-oriented programs, including loop and while constructs and methods with side effects. We give a criterion, called brotherly criterion, w...
Computational complexity of symbolic dynamics at the onset of chaos
Lakdawala, Porus
1996-05-01
In a variety of studies of dynamical systems, the edge of order and chaos has been singled out as a region of complexity. It was suggested by Wolfram, on the basis of qualitative behavior of cellular automata, that the computational basis for modeling this region is the universal Turing machine. In this paper, following a suggestion of Crutchfield, we try to show that the Turing machine model may often be too powerful as a computational model to describe the boundary of order and chaos. In particular we study the region of the first accumulation of period doubling in unimodal and bimodal maps of the interval, from the point of view of language theory. We show that in relation to the ``extended'' Chomsky hierarchy, the relevant computational model in the unimodal case is the nested stack automaton or the related indexed languages, while the bimodal case is modeled by the linear bounded automaton or the related context-sensitive languages.
Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.
1988-01-01
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder
Computer proficiency questionnaire: assessing low and high computer proficient seniors.
Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran
2015-06-01
Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Complex data modeling and computationally intensive methods for estimation and prediction
Secchi, Piercesare; Advances in Complex Data Modeling and Computational Methods in Statistics
2015-01-01
The book is addressed to statisticians working at the forefront of the statistical analysis of complex and high dimensional data and offers a wide variety of statistical models, computer intensive methods and applications: network inference from the analysis of high dimensional data; new developments for bootstrapping complex data; regression analysis for measuring the downsize reputational risk; statistical methods for research on the human genome dynamics; inference in non-euclidean settings and for shape data; Bayesian methods for reliability and the analysis of complex data; methodological issues in using administrative data for clinical and epidemiological research; regression models with differential regularization; geostatistical methods for mobility analysis through mobile phone data exploration. This volume is the result of a careful selection among the contributions presented at the conference "S.Co.2013: Complex data modeling and computationally intensive methods for estimation and prediction" held...
Component-based software for high-performance scientific computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A; Armstrong, Robert C; Bernholdt, David E; Dahlgren, Tamara L; Gannon, Dennis; Janssen, Curtis L; Kenny, Joseph P; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Kohl, James A; Kumfert, Gary; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L
2005-01-01
Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.
Component-based software for high-performance scientific computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A; Armstrong, Robert C; Bernholdt, David E; Dahlgren, Tamara L; Gannon, Dennis; Janssen, Curtis L; Kenny, Joseph P; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Kohl, James A; Kumfert, Gary; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L
2005-01-01
Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly
Modeling Cu{sup 2+}-Aβ complexes from computational approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alí-Torres, Jorge [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia- Sede Bogotá, 111321 (Colombia); Mirats, Andrea; Maréchal, Jean-Didier; Rodríguez-Santiago, Luis; Sodupe, Mariona, E-mail: Mariona.Sodupe@uab.cat [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)
2015-09-15
Amyloid plaques formation and oxidative stress are two key events in the pathology of the Alzheimer disease (AD), in which metal cations have been shown to play an important role. In particular, the interaction of the redox active Cu{sup 2+} metal cation with Aβ has been found to interfere in amyloid aggregation and to lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS). A detailed knowledge of the electronic and molecular structure of Cu{sup 2+}-Aβ complexes is thus important to get a better understanding of the role of these complexes in the development and progression of the AD disease. The computational treatment of these systems requires a combination of several available computational methodologies, because two fundamental aspects have to be addressed: the metal coordination sphere and the conformation adopted by the peptide upon copper binding. In this paper we review the main computational strategies used to deal with the Cu{sup 2+}-Aβ coordination and build plausible Cu{sup 2+}-Aβ models that will afterwards allow determining physicochemical properties of interest, such as their redox potential.
Debugging a high performance computing program
Gooding, Thomas M.
2013-08-20
Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.
Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology
Cojocaru, Radu Ionut
There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe
Computation of 3D form factors in complex environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coulon, N.
1989-01-01
The calculation of radiant interchange among opaque surfaces in a complex environment poses the general problem of determining the visible and hidden parts of the environment. In many thermal engineering applications, surfaces are separated by radiatively non-participating media and may be idealized as diffuse emitters and reflectors. Consenquently the net radiant energy fluxes are intimately related to purely geometrical quantities called form factors, that take into account hidden parts: the problem is reduced to the form factor evaluation. This paper presents the method developed for the computation of 3D form factors in the finite-element module of the system TRIO, which is a general computer code for thermal and fluid flow analysis. The method is derived from an algorithm devised for synthetic image generation. A comparison is performed with the standard contour integration method also implemented and suited to convex geometries. Several illustrative examples of finite-element thermal calculations in radiating enclosures are given
The complexity of computing the MCD-estimator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bernholt, T.; Fischer, Paul
2004-01-01
In modem statistics the robust estimation of parameters is a central problem, i.e., an estimation that is not or only slightly affected by outliers in the data. The minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimator (J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 79 (1984) 871) is probably one of the most important robust...... estimators of location and scatter. The complexity of computing the MCD, however, was unknown and generally thought to be exponential even if the dimensionality of the data is fixed. Here we present a polynomial time algorithm for MCD for fixed dimension of the data. In contrast we show that computing...... the MCD-estimator is NP-hard if the dimension varies. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Federal High End Computing (HEC) Information Portal
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This portal provides information about opportunities to engage in U.S. Federal government high performance computing activities, including supercomputer use,...
Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ngo, David
2003-01-01
The Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems (EHPSCS) program is a cooperative agreement between Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company and DARPA that ran for three years, from Apr 1995 - Apr 1998...
Stochastic equations for complex systems theoretical and computational topics
Bessaih, Hakima
2015-01-01
Mathematical analyses and computational predictions of the behavior of complex systems are needed to effectively deal with weather and climate predictions, for example, and the optimal design of technical processes. Given the random nature of such systems and the recognized relevance of randomness, the equations used to describe such systems usually need to involve stochastics. The basic goal of this book is to introduce the mathematics and application of stochastic equations used for the modeling of complex systems. A first focus is on the introduction to different topics in mathematical analysis. A second focus is on the application of mathematical tools to the analysis of stochastic equations. A third focus is on the development and application of stochastic methods to simulate turbulent flows as seen in reality. This book is primarily oriented towards mathematics and engineering PhD students, young and experienced researchers, and professionals working in the area of stochastic differential equations ...
Model Complexities of Shallow Networks Representing Highly Varying Functions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 171, 1 January (2016), s. 598-604 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Grant - others:grant for Visiting Professors(IT) GNAMPA-INdAM Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : shallow networks * model complexity * highly varying functions * Chernoff bound * perceptrons * Gaussian kernel units Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 3.317, year: 2016
Low complexity iterative MLSE equalization in highly spread underwater acoustic channels
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Myburgh, HC
2009-05-01
Full Text Available methods. The superior computational complexity of the proposed equalizer is due to the high parallelism and high level of neuron interconnection of its foundational neural network structure. I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, much attention has been... are practically infeasible, as their computational complexities are exponentially related to the number of interfering symbols, rendering them computationally infeasible for UAC equaliza- tion. Attention has therefore been drawn to developing compu- tationally...
Exact complexity: The spectral decomposition of intrinsic computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crutchfield, James P.; Ellison, Christopher J.; Riechers, Paul M.
2016-01-01
We give exact formulae for a wide family of complexity measures that capture the organization of hidden nonlinear processes. The spectral decomposition of operator-valued functions leads to closed-form expressions involving the full eigenvalue spectrum of the mixed-state presentation of a process's ϵ-machine causal-state dynamic. Measures include correlation functions, power spectra, past-future mutual information, transient and synchronization informations, and many others. As a result, a direct and complete analysis of intrinsic computation is now available for the temporal organization of finitary hidden Markov models and nonlinear dynamical systems with generating partitions and for the spatial organization in one-dimensional systems, including spin systems, cellular automata, and complex materials via chaotic crystallography. - Highlights: • We provide exact, closed-form expressions for a hidden stationary process' intrinsic computation. • These include information measures such as the excess entropy, transient information, and synchronization information and the entropy-rate finite-length approximations. • The method uses an epsilon-machine's mixed-state presentation. • The spectral decomposition of the mixed-state presentation relies on the recent development of meromorphic functional calculus for nondiagonalizable operators.
High-resolution method for evolving complex interface networks
Pan, Shucheng; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2018-04-01
In this paper we describe a high-resolution transport formulation of the regional level-set approach for an improved prediction of the evolution of complex interface networks. The novelty of this method is twofold: (i) construction of local level sets and reconstruction of a global level set, (ii) local transport of the interface network by employing high-order spatial discretization schemes for improved representation of complex topologies. Various numerical test cases of multi-region flow problems, including triple-point advection, single vortex flow, mean curvature flow, normal driven flow, dry foam dynamics and shock-bubble interaction show that the method is accurate and suitable for a wide range of complex interface-network evolutions. Its overall computational cost is comparable to the Semi-Lagrangian regional level-set method while the prediction accuracy is significantly improved. The approach thus offers a viable alternative to previous interface-network level-set method.
3rd International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing
Kostina, Ekaterina; Phu, Hoang; Rannacher, Rolf
2008-01-01
This proceedings volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Third International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing held at the Hanoi Institute of Mathematics, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), March 6-10, 2006. The conference has been organized by the Hanoi Institute of Mathematics, Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR), Heidelberg, and its International PhD Program ``Complex Processes: Modeling, Simulation and Optimization'', and Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology. The contributions cover the broad interdisciplinary spectrum of scientific computing and present recent advances in theory, development of methods, and applications in practice. Subjects covered are mathematical modelling, numerical simulation, methods for optimization and control, parallel computing, software development, applications of scientific computing in physics, chemistry, biology and mechanics, environmental and hydrology problems, transport, logistics and site loca...
Statistical mechanics of complex neural systems and high dimensional data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Advani, Madhu; Lahiri, Subhaneil; Ganguli, Surya
2013-01-01
Recent experimental advances in neuroscience have opened new vistas into the immense complexity of neuronal networks. This proliferation of data challenges us on two parallel fronts. First, how can we form adequate theoretical frameworks for understanding how dynamical network processes cooperate across widely disparate spatiotemporal scales to solve important computational problems? Second, how can we extract meaningful models of neuronal systems from high dimensional datasets? To aid in these challenges, we give a pedagogical review of a collection of ideas and theoretical methods arising at the intersection of statistical physics, computer science and neurobiology. We introduce the interrelated replica and cavity methods, which originated in statistical physics as powerful ways to quantitatively analyze large highly heterogeneous systems of many interacting degrees of freedom. We also introduce the closely related notion of message passing in graphical models, which originated in computer science as a distributed algorithm capable of solving large inference and optimization problems involving many coupled variables. We then show how both the statistical physics and computer science perspectives can be applied in a wide diversity of contexts to problems arising in theoretical neuroscience and data analysis. Along the way we discuss spin glasses, learning theory, illusions of structure in noise, random matrices, dimensionality reduction and compressed sensing, all within the unified formalism of the replica method. Moreover, we review recent conceptual connections between message passing in graphical models, and neural computation and learning. Overall, these ideas illustrate how statistical physics and computer science might provide a lens through which we can uncover emergent computational functions buried deep within the dynamical complexities of neuronal networks. (paper)
Coherence and computational complexity of quantifier-free dependence logic formulas
Kontinen, J.; Kontinen, J.; Väänänen, J.
2010-01-01
We study the computational complexity of the model checking for quantifier-free dependence logic (D) formulas. We point out three thresholds in the computational complexity: logarithmic space, non- deterministic logarithmic space and non-deterministic polynomial time.
Atomic switch networks-nanoarchitectonic design of a complex system for natural computing.
Demis, E C; Aguilera, R; Sillin, H O; Scharnhorst, K; Sandouk, E J; Aono, M; Stieg, A Z; Gimzewski, J K
2015-05-22
Self-organized complex systems are ubiquitous in nature, and the structural complexity of these natural systems can be used as a model to design new classes of functional nanotechnology based on highly interconnected networks of interacting units. Conventional fabrication methods for electronic computing devices are subject to known scaling limits, confining the diversity of possible architectures. This work explores methods of fabricating a self-organized complex device known as an atomic switch network and discusses its potential utility in computing. Through a merger of top-down and bottom-up techniques guided by mathematical and nanoarchitectonic design principles, we have produced functional devices comprising nanoscale elements whose intrinsic nonlinear dynamics and memorization capabilities produce robust patterns of distributed activity and a capacity for nonlinear transformation of input signals when configured in the appropriate network architecture. Their operational characteristics represent a unique potential for hardware implementation of natural computation, specifically in the area of reservoir computing-a burgeoning field that investigates the computational aptitude of complex biologically inspired systems.
Computing in high-energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mount, Richard P.
2016-01-01
I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Lastly, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software
Computing in high-energy physics
Mount, Richard P.
2016-04-01
I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Finally, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software.
AHPCRC - Army High Performance Computing Research Center
2010-01-01
computing. Of particular interest is the ability of a distrib- uted jamming network (DJN) to jam signals in all or part of a sensor or communications net...and reasoning, assistive technologies. FRIEDRICH (FRITZ) PRINZ Finmeccanica Professor of Engineering, Robert Bosch Chair, Department of Engineering...High Performance Computing Research Center www.ahpcrc.org BARBARA BRYAN AHPCRC Research and Outreach Manager, HPTi (650) 604-3732 bbryan@hpti.com Ms
DURIP: High Performance Computing in Biomathematics Applications
2017-05-10
Mathematics and Statistics (AMS) at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) to conduct research and research-related education in areas of...Computing in Biomathematics Applications Report Title The goal of this award was to enhance the capabilities of the Department of Applied Mathematics and...DURIP: High Performance Computing in Biomathematics Applications The goal of this award was to enhance the capabilities of the Department of Applied
Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient High Throughput Computing
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and they continue increasing the size of their datasets and the total volume of data. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of Scientific Data Centres has shifted from coping efficiently with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful s...
GRID computing for experimental high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moloney, G.R.; Martin, L.; Seviour, E.; Taylor, G.N.; Moorhead, G.F.
2002-01-01
Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), to be completed at the CERN laboratory in 2006, will generate 11 petabytes of data per year. The processing of this large data stream requires a large, distributed computing infrastructure. A recent innovation in high performance distributed computing, the GRID, has been identified as an important tool in data analysis for the LHC. GRID computing has actual and potential application in many fields which require computationally intensive analysis of large, shared data sets. The Australian experimental High Energy Physics community has formed partnerships with the High Performance Computing community to establish a GRID node at the University of Melbourne. Through Australian membership of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, Australian researchers have an opportunity to be involved in the European DataGRID project. This presentation will include an introduction to the GRID, and it's application to experimental High Energy Physics. We will present the results of our studies, including participation in the first LHC data challenge
High-performance computing for airborne applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, Heather M.; Manuzatto, Andrea; Fairbanks, Tom; Dallmann, Nicholas; Desgeorges, Rose
2010-01-01
Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.
Computer simulations of discharges from a lignite power plant complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koukouliou, V.; Horyna, J.; Perez-Sanchez, D.
2008-01-01
This paper describes work carried out within the IAEA EMRAS program NORM working group to test the predictions of three computer models against measured radionuclide concentrations resulting from discharges from a lignite power plant complex. This complex consists of two power plants with a total of five discharge stacks, situated approximately 2-5 kilometres from a city of approximately 10,000 inhabitants. Monthly measurements of mean wind speed and direction, dust loading, and 238 U activities in fallout samples, as well as mean annual values of 232 Th activity in the nearest city sampling sites were available for the study. The models used in the study were Pc-CREAM (a detailed impact assessment model), and COMPLY and CROM (screening models). In applying the models to this scenario it was noted that the meteorological data provided was not ideal for testing, and that a number of assumptions had to be made, particularly for the simpler models. However, taking the gaps and uncertainties in the data into account, the model predictions from PC-CREAM were generally in good agreement with the measured data, and the results from different models were also generally consistent with each other. However, the COMPLY predictions were generally lower than those from PC-CREAM. This is of concern, as the aim of a screening model (COMPLY) is to provide conservative estimates of contaminant concentrations. Further investigation of this problem is required. The general implications of the results for further model development are discussed. (author)
Recent Developments in Complex Analysis and Computer Algebra
Kajiwara, Joji; Xu, Yongzhi
1999-01-01
This volume consists of papers presented in the special sessions on "Complex and Numerical Analysis", "Value Distribution Theory and Complex Domains", and "Use of Symbolic Computation in Mathematics Education" of the ISAAC'97 Congress held at the University of Delaware, during June 2-7, 1997. The ISAAC Congress coincided with a U.S.-Japan Seminar also held at the University of Delaware. The latter was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant INT-9603029 and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through Grant MTCS-134. It was natural that the participants of both meetings should interact and consequently several persons attending the Congress also presented papers in the Seminar. The success of the ISAAC Congress and the U.S.-Japan Seminar has led to the ISAAC'99 Congress being held in Fukuoka, Japan during August 1999. Many of the same participants will return to this Seminar. Indeed, it appears that the spirit of the U.S.-Japan Seminar will be continued every second year as part of...
High-performance computing in seismology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-09-01
The scientific, technical, and economic importance of the issues discussed here presents a clear agenda for future research in computational seismology. In this way these problems will drive advances in high-performance computing in the field of seismology. There is a broad community that will benefit from this work, including the petroleum industry, research geophysicists, engineers concerned with seismic hazard mitigation, and governments charged with enforcing a comprehensive test ban treaty. These advances may also lead to new applications for seismological research. The recent application of high-resolution seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface for the environmental remediation industry is an example of this activity. This report makes the following recommendations: (1) focused efforts to develop validated documented software for seismological computations should be supported, with special emphasis on scalable algorithms for parallel processors; (2) the education of seismologists in high-performance computing technologies and methodologies should be improved; (3) collaborations between seismologists and computational scientists and engineers should be increased; (4) the infrastructure for archiving, disseminating, and processing large volumes of seismological data should be improved.
High performance computing in linear control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, B.N.
1993-01-01
Remarkable progress has been made in both theory and applications of all important areas of control. The theory is rich and very sophisticated. Some beautiful applications of control theory are presently being made in aerospace, biomedical engineering, industrial engineering, robotics, economics, power systems, etc. Unfortunately, the same assessment of progress does not hold in general for computations in control theory. Control Theory is lagging behind other areas of science and engineering in this respect. Nowadays there is a revolution going on in the world of high performance scientific computing. Many powerful computers with vector and parallel processing have been built and have been available in recent years. These supercomputers offer very high speed in computations. Highly efficient software, based on powerful algorithms, has been developed to use on these advanced computers, and has also contributed to increased performance. While workers in many areas of science and engineering have taken great advantage of these hardware and software developments, control scientists and engineers, unfortunately, have not been able to take much advantage of these developments
Choi, Eunsong
Computer simulations are an integral part of research in modern condensed matter physics; they serve as a direct bridge between theory and experiment by systemactically applying a microscopic model to a collection of particles that effectively imitate a macroscopic system. In this thesis, we study two very differnt condensed systems, namely complex fluids and frustrated magnets, primarily by simulating classical dynamics of each system. In the first part of the thesis, we focus on ionic liquids (ILs) and polymers--the two complementary classes of materials that can be combined to provide various unique properties. The properties of polymers/ILs systems, such as conductivity, viscosity, and miscibility, can be fine tuned by choosing an appropriate combination of cations, anions, and polymers. However, designing a system that meets a specific need requires a concrete understanding of physics and chemistry that dictates a complex interplay between polymers and ionic liquids. In this regard, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is an efficient tool that provides a molecular level picture of such complex systems. We study the behavior of Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and the imidazolium based ionic liquids, using MD simulations and statistical mechanics. We also discuss our efforts to develop reliable and efficient classical force-fields for PEO and the ionic liquids. The second part is devoted to studies on geometrically frustrated magnets. In particular, a microscopic model, which gives rise to an incommensurate spiral magnetic ordering observed in a pyrochlore antiferromagnet is investigated. The validation of the model is made via a comparison of the spin-wave spectra with the neutron scattering data. Since the standard Holstein-Primakoff method is difficult to employ in such a complex ground state structure with a large unit cell, we carry out classical spin dynamics simulations to compute spin-wave spectra directly from the Fourier transform of spin trajectories. We
Atomic switch networks—nanoarchitectonic design of a complex system for natural computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demis, E C; Aguilera, R; Sillin, H O; Scharnhorst, K; Sandouk, E J; Gimzewski, J K; Aono, M; Stieg, A Z
2015-01-01
Self-organized complex systems are ubiquitous in nature, and the structural complexity of these natural systems can be used as a model to design new classes of functional nanotechnology based on highly interconnected networks of interacting units. Conventional fabrication methods for electronic computing devices are subject to known scaling limits, confining the diversity of possible architectures. This work explores methods of fabricating a self-organized complex device known as an atomic switch network and discusses its potential utility in computing. Through a merger of top-down and bottom-up techniques guided by mathematical and nanoarchitectonic design principles, we have produced functional devices comprising nanoscale elements whose intrinsic nonlinear dynamics and memorization capabilities produce robust patterns of distributed activity and a capacity for nonlinear transformation of input signals when configured in the appropriate network architecture. Their operational characteristics represent a unique potential for hardware implementation of natural computation, specifically in the area of reservoir computing—a burgeoning field that investigates the computational aptitude of complex biologically inspired systems. (paper)
High-order hydrodynamic algorithms for exascale computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgan, Nathaniel Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-02-05
Hydrodynamic algorithms are at the core of many laboratory missions ranging from simulating ICF implosions to climate modeling. The hydrodynamic algorithms commonly employed at the laboratory and in industry (1) typically lack requisite accuracy for complex multi- material vortical flows and (2) are not well suited for exascale computing due to poor data locality and poor FLOP/memory ratios. Exascale computing requires advances in both computer science and numerical algorithms. We propose to research the second requirement and create a new high-order hydrodynamic algorithm that has superior accuracy, excellent data locality, and excellent FLOP/memory ratios. This proposal will impact a broad range of research areas including numerical theory, discrete mathematics, vorticity evolution, gas dynamics, interface instability evolution, turbulent flows, fluid dynamics and shock driven flows. If successful, the proposed research has the potential to radically transform simulation capabilities and help position the laboratory for computing at the exascale.
High performance parallel computers for science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nash, T.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.; Biel, J.; Cook, A.; Deppe, J.; Edel, M.; Fischler, M.; Gaines, I.; Hance, R.
1989-01-01
This paper reports that Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program (ACP) has been developing cost effective, yet practical, parallel computers for high energy physics since 1984. The ACP's latest developments are proceeding in two directions. A Second Generation ACP Multiprocessor System for experiments will include $3500 RISC processors each with performance over 15 VAX MIPS. To support such high performance, the new system allows parallel I/O, parallel interprocess communication, and parallel host processes. The ACP Multi-Array Processor, has been developed for theoretical physics. Each $4000 node is a FORTRAN or C programmable pipelined 20 Mflops (peak), 10 MByte single board computer. These are plugged into a 16 port crossbar switch crate which handles both inter and intra crate communication. The crates are connected in a hypercube. Site oriented applications like lattice gauge theory are supported by system software called CANOPY, which makes the hardware virtually transparent to users. A 256 node, 5 GFlop, system is under construction
Turing’s algorithmic lens: From computability to complexity theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Díaz, Josep
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The decidability question, i.e., whether any mathematical statement could be computationally proven true or false, was raised by Hilbert and remained open until Turing answered it in the negative. Then, most efforts in theoretical computer science turned to complexity theory and the need to classify decidable problems according to their difficulty. Among others, the classes P (problems solvable in polynomial time and NP (problems solvable in non-deterministic polynomial time were defined, and one of the most challenging scientific quests of our days arose: whether P = NP. This still open question has implications not only in computer science, mathematics and physics, but also in biology, sociology and economics, and it can be seen as a direct consequence of Turing’s way of looking through the algorithmic lens at different disciplines to discover how pervasive computation is.La cuestión de la decidibilidad, es decir, si es posible demostrar computacionalmente que una expresión matemática es verdadera o falsa, fue planteada por Hilbert y permaneció abierta hasta que Turing la respondió de forma negativa. Establecida la no-decidibilidad de las matemáticas, los esfuerzos en informática teórica se centraron en el estudio de la complejidad computacional de los problemas decidibles. En este artículo presentamos una breve introducción a las clases P (problemas resolubles en tiempo polinómico y NP (problemas resolubles de manera no determinista en tiempo polinómico, al tiempo que exponemos la dificultad de establecer si P = NP y las consecuencias que se derivarían de que ambas clases de problemas fueran iguales. Esta cuestión tiene implicaciones no solo en los campos de la informática, las matemáticas y la física, sino también para la biología, la sociología y la economía. La idea seminal del estudio de la complejidad computacional es consecuencia directa del modo en que Turing abordaba problemas en diferentes ámbitos mediante lo
Computational methods for high-energy source shielding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armstrong, T.W.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.
1983-01-01
The computational methods for high-energy radiation transport related to shielding of the SNQ-spallation source are outlined. The basic approach is to couple radiation-transport computer codes which use Monte Carlo methods and discrete ordinates methods. A code system is suggested that incorporates state-of-the-art radiation-transport techniques. The stepwise verification of that system is briefly summarized. The complexity of the resulting code system suggests a more straightforward code specially tailored for thick shield calculations. A short guide line to future development of such a Monte Carlo code is given
High performance computing on vector systems
Roller, Sabine
2008-01-01
Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.
A High Performance VLSI Computer Architecture For Computer Graphics
Chin, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Wen-Tai
1988-10-01
A VLSI computer architecture, consisting of multiple processors, is presented in this paper to satisfy the modern computer graphics demands, e.g. high resolution, realistic animation, real-time display etc.. All processors share a global memory which are partitioned into multiple banks. Through a crossbar network, data from one memory bank can be broadcasted to many processors. Processors are physically interconnected through a hyper-crossbar network (a crossbar-like network). By programming the network, the topology of communication links among processors can be reconfigurated to satisfy specific dataflows of different applications. Each processor consists of a controller, arithmetic operators, local memory, a local crossbar network, and I/O ports to communicate with other processors, memory banks, and a system controller. Operations in each processor are characterized into two modes, i.e. object domain and space domain, to fully utilize the data-independency characteristics of graphics processing. Special graphics features such as 3D-to-2D conversion, shadow generation, texturing, and reflection, can be easily handled. With the current high density interconnection (MI) technology, it is feasible to implement a 64-processor system to achieve 2.5 billion operations per second, a performance needed in most advanced graphics applications.
High-performance computing in accelerating structure design and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zenghai; Folwell, Nathan; Ge Lixin; Guetz, Adam; Ivanov, Valentin; Kowalski, Marc; Lee, Lie-Quan; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Schussman, Greg; Stingelin, Lukas; Uplenchwar, Ravindra; Wolf, Michael; Xiao, Liling; Ko, Kwok
2006-01-01
Future high-energy accelerators such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) will accelerate multi-bunch beams of high current and low emittance to obtain high luminosity, which put stringent requirements on the accelerating structures for efficiency and beam stability. While numerical modeling has been quite standard in accelerator R and D, designing the NLC accelerating structure required a new simulation capability because of the geometric complexity and level of accuracy involved. Under the US DOE Advanced Computing initiatives (first the Grand Challenge and now SciDAC), SLAC has developed a suite of electromagnetic codes based on unstructured grids and utilizing high-performance computing to provide an advanced tool for modeling structures at accuracies and scales previously not possible. This paper will discuss the code development and computational science research (e.g. domain decomposition, scalable eigensolvers, adaptive mesh refinement) that have enabled the large-scale simulations needed for meeting the computational challenges posed by the NLC as well as projects such as the PEP-II and RIA. Numerical results will be presented to show how high-performance computing has made a qualitative improvement in accelerator structure modeling for these accelerators, either at the component level (single cell optimization), or on the scale of an entire structure (beam heating and long-range wakefields)
High Performance Numerical Computing for High Energy Physics: A New Challenge for Big Data Science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pop, Florin
2014-01-01
Modern physics is based on both theoretical analysis and experimental validation. Complex scenarios like subatomic dimensions, high energy, and lower absolute temperature are frontiers for many theoretical models. Simulation with stable numerical methods represents an excellent instrument for high accuracy analysis, experimental validation, and visualization. High performance computing support offers possibility to make simulations at large scale, in parallel, but the volume of data generated by these experiments creates a new challenge for Big Data Science. This paper presents existing computational methods for high energy physics (HEP) analyzed from two perspectives: numerical methods and high performance computing. The computational methods presented are Monte Carlo methods and simulations of HEP processes, Markovian Monte Carlo, unfolding methods in particle physics, kernel estimation in HEP, and Random Matrix Theory used in analysis of particles spectrum. All of these methods produce data-intensive applications, which introduce new challenges and requirements for ICT systems architecture, programming paradigms, and storage capabilities.
High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas M Timme
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to
CHEP95: Computing in high energy physics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
These proceedings cover the technical papers on computation in High Energy Physics, including computer codes, computer devices, control systems, simulations, data acquisition systems. New approaches on computer architectures are also discussed
High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.
2008-01-01
At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.
Department of Energy research in utilization of high-performance computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buzbee, B.L.; Worlton, W.J.; Michael, G.; Rodrigue, G.
1980-08-01
Department of Energy (DOE) and other Government research laboratories depend on high-performance computer systems to accomplish their programmatic goals. As the most powerful computer systems become available, they are acquired by these laboratories so that advances can be made in their disciplines. These advances are often the result of added sophistication to numerical models, the execution of which is made possible by high-performance computer systems. However, high-performance computer systems have become increasingly complex, and consequently it has become increasingly difficult to realize their potential performance. The result is a need for research on issues related to the utilization of these systems. This report gives a brief description of high-performance computers, and then addresses the use of and future needs for high-performance computers within DOE, the growing complexity of applications within DOE, and areas of high-performance computer systems warranting research. 1 figure
Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biberman, Aleksandr; Bergman, Keren
2012-01-01
Enabled by silicon photonic technology, optical interconnection networks have the potential to be a key disruptive technology in computing and communication industries. The enduring pursuit of performance gains in computing, combined with stringent power constraints, has fostered the ever-growing computational parallelism associated with chip multiprocessors, memory systems, high-performance computing systems and data centers. Sustaining these parallelism growths introduces unique challenges for on- and off-chip communications, shifting the focus toward novel and fundamentally different communication approaches. Chip-scale photonic interconnection networks, enabled by high-performance silicon photonic devices, offer unprecedented bandwidth scalability with reduced power consumption. We demonstrate that the silicon photonic platforms have already produced all the high-performance photonic devices required to realize these types of networks. Through extensive empirical characterization in much of our work, we demonstrate such feasibility of waveguides, modulators, switches and photodetectors. We also demonstrate systems that simultaneously combine many functionalities to achieve more complex building blocks. We propose novel silicon photonic devices, subsystems, network topologies and architectures to enable unprecedented performance of these photonic interconnection networks. Furthermore, the advantages of photonic interconnection networks extend far beyond the chip, offering advanced communication environments for memory systems, high-performance computing systems, and data centers. (review article)
Moon, Hongsik
changing computer hardware platforms in order to provide fast, accurate and efficient solutions to large, complex electromagnetic problems. The research in this dissertation proves that the performance of parallel code is intimately related to the configuration of the computer hardware and can be maximized for different hardware platforms. To benchmark and optimize the performance of parallel CEM software, a variety of large, complex projects are created and executed on a variety of computer platforms. The computer platforms used in this research are detailed in this dissertation. The projects run as benchmarks are also described in detail and results are presented. The parameters that affect parallel CEM software on High Performance Computing Clusters (HPCC) are investigated. This research demonstrates methods to maximize the performance of parallel CEM software code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krylov, V.A.; Pisarenko, V.P.
1982-01-01
Methods of modeling complex power networks with short circuits in the networks are described. The methods are implemented in integrated computation programs for short circuit currents and equivalents in electrical networks with a large number of branch points (up to 1000) on a computer with a limited on line memory capacity (M equals 4030 for the computer).
Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient high throughput computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accion, E; Bria, A; Bernabeu, G; Caubet, M; Delfino, M; Espinal, X; Merino, G; Lopez, F; Martinez, F; Planas, E
2012-01-01
Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and the size of their datasets and total volume of data continues increasing. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of scientific data centers has shifted from efficiently coping with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful data storage and processing service in an intensive HTC environment.
Integrated modeling tool for performance engineering of complex computer systems
Wright, Gary; Ball, Duane; Hoyt, Susan; Steele, Oscar
1989-01-01
This report summarizes Advanced System Technologies' accomplishments on the Phase 2 SBIR contract NAS7-995. The technical objectives of the report are: (1) to develop an evaluation version of a graphical, integrated modeling language according to the specification resulting from the Phase 2 research; and (2) to determine the degree to which the language meets its objectives by evaluating ease of use, utility of two sets of performance predictions, and the power of the language constructs. The technical approach followed to meet these objectives was to design, develop, and test an evaluation prototype of a graphical, performance prediction tool. The utility of the prototype was then evaluated by applying it to a variety of test cases found in the literature and in AST case histories. Numerous models were constructed and successfully tested. The major conclusion of this Phase 2 SBIR research and development effort is that complex, real-time computer systems can be specified in a non-procedural manner using combinations of icons, windows, menus, and dialogs. Such a specification technique provides an interface that system designers and architects find natural and easy to use. In addition, PEDESTAL's multiview approach provides system engineers with the capability to perform the trade-offs necessary to produce a design that meets timing performance requirements. Sample system designs analyzed during the development effort showed that models could be constructed in a fraction of the time required by non-visual system design capture tools.
Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael
2016-01-01
This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2015. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.
Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael; HLRS 2017
2018-01-01
This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2017. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance.The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.
Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lettsome, Annette K.
2005-01-01
Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface
High Performance Computing Operations Review Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cupps, Kimberly C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2013-12-19
The High Performance Computing Operations Review (HPCOR) meeting—requested by the ASC and ASCR program headquarters at DOE—was held November 5 and 6, 2013, at the Marriott Hotel in San Francisco, CA. The purpose of the review was to discuss the processes and practices for HPC integration and its related software and facilities. Experiences and lessons learned from the most recent systems deployed were covered in order to benefit the deployment of new systems.
Assessment of the Stylohyoid Complex with Cone Beam Computed Tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
İlgüy, Dilhan; İlgüy, Mehmet; Fişekçioğlu, Erdoğan; Dölekoğlu, Semanur [Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey)
2012-12-27
Orientation of the stylohyoid complex (SHC) may be important for evaluation of the patient with orofacial pain or dysphagia. Our purpose was to assess the length and angulations of SHC using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In this study, 3D images provided by CBCT of 69 patients (36 females, 33 males, age range 15-77 years) were retrospectively evaluated. All CBCT images were performed because of other indications. None of the patients had symptoms of ossified SHC. The length and the thickness of SHC ossification, the anteroposterior angle (APA) and the mediolateral angle (MLA) were measured by maxillofacial radiologists on the anteroposterior, right lateral and left lateral views of CBCT. Student’s t test, Pearson's correlation and Chi-square test tests were used for statistical analysis. According to the results, the mean length of SHC was 25.3 ± 11.3 mm and the mean thickness of SHC was 4.8 ± 1.8 mm in the study group. The mean APA value of SHCs was 25.6° ± 5.4° and the mean MLA value was 66.4° ± 6.7°. A positive correlation coefficient was found between age and APA (r = 0.335; P < 0.01); between thickness and APA (r = 0.448; P < 0.01) and also between length and thickness was found (r=0.236). The size and morphology of the SHC can be easily assessed by 3D views provided by CBCT. In CBCT evaluation of the head and neck region, the radiologist should consider SHC according to these variations, which may have clinical importance.
Assessment of the Stylohyoid Complex with Cone Beam Computed Tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
İlgüy, Dilhan; İlgüy, Mehmet; Fişekçioğlu, Erdoğan; Dölekoğlu, Semanur
2012-01-01
Orientation of the stylohyoid complex (SHC) may be important for evaluation of the patient with orofacial pain or dysphagia. Our purpose was to assess the length and angulations of SHC using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In this study, 3D images provided by CBCT of 69 patients (36 females, 33 males, age range 15-77 years) were retrospectively evaluated. All CBCT images were performed because of other indications. None of the patients had symptoms of ossified SHC. The length and the thickness of SHC ossification, the anteroposterior angle (APA) and the mediolateral angle (MLA) were measured by maxillofacial radiologists on the anteroposterior, right lateral and left lateral views of CBCT. Student’s t test, Pearson's correlation and Chi-square test tests were used for statistical analysis. According to the results, the mean length of SHC was 25.3 ± 11.3 mm and the mean thickness of SHC was 4.8 ± 1.8 mm in the study group. The mean APA value of SHCs was 25.6° ± 5.4° and the mean MLA value was 66.4° ± 6.7°. A positive correlation coefficient was found between age and APA (r = 0.335; P < 0.01); between thickness and APA (r = 0.448; P < 0.01) and also between length and thickness was found (r=0.236). The size and morphology of the SHC can be easily assessed by 3D views provided by CBCT. In CBCT evaluation of the head and neck region, the radiologist should consider SHC according to these variations, which may have clinical importance
High-integrity software, computation and the scientific method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatton, L.
2012-01-01
Computation rightly occupies a central role in modern science. Datasets are enormous and the processing implications of some algorithms are equally staggering. With the continuing difficulties in quantifying the results of complex computations, it is of increasing importance to understand its role in the essentially Popperian scientific method. In this paper, some of the problems with computation, for example the long-term unquantifiable presence of undiscovered defect, problems with programming languages and process issues will be explored with numerous examples. One of the aims of the paper is to understand the implications of trying to produce high-integrity software and the limitations which still exist. Unfortunately Computer Science itself suffers from an inability to be suitably critical of its practices and has operated in a largely measurement-free vacuum since its earliest days. Within computer science itself, this has not been so damaging in that it simply leads to unconstrained creativity and a rapid turnover of new technologies. In the applied sciences however which have to depend on computational results, such unquantifiability significantly undermines trust. It is time this particular demon was put to rest. (author)
Grid computing in high-energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bischof, R.; Kuhn, D.; Kneringer, E.
2003-01-01
Full text: The future high energy physics experiments are characterized by an enormous amount of data delivered by the large detectors presently under construction e.g. at the Large Hadron Collider and by a large number of scientists (several thousands) requiring simultaneous access to the resulting experimental data. Since it seems unrealistic to provide the necessary computing and storage resources at one single place, (e.g. CERN), the concept of grid computing i.e. the use of distributed resources, will be chosen. The DataGrid project (under the leadership of CERN) develops, based on the Globus toolkit, the software necessary for computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases in a grid structure. The high energy physics group Innsbruck participates with several resources in the DataGrid test bed. In this presentation our experience as grid users and resource provider is summarized. In cooperation with the local IT-center (ZID) we installed a flexible grid system which uses PCs (at the moment 162) in student's labs during nights, weekends and holidays, which is especially used to compare different systems (local resource managers, other grid software e.g. from the Nordugrid project) and to supply a test bed for the future Austrian Grid (AGrid). (author)
Computational model of dose response for low-LET-induced complex chromosomal aberrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eidelman, Y.A.; Andreev, S.G.
2015-01-01
Experiments with full-colour mFISH chromosome painting have revealed high yield of radiation-induced complex chromosomal aberrations (CAs). The ratio of complex to simple aberrations is dependent on cell type and linear energy transfer. Theoretical analysis has demonstrated that the mechanism of CA formation as a result of interaction between lesions at a surface of chromosome territories does not explain high complexes-to-simples ratio in human lymphocytes. The possible origin of high yields of γ-induced complex CAs was investigated in the present work by computer simulation. CAs were studied on the basis of chromosome structure and dynamics modelling and the hypothesis of CA formation on nuclear centres. The spatial organisation of all chromosomes in a human interphase nucleus was predicted by simulation of mitosis-to-interphase chromosome structure transition. Two scenarios of CA formation were analysed, 'static' (existing in a nucleus prior to irradiation) centres and 'dynamic' (formed in response to irradiation) centres. The modelling results reveal that under certain conditions, both scenarios explain quantitatively the dose-response relationships for both simple and complex γ-induced inter-chromosomal exchanges observed by mFISH chromosome painting in the first post-irradiation mitosis in human lymphocytes. (authors)
A computational approach to modeling cellular-scale blood flow in complex geometry
Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit
2017-04-01
We present a computational methodology for modeling cellular-scale blood flow in arbitrary and highly complex geometry. Our approach is based on immersed-boundary methods, which allow modeling flows in arbitrary geometry while resolving the large deformation and dynamics of every blood cell with high fidelity. The present methodology seamlessly integrates different modeling components dealing with stationary rigid boundaries of complex shape, moving rigid bodies, and highly deformable interfaces governed by nonlinear elasticity. Thus it enables us to simulate 'whole' blood suspensions flowing through physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are characterized by multiple bifurcating and merging vessels, as well as geometrically complex lab-on-chip devices. The focus of the present work is on the development of a versatile numerical technique that is able to consider deformable cells and rigid bodies flowing in three-dimensional arbitrarily complex geometries over a diverse range of scenarios. After describing the methodology, a series of validation studies are presented against analytical theory, experimental data, and previous numerical results. Then, the capability of the methodology is demonstrated by simulating flows of deformable blood cells and heterogeneous cell suspensions in both physiologically realistic microvascular networks and geometrically intricate microfluidic devices. It is shown that the methodology can predict several complex microhemodynamic phenomena observed in vascular networks and microfluidic devices. The present methodology is robust and versatile, and has the potential to scale up to very large microvascular networks at organ levels.
GAM-HEAT -- a computer code to compute heat transfer in complex enclosures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, R.E.; Taylor, J.R.; Kielpinski, A.L.; Steimke, J.L.
1991-02-01
The GAM-HEAT code was developed for heat transfer analyses associated with postulated Double Ended Guillotine Break Loss Of Coolant Accidents (DEGB LOCA) resulting in a drained reactor vessel. In these analyses the gamma radiation resulting from fission product decay constitutes the primary source of energy as a function of time. This energy is deposited into the various reactor components and is re- radiated as thermal energy. The code accounts for all radiant heat exchanges within and leaving the reactor enclosure. The SRS reactors constitute complex radiant exchange enclosures since there are many assemblies of various types within the primary enclosure and most of the assemblies themselves constitute enclosures. GAM-HEAT accounts for this complexity by processing externally generated view factors and connectivity matrices, and also accounts for convective, conductive, and advective heat exchanges. The code is applicable for many situations involving heat exchange between surfaces within a radiatively passive medium. The GAM-HEAT code has been exercised extensively for computing transient temperatures in SRS reactors with specific charges and control components. Results from these computations have been used to establish the need for and to evaluate hardware modifications designed to mitigate results of postulated accident scenarios, and to assist in the specification of safe reactor operating power limits. The code utilizes temperature dependence on material properties. The efficiency of the code has been enhanced by the use of an iterative equation solver. Verification of the code to date consists of comparisons with parallel efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with similar efforts at Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA, and benchmarked using problems with known analytical or iterated solutions. All comparisons and tests yield results that indicate the GAM-HEAT code performs as intended
Computational RNA secondary structure design: empirical complexity and improved methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Condon Anne
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate the empirical complexity of the RNA secondary structure design problem, that is, the scaling of the typical difficulty of the design task for various classes of RNA structures as the size of the target structure is increased. The purpose of this work is to understand better the factors that make RNA structures hard to design for existing, high-performance algorithms. Such understanding provides the basis for improving the performance of one of the best algorithms for this problem, RNA-SSD, and for characterising its limitations. Results To gain insights into the practical complexity of the problem, we present a scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures using an improved version of the RNA-SSD algorithm, and also the RNAinverse algorithm from the Vienna package. Since primary structure constraints are relevant for designing RNA structures, we also investigate the correlation between the number and the location of the primary structure constraints when designing structures and the performance of the RNA-SSD algorithm. The scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures supports the hypothesis that the running time of both algorithms scales polynomially with the size of the structure. We also found that the algorithms are in general faster when constraints are placed only on paired bases in the structure. Furthermore, we prove that, according to the standard thermodynamic model, for some structures that the RNA-SSD algorithm was unable to design, there exists no sequence whose minimum free energy structure is the target structure. Conclusion Our analysis helps to better understand the strengths and limitations of both the RNA-SSD and RNAinverse algorithms, and suggests ways in which the performance of these algorithms can be further improved.
The path toward HEP High Performance Computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostolakis, John; Brun, René; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro; Carminati, Federico
2014-01-01
High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on the development of a highperformance prototype for particle transport. Achieving a good concurrency level on the emerging parallel architectures without a complete redesign of the framework can only be done by parallelizing at event level, or with a much larger effort at track level. Apart the shareable data structures, this typically implies a multiplication factor in terms of memory consumption compared to the single threaded version, together with sub-optimal handling of event processing tails. Besides this, the low level instruction pipelining of modern processors cannot be used efficiently to speedup the program. We have implemented a framework that allows scheduling vectors of particles to an arbitrary number of computing resources in a fine grain parallel approach. The talk will review the current optimisation activities within the SFT group with a particular emphasis on the development perspectives towards a simulation framework able to profit
[The P300-based brain-computer interface: presentation of the complex "flash + movement" stimuli].
Ganin, I P; Kaplan, A Ia
2014-01-01
The P300 based brain-computer interface requires the detection of P300 wave of brain event-related potentials. Most of its users learn the BCI control in several minutes and after the short classifier training they can type a text on the computer screen or assemble an image of separate fragments in simple BCI-based video games. Nevertheless, insufficient attractiveness for users and conservative stimuli organization in this BCI may restrict its integration into real information processes control. At the same time initial movement of object (motion-onset stimuli) may be an independent factor that induces P300 wave. In current work we checked the hypothesis that complex "flash + movement" stimuli together with drastic and compact stimuli organization on the computer screen may be much more attractive for user while operating in P300 BCI. In 20 subjects research we showed the effectiveness of our interface. Both accuracy and P300 amplitude were higher for flashing stimuli and complex "flash + movement" stimuli compared to motion-onset stimuli. N200 amplitude was maximal for flashing stimuli, while for "flash + movement" stimuli and motion-onset stimuli it was only a half of it. Similar BCI with complex stimuli may be embedded into compact control systems requiring high level of user attention under impact of negative external effects obstructing the BCI control.
A computational study of high entropy alloys
Wang, Yang; Gao, Michael; Widom, Michael; Hawk, Jeff
2013-03-01
As a new class of advanced materials, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) exhibit a wide variety of excellent materials properties, including high strength, reasonable ductility with appreciable work-hardening, corrosion and oxidation resistance, wear resistance, and outstanding diffusion-barrier performance, especially at elevated and high temperatures. In this talk, we will explain our computational approach to the study of HEAs that employs the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) method. The KKR-CPA method uses Green's function technique within the framework of multiple scattering theory and is uniquely designed for the theoretical investigation of random alloys from the first principles. The application of the KKR-CPA method will be discussed as it pertains to the study of structural and mechanical properties of HEAs. In particular, computational results will be presented for AlxCoCrCuFeNi (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 1.3, 2.0, 2.8, and 3.0), and these results will be compared with experimental information from the literature.
Computer simulation of high energy displacement cascades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinisch, H.L.
1990-01-01
A methodology developed for modeling many aspects of high energy displacement cascades with molecular level computer simulations is reviewed. The initial damage state is modeled in the binary collision approximation (using the MARLOWE computer code), and the subsequent disposition of the defects within a cascade is modeled with a Monte Carlo annealing simulation (the ALSOME code). There are few adjustable parameters, and none are set to physically unreasonable values. The basic configurations of the simulated high energy cascades in copper, i.e., the number, size and shape of damage regions, compare well with observations, as do the measured numbers of residual defects and the fractions of freely migrating defects. The success of these simulations is somewhat remarkable, given the relatively simple models of defects and their interactions that are employed. The reason for this success is that the behavior of the defects is very strongly influenced by their initial spatial distributions, which the binary collision approximation adequately models. The MARLOWE/ALSOME system, with input from molecular dynamics and experiments, provides a framework for investigating the influence of high energy cascades on microstructure evolution. (author)
High-resolution computer-aided moire
Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.
1991-12-01
This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.
Effects of complex feedback on computer-assisted modular instruction
Gordijn, Jan; Nijhof, W.J.
2002-01-01
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of two versions of Computer-Based Feedback within a prevocational system of modularized education in The Netherlands. The implementation and integration of Computer-Based Feedback (CBF) in Installation Technology modules in all schools (n=60) in The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnamoorthy Arumugam
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Applications of redox processes range over a number of scientific fields. This review article summarizes the theory behind the calculation of redox potentials in solution for species such as organic compounds, inorganic complexes, actinides, battery materials, and mineral surface-bound-species. Different computational approaches to predict and determine redox potentials of electron transitions are discussed along with their respective pros and cons for the prediction of redox potentials. Subsequently, recommendations are made for certain necessary computational settings required for accurate calculation of redox potentials. This article reviews the importance of computational parameters, such as basis sets, density functional theory (DFT functionals, and relativistic approaches and the role that physicochemical processes play on the shift of redox potentials, such as hydration or spin orbit coupling, and will aid in finding suitable combinations of approaches for different chemical and geochemical applications. Identifying cost-effective and credible computational approaches is essential to benchmark redox potential calculations against experiments. Once a good theoretical approach is found to model the chemistry and thermodynamics of the redox and electron transfer process, this knowledge can be incorporated into models of more complex reaction mechanisms that include diffusion in the solute, surface diffusion, and dehydration, to name a few. This knowledge is important to fully understand the nature of redox processes be it a geochemical process that dictates natural redox reactions or one that is being used for the optimization of a chemical process in industry. In addition, it will help identify materials that will be useful to design catalytic redox agents, to come up with materials to be used for batteries and photovoltaic processes, and to identify new and improved remediation strategies in environmental engineering, for example the
A primer on high-throughput computing for genomic selection.
Wu, Xiao-Lin; Beissinger, Timothy M; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Weigel, Kent A; Gatti, Natalia de Leon; Gianola, Daniel
2011-01-01
High-throughput computing (HTC) uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high-throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long, and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl, and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general-purpose computation on a graphics processing unit provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin-Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general-purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of marker panels to realized
Computational Analyses of Complex Flows with Chemical Reactions
Bae, Kang-Sik
The heat and mass transfer phenomena in micro-scale for the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the simulation of oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, and a reduced chemical kinetic modeling of gas turbine combustion for Jet propellant-10 have been studied numerically. For the numerical analysis of the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the governing equations are derived from the cylindrical matrix systems, Krogh cylinder model, which modeling system is comprised of a capillary to a surrounding cylinder tissue along with the arterial distance to veins. ADI (Alternative Direction Implicit) scheme and Thomas algorithm are applied to solve the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). This study shows that the important factors which have an effect on the drug penetration depth to the tissue are the mass diffusivity and the consumption of relevant species during the time allowed for diffusion to the brain tissue. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the blood flow and oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, which are satisfied in the physiological range of a typical capillary. A three dimensional geometry has been constructed to replicate the one studied by Secomb et al. (2000), and the computational framework features a non-Newtonian viscosity model for blood, the oxygen transport model including in oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation and wall flux due to tissue absorption, as well as an ability to study the diffusion of drugs and other materials in the capillary streams. Finally, a chemical kinetic mechanism of JP-10 has been compiled and validated for a wide range of combustion regimes, covering pressures of 1atm to 40atm with temperature ranges of 1,200 K--1,700 K, which is being studied as a possible Jet propellant for the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) and other high-speed flight applications such as hypersonic
Evaluation of high-performance computing software
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Browne, S.; Dongarra, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rowan, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1996-12-31
The absence of unbiased and up to date comparative evaluations of high-performance computing software complicates a user`s search for the appropriate software package. The National HPCC Software Exchange (NHSE) is attacking this problem using an approach that includes independent evaluations of software, incorporation of author and user feedback into the evaluations, and Web access to the evaluations. We are applying this approach to the Parallel Tools Library (PTLIB), a new software repository for parallel systems software and tools, and HPC-Netlib, a high performance branch of the Netlib mathematical software repository. Updating the evaluations with feed-back and making it available via the Web helps ensure accuracy and timeliness, and using independent reviewers produces unbiased comparative evaluations difficult to find elsewhere.
Complex fluids in biological systems experiment, theory, and computation
2015-01-01
This book serves as an introduction to the continuum mechanics and mathematical modeling of complex fluids in living systems. The form and function of living systems are intimately tied to the nature of surrounding fluid environments, which commonly exhibit nonlinear and history dependent responses to forces and displacements. With ever-increasing capabilities in the visualization and manipulation of biological systems, research on the fundamental phenomena, models, measurements, and analysis of complex fluids has taken a number of exciting directions. In this book, many of the world’s foremost experts explore key topics such as: Macro- and micro-rheological techniques for measuring the material properties of complex biofluids and the subtleties of data interpretation Experimental observations and rheology of complex biological materials, including mucus, cell membranes, the cytoskeleton, and blood The motility of microorganisms in complex fluids and the dynamics of active suspensions Challenges and solut...
Berland, Matthew; Wilensky, Uri
2015-01-01
Both complex systems methods (such as agent-based modeling) and computational methods (such as programming) provide powerful ways for students to understand new phenomena. To understand how to effectively teach complex systems and computational content to younger students, we conducted a study in four urban middle school classrooms comparing…
2012-08-22
... Computer Software and Complex Electronics Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-1209, ``Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software and Complex Electronics used... Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE) Standard 830-1998, ``IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements...
Simple, parallel, high-performance virtual machines for extreme computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chokoufe Nejad, Bijan; Ohl, Thorsten; Reuter, Jurgen
2014-11-01
We introduce a high-performance virtual machine (VM) written in a numerically fast language like Fortran or C to evaluate very large expressions. We discuss the general concept of how to perform computations in terms of a VM and present specifically a VM that is able to compute tree-level cross sections for any number of external legs, given the corresponding byte code from the optimal matrix element generator, O'Mega. Furthermore, this approach allows to formulate the parallel computation of a single phase space point in a simple and obvious way. We analyze hereby the scaling behaviour with multiple threads as well as the benefits and drawbacks that are introduced with this method. Our implementation of a VM can run faster than the corresponding native, compiled code for certain processes and compilers, especially for very high multiplicities, and has in general runtimes in the same order of magnitude. By avoiding the tedious compile and link steps, which may fail for source code files of gigabyte sizes, new processes or complex higher order corrections that are currently out of reach could be evaluated with a VM given enough computing power.
computation of the stability constants for the inclusion complexes of
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PrF MU
stability constants of ADA with β-CD with the use of MO as an auxiliary agent were evaluated. ..... The latter statement can also be strengthened by the computed species distribution diagram for .... and 5-position of the adamantyl body.
Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karin Voordeckers
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.
Automation of multi-agent control for complex dynamic systems in heterogeneous computational network
Oparin, Gennady; Feoktistov, Alexander; Bogdanova, Vera; Sidorov, Ivan
2017-01-01
The rapid progress of high-performance computing entails new challenges related to solving large scientific problems for various subject domains in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment (e.g., a network, Grid system, or Cloud infrastructure). The specialists in the field of parallel and distributed computing give the special attention to a scalability of applications for problem solving. An effective management of the scalable application in the heterogeneous distributed computing environment is still a non-trivial issue. Control systems that operate in networks, especially relate to this issue. We propose a new approach to the multi-agent management for the scalable applications in the heterogeneous computational network. The fundamentals of our approach are the integrated use of conceptual programming, simulation modeling, network monitoring, multi-agent management, and service-oriented programming. We developed a special framework for an automation of the problem solving. Advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated on the parametric synthesis example of the static linear regulator for complex dynamic systems. Benefits of the scalable application for solving this problem include automation of the multi-agent control for the systems in a parallel mode with various degrees of its detailed elaboration.
Computer code validation by high temperature chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, C.A.; Ogden, J.S.
1988-01-01
At least five of the computer codes utilized in analysis of severe fuel damage-type events are directly dependent upon or can be verified by high temperature chemistry. These codes are ORIGEN, CORSOR, CORCON, VICTORIA, and VANESA. With the exemption of CORCON and VANESA, it is necessary that verification experiments be performed on real irradiated fuel. For ORIGEN, the familiar knudsen effusion cell is the best choice and a small piece of known mass and known burn-up is selected and volatilized completely into the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer is used in the integral mode to integrate the entire signal from preselected radionuclides, and from this integrated signal the total mass of the respective nuclides can be determined. For CORSOR and VICTORIA, experiments with flowing high pressure hydrogen/steam must flow over the irradiated fuel and then enter the mass spectrometer. For these experiments, a high pressure-high temperature molecular beam inlet must be employed. Finally, in support of VANESA-CORCON, the very highest temperature and molten fuels must be contained and analyzed. Results from all types of experiments will be discussed and their applicability to present and future code development will also be covered
Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu
2013-01-01
With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…
Effects of Task Performance and Task Complexity on the Validity of Computational Models of Attention
Koning, L. de; Maanen, P.P. van; Dongen, K. van
2008-01-01
Computational models of attention can be used as a component of decision support systems. For accurate support, a computational model of attention has to be valid and robust. The effects of task performance and task complexity on the validity of three different computational models of attention were
Field programmable gate array-assigned complex-valued computation and its limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard-Schwarz, Maria, E-mail: maria.bernardschwarz@ni.com [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria); Zwick, Wolfgang; Klier, Jochen [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Wenzel, Lothar [National Instruments, 11500 N MOPac Expy, Austin, Texas 78759 (United States); Gröschl, Martin [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria)
2014-09-15
We discuss how leveraging Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology as part of a high performance computing platform reduces latency to meet the demanding real time constraints of a quantum optics simulation. Implementations of complex-valued operations using fixed point numeric on a Virtex-5 FPGA compare favorably to more conventional solutions on a central processing unit. Our investigation explores the performance of multiple fixed point options along with a traditional 64 bits floating point version. With this information, the lowest execution times can be estimated. Relative error is examined to ensure simulation accuracy is maintained.
Computer simulations of high pressure systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilkins, M.L.
1977-01-01
Numerical methods are capable of solving very difficult problems in solid mechanics and gas dynamics. In the design of engineering structures, critical decisions are possible if the behavior of materials is correctly described in the calculation. Problems of current interest require accurate analysis of stress-strain fields that range from very small elastic displacement to very large plastic deformation. A finite difference program is described that solves problems over this range and in two and three space-dimensions and time. A series of experiments and calculations serve to establish confidence in the plasticity formulation. The program can be used to design high pressure systems where plastic flow occurs. The purpose is to identify material properties, strength and elongation, that meet the operating requirements. An objective is to be able to perform destructive testing on a computer rather than on the engineering structure. Examples of topical interest are given
Jäger, Willi
2003-01-01
This book presents the state-of-the-art in modeling and simulation on supercomputers. Leading German research groups present their results achieved on high-end systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2002. Reports cover all fields of supercomputing simulation ranging from computational fluid dynamics to computer science. Special emphasis is given to industrially relevant applications. Moreover, by presenting results for both vector sytems and micro-processor based systems the book allows to compare performance levels and usability of a variety of supercomputer architectures. It therefore becomes an indispensable guidebook to assess the impact of the Japanese Earth Simulator project on supercomputing in the years to come.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masoud, M.S.; Motaweh, H.A.; Ali, A.E.
1999-01-01
Full text.the electronic absorption spectra of the octahedral complexes containing monoethanolamine were recorded in different solvents (dioxine, chlororm, ethanol, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and water). The data analyzed based on multiple linear regression technique using the equation: ya (a is the regression intercept) are various empirical solvent polarytiparameters; constants are calculated using micro statistic program on pc computer. The solvent spectral data of the complexes are compared to that of nugot, the solvent assists the spectral data to be red shifts. In case of Mn (MEA) CL complex, numerous bands are appeared in presence of CHCI DMF and DMSO solvents probably due to the numerous oxidation states. The solvent parameters: E (solvent-solute hydrogen bond and dipolar interaction); (dipolar interaction related to the dielectric constant); M (solute permanent dipole-solvent induced ipole) and N (solute permanent dipole-solvent permanent dipole) are correlated with the structure of the complexes, in hydrogen bonding solvents (Band in case of complexes as the dielectric constant increases, blue shift occurs in due to conjugation with high stability, the data in DMF and DMSO solvents are nearly the same probably due to their similarity
The path toward HEP High Performance Computing
Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro
2014-01-01
High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on th...
A new entropy based method for computing software structural complexity
Roca, J L
2002-01-01
In this paper a new methodology for the evaluation of software structural complexity is described. It is based on the entropy evaluation of the random uniform response function associated with the so called software characteristic function SCF. The behavior of the SCF with the different software structures and their relationship with the number of inherent errors is investigated. It is also investigated how the entropy concept can be used to evaluate the complexity of a software structure considering the SCF as a canonical representation of the graph associated with the control flow diagram. The functions, parameters and algorithms that allow to carry out this evaluation are also introduced. After this analytic phase follows the experimental phase, verifying the consistency of the proposed metric and their boundary conditions. The conclusion is that the degree of software structural complexity can be measured as the entropy of the random uniform response function of the SCF. That entropy is in direct relation...
Low-complexity computer simulation of multichannel room impulse responses
Martínez Castañeda, J.A.
2013-01-01
The "telephone'' model has been, for the last one hundred thirty years, the base of modern telecommunications with virtually no changes in its fundamental concept. The arise of smaller and more powerful computing devices have opened new possibilities. For example, to build systems able to give to
Complex adaptative systems and computational simulation in Archaeology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvador Pardo-Gordó
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Traditionally the concept of ‘complexity’ is used as a synonym for ‘complex society’, i.e., human groups with characteristics such as urbanism, inequalities, and hierarchy. The introduction of Nonlinear Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems to the discipline of archaeology has nuanced this concept. This theoretical turn has led to the rise of modelling as a method of analysis of historical processes. This work has a twofold objective: to present the theoretical current characterized by generative thinking in archaeology and to present a concrete application of agent-based modelling to an archaeological problem: the dispersal of the first ceramic production in the western Mediterranean.
Computation of resonances by two methods involving the use of complex coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bylicki, M.; Nicolaides, C.A.
1993-01-01
We have studied two different systems producing resonances, a highly excited multielectron Coulombic negative ion (the He - 2s2p 2 4 P state) and a hydrogen atom in a magnetic field, via the complex-coordinate rotation (CCR) and the state-specific complex-eigenvalue Schroedinger equation (CESE) approaches. For the He - 2s2p 2 4 P resonance, a series of large CCR calculations, up to 353 basis functions with explicit r ij dependence, were carried out to serve as benchmarks. For the magnetic-field problem, the CCR results were taken from the literature. Comparison shows that the state-specific CESE theory allows the physics of the problem to be incorporated systematically while keeping the overall size of the computation tractable regardless of the number of electrons
General-Purpose Computation with Neural Networks: A Survey of Complexity Theoretic Results
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šíma, Jiří; Orponen, P.
2003-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 12 (2003), s. 2727-2778 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB2030007; GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : computational power * computational complexity * perceptrons * radial basis functions * spiking neurons * feedforward networks * reccurent networks * probabilistic computation * analog computation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2003
Jäger, Willi
2000-01-01
The book contains reports about the most significant projects from science and engineering of the Federal High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). They were carefully selected in a peer-review process and are showcases of an innovative combination of state-of-the-art modeling, novel algorithms and the use of leading-edge parallel computer technology. The projects of HLRS are using supercomputer systems operated jointly by university and industry and therefore a special emphasis has been put on the industrial relevance of results and methods.
Jäger, Willi
1999-01-01
The book contains reports about the most significant projects from science and industry that are using the supercomputers of the Federal High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). These projects are from different scientific disciplines, with a focus on engineering, physics and chemistry. They were carefully selected in a peer-review process and are showcases for an innovative combination of state-of-the-art physical modeling, novel algorithms and the use of leading-edge parallel computer technology. As HLRS is in close cooperation with industrial companies, special emphasis has been put on the industrial relevance of results and methods.
A High Performance COTS Based Computer Architecture
Patte, Mathieu; Grimoldi, Raoul; Trautner, Roland
2014-08-01
Using Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) electronic components for space applications is a long standing idea. Indeed the difference in processing performance and energy efficiency between radiation hardened components and COTS components is so important that COTS components are very attractive for use in mass and power constrained systems. However using COTS components in space is not straightforward as one must account with the effects of the space environment on the COTS components behavior. In the frame of the ESA funded activity called High Performance COTS Based Computer, Airbus Defense and Space and its subcontractor OHB CGS have developed and prototyped a versatile COTS based architecture for high performance processing. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in a first section we will start by recapitulating the interests and constraints of using COTS components for space applications; then we will briefly describe existing fault mitigation architectures and present our solution for fault mitigation based on a component called the SmartIO; in the last part of the paper we will describe the prototyping activities executed during the HiP CBC project.
Complexity theory and genetics: The computational power of crossing over
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pudlák, Pavel
2001-01-01
Roč. 171, č. 1 (2001), s. 201-223 ISSN 0890-5401 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : complexity * genetics * croning over Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2001
Computed tomography in complex fractures of the ankle joint
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedburg, H.; Wimmer, B.; Hendrich, V.; Riede, U.N.
1983-01-01
Diagnostic value of conventional roentgen technique and computed tomography is proofed by examination of 50 patients with sprain fractures of the ankle joint. The dimension of destruction of the distal tibial joint surface is better documented by CT than by other radiological techniques. Additional informations like multifragmentation of the distal tibia or evaluation of reposition impedigment are found more frequently by CT. Therefore indication and planning of the traumatherapy can be assessed better by the traumatologist. (orig.)
Computed tomography in complex fractures of the ankle joint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedburg, H.; Wimmer, B.; Hendrich, V.; Riede, U.N.
1983-09-01
Diagnostic value of conventional roentgen technique and computed tomography is proofed by examination of 50 patients with sprain fractures of the ankle joint. The dimension of destruction of the distal tibial joint surface is better documented by CT than by other radiological techniques. Additional informations like multiframentation of the distal tibia or evaluation of reposition impediment are found more frequently by CT. Therefore indication and planning of the traumatherapy can be assessed better by the traumatologist.
Computational design of RNAs with complex energy landscapes.
Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hammer, Stefan; Abfalter, Ingrid; Hofacker, Ivo L; Flamm, Christoph; Stadler, Peter F
2013-12-01
RNA has become an integral building material in synthetic biology. Dominated by their secondary structures, which can be computed efficiently, RNA molecules are amenable not only to in vitro and in vivo selection, but also to rational, computation-based design. While the inverse folding problem of constructing an RNA sequence with a prescribed ground-state structure has received considerable attention for nearly two decades, there have been few efforts to design RNAs that can switch between distinct prescribed conformations. We introduce a user-friendly tool for designing RNA sequences that fold into multiple target structures. The underlying algorithm makes use of a combination of graph coloring and heuristic local optimization to find sequences whose energy landscapes are dominated by the prescribed conformations. A flexible interface allows the specification of a wide range of design goals. We demonstrate that bi- and tri-stable "switches" can be designed easily with moderate computational effort for the vast majority of compatible combinations of desired target structures. RNAdesign is freely available under the GPL-v3 license. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Personal computers in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quarrie, D.R.
1987-01-01
The role of personal computers within HEP is expanding as their capabilities increase and their cost decreases. Already they offer greater flexibility than many low-cost graphics terminals for a comparable cost and in addition they can significantly increase the productivity of physicists and programmers. This talk will discuss existing uses for personal computers and explore possible future directions for their integration into the overall computing environment. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinin, A.I.; Kolesov, V.E.; Nevinitsa, A.I.
1975-01-01
The report contains description of the method of construction of computer programs complexes for computation purposes for M-220 computers using the ALGOL-60 code for programming. The complex is organised on the modulus system principle and can include substantial number of modulus programs. The information exchange between separate moduli is done by means of special interpreting program and the information unit exchanged is a specially arranged file of data. For addressing to the interpreting program in the ALGOL-60 frameworks small number of specially created procedure-codes is used. The method proposed gives possibilities to program separate moduli of the complex independently and to expand the complex if necessary. In this case separate moduli or groups of moduli depending on the method of segmentation of the general problem solved by the complex will be of the independent interest and could be used out of the complex as traditional programs. (author)
Design of magnetic coordination complexes for quantum computing.
Aromí, Guillem; Aguilà, David; Gamez, Patrick; Luis, Fernando; Roubeau, Olivier
2012-01-21
A very exciting prospect in coordination chemistry is to manipulate spins within magnetic complexes for the realization of quantum logic operations. An introduction to the requirements for a paramagnetic molecule to act as a 2-qubit quantum gate is provided in this tutorial review. We propose synthetic methods aimed at accessing such type of functional molecules, based on ligand design and inorganic synthesis. Two strategies are presented: (i) the first consists in targeting molecules containing a pair of well-defined and weakly coupled paramagnetic metal aggregates, each acting as a carrier of one potential qubit, (ii) the second is the design of dinuclear complexes of anisotropic metal ions, exhibiting dissimilar environments and feeble magnetic coupling. The first systems obtained from this synthetic program are presented here and their properties are discussed.
A computational framework for modeling targets as complex adaptive systems
Santos, Eugene; Santos, Eunice E.; Korah, John; Murugappan, Vairavan; Subramanian, Suresh
2017-05-01
Modeling large military targets is a challenge as they can be complex systems encompassing myriad combinations of human, technological, and social elements that interact, leading to complex behaviors. Moreover, such targets have multiple components and structures, extending across multiple spatial and temporal scales, and are in a state of change, either in response to events in the environment or changes within the system. Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory can help in capturing the dynamism, interactions, and more importantly various emergent behaviors, displayed by the targets. However, a key stumbling block is incorporating information from various intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) sources, while dealing with the inherent uncertainty, incompleteness and time criticality of real world information. To overcome these challenges, we present a probabilistic reasoning network based framework called complex adaptive Bayesian Knowledge Base (caBKB). caBKB is a rigorous, overarching and axiomatic framework that models two key processes, namely information aggregation and information composition. While information aggregation deals with the union, merger and concatenation of information and takes into account issues such as source reliability and information inconsistencies, information composition focuses on combining information components where such components may have well defined operations. Since caBKBs can explicitly model the relationships between information pieces at various scales, it provides unique capabilities such as the ability to de-aggregate and de-compose information for detailed analysis. Using a scenario from the Network Centric Operations (NCO) domain, we will describe how our framework can be used for modeling targets with a focus on methodologies for quantifying NCO performance metrics.
Chen, Gang; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Gao, Zhiyong
2017-07-01
The latest high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard significantly increases the encoding complexity for improving its coding efficiency. Due to the limited computational capability of handheld devices, complexity constrained video coding has drawn great attention in recent years. A complexity control algorithm based on adaptive mode selection is proposed for interframe coding in HEVC. Considering the direct proportionality between encoding time and computational complexity, the computational complexity is measured in terms of encoding time. First, complexity is mapped to a target in terms of prediction modes. Then, an adaptive mode selection algorithm is proposed for the mode decision process. Specifically, the optimal mode combination scheme that is chosen through offline statistics is developed at low complexity. If the complexity budget has not been used up, an adaptive mode sorting method is employed to further improve coding efficiency. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a very large complexity control range (as low as 10%) for the HEVC encoder while maintaining good rate-distortion performance. For the lowdelayP condition, compared with the direct resource allocation method and the state-of-the-art method, an average gain of 0.63 and 0.17 dB in BDPSNR is observed for 18 sequences when the target complexity is around 40%.
A new entropy based method for computing software structural complexity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roca, Jose L.
2002-01-01
In this paper a new methodology for the evaluation of software structural complexity is described. It is based on the entropy evaluation of the random uniform response function associated with the so called software characteristic function SCF. The behavior of the SCF with the different software structures and their relationship with the number of inherent errors is investigated. It is also investigated how the entropy concept can be used to evaluate the complexity of a software structure considering the SCF as a canonical representation of the graph associated with the control flow diagram. The functions, parameters and algorithms that allow to carry out this evaluation are also introduced. After this analytic phase follows the experimental phase, verifying the consistency of the proposed metric and their boundary conditions. The conclusion is that the degree of software structural complexity can be measured as the entropy of the random uniform response function of the SCF. That entropy is in direct relationship with the number of inherent software errors and it implies a basic hazard failure rate for it, so that a minimum structure assures a certain stability and maturity of the program. This metric can be used, either to evaluate the product or the process of software development, as development tool or for monitoring the stability and the quality of the final product. (author)
Baichoo, Shakuntala; Ouzounis, Christos A
A multitude of algorithms for sequence comparison, short-read assembly and whole-genome alignment have been developed in the general context of molecular biology, to support technology development for high-throughput sequencing, numerous applications in genome biology and fundamental research on comparative genomics. The computational complexity of these algorithms has been previously reported in original research papers, yet this often neglected property has not been reviewed previously in a systematic manner and for a wider audience. We provide a review of space and time complexity of key sequence analysis algorithms and highlight their properties in a comprehensive manner, in order to identify potential opportunities for further research in algorithm or data structure optimization. The complexity aspect is poised to become pivotal as we will be facing challenges related to the continuous increase of genomic data on unprecedented scales and complexity in the foreseeable future, when robust biological simulation at the cell level and above becomes a reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Using NCLab-karel to improve computational thinking skill of junior high school students
Kusnendar, J.; Prabawa, H. W.
2018-05-01
Increasingly human interaction with technology and the increasingly complex development of digital technology world make the theme of computer science education interesting to study. Previous studies on Computer Literacy and Competency reveal that Indonesian teachers in general have fairly high computational skill, but their skill utilization are limited to some applications. This engenders limited and minimum computer-related learning for the students. On the other hand, computer science education is considered unrelated to real-world solutions. This paper attempts to address the utilization of NCLab- Karel in shaping the computational thinking in students. This computational thinking is believed to be able to making learn students about technology. Implementation of Karel utilization provides information that Karel is able to increase student interest in studying computational material, especially algorithm. Observations made during the learning process also indicate the growth and development of computing mindset in students.
Fusion in computer vision understanding complex visual content
Ionescu, Bogdan; Piatrik, Tomas
2014-01-01
This book presents a thorough overview of fusion in computer vision, from an interdisciplinary and multi-application viewpoint, describing successful approaches, evaluated in the context of international benchmarks that model realistic use cases. Features: examines late fusion approaches for concept recognition in images and videos; describes the interpretation of visual content by incorporating models of the human visual system with content understanding methods; investigates the fusion of multi-modal features of different semantic levels, as well as results of semantic concept detections, fo
Computer tomography of large dust clouds in complex plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Killer, Carsten; Himpel, Michael; Melzer, André
2014-01-01
The dust density is a central parameter of a dusty plasma. Here, a tomography setup for the determination of the three-dimensionally resolved density distribution of spatially extended dust clouds is presented. The dust clouds consist of micron-sized particles confined in a radio frequency argon plasma, where they fill almost the entire discharge volume. First, a line-of-sight integrated dust density is obtained from extinction measurements, where the incident light from an LED panel is scattered and absorbed by the dust. Performing these extinction measurements from many different angles allows the reconstruction of the 3D dust density distribution, analogous to a computer tomography in medical applications
High resolution computed tomography of positron emitters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Jackson, H.G.
1976-10-01
High resolution computed transaxial radionuclide tomography has been performed on phantoms containing positron-emitting isotopes. The imaging system consisted of two opposing groups of eight NaI(Tl) crystals 8 mm x 30 mm x 50 mm deep and the phantoms were rotated to measure coincident events along 8960 projection integrals as they would be measured by a 280-crystal ring system now under construction. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed images is 7.5 mm FWHM at the center of the ring and approximately 11 mm FWHM at a radius of 10 cm. We present measurements of imaging and background rates under various operating conditions. Based on these measurements, the full 280-crystal system will image 10,000 events per sec with 400 μCi in a section 1 cm thick and 20 cm in diameter. We show that 1.5 million events are sufficient to reliably image 3.5-mm hot spots with 14-mm center-to-center spacing and isolated 9-mm diameter cold spots in phantoms 15 to 20 cm in diameter
High performance ultrasonic field simulation on complex geometries
Chouh, H.; Rougeron, G.; Chatillon, S.; Iehl, J. C.; Farrugia, J. P.; Ostromoukhov, V.
2016-02-01
Ultrasonic field simulation is a key ingredient for the design of new testing methods as well as a crucial step for NDT inspection simulation. As presented in a previous paper [1], CEA-LIST has worked on the acceleration of these simulations focusing on simple geometries (planar interfaces, isotropic materials). In this context, significant accelerations were achieved on multicore processors and GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), bringing the execution time of realistic computations in the 0.1 s range. In this paper, we present recent works that aim at similar performances on a wider range of configurations. We adapted the physical model used by the CIVA platform to design and implement a new algorithm providing a fast ultrasonic field simulation that yields nearly interactive results for complex cases. The improvements over the CIVA pencil-tracing method include adaptive strategies for pencil subdivisions to achieve a good refinement of the sensor geometry while keeping a reasonable number of ray-tracing operations. Also, interpolation of the times of flight was used to avoid time consuming computations in the impulse response reconstruction stage. To achieve the best performance, our algorithm runs on multi-core superscalar CPUs and uses high performance specialized libraries such as Intel Embree for ray-tracing, Intel MKL for signal processing and Intel TBB for parallelization. We validated the simulation results by comparing them to the ones produced by CIVA on identical test configurations including mono-element and multiple-element transducers, homogeneous, meshed 3D CAD specimens, isotropic and anisotropic materials and wave paths that can involve several interactions with interfaces. We show performance results on complete simulations that achieve computation times in the 1s range.
Concept for high speed computer printer
Stephens, J. W.
1970-01-01
Printer uses Kerr cell as light shutter for controlling the print on photosensitive paper. Applied to output data transfer, the information transfer rate of graphic computer printers could be increased to speeds approaching the data transfer rate of computer central processors /5000 to 10,000 lines per minute/.
Building confidence and credibility amid growing model and computing complexity
Evans, K. J.; Mahajan, S.; Veneziani, C.; Kennedy, J. H.
2017-12-01
As global Earth system models are developed to answer an ever-wider range of science questions, software products that provide robust verification, validation, and evaluation must evolve in tandem. Measuring the degree to which these new models capture past behavior, predict the future, and provide the certainty of predictions is becoming ever more challenging for reasons that are generally well known, yet are still challenging to address. Two specific and divergent needs for analysis of the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) model - but with a similar software philosophy - are presented to show how a model developer-based focus can address analysis needs during expansive model changes to provide greater fidelity and execute on multi-petascale computing facilities. A-PRIME is a python script-based quick-look overview of a fully-coupled global model configuration to determine quickly if it captures specific behavior before significant computer time and expense is invested. EVE is an ensemble-based software framework that focuses on verification of performance-based ACME model development, such as compiler or machine settings, to determine the equivalence of relevant climate statistics. The challenges and solutions for analysis of multi-petabyte output data are highlighted from the aspect of the scientist using the software, with the aim of fostering discussion and further input from the community about improving developer confidence and community credibility.
Game-Theoretic Rate-Distortion-Complexity Optimization of High Efficiency Video Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ukhanova, Ann; Milani, Simone; Forchhammer, Søren
2013-01-01
profiles in order to tailor the computational load to the different hardware and power-supply resources of devices. In this work, we focus on optimizing the quantization parameter and partition depth in HEVC via a game-theoretic approach. The proposed rate control strategy alone provides 0.2 dB improvement......This paper presents an algorithm for rate-distortioncomplexity optimization for the emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, whose high computational requirements urge the need for low-complexity optimization algorithms. Optimization approaches need to specify different complexity...
Stochastic Computational Approach for Complex Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Junaid Ali; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor
2011-01-01
We present an evolutionary computational approach for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NLODEs). The mathematical modeling is performed by a feed-forward artificial neural network that defines an unsupervised error. The training of these networks is achieved by a hybrid intelligent algorithm, a combination of global search with genetic algorithm and local search by pattern search technique. The applicability of this approach ranges from single order NLODEs, to systems of coupled differential equations. We illustrate the method by solving a variety of model problems and present comparisons with solutions obtained by exact methods and classical numerical methods. The solution is provided on a continuous finite time interval unlike the other numerical techniques with comparable accuracy. With the advent of neuroprocessors and digital signal processors the method becomes particularly interesting due to the expected essential gains in the execution speed. (general)
Complex Development Report: Moanalua High School.
Anbe, Aruga and Ishizu, Architects, Inc., Honolulu, HI.
This report documents the planning process and the decisions involved in master planning a proposed Honolulu high school, and it provides guidance for the implementation of those increments remaining after phase one of the first increment had been completed in September 1972. Phase two of the first increment and the second increment are now under…
Computational Thinking and Practice - A Generic Approach to Computing in Danish High Schools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caspersen, Michael E.; Nowack, Palle
2014-01-01
Internationally, there is a growing awareness on the necessity of providing relevant computing education in schools, particularly high schools. We present a new and generic approach to Computing in Danish High Schools based on a conceptual framework derived from ideas related to computational thi...
The pervasive reach of resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity in computational complexity theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Allender, E.; Koucký, Michal; Ronneburger, D.; Roy, S.
2011-01-01
Roč. 77, č. 1 (2011), s. 14-40 ISSN 0022-0000 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0854; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Circuit complexity * Distinguishing complexity * FewEXP * Formula size * Kolmogorov complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.157, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022000010000887
On Complex Networks Representation and Computation of Hydrologycal Quantities
Serafin, F.; Bancheri, M.; David, O.; Rigon, R.
2017-12-01
Water is our blue gold. Despite results of discovery-based science keep warning public opinion about the looming worldwide water crisis, water is still treated as a not worth taking resource. Could a different multi-scale perspective affect environmental decision-making more deeply? Can also a further pairing to a new graphical representation of processes interaction sway decision-making more effectively and public opinion consequently?This abstract introduces a complex networks driven way to represent catchments eco-hydrology and related flexible informatics to manage it. The representation is built upon mathematical category. A category is an algebraic structure that comprises "objects" linked by "arrows". It is an evolution of Petri Nets said Time Continuous Petri Nets (TCPN). It aims to display (water) budgets processes and catchment interactions using explicative and self-contained symbolism. The result improves readability of physical processes compared to current descriptions. The IT perspective hinges on the Object Modeling System (OMS) v3. The latter is a non-invasive flexible environmental modeling framework designed to support component-based model development. The implementation of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) data structure, named Net3, has recently enhanced its flexibility. Net3 represents interacting systems as complex networks: vertices match up with any sort of time evolving quantity; edges correspond to their data (fluxes) interchange. It currently hosts JGrass-NewAge components, and those implementing travel time analysis of fluxes. Further bio-physical or management oriented components can be easily added.This talk introduces both graphical representation and related informatics exercising actual applications and examples.
Peregrine System | High-Performance Computing | NREL
classes of nodes that users access: Login Nodes Peregrine has four login nodes, each of which has Intel E5 /scratch file systems, the /mss file system is mounted on all login nodes. Compute Nodes Peregrine has 2592
Mitchell, Christine M.
1993-01-01
This chapter examines a class of human-computer interaction applications, specifically the design of human-computer interaction for the operators of complex systems. Such systems include space systems (e.g., manned systems such as the Shuttle or space station, and unmanned systems such as NASA scientific satellites), aviation systems (e.g., the flight deck of 'glass cockpit' airplanes or air traffic control) and industrial systems (e.g., power plants, telephone networks, and sophisticated, e.g., 'lights out,' manufacturing facilities). The main body of human-computer interaction (HCI) research complements but does not directly address the primary issues involved in human-computer interaction design for operators of complex systems. Interfaces to complex systems are somewhat special. The 'user' in such systems - i.e., the human operator responsible for safe and effective system operation - is highly skilled, someone who in human-machine systems engineering is sometimes characterized as 'well trained, well motivated'. The 'job' or task context is paramount and, thus, human-computer interaction is subordinate to human job interaction. The design of human interaction with complex systems, i.e., the design of human job interaction, is sometimes called cognitive engineering.
Bringing together high energy physicist and computer scientist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bock, R.K.
1989-01-01
The Oxford Conference on Computing in High Energy Physics approached the physics and computing issues with the question, ''Can computer science help?'' always in mind. This summary is a personal recollection of what I considered to be the highlights of the conference: the parts which contributed to my own learning experience. It can be used as a general introduction to the following papers, or as a brief overview of the current states of computer science within high energy physics. (orig.)
Integrated computer network high-speed parallel interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, R.B.
1979-03-01
As the number and variety of computers within Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Central Computer Facility grows, the need for a standard, high-speed intercomputer interface has become more apparent. This report details the development of a High-Speed Parallel Interface from conceptual through implementation stages to meet current and future needs for large-scle network computing within the Integrated Computer Network. 4 figures
A general method for computing the total solar radiation force on complex spacecraft structures
Chan, F. K.
1981-01-01
The method circumvents many of the existing difficulties in computational logic presently encountered in the direct analytical or numerical evaluation of the appropriate surface integral. It may be applied to complex spacecraft structures for computing the total force arising from either specular or diffuse reflection or even from non-Lambertian reflection and re-radiation.
Federal Plan for High-End Computing
Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Since the World War II era, when scientists, mathematicians, and engineers began using revolutionary electronic machinery that could rapidly perform complex...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimakov, V.N.; Chernykh, V.P.
1998-01-01
The problems on creating calculational-simulating (CSC) and their application by developing the program and program-technical means for computer-aided process control systems at NPP are considered. The abo- ve complex is based on the all-mode real time mathematical model, functioning at a special complex of computerized means
Accurate Computed Enthalpies of Spin Crossover in Iron and Cobalt Complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Cirera, J
2009-01-01
Despite their importance in many chemical processes, the relative energies of spin states of transition metal complexes have so far been haunted by large computational errors. By the use of six functionals, B3LYP, BP86, TPSS, TPSSh, M06L, and M06L, this work studies nine complexes (seven with iron...
Al-Ahmary, Khairia M.; Habeeb, Moustafa M.; Al-Obidan, Areej H.
2018-05-01
New charge transfer complex (CTC) between the electron donor 2,3-diaminopyridine (DAP) with the electron acceptor chloranilic (CLA) acid has been synthesized and characterized experimentally and theoretically using a variety of physicochemical techniques. The experimental work included the use of elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and 1H NMR studies to characterize the complex. Electronic spectra have been carried out in different hydrogen bonded solvents, methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and 1:1 mixture from AN-MeOH. The molecular composition of the complex was identified to be 1:1 from Jobs and molar ratio methods. The stability constant was determined using minimum-maximum absorbances method where it recorded high values confirming the high stability of the formed complex. The solid complex was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis that confirmed its formation in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. Both IR and NMR studies asserted the existence of proton and charge transfers in the formed complex. For supporting the experimental results, DFT computations were carried out using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method to compute the optimized structures of the reactants and complex, their geometrical parameters, reactivity parameters, molecular electrostatic potential map and frontier molecular orbitals. The analysis of DFT results strongly confirmed the high stability of the formed complex based on existing charge transfer beside proton transfer hydrogen bonding concordant with experimental results. The origin of electronic spectra was analyzed using TD-DFT method where the observed λmax are strongly consisted with the computed ones. TD-DFT showed the contributed states for various electronic transitions.
Architecture of 32 bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) microprocessors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jove, T.M.; Ayguade, E.; Valero, M.
1988-01-01
In this paper we describe the main topics about the architecture of the best known 32-bit CISC microprocessors; i80386, MC68000 family, NS32000 series and Z80000. We focus on the high level languages support, operating system design facilities, memory management, techniques to speed up the overall performance and program debugging facilities. (Author)
Trends in high-performance computing for engineering calculations.
Giles, M B; Reguly, I
2014-08-13
High-performance computing has evolved remarkably over the past 20 years, and that progress is likely to continue. However, in recent years, this progress has been achieved through greatly increased hardware complexity with the rise of multicore and manycore processors, and this is affecting the ability of application developers to achieve the full potential of these systems. This article outlines the key developments on the hardware side, both in the recent past and in the near future, with a focus on two key issues: energy efficiency and the cost of moving data. It then discusses the much slower evolution of system software, and the implications of all of this for application developers. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Electromagnetic Modeling of Human Body Using High Performance Computing
Ng, Cho-Kuen; Beall, Mark; Ge, Lixin; Kim, Sanghoek; Klaas, Ottmar; Poon, Ada
Realistic simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation in the actual human body can expedite the investigation of the phenomenon of harvesting implanted devices using wireless powering coupled from external sources. The parallel electromagnetics code suite ACE3P developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is based on the finite element method for high fidelity accelerator simulation, which can be enhanced to model electromagnetic wave propagation in the human body. Starting with a CAD model of a human phantom that is characterized by a number of tissues, a finite element mesh representing the complex geometries of the individual tissues is built for simulation. Employing an optimal power source with a specific pattern of field distribution, the propagation and focusing of electromagnetic waves in the phantom has been demonstrated. Substantial speedup of the simulation is achieved by using multiple compute cores on supercomputers.
Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers
Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.
Automated high speed volume computed tomography for inline quality control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanke, R.; Kugel, A.; Troup, P.
2004-01-01
Increasing complexity of innovative products as well as growing requirements on quality and reliability call for more detailed knowledge about internal structures of manufactured components rather by 100 % inspection than just by sampling test. A first-step solution, like radioscopic inline inspection machines, equipped with automated data evaluation software, have become state of the art in the production floor during the last years. However, these machines provide just ordinary two-dimensional information and deliver no volume data e.g. to evaluate exact position or shape of detected defects. One way to solve this problem is the application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Compared to the performance of the first generation medical scanners (scanning times of many hours), today, modern Volume CT machines for industrial applications need about 5 minutes for a full object scan depending on the object size. Of course, this is still too long to introduce this powerful method into the inline production quality control. In order to gain acceptance, the scanning time including subsequent data evaluation must be decreased significantly and adapted to the manufacturing cycle times. This presentation demonstrates the new technical set up, reconstruction results and the methods for high-speed volume data evaluation of a new fully automated high-speed CT scanner with cycle times below one minute for an object size of less than 15 cm. This will directly create new opportunities in design and construction of more complex objects. (author)
ATLAS FTK a - very complex - custom super computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, N
2016-01-01
In the LHC environment for high interaction pile-up, advanced techniques of analysing the data in real time are required in order to maximize the rate of physics processes of interest with respect to background processes. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is a track finding implementation at the hardware level that is designed to deliver full-scan tracks with p T above 1 GeV to the ATLAS trigger system for events passing the Level-1 accept (at a maximum rate of 100 kHz). In order to achieve this performance, a highly parallel system was designed and currently it is being commissioned within in ATLAS. Starting in 2016 it will provide tracks for the trigger system in a region covering the central part of the ATLAS detector, and will be extended to the full detector coverage. The system relies on matching hits coming from the silicon tracking detectors against one billion patterns stored in custom ASIC chips (Associative memory chip - AM06). In a first stage, coarse resolution hits are matched against the patterns and the accepted hits undergo track fitting implemented in FPGAs. Tracks with p T > 1GeV are delivered to the High Level Trigger within about 100 ps. Resolution of the tracks coming from FTK is close to the offline tracking and it will allow for reliable detection of primary and secondary vertexes at trigger level and improved trigger performance for b-jets and tau leptons. This contribution will give an overview of the FTK system and present the status of commissioning of the system. Additionally, the expected FTK performance will be briefly described. (paper)
HIGH PERFORMANCE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROCESSING ON COMPUTER CLUSTERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Adrov
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Most cpu consuming tasks in photogrammetric processing can be done in parallel. The algorithms take independent bits as input and produce independent bits as output. The independence of bits comes from the nature of such algorithms since images, stereopairs or small image blocks parts can be processed independently. Many photogrammetric algorithms are fully automatic and do not require human interference. Photogrammetric workstations can perform tie points measurements, DTM calculations, orthophoto construction, mosaicing and many other service operations in parallel using distributed calculations. Distributed calculations save time reducing several days calculations to several hours calculations. Modern trends in computer technology show the increase of cpu cores in workstations, speed increase in local networks, and as a result dropping the price of the supercomputers or computer clusters that can contain hundreds or even thousands of computing nodes. Common distributed processing in DPW is usually targeted for interactive work with a limited number of cpu cores and is not optimized for centralized administration. The bottleneck of common distributed computing in photogrammetry can be in the limited lan throughput and storage performance, since the processing of huge amounts of large raster images is needed.
Experimental and computational fluid dynamics studies of mixing of complex oral health products
Cortada-Garcia, Marti; Migliozzi, Simona; Weheliye, Weheliye Hashi; Dore, Valentina; Mazzei, Luca; Angeli, Panagiota; ThAMes Multiphase Team
2017-11-01
Highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids are largely used in the manufacturing of specialized oral care products. Mixing often takes place in mechanically stirred vessels where the flow fields and mixing times depend on the geometric configuration and the fluid physical properties. In this research, we study the mixing performance of complex non-Newtonian fluids using Computational Fluid Dynamics models and validate them against experimental laser-based optical techniques. To this aim, we developed a scaled-down version of an industrial mixer. As test fluids, we used mixtures of glycerol and a Carbomer gel. The viscosities of the mixtures against shear rate at different temperatures and phase ratios were measured and found to be well described by the Carreau model. The numerical results were compared against experimental measurements of velocity fields from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and concentration profiles from Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF).
Experiment and computation: a combined approach to study the van der Waals complexes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surin L.A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A review of recent results on the millimetre-wave spectroscopy of weakly bound van der Waals complexes, mostly those which contain H2 and He, is presented. In our work, we compared the experimental spectra to the theoretical bound state results, thus providing a critical test of the quality of the M–H2 and M–He potential energy surfaces (PESs which are a key issue for reliable computations of the collisional excitation and de-excitation of molecules (M = CO, NH3, H2O in the dense interstellar medium. The intermolecular interactions with He and H2 play also an important role for high resolution spectroscopy of helium or para-hydrogen clusters doped by a probe molecule (CO, HCN. Such experiments are directed on the detection of superfluid response of molecular rotation in the He and p-H2 clusters.
Inclusive vision for high performance computing at the CSIR
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Gazendam, A
2006-02-01
Full Text Available and computationally intensive applications. A number of different technologies and standards were identified as core to the open and distributed high-performance infrastructure envisaged...
Contemporary high performance computing from petascale toward exascale
Vetter, Jeffrey S
2013-01-01
Contemporary High Performance Computing: From Petascale toward Exascale focuses on the ecosystems surrounding the world's leading centers for high performance computing (HPC). It covers many of the important factors involved in each ecosystem: computer architectures, software, applications, facilities, and sponsors. The first part of the book examines significant trends in HPC systems, including computer architectures, applications, performance, and software. It discusses the growth from terascale to petascale computing and the influence of the TOP500 and Green500 lists. The second part of the
ATLAS FTK a – very complex – custom super computer
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00008600; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
In the ever increasing pile-up LHC environment advanced techniques of analyzing the data are implemented in order to increase the rate of relevant physics processes with respect to background processes. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is a track finding implementation at hardware level that is designed to deliver full-scan tracks with PT above 1GeV to the ATLAS trigger system for every L1 accept (at a maximum rate of 100kHz). In order to achieve this performance a highly parallel system was designed and now it is under installation in ATLAS. In the beginning of 2016 it will provide tracks for the trigger system in a region covering the central part of the ATLAS detector, and during the year it's coverage will be extended to the full detector coverage. The system relies on matching hits coming from the silicon tracking detectors against 1 billion patterns stored in specially designed ASICS chips (Associative memory - AM06). In a first stage coarse resolution hits are matched against the patterns and the accepted hits u...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danielle S Bassett
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.
A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations
Jorissen, Kevin; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.
2011-01-01
We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including...
Low cost highly available digital control computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvers, M.W.
1986-01-01
When designing digital controllers for critical plant control it is important to provide several features. Among these are reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental protection, and low cost. An examination of several applications has lead to a design that can be produced for approximately $20,000 (1000 control points). This design is compatible with modern concepts in distributed and hierarchical control. The canonical controller element is a dual-redundant self-checking computer that communicates with a cross-strapped, electrically isolated input/output system. The input/output subsystem comprises multiple intelligent input/output cards. These cards accept commands from the primary processor which are validated, executed, and acknowledged. Each card may be hot replaced to facilitate sparing. The implementation of the dual-redundant computer architecture is discussed. Called the FS-86, this computer can be used for a variety of applications. It has most recently found application in the upgrade of San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train control currently in progress and has been proposed for feedwater control in a boiling water reactor
High-Speed, High-Performance DQPSK Optical Links with Reduced Complexity VDFE Equalizers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maki Nanou
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Optical transmission technologies optimized for optical network segments sensitive to power consumption and cost, comprise modulation formats with direct detection technologies. Specifically, non-return to zero differential quaternary phase shift keying (NRZ-DQPSK in deployed fiber plants, combined with high-performance, low-complexity electronic equalizers to compensate residual impairments at the receiver end, can be proved as a viable solution for high-performance, high-capacity optical links. Joint processing of the constructive and the destructive signals at the single-ended DQPSK receiver provides improved performance compared to the balanced configuration, however, at the expense of higher hardware requirements, a fact that may not be neglected especially in the case of high-speed optical links. To overcome this bottleneck, the use of partially joint constructive/destructive DQPSK equalization is investigated in this paper. Symbol-by-symbol equalization is performed by means of Volterra decision feedback-type equalizers, driven by a reduced subset of signals selected from the constructive and the destructive ports of the optical detectors. The proposed approach offers a low-complexity alternative for electronic equalization, without sacrificing much of the performance compared to the fully-deployed counterpart. The efficiency of the proposed equalizers is demonstrated by means of computer simulation in a typical optical transmission scenario.
Complex fragment emission at low and high excitation energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.
1986-08-01
Complex fragment emission has been certified as a compound nucleus process at low energies. An extension of the measurements to heavy ion reactions up to 50 MeV/u shows that most complex fragments are emitted by highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions. 12 refs., 26 figs
I. Fisk
2012-01-01
Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...
Objective high Resolution Analysis over Complex Terrain with VERA
Mayer, D.; Steinacker, R.; Steiner, A.
2012-04-01
VERA (Vienna Enhanced Resolution Analysis) is a model independent, high resolution objective analysis of meteorological fields over complex terrain. This system consists of a special developed quality control procedure and a combination of an interpolation and a downscaling technique. Whereas the so called VERA-QC is presented at this conference in the contribution titled "VERA-QC, an approved Data Quality Control based on Self-Consistency" by Andrea Steiner, this presentation will focus on the method and the characteristics of the VERA interpolation scheme which enables one to compute grid point values of a meteorological field based on irregularly distributed observations and topography related aprior knowledge. Over a complex topography meteorological fields are not smooth in general. The roughness which is induced by the topography can be explained physically. The knowledge about this behavior is used to define the so called Fingerprints (e.g. a thermal Fingerprint reproducing heating or cooling over mountainous terrain or a dynamical Fingerprint reproducing positive pressure perturbation on the windward side of a ridge) under idealized conditions. If the VERA algorithm recognizes patterns of one or more Fingerprints at a few observation points, the corresponding patterns are used to downscale the meteorological information in a greater surrounding. This technique allows to achieve an analysis with a resolution much higher than the one of the observational network. The interpolation of irregularly distributed stations to a regular grid (in space and time) is based on a variational principle applied to first and second order spatial and temporal derivatives. Mathematically, this can be formulated as a cost function that is equivalent to the penalty function of a thin plate smoothing spline. After the analysis field has been divided into the Fingerprint components and the unexplained part respectively, the requirement of a smooth distribution is applied to the
An efficient hybrid technique in RCS predictions of complex targets at high frequencies
Algar, María-Jesús; Lozano, Lorena; Moreno, Javier; González, Iván; Cátedra, Felipe
2017-09-01
Most computer codes in Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction use Physical Optics (PO) and Physical theory of Diffraction (PTD) combined with Geometrical Optics (GO) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD). The latter approaches are computationally cheaper and much more accurate for curved surfaces, but not applicable for the computation of the RCS of all surfaces of a complex object due to the presence of caustic problems in the analysis of concave surfaces or flat surfaces in the far field. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a hybrid method based on a new combination of two asymptotic techniques: GTD and PO, considering the advantages and avoiding the disadvantages of each of them. A very efficient and accurate method to analyze the RCS of complex structures at high frequencies is obtained with the new combination. The proposed new method has been validated comparing RCS results obtained for some simple cases using the proposed approach and RCS using the rigorous technique of Method of Moments (MoM). Some complex cases have been examined at high frequencies contrasting the results with PO. This study shows the accuracy and the efficiency of the hybrid method and its suitability for the computation of the RCS at really large and complex targets at high frequencies.
Ahn, Sul-Ah; Jung, Youngim
2016-10-01
The research activities of the computational physicists utilizing high performance computing are analyzed by bibliometirc approaches. This study aims at providing the computational physicists utilizing high-performance computing and policy planners with useful bibliometric results for an assessment of research activities. In order to achieve this purpose, we carried out a co-authorship network analysis of journal articles to assess the research activities of researchers for high-performance computational physics as a case study. For this study, we used journal articles of the Scopus database from Elsevier covering the time period of 2004-2013. We extracted the author rank in the physics field utilizing high-performance computing by the number of papers published during ten years from 2004. Finally, we drew the co-authorship network for 45 top-authors and their coauthors, and described some features of the co-authorship network in relation to the author rank. Suggestions for further studies are discussed.
High performance computations using dynamical nucleation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Windus, T L; Crosby, L D; Kathmann, S M
2008-01-01
Chemists continue to explore the use of very large computations to perform simulations that describe the molecular level physics of critical challenges in science. In this paper, we describe the Dynamical Nucleation Theory Monte Carlo (DNTMC) model - a model for determining molecular scale nucleation rate constants - and its parallel capabilities. The potential for bottlenecks and the challenges to running on future petascale or larger resources are delineated. A 'master-slave' solution is proposed to scale to the petascale and will be developed in the NWChem software. In addition, mathematical and data analysis challenges are described
High performance computing system in the framework of the Higgs boson studies
Belyaev, Nikita; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The Higgs boson physics is one of the most important and promising fields of study in modern High Energy Physics. To perform precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties, the use of fast and efficient instruments of Monte Carlo event simulation is required. Due to the increasing amount of data and to the growing complexity of the simulation software tools, the computing resources currently available for Monte Carlo simulation on the LHC GRID are not sufficient. One of the possibilities to address this shortfall of computing resources is the usage of institutes computer clusters, commercial computing resources and supercomputers. In this paper, a brief description of the Higgs boson physics, the Monte-Carlo generation and event simulation techniques are presented. A description of modern high performance computing systems and tests of their performance are also discussed. These studies have been performed on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and Kurchatov Institute Data Processing Center, including Tier...
A Heterogeneous High-Performance System for Computational and Computer Science
2016-11-15
expand the research infrastructure at the institution but also to enhance the high -performance computing training provided to both undergraduate and... cloud computing, supercomputing, and the availability of cheap memory and storage led to enormous amounts of data to be sifted through in forensic... High -Performance Computing (HPC) tools that can be integrated with existing curricula and support our research to modernize and dramatically advance
Software Systems for High-performance Quantum Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Britt, Keith A [ORNL
2016-01-01
Quantum computing promises new opportunities for solving hard computational problems, but harnessing this novelty requires breakthrough concepts in the design, operation, and application of computing systems. We define some of the challenges facing the development of quantum computing systems as well as software-based approaches that can be used to overcome these challenges. Following a brief overview of the state of the art, we present models for the quantum programming and execution models, the development of architectures for hybrid high-performance computing systems, and the realization of software stacks for quantum networking. This leads to a discussion of the role that conventional computing plays in the quantum paradigm and how some of the current challenges for exascale computing overlap with those facing quantum computing.
Insight into the structures and stabilities of Tc and Re DMSA complexes: A computational study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanco González, Alejandro; Hernández Valdés, Daniel; García Fleitas, Ariel; Rodríguez Riera, Zalua; Jáuregui Haza, Ulises
2016-01-01
Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used in nuclear medicine as ligand for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy. DMSA has been the subject of numerous investigations during the past three decades and new and significant information of the chemistry and pharmacology of DMSA complexes have emerged. In comparison to other ligands, the structure of some DMSA complexes is unclear up today. The structures and applications of DMSA complexes are strictly dependent on the chemical conditions of their preparation, especially pH and the ratio of components. A computational study of M-DMSA (M = Tc, Re) complexes has been performed using density functional theory. Different isomers for M(V) and M(III) complexes were study. The pH influence over ligand structures was taken into account and the solvent effect was evaluated using an implicit solvation model. The fully optimized complex syn-endo Re(V)-DMSA shows a geometry similar to the X-ray data and was used to validate the methodology. Moreover, new alternative structures for the renal agent 99mTc(III)-DMSA were proposed and computationally studied. For two complex structures, a larger stability respect to that proposed in the literature was obtained. Furthermore, Tc(V)-DMSA complexes are more stable than the Tc(III)-DMSA proposed structures. In general, Re complexes are more stables than the corresponding Tc ones. (author)
Architecture of high reliable control systems using complex software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tallec, M.
1990-01-01
The problems involved by the use of complex softwares in control systems that must insure a very high level of safety are examined. The first part makes a brief description of the prototype of PROSPER system. PROSPER means protection system for nuclear reactor with high performances. It has been installed on a French nuclear power plant at the beginnning of 1987 and has been continually working since that time. This prototype is realized on a multi-processors system. The processors communicate between themselves using interruptions and protected shared memories. On each processor, one or more protection algorithms are implemented. Those algorithms use data coming directly from the plant and, eventually, data computed by the other protection algorithms. Each processor makes its own acquisitions from the process and sends warning messages if some operating anomaly is detected. All algorithms are activated concurrently on an asynchronous way. The results are presented and the safety related problems are detailed. - The second part is about measurements' validation. First, we describe how the sensors' measurements will be used in a protection system. Then, a proposal for a method based on the techniques of artificial intelligence (expert systems and neural networks) is presented. - The last part is about the problems of architectures of systems including hardware and software: the different types of redundancies used till now and a proposition of a multi-processors architecture which uses an operating system that is able to manage several tasks implemented on different processors, which verifies the good operating of each of those tasks and of the related processors and which allows to carry on the operation of the system, even in a degraded manner when a failure has been detected are detailed [fr
Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael
2009-01-01
The discussions and plans on all scienti?c, advisory, and political levels to realize an even larger “European Supercomputer” in Germany, where the hardware costs alone will be hundreds of millions Euro – much more than in the past – are getting closer to realization. As part of the strategy, the three national supercomputing centres HLRS (Stuttgart), NIC/JSC (Julic ¨ h) and LRZ (Munich) have formed the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing (GCS) as a new virtual organization enabled by an agreement between the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the state ministries for research of Baden-Wurttem ¨ berg, Bayern, and Nordrhein-Westfalen. Already today, the GCS provides the most powerful high-performance computing - frastructure in Europe. Through GCS, HLRS participates in the European project PRACE (Partnership for Advances Computing in Europe) and - tends its reach to all European member countries. These activities aligns well with the activities of HLRS in the European HPC infrastructur...
Computational studies of a paramagnetic planar dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene Ni(II) complex.
Rabaâ, Hassan; Khaledi, Hamid; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Sundholm, Dage
2015-05-28
A square-planar Ni(II) dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene complex substituted with two 3,3-dimethylindolenine groups in the meso positions has recently been synthesized and characterized experimentally. In the solid-state, the Ni(II) complex forms linear π-interacting stacks with Ni···Ni separations of 3.448(2) Å. Measurements of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility revealed a drastic change in the magnetic properties at a temperature of 13 K, indicating a transition from low-to-high spin states. The molecular structures of the free-base ligand, the lowest singlet, and triplet states of the monomer and the dimer of the Ni complex have been studied computationally using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio correlation levels of theory. In calculations at the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory level, a large energy of 260 kcal mol(-1) was obtained for the singlet-triplet splitting, suggesting that an alternative explanation of the observed magnetic properties is needed. The large energy splitting between the singlet and triplet states suggests that the observed change in the magnetism at very low temperatures is due to spin-orbit coupling effects originating from weak interactions between the fine-structure states of the Ni cations in the complex. The lowest electronic excitation energies of the dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene Ni(II) complex calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) levels are in good agreement with values deduced from the experimental UV-vis spectrum. Calculations at the second-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)) level on the dimer of the meso-substituted 3,3-dimethylindolenine dibenzotetraaza[14] annulene Ni(II) complex yielded Stokes shifts of 85-100 nm for the lowest excited singlet states. Calculations of the strength of the magnetically induced ring current for the free-base 3,3-dimethylindolenine-substituted dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene show that the annulene
8th International Workshop on Parallel Tools for High Performance Computing
Gracia, José; Knüpfer, Andreas; Resch, Michael; Nagel, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Numerical simulation and modelling using High Performance Computing has evolved into an established technique in academic and industrial research. At the same time, the High Performance Computing infrastructure is becoming ever more complex. For instance, most of the current top systems around the world use thousands of nodes in which classical CPUs are combined with accelerator cards in order to enhance their compute power and energy efficiency. This complexity can only be mastered with adequate development and optimization tools. Key topics addressed by these tools include parallelization on heterogeneous systems, performance optimization for CPUs and accelerators, debugging of increasingly complex scientific applications, and optimization of energy usage in the spirit of green IT. This book represents the proceedings of the 8th International Parallel Tools Workshop, held October 1-2, 2014 in Stuttgart, Germany – which is a forum to discuss the latest advancements in the parallel tools.
The Intelligent Safety System: could it introduce complex computing into CANDU shutdown systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, J.A.; Hinds, H.W.; Pensom, C.F.; Barker, C.J.; Jobse, A.H.
1984-07-01
The Intelligent Safety System is a computerized shutdown system being developed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) for future CANDU nuclear reactors. It differs from current CANDU shutdown systems in both the algorithm used and the size and complexity of computers required to implement the concept. This paper provides an overview of the project, with emphasis on the computing aspects. Early in the project several needs leading to an introduction of computing complexity were identified, and a computing system that met these needs was conceived. The current work at CRNL centers on building a laboratory demonstration of the Intelligent Safety System, and evaluating the reliability and testability of the concept. Some fundamental problems must still be addressed for the Intelligent Safety System to be acceptable to a CANDU owner and to the regulatory authorities. These are also discussed along with a description of how the Intelligent Safety System might solve these problems
Vasilieva, V. N.
2017-11-01
The article deals with the solution of problems in AutoCAD offered at the All-Russian student Olympiads at the section of “Computer graphics” that are not typical for the students of construction specialties. The students are provided with the opportunity to study the algorithm for solving original tasks of high complexity. The article shows how the unknown parameter underlying the construction can be determined using a parametric drawing with geometric constraints and dimensional dependencies. To optimize the mark-up operation, the use of the command for projecting the points and lines of different types onto bodies and surfaces in different directions is shown. For the construction of a spring with a different pitch of turns, the paper describes the creation of a block from a part of the helix and its scaling when inserted into a model with unequal coefficients along the axes. The advantage of the NURBS surface and the application of the “body-surface-surface-NURBS-body” conversion are reflected to enhance the capabilities of both solid and surface modeling. The article’s material introduces construction students into the method of constructing complex models in AutoCAD that are not similar to typical training assignments.
High Available COTS Based Computer for Space
Hartmann, J.; Magistrati, Giorgio
2015-09-01
The availability and reliability factors of a system are central requirements of a target application. From a simple fuel injection system used in cars up to a flight control system of an autonomous navigating spacecraft, each application defines its specific availability factor under the target application boundary conditions. Increasing quality requirements on data processing systems used in space flight applications calling for new architectures to fulfill the availability, reliability as well as the increase of the required data processing power. Contrary to the increased quality request simplification and use of COTS components to decrease costs while keeping the interface compatibility to currently used system standards are clear customer needs. Data processing system design is mostly dominated by strict fulfillment of the customer requirements and reuse of available computer systems were not always possible caused by obsolescence of EEE-Parts, insufficient IO capabilities or the fact that available data processing systems did not provide the required scalability and performance.
RISC Processors and High Performance Computing
Bailey, David H.; Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
This tutorial will discuss the top five RISC microprocessors and the parallel systems in which they are used. It will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere. The effective performance of these processors will be compared by citing standard benchmarks in the context of real applications. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmarks, both absolute performance and performance per dollar, will be listed. The next generation of the NPB will be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of future directions in the field. Technology Transfer Considerations: All of these computer systems are commercially available internationally. Information about these processors is available in the public domain, mostly from the vendors themselves. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks and their results have been previously approved numerous times for public release, beginning back in 1991.
Wang, Yuan; Chen, Zhidong; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Hui; Zhao, Linmin
2018-03-01
Holographic displays can provide the complete optical wave field of a three-dimensional (3D) scene, including the depth perception. However, it often takes a long computation time to produce traditional computer-generated holograms (CGHs) without more complex and photorealistic rendering. The backward ray-tracing technique is able to render photorealistic high-quality images, which noticeably reduce the computation time achieved from the high-degree parallelism. Here, a high-efficiency photorealistic computer-generated hologram method is presented based on the ray-tracing technique. Rays are parallelly launched and traced under different illuminations and circumstances. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with the traditional point cloud CGH, the computation time is decreased to 24 s to reconstruct a 3D object of 100 ×100 rays with continuous depth change.
Some Comparisons of Complexity in Dictionary-Based and Linear Computational Models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gnecco, G.; Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.
2011-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 2 (2011), s. 171-182 ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Project s: GA ČR GA201/08/1744 Grant - others:CNR - AV ČR project 2010-2012(XE) Complexity of Neural-Network and Kernel Computational Models Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : linear approximation schemes * variable-basis approximation schemes * model complexity * worst-case errors * neural networks * kernel models Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.182, year: 2011
ANCON: A code for the evaluation of complex fault trees in personal computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Napoles, J.G.; Salomon, J.; Rivero, J.
1990-01-01
Performing probabilistic safety analysis has been recognized worldwide as one of the more effective ways for further enhancing safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The evaluation of fault trees plays a fundamental role in these analysis. Some existing limitations in RAM and execution speed of personal computers (PC) has restricted so far their use in the analysis of complex fault trees. Starting from new approaches in the data structure and other possibilities the ANCON code can evaluate complex fault trees in a PC, allowing the user to do a more comprehensive analysis of the considered system in reduced computing time
Berland, Matthew W.
As scientists use the tools of computational and complex systems theory to broaden science perspectives (e.g., Bar-Yam, 1997; Holland, 1995; Wolfram, 2002), so can middle-school students broaden their perspectives using appropriate tools. The goals of this dissertation project are to build, study, evaluate, and compare activities designed to foster both computational and complex systems fluencies through collaborative constructionist virtual and physical robotics. In these activities, each student builds an agent (e.g., a robot-bird) that must interact with fellow students' agents to generate a complex aggregate (e.g., a flock of robot-birds) in a participatory simulation environment (Wilensky & Stroup, 1999a). In a participatory simulation, students collaborate by acting in a common space, teaching each other, and discussing content with one another. As a result, the students improve both their computational fluency and their complex systems fluency, where fluency is defined as the ability to both consume and produce relevant content (DiSessa, 2000). To date, several systems have been designed to foster computational and complex systems fluencies through computer programming and collaborative play (e.g., Hancock, 2003; Wilensky & Stroup, 1999b); this study suggests that, by supporting the relevant fluencies through collaborative play, they become mutually reinforcing. In this work, I will present both the design of the VBOT virtual/physical constructionist robotics learning environment and a comparative study of student interaction with the virtual and physical environments across four middle-school classrooms, focusing on the contrast in systems perspectives differently afforded by the two environments. In particular, I found that while performance gains were similar overall, the physical environment supported agent perspectives on aggregate behavior, and the virtual environment supported aggregate perspectives on agent behavior. The primary research questions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng-Gang Yan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A low-complexity algorithm is presented to dramatically reduce the complexity of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm for direction of arrival (DOA estimation, in which both tasks of eigenvalue decomposition (EVD and spectral search are implemented with efficient real-valued computations, leading to about 75% complexity reduction as compared to the standard MUSIC. Furthermore, the proposed technique has no dependence on array configurations and is hence suitable for arbitrary array geometries, which shows a significant implementation advantage over most state-of-the-art unitary estimators including unitary MUSIC (U-MUSIC. Numerical simulations over a wide range of scenarios are conducted to show the performance of the new technique, which demonstrates that with a significantly reduced computational complexity, the new approach is able to provide a close accuracy to the standard MUSIC.
High throughput computing: a solution for scientific analysis
O'Donnell, M.
2011-01-01
Public land management agencies continually face resource management problems that are exacerbated by climate warming, land-use change, and other human activities. As the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) works with managers in U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) agencies and other federal, state, and private entities, researchers are finding that the science needed to address these complex ecological questions across time and space produces substantial amounts of data. The additional data and the volume of computations needed to analyze it require expanded computing resources well beyond single- or even multiple-computer workstations. To meet this need for greater computational capacity, FORT investigated how to resolve the many computational shortfalls previously encountered when analyzing data for such projects. Our objectives included finding a solution that would:
Robust and High Order Computational Method for Parachute and Air Delivery and MAV System
2017-11-01
numerical algorithms and develop a computational platform forthe study of the dynamic system involving highly complex geometric interface immersed in...students in their summer internship. Results Dissemination: Our research project has produced two publications in the Journal of Fluid and Structure, one...publication in the AIAA journal , one in Communication in Computational Physics, along with several related publications in other journals . Two other
Martinez, Neo D.; Tonin, Perrine; Bauer, Barbara; Rael, Rosalyn C.; Singh, Rahul; Yoon, Sangyuk; Yoon, Ilmi; Dunne, Jennifer A.
2012-01-01
Understanding ecological complexity has stymied scientists for decades. Recent elucidation of the famously coined "devious strategies for stability in enduring natural systems" has opened up a new field of computational analyses of complex ecological networks where the nonlinear dynamics of many interacting species can be more realistically mod-eled and understood. Here, we describe the first extension of this field to include coupled human-natural systems. This extension elucidates new strat...
Distinguishing humans from computers in the game of go: A complex network approach
Coquidé, C.; Georgeot, B.; Giraud, O.
2017-08-01
We compare complex networks built from the game of go and obtained from databases of human-played games with those obtained from computer-played games. Our investigations show that statistical features of the human-based networks and the computer-based networks differ, and that these differences can be statistically significant on a relatively small number of games using specific estimators. We show that the deterministic or stochastic nature of the computer algorithm playing the game can also be distinguished from these quantities. This can be seen as a tool to implement a Turing-like test for go simulators.
Yu, Xinguang; Li, Lianfeng; Wang, Peng; Yin, Yiheng; Bu, Bo; Zhou, Dingbiao
2014-07-01
This study was designed to report our preliminary experience with stabilization procedures for complex craniovertebral junction malformation (CVJM) using intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) with an integrated neuronavigation system (NNS). To evaluate the workflow, feasibility and clinical outcome of stabilization procedures using iCT image-guided navigation for complex CVJM. The stabilization procedures in CVJM are complex because of the area's intricate geometry and bony structures, its critical relationship to neurovascular structures and the intricate biomechanical issues involved. A sliding gantry 40-slice computed tomography scanner was installed in a preexisting operating room. The images were transferred directly from the scanner to the NNS using an automated registration system. On the basis of the analysis of intraoperative computed tomographic images, 23 cases (11 males, 12 females) with complicated CVJM underwent navigated stabilization procedures to allow more control over screw placement. The age of these patients were 19-52 years (mean: 33.5 y). We performed C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation in 6 patients to produce atlantoaxial arthrodesis with better reliability. Because of a high-riding transverse foramen on at least 1 side of the C2 vertebra and an anomalous vertebral artery position, 7 patients underwent C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw fixation. Ten additional patients were treated with individualized occipitocervical fixation surgery from the hypoplasia of C1 or constraints due to C2 bone structure. In total, 108 screws were inserted into 23 patients using navigational assistance. The screws comprised 20 C1 lateral mass screws, 26 C2, 14 C3, or 4 C4 pedicle screws, 32 occipital screws, and 12 C1-C2 transarticular screws. There were no vascular or neural complications except for pedicle perforations that were detected in 2 (1.9%) patients and were corrected intraoperatively without any persistent nerves or vessel damage. The overall
A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations
Jorissen, K.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.
2012-09-01
We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including tools for execution and monitoring performance, as well as efficient I/O utilities that enable seamless connections to and from the cloud. Our SCC platform is optimized for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We present benchmarks for prototypical scientific applications and demonstrate performance comparable to local compute clusters. To facilitate code execution and provide user-friendly access, we have also integrated cloud computing capability in a JAVA-based GUI. Our SCC platform may be an alternative to traditional HPC resources for materials science or quantum chemistry applications.
The Principals and Practice of Distributed High Throughput Computing
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
The potential of Distributed Processing Systems to deliver computing capabilities with qualities ranging from high availability and reliability to easy expansion in functionality and capacity were recognized and formalized in the 1970’s. For more three decade these principals Distributed Computing guided the development of the HTCondor resource and job management system. The widely adopted suite of software tools offered by HTCondor are based on novel distributed computing technologies and are driven by the evolving needs of High Throughput scientific applications. We will review the principals that underpin our work, the distributed computing frameworks and technologies we developed and the lessons we learned from delivering effective and dependable software tools in an ever changing landscape computing technologies and needs that range today from a desktop computer to tens of thousands of cores offered by commercial clouds. About the speaker Miron Livny received a B.Sc. degree in Physics and Mat...
High threshold distributed quantum computing with three-qubit nodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ying; Benjamin, Simon C
2012-01-01
In the distributed quantum computing paradigm, well-controlled few-qubit ‘nodes’ are networked together by connections which are relatively noisy and failure prone. A practical scheme must offer high tolerance to errors while requiring only simple (i.e. few-qubit) nodes. Here we show that relatively modest, three-qubit nodes can support advanced purification techniques and so offer robust scalability: the infidelity in the entanglement channel may be permitted to approach 10% if the infidelity in local operations is of order 0.1%. Our tolerance of network noise is therefore an order of magnitude beyond prior schemes, and our architecture remains robust even in the presence of considerable decoherence rates (memory errors). We compare the performance with that of schemes involving nodes of lower and higher complexity. Ion traps, and NV-centres in diamond, are two highly relevant emerging technologies: they possess the requisite properties of good local control, rapid and reliable readout, and methods for entanglement-at-a-distance. (paper)
Agglomeration Economies and the High-Tech Computer
Wallace, Nancy E.; Walls, Donald
2004-01-01
This paper considers the effects of agglomeration on the production decisions of firms in the high-tech computer cluster. We build upon an alternative definition of the high-tech computer cluster developed by Bardhan et al. (2003) and we exploit a new data source, the National Establishment Time-Series (NETS) Database, to analyze the spatial distribution of firms in this industry. An essential contribution of this research is the recognition that high-tech firms are heterogeneous collections ...
Computer-aided engineering in High Energy Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachy, G.; Hauviller, C.; Messerli, R.; Mottier, M.
1988-01-01
Computing, standard tool for a long time in the High Energy Physics community, is being slowly introduced at CERN in the mechanical engineering field. The first major application was structural analysis followed by Computer-Aided Design (CAD). Development work is now progressing towards Computer-Aided Engineering around a powerful data base. This paper gives examples of the power of this approach applied to engineering for accelerators and detectors
Computational tools for high-throughput discovery in biology
Jones, Neil Christopher
2007-01-01
High throughput data acquisition technology has inarguably transformed the landscape of the life sciences, in part by making possible---and necessary---the computational disciplines of bioinformatics and biomedical informatics. These fields focus primarily on developing tools for analyzing data and generating hypotheses about objects in nature, and it is in this context that we address three pressing problems in the fields of the computational life sciences which each require computing capaci...
Quantum Accelerators for High-Performance Computing Systems
Britt, Keith A.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Humble, Travis S.
2017-01-01
We define some of the programming and system-level challenges facing the application of quantum processing to high-performance computing. Alongside barriers to physical integration, prominent differences in the execution of quantum and conventional programs challenges the intersection of these computational models. Following a brief overview of the state of the art, we discuss recent advances in programming and execution models for hybrid quantum-classical computing. We discuss a novel quantu...
Supercomputers and the mathematical modeling of high complexity problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belotserkovskii, Oleg M
2010-01-01
This paper is a review of many works carried out by members of our scientific school in past years. The general principles of constructing numerical algorithms for high-performance computers are described. Several techniques are highlighted and these are based on the method of splitting with respect to physical processes and are widely used in computing nonlinear multidimensional processes in fluid dynamics, in studies of turbulence and hydrodynamic instabilities and in medicine and other natural sciences. The advances and developments related to the new generation of high-performance supercomputing in Russia are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernández Valdés, Daniel; Rodríguez Riera, Zalua; Jáuregui Haza, Ulises; Díaz García, Alicia; Benoist, Eric
2016-01-01
The development of novel radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine based on the M(CO)3 (M = Tc, Re) complexes has attracted great attention1. The versatility of this core and the easy production of the fac-[M(CO)3(H 2 O) 3 ]+ precursor could explain this interest2,3. The main characteristics of these tricarbonyl complexes are a high substitution stability of the three CO ligands and a corresponding lability of the coordinated water molecules, yielding, via easy exchange of a variety of mono-, bi-, and tridentate ligands, complexes of very high kinetic stability. A computational study of different tricarbonyl complexes for Re(I) and Tc(I) has been performed using density functional theory. The solvent effect was simulated using the polarizable continuum model. The fully optimized complexes show geometries that compare favorably with the X-ray data. These structures were used as a starting point to investigate the relative stability of tricarbonyl complexes with various tridentate ligands. They comprise an iminodiacetic acid unit for tridentate coordination to the fac-[M(CO) 3 ]+ moiety (M = Re, Tc), an aromatic ring system bearing a functional group (NO 2 -, NH 2 - and Cl-) as linking site model, and a tethering moiety (methylene, ethylene, propylene butylene or pentylene bridge) between the linking and coordinating sites. In general, Re complexes are more stables than the corresponding Tc complexes. Furthermore, the NH2 functional group, medium length in the carbon chain and meta substitution increase the stability of the complexes. The correlation of these results with the available experimental4 data on these systems allows bringing some understanding of the chemistry of tricarbonyl complexes. (author)
De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Jatnieks, Janis; Kühn, Michael
2017-04-01
Reactive transport simulations - where geochemical reactions are coupled with hydrodynamic transport of reactants - are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues. Given the high uncertainties inherently associated with the geochemical models, which also constitute the major computational bottleneck, such requirements may seem inappropriate and probably constitute the main limitation for their wide application. A promising way to ease and speed-up such coupled simulations is achievable employing statistical surrogates instead of "full-physics" geochemical models [1]. Data-driven surrogates are reduced models obtained on a set of pre-calculated "full physics" simulations, capturing their principal features while being extremely fast to compute. Model reduction of course comes at price of a precision loss; however, this appears justified in presence of large uncertainties regarding the parametrization of geochemical processes. This contribution illustrates the integration of surrogates into the flexible simulation framework currently being developed by the authors' research group [2]. The high level language of choice for obtaining and dealing with surrogate models is R, which profits from state-of-the-art methods for statistical analysis of large simulations ensembles. A stand-alone advective mass transport module was furthermore developed in order to add such capability to any multiphase finite volume hydrodynamic simulator within the simulation framework. We present 2D and 3D case studies benchmarking the performance of surrogates and "full physics" chemistry in scenarios pertaining the assessment of geological subsurface utilization. [1] Jatnieks, J., De Lucia, M., Dransch, D., Sips, M.: "Data-driven surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations.", Energy Procedia 97, 2016, p. 447-453. [2] Kempka, T., Nakaten, B., De Lucia, M., Nakaten, N., Otto, C., Pohl, M., Chabab [Tillner], E., Kühn, M
Highly Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes of 1 Hydroxy-2-pyridinones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Jocher, Christoph J.; Castro-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Raymond, Kenneth N.
2007-11-01
The synthesis, X-ray structure, stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes formed from two differing bis-bidentate ligands incorporating either alkyl or alkyl ether linkages and featuring the 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelate group in complex with Eu(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) are reported. The Eu(III) complexes are among some of the best examples, pairing highly efficient emission ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Eu} {approx} 21.5%) with high stability (pEu {approx} 18.6) in aqueous solution, and are excellent candidates for use in biological assays. A comparison of the observed behavior of the complexes with differing backbone linkages shows remarkable similarities, both in stability and photophysical properties. Low temperature photophysical measurements for a Gd(III) complex were also used to gain insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree with corresponding TD-DFT calculations for a model complex. A comparison of the high resolution Eu(III) emission spectra in solution and from single crystals also revealed a more symmetric coordination geometry about the metal ion in solution due to dynamic rotation of the observed solid state structure.
High temperature estimation through computer vision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segovia de los R, J.A.
1996-01-01
The form recognition process has between his purposes to conceive and to analyze the classification algorithms applied to the image representations, sounds or signals of any kind. In a process with a thermal plasma reactor in which cannot be employed conventional dispositives or methods for the measurement of the very high temperatures. The goal of this work was to determine these temperatures in an indirect way. (Author)
Fast and accurate algorithm for the computation of complex linear canonical transforms.
Koç, Aykut; Ozaktas, Haldun M; Hesselink, Lambertus
2010-09-01
A fast and accurate algorithm is developed for the numerical computation of the family of complex linear canonical transforms (CLCTs), which represent the input-output relationship of complex quadratic-phase systems. Allowing the linear canonical transform parameters to be complex numbers makes it possible to represent paraxial optical systems that involve complex parameters. These include lossy systems such as Gaussian apertures, Gaussian ducts, or complex graded-index media, as well as lossless thin lenses and sections of free space and any arbitrary combinations of them. Complex-ordered fractional Fourier transforms (CFRTs) are a special case of CLCTs, and therefore a fast and accurate algorithm to compute CFRTs is included as a special case of the presented algorithm. The algorithm is based on decomposition of an arbitrary CLCT matrix into real and complex chirp multiplications and Fourier transforms. The samples of the output are obtained from the samples of the input in approximately N log N time, where N is the number of input samples. A space-bandwidth product tracking formalism is developed to ensure that the number of samples is information-theoretically sufficient to reconstruct the continuous transform, but not unnecessarily redundant.
High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '14
Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael
2015-01-01
This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cate, C.L.; Wagner, D.P.; Fussell, J.B.
1977-01-01
Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complete system reliability analysis. Existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis are extended by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis
Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian
2014-01-01
This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…
A unified approach to computing real and complex zeros of zero-dimensional ideals
J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; M. Putinar; S. Sullivant
2009-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we propose a unified methodology for computing the set $V_K(I)$ of complex ($K = C$) or real ($K = R$) roots of an ideal $I$ in $R[x]$, assuming $V_K(I)$ is finite. We show how moment matrices, defined in terms of a given set of generators of the ideal I, can be used to
Computer analysis of potentiometric data of complexes formation in the solution
Jastrzab, Renata; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata T.; Tylkowski, Bartosz; Odani, Akira
2018-02-01
The determination of equilibrium constants is an important process for many branches of chemistry. In this review we provide the readers with a discussion on computer methods which have been applied for elaboration of potentiometric experimental data generated during complexes formation in solution. The review describes both: general basis of modeling tools and examples of the use of calculated stability constants.
Reducing the Computational Complexity of Reconstruction in Compressed Sensing Nonuniform Sampling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grigoryan, Ruben; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Arildsen, Thomas
2013-01-01
sparse signals, but requires computationally expensive reconstruction algorithms. This can be an obstacle for real-time applications. The reduction of complexity is achieved by applying a multi-coset sampling procedure. This proposed method reduces the size of the dictionary matrix, the size...
On a computational method for modelling complex ecosystems by superposition procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Shanyu.
1986-12-01
In this paper, the Superposition Procedure is concisely described, and a computational method for modelling a complex ecosystem is proposed. With this method, the information contained in acceptable submodels and observed data can be utilized to maximal degree. (author). 1 ref
Complexity and Intensionality in a Type-1 Framework for Computable Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lambov, Branimir Zdravkov
2005-01-01
This paper describes a type-1 framework for computable analysis designed to facilitate efficient implementations and discusses properties that have not been well studied before for type-1 approaches: the introduction of complexity measures for type-1 representations of real functions, and ways...
Analyzing 3D xylem networks in Vitis vinifera using High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT)
Recent developments in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) have made it possible to visualize three dimensional (3D) xylem networks without time consuming, labor intensive physical sectioning. Here we describe a new method to visualize complex vessel networks in plants and produce a quantitat...
The Computer Industry. High Technology Industries: Profiles and Outlooks.
International Trade Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.
A series of meetings was held to assess future problems in United States high technology, particularly in the fields of robotics, computers, semiconductors, and telecommunications. This report, which focuses on the computer industry, includes a profile of this industry and the papers presented by industry speakers during the meetings. The profile…
An Introduction to Computing: Content for a High School Course.
Rogers, Jean B.
A general outline of the topics that might be covered in a computers and computing course for high school students is provided. Topics are listed in the order in which they should be taught, and the relative amount of time to be spent on each topic is suggested. Seven units are included in the course outline: (1) general introduction, (2) using…
Improvements in high energy computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burstein, P.; Krieger, A.; Annis, M.
1984-01-01
In computerized axial tomography employed with large relatively dense objects such as a solid fuel rocket engine, using high energy x-rays, such as a 15 MeV source, a collimator is employed with an acceptance angle substantially less than 1 0 , in a preferred embodiment 7 minutes of a degree. In a preferred embodiment, the collimator may be located between the object and the detector, although in other embodiments, a pre-collimator may also be used, that is between the x-ray source and the object being illuminated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jay Min; Yang, Dong-Seok; Bunker, Grant B
2013-01-01
Using the FEFF kernel A(k,r), we describe the inverse computation from χ(k)-data to g(r)-solution in terms of a singularity regularization method based on complete Bayesian statistics process. In this work, we topologically decompose the system-matched invariant projection operators into two distinct types, (A + AA + A) and (AA + AA + ), and achieved Synthesized Topological Inversion Computation (STIC), by employing a 12-operator-closed-loop emulator of the symplectic transformation. This leads to a numerically self-consistent solution as the optimal near-singular regularization parameters are sought, dramatically suppressing instability problems connected with finite precision arithmetic in ill-posed systems. By statistically correlating a pair of measured data, it was feasible to compute an optimal EXAFS phase retrieval solution expressed in terms of the complex-valued χ(k), and this approach was successfully used to determine the optimal g(r) for a complex multi-component system.
A high level language for a high performance computer
Perrott, R. H.
1978-01-01
The proposed computational aerodynamic facility will join the ranks of the supercomputers due to its architecture and increased execution speed. At present, the languages used to program these supercomputers have been modifications of programming languages which were designed many years ago for sequential machines. A new programming language should be developed based on the techniques which have proved valuable for sequential programming languages and incorporating the algorithmic techniques required for these supercomputers. The design objectives for such a language are outlined.
COMPUTERS: Teraflops for Europe; EEC Working Group on High Performance Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1991-03-15
In little more than a decade, simulation on high performance computers has become an essential tool for theoretical physics, capable of solving a vast range of crucial problems inaccessible to conventional analytic mathematics. In many ways, computer simulation has become the calculus for interacting many-body systems, a key to the study of transitions from isolated to collective behaviour.
COMPUTERS: Teraflops for Europe; EEC Working Group on High Performance Computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1991-01-01
In little more than a decade, simulation on high performance computers has become an essential tool for theoretical physics, capable of solving a vast range of crucial problems inaccessible to conventional analytic mathematics. In many ways, computer simulation has become the calculus for interacting many-body systems, a key to the study of transitions from isolated to collective behaviour
Multicore Challenges and Benefits for High Performance Scientific Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ida M.B. Nielsen
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Until recently, performance gains in processors were achieved largely by improvements in clock speeds and instruction level parallelism. Thus, applications could obtain performance increases with relatively minor changes by upgrading to the latest generation of computing hardware. Currently, however, processor performance improvements are realized by using multicore technology and hardware support for multiple threads within each core, and taking full advantage of this technology to improve the performance of applications requires exposure of extreme levels of software parallelism. We will here discuss the architecture of parallel computers constructed from many multicore chips as well as techniques for managing the complexity of programming such computers, including the hybrid message-passing/multi-threading programming model. We will illustrate these ideas with a hybrid distributed memory matrix multiply and a quantum chemistry algorithm for energy computation using Møller–Plesset perturbation theory.
A computational study of highly viscous impinging jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.W.
1998-11-01
Two commercially-available computational fluid dynamics codes, FIDAP (Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH) and FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), were used to simulate the landing region of jets of highly viscous fluids impinging on flat surfaces. The volume-of-fluid method was combined with finite difference and finite element approaches to predict the jet behavior. Several computational models with varying degrees of physical realism were developed, and the results were compared with experimental observations. In experiments, the jet exhibited several complex behaviors. As soon as it exited the nozzle, the jet began to neck down and become narrower. When it impacted the solid surface, the jet developed an instability near the impact point and buckled to the side. This buckling became a spiraling motion, and the jet spiraled about the impact point. As the jet spiraled around, a cone-shaped pile was build up which eventually became unstable and slumped to the side. While all of these behaviors were occurring, air bubbles, or voids, were being entrapped in the fluid pool. The results obtained from the FLOW-3D models more closely matched the behavior of real jets than the results obtained from /the FIDAP models. Most of the FLOW-3D models predicted all of the significant jet behaviors observed in experiments: necking, buckling, spiraling, slumping, and void entrapment. All of the FIDAP models predicted that the jet would buckle relatively far from the point of impact, whereas the experimentally observed jet behavior indicates that the jets buckle much nearer the impact point. Furthermore, it was shown that FIDAP is incapable of incorporating heat transfer effects into the model, making it unsuitable for this work
A computational study of highly viscous impinging jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, M.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1998-11-01
Two commercially-available computational fluid dynamics codes, FIDAP (Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH) and FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), were used to simulate the landing region of jets of highly viscous fluids impinging on flat surfaces. The volume-of-fluid method was combined with finite difference and finite element approaches to predict the jet behavior. Several computational models with varying degrees of physical realism were developed, and the results were compared with experimental observations. In experiments, the jet exhibited several complex behaviors. As soon as it exited the nozzle, the jet began to neck down and become narrower. When it impacted the solid surface, the jet developed an instability near the impact point and buckled to the side. This buckling became a spiraling motion, and the jet spiraled about the impact point. As the jet spiraled around, a cone-shaped pile was build up which eventually became unstable and slumped to the side. While all of these behaviors were occurring, air bubbles, or voids, were being entrapped in the fluid pool. The results obtained from the FLOW-3D models more closely matched the behavior of real jets than the results obtained from /the FIDAP models. Most of the FLOW-3D models predicted all of the significant jet behaviors observed in experiments: necking, buckling, spiraling, slumping, and void entrapment. All of the FIDAP models predicted that the jet would buckle relatively far from the point of impact, whereas the experimentally observed jet behavior indicates that the jets buckle much nearer the impact point. Furthermore, it was shown that FIDAP is incapable of incorporating heat transfer effects into the model, making it unsuitable for this work.
High resolution computed tomography of auditory ossicles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isono, M.; Murata, K.; Ohta, F.; Yoshida, A.; Ishida, O.; Kinki Univ., Osaka
1990-01-01
Auditory ossicular sections were scanned at section thicknesses (mm)/section interspaces (mm) of 1.5/1.5 (61 patients), 1.0/1.0 (13 patients) or 1.5/1.0 (33 patients). At any type of section thickness/interspace, the malleal and incudal structures were observed with almost equal frequency. The region of the incudostapedial joint and each component part of the stapes were shown more frequently at a section interspace of 1.0 mm than at 1.5 mm. The visualization frequency of each auditory ossicular component on two or more serial sections was investigated. At a section thickness/section interspace of 1.5/1.5, the visualization rates were low except for large components such as the head of the malleus and the body of the incus, but at a slice interspace of 1.0 mm, they were high for most components of the auditory ossicles. (orig.)
Llanes, Antonio; Muñoz, Andrés; Bueno-Crespo, Andrés; García-Valverde, Teresa; Sánchez, Antonia; Arcas-Túnez, Francisco; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Cecilia, José M
2016-01-01
The protein-folding problem has been extensively studied during the last fifty years. The understanding of the dynamics of global shape of a protein and the influence on its biological function can help us to discover new and more effective drugs to deal with diseases of pharmacological relevance. Different computational approaches have been developed by different researchers in order to foresee the threedimensional arrangement of atoms of proteins from their sequences. However, the computational complexity of this problem makes mandatory the search for new models, novel algorithmic strategies and hardware platforms that provide solutions in a reasonable time frame. We present in this revision work the past and last tendencies regarding protein folding simulations from both perspectives; hardware and software. Of particular interest to us are both the use of inexact solutions to this computationally hard problem as well as which hardware platforms have been used for running this kind of Soft Computing techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.
2016-04-15
A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.
Nagula, Narsimha; Kunche, Sudeepa; Jaheer, Mohmed; Mudavath, Ravi; Sivan, Sreekanth; Ch, Sarala Devi
2018-01-01
Some novel transition metal [Cu (II), Ni (II) and Co (II)] complexes of nalidixic acid hydrazone have been prepared and characterized by employing spectro-analytical techniques viz: elemental analysis, 1 H-NMR, Mass, UV-Vis, IR, TGA-DTA, SEM-EDX, ESR and Spectrophotometry studies. The HyperChem 7.5 software was used for geometry optimization of title compound in its molecular and ionic forms. Quantum mechanical parameters, contour maps of highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) and corresponding binding energy values were computed using semi empirical single point PM3 method. The stoichiometric equilibrium studies of metal complexes carried out spectrophotometrically using Job's continuous variation and mole ratio methods inferred formation of 1:2 (ML 2 ) metal complexes in respective systems. The title compound and its metal complexes screened for antibacterial and antifungal properties, exemplified improved activity in metal complexes. The studies of nuclease activity for the cleavage of CT- DNA and MTT assay for in vitro cytotoxic properties involving metal complexes exhibited high activity. In addition, the DNA binding properties of Cu (II), Ni (II) and Co (II) complexes investigated by electronic absorption and fluorescence measurements revealed their good binding ability and commended agreement of K b values obtained from both the techniques. Molecular docking studies were also performed to find the binding affinity of synthesized compounds with DNA (PDB ID: 1N37) and "Thymidine phosphorylase from E.coli" (PDB ID: 4EAF) protein targets.
Infrared spectra of hexamethylbenzene—tetracyanoethylene complexes at high pressures
Yamada, Haruka; Saheki, Masao
Infrared spectra of hexamethylbenzene(HMB)—tetracyanoethylene(TCNE), 1:1 and 2:1, complexes were measured under high pressures, 11˜4,000 bar. It was found that the CC stretching (A g) band of TCNE became much stronger at high pressures than at 1 bar and that the intensity increase of this band was especially large for both of the complexes. Based on these facts the strong appearance of the CC band at 1 bar, which is inconsistent with the symmetry consideration derived from X-ray analysis, can be discussed.
Software Applications on the Peregrine System | High-Performance Computing
Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) Statistics and analysis High-level modeling system for mathematical reactivity. Gurobi Optimizer Statistics and analysis Solver for mathematical programming LAMMPS Chemistry and , reactivities, and vibrational, electronic and NMR spectra. R Statistical Computing Environment Statistics and
The comparison of high and standard definition computed ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The comparison of high and standard definition computed tomography techniques regarding coronary artery imaging. A Aykut, D Bumin, Y Omer, K Mustafa, C Meltem, C Orhan, U Nisa, O Hikmet, D Hakan, K Mert ...
Enabling High-Performance Computing as a Service
AbdelBaky, Moustafa; Parashar, Manish; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jordan, Kirk E.; Sachdeva, Vipin; Sexton, James; Jamjoom, Hani; Shae, Zon-Yin; Pencheva, Gergina; Tavakoli, Reza; Wheeler, Mary F.
2012-01-01
With the right software infrastructure, clouds can provide scientists with as a service access to high-performance computing resources. An award-winning prototype framework transforms the Blue Gene/P system into an elastic cloud to run a
GPU-based high-performance computing for radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B; Ziegenhein, Peter
2014-01-01
Recent developments in radiotherapy therapy demand high computation powers to solve challenging problems in a timely fashion in a clinical environment. The graphics processing unit (GPU), as an emerging high-performance computing platform, has been introduced to radiotherapy. It is particularly attractive due to its high computational power, small size, and low cost for facility deployment and maintenance. Over the past few years, GPU-based high-performance computing in radiotherapy has experienced rapid developments. A tremendous amount of study has been conducted, in which large acceleration factors compared with the conventional CPU platform have been observed. In this paper, we will first give a brief introduction to the GPU hardware structure and programming model. We will then review the current applications of GPU in major imaging-related and therapy-related problems encountered in radiotherapy. A comparison of GPU with other platforms will also be presented. (topical review)
High contrast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation
Itai, Yuji; Takeda, Tohoru; Akatsuka, Takao; Maeda, Tomokazu; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Akira; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Kazama, Masahiro; Wu, Jin; Ando, Masami
1995-02-01
This article describes a new monochromatic x-ray CT system using synchrotron radiation with applications in biomedical diagnosis which is currently under development. The system is designed to provide clear images and to detect contrast materials at low concentration for the quantitative functional evaluation of organs in correspondence with their anatomical structures. In this system, with x-ray energy changing from 30 to 52 keV, images can be obtained to detect various contrast materials (iodine, barium, and gadolinium), and K-edge energy subtraction is applied. Herein, the features of the new system designed to enhance the advantages of SR are reported. With the introduction of a double-crystal monochromator, the high-order x-ray contamination is eliminated. The newly designed CCD detector with a wide dynamic range of 60 000:1 has a spatial resolution of 200 μm. The resulting image quality, which is expected to show improved contrast and spatial resolution, is currently under investigation.
Quantum Accelerators for High-performance Computing Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S. [ORNL; Britt, Keith A. [ORNL; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A. [ORNL
2017-11-01
We define some of the programming and system-level challenges facing the application of quantum processing to high-performance computing. Alongside barriers to physical integration, prominent differences in the execution of quantum and conventional programs challenges the intersection of these computational models. Following a brief overview of the state of the art, we discuss recent advances in programming and execution models for hybrid quantum-classical computing. We discuss a novel quantum-accelerator framework that uses specialized kernels to offload select workloads while integrating with existing computing infrastructure. We elaborate on the role of the host operating system to manage these unique accelerator resources, the prospects for deploying quantum modules, and the requirements placed on the language hierarchy connecting these different system components. We draw on recent advances in the modeling and simulation of quantum computing systems with the development of architectures for hybrid high-performance computing systems and the realization of software stacks for controlling quantum devices. Finally, we present simulation results that describe the expected system-level behavior of high-performance computing systems composed from compute nodes with quantum processing units. We describe performance for these hybrid systems in terms of time-to-solution, accuracy, and energy consumption, and we use simple application examples to estimate the performance advantage of quantum acceleration.
Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael
2016-01-01
This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2016. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.
Drayton, Brian; Falk, Joni K.; Stroud, Rena; Hobbs, Kathryn; Hammerman, James
2010-01-01
There are few studies of the impact of ubiquitous computing on high school science, and the majority of studies of ubiquitous computing report only on the early stages of implementation. The present study presents data on 3 high schools with carefully elaborated ubiquitous computing systems that have gone through at least one "obsolescence cycle"…
High burnup models in computer code fair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta, B K; Swami Prasad, P; Kushwaha, H S; Mahajan, S C; Kakodar, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)
1997-08-01
An advanced fuel analysis code FAIR has been developed for analyzing the behavior of fuel rods of water cooled reactors under severe power transients and high burnups. The code is capable of analyzing fuel pins of both collapsible clad, as in PHWR and free standing clad as in LWR. The main emphasis in the development of this code is on evaluating the fuel performance at extended burnups and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. For this purpose, a number of suitable models have been incorporated in FAIR. For modelling the fission gas release, three different models are implemented, namely Physically based mechanistic model, the standard ANS 5.4 model and the Halden model. Similarly the pellet thermal conductivity can be modelled by the MATPRO equation, the SIMFUEL relation or the Halden equation. The flux distribution across the pellet is modelled by using the model RADAR. For modelling pellet clad interaction (PCMI)/ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced failure of sheath, necessary routines are provided in FAIR. The validation of the code FAIR is based on the analysis of fuel rods of EPRI project ``Light water reactor fuel rod modelling code evaluation`` and also the analytical simulation of threshold power ramp criteria of fuel rods of pressurized heavy water reactors. In the present work, a study is carried out by analysing three CRP-FUMEX rods to show the effect of various combinations of fission gas release models and pellet conductivity models, on the fuel analysis parameters. The satisfactory performance of FAIR may be concluded through these case studies. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs.
High burnup models in computer code fair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutta, B.K.; Swami Prasad, P.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodar, A.
1997-01-01
An advanced fuel analysis code FAIR has been developed for analyzing the behavior of fuel rods of water cooled reactors under severe power transients and high burnups. The code is capable of analyzing fuel pins of both collapsible clad, as in PHWR and free standing clad as in LWR. The main emphasis in the development of this code is on evaluating the fuel performance at extended burnups and modelling of the fuel rods for advanced fuel cycles. For this purpose, a number of suitable models have been incorporated in FAIR. For modelling the fission gas release, three different models are implemented, namely Physically based mechanistic model, the standard ANS 5.4 model and the Halden model. Similarly the pellet thermal conductivity can be modelled by the MATPRO equation, the SIMFUEL relation or the Halden equation. The flux distribution across the pellet is modelled by using the model RADAR. For modelling pellet clad interaction (PCMI)/ stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced failure of sheath, necessary routines are provided in FAIR. The validation of the code FAIR is based on the analysis of fuel rods of EPRI project ''Light water reactor fuel rod modelling code evaluation'' and also the analytical simulation of threshold power ramp criteria of fuel rods of pressurized heavy water reactors. In the present work, a study is carried out by analysing three CRP-FUMEX rods to show the effect of various combinations of fission gas release models and pellet conductivity models, on the fuel analysis parameters. The satisfactory performance of FAIR may be concluded through these case studies. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs
High Performance Computing Modernization Program Kerberos Throughput Test Report
2017-10-26
Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5524--17-9751 High Performance Computing Modernization Program Kerberos Throughput Test ...NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 2. REPORT TYPE1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 6. AUTHOR(S) 8. PERFORMING...PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT High Performance Computing Modernization Program Kerberos Throughput Test Report Daniel G. Gdula* and
Computer-aided safety systems of industrial high energy objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Topolsky, N.G.; Gordeev, S.G.
1995-01-01
Modern objects of fuel and energy, chemical industries are characterized by high power consumption; by presence of large quantities of combustible and explosive substances used in technological processes; by advanced communications of submission systems of initial liquid and gasiform reagents, lubricants and coolants, the products of processing, and wastes of production; by advanced ventilation and pneumatic transport; and by complex control systems of energy, material and information flows. Such objects have advanced infrastructures, including a significant quantity of engineering buildings intended for storage, transportation, and processing of combustible liquids, gasiform fuels and materials, and firm materials. Examples of similar objects are nuclear and thermal power stations, chemical plants, machine-building factories, iron and steel industry enterprises, etc. Many tasks and functions characterizing the problem of fire safety of these objects can be accomplished only upon the development of special Computer-Aided Fire Safety Systems (CAFSS). The CAFSS for these objects are intended to reduce the hazard of disastrous accidents both causing fires and caused by them. The tasks of fire prevention and rescue work of large-scale industrial objects are analyzed within the bounds of the recommended conception. A functional structure of CAFSS with a list of the main subsystems forming a part of its composition has been proposed
The Future of Software Engineering for High Performance Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pope, G [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-07-16
DOE ASCR requested that from May through mid-July 2015 a study group identify issues and recommend solutions from a software engineering perspective transitioning into the next generation of High Performance Computing. The approach used was to ask some of the DOE complex experts who will be responsible for doing this work to contribute to the study group. The technique used was to solicit elevator speeches: a short and concise write up done as if the author was a speaker with only a few minutes to convince a decision maker of their top issues. Pages 2-18 contain the original texts of the contributed elevator speeches and end notes identifying the 20 contributors. The study group also ranked the importance of each topic, and those scores are displayed with each topic heading. A perfect score (and highest priority) is three, two is medium priority, and one is lowest priority. The highest scoring topic areas were software engineering and testing resources; the lowest scoring area was compliance to DOE standards. The following two paragraphs are an elevator speech summarizing the contributed elevator speeches. Each sentence or phrase in the summary is hyperlinked to its source via a numeral embedded in the text. A risk one liner has also been added to each topic to allow future risk tracking and mitigation.
A checkpoint compression study for high-performance computing systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibtesham, Dewan [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Ferreira, Kurt B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable System Software Dept.; Arnold, Dorian [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science
2015-02-17
As high-performance computing systems continue to increase in size and complexity, higher failure rates and increased overheads for checkpoint/restart (CR) protocols have raised concerns about the practical viability of CR protocols for future systems. Previously, compression has proven to be a viable approach for reducing checkpoint data volumes and, thereby, reducing CR protocol overhead leading to improved application performance. In this article, we further explore compression-based CR optimization by exploring its baseline performance and scaling properties, evaluating whether improved compression algorithms might lead to even better application performance and comparing checkpoint compression against and alongside other software- and hardware-based optimizations. Our results highlights are: (1) compression is a very viable CR optimization; (2) generic, text-based compression algorithms appear to perform near optimally for checkpoint data compression and faster compression algorithms will not lead to better application performance; (3) compression-based optimizations fare well against and alongside other software-based optimizations; and (4) while hardware-based optimizations outperform software-based ones, they are not as cost effective.
High frequency vibration analysis by the complex envelope vectorization.
Giannini, O; Carcaterra, A; Sestieri, A
2007-06-01
The complex envelope displacement analysis (CEDA) is a procedure to solve high frequency vibration and vibro-acoustic problems, providing the envelope of the physical solution. CEDA is based on a variable transformation mapping the high frequency oscillations into signals of low frequency content and has been successfully applied to one-dimensional systems. However, the extension to plates and vibro-acoustic fields met serious difficulties so that a general revision of the theory was carried out, leading finally to a new method, the complex envelope vectorization (CEV). In this paper the CEV method is described, underlying merits and limits of the procedure, and a set of applications to vibration and vibro-acoustic problems of increasing complexity are presented.
Thinking processes used by high-performing students in a computer programming task
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marietjie Havenga
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Computer programmers must be able to understand programming source code and write programs that execute complex tasks to solve real-world problems. This article is a trans- disciplinary study at the intersection of computer programming, education and psychology. It outlines the role of mental processes in the process of programming and indicates how successful thinking processes can support computer science students in writing correct and well-defined programs. A mixed methods approach was used to better understand the thinking activities and programming processes of participating students. Data collection involved both computer programs and students’ reflective thinking processes recorded in their journals. This enabled analysis of psychological dimensions of participants’ thinking processes and their problem-solving activities as they considered a programming problem. Findings indicate that the cognitive, reflective and psychological processes used by high-performing programmers contributed to their success in solving a complex programming problem. Based on the thinking processes of high performers, we propose a model of integrated thinking processes, which can support computer programming students. Keywords: Computer programming, education, mixed methods research, thinking processes. Disciplines: Computer programming, education, psychology
Sherwin, Jason
human activities. Nevertheless, since it is not constrained by computational details, the study of situational awareness provides a unique opportunity to approach complex tasks of operation from an analytical perspective. In other words, with SA, we get to see how humans observe, recognize and react to complex systems on which they exert some control. Reconciling this perspective on complexity with complex systems research, it might be possible to further our understanding of complex phenomena if we can probe the anatomical mechanisms by which we, as humans, do it naturally. At this unique intersection of two disciplines, a hybrid approach is needed. So in this work, we propose just such an approach. In particular, this research proposes a computational approach to the situational awareness (SA) of complex systems. Here we propose to implement certain aspects of situational awareness via a biologically-inspired machine-learning technique called Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM). In doing so, we will use either simulated or actual data to create and to test computational implementations of situational awareness. This will be tested in two example contexts, one being more complex than the other. The ultimate goal of this research is to demonstrate a possible approach to analyzing and understanding complex systems. By using HTM and carefully developing techniques to analyze the SA formed from data, it is believed that this goal can be obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krinsky, Jamin L.; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G.
2006-10-03
Monomeric thiosalicylaldiminate complexes of rhodium(I) and iridium(I) were prepared by ligand transfer from the homoleptic zinc(II) species. In the presence of strongly donating ligands, the iridium complexes undergo insertion of the metal into the imine carbon-hydrogen bond. Thiophenoxyketimines were prepared by non-templated reaction of o-mercaptoacetophenone with anilines, and were complexed with rhodium(I), iridium(I), nickel(II) and platinum(II). X-ray crystallographic studies showed that while the thiosalicylaldiminate complexes display planar ligand conformations, those of the thiophenoxyketiminates are strongly distorted. Results of a computational study were consistent with a steric-strain interpretation of the difference in preferred ligand geometries.
Parallel computing for event reconstruction in high-energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolbers, S.
1993-01-01
Parallel computing has been recognized as a solution to large computing problems. In High Energy Physics offline event reconstruction of detector data is a very large computing problem that has been solved with parallel computing techniques. A review of the parallel programming package CPS (Cooperative Processes Software) developed and used at Fermilab for offline reconstruction of Terabytes of data requiring the delivery of hundreds of Vax-Years per experiment is given. The Fermilab UNIX farms, consisting of 180 Silicon Graphics workstations and 144 IBM RS6000 workstations, are used to provide the computing power for the experiments. Fermilab has had a long history of providing production parallel computing starting with the ACP (Advanced Computer Project) Farms in 1986. The Fermilab UNIX Farms have been in production for over 2 years with 24 hour/day service to experimental user groups. Additional tools for management, control and monitoring these large systems will be described. Possible future directions for parallel computing in High Energy Physics will be given
A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Lin eWu
2011-02-01
Full Text Available High-throughput computing (HTC uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general purpose computation on a graphics processing unit (GPU provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin – Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit (CPU capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of
Development of an Evaluation Method for the Design Complexity of Computer-Based Displays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2011-10-15
The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and the safety of process industries has long been continuously recognized for many decades. Especially, in the case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs because poor HMIs can impair the decision making ability of human operators. In order to support and increase the decision making ability of human operators, advanced HMIs based on the up-to-date computer technology are provided. Human operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs) and large display panel (LDP), which is required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a huge amount of information and present it with a variety of formats compared to those of a conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more display elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, etc. As computer-based displays contain more information, the complexity of advanced displays becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each display element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. This study covers the early phase in the development of an evaluation method for the design complexity of computer-based displays. To this end, a series of existing studies were reviewed to suggest an appropriate concept that is serviceable to unravel this problem
Complex Odontoma: A Case Report with Micro-Computed Tomography Findings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. A. N. Santos
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common benign tumors of odontogenic origin. They are normally diagnosed on routine radiographs, due to the absence of symptoms. Histopathologic evaluation confirms the diagnosis especially in cases of complex odontoma, which may be confused during radiographic examination with an osteoma or other highly calcified bone lesions. The micro-CT is a new technology that enables three-dimensional analysis with better spatial resolution compared with cone beam computed tomography. Another great advantage of this technology is that the sample does not need special preparation or destruction in the sectioned area as in histopathologic evaluation. An odontoma with CBCT and microtomography images is presented in a 26-year-old man. It was first observed on panoramic radiographs and then by CBCT. The lesion and the impacted third molar were surgically excised using a modified Neumann approach. After removal, it was evaluated by histopathology and microtomography to confirm the diagnostic hypothesis. According to the results, micro-CT enabled the assessment of the sample similar to histopathology, without destruction of the sample. With further development, micro-CT could be a powerful diagnostic tool in future research.
Self-dissimilarity as a High Dimensional Complexity Measure
Wolpert, David H.; Macready, William
2005-01-01
For many systems characterized as "complex" the patterns exhibited on different scales differ markedly from one another. For example the biomass distribution in a human body "looks very different" depending on the scale at which one examines it. Conversely, the patterns at different scales in "simple" systems (e.g., gases, mountains, crystals) vary little from one scale to another. Accordingly, the degrees of self-dissimilarity between the patterns of a system at various scales constitute a complexity "signature" of that system. Here we present a novel quantification of self-dissimilarity. This signature can, if desired, incorporate a novel information-theoretic measure of the distance between probability distributions that we derive here. Whatever distance measure is chosen, our quantification of self-dissimilarity can be measured for many kinds of real-world data. This allows comparisons of the complexity signatures of wholly different kinds of systems (e.g., systems involving information density in a digital computer vs. species densities in a rain-forest vs. capital density in an economy, etc.). Moreover, in contrast to many other suggested complexity measures, evaluating the self-dissimilarity of a system does not require one to already have a model of the system. These facts may allow self-dissimilarity signatures to be used a s the underlying observational variables of an eventual overarching theory relating all complex systems. To illustrate self-dissimilarity we present several numerical experiments. In particular, we show that underlying structure of the logistic map is picked out by the self-dissimilarity signature of time series produced by that map
CRITICAL ISSUES IN HIGH END COMPUTING - FINAL REPORT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corones, James [Krell Institute
2013-09-23
High-End computing (HEC) has been a driver for advances in science and engineering for the past four decades. Increasingly HEC has become a significant element in the national security, economic vitality, and competitiveness of the United States. Advances in HEC provide results that cut across traditional disciplinary and organizational boundaries. This program provides opportunities to share information about HEC systems and computational techniques across multiple disciplines and organizations through conferences and exhibitions of HEC advances held in Washington DC so that mission agency staff, scientists, and industry can come together with White House, Congressional and Legislative staff in an environment conducive to the sharing of technical information, accomplishments, goals, and plans. A common thread across this series of conferences is the understanding of computational science and applied mathematics techniques across a diverse set of application areas of interest to the Nation. The specific objectives of this program are: Program Objective 1. To provide opportunities to share information about advances in high-end computing systems and computational techniques between mission critical agencies, agency laboratories, academics, and industry. Program Objective 2. To gather pertinent data, address specific topics of wide interest to mission critical agencies. Program Objective 3. To promote a continuing discussion of critical issues in high-end computing. Program Objective 4.To provide a venue where a multidisciplinary scientific audience can discuss the difficulties applying computational science techniques to specific problems and can specify future research that, if successful, will eliminate these problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Min-Kyung; Eom, Ki Heon; Lim, Jun-Heok; Lee, Jea-Keun; Lee, Ju Dong; Won, Yong Sun [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-15
The complexation of boric acid (B(OH){sub 3}), the primary form of aqueous boron at moderate pH, with polyols is proposed and mechanistically studied as an efficient way to improve membrane processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) for removing boron in seawater by increasing the size of aqueous boron compounds. Computational chemistry based on the density functional theory (DFT) was used to manifest the reaction pathways of the complexation of B(OH){sub 3} with various polyols such as glycerol, xylitol, and mannitol. The reaction energies were calculated as −80.6, −98.1, and −87.2 kcal/mol for glycerol, xylitol, and mannitol, respectively, indicating that xylitol is the most thermodynamically favorable for the complexation with B(OH){sub 3}. Moreover, the 1 : 2 molar ratio of B(OH)3 to polyol was found to be more favorable than the ratio of 1 : 1 for the complexation. Meanwhile, latest lab-scale actual RO experiments successfully supported our computational prediction that 2 moles of xylitol are the most effective as the complexing agent for 1 mole of B(OH){sub 3} in aqueous solution.
Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.
Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella
2013-03-25
We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogdanov, Andrey; Kavun, Elif Bilge; Tischhauser, Elmar
2012-01-01
An accurate estimation of the success probability and data complexity of linear cryptanalysis is a fundamental question in symmetric cryptography. In this paper, we propose an efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture to compute the success probability and data complexity of Matsui's Algorithm...... block lengths ensures that any empirical observations are not due to differences in statistical behavior for artificially small block lengths. Rather surprisingly, we observed in previous experiments a significant deviation between the theory and practice for Matsui's Algorithm 2 for larger block sizes...
5th International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing
Hoang, Xuan; Rannacher, Rolf; Schlöder, Johannes
2014-01-01
This proceedings volume gathers a selection of papers presented at the Fifth International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing, which took place in Hanoi on March 5-9, 2012. The conference was organized by the Institute of Mathematics of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR) of Heidelberg University, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, and the Vietnam Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics. The contributions cover the broad interdisciplinary spectrum of scientific computing and present recent advances in theory, development of methods, and practical applications. Subjects covered include mathematical modeling; numerical simulation; methods for optimization and control; parallel computing; software development; and applications of scientific computing in physics, mechanics and biomechanics, material science, hydrology, chemistry, biology, biotechnology, medicine, sports, psychology, transport, logistics, com...
6th International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing
Phu, Hoang; Rannacher, Rolf; Schlöder, Johannes
2017-01-01
This proceedings volume highlights a selection of papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing, which took place in Hanoi, Vietnam on March 16-20, 2015. The conference was jointly organized by the Heidelberg Institute of Theoretical Studies (HITS), the Institute of Mathematics of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR) at Heidelberg University, and the Vietnam Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics, Ministry of Education The contributions cover a broad, interdisciplinary spectrum of scientific computing and showcase recent advances in theory, methods, and practical applications. Subjects covered numerical simulation, methods for optimization and control, parallel computing, and software development, as well as the applications of scientific computing in physics, mechanics, biomechanics and robotics, material science, hydrology, biotechnology, medicine, transport, scheduling, and in...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geroyannis, V.S.
1988-01-01
In this paper, a numerical method is developed for determining the structure distortion of a polytropic star which rotates either uniformly or differentially. This method carries out the required numerical integrations in the complex plane. The method is implemented to compute indicative quantities, such as the critical perturbation parameter which represents an upper limit in the rotational behavior of the star. From such indicative results, it is inferred that this method achieves impressive improvement against other relevant methods; most important, it is comparable to some of the most elaborate and accurate techniques on the subject. It is also shown that the use of this method with Chandrasekhar's first-order perturbation theory yields an immediate drastic improvement of the results. Thus, there is no neeed - for most applications concerning rotating polytropic models - to proceed to the further use of the method with higher order techniques, unless the maximum accuracy of the method is required. 31 references
Computer Simulation of Complex Power System Faults under various Operating Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khandelwal, Tanuj; Bowman, Mark
2015-01-01
A power system is normally treated as a balanced symmetrical three-phase network. When a fault occurs, the symmetry is normally upset, resulting in unbalanced currents and voltages appearing in the network. For the correct application of protection equipment, it is essential to know the fault current distribution throughout the system and the voltages in different parts of the system due to the fault. There may be situations where protection engineers have to analyze faults that are more complex than simple shunt faults. One type of complex fault is an open phase condition that can result from a fallen conductor or failure of a breaker pole. In the former case, the condition is often accompanied by a fault detectable with normal relaying. In the latter case, the condition may be undetected by standard line relaying. The effect on a generator is dependent on the location of the open phase and the load level. If an open phase occurs between the generator terminals and the high-voltage side of the GSU in the switchyard, and the generator is at full load, damaging negative sequence current can be generated. However, for the same operating condition, an open conductor at the incoming transmission lines located in the switchyard can result in minimal negative sequence current. In 2012, a nuclear power generating station (NPGS) suffered series or open phase fault due to insulator mechanical failure in the 345 kV switchyard. This resulted in both reactor units tripping offline in two separate incidents. Series fault on one of the phases resulted in voltage imbalance that was not detected by the degraded voltage relays. These under-voltage relays did not initiate a start signal to the emergency diesel generators (EDG) because they sensed adequate voltage on the remaining phases exposing a design vulnerability. This paper is intended to help protection engineers calculate complex circuit faults like open phase condition using computer program. The impact of this type of
Counting loop diagrams: computational complexity of higher-order amplitude evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eijk, E. van; Kleiss, R.; Lazopoulos, A.
2004-01-01
We discuss the computational complexity of the perturbative evaluation of scattering amplitudes, both by the Caravaglios-Moretti algorithm and by direct evaluation of the individual diagrams. For a self-interacting scalar theory, we determine the complexity as a function of the number of external legs. We describe a method for obtaining the number of topologically inequivalent Feynman graphs containing closed loops, and apply this to 1- and 2-loop amplitudes. We also compute the number of graphs weighted by their symmetry factors, thus arriving at exact and asymptotic estimates for the average symmetry factor of diagrams. We present results for the asymptotic number of diagrams up to 10 loops, and prove that the average symmetry factor approaches unity as the number of external legs becomes large. (orig.)
High-performance scientific computing in the cloud
Jorissen, Kevin; Vila, Fernando; Rehr, John
2011-03-01
Cloud computing has the potential to open up high-performance computational science to a much broader class of researchers, owing to its ability to provide on-demand, virtualized computational resources. However, before such approaches can become commonplace, user-friendly tools must be developed that hide the unfamiliar cloud environment and streamline the management of cloud resources for many scientific applications. We have recently shown that high-performance cloud computing is feasible for parallelized x-ray spectroscopy calculations. We now present benchmark results for a wider selection of scientific applications focusing on electronic structure and spectroscopic simulation software in condensed matter physics. These applications are driven by an improved portable interface that can manage virtual clusters and run various applications in the cloud. We also describe a next generation of cluster tools, aimed at improved performance and a more robust cluster deployment. Supported by NSF grant OCI-1048052.
Micromagnetics on high-performance workstation and mobile computational platforms
Fu, S.; Chang, R.; Couture, S.; Menarini, M.; Escobar, M. A.; Kuteifan, M.; Lubarda, M.; Gabay, D.; Lomakin, V.
2015-05-01
The feasibility of using high-performance desktop and embedded mobile computational platforms is presented, including multi-core Intel central processing unit, Nvidia desktop graphics processing units, and Nvidia Jetson TK1 Platform. FastMag finite element method-based micromagnetic simulator is used as a testbed, showing high efficiency on all the platforms. Optimization aspects of improving the performance of the mobile systems are discussed. The high performance, low cost, low power consumption, and rapid performance increase of the embedded mobile systems make them a promising candidate for micromagnetic simulations. Such architectures can be used as standalone systems or can be built as low-power computing clusters.
New Challenges for Computing in High Energy Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santoro, Alberto
2003-01-01
In view of the new scientific programs established for the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) era, the way to face the technological challenges in computing was develop a new concept of GRID computing. We show some examples and, in particular, a proposal for high energy physicists in countries like Brazil. Due to the big amount of data and the need of close collaboration it will be impossible to work in research centers and universities very far from Fermilab or CERN unless a GRID architecture is built. An important effort is being made by the international community to up to date their computing infrastructure and networks
OMNET - high speed data communications for PDP-11 computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkman, C.F.; Lee, J.G.
1979-12-01
Omnet is a high speed data communications network designed at CERN for PDP-11 computers. It has grown from a link multiplexor system built for a CII 10070 computer into a full multi-point network, to which some fifty computers are now connected. It provides communications facilities for several large experimental installations as well as many smaller systems and has connections to all parts of the CERN site. The transmission protocol is discussed and brief details are given of the hardware and software used in its implementation. Also described is the gateway interface to the CERN packet switching network, 'Cernet'. (orig.)
Experimental complex for high flux-materials interaction research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagen-Torn, V.K.; Kirillov, I.R.; Komarov, V.L.; Litunovsky, V.N.; Mazul, I.V.; Ovchinnikov, I.B.; Prokofjev, Yu.G.; Saksagansky, G.L.; Titov, V.A.
1995-01-01
The experimental complex for high heat flux testing of divertor materials and bumper mock-ups under conditions close to both ITER stationary and plasma disruption PFC heat loads is described. High power plasma and electron beams are using as high heat flux sources. The former are applied to disruption simulation experiments. The values of pulsed plasma heat flux load up to 110 MJ/m 2 and stationary e-beam load up to 15 MW/m 2 can obtained on these facilities. (orig.)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Wilke, DN
2012-07-01
Full Text Available problems that utilise remeshing (i.e. the mesh topology is allowed to change) between design updates. Here, changes in mesh topology result in abrupt changes in the discretization error of the computed response. These abrupt changes in turn manifests... in shape optimization but may be present whenever (partial) differential equations are ap- proximated numerically with non-constant discretization methods e.g. remeshing of spatial domains or automatic time stepping in temporal domains. Keywords: Complex...
A computer program for external modes in complex ionic crystals (the rigid molecular-ion model)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaplot, S.L.
1978-01-01
A computer program DISPR has been developed to calculate the external mode phonon dispersion relation in the harmonic approximation for complex ionic crystals using the rigid molecular ion model. A description of the program, the flow diagram and the required input information are given. A sample calculation for α-KNO 3 is presented. The program can handle any type of crystal lattice with any number of atoms and molecules per unit cell with suitable changes in dimension statements. (M.G.B.)
Enabling high performance computational science through combinatorial algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boman, Erik G; Bozdag, Doruk; Catalyurek, Umit V; Devine, Karen D; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Hovland, Paul D; Pothen, Alex; Strout, Michelle Mills
2007-01-01
The Combinatorial Scientific Computing and Petascale Simulations (CSCAPES) Institute is developing algorithms and software for combinatorial problems that play an enabling role in scientific and engineering computations. Discrete algorithms will be increasingly critical for achieving high performance for irregular problems on petascale architectures. This paper describes recent contributions by researchers at the CSCAPES Institute in the areas of load balancing, parallel graph coloring, performance improvement, and parallel automatic differentiation
Enabling high performance computational science through combinatorial algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boman, Erik G [Discrete Algorithms and Math Department, Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Bozdag, Doruk [Biomedical Informatics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University (United States); Catalyurek, Umit V [Biomedical Informatics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University (United States); Devine, Karen D [Discrete Algorithms and Math Department, Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Gebremedhin, Assefaw H [Computer Science and Center for Computational Science, Old Dominion University (United States); Hovland, Paul D [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Pothen, Alex [Computer Science and Center for Computational Science, Old Dominion University (United States); Strout, Michelle Mills [Computer Science, Colorado State University (United States)
2007-07-15
The Combinatorial Scientific Computing and Petascale Simulations (CSCAPES) Institute is developing algorithms and software for combinatorial problems that play an enabling role in scientific and engineering computations. Discrete algorithms will be increasingly critical for achieving high performance for irregular problems on petascale architectures. This paper describes recent contributions by researchers at the CSCAPES Institute in the areas of load balancing, parallel graph coloring, performance improvement, and parallel automatic differentiation.
Experimental high energy physics and modern computer architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoek, J.
1988-06-01
The paper examines how experimental High Energy Physics can use modern computer architectures efficiently. In this connection parallel and vector architectures are investigated, and the types available at the moment for general use are discussed. A separate section briefly describes some architectures that are either a combination of both, or exemplify other architectures. In an appendix some directions in which computing seems to be developing in the USA are mentioned. (author)
Proceedings from the conference on high speed computing: High speed computing and national security
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirons, K.P.; Vigil, M.; Carlson, R. [comps.
1997-07-01
This meeting covered the following topics: technologies/national needs/policies: past, present and future; information warfare; crisis management/massive data systems; risk assessment/vulnerabilities; Internet law/privacy and rights of society; challenges to effective ASCI programmatic use of 100 TFLOPs systems; and new computing technologies.
Investigation of anticancer properties of caffeinated complexes via computational chemistry methods
Sayin, Koray; Üngördü, Ayhan
2018-03-01
Computational investigations were performed for 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dimethylpurine-2,6-dione, their Ru(II) and Os(III) complexes. B3LYP/6-311 ++G(d,p)(LANL2DZ) level was used in numerical calculations. Geometric parameters, IR spectrum, 1H-, 13C and 15N NMR spectrum were examined in detail. Additionally, contour diagram of frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps, MEP contour and some quantum chemical descriptors were used in the determination of reactivity rankings and active sites. The electron density on the surface was similar to each other in studied complexes. Quantum chemical descriptors were investigated and the anticancer activity of complexes were more than cisplatin and their ligands. Additionally, molecular docking calculations were performed in water between related complexes and a protein (ID: 3WZE). The most interact complex was found as Os complex. The interaction energy was calculated as 342.9 kJ/mol.
A Framework for the Interactive Handling of High-Dimensional Simulation Data in Complex Geometries
Benzina, Amal; Buse, Gerrit; Butnaru, Daniel; Murarasu, Alin; Treib, Marc; Varduhn, Vasco; Mundani, Ralf-Peter
2013-01-01
Flow simulations around building infrastructure models involve large scale complex geometries, which when discretized in adequate detail entail high computational cost. Moreover, tasks such as simulation insight by steering or optimization require many such costly simulations. In this paper, we illustrate the whole pipeline of an integrated solution for interactive computational steering, developed for complex flow simulation scenarios that depend on a moderate number of both geometric and physical parameters. A mesh generator takes building information model input data and outputs a valid cartesian discretization. A sparse-grids-based surrogate model—a less costly substitute for the parameterized simulation—uses precomputed data to deliver approximated simulation results at interactive rates. Furthermore, a distributed multi-display visualization environment shows building infrastructure together with flow data. The focus is set on scalability and intuitive user interaction.
Towards electromechanical computation: An alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
Electromechanical computing based on micro/nano resonators has recently attracted significant attention. However, full implementation of this technology has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex logic circuits. We report here an alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits based on multiple MEMS resonators. As case studies, we report the construction of a single-bit binary comparator, a single-bit 4-to-2 encoder, and parallel XOR/XNOR and AND/NOT logic gates. Toward this, several microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned through an electrothermal modulation scheme. The microresonators operating in the linear regime do not require large excitation forces, and work at room temperature and at modest air pressure. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, tunable resonator, several essential complex logic functions can be achieved.
Towards electromechanical computation: An alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits
Hafiz, M. A. A.
2016-08-18
Electromechanical computing based on micro/nano resonators has recently attracted significant attention. However, full implementation of this technology has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex logic circuits. We report here an alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits based on multiple MEMS resonators. As case studies, we report the construction of a single-bit binary comparator, a single-bit 4-to-2 encoder, and parallel XOR/XNOR and AND/NOT logic gates. Toward this, several microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned through an electrothermal modulation scheme. The microresonators operating in the linear regime do not require large excitation forces, and work at room temperature and at modest air pressure. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, tunable resonator, several essential complex logic functions can be achieved.
Topic 14+16: High-performance and scientific applications and extreme-scale computing (Introduction)
Downes, Turlough P.
2013-01-01
As our understanding of the world around us increases it becomes more challenging to make use of what we already know, and to increase our understanding still further. Computational modeling and simulation have become critical tools in addressing this challenge. The requirements of high-resolution, accurate modeling have outstripped the ability of desktop computers and even small clusters to provide the necessary compute power. Many applications in the scientific and engineering domains now need very large amounts of compute time, while other applications, particularly in the life sciences, frequently have large data I/O requirements. There is thus a growing need for a range of high performance applications which can utilize parallel compute systems effectively, which have efficient data handling strategies and which have the capacity to utilise current and future systems. The High Performance and Scientific Applications topic aims to highlight recent progress in the use of advanced computing and algorithms to address the varied, complex and increasing challenges of modern research throughout both the "hard" and "soft" sciences. This necessitates being able to use large numbers of compute nodes, many of which are equipped with accelerators, and to deal with difficult I/O requirements. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
High Performance Computing Software Applications for Space Situational Awareness
Giuliano, C.; Schumacher, P.; Matson, C.; Chun, F.; Duncan, B.; Borelli, K.; Desonia, R.; Gusciora, G.; Roe, K.
The High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute for Space Situational Awareness (HSAI-SSA) has completed its first full year of applications development. The emphasis of our work in this first year was in improving space surveillance sensor models and image enhancement software. These applications are the Space Surveillance Network Analysis Model (SSNAM), the Air Force Space Fence simulation (SimFence), and physically constrained iterative de-convolution (PCID) image enhancement software tool. Specifically, we have demonstrated order of magnitude speed-up in those codes running on the latest Cray XD-1 Linux supercomputer (Hoku) at the Maui High Performance Computing Center. The software applications improvements that HSAI-SSA has made, has had significant impact to the warfighter and has fundamentally changed the role of high performance computing in SSA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraass, Benedick A.; Lash, Kathy L.; Matrone, Gwynne M.; Volkman, Susan K.; McShan, Daniel L.; Kessler, Marc L.; Lichter, Allen S.
1998-01-01
Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery errors for three-dimensional (3D) conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation and complexity, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS). Methods and Materials: All treatment delivery errors which occurred in our department during a 15-month period were analyzed. Approximately 34,000 treatment sessions (114,000 individual treatment segments [ports]) on four treatment machines were studied. All treatment delivery errors logged by treatment therapists or quality assurance reviews (152 in all) were analyzed. Machines 'M1' and 'M2' were operated in a standard manual setup mode, with no record and verify system (R/V). MLC machines 'M3' and 'M4' treated patients under the control of the CCRS system, which (1) downloads the treatment delivery plan from the planning system; (2) performs some (or all) of the machine set up and treatment delivery for each field; (3) monitors treatment delivery; (4) records all treatment parameters; and (5) notes exceptions to the electronically-prescribed plan. Complete external computer control is not available on M3; therefore, it uses as many CCRS features as possible, while M4 operates completely under CCRS control and performs semi-automated and automated multi-segment intensity modulated treatments. Analysis of treatment complexity was based on numbers of fields, individual segments, nonaxial and noncoplanar plans, multisegment intensity modulation, and pseudoisocentric treatments studied for a 6-month period (505 patients) concurrent with the period in which the delivery errors were obtained. Treatment delivery time was obtained from the computerized scheduling system (for manual treatments) or from CCRS system logs. Treatment therapists rotate among the machines; therefore, this analysis does not depend on fixed therapist staff on particular
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nash, T.; Areti, H.; Atac, R.
1988-08-01
Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program (ACP) has been developing highly cost effective, yet practical, parallel computers for high energy physics since 1984. The ACP's latest developments are proceeding in two directions. A Second Generation ACP Multiprocessor System for experiments will include $3500 RISC processors each with performance over 15 VAX MIPS. To support such high performance, the new system allows parallel I/O, parallel interprocess communication, and parallel host processes. The ACP Multi-Array Processor, has been developed for theoretical physics. Each $4000 node is a FORTRAN or C programmable pipelined 20 MFlops (peak), 10 MByte single board computer. These are plugged into a 16 port crossbar switch crate which handles both inter and intra crate communication. The crates are connected in a hypercube. Site oriented applications like lattice gauge theory are supported by system software called CANOPY, which makes the hardware virtually transparent to users. A 256 node, 5 GFlop, system is under construction. 10 refs., 7 figs
High-End Computing Challenges in Aerospace Design and Engineering
Bailey, F. Ronald
2004-01-01
High-End Computing (HEC) has had significant impact on aerospace design and engineering and is poised to make even more in the future. In this paper we describe four aerospace design and engineering challenges: Digital Flight, Launch Simulation, Rocket Fuel System and Digital Astronaut. The paper discusses modeling capabilities needed for each challenge and presents projections of future near and far-term HEC computing requirements. NASA's HEC Project Columbia is described and programming strategies presented that are necessary to achieve high real performance.
High performance computing and communications: FY 1997 implementation plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-01
The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally authorized by passage, with bipartisan support, of the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991, signed on December 9, 1991. The original Program, in which eight Federal agencies participated, has now grown to twelve agencies. This Plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` FY 1996 HPCC accomplishments and FY 1997 HPCC plans. Section 3 of this Plan provides an overview of the HPCC Program. Section 4 contains more detailed definitions of the Program Component Areas, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each PCA. Appendix A provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency.
Visualization and Data Analysis for High-Performance Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sewell, Christopher Meyer [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-09-27
This is a set of slides from a guest lecture for a class at the University of Texas, El Paso on visualization and data analysis for high-performance computing. The topics covered are the following: trends in high-performance computing; scientific visualization, such as OpenGL, ray tracing and volume rendering, VTK, and ParaView; data science at scale, such as in-situ visualization, image databases, distributed memory parallelism, shared memory parallelism, VTK-m, "big data", and then an analysis example.
The ongoing investigation of high performance parallel computing in HEP
Peach, Kenneth J; Böck, R K; Dobinson, Robert W; Hansroul, M; Norton, Alan Robert; Willers, Ian Malcolm; Baud, J P; Carminati, F; Gagliardi, F; McIntosh, E; Metcalf, M; Robertson, L; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee
1993-01-01
Past and current exploitation of parallel computing in High Energy Physics is summarized and a list of R & D projects in this area is presented. The applicability of new parallel hardware and software to physics problems is investigated, in the light of the requirements for computing power of LHC experiments and the current trends in the computer industry. Four main themes are discussed (possibilities for a finer grain of parallelism; fine-grain communication mechanism; usable parallel programming environment; different programming models and architectures, using standard commercial products). Parallel computing technology is potentially of interest for offline and vital for real time applications in LHC. A substantial investment in applications development and evaluation of state of the art hardware and software products is needed. A solid development environment is required at an early stage, before mainline LHC program development begins.
Computer Security: SAHARA - Security As High As Reasonably Achievable
Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team
2015-01-01
History has shown us time and again that our computer systems, computing services and control systems have digital security deficiencies. Too often we deploy stop-gap solutions and improvised hacks, or we just accept that it is too late to change things. In my opinion, this blatantly contradicts the professionalism we show in our daily work. Other priorities and time pressure force us to ignore security or to consider it too late to do anything… but we can do better. Just look at how “safety” is dealt with at CERN! “ALARA” (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) is the objective set by the CERN HSE group when considering our individual radiological exposure. Following this paradigm, and shifting it from CERN safety to CERN computer security, would give us “SAHARA”: “Security As High As Reasonably Achievable”. In other words, all possible computer security measures must be applied, so long as ...
Application of the Decomposition Method to the Design Complexity of Computer-based Display
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-05-15
The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and safety has long been recognized in process industries. In case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs since poor implementation of HMIs can impair the operators' information searching ability which is considered as one of the important aspects of human behavior. To support and increase the efficiency of the operators' information searching behavior, advanced HMIs based on computer technology are provided. Operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs), and large display panel (LDP) required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a very large quantity of information and present them in a variety of formats than conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, and highlighting than conventional ones. As computer-based displays contain more information, complexity of the elements becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. And according to Gestalt theory, people tend to group similar elements based on attributes such as shape, color or pattern based on the principle of similarity. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only human operator's perception but the number of element consisting of computer-based display
Application of the Decomposition Method to the Design Complexity of Computer-based Display
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun
2012-01-01
The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and safety has long been recognized in process industries. In case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs since poor implementation of HMIs can impair the operators' information searching ability which is considered as one of the important aspects of human behavior. To support and increase the efficiency of the operators' information searching behavior, advanced HMIs based on computer technology are provided. Operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs), and large display panel (LDP) required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a very large quantity of information and present them in a variety of formats than conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, and highlighting than conventional ones. As computer-based displays contain more information, complexity of the elements becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. And according to Gestalt theory, people tend to group similar elements based on attributes such as shape, color or pattern based on the principle of similarity. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only human operator's perception but the number of element consisting of computer-based display
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, Samuel A.; Coates, Rosie; Lewis, Dewi W.; Catlow, C. Richard A.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the viability of distributed computing techniques employing idle desktop computers in investigating complex structural problems in solids. Through the use of a combined Monte Carlo and energy minimisation method, we show how a large parameter space can be effectively scanned. By controlling the generation and running of different configurations through a database engine, we are able to not only analyse the data 'on the fly' but also direct the running of jobs and the algorithms for generating further structures. As an exemplar case, we probe the distribution of Al and extra-framework cations in the structure of the zeolite Mordenite. We compare our computed unit cells with experiment and find that whilst there is excellent correlation between computed and experimentally derived unit cell volumes, cation positioning and short-range Al ordering (i.e. near neighbour environment), there remains some discrepancy in the distribution of Al throughout the framework. We also show that stability-structure correlations only become apparent once a sufficiently large sample is used. - Graphical Abstract: Aluminium distributions in zeolites are determined using e-science methods. Highlights: → Use of e-science methods to search configurationally space. → Automated control of space searching. → Identify key structural features conveying stability. → Improved correlation of computed structures with experimental data.
Nelson, Mathew
In today's age of exponential change and technological advancement, awareness of any gender gap in technology and computer science-related fields is crucial, but further research must be done in an effort to better understand the complex interacting factors contributing to the gender gap. This study utilized a survey to investigate specific gender differences relating to computing self-efficacy, computer usage, and environmental factors of exposure, personal interests, and parental influence that impact gender differences of high school students within a one-to-one computing environment in South Dakota. The population who completed the One-to-One High School Computing Survey for this study consisted of South Dakota high school seniors who had been involved in a one-to-one computing environment for two or more years. The data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for the determined variables. From the review of literature and data analysis several conclusions were drawn from the findings. Among them are that overall, there was very little difference in perceived computing self-efficacy and computing anxiety between male and female students within the one-to-one computing initiative. The study supported the current research that males and females utilized computers similarly, but males spent more time using their computers to play online games. Early exposure to computers, or the age at which the student was first exposed to a computer, and the number of computers present in the home (computer ownership) impacted computing self-efficacy. The results also indicated parental encouragement to work with computers also contributed positively to both male and female students' computing self-efficacy. Finally the study also found that both mothers and fathers encouraged their male children more than their female children to work with computing and pursue careers in computing science fields.
LT^2C^2: A language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santiago Figueira
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a theoretical effort to connect the theory of program size to psychology by implementing a concrete language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity (LT^2C^2 satisfying the following requirements: 1 to be simple enough so that the complexity of any given finite binary sequence can be computed, 2 to be based on tangible operations of human reasoning (printing, repeating,. . . , 3 to be sufficiently powerful to generate all possible sequences but not too powerful as to identify regularities which would be invisible to humans. We first formalize LT^2C^2, giving its syntax and semantics, and defining an adequate notion of program size. Our setting leads to a Kolmogorov complexity function relative to LT^2C^2 which is computable in polynomial time, and it also induces a prediction algorithm in the spirit of Solomonoff’s inductive inference theory. We then prove the efficacy of this language by investigating regularities in strings produced by participants attempting to generate random strings. Participants had a profound understanding of randomness and hence avoided typical misconceptions such as exaggerating the number of alternations. We reasoned that remaining regularities would express the algorithmic nature of human thoughts, revealed in the form of specific patterns. Kolmogorov complexity relative to LT^2C^2 passed three expected tests examined here: 1 human sequences were less complex than control PRNG sequences, 2 human sequences were not stationary showing decreasing values of complexity resulting from fatigue 3 each individual showed traces of algorithmic stability since fitting of partial data was more effective to predict subsequent data than average fits. This work extends on previous efforts to combine notions of Kolmogorov complexity theory and algorithmic information theory to psychology, by explicitly proposing a language which may describe the patterns of human thoughts.Received: 12
Computational Study of Nonequilibrium Chemistry in High Temperature Flows
Doraiswamy, Sriram
Recent experimental measurements in the reflected shock tunnel CUBRC LENS-I facility raise questions about our ability to correctly model the recombination processes in high enthalpy flows. In the carbon dioxide flow, the computed shock standoff distance over the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) shape was less than half of the experimental result. For the oxygen flows, both pressure and heat transfer data on the double cone geometry were not correctly predicted. The objective of this work is to investigate possible reasons for these discrepancies. This process involves systematically addressing different factors that could possibly explain the differences. These factors include vibrational modeling, role of electronic states and chemistry-vibrational coupling in high enthalpy flows. A state-specific vibrational model for CO2, CO, O2 and O system is devised by taking into account the first few vibrational states of each species. All vibrational states with energies at or below 1 eV are included in the present work. Of the three modes of vibration in CO2 , the antisymmetric mode is considered separately from the symmetric stretching mode and the doubly degenerate bending modes. The symmetric and the bending modes are grouped together since the energy transfer rates between the two modes are very large due to Fermi resonance. The symmetric and bending modes are assumed to be in equilibrium with the translational and rotational modes. The kinetic rates for the vibrational-translation energy exchange reactions, and the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational-vibrational energy exchange reactions are based on experimental data to the maximum extent possible. Extrapolation methods are employed when necessary. This vibrational model is then coupled with an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code to study the expansion of CO2 in a nozzle. The potential role of low lying electronic states is also investigated. Carbon dioxide has a single excited state just below
Liang, Jie; Qian, Hong
2010-01-01
Modern molecular biology has always been a great source of inspiration for computational science. Half a century ago, the challenge from understanding macromolecular dynamics has led the way for computations to be part of the tool set to study molecular biology. Twenty-five years ago, the demand from genome science has inspired an entire generation of computer scientists with an interest in discrete mathematics to join the field that is now called bioinformatics. In this paper, we shall lay out a new mathematical theory for dynamics of biochemical reaction systems in a small volume (i.e., mesoscopic) in terms of a stochastic, discrete-state continuous-time formulation, called the chemical master equation (CME). Similar to the wavefunction in quantum mechanics, the dynamically changing probability landscape associated with the state space provides a fundamental characterization of the biochemical reaction system. The stochastic trajectories of the dynamics are best known through the simulations using the Gillespie algorithm. In contrast to the Metropolis algorithm, this Monte Carlo sampling technique does not follow a process with detailed balance. We shall show several examples how CMEs are used to model cellular biochemical systems. We shall also illustrate the computational challenges involved: multiscale phenomena, the interplay between stochasticity and nonlinearity, and how macroscopic determinism arises from mesoscopic dynamics. We point out recent advances in computing solutions to the CME, including exact solution of the steady state landscape and stochastic differential equations that offer alternatives to the Gilespie algorithm. We argue that the CME is an ideal system from which one can learn to understand "complex behavior" and complexity theory, and from which important biological insight can be gained.
Convergent evolution of complex brains and high intelligence.
Roth, Gerhard
2015-12-19
Within the animal kingdom, complex brains and high intelligence have evolved several to many times independently, e.g. among ecdysozoans in some groups of insects (e.g. blattoid, dipteran, hymenopteran taxa), among lophotrochozoans in octopodid molluscs, among vertebrates in teleosts (e.g. cichlids), corvid and psittacid birds, and cetaceans, elephants and primates. High levels of intelligence are invariantly bound to multimodal centres such as the mushroom bodies in insects, the vertical lobe in octopodids, the pallium in birds and the cerebral cortex in primates, all of which contain highly ordered associative neuronal networks. The driving forces for high intelligence may vary among the mentioned taxa, e.g. needs for spatial learning and foraging strategies in insects and cephalopods, for social learning in cichlids, instrumental learning and spatial orientation in birds and social as well as instrumental learning in primates. © 2015 The Author(s).
Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo
2014-01-01
A system is safety-critical if its failure can endanger human life or cause significant damage to property or the environment. State-of-the-art computer systems on commercial aircraft are highly complex, software-intensive, functionally integrated, and network-centric systems of systems. Ensuring that such systems are safe and comply with existing safety regulations is costly and time-consuming as the level of rigor in the development process, especially the validation and verification activities, is determined by considerations of system complexity and safety criticality. A significant degree of care and deep insight into the operational principles of these systems is required to ensure adequate coverage of all design implications relevant to system safety. Model-based development methodologies, methods, tools, and techniques facilitate collaboration and enable the use of common design artifacts among groups dealing with different aspects of the development of a system. This paper examines the application of model-based development to complex and safety-critical aircraft computer systems. Benefits and detriments are identified and an overall assessment of the approach is given.
I. Fisk
2011-01-01
Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Hyun; Bang, Duck Won; Cho, Yoon Haeng; Suk, Eun Ha
2011-01-01
To delineate complex plaque morphology in patients with stable angina using coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA). 36 patients with complex plaques proven by conventional coronary angiography (CAG), who had taken CTA for evaluation of typical angina, were enrolled in this study. Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) was performed in 14 patients (16 lesions). We compared CTA with CAG for plaque features and analyzed vascular cutoff, intraluminal filling defect in a patent vessel, irregularity of plaque, and ulceration. Also, the density of plaque was evaluated on CTA. CAG and CTA showed complex morphology in 44 cases (100%) and 34 cases, (77%), respectively, with features including abrupt vessel cutoff (27 vs. 16%, κ=0.57), intraluminal filling defect (32 vs. 30%, κ=0.77), irregularity (75 vs. 52%, κ=0.52), and ulceration (16 vs. 11%, κ=0.60). CTA indicated that the complex lesions were hypodense (mean 66 ± 21 Houndsfield Units). CTA is a very accurate and useful non-invasive imaging modality for evaluating complex plaque in patients with typical angina.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Duck Won; Cho, Yoon Haeng [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anesthyesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2011-04-15
To delineate complex plaque morphology in patients with stable angina using coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA). 36 patients with complex plaques proven by conventional coronary angiography (CAG), who had taken CTA for evaluation of typical angina, were enrolled in this study. Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) was performed in 14 patients (16 lesions). We compared CTA with CAG for plaque features and analyzed vascular cutoff, intraluminal filling defect in a patent vessel, irregularity of plaque, and ulceration. Also, the density of plaque was evaluated on CTA. CAG and CTA showed complex morphology in 44 cases (100%) and 34 cases, (77%), respectively, with features including abrupt vessel cutoff (27 vs. 16%, {kappa}=0.57), intraluminal filling defect (32 vs. 30%, {kappa}=0.77), irregularity (75 vs. 52%, {kappa}=0.52), and ulceration (16 vs. 11%, {kappa}=0.60). CTA indicated that the complex lesions were hypodense (mean 66 {+-} 21 Houndsfield Units). CTA is a very accurate and useful non-invasive imaging modality for evaluating complex plaque in patients with typical angina.
Energy conserving numerical methods for the computation of complex vortical flows
Allaneau, Yves
One of the original goals of this thesis was to develop numerical tools to help with the design of micro air vehicles. Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) are small flying devices of only a few inches in wing span. Some people consider that as their size becomes smaller and smaller, it would be increasingly more difficult to keep all the classical control surfaces such as the rudders, the ailerons and the usual propellers. Over the years, scientists took inspiration from nature. Birds, by flapping and deforming their wings, are capable of accurate attitude control and are able to generate propulsion. However, the biomimicry design has its own limitations and it is difficult to place a hummingbird in a wind tunnel to study precisely the motion of its wings. Our approach was to use numerical methods to tackle this challenging problem. In order to precisely evaluate the lift and drag generated by the wings, one needs to be able to capture with high fidelity the extremely complex vortical flow produced in the wake. This requires a numerical method that is stable yet not too dissipative, so that the vortices do not get diffused in an unphysical way. We solved this problem by developing a new Discontinuous Galerkin scheme that, in addition to conserving mass, momentum and total energy locally, also preserves kinetic energy globally. This property greatly improves the stability of the simulations, especially in the special case p=0 when the approximation polynomials are taken to be piecewise constant (we recover a finite volume scheme). In addition to needing an adequate numerical scheme, a high fidelity solution requires many degrees of freedom in the computations to represent the flow field. The size of the smallest eddies in the flow is given by the Kolmogoroff scale. Capturing these eddies requires a mesh counting in the order of Re³ cells, where Re is the Reynolds number of the flow. We show that under-resolving the system, to a certain extent, is acceptable. However our
Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey
2010-01-01
The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes
Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey
2010-11-24
The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years
Semiempirical confrontations between theory and experiment in highly ionised complex atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curtis, L.J.
1989-01-01
Highly ionised complex atoms, which have many electrons stripped away but many electrons still remaining, are presently a subject of vigorous experimental study. The high precision experimentally attainable for these systems suggests their use in the investigation of higher order theoretical processes, and the specification of these interactions is essential to the development of reliable predictive methods. It is shown that parametric reductions which combine ab initio theoretical calculations with experimental observations can yield predictions of much higher precision than could be obtained from either source separately. These formulations also reveal subtle regularities in the measured data that are not exhibited by the corresponding computations, which suggest possible calculational improvements. (orig.)
Symbolic computation and its application to high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hearn, A.C.
1981-01-01
It is clear that we are in the middle of an electronic revolution whose effect will be as profound as the industrial revolution. The continuing advances in computing technology will provide us with devices which will make present day computers appear primitive. In this environment, the algebraic and other non-mumerical capabilities of such devices will become increasingly important. These lectures will review the present state of the field of algebraic computation and its potential for problem solving in high energy physics and related areas. We shall begin with a brief description of the available systems and examine the data objects which they consider. As an example of the facilities which these systems can offer, we shall then consider the problem of analytic integration, since this is so fundamental to many of the calculational techniques used by high energy physicists. Finally, we shall study the implications which the current developments in hardware technology hold for scientific problem solving. (orig.)
High performance computing and communications: FY 1996 implementation plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-05-16
The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally authorized by passage of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991, signed on December 9, 1991. Twelve federal agencies, in collaboration with scientists and managers from US industry, universities, and research laboratories, have developed the Program to meet the challenges of advancing computing and associated communications technologies and practices. This plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` HPCC implementation plans for FY 1995 and FY 1996. This Implementation Plan contains three additional sections. Section 3 provides an overview of the HPCC Program definition and organization. Section 4 contains a breakdown of the five major components of the HPCC Program, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each one. Section 5 provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency.
Computational model of lightness perception in high dynamic range imaging
Krawczyk, Grzegorz; Myszkowski, Karol; Seidel, Hans-Peter
2006-02-01
An anchoring theory of lightness perception by Gilchrist et al. [1999] explains many characteristics of human visual system such as lightness constancy and its spectacular failures which are important in the perception of images. The principal concept of this theory is the perception of complex scenes in terms of groups of consistent areas (frameworks). Such areas, following the gestalt theorists, are defined by the regions of common illumination. The key aspect of the image perception is the estimation of lightness within each framework through the anchoring to the luminance perceived as white, followed by the computation of the global lightness. In this paper we provide a computational model for automatic decomposition of HDR images into frameworks. We derive a tone mapping operator which predicts lightness perception of the real world scenes and aims at its accurate reproduction on low dynamic range displays. Furthermore, such a decomposition into frameworks opens new grounds for local image analysis in view of human perception.
Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwar S. Shatil
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1 inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2 highlight their main advantages; 3 discuss when it may (and may not be advisable to use them; 4 review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5 give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc., a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.
Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing.
Shatil, Anwar S; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R
2015-01-01
With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications.
Heads in the Cloud: A Primer on Neuroimaging Applications of High Performance Computing
Shatil, Anwar S.; Younas, Sohail; Pourreza, Hossein; Figley, Chase R.
2015-01-01
With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources. Although the aim of cloud computing is to hide most of the complexity of the infrastructure management from end-users, we recognize that this can still be an intimidating area for cognitive neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other neuroimaging researchers lacking a strong computational background. Therefore, with this in mind, we have aimed to provide a basic introduction to cloud computing in general (including some of the basic terminology, computer architectures, infrastructure and service models, etc.), a practical overview of the benefits and drawbacks, and a specific focus on how cloud resources can be used for various neuroimaging applications. PMID:27279746
Complex correlation approach for high frequency financial data
Wilinski, Mateusz; Ikeda, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hideaki
2018-02-01
We propose a novel approach that allows the calculation of a Hilbert transform based complex correlation for unevenly spaced data. This method is especially suitable for high frequency trading data, which are of a particular interest in finance. Its most important feature is the ability to take into account lead-lag relations on different scales, without knowing them in advance. We also present results obtained with this approach while working on Tokyo Stock Exchange intraday quotations. We show that individual sectors and subsectors tend to form important market components which may follow each other with small but significant delays. These components may be recognized by analysing eigenvectors of complex correlation matrix for Nikkei 225 stocks. Interestingly, sectorial components are also found in eigenvectors corresponding to the bulk eigenvalues, traditionally treated as noise.
Blanco-Elorrieta, Esti; Pylkkänen, Liina
2016-01-01
What is the neurobiological basis of our ability to create complex messages with language? Results from multiple methodologies have converged on a set of brain regions as relevant for this general process, but the computational details of these areas remain to be characterized. The left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) has been a consistent node within this network, with results suggesting that although it rather systematically shows increased activation for semantically complex structured stimuli, this effect does not extend to number phrases such as 'three books.' In the present work we used magnetoencephalography to investigate whether numbers in general are an invalid input to the combinatory operations housed in the LATL or whether the lack of LATL engagement for stimuli such as 'three books' is due to the quantificational nature of such phrases. As a relevant test case, we employed complex number terms such as 'twenty-three', where one number term is not a quantifier of the other but rather, the two terms form a type of complex concept. In a number naming paradigm, participants viewed rows of numbers and depending on task instruction, named them as complex number terms ('twenty-three'), numerical quantifications ('two threes'), adjectival modifications ('blue threes') or non-combinatory lists (e.g., 'two, three'). While quantificational phrases failed to engage the LATL as compared to non-combinatory controls, both complex number terms and adjectival modifications elicited a reliable activity increase in the LATL. Our results show that while the LATL does not participate in the enumeration of tokens within a set, exemplified by the quantificational phrases, it does support conceptual combination, including the composition of complex number concepts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stop: a fast procedure for the exact computation of the performance of complex probabilistic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corynen, G.C.
1982-01-01
A new set-theoretic method for the exact and efficient computation of the probabilistic performance of complex systems has been developed. The core of the method is a fast algorithm for disjointing a collection of product sets which is intended for systems with more than 1000 components and 100,000 cut sets. The method is based on a divide-and-conquer approach, in which a multidimensional problem is progressively decomposed into lower-dimensional subproblems along its dimensions. The method also uses a particular pointer system that eliminates the need to store the subproblems by only requiring the storage of pointers to those problems. Examples of the algorithm and the divide-and-conquer strategy are provided, and comparisons with other significant methods are made. Statistical complexity studies show that the expected time and space complexity of other methods is O(me/sup n/), but that our method is O(nm 3 log(m)). Problems which would require days of Cray-1 computer time with present methods can now be solved in seconds. Large-scale systems that can only be approximated with other techniques can now also be evaluated exactly
Lectures on a theory of computation and complexity over the reals (or an arbitrary ring)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, L.
1990-01-01
These lectures will discuss a new theory of computation and complexity which attempts to integrate key ideas from the classical theory in a setting more amenable to problems defined over continuous domains. The approach taken here is both algebraic and concrete; the underlying space is an arbitrary ring (or field) and the basic operations are polynominal (or rational) maps and tests. This approach yields results in the continuous setting analogous to the pivotal classical results of undecidability and NP-completeness over the integers, yet reflecting the special mathematical character of the underlying space. The goal of these lectures is to highlight key aspects of the new theory as well as to give exposition, in this setting, of classical ideas and results. Indeed, since this new theory is more mathematical, perhaps less dependent on logic than the classical theory, a number of key results have more straightforward and transparent proofs in this setting. One of our themes will be the comparison of results over the integers with results over the reals and complex numbers. Contrasting one theory with the other will help illuminate each, and give deeper understanding to such basic concepts as decidability, definability, computability, and complexity. 53 refs
Highly divergent mitochondrial ATP synthase complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Praveen Balabaskaran Nina
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1 sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1 and F(o sectors are highly conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, it was a surprise that genes encoding the a and b subunits as well as other components of the F(o sector were undetectable in the sequenced genomes of a variety of apicomplexan parasites. While the parasitic existence of these organisms could explain the apparent incomplete nature of ATP synthase in Apicomplexa, genes for these essential components were absent even in Tetrahymena thermophila, a free-living ciliate belonging to a sister clade of Apicomplexa, which demonstrates robust oxidative phosphorylation. This observation raises the possibility that the entire clade of Alveolata may have invented novel means to operate ATP synthase complexes. To assess this remarkable possibility, we have carried out an investigation of the ATP synthase from T. thermophila. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed the ATP synthase to be present as a large complex. Structural study based on single particle electron microscopy analysis suggested the complex to be a dimer with several unique structures including an unusually large domain on the intermembrane side of the ATP synthase and novel domains flanking the c subunit rings. The two monomers were in a parallel configuration rather than the angled configuration previously observed in other organisms. Proteomic analyses of well-resolved ATP synthase complexes from 2-D BN/BN-PAGE identified orthologs of seven canonical ATP synthase subunits, and at least 13 novel proteins that constitute subunits apparently limited to the ciliate lineage. A mitochondrially encoded protein, Ymf66, with predicted eight transmembrane domains could be a
Using High Performance Computing to Support Water Resource Planning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groves, David G. [RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Lembert, Robert J. [RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States); May, Deborah W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leek, James R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Syme, James [RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States)
2015-10-22
In recent years, decision support modeling has embraced deliberation-withanalysis— an iterative process in which decisionmakers come together with experts to evaluate a complex problem and alternative solutions in a scientifically rigorous and transparent manner. Simulation modeling supports decisionmaking throughout this process; visualizations enable decisionmakers to assess how proposed strategies stand up over time in uncertain conditions. But running these simulation models over standard computers can be slow. This, in turn, can slow the entire decisionmaking process, interrupting valuable interaction between decisionmakers and analytics.
High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentine, J.H.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.
1998-03-01
Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure
Danani, Bob K.
2012-07-01
Computational steering has revolutionized the traditional workflow in high performance computing (HPC) applications. The standard workflow that consists of preparation of an application’s input, running of a simulation, and visualization of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation application at run-time. It allows modification of application-defined control parameters at run-time using various user-steering applications. In this project, we propose a computational steering framework for HPC environments that provides an innovative solution and easy-to-use platform, which allows users to connect and interact with running application(s) in real-time. This framework uses RealityGrid as the underlying steering library and adds several enhancements to the library to enable steering support for Blue Gene systems. Included in the scope of this project is the development of a scalable and efficient steering relay server that supports many-to-many connectivity between multiple steered applications and multiple steering clients. Steered applications can range from intermediate simulation and physical modeling applications to complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications or advanced visualization applications. The Blue Gene supercomputer presents special challenges for remote access because the compute nodes reside on private networks. This thesis presents an implemented solution and demonstrates it on representative applications. Thorough implementation details and application enablement steps are also presented in this thesis to encourage direct usage of this framework.
Enabling High-Performance Computing as a Service
AbdelBaky, Moustafa
2012-10-01
With the right software infrastructure, clouds can provide scientists with as a service access to high-performance computing resources. An award-winning prototype framework transforms the Blue Gene/P system into an elastic cloud to run a representative HPC application. © 2012 IEEE.
Contemporary high performance computing from petascale toward exascale
Vetter, Jeffrey S
2015-01-01
A continuation of Contemporary High Performance Computing: From Petascale toward Exascale, this second volume continues the discussion of HPC flagship systems, major application workloads, facilities, and sponsors. The book includes of figures and pictures that capture the state of existing systems: pictures of buildings, systems in production, floorplans, and many block diagrams and charts to illustrate system design and performance.
Hot Chips and Hot Interconnects for High End Computing Systems
Saini, Subhash
2005-01-01
I will discuss several processors: 1. The Cray proprietary processor used in the Cray X1; 2. The IBM Power 3 and Power 4 used in an IBM SP 3 and IBM SP 4 systems; 3. The Intel Itanium and Xeon, used in the SGI Altix systems and clusters respectively; 4. IBM System-on-a-Chip used in IBM BlueGene/L; 5. HP Alpha EV68 processor used in DOE ASCI Q cluster; 6. SPARC64 V processor, which is used in the Fujitsu PRIMEPOWER HPC2500; 7. An NEC proprietary processor, which is used in NEC SX-6/7; 8. Power 4+ processor, which is used in Hitachi SR11000; 9. NEC proprietary processor, which is used in Earth Simulator. The IBM POWER5 and Red Storm Computing Systems will also be discussed. The architectures of these processors will first be presented, followed by interconnection networks and a description of high-end computer systems based on these processors and networks. The performance of various hardware/programming model combinations will then be compared, based on latest NAS Parallel Benchmark results (MPI, OpenMP/HPF and hybrid (MPI + OpenMP). The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of general trends in the field of high performance computing, (quantum computing, DNA computing, cellular engineering, and neural networks).
Phase transition and computational complexity in a stochastic prime number generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacasa, L; Luque, B [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Miramontes, O [Departamento de Sistemas Complejos, Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 01415 DF (Mexico)], E-mail: lucas@dmae.upm.es
2008-02-15
We introduce a prime number generator in the form of a stochastic algorithm. The character of this algorithm gives rise to a continuous phase transition which distinguishes a phase where the algorithm is able to reduce the whole system of numbers into primes and a phase where the system reaches a frozen state with low prime density. In this paper, we firstly present a broader characterization of this phase transition, both in analytical and numerical terms. Critical exponents are calculated, and data collapse is provided. Further on, we redefine the model as a search problem, fitting it in the hallmark of computational complexity theory. We suggest that the system belongs to the class NP. The computational cost is maximal around the threshold, as is common in many algorithmic phase transitions, revealing the presence of an easy-hard-easy pattern. We finally relate the nature of the phase transition to an average-case classification of the problem.
Collective space of high-rise housing complex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakaeva Tatyana
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The article considers the problems of support of citizens a comfortable living environment in the conditions of the limited territory of the megalopolis, the typological principles of formation of space-planning structure high-rise residence complexes with public space. The collective space for residents of high-rise housing estates on the example of international experience of design and construction is in detail considered. The collective space and the area of the standard apartment are analysed on comfort classes: a social - complex Pinnacle @ Duxton, a business - Monde Condos and an elite - Hamilton Scotts. Interdependence the area of the standard flat and the total area of housing collective space, in addiction on the comfort level, is revealed. In the conditions of high-density urban development, the collective space allows to form the comfortable environment for accommodation. The recommendations for achievement of integrity and improvement of quality of the city environment are made. The convenient collective space makes a contribution to civil policy, it creates the socializing sense of interaction of residents, coagulates social effect.
Collective space of high-rise housing complex
Bakaeva, Tatyana
2018-03-01
The article considers the problems of support of citizens a comfortable living environment in the conditions of the limited territory of the megalopolis, the typological principles of formation of space-planning structure high-rise residence complexes with public space. The collective space for residents of high-rise housing estates on the example of international experience of design and construction is in detail considered. The collective space and the area of the standard apartment are analysed on comfort classes: a social - complex Pinnacle @ Duxton, a business - Monde Condos and an elite - Hamilton Scotts. Interdependence the area of the standard flat and the total area of housing collective space, in addiction on the comfort level, is revealed. In the conditions of high-density urban development, the collective space allows to form the comfortable environment for accommodation. The recommendations for achievement of integrity and improvement of quality of the city environment are made. The convenient collective space makes a contribution to civil policy, it creates the socializing sense of interaction of residents, coagulates social effect.
Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows
Cline, M. C.; Wilmoth, R. G.
1981-01-01
A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, was developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/ external flows. The VNAP2 program solves the two dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack Scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented.
Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cline, M.C.; Wilmoth, R.G.
1981-01-01
A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, has been developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/external flows. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented
2003 Conference for Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schalk, T.
2003-01-01
The conference was subdivided into the follow separate tracks. Electronic presentations and/or videos are provided on the main website link. Sessions: Plenary Talks and Panel Discussion; Grid Architecture, Infrastructure, and Grid Security; HENP Grid Applications, Testbeds, and Demonstrations; HENP Computing Systems and Infrastructure; Monitoring; High Performance Networking; Data Acquisition, Triggers and Controls; First Level Triggers and Trigger Hardware; Lattice Gauge Computing; HENP Software Architecture and Software Engineering; Data Management and Persistency; Data Analysis Environment and Visualization; Simulation and Modeling; and Collaboration Tools and Information Systems
Nuclear forces and high-performance computing: The perfect match
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luu, T; Walker-Loud, A
2009-01-01
High-performance computing is now enabling the calculation of certain hadronic interaction parameters directly from Quantum Chromodynamics, the quantum field theory that governs the behavior of quarks and gluons and is ultimately responsible for the nuclear strong force. In this paper we briefly describe the state of the field and show how other aspects of hadronic interactions will be ascertained in the near future. We give estimates of computational requirements needed to obtain these goals, and outline a procedure for incorporating these results into the broader nuclear physics community.
Computationally based methodology for reengineering the high-level waste planning process at SRS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, P.K.; Gregory, M.V.; Wells, M.N.
1997-01-01
The Savannah River Site (SRS) has started processing its legacy of 34 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste into its final disposable form. The SRS high-level waste (HLW) complex consists of 51 waste storage tanks, 3 evaporators, 6 waste treatment operations, and 2 waste disposal facilities. It is estimated that processing wastes to clean up all tanks will take 30+ yr of operation. Integrating all the highly interactive facility operations through the entire life cycle in an optimal fashion-while meeting all the budgetary, regulatory, and operational constraints and priorities-is a complex and challenging planning task. The waste complex operating plan for the entire time span is periodically published as an SRS report. A computationally based integrated methodology has been developed that has streamlined the planning process while showing how to run the operations at economically and operationally optimal conditions. The integrated computational model replaced a host of disconnected spreadsheet calculations and the analysts' trial-and-error solutions using various scenario choices. This paper presents the important features of the integrated computational methodology and highlights the parameters that are core components of the planning process
High Molecular Weight Forms of Mammalian Respiratory Chain Complex II
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kovářová, Nikola; Mráček, Tomáš; Nůsková, Hana; Holzerová, Eliška; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecina, Petr; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Klučková, Katarína; Rohlena, Jakub; Neužil, Jiří; Houštěk, Josef
2013-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 8 (2013), e71869 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : supercomplexes * high molecular weihgt forms of complex II * native electrophoretic systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013
Patterning of high mobility electron gases at complex oxide interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trier, Felix; Prawiroatmodjo, G. E. D. K.; von Soosten, Merlin
2015-01-01
Oxide interfaces provide an opportunity for electronics. However, patterning of electron gases at complex oxide interfaces is challenging. In particular, patterning of complex oxides while preserving a high electron mobility remains underexplored and inhibits the study of quantum mechanical effects...... of amorphous-LSM (a-LSM) thin films, which acts as a hard mask during subsequent depositions. Strikingly, the patterned modulation-doped interface shows electron mobilities up to ∼8 700 cm2/V s at 2 K, which is among the highest reported values for patterned conducting complex oxide interfaces that usually...... where extended electron mean free paths are paramount. This letter presents an effective patterning strategy of both the amorphous-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (a-LAO/STO) and modulation-doped amorphous-LaAlO3/La7/8Sr1/8MnO3/SrTiO3 (a-LAO/LSM/STO) oxide interfaces. Our patterning is based on selective wet etching...
Chardon, Gilles; Daudet, Laurent
2013-11-01
This paper extends the method of particular solutions (MPS) to the computation of eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of thin plates, in the framework of the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory. Specific approximation schemes are developed, with plane waves (MPS-PW) or Fourier-Bessel functions (MPS-FB). This framework also requires a suitable formulation of the boundary conditions. Numerical tests, on two plates with various boundary conditions, demonstrate that the proposed approach provides competitive results with standard numerical schemes such as the finite element method, at reduced complexity, and with large flexibility in the implementation choices.
Improvement of computer complex and interface system for compact nuclear simulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D. Y.; Park, W. M.; Cha, K. H.; Jung, C. H.; Park, J. C.
1999-01-01
CNS(Compact Nuclear Simulator) was developed at the end of 1980s, and have been used as training simulator for staffs of KAERI during 10 years. The operator panel interface cards and the graphic interface cards were designed with special purpose only for CNS. As these interface cards were worn out for 10 years, it was very difficult to get spare parts and to repair them. And the interface cards were damaged by over current happened by shortage of lamp in the operator panel. To solve these problem, the project 'Improvement of Compact Nuclear Simulator' was started from 1997. This paper only introduces about the improvement of computer complex and interface system
Bittracher, Andreas; Koltai, Péter; Klus, Stefan; Banisch, Ralf; Dellnitz, Michael; Schütte, Christof
2018-01-01
We consider complex dynamical systems showing metastable behavior, but no local separation of fast and slow time scales. The article raises the question of whether such systems exhibit a low-dimensional manifold supporting its effective dynamics. For answering this question, we aim at finding nonlinear coordinates, called reaction coordinates, such that the projection of the dynamics onto these coordinates preserves the dominant time scales of the dynamics. We show that, based on a specific reducibility property, the existence of good low-dimensional reaction coordinates preserving the dominant time scales is guaranteed. Based on this theoretical framework, we develop and test a novel numerical approach for computing good reaction coordinates. The proposed algorithmic approach is fully local and thus not prone to the curse of dimension with respect to the state space of the dynamics. Hence, it is a promising method for data-based model reduction of complex dynamical systems such as molecular dynamics.
The Modeling and Complexity of Dynamical Systems by Means of Computation and Information Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Logozar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We present the modeling of dynamical systems and finding of their complexity indicators by the use of concepts from computation and information theories, within the framework of J. P. Crutchfield's theory of ε-machines. A short formal outline of the ε-machines is given. In this approach, dynamical systems are analyzed directly from the time series that is received from a properly adjusted measuring instrument. The binary strings are parsed through the parse tree, within which morphologically and probabilistically unique subtrees or morphs are recognized as system states. The outline and precise interrelation of the information-theoretic entropies and complexities emanating from the model is given. The paper serves also as a theoretical foundation for the future presentation of the DSA program that implements the ε-machines modeling up to the stochastic finite automata level.
Blikstein, Paulo; Worsley, Marcelo
2016-01-01
New high-frequency multimodal data collection technologies and machine learning analysis techniques could offer new insights into learning, especially when students have the opportunity to generate unique, personalized artifacts, such as computer programs, robots, and solutions engineering challenges. To date most of the work on learning analytics…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bareiss, E.H.
1975-01-01
The objectives of the research remain the same as outlined in the original proposal. They are in short as follows: Develop mathematically and computationally founded criteria for the design of highly efficient and reliable multi-dimensional neutron transport codes to solve a variety of neutron migration and radiation problems and analyze existing and new methods for performance. (U.S.)
A new fast algorithm for computing a complex number: Theoretic transforms
Reed, I. S.; Liu, K. Y.; Truong, T. K.
1977-01-01
A high-radix fast Fourier transformation (FFT) algorithm for computing transforms over GF(sq q), where q is a Mersenne prime, is developed to implement fast circular convolutions. This new algorithm requires substantially fewer multiplications than the conventional FFT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bareiss, E.H.
1977-08-01
The objectives of this research are to develop mathematically and computationally founded criteria for the design of highly efficient and reliable multidimensional neutron transport codes to solve a variety of neutron migration and radiation problems, and to analyze existing and new methods for performance
Impact of familiarity on information complexity in human-computer interfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakaev Maxim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A quantitative measure of information complexity remains very much desirable in HCI field, since it may aid in optimization of user interfaces, especially in human-computer systems for controlling complex objects. Our paper is dedicated to exploration of subjective (subject-depended aspect of the complexity, conceptualized as information familiarity. Although research of familiarity in human cognition and behaviour is done in several fields, the accepted models in HCI, such as Human Processor or Hick-Hyman’s law do not generally consider this issue. In our experimental study the subjects performed search and selection of digits and letters, whose familiarity was conceptualized as frequency of occurrence in numbers and texts. The analysis showed significant effect of information familiarity on selection time and throughput in regression models, although the R2 values were somehow low. Still, we hope that our results might aid in quantification of information complexity and its further application for optimizing interaction in human-machine systems.
Computing trends using graphic processor in high energy physics
Niculescu, Mihai
2011-01-01
One of the main challenges in Heavy Energy Physics is to make fast analysis of high amount of experimental and simulated data. At LHC-CERN one p-p event is approximate 1 Mb in size. The time taken to analyze the data and obtain fast results depends on high computational power. The main advantage of using GPU(Graphic Processor Unit) programming over traditional CPU one is that graphical cards bring a lot of computing power at a very low price. Today a huge number of application(scientific, financial etc) began to be ported or developed for GPU, including Monte Carlo tools or data analysis tools for High Energy Physics. In this paper, we'll present current status and trends in HEP using GPU.
Overview of Parallel Platforms for Common High Performance Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Fryza
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with various parallel platforms used for high performance computing in the signal processing domain. More precisely, the methods exploiting the multicores central processing units such as message passing interface and OpenMP are taken into account. The properties of the programming methods are experimentally proved in the application of a fast Fourier transform and a discrete cosine transform and they are compared with the possibilities of MATLAB's built-in functions and Texas Instruments digital signal processors with very long instruction word architectures. New FFT and DCT implementations were proposed and tested. The implementation phase was compared with CPU based computing methods and with possibilities of the Texas Instruments digital signal processing library on C6747 floating-point DSPs. The optimal combination of computing methods in the signal processing domain and new, fast routines' implementation is proposed as well.
School of Analytic Computing in Theoretical High-Energy Physics
2015-01-01
In recent years, a huge progress has been made on computing rates for production processes of direct relevance to experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Crucial to that remarkable advance has been our understanding and ability to compute scattering amplitudes and cross sections. The aim of the School is to bring together young theorists working on the phenomenology of LHC physics with those working in more formal areas, and to provide them the analytic tools to compute amplitudes in gauge theories. The school is addressed to Ph.D. students and post-docs in Theoretical High-Energy Physics. 30 hours of lectures and 4 hours of tutorials will be delivered over the 6 days of the School.
Providing a computing environment for a high energy physics workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholls, J.
1991-03-01
Although computing facilities have been provided at conferences and workshops remote from the hose institution for some years, the equipment provided has rarely been capable of providing for much more than simple editing and electronic mail over leased lines. This presentation describes the pioneering effort involved by the Computing Department/Division at Fermilab in providing a local computing facility with world-wide networking capability for the Physics at Fermilab in the 1990's workshop held in Breckenridge, Colorado, in August 1989, as well as the enhanced facilities provided for the 1990 Summer Study on High Energy Physics at Snowmass, Colorado, in June/July 1990. Issues discussed include type and sizing of the facilities, advance preparations, shipping, on-site support, as well as an evaluation of the value of the facility to the workshop participants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivnitskij, B.Ya.
1984-01-01
A technique of calculating the temperature regime of building-up and high frequency current brazing of articles of complex shape is suggested. The technique consists in division of complex detail into several simple components. Heat balances equation is compiled for each of them taking into account the heat exchange with other elements. It is possible to determine optimum regimes for heating and cooling rather efficiently using a computer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaoru Sakasai
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and 3He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bareiss, E.H.
1976-05-01
The objectives of the work are to develop mathematically and computationally founded for the design of highly efficient and reliable multidimensional neutron transport codes to solve a variety of neutron migration and radiation problems, and to analyze existing and new methods for performance. As new analytical insights are gained, new numerical methods are developed and tested. Significant results obtained include implementation of the integer-preserving Gaussian elimination method (two-step method) in a CDC 6400 computer code, modes analysis for one-dimensional transport solutions, and a new method for solving the 1-T transport equation. Some of the work dealt with the interface and corner problem in diffusion theory
Computationally-optimized bone mechanical modeling from high-resolution structural images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeremy F Magland
Full Text Available Image-based mechanical modeling of the complex micro-structure of human bone has shown promise as a non-invasive method for characterizing bone strength and fracture risk in vivo. In particular, elastic moduli obtained from image-derived micro-finite element (μFE simulations have been shown to correlate well with results obtained by mechanical testing of cadaveric bone. However, most existing large-scale finite-element simulation programs require significant computing resources, which hamper their use in common laboratory and clinical environments. In this work, we theoretically derive and computationally evaluate the resources needed to perform such simulations (in terms of computer memory and computation time, which are dependent on the number of finite elements in the image-derived bone model. A detailed description of our approach is provided, which is specifically optimized for μFE modeling of the complex three-dimensional architecture of trabecular bone. Our implementation includes domain decomposition for parallel computing, a novel stopping criterion, and a system for speeding up convergence by pre-iterating on coarser grids. The performance of the system is demonstrated on a dual quad-core Xeon 3.16 GHz CPUs equipped with 40 GB of RAM. Models of distal tibia derived from 3D in-vivo MR images in a patient comprising 200,000 elements required less than 30 seconds to converge (and 40 MB RAM. To illustrate the system's potential for large-scale μFE simulations, axial stiffness was estimated from high-resolution micro-CT images of a voxel array of 90 million elements comprising the human proximal femur in seven hours CPU time. In conclusion, the system described should enable image-based finite-element bone simulations in practical computation times on high-end desktop computers with applications to laboratory studies and clinical imaging.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, D L
2009-05-01
Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, D.L.
2009-01-01
Many complex systems of importance to the U.S. Department of Energy consist of networks of discrete components. Examples are cyber networks, such as the internet and local area networks over which nearly all DOE scientific, technical and administrative data must travel, the electric power grid, social networks whose behavior can drive energy demand, and biological networks such as genetic regulatory networks and metabolic networks. In spite of the importance of these complex networked systems to all aspects of DOE's operations, the scientific basis for understanding these systems lags seriously behind the strong foundations that exist for the 'physically-based' systems usually associated with DOE research programs that focus on such areas as climate modeling, fusion energy, high-energy and nuclear physics, nano-science, combustion, and astrophysics. DOE has a clear opportunity to develop a similarly strong scientific basis for understanding the structure and dynamics of networked systems by supporting a strong basic research program in this area. Such knowledge will provide a broad basis for, e.g., understanding and quantifying the efficacy of new security approaches for computer networks, improving the design of computer or communication networks to be more robust against failures or attacks, detecting potential catastrophic failure on the power grid and preventing or mitigating its effects, understanding how populations will respond to the availability of new energy sources or changes in energy policy, and detecting subtle vulnerabilities in large software systems to intentional attack. This white paper outlines plans for an aggressive new research program designed to accelerate the advancement of the scientific basis for complex networked systems of importance to the DOE. It will focus principally on four research areas: (1) understanding network structure, (2) understanding network dynamics, (3) predictive modeling and simulation for complex networked systems
High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA
Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.
2012-12-01
The processes involved in the petrogenesis of the sulphide-hosted platinum-group-element (PGE) deposits of the Stillwater Complex are controversial, with theories ranging from the purely magmatic to those involving an aqueous fluid. To further constrain these models, we have been examining the trace phase assemblages in rocks away from the ore zones. High-temperature carbonates have been observed in association with sulphide minerals below the platiniferous J-M Reef of the Stillwater Complex. The carbonate assemblage consists of dolomite with exsolved calcite and is found in contact with sulphide minerals: chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite in the Peridotite Zone; and pyrrhotite with pentlandite, pyrite and chalcopyrite in Gabbronorite I of the Lower Banded Series. The minimal silicate alteration and the lack of greenschist minerals in association with the mineral assemblage are consistent with a high-temperature origin for the carbonates. The calcite-dolomite geothermometer [1] yields a minimum formation temperature of ~900°C for the unmixed assemblages. A reaction rim surrounds the carbonate-sulphide assemblages, showing an alteration of the host orthopyroxene to a more Ca-enriched, Fe-depleted composition. This is consistent with diffusive exchange between carbonates and pyroxenes at high temperatures, mediated by an aqueous fluid. The highly variable molar MnO/FeO ratios in both the high-temperature carbonates and their associated altered pyroxene rims also imply their interaction with a fluid. The carbonate assemblages are consistent with Stillwater fluid inclusion studies [2], showing that fluids comprising coexisting Cl-rich brine and carbonic fluid were trapped in pegmatitic quartz at 700-715°C, some of which also contained "accidental" calcite inclusions. The high Cl-content of apatite [3] found below the platiniferous J-M Reef is further evidence that a Cl-rich fluid was migrating through the rocks beneath the Reef. Carbonates have been shown to be stabilized
Shibeko, Alexey M; Panteleev, Mikhail A
2016-05-01
Blood coagulation is a complex biochemical network that plays critical roles in haemostasis (a physiological process that stops bleeding on injury) and thrombosis (pathological vessel occlusion). Both up- and down-regulation of coagulation remain a major challenge for modern medicine, with the ultimate goal to correct haemostasis without causing thrombosis and vice versa. Mathematical/computational modelling is potentially an important tool for understanding blood coagulation disorders and their treatment. It can save a huge amount of time and resources, and provide a valuable alternative or supplement when clinical studies are limited, or not ethical, or technically impossible. This article reviews contemporary state of the art in the modelling of blood coagulation for practical purposes: to reveal the molecular basis of a disease, to understand mechanisms of drug action, to predict pharmacodynamics and drug-drug interactions, to suggest potential drug targets or to improve quality of diagnostics. Different model types and designs used for this are discussed. Functional mechanisms of procoagulant bypassing agents and investigations of coagulation inhibitors were the two particularly popular applications of computational modelling that gave non-trivial results. Yet, like any other tool, modelling has its limitations, mainly determined by insufficient knowledge of the system, uncertainty and unreliability of complex models. We show how to some extent this can be overcome and discuss what can be expected from the mathematical modelling of coagulation in not-so-far future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay S. Coggan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Despite intense research, few treatments are available for most neurological disorders. Demyelinating diseases are no exception. This is perhaps not surprising considering the multifactorial nature of these diseases, which involve complex interactions between immune system cells, glia and neurons. In the case of multiple sclerosis, for example, there is no unanimity among researchers about the cause or even which system or cell type could be ground zero. This situation precludes the development and strategic application of mechanism-based therapies. We will discuss how computational modeling applied to questions at different biological levels can help link together disparate observations and decipher complex mechanisms whose solutions are not amenable to simple reductionism. By making testable predictions and revealing critical gaps in existing knowledge, such models can help direct research and will provide a rigorous framework in which to integrate new data as they are collected. Nowadays, there is no shortage of data; the challenge is to make sense of it all. In that respect, computational modeling is an invaluable tool that could, ultimately, transform how we understand, diagnose, and treat demyelinating diseases.
HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi
2010-01-01
We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where
COMPLEX OF NUMERICAL MODELS FOR COMPUTATION OF AIR ION CONCENTRATION IN PREMISES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Biliaiev
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The article highlights the question about creation the complex numerical models in order to calculate the ions concentration fields in premises of various purpose and in work areas. Developed complex should take into account the main physical factors influencing the formation of the concentration field of ions, that is, aerodynamics of air jets in the room, presence of furniture, equipment, placement of ventilation holes, ventilation mode, location of ionization sources, transfer of ions under the electric field effect, other factors, determining the intensity and shape of the field of concentration of ions. In addition, complex of numerical models has to ensure conducting of the express calculation of the ions concentration in the premises, allowing quick sorting of possible variants and enabling «enlarged» evaluation of air ions concentration in the premises. Methodology. The complex numerical models to calculate air ion regime in the premises is developed. CFD numerical model is based on the use of aerodynamics, electrostatics and mass transfer equations, and takes into account the effect of air flows caused by the ventilation operation, diffusion, electric field effects, as well as the interaction of different polarities ions with each other and with the dust particles. The proposed balance model for computation of air ion regime indoors allows operative calculating the ions concentration field considering pulsed operation of the ionizer. Findings. The calculated data are received, on the basis of which one can estimate the ions concentration anywhere in the premises with artificial air ionization. An example of calculating the negative ions concentration on the basis of the CFD numerical model in the premises with reengineering transformations is given. On the basis of the developed balance model the air ions concentration in the room volume was calculated. Originality. Results of the air ion regime computation in premise, which
Crowell, Andrew Rippetoe
This dissertation describes model reduction techniques for the computation of aerodynamic heat flux and pressure loads for multi-disciplinary analysis of hypersonic vehicles. NASA and the Department of Defense have expressed renewed interest in the development of responsive, reusable hypersonic cruise vehicles capable of sustained high-speed flight and access to space. However, an extensive set of technical challenges have obstructed the development of such vehicles. These technical challenges are partially due to both the inability to accurately test scaled vehicles in wind tunnels and to the time intensive nature of high-fidelity computational modeling, particularly for the fluid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The aim of this dissertation is to develop efficient and accurate models for the aerodynamic heat flux and pressure loads to replace the need for computationally expensive, high-fidelity CFD during coupled analysis. Furthermore, aerodynamic heating and pressure loads are systematically evaluated for a number of different operating conditions, including: simple two-dimensional flow over flat surfaces up to three-dimensional flows over deformed surfaces with shock-shock interaction and shock-boundary layer interaction. An additional focus of this dissertation is on the implementation and computation of results using the developed aerodynamic heating and pressure models in complex fluid-thermal-structural simulations. Model reduction is achieved using a two-pronged approach. One prong focuses on developing analytical corrections to isothermal, steady-state CFD flow solutions in order to capture flow effects associated with transient spatially-varying surface temperatures and surface pressures (e.g., surface deformation, surface vibration, shock impingements, etc.). The second prong is focused on minimizing the computational expense of computing the steady-state CFD solutions by developing an efficient surrogate CFD model. The developed two
Benchmarking high performance computing architectures with CMS’ skeleton framework
Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Gartung, P.; Jones, C. D.
2017-10-01
In 2012 CMS evaluated which underlying concurrency technology would be the best to use for its multi-threaded framework. The available technologies were evaluated on the high throughput computing systems dominating the resources in use at that time. A skeleton framework benchmarking suite that emulates the tasks performed within a CMSSW application was used to select Intel’s Thread Building Block library, based on the measured overheads in both memory and CPU on the different technologies benchmarked. In 2016 CMS will get access to high performance computing resources that use new many core architectures; machines such as Cori Phase 1&2, Theta, Mira. Because of this we have revived the 2012 benchmark to test it’s performance and conclusions on these new architectures. This talk will discuss the results of this exercise.
Unravelling the structure of matter on high-performance computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieu, T.D.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1992-11-01
The various phenomena and the different forms of matter in nature are believed to be the manifestation of only a handful set of fundamental building blocks-the elementary particles-which interact through the four fundamental forces. In the study of the structure of matter at this level one has to consider forces which are not sufficiently weak to be treated as small perturbations to the system, an example of which is the strong force that binds the nucleons together. High-performance computers, both vector and parallel machines, have facilitated the necessary non-perturbative treatments. The principles and the techniques of computer simulations applied to Quantum Chromodynamics are explained examples include the strong interactions, the calculation of the mass of nucleons and their decay rates. Some commercial and special-purpose high-performance machines for such calculations are also mentioned. 3 refs., 2 tabs
Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.
1994-01-01
This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.
Multi-Language Programming Environments for High Performance Java Computing
Vladimir Getov; Paul Gray; Sava Mintchev; Vaidy Sunderam
1999-01-01
Recent developments in processor capabilities, software tools, programming languages and programming paradigms have brought about new approaches to high performance computing. A steadfast component of this dynamic evolution has been the scientific community’s reliance on established scientific packages. As a consequence, programmers of high‐performance applications are reluctant to embrace evolving languages such as Java. This paper describes the Java‐to‐C Interface (JCI) tool which provides ...
Aspects of pulmonary histiocytosis X on high resolution computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, N.S.S.; Castro Lessa Angela, M.T. de; Angelo Junior, J.R.L.; Silva, F.M.D.; Kavakama, J.; Carvalho, C.R.R. de; Cerri, G.G.
1995-01-01
Pulmonary histiocytosis X is a disease that occurs in young adults and presents with nodules and cysts, mainly in upper lobes, with consequent pulmonary fibrosis. These pulmonary changes are virtually pathognomonic findings on high resolution computed tomography, that allows estimate the area of the lung involved and distinguish histiocytosis X from other disorders that also produces nodules and cysts. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs, 6 figs
Intel: High Throughput Computing Collaboration: A CERN openlab / Intel collaboration
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
The Intel/CERN High Throughput Computing Collaboration studies the application of upcoming Intel technologies to the very challenging environment of the LHC trigger and data-acquisition systems. These systems will need to transport and process many terabits of data every second, in some cases with tight latency constraints. Parallelisation and tight integration of accelerators and classical CPU via Intel's OmniPath fabric are the key elements in this project.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barker, Ashley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Bernholdt, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Bland, Arthur S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Gary, Jeff D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Hack, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; McNally, Stephen T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Rogers, James H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Smith, Brian E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Straatsma, T. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Sukumar, Sreenivas Rangan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Thach, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Tichenor, Suzy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility; Wells, Jack C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility
2016-03-01
Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) continues to surpass its operational target goals: supporting users; delivering fast, reliable systems; creating innovative solutions for high-performance computing (HPC) needs; and managing risks, safety, and security aspects associated with operating one of the most powerful computers in the world. The results can be seen in the cutting-edge science delivered by users and the praise from the research community. Calendar year (CY) 2015 was filled with outstanding operational results and accomplishments: a very high rating from users on overall satisfaction that ties the highest-ever mark set in CY 2014; the greatest number of core-hours delivered to research projects; the largest percentage of capability usage since the OLCF began tracking the metric in 2009; and success in delivering on the allocation of 60, 30, and 10% of core hours offered for the INCITE (Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment), ALCC (Advanced Scientific Computing Research Leadership Computing Challenge), and Director’s Discretionary programs, respectively. These accomplishments, coupled with the extremely high utilization rate, represent the fulfillment of the promise of Titan: maximum use by maximum-size simulations. The impact of all of these successes and more is reflected in the accomplishments of OLCF users, with publications this year in notable journals Nature, Nature Materials, Nature Chemistry, Nature Physics, Nature Climate Change, ACS Nano, Journal of the American Chemical Society, and Physical Review Letters, as well as many others. The achievements included in the 2015 OLCF Operational Assessment Report reflect first-ever or largest simulations in their communities; for example Titan enabled engineers in Los Angeles and the surrounding region to design and begin building improved critical infrastructure by enabling the highest-resolution Cybershake map for Southern
High-Performance Java Codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics
Riley, Christopher; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The computational science community is reluctant to write large-scale computationally -intensive applications in Java due to concerns over Java's poor performance, despite the claimed software engineering advantages of its object-oriented features. Naive Java implementations of numerical algorithms can perform poorly compared to corresponding Fortran or C implementations. To achieve high performance, Java applications must be designed with good performance as a primary goal. This paper presents the object-oriented design and implementation of two real-world applications from the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): a finite-volume fluid flow solver (LAURA, from NASA Langley Research Center), and an unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm (2D_TAG, from NASA Ames Research Center). This work builds on our previous experience with the design of high-performance numerical libraries in Java. We examine the performance of the applications using the currently available Java infrastructure and show that the Java version of the flow solver LAURA performs almost within a factor of 2 of the original procedural version. Our Java version of the mesh adaptation algorithm 2D_TAG performs within a factor of 1.5 of its original procedural version on certain platforms. Our results demonstrate that object-oriented software design principles are not necessarily inimical to high performance.
High-Precision Computation: Mathematical Physics and Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, D.H.; Barrio, R.; Borwein, J.M.
2010-01-01
At the present time, IEEE 64-bit oating-point arithmetic is suficiently accurate for most scientic applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientic computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion e ort. This pa- per presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides someanalysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, studies of the one structure constant, scattering amplitudes of quarks, glu- ons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, experimental mathematics, evaluation of orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration of ODEs, computation of periodic orbits, studies of the splitting of separatrices, detection of strange nonchaotic at- tractors, Ising theory, quantum held theory, and discrete dynamical systems. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable compo- nent of a modern large-scale scientic computing environment.
High-Precision Computation: Mathematical Physics and Dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, D. H.; Barrio, R.; Borwein, J. M.
2010-04-01
At the present time, IEEE 64-bit oating-point arithmetic is suficiently accurate for most scientic applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientic computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion e ort. This pa- per presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides someanalysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, studies of the one structure constant, scattering amplitudes of quarks, glu- ons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, experimental mathematics, evaluation of orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration of ODEs, computation of periodic orbits, studies of the splitting of separatrices, detection of strange nonchaotic at- tractors, Ising theory, quantum held theory, and discrete dynamical systems. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable compo- nent of a modern large-scale scientic computing environment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Jakob Grue
2009-01-01
We consider the computational complexity of languages of symbolic dynamical systems. In particular, we study complexity hierarchies and membership of the non-uniform class P/poly. We prove: 1.For every time-constructible, non-decreasing function t(n)=@w(n), there is a symbolic dynamical system...... with language decidable in deterministic time O(n^2t(n)), but not in deterministic time o(t(n)). 2.For every space-constructible, non-decreasing function s(n)=@w(n), there is a symbolic dynamical system with language decidable in deterministic space O(s(n)), but not in deterministic space o(s(n)). 3.There...... are symbolic dynamical systems having hard and complete languages under @?"m^l^o^g^s- and @?"m^p-reduction for every complexity class above LOGSPACE in the backbone hierarchy (hence, P-complete, NP-complete, coNP-complete, PSPACE-complete, and EXPTIME-complete sets). 4.There are decidable languages of symbolic...
Communication complexity of distributed computing and a parallel algorithm for polynomial roots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiwari, P.
1986-01-01
The first part of this thesis begins with a discussion of the minimum communication requirements in some distributed networks. The main result is a general technique for determining lower bounds on the communication complexity of problems on various distributed computer networks. This general technique is derived by simulating the general network by a linear array and then using a lower bound on the communication complexity of the problem on the linear array. Applications of this technique yield nontrivial optimal or near-optimal lower bounds on the communication complexity of distinctness, ranking, uniqueness, merging, and triangle detection on a ring, a mesh, and a complete binary tree of processors. A technique similar to the one used in proving the above results, yields interesting graph theoretic results concerning decomposition of a graph into complete bipartite subgraphs. The second part of the this is devoted to the design of a fast parallel algorithm for determining all roots of a polynomial. Given a polynomial rho(z) of degree n with m bit integer coefficients and an integer μ, the author considers the problem of determining all its roots with error less than 2/sup -μ/. It is shown that this problem is in the class NC if rho(z) has all real roots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bland, Arthur S Buddy [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Baker, Ann E [ORNL; Barker, Ashley D [ORNL; Boudwin, Kathlyn J. [ORNL; Kendall, Ricky A [ORNL; Messer, Bronson [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; White, Julia C [ORNL
2010-08-01
Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Cray XT5 supercomputer, Jaguar, kicked off the era of petascale scientific computing in 2008 with applications that sustained more than a thousand trillion floating point calculations per second - or 1 petaflop. Jaguar continues to grow even more powerful as it helps researchers broaden the boundaries of knowledge in virtually every domain of computational science, including weather and climate, nuclear energy, geosciences, combustion, bioenergy, fusion, and materials science. Their insights promise to broaden our knowledge in areas that are vitally important to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation as a whole, particularly energy assurance and climate change. The science of the 21st century, however, will demand further revolutions in computing, supercomputers capable of a million trillion calculations a second - 1 exaflop - and beyond. These systems will allow investigators to continue attacking global challenges through modeling and simulation and to unravel longstanding scientific questions. Creating such systems will also require new approaches to daunting challenges. High-performance systems of the future will need to be codesigned for scientific and engineering applications with best-in-class communications networks and data-management infrastructures and teams of skilled researchers able to take full advantage of these new resources. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) provides the nation's most powerful open resource for capability computing, with a sustainable path that will maintain and extend national leadership for DOE's Office of Science (SC). The OLCF has engaged a world-class team to support petascale science and to take a dramatic step forward, fielding new capabilities for high-end science. This report highlights the successful delivery and operation of a petascale system and shows how the OLCF fosters application development teams, developing cutting-edge tools
Evans, B. J. K.; Foster, C.; Minchin, S. A.; Pugh, T.; Lewis, A.; Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J.; Uhlherr, A.
2014-12-01
The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has established a powerful in-situ computational environment to enable both high performance computing and data-intensive science across a wide spectrum of national environmental data collections - in particular climate, observational data and geoscientific assets. This paper examines 1) the computational environments that supports the modelling and data processing pipelines, 2) the analysis environments and methods to support data analysis, and 3) the progress in addressing harmonisation of the underlying data collections for future transdisciplinary research that enable accurate climate projections. NCI makes available 10+ PB major data collections from both the government and research sectors based on six themes: 1) weather, climate, and earth system science model simulations, 2) marine and earth observations, 3) geosciences, 4) terrestrial ecosystems, 5) water and hydrology, and 6) astronomy, social and biosciences. Collectively they span the lithosphere, crust, biosphere, hydrosphere, troposphere, and stratosphere. The data is largely sourced from NCI's partners (which include the custodians of many of the national scientific records), major research communities, and collaborating overseas organisations. The data is accessible within an integrated HPC-HPD environment - a 1.2 PFlop supercomputer (Raijin), a HPC class 3000 core OpenStack cloud system and several highly connected large scale and high-bandwidth Lustre filesystems. This computational environment supports a catalogue of integrated reusable software and workflows from earth system and ecosystem modelling, weather research, satellite and other observed data processing and analysis. To enable transdisciplinary research on this scale, data needs to be harmonised so that researchers can readily apply techniques and software across the corpus of data available and not be constrained to work within artificial disciplinary boundaries. Future challenges will
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu
2015-12-31
Power system simulation tools are traditionally developed in sequential mode and codes are optimized for single core computing only. However, the increasing complexity in the power grid models requires more intensive computation. The traditional simulation tools will soon not be able to meet the grid operation requirements. Therefore, power system simulation tools need to evolve accordingly to provide faster and better results for grid operations. This paper presents an integrated state estimation and contingency analysis software implementation using high performance computing techniques. The software is able to solve large size state estimation problems within one second and achieve a near-linear speedup of 9,800 with 10,000 cores for contingency analysis application. The performance evaluation is presented to show its effectiveness.
What Physicists Should Know About High Performance Computing - Circa 2002
Frederick, Donald
2002-08-01
High Performance Computing (HPC) is a dynamic, cross-disciplinary field that traditionally has involved applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and others primarily from the various disciplines that have been major users of HPC resources - physics, chemistry, engineering, with increasing use by those in the life sciences. There is a technological dynamic that is powered by economic as well as by technical innovations and developments. This talk will discuss practical ideas to be considered when developing numerical applications for research purposes. Even with the rapid pace of development in the field, the author believes that these concepts will not become obsolete for a while, and will be of use to scientists who either are considering, or who have already started down the HPC path. These principles will be applied in particular to current parallel HPC systems, but there will also be references of value to desktop users. The talk will cover such topics as: computing hardware basics, single-cpu optimization, compilers, timing, numerical libraries, debugging and profiling tools and the emergence of Computational Grids.
Computing with high-resolution upwind schemes for hyperbolic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakravarthy, S.R.; Osher, S.; California Univ., Los Angeles)
1985-01-01
Computational aspects of modern high-resolution upwind finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws are examined. An operational unification is demonstrated for constructing a wide class of flux-difference-split and flux-split schemes based on the design principles underlying total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. Consideration is also given to TVD scheme design by preprocessing, the extension of preprocessing and postprocessing approaches to general control volumes, the removal of expansion shocks and glitches, relaxation methods for implicit TVD schemes, and a new family of high-accuracy TVD schemes. 21 references
High spatial resolution CT image reconstruction using parallel computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin Yin; Liu Li; Sun Gongxing
2003-01-01
Using the PC cluster system with 16 dual CPU nodes, we accelerate the FBP and OR-OSEM reconstruction of high spatial resolution image (2048 x 2048). Based on the number of projections, we rewrite the reconstruction algorithms into parallel format and dispatch the tasks to each CPU. By parallel computing, the speedup factor is roughly equal to the number of CPUs, which can be up to about 25 times when 25 CPUs used. This technique is very suitable for real-time high spatial resolution CT image reconstruction. (authors)
Wang, Lan-Ting; Lee, Kun-Chou
2014-01-01
The vision plays an important role in educational technologies because it can produce and communicate quite important functions in teaching and learning. In this paper, learners' preference for the visual complexity on small screens of mobile computers is studied by neural networks. The visual complexity in this study is divided into five…
Efficient Simulation Modeling of an Integrated High-Level-Waste Processing Complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregory, Michael V.; Paul, Pran K.
2000-01-01
An integrated computational tool named the Production Planning Model (ProdMod) has been developed to simulate the operation of the entire high-level-waste complex (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) over its full life cycle. ProdMod is used to guide SRS management in operating the waste complex in an economically efficient and environmentally sound manner. SRS HLW operations are modeled using coupled algebraic equations. The dynamic nature of plant processes is modeled in the form of a linear construct in which the time dependence is implicit. Batch processes are modeled in discrete event-space, while continuous processes are modeled in time-space. The ProdMod methodology maps between event-space and time-space such that the inherent mathematical discontinuities in batch process simulation are avoided without sacrificing any of the necessary detail in the batch recipe steps. Modeling the processes separately in event- and time-space using linear constructs, and then coupling the two spaces, has accelerated the speed of simulation compared to a typical dynamic simulation. The ProdMod simulator models have been validated against operating data and other computer codes. Case studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the ProdMod simulator in developing strategies that demonstrate significant cost savings in operating the SRS HLW complex and in verifying the feasibility of newly proposed processes
A user's manual of Tools for Error Estimation of Complex Number Matrix Computation (Ver.1.0)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichihara, Kiyoshi.
1997-03-01
'Tools for Error Estimation of Complex Number Matrix Computation' is a subroutine library which aids the users in obtaining the error ranges of the complex number linear system's solutions or the Hermitian matrices' eigen values. This library contains routines for both sequential computers and parallel computers. The subroutines for linear system error estimation calulate norms of residual vectors, matrices's condition numbers, error bounds of solutions and so on. The error estimation subroutines for Hermitian matrix eigen values' derive the error ranges of the eigen values according to the Korn-Kato's formula. This user's manual contains a brief mathematical background of error analysis on linear algebra and usage of the subroutines. (author)
A Computer Controlled Precision High Pressure Measuring System
Sadana, S.; Yadav, S.; Jha, N.; Gupta, V. K.; Agarwal, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Saxena, T. K.
2011-01-01
A microcontroller (AT89C51) based electronics has been designed and developed for high precision calibrator based on Digiquartz pressure transducer (DQPT) for the measurement of high hydrostatic pressure up to 275 MPa. The input signal from DQPT is converted into a square wave form and multiplied through frequency multiplier circuit over 10 times to input frequency. This input frequency is multiplied by a factor of ten using phased lock loop. Octal buffer is used to store the calculated frequency, which in turn is fed to microcontroller AT89C51 interfaced with a liquid crystal display for the display of frequency as well as corresponding pressure in user friendly units. The electronics developed is interfaced with a computer using RS232 for automatic data acquisition, computation and storage. The data is acquired by programming in Visual Basic 6.0. This system is interfaced with the PC to make it a computer controlled system. The system is capable of measuring the frequency up to 4 MHz with a resolution of 0.01 Hz and the pressure up to 275 MPa with a resolution of 0.001 MPa within measurement uncertainty of 0.025%. The details on the hardware of the pressure measuring system, associated electronics, software and calibration are discussed in this paper.
High performance computing and communications: FY 1995 implementation plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1994-04-01
The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally established following passage of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991 signed on December 9, 1991. Ten federal agencies in collaboration with scientists and managers from US industry, universities, and laboratories have developed the HPCC Program to meet the challenges of advancing computing and associated communications technologies and practices. This plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` HPCC implementation plans for FY 1994 and FY 1995. This Implementation Plan contains three additional sections. Section 3 provides an overview of the HPCC Program definition and organization. Section 4 contains a breakdown of the five major components of the HPCC Program, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each one. Section 5 provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency. Although the Department of Education is an official HPCC agency, its current funding and reporting of crosscut activities goes through the Committee on Education and Health Resources, not the HPCC Program. For this reason the Implementation Plan covers nine HPCC agencies.
FPGAs in High Perfomance Computing: Results from Two LDRD Projects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Underwood, Keith D; Ulmer, Craig D.; Thompson, David; Hemmert, Karl Scott
2006-11-01
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been used as alternative computational de-vices for over a decade; however, they have not been used for traditional scientific com-puting due to their perceived lack of floating-point performance. In recent years, there hasbeen a surge of interest in alternatives to traditional microprocessors for high performancecomputing. Sandia National Labs began two projects to determine whether FPGAs wouldbe a suitable alternative to microprocessors for high performance scientific computing and,if so, how they should be integrated into the system. We present results that indicate thatFPGAs could have a significant impact on future systems. FPGAs have thepotentialtohave order of magnitude levels of performance wins on several key algorithms; however,there are serious questions as to whether the system integration challenge can be met. Fur-thermore, there remain challenges in FPGA programming and system level reliability whenusing FPGA devices.4 AcknowledgmentArun Rodrigues provided valuable support and assistance in the use of the Structural Sim-ulation Toolkit within an FPGA context. Curtis Janssen and Steve Plimpton provided valu-able insights into the workings of two Sandia applications (MPQC and LAMMPS, respec-tively).5
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Nagel, Wolfgang E; Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael
2010-01-01
...), NIC/JSC (J¨ u lich), and LRZ (Munich). As part of that strategic initiative, in May 2009 already NIC/JSC has installed the first phase of the GCS HPC Tier-0 resources, an IBM Blue Gene/P with roughly 300.000 Cores, this time in J¨ u lich, With that, the GCS provides the most powerful high-performance computing infrastructure in Europe alread...
Mir, Jan Mohammad; Jain, N; Jaget, P S; Maurya, R C
2017-09-01
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses photosensitizing agents to kill cancer cells. Scientific community has been eager for decades to design an efficient PDT drug. Under such purview, the current report deals with the computational photodynamic behavior of ruthenium(II) nitrosyl complex containing N, N'-salicyldehyde-ethylenediimine (SalenH 2 ), the synthesis and X-ray crystallography of which is already known [Ref. 38,39]. Gaussian 09W software package was employed to carry out the density functional (DFT) studies. DFT calculations with Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP)/Los Alamos National Laboratory 2 Double Z (LanL2DZ) specified for Ru atom and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) combination for all other atoms were used using effective core potential method. Both, the ground and excited states of the complex were evolved. Some known photosensitizers were compared with the target complex. Pthalocyanine and porphyrin derivatives were the compounds selected for the respective comparative study. It is suggested that effective photoactivity was found due to the presence of ruthenium core in the model complex. In addition to the evaluation of theoretical aspects in vitro anticancer aspects against COLO-205 human cancer cells have also been carried out with regard to the complex. More emphasis was laid to extrapolate DFT to depict the chemical power of the target compound to release nitric oxide. A promising visible light triggered nitric oxide releasing power of the compound has been inferred. In vitro antiproliferative studies of [RuCl 3 (PPh 3 ) 3 ] and [Ru(NO)(Salen)(Cl)] have revealed the model complex as an excellent anticancer agent. From IC 50 values of 40.031mg/mL in former and of 9.74mg/mL in latter, it is established that latter bears more anticancer potentiality. From overall study the DFT based structural elucidation and the efficiency of NO, Ru and Salen co-ligands has shown promising drug delivery property and a good candidacy for both chemotherapy as well as
Abel, Martin; Frommhold, Lothar; Li, Xiaoping; Hunt, Katharine L. C.
2012-06-01
The interaction-induced absorption by collisional pairs of H{_2} molecules is an important opacity source in the atmospheres of various types of planets and cool stars, such as late stars, low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, cool white dwarf stars, the ambers of the smaller, burnt out main sequence stars, exoplanets, etc., and therefore of special astronomical interest The emission spectra of cool white dwarf stars differ significantly in the infrared from the expected blackbody spectra of their cores, which is largely due to absorption by collisional H{_2}-H{_2}, H{_2}-He, and H{_2}-H complexes in the stellar atmospheres. Using quantum-chemical methods we compute the atmospheric absorption from hundreds to thousands of kelvin. Laboratory measurements of interaction-induced absorption spectra by H{_2} pairs exist only at room temperature and below. We show that our results reproduce these measurements closely, so that our computational data permit reliable modeling of stellar atmosphere opacities even for the higher temperatures. First results for H_2-He complexes have already been applied to astrophysical models have shown great improvements in these models. L. Frommhold, Collision-Induced Absorption in Gases, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, 1993 and 2006 X. Li, K. L. C. Hunt, F. Wang, M. Abel, and L. Frommhold, Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Molecular Hydrogen Pairs at Thousands of Kelvin, Int. J. of Spect., vol. 2010, Article ID 371201, 11 pages, 2010. doi: 10.1155/2010/371201 M. Abel, L. Frommhold, X. Li, and K. L. C. Hunt, Collision-induced absorption by H{_2} pairs: From hundreds to thousands of Kelvin, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 6805-6812, 2011} L. Frommhold, M. Abel, F. Wang, M. Gustafsson, X. Li, and K. L. C. Hunt, "Infrared atmospheric emission and absorption by simple molecular complexes, from first principles", Mol. Phys. 108, 2265, 2010 M. Abel, L. Frommhold, X. Li, and K. L. C. Hunt, Infrared absorption by collisional H_2-He complexes
Resilient and Robust High Performance Computing Platforms for Scientific Computing Integrity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Yier [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)
2017-07-14
As technology advances, computer systems are subject to increasingly sophisticated cyber-attacks that compromise both their security and integrity. High performance computing platforms used in commercial and scientific applications involving sensitive, or even classified data, are frequently targeted by powerful adversaries. This situation is made worse by a lack of fundamental security solutions that both perform efficiently and are effective at preventing threats. Current security solutions fail to address the threat landscape and ensure the integrity of sensitive data. As challenges rise, both private and public sectors will require robust technologies to protect its computing infrastructure. The research outcomes from this project try to address all these challenges. For example, we present LAZARUS, a novel technique to harden kernel Address Space Layout Randomization (KASLR) against paging-based side-channel attacks. In particular, our scheme allows for fine-grained protection of the virtual memory mappings that implement the randomization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by hardening a recent Linux kernel with LAZARUS, mitigating all of the previously presented side-channel attacks on KASLR. Our extensive evaluation shows that LAZARUS incurs only 0.943% overhead for standard benchmarks, and is therefore highly practical. We also introduced HA2lloc, a hardware-assisted allocator that is capable of leveraging an extended memory management unit to detect memory errors in the heap. We also perform testing using HA2lloc in a simulation environment and find that the approach is capable of preventing common memory vulnerabilities.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Edge, Harris
1999-01-01
...), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 6 project. Under the project, a proven zonal Navier-Stokes solver was rewritten for scalable parallel performance on both shared memory and distributed memory high performance computers...
High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David
2014-08-01
Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.
TOWARD HIGHLY SECURE AND AUTONOMIC COMPUTING SYSTEMS: A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hsien-Hsin S
2010-05-11
The overall objective of this research project is to develop novel architectural techniques as well as system software to achieve a highly secure and intrusion-tolerant computing system. Such system will be autonomous, self-adapting, introspective, with self-healing capability under the circumstances of improper operations, abnormal workloads, and malicious attacks. The scope of this research includes: (1) System-wide, unified introspection techniques for autonomic systems, (2) Secure information-flow microarchitecture, (3) Memory-centric security architecture, (4) Authentication control and its implication to security, (5) Digital right management, (5) Microarchitectural denial-of-service attacks on shared resources. During the period of the project, we developed several architectural techniques and system software for achieving a robust, secure, and reliable computing system toward our goal.
Lukasiewicz-Moisil Many-Valued Logic Algebra of Highly-Complex Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James F. Glazebrook
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The fundamentals of Lukasiewicz-Moisil logic algebras and their applications to complex genetic network dynamics and highly complex systems are presented in the context of a categorical ontology theory of levels, Medical Bioinformatics and self-organizing, highly complex systems. Quantum Automata were defined in refs.[2] and [3] as generalized, probabilistic automata with quantum state spaces [1]. Their next-state functions operate through transitions between quantum states defined by the quantum equations of motions in the SchrÄodinger representation, with both initial and boundary conditions in space-time. A new theorem is proven which states that the category of quantum automata and automata-homomorphisms has both limits and colimits. Therefore, both categories of quantum automata and classical automata (sequential machines are bicomplete. A second new theorem establishes that the standard automata category is a subcategory of the quantum automata category. The quantum automata category has a faithful representation in the category of Generalized (M,R-Systems which are open, dynamic biosystem networks [4] with de¯ned biological relations that represent physiological functions of primordial(s, single cells and the simpler organisms. A new category of quantum computers is also defined in terms of reversible quantum automata with quantum state spaces represented by topological groupoids that admit a local characterization through unique, quantum Lie algebroids. On the other hand, the category of n-Lukasiewicz algebras has a subcategory of centered n-Lukasiewicz algebras (as proven in ref. [2] which can be employed to design and construct subcategories of quantum automata based on n-Lukasiewicz diagrams of existing VLSI. Furthermore, as shown in ref. [2] the category of centered n-Lukasiewicz algebras and the category of Boolean algebras are naturally equivalent. A `no-go' conjecture is also proposed which states that Generalized (M
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Ann E [ORNL; Barker, Ashley D [ORNL; Bland, Arthur S Buddy [ORNL; Boudwin, Kathlyn J. [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Kendall, Ricky A [ORNL; Messer, Bronson [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Wells, Jack C [ORNL; White, Julia C [ORNL; Hudson, Douglas L [ORNL
2012-02-01
Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) continues to deliver the most powerful resources in the U.S. for open science. At 2.33 petaflops peak performance, the Cray XT Jaguar delivered more than 1.4 billion core hours in calendar year (CY) 2011 to researchers around the world for computational simulations relevant to national and energy security; advancing the frontiers of knowledge in physical sciences and areas of biological, medical, environmental, and computer sciences; and providing world-class research facilities for the nation's science enterprise. Users reported more than 670 publications this year arising from their use of OLCF resources. Of these we report the 300 in this review that are consistent with guidance provided. Scientific achievements by OLCF users cut across all range scales from atomic to molecular to large-scale structures. At the atomic scale, researchers discovered that the anomalously long half-life of Carbon-14 can be explained by calculating, for the first time, the very complex three-body interactions between all the neutrons and protons in the nucleus. At the molecular scale, researchers combined experimental results from LBL's light source and simulations on Jaguar to discover how DNA replication continues past a damaged site so a mutation can be repaired later. Other researchers combined experimental results from ORNL's Spallation Neutron Source and simulations on Jaguar to reveal the molecular structure of ligno-cellulosic material used in bioethanol production. This year, Jaguar has been used to do billion-cell CFD calculations to develop shock wave compression turbo machinery as a means to meet DOE goals for reducing carbon sequestration costs. General Electric used Jaguar to calculate the unsteady flow through turbo machinery to learn what efficiencies the traditional steady flow assumption is hiding from designers. Even a 1% improvement in turbine design can save the nation
High-reliability computing for the smarter planet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, Heather M.; Graham, Paul; Manuzzato, Andrea; Dehon, Andre
2010-01-01
The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance, known as Moore's Law, has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. In this paper, we will present the concept of the smarter planet, how reliability failures affect current systems, and methods that can be used to increase the reliable adoption of new automation in the future. We will illustrate these issues using a number of different electronic devices in a couple of different scenarios. Recently IBM has been presenting the idea of a 'smarter planet.' In smarter planet documents, IBM discusses increased computer automation of roadways, banking, healthcare, and infrastructure, as automation could create more efficient systems. A necessary component of the smarter planet concept is to ensure that these new systems have very high reliability. Even extremely rare reliability problems can easily escalate to problematic scenarios when implemented at very large scales. For life-critical systems, such as automobiles, infrastructure, medical implantables, and avionic systems, unmitigated failures could be dangerous. As more automation moves into these types of critical systems, reliability failures will need to be managed. As computer automation continues to increase in our society, the need for greater radiation reliability is necessary
High-reliability computing for the smarter planet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [UNIV OF PADOVA; Dehon, Andre [UNIV OF PENN; Carter, Nicholas [INTEL CORPORATION
2010-01-01
The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance, known as Moore's Law, has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. In this paper, we will present the concept of the smarter planet, how reliability failures affect current systems, and methods that can be used to increase the reliable adoption of new automation in the future. We will illustrate these issues using a number of different electronic devices in a couple of different scenarios. Recently IBM has been presenting the idea of a 'smarter planet.' In smarter planet documents, IBM discusses increased computer automation of roadways, banking, healthcare, and infrastructure, as automation could create more efficient systems. A necessary component of the smarter planet concept is to ensure that these new systems have very high reliability. Even extremely rare reliability problems can easily escalate to problematic scenarios when implemented at very large scales. For life-critical systems, such as automobiles, infrastructure, medical implantables, and avionic systems, unmitigated failures could be dangerous. As more automation moves into these types of critical systems, reliability failures will need to be managed. As computer automation continues to increase in our society, the need for greater radiation reliability is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-11-01
This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, The DOE Program in HPCC), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-06-01
This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, {open_quotes}The DOE Program in HPCC{close_quotes}), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW). The information pointed to by the URL is updated frequently, and the interested reader is urged to access the WWW for the latest information.
High-throughput computational search for strengthening precipitates in alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirklin, S.; Saal, James E.; Hegde, Vinay I.; Wolverton, C.
2016-01-01
The search for high-strength alloys and precipitation hardened systems has largely been accomplished through Edisonian trial and error experimentation. Here, we present a novel strategy using high-throughput computational approaches to search for promising precipitate/alloy systems. We perform density functional theory (DFT) calculations of an extremely large space of ∼200,000 potential compounds in search of effective strengthening precipitates for a variety of different alloy matrices, e.g., Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, Co, and Ti. Our search strategy involves screening phases that are likely to produce coherent precipitates (based on small lattice mismatch) and are composed of relatively common alloying elements. When combined with the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), we can computationally screen for precipitates that either have a stable two-phase equilibrium with the host matrix, or are likely to precipitate as metastable phases. Our search produces (for the structure types considered) nearly all currently known high-strength precipitates in a variety of fcc, bcc, and hcp matrices, thus giving us confidence in the strategy. In addition, we predict a number of new, currently-unknown precipitate systems that should be explored experimentally as promising high-strength alloy chemistries.
Analysis and computer simulation for transient flow in complex system of liquid piping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitry, A.M.
1985-01-01
This paper is concerned with unsteady state analysis and development of a digital computer program, FLUTRAN, that performs a simulation of transient flow behavior in a complex system of liquid piping. The program calculates pressure and flow transients in the liquid filled piping system. The analytical model is based on the method of characteristics solution to the fluid hammer continuity and momentum equations. The equations are subject to wide variety of boundary conditions to take into account the effect of hydraulic devices. Water column separation is treated as a boundary condition with known head. Experimental tests are presented that exhibit transients induced by pump failure and valve closure in the McGuire Nuclear Station Low Level Intake Cooling Water System. Numerical simulation is conducted to compare theory with test data. Analytical and test data are shown to be in good agreement and provide validation of the model
Zerkle, Ronald D.; Prakash, Chander
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation summarizes some CFD experience at GE Aircraft Engines for flows in the primary gaspath of a gas turbine engine and in turbine blade cooling passages. It is concluded that application of the standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions is not adequate for accurate CFD simulation of aerodynamic performance and heat transfer in the primary gas path of a gas turbine engine. New models are required in the near-wall region which include more physics than wall functions. The two-layer modeling approach appears attractive because of its computational complexity. In addition, improved CFD simulation of film cooling and turbine blade internal cooling passages will require anisotropic turbulence models. New turbulence models must be practical in order to have a significant impact on the engine design process. A coordinated turbulence modeling effort between NASA centers would be beneficial to the gas turbine industry.
Groebner bases for finite-temperature quantum computing and their complexity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crompton, P. R.
2011-01-01
Following the recent approach of using order domains to construct Groebner bases from general projective varieties, we examine the parity and time-reversal arguments relating to the Wightman axioms of quantum field theory and propose that the definition of associativity in these axioms should be introduced a posteriori to the cluster property in order to generalize the anyon conjecture for quantum computing to indefinite metrics. We then show that this modification, which we define via ideal quotients, does not admit a faithful representation of the Braid group, because the generalized twisted inner automorphisms that we use to reintroduce associativity are only parity invariant for the prime spectra of the exterior algebra. We then use a coordinate prescription for the quantum deformations of toric varieties to show how a faithful representation of the Braid group can be reconstructed and argue that for a degree reverse lexicographic (monomial) ordered Groebner basis, the complexity class of this problem is bounded quantum polynomial.
Lyster, Peter M.; Guo, J.; Clune, T.; Larson, J. W.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The computational complexity of algorithms for Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (4DDA) at NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is discussed. In 4DDA, observations are assimilated with the output of a dynamical model to generate best-estimates of the states of the system. It is thus a mapping problem, whereby scattered observations are converted into regular accurate maps of wind, temperature, moisture and other variables. The DAO is developing and using 4DDA algorithms that provide these datasets, or analyses, in support of Earth System Science research. Two large-scale algorithms are discussed. The first approach, the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS), uses an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) and an observation-space based analysis system, the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). GEOS DAS is very similar to global meteorological weather forecasting data assimilation systems, but is used at NASA for climate research. Systems of this size typically run at between 1 and 20 gigaflop/s. The second approach, the Kalman filter, uses a more consistent algorithm to determine the forecast error covariance matrix than does GEOS DAS. For atmospheric assimilation, the gridded dynamical fields typically have More than 10(exp 6) variables, therefore the full error covariance matrix may be in excess of a teraword. For the Kalman filter this problem can easily scale to petaflop/s proportions. We discuss the computational complexity of GEOS DAS and our implementation of the Kalman filter. We also discuss and quantify some of the technical issues and limitations in developing efficient, in terms of wall clock time, and scalable parallel implementations of the algorithms.
A dynamic simulation model of the Savannah River Site high level waste complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregory, M.V.; Aull, J.E.; Dimenna, R.A.
1994-01-01
A detailed, dynamic simulation entire high level radioactive waste complex at the Savannah River Site has been developed using SPEEDUP(tm) software. The model represents mass transfer, evaporation, precipitation, sludge washing, effluent treatment, and vitrification unit operation processes through the solution of 7800 coupled differential and algebraic equations. Twenty-seven discrete chemical constituents are tracked through the unit operations. The simultaneous simultaneous simulation of concurrent batch and continuous processes is achieved by several novel, customized SPEEDUP(tm) algorithms. Due to the model's computational burden, a high-end work station is required: simulation of a years operation of the complex requires approximately three CPU hours on an IBM RS/6000 Model 590 processor. The model will be used to develop optimal high level waste (HLW) processing strategies over a thirty year time horizon. It will be employed to better understand the dynamic inter-relationships between different HLW unit operations, and to suggest strategies that will maximize available working tank space during the early years of operation and minimize overall waste processing cost over the long-term history of the complex. Model validation runs are currently underway with comparisons against actual plant operating data providing an excellent match
Evans, Ben; Allen, Chris; Antony, Joseph; Bastrakova, Irina; Gohar, Kashif; Porter, David; Pugh, Tim; Santana, Fabiana; Smillie, Jon; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley
2015-04-01
The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has established a powerful and flexible in-situ petascale computational environment to enable both high performance computing and Data-intensive Science across a wide spectrum of national environmental and earth science data collections - in particular climate, observational data and geoscientific assets. This paper examines 1) the computational environments that supports the modelling and data processing pipelines, 2) the analysis environments and methods to support data analysis, and 3) the progress so far to harmonise the underlying data collections for future interdisciplinary research across these large volume data collections. NCI has established 10+ PBytes of major national and international data collections from both the government and research sectors based on six themes: 1) weather, climate, and earth system science model simulations, 2) marine and earth observations, 3) geosciences, 4) terrestrial ecosystems, 5) water and hydrology, and 6) astronomy, social and biosciences. Collectively they span the lithosphere, crust, biosphere, hydrosphere, troposphere, and stratosphere. The data is largely sourced from NCI's partners (which include the custodians of many of the major Australian national-scale scientific collections), leading research communities, and collaborating overseas organisations. New infrastructures created at NCI mean the data collections are now accessible within an integrated High Performance Computing and Data (HPC-HPD) environment - a 1.2 PFlop supercomputer (Raijin), a HPC class 3000 core OpenStack cloud system and several highly connected large-scale high-bandwidth Lustre filesystems. The hardware was designed at inception to ensure that it would allow the layered software environment to flexibly accommodate the advancement of future data science. New approaches to software technology and data models have also had to be developed to enable access to these large and exponentially
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patil, Sunil; Tafti, Danesh
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Large eddy simulation. ► Wall layer modeling. ► Synthetic inlet turbulence. ► Swirl flows. - Abstract: Large eddy simulations of complex high Reynolds number flows are carried out with the near wall region being modeled with a zonal two layer model. A novel formulation for solving the turbulent boundary layer equation for the effective tangential velocity in a generalized co-ordinate system is presented and applied in the near wall zonal treatment. This formulation reduces the computational time in the inner layer significantly compared to the conventional two layer formulations present in the literature and is most suitable for complex geometries involving body fitted structured and unstructured meshes. The cost effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed wall model, used with the synthetic eddy method (SEM) to generate inlet turbulence, is investigated in turbulent channel flow, flow over a backward facing step, and confined swirling flows at moderately high Reynolds numbers. Predictions are compared with available DNS, experimental LDV data, as well as wall resolved LES. In all cases, there is at least an order of magnitude reduction in computational cost with no significant loss in prediction accuracy.
I. Fisk
2010-01-01
Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chantal Basurto
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Complex Fenestration Systems (CFS are advanced daylighting systems that are placed on the upper part of a window to improve the indoor daylight distribution within rooms. Due to their double function of daylight redirection and solar protection, they are considered as a solution to mitigate the unfavorable effects due to the admission of direct sunlight in buildings located in prevailing sunny climates (risk of glare and overheating. Accordingly, an adequate assessment of their performance should include an annual evaluation of the main aspects relevant to the use of daylight in such regions: the indoor illuminance distribution, thermal comfort, and visual comfort of the occupant’s. Such evaluation is possible with the use of computer simulations combined with the bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF data of these systems. This study explores the use of available methods to assess the visible and thermal annual performance of five different CFS using advanced computer simulations. To achieve results, an on-site daylight monitoring was carried out in a building located in a predominantly sunny climate location, and the collected data was used to create and calibrate a virtual model used to carry-out the simulations. The results can be employed to select the CFS, which improves visual and thermal interior environment for the occupants.
Pan, Yuliang; Wang, Zixiang; Zhan, Weihua; Deng, Lei
2018-05-01
Identifying RNA-binding residues, especially energetically favored hot spots, can provide valuable clues for understanding the mechanisms and functional importance of protein-RNA interactions. Yet, limited availability of experimentally recognized energy hot spots in protein-RNA crystal structures leads to the difficulties in developing empirical identification approaches. Computational prediction of RNA-binding hot spot residues is still in its infant stage. Here, we describe a computational method, PrabHot (Prediction of protein-RNA binding hot spots), that can effectively detect hot spot residues on protein-RNA binding interfaces using an ensemble of conceptually different machine learning classifiers. Residue interaction network features and new solvent exposure characteristics are combined together and selected for classification with the Boruta algorithm. In particular, two new reference datasets (benchmark and independent) have been generated containing 107 hot spots from 47 known protein-RNA complex structures. In 10-fold cross-validation on the training dataset, PrabHot achieves promising performances with an AUC score of 0.86 and a sensitivity of 0.78, which are significantly better than that of the pioneer RNA-binding hot spot prediction method HotSPRing. We also demonstrate the capability of our proposed method on the independent test dataset and gain a competitive advantage as a result. The PrabHot webserver is freely available at http://denglab.org/PrabHot/. leideng@csu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
High performance computing and communications: Advancing the frontiers of information technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-12-31
This report, which supplements the President`s Fiscal Year 1997 Budget, describes the interagency High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The HPCC Program will celebrate its fifth anniversary in October 1996 with an impressive array of accomplishments to its credit. Over its five-year history, the HPCC Program has focused on developing high performance computing and communications technologies that can be applied to computation-intensive applications. Major highlights for FY 1996: (1) High performance computing systems enable practical solutions to complex problems with accuracies not possible five years ago; (2) HPCC-funded research in very large scale networking techniques has been instrumental in the evolution of the Internet, which continues exponential growth in size, speed, and availability of information; (3) The combination of hardware capability measured in gigaflop/s, networking technology measured in gigabit/s, and new computational science techniques for modeling phenomena has demonstrated that very large scale accurate scientific calculations can be executed across heterogeneous parallel processing systems located thousands of miles apart; (4) Federal investments in HPCC software R and D support researchers who pioneered the development of parallel languages and compilers, high performance mathematical, engineering, and scientific libraries, and software tools--technologies that allow scientists to use powerful parallel systems to focus on Federal agency mission applications; and (5) HPCC support for virtual environments has enabled the development of immersive technologies, where researchers can explore and manipulate multi-dimensional scientific and engineering problems. Educational programs fostered by the HPCC Program have brought into classrooms new science and engineering curricula designed to teach computational science. This document contains a small sample of the significant HPCC Program accomplishments in FY 1996.
Kafai, Yasmin B.; Lee, Eunkyoung; Searle, Kristin; Fields, Deborah; Kaplan, Eliot; Lui, Debora
2014-01-01
In this article, we examine the use of electronic textiles (e-textiles) for introducing key computational concepts and practices while broadening perceptions about computing. The starting point of our work was the design and implementation of a curriculum module using the LilyPad Arduino in a pre-AP high school computer science class. To…
Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming
Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md
2013-12-01
Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.
Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramly, Mohammad Rizal; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rahman, Safura Abd; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md
2013-01-01
Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes