WorldWideScience

Sample records for high compression lean

  1. The prevalence of chest compression leaning during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, David A.; Leary, Marion; Smith, Douglas A.; Sutton, Robert M.; Niles, Dana; Herzberg, Daniel L.; Becker, Lance B.; Abella, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest requires the delivery of high-quality chest compressions, encompassing parameters such as adequate rate, depth, and full recoil between compressions. The lack of compression recoil (“leaning” or “incomplete recoil”) has been shown to adversely affect hemodynamics in experimental arrest models, but the prevalence of leaning during actual resuscitation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that leaning varies across resuscitation events, possibly due to rescuer and/or patient characteristics and may worsen over time from rescuer fatigue during continuous chest compressions. Methods This was an observational clinical cohort study at one academic medical center. Data were collected from adult in-hospital and Emergency Department arrest events using monitor/defibrillators that record chest compression characteristics and provide real-time feedback. Results We analyzed 112,569 chest compressions from 108 arrest episodes from 5/2007 to 2/2009. Leaning was present in 98/108 (91%) cases; 12% of all compressions exhibited leaning. Leaning varied widely across cases: 41/108 (38%) of arrest episodes exhibited 20% compression leaning. When evaluating blocks of continuous compressions (>120 sec), only 4/33 (12%) had an increase in leaning over time and 29/33 (88%) showed a decrease (presuscitation care and exhibited a wide distribution, with most leaning within a subset of resuscitations. Leaning decreased over time during continuous chest compression blocks, suggesting that either leaning may not be a function of rescuer fatiguing, or that it may have been mitigated by automated feedback provided during resuscitation episodes. PMID:21482010

  2. Constructing a unique two-phase compressibility factor model for lean gas condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moayyedi, Mahmood; Gharesheikhlou, Aliashghar [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azamifard, Arash; Mosaferi, Emadoddin [Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Generating a reliable experimental model for two-phase compressibility factor in lean gas condensate reservoirs has always been demanding, but it was neglected due to lack of required experimental data. This study presents the main results of constructing the first two-phase compressibility factor model that is completely valid for Iranian lean gas condensate reservoirs. Based on a wide range of experimental data bank for Iranian lean gas condensate reservoirs, a unique two-phase compressibility factor model was generated using design of experiments (DOE) method and neural network technique (ANN). Using DOE, a swift cubic response surface model was generated for two-phase compressibility factor as a function of some selected fluid parameters for lean gas condensate fluids. The proposed DOE and ANN models were finally validated using four new independent data series. The results showed that there is a good agreement between experimental data and the proposed models. In the end, a detailed comparison was made between the results of proposed models.

  3. Constructing a unique two-phase compressibility factor model for lean gas condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moayyedi, Mahmood; Gharesheikhlou, Aliashghar; Azamifard, Arash; Mosaferi, Emadoddin

    2015-01-01

    Generating a reliable experimental model for two-phase compressibility factor in lean gas condensate reservoirs has always been demanding, but it was neglected due to lack of required experimental data. This study presents the main results of constructing the first two-phase compressibility factor model that is completely valid for Iranian lean gas condensate reservoirs. Based on a wide range of experimental data bank for Iranian lean gas condensate reservoirs, a unique two-phase compressibility factor model was generated using design of experiments (DOE) method and neural network technique (ANN). Using DOE, a swift cubic response surface model was generated for two-phase compressibility factor as a function of some selected fluid parameters for lean gas condensate fluids. The proposed DOE and ANN models were finally validated using four new independent data series. The results showed that there is a good agreement between experimental data and the proposed models. In the end, a detailed comparison was made between the results of proposed models

  4. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  5. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware.

  6. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...

  7. High-quality compressive ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heyan; Zhou, Cheng; Tian, Tian; Liu, Dongqi; Song, Lijun

    2018-04-01

    We propose a high-quality compressive ghost imaging method based on projected Landweber regularization and guided filter, which effectively reduce the undersampling noise and improve the resolution. In our scheme, the original object is reconstructed by decomposing of regularization and denoising steps instead of solving a minimization problem in compressive reconstruction process. The simulation and experimental results show that our method can obtain high ghost imaging quality in terms of PSNR and visual observation.

  8. Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laxmi; Rahman, Daleef; Routray, Aurobinda

    2018-05-01

    The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov predictor, linear predictor, context-based error modeling, multivariate autoregression (MVAR), and a low complexity bivariate model have been examined and their performances have been compared. Furthermore, a high compression algorithm named general MVAR and a modified context-based error modeling for multichannel EEG have been proposed. The resulting compression algorithm produces a higher relative compression ratio of 70.64% on average compared with the existing methods, and in some cases, it goes up to 83.06%. The proposed methods are designed to compress a large amount of multichannel EEG data efficiently so that the data storage and transmission bandwidth can be effectively used. These methods have been validated using several experimental multichannel EEG recordings of different subjects and publicly available standard databases. The satisfactory parametric measures of these methods, namely percent-root-mean square distortion, peak signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and cross correlation, show their superiority over the state-of-the-art compression methods.

  9. A high compression crystal growth system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, H.F.; Walton, A.A.; Powell, B.M.; Dolling, G.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the construction and operating procedure for a high compression crystal growth system, capable of growing single crystals from the fluid phase over the temperature range of 4.2 K to 300 K, at pressures up to 900 MPa. Some experimental results obtained with the system are given for solid β-nitrogen. (auth)

  10. Safety reloaded: lean operations and high involvement work practices for sustainable workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Camuffo, Arnaldo; De Stefano, Federica; Paolino, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the recent quest to investigate the human side of organizational sustainability, this study applies a variety of regression analyses to investigate the effects of Lean Operations, High Involvement Work Practices, and management behaviors on occupational safety. It tests and finds support for the hypotheses that Lean Production systems, High Involvement Work Practices, and two specific management behaviors—workers’ capability development (coaching and teaching of workers) and emp...

  11. Thermal characteristics of highly compressed bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueoka, Tooru; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Imamura, S.; Ogawa, Terushige; Murata, Shigemi.

    1990-01-01

    In the disposal of high level radioactive wastes in strata, it is planned to protect the canisters enclosing wastes with buffer materials such as overpacks and clay, therefore, the examination of artificial barrier materials is an important problem. The concept of the disposal in strata and the soil mechanics characteristics of highly compressed bentonite as an artificial barrier material were already reported. In this study, the basic experiment on the thermal characteristics of highly compressed bentonite was carried out, therefore, it is reported. The thermal conductivity of buffer materials is important because the possibility that it determines the temperature of solidified bodies and canisters is high, and the buffer materials may cause the thermal degeneration due to high temperature. Thermophysical properties are roughly divided into thermodynamic property, transport property and optical property. The basic principle of measured thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, the kinds of the measuring method and so on are explained. As for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of highly compressed bentonite, the experimental setup, the procedure, samples and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  12. High-speed and high-ratio referential genome compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuansheng; Peng, Hui; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2017-11-01

    The rapidly increasing number of genomes generated by high-throughput sequencing platforms and assembly algorithms is accompanied by problems in data storage, compression and communication. Traditional compression algorithms are unable to meet the demand of high compression ratio due to the intrinsic challenging features of DNA sequences such as small alphabet size, frequent repeats and palindromes. Reference-based lossless compression, by which only the differences between two similar genomes are stored, is a promising approach with high compression ratio. We present a high-performance referential genome compression algorithm named HiRGC. It is based on a 2-bit encoding scheme and an advanced greedy-matching search on a hash table. We compare the performance of HiRGC with four state-of-the-art compression methods on a benchmark dataset of eight human genomes. HiRGC takes compress about 21 gigabytes of each set of the seven target genomes into 96-260 megabytes, achieving compression ratios of 217 to 82 times. This performance is at least 1.9 times better than the best competing algorithm on its best case. Our compression speed is also at least 2.9 times faster. HiRGC is stable and robust to deal with different reference genomes. In contrast, the competing methods' performance varies widely on different reference genomes. More experiments on 100 human genomes from the 1000 Genome Project and on genomes of several other species again demonstrate that HiRGC's performance is consistently excellent. The C ++ and Java source codes of our algorithm are freely available for academic and non-commercial use. They can be downloaded from https://github.com/yuansliu/HiRGC. jinyan.li@uts.edu.au. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    . A framework for describing levels of lean capability is presented, based on a brief review of the literature and experiences from 12 Danish companies currently implementing lean. Although still in its emerging phase, the framework contributes to both theory and practice by describing developmental stages......Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  14. High-speed reconstruction of compressed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.

    1990-07-01

    A compression scheme is described that allows high-definition radiological images with greater than 8-bit intensity resolution to be represented by 8-bit pixels. Reconstruction of the images with their original intensity resolution can be carried out by means of a pipeline architecture suitable for compact, high-speed implementation. A reconstruction system is described that can be fabricated according to this approach and placed between an 8-bit display buffer and the display's video system thereby allowing contrast control of images at video rates. Results for 50 CR chest images are described showing that error-free reconstruction of the original 10-bit CR images can be achieved.

  15. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (Pcontent of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (Pbacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet.

  16. Dietary B vitamin needs of strains of pigs with high and moderate lean growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahly, T S; Williams, N H; Lutz, T R; Ewan, R C; Swenson, S G

    2007-01-01

    Ten sets of 5 littermate pigs from each of 2 genetic strains were utilized to determine the impact of the dietary concentration of 5 B vitamins (riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, cobalamin, and folacin) on growth from 9 to 28 kg of BW in pigs with high or moderate capacity for lean growth. All pigs (penned individually) were reared via a segregated, early weaning scheme, so that the lean growth potential of each strain could be expressed. The basal diet provided the 5 test vitamins at concentrations of total and estimated bioavailability equivalent to a minimum of 100 and 70%, respectively, of their estimated requirements (NRC, 1998) for 5- to 10-kg pigs. At a BW of 9 +/- 0.9 kg, pigs within each litter were allotted to the basal diet supplemented with sources of the 5 test vitamins equivalent to an additional 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400% (bioavailable) of the NRC requirements. Pigs from the high lean strain consumed less feed (P vitamin concentrations were increased. However, the dietary B vitamin concentrations needed to optimize G:F were greater (P 470% of NRC, 1998) vs. moderate (270%) lean strain. Based on these data, the dietary needs for 1 or more of the 5 B vitamins are greater than current NRC (1998) estimates, particularly in pigs expressing a high rate of lean tissue growth. The greater need for these vitamins is not associated with greater dietary energy intake or body energy accretion rate but is potentially due to shifts in the predominant metabolic pathways.

  17. Governing highly performing lean team behaviors : A mixed-methods longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dun, Desirée H.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Work teams go through multiple performance cycles; initially highly performing teams may experience a decline in subsequent performance and vice-versa. This inductive study focuses on team-behavioral and contextual predictors of high lean team performance. Rooted in both the IMOI model and reviewing

  18. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  19. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  20. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...

  1. Compression Behavior of High Performance Polymeric Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding has proven to be effective in improving the compressive strength of rigid-rod polymeric fibers without resulting in a decrease in tensile strength while covalent crosslinking results in brittle fibers...

  2. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. NO{sub x} formation in lean premixed combustion of methane at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, K U.M.; Griebel, P; Schaeren, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    High pressure experiments in a jet-stirred reactor have been performed to study the NO{sub x} formation in lean premixed combustion of methane/air mixtures. The experimental results are compared with numerical predictions using four well known reaction mechanisms and a model which consists of a series of two perfectly stirred reactors and a plug flow reactor. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  4. Bust economics: foragers choose high quality habitats in lean times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny S. Bleicher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In environments where food resources are spatially variable and temporarily impoverished, consumers that encounter habitat patches with different food density should focus their foraging initially where food density is highest before they move to patches where food density is lower. Increasing missed opportunity costs should drive individuals progressively to patches with lower food density as resources in the initially high food density patches deplete. To test these expectations, we assessed the foraging decisions of two species of dasyurid marsupials (dunnarts: Sminthopsis hirtipes and S. youngsoni during a deep drought, or bust period, in the Simpson Desert of central Australia. Dunnarts were allowed access to three patches containing different food densities using an interview chamber experiment. Both species exhibited clear preference for the high density over the lower food density patches as measured in total harvested resources. Similarly, when measuring the proportion of resources harvested within the patches, we observed a marginal preference for patches with initially high densities. Models analyzing behavioral choices at the population level found no differences in behavior between the two species, but models analyzing choices at the individual level uncovered some variation. We conclude that dunnarts can distinguish between habitat patches with different densities of food and preferentially exploit the most valuable. As our observations were made during bust conditions, experiments should be repeated during boom times to assess the foraging economics of dunnarts when environmental resources are high.

  5. High Bit-Depth Medical Image Compression With HEVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Saurin S; Ruiz, Damian; Kalva, Hari; Fernandez-Escribano, Gerardo; Adzic, Velibor

    2018-03-01

    Efficient storing and retrieval of medical images has direct impact on reducing costs and improving access in cloud-based health care services. JPEG 2000 is currently the commonly used compression format for medical images shared using the DICOM standard. However, new formats such as high efficiency video coding (HEVC) can provide better compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Furthermore, JPEG 2000 is not suitable for efficiently storing image series and 3-D imagery. Using HEVC, a single format can support all forms of medical images. This paper presents the use of HEVC for diagnostically acceptable medical image compression, focusing on compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Diagnostically acceptable lossy compression and complexity of high bit-depth medical image compression are studied. Based on an established medically acceptable compression range for JPEG 2000, this paper establishes acceptable HEVC compression range for medical imaging applications. Experimental results show that using HEVC can increase the compression performance, compared to JPEG 2000, by over 54%. Along with this, a new method for reducing computational complexity of HEVC encoding for medical images is proposed. Results show that HEVC intra encoding complexity can be reduced by over 55% with negligible increase in file size.

  6. Monte Carlo analysis of highly compressed fissile assemblies. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspet, R.; Baird, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Laserinduced fission of highly compressed bare fissionable spheres is analyzed using Monte Carlo techniques. The critical mass and critical radius as a function of density are calculated and the fission energy yield is calculated and compared with the input laser energy necessary to achieve compression to criticality. (orig.) [de

  7. A checkpoint compression study for high-performance computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibtesham, Dewan [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Ferreira, Kurt B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable System Software Dept.; Arnold, Dorian [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    2015-02-17

    As high-performance computing systems continue to increase in size and complexity, higher failure rates and increased overheads for checkpoint/restart (CR) protocols have raised concerns about the practical viability of CR protocols for future systems. Previously, compression has proven to be a viable approach for reducing checkpoint data volumes and, thereby, reducing CR protocol overhead leading to improved application performance. In this article, we further explore compression-based CR optimization by exploring its baseline performance and scaling properties, evaluating whether improved compression algorithms might lead to even better application performance and comparing checkpoint compression against and alongside other software- and hardware-based optimizations. Our results highlights are: (1) compression is a very viable CR optimization; (2) generic, text-based compression algorithms appear to perform near optimally for checkpoint data compression and faster compression algorithms will not lead to better application performance; (3) compression-based optimizations fare well against and alongside other software-based optimizations; and (4) while hardware-based optimizations outperform software-based ones, they are not as cost effective.

  8. Early deprivation increases high-leaning behavior, a novel anxiety-like behavior, in the open field test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniishi, Hiroshi; Ichisaka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Miki; Ikubo, Natsuko; Matsuda, Sae; Futora, Eri; Harada, Riho; Ishihara, Kohei; Hata, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    The open field test is one of the most popular ethological tests to assess anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of early deprivation (ED), a model of early life stress, on anxiety-like behavior in rats. In ED animals, we failed to find significant changes in the time spent in the center or thigmotaxis area of the open field, the common indexes of anxiety-like behavior. However, we found a significant increase in high-leaning behavior in which animals lean against the wall standing on their hindlimbs while touching the wall with their forepaws at a high position. The high-leaning behavior was decreased by treatment with an anxiolytic, diazepam, and it was increased under intense illumination as observed in the center activity. In addition, we compared the high-leaning behavior and center activity under various illumination intensities and found that the high-leaning behavior is more sensitive to illumination intensity than the center activity in the particular illumination range. These results suggest that the high-leaning behavior is a novel anxiety-like behavior in the open field test that can complement the center activity to assess the anxiety state of rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  9. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and its relationship with impaired glucose regulation in lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Han, Ji Eun; Kim, You Shin; Won, Hyung Jae; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik

    2012-04-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder, also associated with the metabolic syndrome. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a marker of low-grade chronic inflammation is a potent predictor of cardiovascular events, closely linked to metabolic syndrome features and higher in patients with PCOS. However, hs-CRP in lean patients with PCOS has not been fully evaluated and few data are available. We aimed to investigate the relation between glucose intolerance and hs-CRP levels in lean patients with PCOS, and to evaluate the possible relationship between hs-CRP and PCOS by evaluating PCOS-related metabolic abnormalities in Korean women. We consecutively recruited 115 lean (BMI PCOS and 103 lean healthy controls. The PCOS group was divided two groups: impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance group (NGT). In lean patients with PCOS, hs-CRP level was higher in the IGR group than in the NGT group (0.60 ± 1.37 versus 0.18 ± 0.46, p(Bonf) = 0.023) and other metabolic risk factors were also higher in the IGR group than in the NGT group. And there were close relationships between hs-CRP level and metabolic risk factor, such as 2 h postprandial insulin level in the lean patients with PCOS.

  10. Layered compression for high-precision depth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Dan; Fu, Jingjing; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2015-12-01

    With the development of depth data acquisition technologies, access to high-precision depth with more than 8-b depths has become much easier and determining how to efficiently represent and compress high-precision depth is essential for practical depth storage and transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a layered high-precision depth compression framework based on an 8-b image/video encoder to achieve efficient compression with low complexity. Within this framework, considering the characteristics of the high-precision depth, a depth map is partitioned into two layers: 1) the most significant bits (MSBs) layer and 2) the least significant bits (LSBs) layer. The MSBs layer provides rough depth value distribution, while the LSBs layer records the details of the depth value variation. For the MSBs layer, an error-controllable pixel domain encoding scheme is proposed to exploit the data correlation of the general depth information with sharp edges and to guarantee the data format of LSBs layer is 8 b after taking the quantization error from MSBs layer. For the LSBs layer, standard 8-b image/video codec is leveraged to perform the compression. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed coding scheme can achieve real-time depth compression with satisfactory reconstruction quality. Moreover, the compressed depth data generated from this scheme can achieve better performance in view synthesis and gesture recognition applications compared with the conventional coding schemes because of the error control algorithm.

  11. Performance effect of Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    To understand how the practices of Lean affect performance, we tested and validated a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model. We used a cross-sectional survey of 200 Danish companies that indicated that they used Lean. Thus, this study is especially...... relevant to Denmark, but the approach is empirically more generalizable. We show that the effect of Lean standardized flow production practices on performance is mediated by analytical continuous improvement empowerment practices and by delegation of decision rights practices. Thus, standardized flow...... of decision rights. The paper provides evidence that supports the view that middle managers’ actions further enhance performance in Lean companies. The right Lean behavior by middle managers increases the level of analytical continuous improvement empowerment. In total, high-performing Lean companies...

  12. Healthcare Lean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, John C

    2003-01-01

    Lean Thinking is an integrated approach to designing, doing and improving the work of people that have come together to produce and deliver goods, services and information. Healthcare Lean is based on the Toyota production system and applies concepts and techniques of Lean Thinking to hospitals and physician practices.

  13. THE LEAN SIX SIGMAAPPROACH FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT: A CASE STUDY IN A HIGH QUALITY TUSCANY WINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of a Lean Six Sigma (LSS project to a winemaking process in a high-quality, Italian winery. LSS is used to focus on the problem through a quantitative analysis of waste and quality performances. The LSS basic algorithm (called “DMAIC” helps to detect and quantify critical aspects of the process for transferring liquid used in the cellar. The improvement solution is developed and applied through the modification of the cellar system and the process procedure. The results obtained with this solution are shown and discussed in this paper, so too the long term reliability of the improved process analyzed. The results obtained by this case study can help to understand the importance of the LSS method to drive the improvement of agricultural and agrofood productions also in terms of environmental impact which is strongly connected to waste reduction.

  14. Fracture Energy of High-Strength Concrete in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Henrik; Brincker, Rune

    is essential for understanding the fracture mechanism of concrete in compression. In this paper a series of tests is reported, carried out for the purpose of studying the fracture mechanical properties of concrete in compression. Including the measurement and study of the descending branch, a new experimental...... method has been used to investigate the influence of boundary conditions, loading rate, size effects and the influence of the strength on the fracture energy of high-strength concrete over the range 70 MPa to 150 MPa, expressed in nominal values....

  15. Influence of curing regimes on compressive strength of ultra high

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper is aimed to identify an efficient curing regime for ultra high performance concrete (UHPC), to achieve a target compressive strength more than 150 MPa, using indigenous materials. The thermal regime plays a vital role due to the limited fineness of ingredients and low water/binder ratio. By activation of the ...

  16. Characterization of Lean Misfire Limits of Mixture Alternative Gaseous Fuels Used for Spark Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing on gaseous fuels as clean, economical and abundant fuels encourages the search for optimum conditions of gas-fueled internal combustion engines. This paper presents the experimental results on the lean operational limits of Recardo E6 engine using gasoline, LPG, NG and hydrogen as fuels. The first appearance of almost motoring cycle was used to define the engine lean limit after the fuel flow was reduced gradually. The effects of compression ratio, engine speed and spark timing on the engine operational limits are presented and discussed in detailed. Increasing compression ratio (CR extend the lean limits, this appears obviously with hydrogen, which has a wide range of equivalence ratios, while for hydrocarbon fuel octane number affect gasoline, so it can' t work above CR=9:1, and for LPG it reaches CR=12:1, NG reaches CR=15:1 at lean limit operation. Movement from low speeds to medium speeds extended lean misfire limits, while moving from medium to high speeds contracted the lean misfiring limits. NOx, CO and UBHC concentrations increased with CR increase for all fuels, while CO2 concentrations reduced with this increment. NOx concentration increased for medium speeds and reduced for high speeds, but the resulted concentrations were inconcedrable for these lean limits. CO and CO2 increased with engine speed increase, while UBHC reduced with this increment. The hydrogen engine runs with zero CO, CO2 and UNHC concentrations, and altra low levels of NOx concentrations at studied lean misfire limits

  17. Exploring the relation between process design and efficiency in high-volume cataract pathways from a lean thinking perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Ellen J.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Sermeus, Walter; Kop, Lucas M.; Sol, Johannes C.A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare process designs of three high-volume cataract pathways in a lean thinking framework and to explore how efficiency in terms of lead times, hospital visits and costs is related to process design. Design: International retrospective comparative benchmark study with a mixed-method

  18. Lean production

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Bachelor's Thesis is to describe the general principles of lean production and afterwards apply these principles in a particular company. Due to the changing conditions on the world market is among companies growing concern about such innovative business systems. The theoretical part of this work deals with the general characteristics of lean production, including their history and focus on Toyota, as the originator of most lean systems. Mentioned are also the economic aspect...

  19. A novel high-frequency encoding algorithm for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for image compression is proposed whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction from 2D images. The method is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) together with a high-frequency minimization encoding algorithm at compression stage and a new concurrent binary search algorithm at decompression stage. The proposed compression method consists of five main steps: (1) divide the image into blocks and apply DCT to each block; (2) apply a high-frequency minimization method to the AC-coefficients reducing each block by 2/3 resulting in a minimized array; (3) build a look up table of probability data to enable the recovery of the original high frequencies at decompression stage; (4) apply a delta or differential operator to the list of DC-components; and (5) apply arithmetic encoding to the outputs of steps (2) and (4). At decompression stage, the look up table and the concurrent binary search algorithm are used to reconstruct all high-frequency AC-coefficients while the DC-components are decoded by reversing the arithmetic coding. Finally, the inverse DCT recovers the original image. We tested the technique by compressing and decompressing 2D images including images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction. The technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results demonstrate that the proposed compression method is perceptually superior to JPEG with equivalent quality to JPEG2000. Concerning 3D surface reconstruction from images, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000.

  20. High speed fluorescence imaging with compressed ultrafast photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. V.; Mason, J. D.; Beier, H. T.; Bixler, J. N.

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescent lifetime imaging is an optical technique that facilitates imaging molecular interactions and cellular functions. Because the excited lifetime of a fluorophore is sensitive to its local microenvironment,1, 2 measurement of fluorescent lifetimes can be used to accurately detect regional changes in temperature, pH, and ion concentration. However, typical state of the art fluorescent lifetime methods are severely limited when it comes to acquisition time (on the order of seconds to minutes) and video rate imaging. Here we show that compressed ultrafast photography (CUP) can be used in conjunction with fluorescent lifetime imaging to overcome these acquisition rate limitations. Frame rates up to one hundred billion frames per second have been demonstrated with compressed ultrafast photography using a streak camera.3 These rates are achieved by encoding time in the spatial direction with a pseudo-random binary pattern. The time domain information is then reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm, resulting in a cube of data (x,y,t) for each readout image. Thus, application of compressed ultrafast photography will allow us to acquire an entire fluorescent lifetime image with a single laser pulse. Using a streak camera with a high-speed CMOS camera, acquisition rates of 100 frames per second can be achieved, which will significantly enhance our ability to quantitatively measure complex biological events with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability of this technique to do single-shot fluorescent lifetime imaging of cells and microspheres.

  1. Effectiveness of feedback with a smartwatch for high-quality chest compressions during adult cardiac arrest: A randomized controlled simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chiwon; Lee, Juncheol; Oh, Jaehoon; Song, Yeongtak; Chee, Youngjoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Shin, Hyungoo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for using smartwatches with a built-in accelerometer as feedback devices for high-quality chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported the effects of this feedback on chest compressions in action. A randomized, parallel controlled study of 40 senior medical students was conducted to examine the effect of chest compression feedback via a smartwatch during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of manikins. A feedback application was developed for the smartwatch, in which visual feedback was provided for chest compression depth and rate. Vibrations from smartwatch were used to indicate the chest compression rate. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups, and they performed chest compressions on manikins for 2 min continuously with or without feedback, respectively. The proportion of accurate chest compression depth (≥5 cm and ≤6 cm) was assessed as the primary outcome, and the chest compression depth, chest compression rate, and the proportion of complete chest decompression (≤1 cm of residual leaning) were recorded as secondary outcomes. The proportion of accurate chest compression depth in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (64.6±7.8% versus 43.1±28.3%; p = 0.02). The mean compression depth and rate and the proportion of complete chest decompressions did not differ significantly between the two groups (all p>0.05). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related feedback via a smartwatch could provide assistance with respect to the ideal range of chest compression depth, and this can easily be applied to patients with out-of-hospital arrest by rescuers who wear smartwatches.

  2. Offshore compression system design for low cost high and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Carlos J. Rocha de O.; Carrijo Neto, Antonio Dias; Cordeiro, Alexandre Franca [Chemtech Engineering Services and Software Ltd., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Special Projects Div.], Emails: antonio.carrijo@chemtech.com.br, carlos.rocha@chemtech.com.br, alexandre.cordeiro@chemtech.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In the offshore oil fields, the oil streams coming from the wells usually have significant amounts of gas. This gas is separated at low pressure and has to be compressed to the export pipeline pressure, usually at high pressure to reduce the needed diameter of the pipelines. In the past, this gases where flared, but nowadays there are a increasing pressure for the energy efficiency improvement of the oil rigs and the use of this gaseous fraction. The most expensive equipment of this kind of plant are the compression and power generation systems, being the second a strong function of the first, because the most power consuming equipment are the compressors. For this reason, the optimization of the compression system in terms of efficiency and cost are determinant to the plant profit. The availability of the plants also have a strong influence in the plant profit, specially in gas fields where the products have a relatively low aggregated value, compared to oil. Due this, the third design variable of the compression system becomes the reliability. As high the reliability, larger will be the plant production. The main ways to improve the reliability of compression system are the use of multiple compression trains in parallel, in a 2x50% or 3x50% configuration, with one in stand-by. Such configurations are possible and have some advantages and disadvantages, but the main side effect is the increase of the cost. This is the offshore common practice, but that does not always significantly improve the plant availability, depending of the previous process system. A series arrangement and a critical evaluation of the overall system in some cases can provide a cheaper system with equal or better performance. This paper shows a case study of the procedure to evaluate a compression system design to improve the reliability but without extreme cost increase, balancing the number of equipment, the series or parallel arrangement, and the driver selection. Two cases studies will be

  3. Negotiating Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Muniche, Mahad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how negotiations between the constituencies affect the processes and outcomes of lean projects in Danish public sector organisations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative analysis of interviews with managers...... projects in the Danish public sector. It cannot be concluded that the findings can be generalised to reflect all types of lean projects across organisational and geographical settings. Originality/value – The paper adds value to the relatively scarce literature on lean management in the public sector...... and employees who have participated in lean projects in the Danish public sector. Negotiated order theory serves as the overarching theoretical framework for the analysis. Findings – The paper concludes that the processes and outcomes of lean depend not only on the technology itself, but also the negotiation...

  4. Crystal structure of actinide metals at high compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, L.; Soederlind, P.

    1995-08-01

    The crystal structures of some light actinide metals are studied theoretically as a function of applied pressure. The first principles electronic structure theory is formulated in the framework of density functional theory, with the gradient corrected local density approximation of the exchange-correlation functional. The light actinide metals are shown to be well described as itinerant (metallic) f-electron metals and generally, they display a crystal structure which have, in agreement with previous theoretical suggestions, increasing degree of symmetry and closed-packing upon compression. The theoretical calculations agree well with available experimental data. At very high compression, the theory predicts closed-packed structures such as the fcc or the hcp structures or the nearly closed-packed bcc structure for the light actinide metals. A simple canonical band picture is presented to explain in which particular closed-packed form these metals will crystallize at ultra-high pressure

  5. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  6. [Compressive and bend strength of experimental admixed high copper alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourai, P; Paximada, H; Lagouvardos, P; Douvitsas, G

    1988-01-01

    Mixed alloys for dental amalgams have been used mainly in the form of admixed alloys, where eutectic spheres are blend with conventional flakes. In the present study the compressive strength, bend strength and microstructure of two high-copper alloys (Tytin, Ana-2000) is compared with three experimental alloys prepared of the two high copper by mixing them in proportions of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 by weight. The results revealed that experimental alloys inherited high early and final strength values without any significant change in their microstructure.

  7. Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nourian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.

  8. Collapse of the balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery due to minor external compression in a lean patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Eun; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Dae Seob; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Jung Eun [Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Beom; Ahn, Jong Hwa [Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    A 60-year-old lean man with claudication due to severe stenosis of the right common iliac artery (CIA) underwent balloon-expandable stent deployment. Nineteen months later, claudication and lower limb ischemia in the patient recurred after minor external pressure and computed tomography indicated collapse of the right CIA stent. We performed balloon angioplasty again and self-expandable stent deployment was performed, and the patient's symptoms were relieved. We suggest that the CIA in a lean person could be susceptible to external pressure.

  9. Collapse of the balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery due to minor external compression in a lean patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Eun; Choi, Ho Cheol; Choi, Dae Seob; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Jung Eun; Cho, Su Beom; Ahn, Jong Hwa

    2017-01-01

    A 60-year-old lean man with claudication due to severe stenosis of the right common iliac artery (CIA) underwent balloon-expandable stent deployment. Nineteen months later, claudication and lower limb ischemia in the patient recurred after minor external pressure and computed tomography indicated collapse of the right CIA stent. We performed balloon angioplasty again and self-expandable stent deployment was performed, and the patient's symptoms were relieved. We suggest that the CIA in a lean person could be susceptible to external pressure

  10. Differential effects of high-fat and high-carbohydrate isoenergetic meals on cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, N; Tsigos, C; Perea, D; Koukou, E; Kyriaki, D; Kitsou, E; Daskas, S; Daifotis, Z; Makrilakis, K; Raptis, S A; Katsilambros, N

    2003-11-01

    Food ingestion can influence autonomic nervous system activity. This study compares the effects of 2 different isoenergetic meals on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, in lean and obese women. Fifteen lean and 15 obese healthy women were examined on 2 occasions: after a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich and after a fat-rich test meal. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, resting energy expenditure, plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, and NE, as well as spectral analysis of the HRV, were performed at baseline and every 1 hour for 3 hours after meals. At baseline, obese women had higher SNS activity than lean controls (higher values of low-to-high frequency ratio [LF/HF], 1.52 +/- 0.31 v 0.78 +/- 0.13, P=.04; and plasma NE levels, 405.6 +/- 197.9 v 240.5 +/- 95.8 pg/mL, Pmeal a greater increase in LF/HF and in plasma NE levels was observed in lean, compared to obese women (1.21 +/- 0.6 v 0.32 +/- 0.06, P=.04; and 102.9 +/- 35.4 v 38.7 +/- 12.3 pg/mL, P=.01, respectively), while no differences were observed after the fat-rich meal. Meal-induced thermogenesis was higher after the CHO-rich as compared to the fat-rich meal and was comparable between lean and obese women. Changes in HRV were not associated with the thermogenic response to the test meals. In conclusion, consumption of a CHO-rich meal causes greater cardiac SNS activation in lean than in obese women, while fat ingestion does not result in any appreciable change in either group. SNS activation does not appear to influence the thermic effect of the food in either lean or obese women.

  11. The Effect of Humidity on the Knock Behavior in a Medium BMEP Lean-Burn High-Speed Gas Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Vincent Martijn; Gersen, Sander; van Dijk, Gerco; Mundt, Torsten; Levinsky, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The effects of air humidity on the knock characteristics of fuels are investigated in a lean-burn, high-speed medium BMEP engine fueled with a CH4 + 4.7 mole% C3H8 gas mixture. Experiments are carried out with humidity ratios ranging from 4.3 to 11 g H2O/kg dry air. The measured pressure profiles at

  12. Lean Management

    OpenAIRE

    Picot, Arnold

    1994-01-01

    In this article the possibility of increase of competitiveness of the domestic enterprises by means of Lean management system is considered, and also the analysis of introduction of the mentioned system at the Russian enterprises is carried out. Besides, the key conditions necessary for successful introduction of system are presented. Lean management is a world-spread way of solving the problems, aimed at making the company competitive; it is the organized activity of staff of the company, fo...

  13. Nutrigenomics approach elucidates health-promoting effects of high vegetable intake in lean and obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Erk, M.J. van; Klöpping, W.A.A.; Pellis, L.; Wopereis, S.; Bijlsma, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether vegetable consumption according to guidelines has beneficial health effects determined with classical biomarkers and nutrigenomics technologies. Fifteen lean (age 36 ± 7 years; BMI 23.4 ± 1.7 kg m−2) and 17 obese (age 40 ± 6 years; BMI 30.3 ± 2.4 kg m−2) men consumed 50-

  14. High temperature compression tests performed on doped fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguay, C.; Mocellin, A.; Dehaudt, P. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, CEA Grenoble (France); Fantozzi, G. [INSA Lyon - GEMPPM, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-12-31

    The use of additives of corundum structure M{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M=Cr, Al) is an effective way of promoting grain growth of uranium dioxide. The high-temperature compressive deformation of large-grained UO{sub 2} doped with these oxides has been investigated and compared with that of pure UO{sub 2} with a standard microstructure. Such doped fuels are expected to exhibit enhanced plasticity. Their use would therefore reduce the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and thus improve the performances of the nuclear fuel. (orig.) 5 refs.

  15. High temperature compression tests performed on doped fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguay, C.; Mocellin, A.; Dehaudt, P.; Fantozzi, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of additives of corundum structure M 2 O 3 (M=Cr, Al) is an effective way of promoting grain growth of uranium dioxide. The high-temperature compressive deformation of large-grained UO 2 doped with these oxides has been investigated and compared with that of pure UO 2 with a standard microstructure. Such doped fuels are expected to exhibit enhanced plasticity. Their use would therefore reduce the pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and thus improve the performances of the nuclear fuel. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  17. Experimental Compressibility of Molten Hedenbergite at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, C. B.; Barnett, R. G.; Guo, X.; Lange, R. A.; Waller, C.; Asimow, P. D.

    2010-12-01

    Experiments using the sink/float method have bracketed the density of molten hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) at high pressures and temperatures. The experiments are the first of their kind to determine the compressibility of molten hedenbergite at high pressure and are part of a collaborative effort to establish a new database for an array of silicate melt compositions, which will contribute to the development of an empirically based predictive model that will allow calculation of silicate liquid density and compressibility over a wide range of P-T-X conditions where melting could occur in the Earth. Each melt composition will be measured using: (i) double-bob Archimedean method for melt density and thermal expansion at ambient pressure, (ii) sound speed measurements on liquids to constrain melt compressibility at ambient pressure, (iii) sink/float technique to measure melt density to 15 GPa, and (iv) shock wave measurements of P-V-E equation of state and temperature between 10 and 150 GPa. Companion abstracts on molten fayalite (Waller et al., 2010) and liquid mixes of hedenbergite-diopside and anorthite-hedenbergite-diopside (Guo and Lange, 2010) are also presented at this meeting. In the present study, the hedenbergite starting material was synthesized at the Experimental Petrology Lab, University of Michigan, where melt density, thermal expansion, and sound speed measurements were also carried out. The starting material has also been loaded into targets at the Caltech Shockwave Lab, and experiments there are currently underway. We report here preliminary results from static compression measurement performed at the Department of Petrology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, and the High Pressure Lab, Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico. Experiments were carried out in Quick Press piston-cylinder devices and a Walker-style multi-anvil device. Sink/float marker spheres implemented were gem quality synthetic forsterite (Fo100), San Carlos olivine (Fo90), and

  18. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age ( χ̄ = 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age ( χ̄ = 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  19. THE TURBULENT DYNAMO IN HIGHLY COMPRESSIBLE SUPERSONIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Schober, Jennifer [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bovino, Stefano; Schleicher, Dominik R. G., E-mail: christoph.federrath@anu.edu.au [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The turbulent dynamo may explain the origin of cosmic magnetism. While the exponential amplification of magnetic fields has been studied for incompressible gases, little is known about dynamo action in highly compressible, supersonic plasmas, such as the interstellar medium of galaxies and the early universe. Here we perform the first quantitative comparison of theoretical models of the dynamo growth rate and saturation level with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of supersonic turbulence with grid resolutions of up to 1024{sup 3} cells. We obtain numerical convergence and find that dynamo action occurs for both low and high magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm = ν/η = 0.1-10 (the ratio of viscous to magnetic dissipation), which had so far only been seen for Pm ≥ 1 in supersonic turbulence. We measure the critical magnetic Reynolds number, Rm{sub crit}=129{sub −31}{sup +43}, showing that the compressible dynamo is almost as efficient as in incompressible gas. Considering the physical conditions of the present and early universe, we conclude that magnetic fields need to be taken into account during structure formation from the early to the present cosmic ages, because they suppress gas fragmentation and drive powerful jets and outflows, both greatly affecting the initial mass function of stars.

  20. Lean Leadership - Organizational Buy - Ins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Revathi Iyer

    2017-05-01

    Leadership is a constant activity and evolves into a cohesive force towards transformation. Unless leadership is driven into the philosophy of the organization by major improvements not only in productivity but also in speed quality customer loyalty employee engagement and most importantly growth there can be no effective buy INS. Hence if lean management and lean thinking have to be a part of organization philosophy then leadership will be able to identify that all dimensions of a transformation at once and that recognizing that each provides crucial support to the others. Radnor Z. and Bucci G. 2007. lean leadership attempts to bring the voice of the customer at the heart of the business. Leadership in lean is geared to helping employees to work together more effectively to deliver exactly what customers value. Lean leadership should also be able to strengthen performance systems. Lean leadership supports and identifies those nodes and inputs to ensure that targets and performances are pinned down to respective processes and resources are deployed to the necessary inputs. Lean also encourages root-cause problem solving lean leadership allows for high levels of organization skills and shifts lean responsibility towards the front line and demands new styles of leadership. These new frontiers of leadership are what channelizes growth and make a good lean leader. Pearce C. L. amp Conger J. A. 2003

  1. Type-I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Wise, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    The output pulses of a commercial high-power femtosecond fiber laser or amplifier are typically around 300–500 fs with wavelengths of approximately 1030 nm and tens of microjoules of pulse energy. Here, we present a numerical study of cascaded quadratic soliton compression of such pulses in LiNbO3....... However, the strong group-velocity dispersion implies that the pulses can achieve moderate compression to durations of less than 130 fs in available crystal lengths. Most of the pulse energy is conserved because the compression is moderate. The effects of diffraction and spatial walk-off are addressed......, and in particular the latter could become an issue when compressing such long crystals (around 10 cm long). We finally show that the second harmonic contains a short pulse locked to the pump and a long multi-picosecond red-shifted detrimental component. The latter is caused by the nonlocal effects...

  2. Initial Results on Neutralized Drift Compression Experiments (NDCX-IA) for High Intensity Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Prabir K; Baca, David; Bieniosek, Frank; Coleman, Joshua E; Davidson, Ronald C; Efthimion, Philip; Eylon, Shmuel; Gilson, Erik P; Grant Logan, B; Greenway, Wayne; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Leitner, Matthaeus; Rose, David; Sefkow, Adam; Sharp, William M; Shuman, Derek; Thoma, Carsten H; Vanecek, David; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam neutralization and compression experiments are designed to determine the feasibility of using compressed high intensity ion beams for high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and for inertial fusion power. To quantitatively ascertain the various mechanisms and methods for beam compression, the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) facility is being constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In the first compression experiment, a 260 KeV, 25 mA, K+ ion beam of centimeters size is radially compressed to a mm size spot by neutralization in a meter-long plasma column and beam peak current is longitudinally compressed by an induction velocity tilt core. Instrumentation, preliminary results of the experiments, and practical limits of compression are presented. These include parameters such as emittance, degree of neutralization, velocity tilt time profile, and accuracy of measurements (fast and spatially high resolution diagnostic) are discussed.

  3. Compressible dynamic stall control using high momentum microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beahan, James J.; Shih, Chiang; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Kumar, Rajan; Chandrasekhara, Muguru S.

    2014-09-01

    Control of the dynamic stall process of a NACA 0015 airfoil undergoing periodic pitching motion is investigated experimentally at the NASA Ames compressible dynamic stall facility. Multiple microjet nozzles distributed uniformly in the first 12 % chord from the airfoil's leading edge are used for the dynamic stall control. Point diffraction interferometry technique is used to characterize the control effectiveness, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The microjet control has been found to be very effective in suppressing both the emergence of the dynamic stall vortex and the associated massive flow separation at the entire operating range of angles of attack. At the high Mach number ( M = 0.4), the use of microjets appears to eliminate the shock structures that are responsible for triggering the shock-induced separation, establishing the fact that the use of microjets is effective in controlling dynamic stall with a strong compressibility effect. In general, microjet control has an overall positive effect in terms of maintaining leading edge suction pressure and preventing flow separation.

  4. Overlap of electron core states for very high compressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, G.

    1985-01-01

    At normal density and for modest compressions, the electronic structure of a metal can be accurately described by treating the conduction electrons and their interactions with the usual methods of band theory. The core electrons remain essentially the same as for an isolated free atom and do not participate in the bonding forces responsible for creating a condensed phase. As the density increases, the core electrons begin to ''see'' one another as the overlap of the tails of wave functions can no longer be neglected. The electronic structure of the core electrons is responsible for an effective repulsive interaction that eventually becomes free-electron-like at very high compressions. The electronic structure of the interacting core electrons may be treated in a simple manner using the Atomic Surface Method (ASM). The ASM is a first-principles treatment of the electronic structure involving a rigorous integration of the Schroedinger equation within the atomic-sphere approximation. Solid phase wave functions are constructed from isolated atom wave functions and the band width W/sub l/ and the center of gravity of the band C/sub l/ are obtained from simple formulas. The ASM can also utilize analytic forms of the atomic wave functions and thus provide direct functional dependence of various aspects of the electronic structure. Of particular use in understanding the behavior of the core electrons, the ASM provides the analytic density dependence of the band widths and positions. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Lean healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Donna

    2008-01-01

    As healthcare organizations look for new and improved ways to reduce costs and still offer quality healthcare, many are turning to the Toyota Production System of doing business. Rather than focusing on cutting personnel and assets, "lean healthcare" looks to improve patient satisfaction through improved actions and processes.

  6. Combustion in a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M

    1933-01-01

    An investigation conducted to determine the factors which control the combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine is presented. Indicator cards were taken with the Farnboro indicator and analyzed according to the tangent method devised by Schweitzer. The analysis show that in a quiescent combustion chamber increasing the time lag of auto-ignition increases the maximum rate of combustion. Increasing the maximum rate of combustion increases the tendency for detonation to occur. The results show that by increasing the air temperature during injection the start of combustion can be forced to take place during injection and so prevent detonation from occurring. It is shown that the rate of fuel injection does not in itself control the rate of combustion.

  7. Attempt of multiple stage injection with EGR for high load operation of a premixed compression ignition engine; Tadan funsha ni yoru yokongo asshuku chakka kikan no unten ryoiki kakudai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan); Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-01-25

    By injecting fuel at the very early stage of compression stroke and thus creating homogeneous lean mixture before ignition, (PREDIC ; PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion), simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke was obtained. However, since increasing the mixture equivalence ratio cause knocking, it was difficult to operate at higher load conditions. In this study, in order to reduce combustion rate at high load conditions in a premixed compression ignition engine, multiple stage injection method and EGR were combined, and heterogeneous mixture was made before ignition. The engine test results showed that NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced to less than 50 ppm, without knocking even at full load conditions. In addition, smoke emissions were also maintained below invisible level. It can be understood that the premixing of fuel was advanced, smoke was reduced, and EGR rate was increased, resulting lower heat release rate and NO{sub x} emissions. (author)

  8. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  9. Annual report on the high temperature triaxial compression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, N.D.; Menk, P.; Tully, R.; Houston, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation of the environmental effects on the mechanical and engineering properties of deep-sea sediments was initiated on June 15, 1980. The task is divided into three categories. First, the design and fabrication of a High Temperature Triaxial Compression Device (HITT). Second, an investigation of the mechanical and engineering properties of the deep-sea sediments at temperatures ranging from 277 to 473 degrees kelvin. Third, assist in the development of constitutive relationships and an analytical model which describe the temperature dependent creep deformations of the deep-sea sediments. The environmental conditions under which the soil specimens are to be tested are variations in temperature from 277 to 473 degrees kelvin. The corresponding water pressure will vary up to about 2.75 MPa as required to prevent boiling of the water and assure saturation of the test specimens. Two groups of tests are to be performed. First, triaxial compression tests during which strength measurements and constant head permeability determinations shall be made. Second, constant stress creep tests, during which axial and lateral strains shall be measured. In addition to the aforementioned variables, data shall also be acquired to incorporate the effects of consolidation history, strain rate, and heating rate. The bulk of the triaxial tests are to be performed undrained. The strength measurement tests are to be constant-rate-of-strain and the creep tests are to be constant-stress tests. The study of the mechanical properties of the deep-sea sediments as a function of temperature is an integrated program

  10. Fracture Energy of High-Strength Concrete in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, H.; Brincker, Rune

    1989-01-01

    is essential for understanding the fracture mechanism of concrete in compression. In this paper a series of tests is reported, carried out for the purpose of studying the fracture mechanical properties of concrete in compression. Including the measurement and study of the descending branch, a new experimental...

  11. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  12. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  13. High Normal Uric Acid Levels Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Diabetes in Lean, Normoglycemic Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Vinker, Shlomo; Dinour, Dganit; Leiba, Merav; Twig, Gilad; Holtzman, Eliezer J; Leiba, Adi

    2016-10-01

    The risk associated with serum uric acid (SUA) levels within the normal range is unknown, especially among lean and apparently healthy adults. Evaluating whether high-normal SUA levels, 6.8 mg/dL and below, are associated with an increased diabetes risk, compared with low-normal SUA. This was a cohort study with 10 years of followup involving all clinics of the largest nationally distributed Health Maintenance Organization in Israel. Participants included 469,947 examinees, 40-70 years old at baseline, who had their SUA measured during 2002. We excluded examinees who had hyperuricemia (SUA > 6.8 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose, overweight or obesity and chronic cardiovascular or renal disorders. The final cohort was composed of 30 302 participants. Participants were followed up to a new diagnosis of diabetes during the study period. Odds ratio of developing diabetes among participants with high-normal baseline SUA were compared with low-normal (2 ≤ uric acid lean women when compared with those with low-normal values.

  14. High intensity pulse self-compression in short hollow core capillaries

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Thomas J.; Anderson, Patrick N.; Horak, Peter; Frey, Jeremy G.; Brocklesby, William S.

    2011-01-01

    The drive for shorter pulses for use in techniques such as high harmonic generation and laser wakefield acceleration requires continual improvement in post-laser pulse compression techniques. The two most commonly used methods of pulse compression for high intensity pulses are hollow capillary compression via self-phase modulation (SPM) [1] and the more recently developed filamentation [2]. Both of these methods can require propagation distances of 1-3 m to achieve spectral broadening and com...

  15. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs.

  16. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L.

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs

  17. High-Frequency Chest Compression: A Summary of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara F Dosman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present literature summary is to describe high-frequency chest compression (HFCC, summarize its history and outline study results on its effect on mucolysis, mucus transport, pulmonary function and quality of life. HFCC is a mechanical method of self-administered chest physiotherapy, which induces rapid air movement in and out of the lungs. This mean oscillated volume is an effective method of mucolysis and mucus clearance. HFCC can increase independence. Some studies have shown that HFCC leads to more mucus clearance and better lung function compared with conventional chest physiotherapy. However, HFCC also decreases end-expiratory lung volume, which can lead to increased airway resistance and a decreased oscillated volume. Adding positive end-expiratory pressure to HFCC has been shown to prevent this decrease in end-expiratory lung volume and to increase the oscillated volume. It is possible that the HFCC-induced decrease in end-expiratory lung volume may result in more mucus clearance in airways that remain open by reducing airway size. Adjunctive methods, such as positive end-expiratory pressure, may not always be needed to make HFCC more effective.

  18. Compressive sensing of high betweenness centrality nodes in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Hamidreza; Hasheminezhad, Rouzbeh; Ghalebi K., Elahe; Nazemian, Ali; Grosu, Radu; Movaghar, Ali; Rabiee, Hamid R.

    2018-05-01

    Betweenness centrality is a prominent centrality measure expressing importance of a node within a network, in terms of the fraction of shortest paths passing through that node. Nodes with high betweenness centrality have significant impacts on the spread of influence and idea in social networks, the user activity in mobile phone networks, the contagion process in biological networks, and the bottlenecks in communication networks. Thus, identifying k-highest betweenness centrality nodes in networks will be of great interest in many applications. In this paper, we introduce CS-HiBet, a new method to efficiently detect top- k betweenness centrality nodes in networks, using compressive sensing. CS-HiBet can perform as a distributed algorithm by using only the local information at each node. Hence, it is applicable to large real-world and unknown networks in which the global approaches are usually unrealizable. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by extensive simulations on several synthetic and real-world networks. The experimental results demonstrate that CS-HiBet outperforms the best existing methods with notable improvements.

  19. An empirical review of lean manufacturing and their strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Chahal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of lean manufacturing provides the quality of the products in minimum cost and pro-vides customer satisfaction. Today, the competition level is very high and every industry tries to supply high quality products in nominal cost, so lean is the latest tool to achieve. The objective of this paper is to study different lean concepts under various lean strategies. This study helps to find out the status of lean manufacturing and its ways of implementation. Also in this paper, there is a discussion about lean manufacturing concept, lean waste, lean strategies, lean barriers and cycle of lean implementation. This paper presents a literature review to clear the status of lean manufacturing and their strategies with help of collection of relevant papers.

  20. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression of high-power femtosecond fiber lasers in Lithium Niobate crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Moses, Jeffrey; Wise, Frank W.

    2008-01-01

    The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs.......The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs....

  1. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  2. Material Compressing Test of the High Polymer Part Used in Draft Gear of Heavy Load Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yangang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the actual load cases of heavy load locomotive, the material compressing tests of the high polymer parts used in the locomotive are researched. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing are acquired by means of comparing the many results of the material compressing tests under different test condition. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing is nonlinear in large range of strain, but the relationship is approximately linear in small range of strain. The material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are compared through the tests. The results show that the compressing property of the material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are almost same. The research offers the foundation to study the structure elasticity of the draft gear.

  3. Compression cracking of plastic spheres: a high speed photography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzoub, R.; Chaudhri, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Failure of brittle spheres under compressive loading, both quasi static and dynamic, is a technologically important problem. However, so far, neither the stress state in a loaded nor the failure process in understood clearly. In fact, because the process of the failure of a loaded sphere is very rapid, it has not been possible to follow it when making static observations. We have, therefore, carried out a high-speed photographic study using framing rates of up to 200,000 frames per second to follow the sequence of events when polished 12.7 mm diameter spheres of acrylic resin are fragmented using a low-velocity impact apparatus. The latter consist of a 5.7 kg hammer, which is allowed to drop on to the test sphere from a height of 1.3 m and the entire event of impact and ensuing fracture is photographed with a rotating mirror camera (C-4). Form numerous impact experiments it has been found that as the impact load increases gradually, plastic flow and flattering of the sphere occurs at the contact region. The size of the flattened region continuous to grow with increasing impact load and when this region becomes sufficiently large, usually one or two cracks initiate at the periphery of the contact rather than in the bulk of the sphere. The surface cracks then grow into the bulk of the sphere at velocities in the range of 600-800 m s/sup -1/. It is interesting to note these crack velocities are the maximum observed velocities in this material, but these are only approx. 0.8 of the Rayleigh wave velocity, which is the theoretically predicted maximum crack velocity in brittle materials. It is argued that in order to cause the catastrophic failure of a solid sphere, it is necessary to cause plasticity in it which then leads to the generation of tensile hoop stresses at the circle of contact between the sphere and platen. (author)

  4. Neutron scattering experiments of the ionic crystal deformed plastically with uniaxial compression under high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Aizawa, Kazuya; Ozawa, Kunio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-04-01

    As an aim of huge growth of alkali halide (AH) single crystal, a mosaic structure of small size AH single crystal deformed plastically with uniaxial compression under high temperature was evaluated due to its neutron irradiation experiment. Using TAS-2 installed at JRR-3M guide hole of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, locking curve at a representative face factor of the specimen was measured to observe the mosaic structure accompanied with expansion of the crystal due to compression. As a result, though the specimen before compression could be supposed to be divided to some parts already, the locking curve under 10 sec. of compression time showed already some fracture to divisions to suppose finer degradation of the crystal, and division of the locking curve at 600 sec. of compression time could be observed onto its 220 face. And, every compressed specimens showed some changes of crystallization method from standard sample. (G.K.)

  5. Compressive sensing for high resolution profiles with enhanced Doppler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Hoogeboom, P.; Chevalier, F. Le; Otten, M.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how Compressive Sensing (CS) can be used in pulse-Doppler radars to improve the Doppler performance while preserving range resolution. We investigate here two types of stepped frequency waveforms, the coherent frequency bursts and successive frequency ramps, which can be

  6. Highly compressible and all-solid-state supercapacitors based on nanostructured composite sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Weiya; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Jun; Xie, Sishen

    2015-10-21

    Based on polyaniline-single-walled carbon nanotubes -sponge electrodes, highly compressible all-solid-state supercapacitors are prepared with an integrated configuration using a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/H2 SO4 gel as the electrolyte. The unique configuration enables the resultant supercapacitors to be compressed as an integrated unit arbitrarily during 60% compressible strain. Furthermore, the performance of the resultant supercapacitors is nearly unchanged even under 60% compressible strain. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Clinically lean; "cutting the crap".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, G

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Lean Philosophy believe that successful businesses must reduce waste in working time and resources to a minimum, and maximise their use in productive work. The productive work of the Acute Medical Unit is to provide effective clinical management to a daily cohort of acutely ill patients. Many Clinicians are cynical about Lean. In this article, Dr Caldwell discusses how many clinicians complain of too much crap in the workplace, which gets in the way of swift, safe high quality clinical care. He argues that "Cutting the Crap" in the Acute Medical Unit is entirely consistent with Lean approaches to management of complex systems.

  8. Neutralized drift compression experiments with a high-intensity ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Waldron, W.L.; Anders, A.; Baca, D.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Eylon, S.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.G.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Thoma, C.; Welch, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    To create high-energy density matter and fusion conditions, high-power drivers, such as lasers, ion beams, and X-ray drivers, may be employed to heat targets with short pulses compared to hydro-motion. Both high-energy density physics and ion-driven inertial fusion require the simultaneous transverse and longitudinal compression of an ion beam to achieve high intensities. We have previously studied the effects of plasma neutralization for transverse beam compression. The scaled experiment, the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), demonstrated that an initially un-neutralized beam can be compressed transversely to ∼1 mm radius when charge neutralization by background plasma electrons is provided. Here, we report longitudinal compression of a velocity-tailored, intense, neutralized 25 mA K + beam at 300 keV. The compression takes place in a 1-2 m drift section filled with plasma to provide space-charge neutralization. An induction cell produces a head-to-tail velocity ramp that longitudinally compresses the neutralized beam, enhances the beam peak current by a factor of 50 and produces a pulse duration of about 3 ns. The physics of longitudinal compression, experimental procedure, and the results of the compression experiments are presented

  9. High coercivity in rare-earth lean nanocomposite magnets by grain boundary infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madugundo, Rajasekhar, E-mail: mraja@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Salazar-Jaramillo, Daniel [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Manuel Barandiaran, Jose [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Technology Park, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Department of Electricity & Electronics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Hadjipanayis, George C., E-mail: hadji@udel.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A significant enhancement in coercivity was achieved by grain boundary modification through low temperature infiltration of Pr{sub 75}(Cu{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.75}){sub 25} eutectic alloy in rare-earth lean (Pr/Nd)–Fe–B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets. The infiltration procedure was carried out on ribbons and hot-deformed magnets at 600–650 °C for different time durations. In Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe ribbons, the coercivity increased from 5.3 to 23.8 kOe on infiltration for 4 h. The Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe hot-deformed magnet shows an increase in coercivity from 5.4 to 22 kOe on infiltration for 6 h. The increase in the coercivity comes at the expense of remnant magnetization. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the presence of both the hard Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft α-Fe phases. A decrease in the soft α-Fe phase content was observed after infiltration. - Highlights: • Enhancement in coercivity was achieved by grain boundary modification. • Coercivity increased from 5.3 to 23.8 kOe in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe on infiltration. • Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe deformed magnet shows an increase in coercivity from 5.4 to 22 kOe. • The increase in the coercivity comes at the expense of remnant magnetization. • A decrease in the soft α-Fe phase content was observed after infiltration.

  10. Lean years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnet, R J

    1982-01-01

    The author attempts to take stock of five critical systems of resources: Energy, mineral resources, food, water, and human abilities. All five systems have been integrated, to an ever-increasing extent in global control systems. These control systems determine how many people, in what parts of the world, will be faced with hunger, cold, or unemployment. The author tries to find out who is in charge of these control systems, how they have come into existence, and on what strategies they are based. In the final chapter, ''Policy of survival'', the author states that the secret of survival in the lean years to come is still in the dark. Man's most fundamental desire is to be human, i.e. to be in harmony with nature both psychologically and biologically. Politics should take account of this and provide us with the means for doing what is necessary.

  11. Rimonabant’s Reductive Effects on High Densities of Food Reinforcement, but not Palatability, in Lean and Obese Zucker Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessica Lynn; Rasmussen, Erin B.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Cannabinoid antagonists purportedly have greater effects in reducing the intake of highly palatable food compared to less palatable food. However, this assertion is based on free-feeding studies in which the amount of palatable food eaten under baseline conditions is often confounded with other variables, such as unequal access to both food options and differences in qualitative features of the foods. Objective We attempted to reduce these confounds by using a model of choice that programmed the delivery rates of sucrose and carrot-flavored pellets. Methods Lever-pressing of ten lean (Fa/Fa or Fa/fa) and ten obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats was placed under three conditions in which programmed ratios for food pellets on two levers were 5:1, 1:1, and 1:5. In Phase 1, responses on the two levers produced one type of pellet (sucrose or carrot); in Phase 2, responses on one lever produced sucrose pellets and on the other lever produced carrot pellets. After responses stabilized under each food ratio, acute doses of rimonabant (0, 3, and 10 mg/kg) were administered before experimental sessions. The number of reinforcers and responses earned per session under each ratio and from each lever was compared. Results and Conclusions Rimonabant reduced reinforcers in 1:5 and 5:1 food ratios in Phase 1, and across all ratios in Phase 2. Rimonabant reduced sucrose and carrot-flavored pellet consumption similarly; rimonabant did not affect bias toward sucrose, but increased sensitivity to amount differences in lean rats. This suggests that relative amount of food, not palatability, may be an important behavioral mechanism in the effects of rimonabant. PMID:24398820

  12. Rimonabant's reductive effects on high densities of food reinforcement, but not palatability, in lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessica L; Rasmussen, Erin B

    2014-05-01

    Cannabinoid antagonists purportedly have greater effects in reducing the intake of highly palatable food compared to less palatable food. However, this assertion is based on free-feeding studies in which the amount of palatable food eaten under baseline conditions is often confounded with other variables, such as unequal access to both food options and differences in qualitative features of the foods. We attempted to reduce these confounds by using a model of choice that programmed the delivery rates of sucrose and carrot-flavored pellets. Lever pressing of ten lean (Fa/Fa or Fa/fa) and ten obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats was placed under three conditions in which programmed ratios for food pellets on two levers were 5:1, 1:1, and 1:5. In phase 1, responses on the two levers produced one type of pellet (sucrose or carrot); in phase 2, responses on one lever produced sucrose pellets and on the other lever produced carrot pellets. After responses stabilized under each food ratio, acute doses of rimonabant (0, 3, and 10 mg/kg) were administered before experimental sessions. The number of reinforcers and responses earned per session under each ratio and from each lever was compared. Rimonabant reduced reinforcers in 1:5 and 5:1 food ratios in phase 1, and across all ratios in phase 2. Rimonabant reduced sucrose and carrot-flavored pellet consumption similarly; rimonabant did not affect bias toward sucrose, but increased sensitivity to amount differences in lean rats. This suggests that relative amount of food, not palatability, may be an important behavioral mechanism in the effects of rimonabant.

  13. Cultural Aspects when Implementing Lean Production and Lean Product Development – Experiences from a Swedish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promporn Wangwacharakul

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lean principles and methods, originating in a Japanese cultural context, have spread to a large number of companies throughout the world. The aim of this case study research is to identify and compare national cultural aspects that influence Lean Production and Lean Product Development implementation in Swedish companies. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and an industrial workshop with Swedish Lean practitioners. The study shows that some sub-areas in Lean, such as value definition, control systems, leadership, team development, knowledge management, and strategies, are highly dependent on contextual factors related to human, cultural and organizational aspects. These are related to the national culture and should be considered to a higher extent for successful sustainable implementation of Lean in different cultural contexts. As for implementing Lean in Sweden, national cultural characteristics, such as individualism, autonomy and supportive management style fit well with Lean thinking.

  14. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The ma...... and the final business model. In other words: The start-up must first nail the problem together with the customers, then develop the solution and test, and then in the end scale it to a full-grown business model.......The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...

  15. N-Cadherin Maintains the Healthy Biology of Nucleus Pulposus Cells under High-Magnitude Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Leng, Jiali; Zhao, Yuguang; Yu, Dehai; Xu, Feng; Song, Qingxu; Qu, Zhigang; Zhuang, Xinming; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical load can regulate disc nucleus pulposus (NP) biology in terms of cell viability, matrix homeostasis and cell phenotype. N-cadherin (N-CDH) is a molecular marker of NP cells. This study investigated the role of N-CDH in maintaining NP cell phenotype, NP matrix synthesis and NP cell viability under high-magnitude compression. Rat NP cells seeded on scaffolds were perfusion-cultured using a self-developed perfusion bioreactor for 5 days. NP cell biology in terms of cell apoptosis, matrix biosynthesis and cell phenotype was studied after the cells were subjected to different compressive magnitudes (low- and high-magnitudes: 2% and 20% compressive deformation, respectively). Non-loaded NP cells were used as controls. Lentivirus-mediated N-CDH overexpression was used to further investigate the role of N-CDH under high-magnitude compression. The 20% deformation compression condition significantly decreased N-CDH expression compared with the 2% deformation compression and control conditions. Meanwhile, 20% deformation compression increased the number of apoptotic NP cells, up-regulated the expression of Bax and cleaved-caspase-3 and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen II) and NP cell markers (glypican-3, CAXII and keratin-19) compared with 2% deformation compression. Additionally, N-CDH overexpression attenuated the effects of 20% deformation compression on NP cell biology in relation to the designated parameters. N-CDH helps to restore the cell viability, matrix biosynthesis and cellular phenotype of NP cells under high-magnitude compression. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Buildings Lean Maintenance Implementation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Antonio; Calado, João; Requeijo, José

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, companies in global markets have to achieve high levels of performance and competitiveness to stay "alive".Within this assumption, the building maintenance cannot be done in a casual and improvised way due to the costs related. Starting with some discussion about lean management and building maintenance, this paper introduces a model to support the Lean Building Maintenance (LBM) approach. Finally based on a real case study from a Portuguese company, the benefits, challenges and difficulties are presented and discussed.

  17. Study of high load operation limit for premixed compression ignition engine; Yokongo asshuku chakka kikan no kofuka unten genkai ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, N. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Akagawa, H. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Miyamoto, T.

    2000-11-25

    NO{sub x} emission was remarkably reduced by PREDIC (PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion) system in which fuel was injected at very early stage of compression stroke and the major part of the fuel is considered to be burned with self-ignition of premixed charge around TDC. However PREDIC system had some problems, a restriction of a high load operation was one of these problems. In order to investigate the combustion characteristics of PREDIC at the richer operation limit, a test engine was operated with gaseous fuel-air mixture where less heterogeneous mixture can be formed than that of conventional diesel engines. A steep pressure rise or the abrupt increase in NO{sub x} emission determined the richer operation limit. This was at 2 to 2.4 of excess air ratio. Supercharging operation enabled the high load operation more than 2.4 of excess air ratio. (author)

  18. A 5-year cohort study of the effects of high protein intake on lean mass and BMC in elderly postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingqiong; Zhu, Kun; Devine, Amanda; Kerr, Deborah A; Binns, Colin W; Prince, Richard L

    2009-11-01

    Long-term effects of high dietary protein intake on muscle and bone structure in the elderly are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline protein intake and lean mass and BMC 5 yr later in a cohort of elderly postmenopausal women. A total of 862 community-dwelling women 75 +/- 3 yr of age provided baseline data including nutrient intake assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. At 5 yr, upper arm muscle area (UAMA) and body composition using DXA were measured. Baseline protein intake was 81 +/- 28 g/d (1.2 +/- 0.4 g/kg/d), contributing 19 +/- 3% of total energy intake. There were positive correlations between baseline protein intake and whole body and appendicular bone-free lean mass and BMC (r = 0.14-0.18, p 87 g/d) had 5.4-6.0% higher whole body and appendicular lean mass and UAMA and 5.3-6.0% higher whole body and appendicular BMC. These effects remained after adjusting for potential confounders. However, the effect on BMC disappeared after further adjustment for lean mass. This study shows that high protein intake is associated with long-term beneficial effects on muscle mass and size and bone mass in elderly women. The protein effect on bone may be partly mediated by its effects on muscle.

  19. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  20. Investigation on compression behaviour of highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite with suction and temperature control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, W.M., E-mail: ye_tju@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); United Research Center for Urban Environment and Sustainable Development, The Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Y.W.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.J.; Chen, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Cui, Y.J. [Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, UR Navier/CERMES 77455 (France)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating induced volumetric change of GMZ01 bentonite depends on suction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suction has significant influence on compressibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature has slight influence on compressibility. - Abstract: In this paper, an oedometer with suction and temperature control was developed. Mechanical compaction tests have been performed on the highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite, which has been recognized as potential buffer/backfill material for construction of Chinese high-level radioactive waste (HLW) geological repository, under conditions of suction ranging from 0 to 110 MPa, temperature from 20 to 80 Degree-Sign C and vertical pressure from 0.1 to 80 MPa. Based on the test results, suction and temperature effects on compressibility parameters are investigated. Results reveal that: (1) at high suctions, heating induced an expansion, while contraction is induced by heating at low suctions. The thermal expansion coefficient of GMZ01 bentonite measured is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Degree-Sign C{sup -1}; (2) with increasing suction, the elastic compressibility {kappa} and the plastic compressibility {lambda}(s) of the highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite decrease, while the pre-consolidation pressure increases markedly; (3) with increasing temperature, the elastic compressibility of compacted GMZ01 bentonite changes insignificantly, while the plastic compressibility {lambda}(s) slightly decreases and the yield surface tends to shrink.

  1. Investigation on compression behaviour of highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite with suction and temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, W.M.; Zhang, Y.W.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.J.; Chen, Y.G.; Cui, Y.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Heating induced volumetric change of GMZ01 bentonite depends on suction. ► Suction has significant influence on compressibility. ► Temperature has slight influence on compressibility. - Abstract: In this paper, an oedometer with suction and temperature control was developed. Mechanical compaction tests have been performed on the highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite, which has been recognized as potential buffer/backfill material for construction of Chinese high-level radioactive waste (HLW) geological repository, under conditions of suction ranging from 0 to 110 MPa, temperature from 20 to 80 °C and vertical pressure from 0.1 to 80 MPa. Based on the test results, suction and temperature effects on compressibility parameters are investigated. Results reveal that: (1) at high suctions, heating induced an expansion, while contraction is induced by heating at low suctions. The thermal expansion coefficient of GMZ01 bentonite measured is 1 × 10 −4 °C −1 ; (2) with increasing suction, the elastic compressibility κ and the plastic compressibility λ(s) of the highly compacted GMZ01 bentonite decrease, while the pre-consolidation pressure increases markedly; (3) with increasing temperature, the elastic compressibility of compacted GMZ01 bentonite changes insignificantly, while the plastic compressibility λ(s) slightly decreases and the yield surface tends to shrink.

  2. Compressive behaviour of hybrid fiber-reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wenzhong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We complete the high temperature test and compression test of RPC after 20–900 °C. ► The presence of steel fiber and polypropylene fiber can prevent RPC from spalling. ► Compressive strength increases first and then decreases with elevated temperatures. ► Microstructure deterioration is the root cause of macro-properties recession. ► Equations to express the compressive strength change with temperature are proposed. -- Abstract: This study focuses on the compressive properties and microstructures of reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixed with steel fiber and polypropylene fiber after exposure to 20–900 °C. The volume dosage of steel fiber and polypropylene fiber is (2%, 0.1%), (2%, 0.2%) and (1%, 0.2%). The effects of heating temperature, fiber content and specimen size on the compressive properties are analyzed. The microstructures of RPC exposed to different high temperatures are studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the compressive strength of hybrid fiber-reinforced RPC increases at first, then decreases with the increasing temperature, and the basic reason for the degradation of macro-mechanical properties is the deterioration of RPC microstructure. Based on the experimental results, equations to express the relationships of the compressive strength with the heating temperatures are established. Compared with normal-strength and high-strength concrete, the hybrid fiber-reinforced RPC has excellent capacity in resistance to high temperature.

  3. Telemedicine + OCT: toward design of optimized algorithms for high-quality compressed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mahta; Lurie, Kristen; Land, Julian; Javidi, Tara; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-03-01

    Telemedicine is an emerging technology that aims to provide clinical healthcare at a distance. Among its goals, the transfer of diagnostic images over telecommunication channels has been quite appealing to the medical community. When viewed as an adjunct to biomedical device hardware, one highly important consideration aside from the transfer rate and speed is the accuracy of the reconstructed image at the receiver end. Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an established imaging technique that is ripe for telemedicine, the effects of OCT data compression, which may be necessary on certain telemedicine platforms, have not received much attention in the literature. We investigate the performance and efficiency of several lossless and lossy compression techniques for OCT data and characterize their effectiveness with respect to achievable compression ratio, compression rate and preservation of image quality. We examine the effects of compression in the interferogram vs. A-scan domain as assessed with various objective and subjective metrics.

  4. Green and lean management

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book focusses on the challenges and changes organizational management faces in an era when the need to develop environmentally aware processes meets high levels of competition. It covers the synergetic effects, how re-use, recycling, waste reduction, and other sustainable production strategies can add value, low costs and time of production. Sustainable business behavior is not only an environmental perspective on management, but more and more contains an organizational perspective. Taking into account these issues, green and lean management appears as the way managers can drive their employees to continuously improve the management processes that add value to the organization and costumers. This book provides information on principles, strategies, models, and applications of green and lean management, and at the same time communicates the latest research activity relating to this scientific field world-wide.

  5. Effect of high image compression on the reproducibility of cardiac Sestamibi reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Allen, L.; Beuzeville, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Compression algorithms have been mooted to minimize storage space and transmission times of digital images. We assessed the impact of high-level lousy compression using JPEG and wavelet algorithms on image quality and reporting accuracy of cardiac Sestamibi studies. Twenty stress/rest Sestamibi cardiac perfusion studies were reconstructed into horizontal short, vertical long and horizontal long axis slices using conventional methods. Each of these six sets of slices were aligned for reporting and saved (uncompressed) as a bitmap. This bitmap was then compressed using JPEG compression, then decompressed and saved as a bitmap for later viewing. This process was repeated using the original bitmap and wavelet compression. Finally, a second copy of the original bitmap was made. All 80 bitmaps were randomly coded to ensure blind reporting. The bitmaps were read blinded and by consensus of 2 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 5-point scale and 25 cardiac segments. Subjective image quality was also reported using a 3-point scale. Samples of the compressed images were also subtracted from the original bitmap for visual comparison of differences. Results showed an average compression ratio of 23:1 for wavelet and 13:1 for JPEG. Image subtraction showed only very minor discordance between the original and compressed images. There was no significant difference in subjective quality between the compressed and uncompressed images. There was no significant difference in reporting reproducibility of the identical bitmap copy, the JPEG image and the wavelet image compared with the original bitmap. Use of the high compression algorithms described had no significant impact on reporting reproducibility and subjective image quality of cardiac Sestamibi perfusion studies

  6. Compressibility of Ir-Os alloys under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusenko, Kirill V.; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Kurnosov, Alexander V.; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Hanfland, Michael; Smaalen, Sander van; Margadonna, Serena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • fcc- and hcp-Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors. • Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence. • Compressibility of alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature in diamond anvil cells. • Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content. - Abstract: Several fcc- and hcp-structured Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors in hydrogen atmosphere at 873 K. Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence as a function of composition. Alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature by means of synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells. Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content and show a deviation from linearity. Bulk modulus of hcp-Ir 0.20 Os 0.80 is identical to that of pure Os (411 GPa) within experimental errors. Peculiarities on fcc-Ir 0.80 Os 0.20 compressibility curve indicate possible changes of its electronic properties at ∼20 GPa

  7. Double Compression Expansion Engine: A Parametric Study on a High-Efficiency Engine Concept

    KAUST Repository

    Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar; Johansson, Bengt; Andersson, Arne

    2018-01-01

    The Double compression expansion engine (DCEE) concept has exhibited a potential for achieving high brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). The effect of different engine components on system efficiency was evaluated in this work using GT Power

  8. Lean Thinking in Systems with Non-Negligible Process Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David

    2000-01-01

    Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones) improves quality, cost and delivery through the relentless elimination of the wastes. For example, the exemplar of Lean, the Toyota Production system, focuses on improvement through the continual elimination of seven categorised wastes (Ohno). Time compression (St...

  9. Lean Thinking in systems with non-negligible process variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David

    2000-01-01

    Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones) improves quality, cost and delivery through the relentless elimination of wastes. For example, the exemplar of Lean, the Toyota Production system, focuses on improvement through the continual elimination of seven categorised wastes (Ohno). Time compression (Stalk ...

  10. Effect of pressure on high Karlovitz number lean turbulent premixed hydrogen-enriched methane-air flames using LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoria, David; Chan, C. K.

    2017-07-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to investigate the effect of pressure on lean CH4-H2-air turbulent premixed flames at high Karlovitz number for mixtures up to 60% of hydrogen in volume. The subfilter combustion term representing the interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled using the PaSR model, along with complex chemistry using a skeletal mechanism based on GRI-MECH3.0. The influence of pressure at high turbulence levels is studied by means of the local flame structure, and the assessment of species formation inside the flame. Results show that the ratio of turbulent flame thickness to laminar flame thickness δt/δu increases faster with pressure, and increases with the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture, leading to higher ratio of turbulent to laminar flame speed. The flame displays smaller structures and higher degree of wrinkling at higher pressure. Final species of CO2 and H2O formation is almost independent of pressure. For intermediate species CO and OH, an increase in pressure at constant volume fraction of hydrogen β leads to a decrease of emission of these species.

  11. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  12. Study of gas (CNG) SI engine with pre-chamber. Improvement of the indicated thermal efficiency on lean mixture with EGR and supercharging; Fukushitsushiki hibana tenka asshuku tennen gas (CNG) engine ni kansuru kenkyu. Kakyu to EGR ni yoru kihakuiki no netsukoritsu kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonetani, H.; Fukutani, I. [Polytechnic University, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    As lean burn of compressed natural gas (CNG) is applied to conventional gasoline engines, a combustion period largely increases, resulting in large combustion fluctuation and low thermal efficiency. Heterogeneous spacial air/fuel ratios also have an effect on combustion in lean burn area. By preparing a pre-chamber for a combustion chamber of high- compression ratio CNG pre-mixing SI engines to utilize premixture turbulence, rapid flame propagation is obtained in lean burn area, resulting high combustion performance. Furthermore, study was made on improvement of combustion performance in lean burn area under various compression ratios, intake pressures, pre-chamber shapes and EGR ratios. As a result, lean burn operation at high intake pressure by supercharging showed possible improvement of a thermal efficiency and expansion of inflammable limits. Higher thermal efficiency in lean burn area was also obtained by using higher compression ratios considering heat loss. Although EGR was effective in controlling NOx formed in lean burn area, strict control of both air excess rate and EGR rate was required to prevent lower thermal efficiency. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. TRPV1 Channels and Gastric Vagal Afferent Signalling in Lean and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Kentish

    Full Text Available Within the gastrointestinal tract vagal afferents play a role in control of food intake and satiety signalling. Activation of mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents induces satiety. However, gastric vagal afferent responses to mechanical stretch are reduced in high fat diet mice. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1 are expressed in vagal afferents and knockout of TRPV1 reduces gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent responses to stretch. We aimed to determine the role of TRPV1 on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity and food intake in lean and HFD-induced obese mice.TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet or high fat diet for 20wks. Gastric emptying of a solid meal and gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity was determined.Gastric emptying was delayed in high fat diet mice but there was no difference between TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice on either diet. TRPV1 mRNA expression in whole nodose ganglia of TRPV1+/+ mice was similar in both dietary groups. The TRPV1 agonist N-oleoyldopamine potentiated the response of tension receptors in standard laboratory diet but not high fat diet mice. Food intake was greater in the standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- compared to TRPV1+/+ mice. This was associated with reduced response of tension receptors to stretch in standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- mice. Tension receptor responses to stretch were decreased in high fat diet compared to standard laboratory diet TRPV1+/+ mice; an effect not observed in TRPV1-/- mice. Disruption of TRPV1 had no effect on the response of mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking in mice on either diet.TRPV1 channels selectively modulate gastric vagal afferent tension receptor mechanosensitivity and may mediate the reduction in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in high fat diet-induced obesity.

  14. Highly Compressible Carbon Sponge Supercapacitor Electrode with Enhanced Performance by Growing Nickel-Cobalt Sulfide Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xu; Nie, Kaiwen; Ding, Xian; Dang, Liqin; Sun, Jie; Shi, Feng; Xu, Hua; Jiang, Ruibin; He, Xuexia; Liu, Zonghuai; Lei, Zhibin

    2018-03-28

    The development of compressible supercapacitor highly relies on the innovative design of electrode materials with both superior compression property and high capacitive performance. This work reports a highly compressible supercapacitor electrode which is prepared by growing electroactive NiCo 2 S 4 (NCS) nanosheets on the compressible carbon sponge (CS). The strong adhesion of the metallic conductive NCS nanosheets to the highly porous carbon scaffolds enable the CS-NCS composite electrode to exhibit an enhanced conductivity and ideal structural integrity during repeated compression-release cycles. Accordingly, the CS-NCS composite electrode delivers a specific capacitance of 1093 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 and remarkable rate performance with 91% capacitance retention in the range of 0.5-20 A g -1 . Capacitance performance under the strain of 60% shows that the incorporation of NCS nanosheets in CS scaffolds leads to over five times enhancement in gravimetric capacitance and 17 times enhancement in volumetric capacitance. These performances enable the CS-NCS composite to be one of the promising candidates for potential applications in compressible electrochemical energy storage devices.

  15. Effect of Fiber Orientation on Dynamic Compressive Properties of an Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    transient stress wave (Chen and Song 2011). A schematic of a modern SHPB is shown in Figure 2.3. On this SHPB, a compressed gas cannon is used to launch...1991. Compressive behaviour of concrete at high strain rates. Materials and Structures 24(6):425-450. Buzug, T. M. 2008. Computed tomography: From...SFRC. Journal of Materials Science 48(10):3745-3759. Empelmann, M., M. Teutsch, and G. Steven. 2008. Improvement of the post fracture behaviour of

  16. Correlation between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of high strength concrete incorporating chopped basalt fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Nasir; Fadhilnuruddin, Muhd; Elshekh, Ali Elheber Ahmed; Fathi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), is considered as the most important test for non-destructive techniques that are used to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of high strength concrete (HSC). The relationship between the compressive strength of HSC containing chopped basalt fibre stands (CBSF) and UPV was investigated. The concrete specimens were prepared using a different ratio of CBSF as internal strengthening materials. The compressive strength measurements were conducted at the sample ages of 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days; whilst, the ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured at 28 days. The result of HSC's compressive strength with the chopped basalt fibre did not show any improvement; instead, it was decreased. The UPV of the chopped basalt fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be less than that of the control mix for each addition ratio of the basalt fibre. A relationship plot is gained between the cube compressive strength for HSC and UPV with various amounts of chopped basalt fibres.

  17. Internal lean practitioner's challenges in lean principles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The approach to this paper is to answer the questions such as “how does internal management commitment impact the Lean principles?”, “how does Supply Chain Management practices impact the lean principles?”, “can Supply Chain Management practices be embedded with internal management commitment?

  18. Lean education an overview of current issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Kahlen, Franz-Josef

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents a structured approach to a new lean education curriculum, implemented for the education of engineers, managers, administrators as well as human resources developers. The authorship comprises professors and lecturers, trainers and practitioners who educate future professionals in Lean Thinking principles and tools. This edited book provides a platform for authors to share their efforts in building a Body of Knowledge (BoK) for Lean Education. The topical spectrum is state-of-the-art in this field, but the book also includes a glimpse into future developments. This is a highly informative and carefully presented book, providing valuable insight for scholars with an interest in Lean Education.

  19. Direct numerical simulations of the ignition of a lean biodiesel/air mixture with temperature and composition inhomogeneities at high pressure and intermediate temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minhbau

    2014-11-01

    The effects of the stratifications of temperature, T, and equivalence ratio, φ{symbol}, on the ignition characteristics of a lean homogeneous biodiesel/air mixture at high pressure and intermediate temperature are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs). 2-D DNSs are performed at a constant volume with the variance of temperature and equivalence ratio (T′ and φ{symbol}′) together with a 2-D isotropic velocity spectrum superimposed on the initial scalar fields. In addition, three different T s(-) φ{symbol} correlations are investigated: (1) baseline cases with T′ only or φ{symbol}′ only, (2) uncorrelated T s(-) φ{symbol} distribution, and (3) negatively-correlated T s(-) φ{symbol} distribution. It is found that the overall combustion is more advanced and the mean heat release rate is more distributed over time with increasing T′ and/or φ{symbol}′ for the baseline and uncorrelated T s(-) φ{symbol} cases. However, the temporal advancement and distribution of the overall combustion caused by T′ or φ{symbol}′ only are nearly annihilated by the negatively-correlated T s(-) φ{symbol} fields. The chemical explosive mode and Damköhler number analyses verify that for the baseline and uncorrelated T s(-) φ{symbol} cases, the deflagration mode is predominant at the reaction fronts for large T′ and/or φ{symbol}′. On the contrary, the spontaneous ignition mode prevails for cases with small T′ or φ{symbol}′, especially for cases with negative T s(-) φ{symbol} correlations, and hence, simultaneous auto-ignition occurs throughout the entire domain, resulting in an excessive rate of heat release. It is also found that turbulence with large intensity, u′, and a short time scale can effectively smooth out initial thermal and compositional fluctuations such that the overall combustion is induced primarily by spontaneous ignition. Based on the present DNS results, the generalization of the effects of T′, φ{symbol}′, and u

  20. Structure of boron nitride after the high-temperature shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdyumov, A.V.; Ostrovskaya, N.F.; Pilipenko, V.A.; Pilyankevich, A.N.; Savvakin, G.I.; Trefilov, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    Boron nitride structure changes as a result of high temperature dynamic compression are studied. The X-ray technique and transmission electron microscopy have been applied. The data on the structure and regularities of formation of diamond-like modifications of boron nitride at high temperature impact compression permit to consider martensite transformation as the first stage of formation of the sphalerite phase stable at high pressures. The second stage is possible if the temperature at the impact moment is sufficiently high for intensive diffusion processes

  1. Audiovisual focus of attention and its application to Ultra High Definition video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerabek, Martin; Nemoto, Hiromi; Lee, Jong-Seok; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-02-01

    Using Focus of Attention (FoA) as a perceptual process in image and video compression belongs to well-known approaches to increase coding efficiency. It has been shown that foveated coding, when compression quality varies across the image according to region of interest, is more efficient than the alternative coding, when all region are compressed in a similar way. However, widespread use of such foveated compression has been prevented due to two main conflicting causes, namely, the complexity and the efficiency of algorithms for FoA detection. One way around these is to use as much information as possible from the scene. Since most video sequences have an associated audio, and moreover, in many cases there is a correlation between the audio and the visual content, audiovisual FoA can improve efficiency of the detection algorithm while remaining of low complexity. This paper discusses a simple yet efficient audiovisual FoA algorithm based on correlation of dynamics between audio and video signal components. Results of audiovisual FoA detection algorithm are subsequently taken into account for foveated coding and compression. This approach is implemented into H.265/HEVC encoder producing a bitstream which is fully compliant to any H.265/HEVC decoder. The influence of audiovisual FoA in the perceived quality of high and ultra-high definition audiovisual sequences is explored and the amount of gain in compression efficiency is analyzed.

  2. A 7-day high protein hypocaloric diet promotes cellular metabolic adaptations and attenuates lean mass loss in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Furber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial quantity and density are associated with increased oxidative metabolism. It has been demonstrated that a hypocaloric high fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC diet can up-regulate transcriptional markers of mitochondrial biogenesis; this was yet to be explored in vivo subsequent to a high protein/low carbohydrate (HP/LC diet. Thus the aims of the study were to explore such diets on transcriptional markers or mitochondrial biogenesis, body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Forty-five healthy male participants were randomly assigned one of four intervention diets: eucaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-EM, hypocaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-ER, eucaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-EM or hypocaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-ER. The macronutrient ratio of the high protein diet and high carbohydrate diets was 40:30:30% and 10:60:30% (PRO:CHO:FAT respectively. Energy intake for the hypocaloric diets were calculated to match resting metabolic rate. Participants visited the laboratory on 3 occasions each separated by 7 days. On each visit body composition, resting metabolic rate and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis was collected. Prior to visit 1 and 2 habitual diet was consumed which was used as a control, between visit 2 and 3 the intervention diet was consumed continuously for 7-days. No group × time effect was observed, however in the PRO-ER group a significant increase in AMPK, PGC-1α, SIRT1 and SIRT3 mRNA expression was observed post diet intervention groups (p < 0.05. No change was observed in any of the transcriptional markers in the other 3 groups. Despite ∼30% reduction in calorie intake no difference in lean mass (LM loss was observed between the PRO-ER and CHO-EM groups. The results from this study suggest that a 7-day a high protein low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet increased AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC-1 α mRNA expression at rest, and also suggest that increased dietary protein may attenuate LM mass

  3. Implementation of lean leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenkner Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Toyota case proves that lean leadership is of critical importance for the successful implementation and permanent functioning of Lean Production System. There is no ready formula for developing Toyota style lean leadership. However, one may gain inspiration from its experience.

  4. Lean information management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of a Lean Enterprise has proven to be extremely valuable for making companies fit for today's competitive business environment. Lean Information Management denotes the type of information management that is appropriate for such all organization. According to the paradigm of a Lean

  5. Development of Kinetics for Soot Oxidation at High Pressures Under Fuel-Lean Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lighty, JoAnn [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Vander Wal, Randy [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2014-04-21

    The focus of the proposed research was to develop kinetic models for soot oxidation with the hope of developing a validated, predictive, multi-­scale, combustion model to optimize the design and operation of evolving fuels in advanced engines for transportation applications. The work focused on the relatively unstudied area of the fundamental mechanism for soot oxidation. The objectives include understanding of the kinetics of soot oxidation by O2 under high pressure which require: 1) development of intrinsic kinetics for the surface oxidation, which takes into account the dependence of reactivity upon nanostructure and 2) evolution of nanostructure and its impact upon oxidation rate and 3) inclusion of internal surface area development and possible fragmentation resulting from pore development and /or surface oxidation. These objectives were explored for a variety of pure fuel components and surrogate fuels. This project was a joint effort between the University of Utah (UU) and Pennsylvania State University (Penn State). The work at the UU focuses on experimental studies using a two-­stage burner and a high- pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Penn State provided HRTEM images and guidance in the fringe analysis algorithms and parameter quantification for the images. This report focuses on completion done under supplemental funding.

  6. TRUNK LEAN DURING A SINGLE-LEG SQUAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH TRUNK LEAN DURING PITCHING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Hillary A; Oliver, Gretchen D; Powers, Christopher M; Michener, Lori A

    2018-02-01

    Impaired trunk motion during pitching may be a risk factor for upper extremity injuries. Specifically, increased forces about the shoulder and elbow have been observed in pitchers with excessive contralateral trunk lean during pitching. Because of the difficulty in identifying abnormal trunk motions during a high-speed task such as pitching, a clinical screening test is needed to identify pitchers who have impaired trunk motion during pitching. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of lateral trunk lean during the single-leg squat and amount of trunk lean during pitching and if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Seventy-three young baseball pitchers (11.4 ± 1.7 years; 156.3 ± 11.9 cm; 50.5 ± 8.8 kg) participated. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to obtain trunk kinematic data during a single-leg squat task (lead leg) and at maximum shoulder external rotation of a fastball pitch. Pearson correlation coefficients for trunk lean during the single-leg squat and pitching were calculated. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine if trunk lean during pitching can be predicted from lean during the single-leg squat. There was a positive correlation between trunk lean during the single-leg squat and trunk lean during pitching (r = 0.53; plean during the single-leg squat predicted the amount of lateral trunk lean during pitching (R 2 = 0.28; p lean during an SLS and pitching. Trunk lean during the single-leg squat explained 28% of the variance in trunk lean during pitching. Diagnosis, level 3.

  7. Compression of a mixed antiproton and electron non-neutral plasma to high densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, Stefano; Amsler, Claude; Bonomi, Germano; Brusa, Roberto S.; Caccia, Massimo; Caravita, Ruggero; Castelli, Fabrizio; Cerchiari, Giovanni; Comparat, Daniel; Consolati, Giovanni; Demetrio, Andrea; Di Noto, Lea; Doser, Michael; Evans, Craig; Fanì, Mattia; Ferragut, Rafael; Fesel, Julian; Fontana, Andrea; Gerber, Sebastian; Giammarchi, Marco; Gligorova, Angela; Guatieri, Francesco; Haider, Stefan; Hinterberger, Alexander; Holmestad, Helga; Kellerbauer, Alban; Khalidova, Olga; Krasnický, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Vittorio; Lansonneur, Pierre; Lebrun, Patrice; Malbrunot, Chloé; Mariazzi, Sebastiano; Marton, Johann; Matveev, Victor; Mazzotta, Zeudi; Müller, Simon R.; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Nedelec, Patrick; Oberthaler, Markus; Pacifico, Nicola; Pagano, Davide; Penasa, Luca; Petracek, Vojtech; Prelz, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Rienaecker, Benjamin; Robert, Jacques; Røhne, Ole M.; Rotondi, Alberto; Sandaker, Heidi; Santoro, Romualdo; Smestad, Lillian; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Testera, Gemma; Tietje, Ingmari C.; Widmann, Eberhard; Yzombard, Pauline; Zimmer, Christian; Zmeskal, Johann; Zurlo, Nicola; Antonello, Massimiliano

    2018-04-01

    We describe a multi-step "rotating wall" compression of a mixed cold antiproton-electron non-neutral plasma in a 4.46 T Penning-Malmberg trap developed in the context of the AEḡIS experiment at CERN. Such traps are routinely used for the preparation of cold antiprotons suitable for antihydrogen production. A tenfold antiproton radius compression has been achieved, with a minimum antiproton radius of only 0.17 mm. We describe the experimental conditions necessary to perform such a compression: minimizing the tails of the electron density distribution is paramount to ensure that the antiproton density distribution follows that of the electrons. Such electron density tails are remnants of rotating wall compression and in many cases can remain unnoticed. We observe that the compression dynamics for a pure electron plasma behaves the same way as that of a mixed antiproton and electron plasma. Thanks to this optimized compression method and the high single shot antiproton catching efficiency, we observe for the first time cold and dense non-neutral antiproton plasmas with particle densities n ≥ 1013 m-3, which pave the way for an efficient pulsed antihydrogen production in AEḡIS.

  8. Thermogenesis induced by a high-carbohydrate meal in fasted lean and overweight young men: insulin, body fat, and sympathetic nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Lopes, Iva; Forga, Luis; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    This dietary trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an experimental short-term fasting period followed by a high-carbohydrate meal on energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and sympathetic nervous system activity in normal (body mass index 27 kg/m(2)) men who were healthy, non-diabetic or with no other endocrine disease, non-smokers, not taking oral prescription medications, and with a stable body weight for the previous 3 mo. Fasting and fed energy expenditures and diet-induced thermogenesis were measured after a high-carbohydrate meal in seven overweight and six lean young male subjects by indirect calorimetry. Heart rate, urinary excretion of catecholamines, serum glucose, and insulin were also measured over the experimental fasting (7.5 h) and postprandial (4 h) periods. After carbohydrate intake, overweight men showed a significantly higher energy production (kJ/kg of fat-free mass) than did lean individuals, and the diet-induced thermogenesis (percentage of energy intake) was positively correlated with body fat (kg), percentage of body fat, fat-free mass (kg), and fasting pre-meal serum insulin levels. Postprandial cumulative energy expenditure was directly associated with postprandial insulin response and with mean postprandial heart rate values. No significant differences in urinary catecholamines were found between lean and overweight men at basal conditions or during the study period. Overweight individuals showed similar short-term sympathetic nervous system responses induced by an experimental fasting period. Although diet-induced thermogenesis after carbohydrate intake was not statistically different between lean and overweight men, the postprandial insulin response and body fat content seemed to be involved in sympathetic nervous system activity.

  9. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  10. A comparison of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) strategies at high load, low speed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavuri, Chaitanya; Paz, Jordan; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Targeting high load-low speed, optimizations of RCCI and GCI strategies were performed. • The two strategies were compared in terms of performance, controllability and stability. • The optimum cases had high gross indicated efficiency (∼47%) and low NOx emissions. • RCCI strategy showed better combustion control but had higher soot emissions. • GCI strategy was relatively more sensitive to fluctuations in charge conditions. - Abstract: Past research has shown that Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) combustion are promising approaches to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions. However, the benefits have generally been confined to mid-load operating conditions. To enable practical application, these approaches must be able to operate over the entire engine map. A particularly challenging area is high load, low speed operation. Accordingly, the present work uses detailed CFD modeling and engine experiments to compare RCCI and GCI combustion strategies at a high load, low speed condition. Computational optimizations of RCCI and GCI combustion were performed at 20 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and 1300 rev/min. The optimum points from the two combustion strategies were verified using engine experiments and were used to make the comparisons between RCCI and GCI combustion. The comparison showed that both the strategies had very similar combustion characteristics with a near top dead center injection initiating combustion. A parametric study was performed to identify the key input parameters that control combustion for the RCCI and GCI strategies. For both strategies, the combustion phasing could be controlled by the start of injection (SOI) timing of the near TDC injection. The short ignition delay of diesel fuel gave the RCCI strategy better control over combustion than the GCI strategy, but also had a simultaneous tradeoff with soot emissions. With the GCI

  11. Effect of selection for lean growth on gonadal development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A primary objective of commercial pig production is lean meat yield in order to satisfy consumer needs. The majority of the commercial pig breeds in South Africa have been selected for high lean growth potential and reduced backfat thickness. There are indications that selection for high lean meat yield may affect the ...

  12. Statistical approach to predict compressive strength of high workability slag-cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, N.A.; Memon, N.A.; Sumadi, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt made to develop empirical expressions to estimate/ predict the compressive strength of high workability slag-cement mortars. Experimental data of 54 mix mortars were used. The mortars were prepared with slag as cement replacement of the order of 0, 50 and 60%. The flow (workability) was maintained at 136+-3%. The numerical and statistical analysis was performed by using database computer software Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Three empirical mathematical models were developed to estimate/predict 28 days compressive strength of high workability slag cement-mortars with 0, 50 and 60% slag which predict the values accurate between 97 and 98%. Finally a generalized empirical mathematical model was proposed which can predict 28 days compressive strength of high workability mortars up to degree of accuracy 95%. (author)

  13. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  14. The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions : a manikin study

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Richard A.; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P.; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose\\ud Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables.\\ud Methods\\ud Twenty healthcare professionals performed two minutes of co...

  15. High Compressive Stresses Near the Surface of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.; Logan, J. M.; Stock, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Observations and stress measurements in granitic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California reveal strong compressive stresses parallel to the surface of the range at shallow depths. New overcoring measurements show high compressive stresses at three locations along an east-west transect through Yosemite National Park. At the westernmost site (west end of Tenaya Lake), the mean compressive stress is 1.9. At the middle site (north shore of Tenaya Lake) the mean compressive stress is 6.8 MPa. At the easternmost site (south side of Lembert Dome) the mean compressive stress is 3.0 MPa. The trend of the most compressive stress at these sites is within ~30° of the strike of the local topographic surface. Previously published hydraulic fracturing measurements by others elsewhere in the Sierra Nevada indicate surface-parallel compressive stresses of several MPa within several tens of meters of the surface, with the stress magnitudes generally diminishing to the west. Both the new and the previously published compressive stress magnitudes are consistent with the presence of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints") in the Sierra Nevada, which require lateral compressive stresses of several MPa to form. These fractures are widespread: they are distributed in granitic rocks from the north end of the range to its southern tip and across the width of the range. Uplift along the normal faults of the eastern escarpment, recently measured by others at ~1-2 mm/yr, probably contributes to these stresses substantially. Geodetic surveys reveal that normal faulting flexes a range concave upwards in response to fault slip, and this flexure is predicted by elastic dislocation models. The topographic relief of the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada is 2-4 km, and since alluvial fill generally buries the bedrock east of the faults, the offset of granitic rocks is at least that much. Compressive stresses of several MPa are predicted by elastic dislocation models of the range front

  16. On the Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Lean Partially Premixed Combustion, Burning Speed, Flame Instability and Plasma Formation of Alternative Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Omid

    This dissertation investigates the combustion and injection fundamental characteristics of different alternative fuels both experimentally and theoretically. The subjects such as lean partially premixed combustion of methane/hydrogen/air/diluent, methane high pressure direct-injection, thermal plasma formation, thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon/air mixtures at high temperatures, laminar flames and flame morphology of synthetic gas (syngas) and Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels were extensively studied in this work. These subjects will be summarized in three following paragraphs. The fundamentals of spray and partially premixed combustion characteristics of directly injected methane in a constant volume combustion chamber have been experimentally studied. The injected fuel jet generates turbulence in the vessel and forms a turbulent heterogeneous fuel-air mixture in the vessel, similar to that in a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Direct-Injection (DI) engines. The effect of different characteristics parameters such as spark delay time, stratification ratio, turbulence intensity, fuel injection pressure, chamber pressure, chamber temperature, Exhaust Gas recirculation (EGR) addition, hydrogen addition and equivalence ratio on flame propagation and emission concentrations were analyzed. As a part of this work and for the purpose of control and calibration of high pressure injector, spray development and characteristics including spray tip penetration, spray cone angle and overall equivalence ratio were evaluated under a wide range of fuel injection pressures of 30 to 90 atm and different chamber pressures of 1 to 5 atm. Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon/air plasma mixtures at ultra-high temperatures must be precisely calculated due to important influence on the flame kernel formation and propagation in combusting flows and spark discharge applications. A new algorithm based on the statistical thermodynamics was developed to calculate the ultra-high temperature plasma

  17. High-energy few-cycle pulse compression through self-channeling in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauri, C.; Merano, M.; Trisorio, A.; Canova, F.; Canova, L.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Ruchon, T.; Engquist, A.; Varju, K.; Gustafsson, E.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Nonlinear spectral broadening of femtosecond optical pulses by intense propagation in a Kerr medium followed by temporal compression constitutes the Holy Grail for ultrafast science since it allows the generation of intense few-cycle optical transients from longer pulses provided by now commercially available femtosecond lasers. Tremendous progress in high-field and attosecond physics achieved in recent years has triggered the need for efficient pulse compression schemes producing few-cycle pulses beyond the mJ level. We studied a novel pulse compression scheme based on self-channeling in gases, which promises to overcome the energy constraints of hollow-core fiber compression techniques. Fundamentally, self-channeling at high laser powers in gases occurs when the self-focusing effect in the gas is balanced through the dispersion induced by the inhomogeneous refractive index resulting from optically-induced ionization. The high nonlinearity of the ionization process poses great technical challenges when trying to scale this pulse compression scheme to higher energies input energies. Light channels are known to be unstable under small fluctuations of the trapped field that can lead to temporal and spatial beam breakup, usually resulting in the generation of spectrally broad but uncompressible pulses. Here we present experimental results on high-energy pulse compression of self-channeled 40-fs pulses in pressure-gas cells. In the first experiment, performed at the Lund Laser Center in Sweden, we identified a particular self-channeling regime at lower pulse energies (0.8 mJ), in which the ultrashort pulses are generated with negative group delay dispersion (GDD) such that they can be readily compressed down to near 10-fs through simple material dispersion. Pulse compression is efficient (70%) and exhibits exceptional spatial and temporal beam stability. In a second experiment, performed at the LOA-Palaiseau in France, we

  18. A high capacity text steganography scheme based on LZW compression and color coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Malik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, capacity and security issues of text steganography have been considered by employing LZW compression technique and color coding based approach. The proposed technique uses the forward mail platform to hide the secret data. This algorithm first compresses secret data and then hides the compressed secret data into the email addresses and also in the cover message of the email. The secret data bits are embedded in the message (or cover text by making it colored using a color coding table. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only produces a high embedding capacity but also reduces computational complexity. Moreover, the security of the proposed method is significantly improved by employing stego keys. The superiority of the proposed method has been experimentally verified by comparing with recently developed existing techniques.

  19. Changes in Lean Mass and Serum Myostatin with Habitual Protein Intake and High-Velocity Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, A; Gray, M; Henson, A C; Fort, I L

    2017-01-01

    Examine the associations between dietary protein intake, lean mass (LM), and serum myostatin (Mstn) levels among community-dwelling older adults participating in a 20-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) program. This longitudinal study consisted of 33 community-dwelling, older adults (mean age 77.0 years, SD = 6.4); all of which obtained physician clearance prior to study participation. Twenty-five females and eight males were randomized to a control (CON) or HVRT group. Anthropometric measures were obtained via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral venous blood draw used for serum myostatin analysis. Exercise was performed twice per week for 20 consecutive weeks. Food intake estimation with a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) was used for protein intake comparison to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). All measures were recorded both prior to and following study participation. Altogether, protein was consumed in amounts more generous (1.01 ± 0.47 g·kg-1·d-1) than that of the RDA (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1). As a result of significant LM differences among men and women (p myostatin was greater among females (6681.8 ± 3155.0 pg·mL-1) than males (5560.0 ± 2946.1 pg·mL-1); however, these values were not significantly different (p = 0.39). Combined, protein consumption and serum myostatin did not significantly influence LM among males (p = 0.09) or females (p = 0.71). Irrespective of training group, significant changes were not exhibited in dietary intake patterns, LM, or serum myostatin. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, results suggest protein consumption and circulating serum myostatin levels did not significantly influence LM among older adults. Although HVRT positively impacts LM, neither exercise group displayed significant changes in LM. Therefore, further research is needed examining dietary intake, exercise modality, and myostatin downregulation as non-pharmacological approaches to combating sarcopenia.

  20. Sugar Determination in Foods with a Radially Compressed High Performance Liquid Chromatography Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrus, Martin G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Advocates use of Waters Associates Radial Compression Separation System for high performance liquid chromatography. Discusses instrumentation and reagents, outlining procedure for analyzing various foods and discussing typical student data. Points out potential problems due to impurities and pump seal life. Suggests use of ribose as internal…

  1. Accelerated high-frame-rate mouse heart cine-MRI using compressed sensing reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motaal, Abdallah G.; Coolen, Bram F.; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Castro, Rui M.; Prompers, Jeanine J.; Florack, Luc M. J.; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new protocol to obtain very high-frame-rate cinematographic (Cine) MRI movies of the beating mouse heart within a reasonable measurement time. The method is based on a self-gated accelerated fast low-angle shot (FLASH) acquisition and compressed sensi ng reconstruction. Key to our

  2. Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics from high resolution numerical simulations of weakly compressible turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzi, R.; Biferale, L.; Fisher, R.T.; Lamb, D.Q.; Toschi, F.

    2009-01-01

    We report a detailed study of Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics from high resolution Direct Numerical Simulations of isotropic weakly compressible turbulence. Reynolds number at the Taylor microscale is estimated to be around 600. Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics is evaluated over a huge data

  3. Comparison of high order algorithms in Aerosol and Aghora for compressible flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbengoue D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the work done within the Colargol project during CEMRACS 2012. The aim of this project is to compare the implementations of high order finite element methods for compressible flows that have been developed at ONERA and at INRIA for about one year, within the Aghora and Aerosol libraries.

  4. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina

    2012-01-01

    practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding...... Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper...... on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate...

  5. LEAN dig ikke tilbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirsøe, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Fit, slankere, hurtigst. Lean-konceptet ruller ind over de offentlige institutioner, hvor det skal trimme og effektivisere arbejdsprocesser. Men hvor er den maksimale grænse for effektivitet? Er der et ’tipping point’, hvor Lean ikke længere motiverer, men snarere udmatter......Fit, slankere, hurtigst. Lean-konceptet ruller ind over de offentlige institutioner, hvor det skal trimme og effektivisere arbejdsprocesser. Men hvor er den maksimale grænse for effektivitet? Er der et ’tipping point’, hvor Lean ikke længere motiverer, men snarere udmatter...

  6. Semi-physiological model of postprandial triglyceride response in lean, obese and very obese individuals after a high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leohr, Jennifer; Heathman, Michael; Kjellsson, Maria C

    2018-03-01

    To quantify the postprandial triglyceride (TG) response of chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoprotein-V6 (VLDL-V6) after a high-fat meal in lean, obese and very obese healthy individuals, using a mechanistic population lipokinetic modelling approach. Healthy individuals from three body mass index population categories: lean (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ), obese (30-33 kg/m 2 ), and very obese (34-40 kg/m 2 ) were enrolled in a clinical study to assess the TG response after a high-fat meal, containing 60% fat. Non-linear mixed-effect modelling was used to analyse the TG concentrations of chylomicrons and large VLDL-V6 particles. The TGs in chylomicrons and VLDL-V6 particles had a prominent postprandial peak and represented the majority of the postprandial response; only the VLDL-V6 showed a difference across the populations. A turn-over model successfully described the TG concentration-time profiles of both chylomicrons and large VLDL-V6 particles after the high-fat meal. This model consisted of four compartments: two transit compartments for the lag between meal consumption and appearance of TGs in the blood, and one compartment each for the chylomicrons and large VLDL-V6 particles. The rate constants for the production of chylomicrons and elimination of large VLDL-V6 particles, along with the conversion rate of chylomicrons to large VLDL-V6 particles were well defined. This is the first lipokinetic model to describe the absorption of TGs from dietary fats into the blood stream and compares the dynamics of TGs in chylomicrons and large VLDL-V6 particles among lean, obese and very obese people. Such a model can be used to identify where pharmacological therapies act, thereby improving the determination of efficacy, and identifying complementary mechanisms for combinational drug therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. From the TRIP effect and Quenching and Partitioning steels concepts to the development of new high-performance, lean powder metallurgy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralba, José M.; Navarro, Alfonso; Campos, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    A new method of developing lean powder metallurgy steel is proposed. The microstructure of the steel is tailored by combining two different prealloyed steel grades. These materials open a new niche in steel grades for high-performance applications by using a low-cost method of production. Moreover, an alternative route to developing microstructures suitable for manufacturing TRIP and/or Q and P steels is proposed avoiding some of the complex steps that must otherwise be taken to obtain the proper starting microstructure

  8. From the TRIP effect and Quenching and Partitioning steels concepts to the development of new high-performance, lean powder metallurgy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, José M., E-mail: josemanuel.torralba@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 - Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universidad Carlos III Av. Universidad, 30, Leganés (Spain); Navarro, Alfonso; Campos, Mónica [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universidad Carlos III Av. Universidad, 30, Leganés (Spain)

    2013-06-20

    A new method of developing lean powder metallurgy steel is proposed. The microstructure of the steel is tailored by combining two different prealloyed steel grades. These materials open a new niche in steel grades for high-performance applications by using a low-cost method of production. Moreover, an alternative route to developing microstructures suitable for manufacturing TRIP and/or Q and P steels is proposed avoiding some of the complex steps that must otherwise be taken to obtain the proper starting microstructure.

  9. Effect of rice husk ash and fly ash on the compressive strength of high performance concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lam, Tang; Bulgakov, Boris; Aleksandrova, Olga; Larsen, Oksana; Anh, Pham Ngoc

    2018-03-01

    The usage of industrial and agricultural wastes for building materials production plays an important role to improve the environment and economy by preserving nature materials and land resources, reducing land, water and air pollution as well as organizing and storing waste costs. This study mainly focuses on mathematical modeling dependence of the compressive strength of high performance concrete (HPC) at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days on the amount of rice husk ash (RHA) and fly ash (FA), which are added to the concrete mixtures by using the Central composite rotatable design. The result of this study provides the second-order regression equation of objective function, the images of the surface expression and the corresponding contours of the objective function of the regression equation, as the optimal points of HPC compressive strength. These objective functions, which are the compressive strength values of HPC at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days, depend on two input variables as: x1 (amount of RHA) and x2 (amount of FA). The Maple 13 program, solving the second-order regression equation, determines the optimum composition of the concrete mixture for obtaining high performance concrete and calculates the maximum value of the HPC compressive strength at the ages of 28 days. The results containMaxR28HPC = 76.716 MPa when RHA = 0.1251 and FA = 0.3119 by mass of Portland cement.

  10. Context-dependent JPEG backward-compatible high-dynamic range image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-10-01

    High-dynamic range (HDR) imaging is expected, together with ultrahigh definition and high-frame rate video, to become a technology that may change photo, TV, and film industries. Many cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering both HDR images and video are already available in the market. The popularity and full-public adoption of HDR content is, however, hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of low-dynamic range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate the wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR with commonly used legacy technologies for storage, rendering, and compression of video and images are necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms are developed for generating viewable LDR content from HDR, there is no consensus of which algorithm to use and under which conditions. We, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrate the dependency of the perceptual quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on the context: environmental factors, display parameters, and image content itself. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to deal with HDR images also. An architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG is proposed. A simple implementation of lossy compression demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed architecture compared with the state-of-the-art HDR image compression.

  11. Prevalence and hemodynamic effects of leaning during CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Dana E.; Sutton, Robert M.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Glatz, Andrew; Zuercher, Mathias; Maltese, Matthew R.; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Abella, Benjamin S.; Becker, Lance B.; Berg, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend complete release between chest compressions (CC). Objective Evaluate the hemodynamic effects of leaning (incomplete chest wall release) during CPR and the prevalence of leaning during CPR. Results In piglet ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests, 10% and 20% (1.8 kg and 3.6 kg, respectively), leaning during CPR increased right atrial pressures, decreased coronary perfusion pressures, and decreased cardiac index and left ventricular myocardial blood flow by nearly 50%. In contrast, residual leaning of a 260 g accelerometer/ force feedback device did not adversely affect cardiac index or myocardial blood flow. Among 108 adult in-hospital CPR events, leaning ≥2.5 kg was demonstrable in 91% of the events and 12% of the evaluated CC. For 12 children with in-hospital CPR, 28% of CC had residual leaning ≥2.5 kg and 89% had residual leaning ≥0.5 kg. Conclusions Leaning during CPR increases intrathoracic pressure, decreases coronary perfusion pressure, and decreases cardiac output and myocardial blood flow. Leaning is common during CPR. PMID:22208173

  12. Analysis of the relationship of leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, insulin, and uric acid to metabolic syndrome in lean, overweight, and obese young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abdul Ridha; Hasan, Haydar A; Raigangar, Veena L

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decade there has been a steady rise in obesity and co-morbidity, but little is known about the rate of metabolic dysfunction among young adults in the United Arab Emirates. Various factors have been implicated as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships of leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, insulin, and uric acid to the metabolic syndrome components in lean, overweight, and obese young females. This was a cross-sectional study of 69 apparently healthy young females, who were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) into three groups: lean (25 and or=30). Estimated biomarkers were: leptin, insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity [hs]-CRP, uric acid, blood sugar, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also measured. Serum leptin, hs-CRP, insulin, and uric acid increased significantly (p syndrome components was found in lean subjects (leptin vs. waist circumference r = 0.48) as opposed to six in the obese group (hs-CRP vs. waist circumference and systolic blood pressure [SBP], r = 0.45 and r = -0.41, respectively; insulin vs. diastolic blood pressure [DBP], r = 0.47; adiponectin vs. blood sugar, r = -0.44; and uric acid vs. waist circumference and TG, r = 0.5 and r = 0.51, respectively). Estimation of the levels of studied biomarkers could be an important tool for early detection of metabolic syndrome before the appearance of its frank components. Uric acid seems to be the most reliable biomarker to identify obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Pulse Compression of Phase-matched High Harmonic Pulses from a Time-Delay Compensated Monochromator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Motohiko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulse compression of single 32.6-eV high harmonic pulses from a time-delay compensated monochromator was demonstrated down to 11±3 fs by compensating the pulse front tilt. The photon flux was intensified up to 5.7×109 photons/s on target by implementing high harmonic generation under a phase matching condition in a hollow fiber used for increasing the interaction length.

  14. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  15. A new type of hydrogen generator-HHEG (high-compressed hydrogen energy generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, H.; Tojima, K.; Takeda, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' We have developed a new type of hydrogen generator named HHEG (High-compressed Hydrogen Energy Generator). HHEG can produce 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle without any mechanical compressor. HHEG is a kind of PEM(proton exchange membrane)electrolysis. It was well known that compressed hydrogen could be generated by water electrolysis. However, the conventional electrolysis could not generate 35 MPa or higher pressure that is required for fuel cell vehicle, because electrolysis cell stack is destroyed in such high pressure. In HHEG, the cell stack is put in high-pressure vessel and the pressure difference of oxygen and hydrogen that is generated by the cell stack is always kept at nearly zero by an automatic compensator invented by Mitsubishi Corporation. The cell stack of HHEG is not so special one, but it is not broken under such high pressure, because the automatic compensator always offsets the force acting on the cell stack. Hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle must be produce by no emission energy such as solar and atomic power. These energies are available as electricity. So, water electrolysis is the only way of producing hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen fuel is also 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen and will become 70 MPa in near future. But conventional mechanical compressor is not useful for such high pressure hydrogen fuel, because of the short lifetime and high power consumption. Construction of hydrogen station network is indispensable in order to come into wide use of fuel cell vehicles. For such network contraction, an on-site type hydrogen generator is required. HHEG can satisfy above these requirements. So we can conclude that HHEG is the only way of realizing the hydrogen economy. (author)

  16. G phase precipitation and strengthening in ultra-high strength ferritic steels: Towards lean ‘maraging’ metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.W.; Marceau, R.K.W.; Styles, M.J.; Barbier, D.; Hutchinson, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-high strength steels are interesting materials for light-weighting applications in the transportation industries. A key requirement of these applications is weldability and consequently a low carbon content is desirable. Maraging steels are examples of ultra-high strength, low carbon steels but their disadvantage is their high cost due to the large Ni and/or Co additions required. This contribution is focussed on the development of steels with maraging-like strengths but with low solute contents (less than 10%). A series of alloy compositions were designed to exploit precipitation of the G phase in a ferritic matrix at temperatures of 450–600 °C in order to obtain yield strengths in excess of 2 GPa. The mechanical response of the materials was measured using tension and compression testing and the precipitate evolution has been characterized using atom probe tomography (APT) and in-situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at a synchrotron beamline. Precipitate number densities of 10"2"5 m"−"3 are obtained, which are amongst the highest number densities so far observed in engineering alloys. The intrinsic strength of the G phase is shown to be proportional to its size, and deviations in the chemistry of the precipitates do not significantly affect their strengthening behaviour. An important outcome is that the common temper embrittlement issues known to occur during aging of martensite in the 450–600 °C range were mitigated in one alloy by starting with a cold-rolled and partially fragmented lath martensite instead of a freshly quenched martensite.

  17. Lean Production : Werkzeuge zur Realisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Binner, Hartmut F.

    2008-01-01

    INHALT: l. Einleitung und Standortbestimmung 2. Japanische Wertvorstellungen 3. Inhalte der Lean Production 4. Fertigungssegmentierung 5. Informationsmanagement mit CIM- und Logistik-Komponenten 6. Logistikgerechte Strukturen der Lean Production 7. Realisierung der Lean Production 8. Zusammenfassung

  18. Lean and Information Technology Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lean and Information Technology Toolkit is a how-to guide which provides resources to environmental agencies to help them use Lean Startup, Lean process improvement, and Agile tools to streamline and automate processes.

  19. Application of lean thinking to health care: issues and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Tom; Bongers, Inge; Janssen, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Incidents and quality problems are a prime cause why health care leaders are calling to redesign health care delivery. One of the concepts used is lean thinking. Yet, lean often leads to resistance. Also, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting lean premises. In this paper, we present an overview of lean thinking and its application to health care. Development, theory and application of lean thinking to health care Lean thinking evolved from a tool designed to improve operational shop-floor performance at an automotive manufacturer to a management approach with both operational and sociotechnical aspects. Sociotechnical dynamics have until recently not received much attention. At the same time a balanced approach might lead to a situation where operational and sociotechnial improvements are mutually reinforcing. Application to health care has been limited and focussed mainly on operational aspects using original lean tools. A more integrative approach would be to pay more attention to sociotechnical dynamics of lean implementation efforts. Also, the need to use the original lean tools may be limited, because health care may have different instruments and tools already in use that are in line with lean thinking principles. Discussion We believe lean thinking has the potential to improve health care delivery. At the same time, there are methodological and practical considerations that need to be taken into account. Otherwise, lean implementation will be superficial and fail, adding to existing resistance and making it more difficult to improve health care in the long term. PMID:19696048

  20. High-energy synchrotron X-ray radiography of shock-compressed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and application of a high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray imaging method to study shock-compressed, high-Z samples at Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK). Shock waves are driven into materials using a portable, single-stage gas gun designed by the Institute of Shock Physics. Following plate impact, material deformation is probed in-situ by white-beam X-ray radiography and complimentary velocimetry diagnostics. The high energies, large beam size (13 x 13 mm), and appreciable sample volumes (~ 1 cm3) viable for study at Beamline I12 compliment existing in-house pulsed X-ray capabilities and studies at the Dynamic Compression Sector. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  1. Moving on - beyond lean thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Lauri

    2004-01-01

    Lean Thinking is currently often positioned as the underlying theory of lean production among practitioners and academics, although its originators, Womack and Jones, seem not to have presented it as a theory. This paper endeavors to analyze whether Lean Thinking can be viewed as a theory of lean production. For this purpose, a critical assessment of Lean Thinking is carried out. Lean Thinking is argued to lack an adequate conceptualization of production, which has led to imprecise concepts, ...

  2. FEM Modeling of the Relationship between the High-Temperature Hardness and High-Temperature, Quasi-Static Compression Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Feng; Yan, Lan; Xu, Xipeng

    2017-12-26

    The high-temperature hardness test has a wide range of applications, but lacks test standards. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element method (FEM) model of the relationship between the high-temperature hardness and high-temperature, quasi-static compression experiment, which is a mature test technology with test standards. A high-temperature, quasi-static compression test and a high-temperature hardness test were carried out. The relationship between the high-temperature, quasi-static compression test results and the high-temperature hardness test results was built by the development of a high-temperature indentation finite element (FE) simulation. The simulated and experimental results of high-temperature hardness have been compared, verifying the accuracy of the high-temperature indentation FE simulation.The simulated results show that the high temperature hardness basically does not change with the change of load when the pile-up of material during indentation is ignored. The simulated and experimental results show that the decrease in hardness and thermal softening are consistent. The strain and stress of indentation were analyzed from the simulated contour. It was found that the strain increases with the increase of the test temperature, and the stress decreases with the increase of the test temperature.

  3. FEM Modeling of the Relationship between the High-Temperature Hardness and High-Temperature, Quasi-Static Compression Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature hardness test has a wide range of applications, but lacks test standards. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element method (FEM model of the relationship between the high-temperature hardness and high-temperature, quasi-static compression experiment, which is a mature test technology with test standards. A high-temperature, quasi-static compression test and a high-temperature hardness test were carried out. The relationship between the high-temperature, quasi-static compression test results and the high-temperature hardness test results was built by the development of a high-temperature indentation finite element (FE simulation. The simulated and experimental results of high-temperature hardness have been compared, verifying the accuracy of the high-temperature indentation FE simulation.The simulated results show that the high temperature hardness basically does not change with the change of load when the pile-up of material during indentation is ignored. The simulated and experimental results show that the decrease in hardness and thermal softening are consistent. The strain and stress of indentation were analyzed from the simulated contour. It was found that the strain increases with the increase of the test temperature, and the stress decreases with the increase of the test temperature.

  4. DSP accelerator for the wavelet compression/decompression of high- resolution images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, M.A.; Gleason, S.S.; Jatko, W.B.

    1993-07-23

    A Texas Instruments (TI) TMS320C30-based S-Bus digital signal processing (DSP) module was used to accelerate a wavelet-based compression and decompression algorithm applied to high-resolution fingerprint images. The law enforcement community, together with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NISI), is adopting a standard based on the wavelet transform for the compression, transmission, and decompression of scanned fingerprint images. A two-dimensional wavelet transform of the input image is computed. Then spatial/frequency regions are automatically analyzed for information content and quantized for subsequent Huffman encoding. Compression ratios range from 10:1 to 30:1 while maintaining the level of image quality necessary for identification. Several prototype systems were developed using SUN SPARCstation 2 with a 1280 {times} 1024 8-bit display, 64-Mbyte random access memory (RAM), Tiber distributed data interface (FDDI), and Spirit-30 S-Bus DSP-accelerators from Sonitech. The final implementation of the DSP-accelerated algorithm performed the compression or decompression operation in 3.5 s per print. Further increases in system throughput were obtained by adding several DSP accelerators operating in parallel.

  5. Mechanical behavior and dynamic failure of high-strength ultrafine grained tungsten under uniaxial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Q.; Jiao, T.; Ramesh, K.T.; Ma, E.; Kecskes, L.J.; Magness, L.; Dowding, R.; Kazykhanov, V.U.; Valiev, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behavior (especially dynamic failure) of ultra-fine grained (UFG) tungsten (W) under uniaxial compression. The starting material is of commercial purity and large grain size. We utilized severe plastic deformation to achieve the ultrafine microstructure characterized by grains and subgrains with sizes of ∼500 nm, as identified by transmission electron microscopy. Results of quasi-static compression show that the UFG W behaves in an elastic-nearly perfect plastic manner (i.e., vanishing strain hardening), with its flow stress approaching 2 GPa, close to twice that of conventional coarse grain W. Post-mortem examinations of the quasi-statically loaded samples show no evidence of cracking, in sharp contrast to the behavior of conventional W (where axial cracking is usually observed). Under uniaxial dynamic compression (strain rate ∼10 3 s -1 ), the true stress-true strain curves of the UFG W exhibit significant flow softening, and the peak stress is ∼3 GPa. Furthermore, the strain rate sensitivity of the UFG W is reduced to half the value of the conventional W. Both in situ high-speed photography and post-mortem examinations reveal shear localization and as a consequence, cracking of the UFG W under dynamic uniaxial compression. These observations are consistent with recent observations on other body-centered cubic metals with nanocrystalline or ultrafine microstructures. The experimental results are discussed using existing models for adiabatic shear localization in metals

  6. High-power rf pulse compression with SLED-II at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantista, C.

    1993-04-01

    Increasing the peak rf power available from X-band microwave tubes by means of rf pulse compression is envisioned as a way of achieving the few-hundred-megawatt power levels needed to drive a next-generation linear collider with 50--100 MW klystrons. SLED-II is a method of pulse compression similar in principal to the SLED method currently in use on the SLC and the LEP injector linac. It utilizes low-los resonant delay lines in place of the storage cavities of the latter. This produces the added benefit of a flat-topped output pulse. At SLAC, we have designed and constructed a prototype SLED-II pulse-compression system which operates in the circular TE 01 mode. It includes a circular-guide 3-dB coupler and other novel components. Low-power and initial high-power tests have been made, yielding a peak power multiplication of 4.8 at an efficiency of 40%. The system will be used in providing power for structure tests in the ASTA (Accelerator Structures Test Area) bunker. An upgraded second prototype will have improved efficiency and will serve as a model for the pulse compression system of the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator)

  7. lean-ISD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Guy W.

    2001-01-01

    Explains lean instructional systems design/development (ISD) as it relates to curriculum architecture design, based on Japan's lean production system. Discusses performance-based systems; ISD models; processes for organizational training and development; curriculum architecture to support job performance; and modular curriculum development. (LRW)

  8. Healthy Lean Through HRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on findings from the initial, exploratory phase of a longitudinal research study aimed at developing a framework for implementing lean while ensuring employee well-being. Data from observations and in-depth dialogues with persons involved in lean implementation, along...

  9. Dynamics of Nampt/visfatin and high molecular weight adiponectin in response to oral glucose load in obese and lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlütürk, Uğur; Harmanci, Ayla; Yildiz, Bülent Okan; Bayraktar, Miyase

    2010-04-01

    High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) is the active circulating form of adiponectin. Nampt/visfatin is the enzyme secreted from adipocytes in an active form and is one of the putative regulators of insulin secretion. To investigate the dynamics of total adiponectin (TA), HMWA and Nampt/visfatin in obese and lean women during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We studied normal glucose-tolerant (NGT), age-matched, 30 obese and 30 lean women. All subjects underwent a standard 75 g, 2-h OGTT, and area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT for glucose, insulin, Nampt/visfatin, TA and HMWA was calculated. Body fat mass was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Results Obese women had significantly higher basal and AUC values for insulin and Nampt/visfatin, whereas basal and AUC-HMWA were significantly lower in this group. Alternatively, obese and lean groups had similar basal and AUC values for glucose and TA. Basal insulin levels were negatively correlated with HMWA levels, but not with basal Nampt/visfatin. AUC-insulin was correlated positively with AUC-visfatin, and negatively with AUC-HMWA. Total and truncal body fat mass showed positive correlation with basal and AUC-visfatin, and negative correlation with basal and AUC-HMWA. In the NGT state, obese women have higher Nampt/visfatin and lower HMWA levels, both basally and in response to oral glucose challenge. The dynamics of Nampt/visfatin and HMWA during OGTT appear to be linked with insulin and adiposity. Counter-regulatory adaptations in HMWA and Nampt/visfatin might have an impact on suggested adipoinsular axis, contributing to maintenance of normal glucose tolerance.

  10. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T; Vesterager Christensen, D; Andersen, Hans [Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark); Dam Wied, M; Dam, M [NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark); Thorndahl, M [Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark); Weldingh, P [Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark); Maagoee, P; Kristensen, Kenneth T [Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kirketerp Friis, A [Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  11. Performance and emission characteristics of a turbocharged CNG engine fueled by hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas with high hydrogen ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fanhua; Wang, Mingyue; Jiang, Long; Chen, Renzhe; Deng, Jiao; Naeve, Nashay; Zhao, Shuli [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-06-15

    This paper investigates the effect of high hydrogen volumetric ratio of 55% on performance and emission characteristics in a turbocharged lean burn natural gas engine. The experimental data was conducted under various operating conditions including different spark timing, excess air ratio (lambda), and manifold pressure. It is found that the addition of hydrogen at a high volumetric ratio could significantly extend the lean burn limit, improve the engine lean burn ability, decrease burn duration, and yield higher thermal efficiency. The CO, CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced and NO{sub x} emission could be kept an acceptable low level with high hydrogen content under lean burn conditions when ignition timing were optimized. (author)

  12. Theory of the Thermal Diffusion of Microgel Particles in Highly Compressed Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Jeffrey; Maloney, Craig; Ciamarra, Massimo; Bi, Dapeng

    One amazing property of microgel colloids is the ability of the particles to thermally diffuse, even when they are compressed to a volume well below their swollen state volume, despite the fact that they are surrounded by and pressed against other particles. A glass transition is expected to occur when the colloid is sufficiently compressed for diffusion to cease. It is proposed that the diffusion is due to the ability of the highly compressed particles to change shape with little cost in free energy. It will be shown that most of the free energy required to compress microgel particles is due to osmotic pressure resulting from either counterions or monomers inside of the gel, which depends on the particle's volume. There is still, however, a cost in free energy due to polymer elasticity when particles undergo the distortions necessary for them to move around each other as they diffuse through the compressed colloid, even if it occurs at constant volume. Using a scaling theory based on simple models for the linking of polymers belonging to the microgel particles, we examine the conditions under which the cost in free energy needed for a particle to diffuse is smaller than or comparable to thermal energy, which is a necessary condition for particle diffusion. Based on our scaling theory, we predict that thermally activated diffusion should be possible when the mean number of links along the axis along which a distortion occurs is much larger than N 1 / 5, where Nis the mean number of monomers in a polymer chain connecting two links in the gel.

  13. Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.

    1997-01-01

    Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)

  14. Dynamic Increase Factors for High Performance Concrete in Compression using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Ngo, Tuan; Mendis, Priyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides dynamic increase factors (DIF) in compression for two different High Performance Concretes (HPC), 100 MPa and 160 MPa, respectively. In the experimental investigation 2 different Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars are used in order to test over a wide range of strain rates, 100 sec1...... to 700 sec-1. The results are compared with the CEB Model Code and the Spilt Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique is briefly de-scribed....

  15. Theoretical x-ray absorption investigation of high pressure ice and compressed graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Dawn M; Tse, John S

    2007-01-01

    The x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of high pressure ices II, VIII, and IX have been computed with the Car-Parrinello plane wave pseudopotential method. XAS for the intermediate structures obtained from uniaxial compression of hexagonal graphite along the c-axis are also studied. Whenever possible, comparisons to available experimental results are made. The reliability of the computational methods for the XAS for these structures is discussed

  16. Anomalous anisotropic compression behavior of superconducting CrAs under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wu, Wei; Hu, Qingyang; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Yang, Ke; Cheng, Jinguang; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Lin; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2015-01-01

    CrAs was observed to possess the bulk superconductivity under high-pressure conditions. To understand the superconducting mechanism and explore the correlation between the structure and superconductivity, the high-pressure structural evolution of CrAs was investigated using the angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The structure of CrAs remains stable up to 1.8 GPa, whereas the lattice parameters exhibit anomalous compression behaviors. With increasing pressure, the lattice parameters a and c both demonstrate a nonmonotonic change, and the lattice parameter b undergoes a rapid contraction at ∼0.18−0.35 GPa, which suggests that a pressure-induced isostructural phase transition occurs in CrAs. Above the phase transition pressure, the axial compressibilities of CrAs present remarkable anisotropy. A schematic band model was used to address the anomalous compression behavior of CrAs. The present results shed light on the structural and related electronic responses to high pressure, which play a key role toward understanding the superconductivity of CrAs. PMID:26627230

  17. Generation of intense, high-energy ion pulses by magnetic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A system based on the magnetic compression of ion rings, for generating intense (High-current), high-energy ion pulses that are guided to a target without a metallic wall or an applied external magnetic field includes a vacuum chamber; an inverse reflex tetrode for producing a hollow ion beam within the chamber; magnetic coils for producing a magnetic field, bo, along the axis of the chamber; a disc that sharpens a magnetic cusp for providing a rotational velocity to the beam and causing the beam to rotate; first and second gate coils for producing fast-rising magnetic field gates, the gates being spaced apart, each gate modifying a corresponding magnetic mirror peak (Near and far peaks) for trapping or extracting the ions from the magnetic mirror, the ions forming a ring or layer having rotational energy; a metal liner for generating by magnetic flux compression a high, time-varying magnetic field, the time-varying magnetic field progressively increasing the kinetic energy of the ions, the magnetic field from the second gate coil decreasing the far mirror peak at the end of the compression for extracting the trapped rotating ions from the confining mirror; and a disc that sharpens a magnetic half-cusp for increasing the translational velocity of the ion beam. The system utilizes the self-magnetic field of the rotating, propagating ion beam to prevent the beam from expanding radially upon extraction

  18. Extraction Compression and Acceleration of High Line Charge Density Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Henestroza, Enrique; Grote, D P; Peters, Craig; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    HEDP applications require high line charge density ion beams. An efficient method to obtain this type of beams is to extract a long pulse, high current beam from a gun at high energy, and let the beam pass through a decelerating field to compress it. The low energy beam bunch is loaded into a solenoid and matched to a Brillouin flow. The Brillouin equilibrium is independent of the energy if the relationship between the beam size (a), solenoid magnetic field strength (B) and line charge density is such that (Ba)2

  19. The Statistical Analysis of Relation between Compressive and Tensile/Flexural Strength of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępniak M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete. The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 [1], Eurocode 2 [2] and the Model Code 2010 [3] are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.

  20. Efficient High-Dimensional Entanglement Imaging with a Compressive-Sensing Double-Pixel Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Howland

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We implement a double-pixel compressive-sensing camera to efficiently characterize, at high resolution, the spatially entangled fields that are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. This technique leverages sparsity in spatial correlations between entangled photons to improve acquisition times over raster scanning by a scaling factor up to n^{2}/log⁡(n for n-dimensional images. We image at resolutions up to 1024 dimensions per detector and demonstrate a channel capacity of 8.4 bits per photon. By comparing the entangled photons’ classical mutual information in conjugate bases, we violate an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen separability criterion for all measured resolutions. More broadly, our result indicates that compressive sensing can be especially effective for higher-order measurements on correlated systems.

  1. Accelerated high-frame-rate mouse heart cine-MRI using compressed sensing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaal, Abdallah G; Coolen, Bram F; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Castro, Rui M; Prompers, Jeanine J; Florack, Luc M J; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2013-04-01

    We introduce a new protocol to obtain very high-frame-rate cinematographic (Cine) MRI movies of the beating mouse heart within a reasonable measurement time. The method is based on a self-gated accelerated fast low-angle shot (FLASH) acquisition and compressed sensing reconstruction. Key to our approach is that we exploit the stochastic nature of the retrospective triggering acquisition scheme to produce an undersampled and random k-t space filling that allows for compressed sensing reconstruction and acceleration. As a standard, a self-gated FLASH sequence with a total acquisition time of 10 min was used to produce single-slice Cine movies of seven mouse hearts with 90 frames per cardiac cycle. Two times (2×) and three times (3×) k-t space undersampled Cine movies were produced from 2.5- and 1.5-min data acquisitions, respectively. The accelerated 90-frame Cine movies of mouse hearts were successfully reconstructed with a compressed sensing algorithm. The movies had high image quality and the undersampling artifacts were effectively removed. Left ventricular functional parameters, i.e. end-systolic and end-diastolic lumen surface areas and early-to-late filling rate ratio as a parameter to evaluate diastolic function, derived from the standard and accelerated Cine movies, were nearly identical. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Diccionario Lean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Ellner, Sarah María

    2016-01-01

    El Diccionario Bilingüe de Lean Manufacturing pretende ser un instrumento de apoyo a todo aquel que tenga la responsabilidad de planear, ejecutar o simplemente algún interés con las actividades de Lean Manufacturing, aportando así también conceptos claros tanto en castellano como en inglés, con el fin de entender de forma integral el alcance mismo que puede llegar a tener dicha filosofía, al igual que se proporcionara una serie de siglas y herramientas para la implementación del Lean Manufact...

  3. Exploring Potential Foreshocks on Highly Compressed Patches in a Rate-and-State Fault Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, N.; Lapusta, N.

    2015-12-01

    On both natural and laboratory faults, some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks. Such foreshocks may be triggered by aseismic processes of the mainshock nucleation at fault heterogeneities such as bumps, as inferred in some laboratory experiments. We explore a rate-and-state fault model in which potential foreshocks occur on patches of elevated normal compression (by a factor of 5 to 10) within a larger velocity-weakening (VW) region, using 3D numerical simulations of long-term earthquake sequences and aseismic slip. We find that this model produces isolated microseismicity during the nucleation of a larger-scale seismic event, under the following conditions: (i) Patch diameter D is comparable to or larger than the patch nucleation size h*patch; (ii) D is much smaller than the nucleation size h*main for the larger-scale VW region; otherwise, a patch-hosted event simply starts the larger-scale event; (iii) the patches are sufficiently separated to prevent them triggering each other nearly instantaneously. Hence the nucleation sizes h*main and h*patch need to be substantially different, by a factor of around 10 in our simulations so far, and potentially much more. The aforementioned separation of scales can be achieved by assigning high levels of compression on the patches. However, one would expect unrealistically large stress drops for events on such patches. Remarkably, in this model, we find that the stress drops of the patch-hosted events are reasonable and roughly constant, despite a wide variation in the patch compression, due to patch ruptures extending into the surrounding VW region. Furthermore, for D close to h*patch, a substantial part of the stress change on the patch occurs aseismically. Our current work is directed towards quantifying and explaining these trends, as well as exploring whether the microseismicity occurring on highly compressed patches due to nucleation-induced creep has any observable differences from other events.

  4. Intertrochanteric fractures in elderly high risk patients treated with Ender nails and compression screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangadharan Sidhartha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ender and Simon Weidner popularized the concept of closed condylocephlic nailing for intertrochanteric fractures in 1970. The clinical experience of authors revealed that Ender nailing alone cannot provide secure fixation in elderly patients with osteoporosis. Hence we conducted a study to evaluate the efficacy of a combined fixation procedure using Ender nails and a cannulated compression screw for intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: 76 patients with intertrochanteric fractures were treated using intramedullary Ender nails and cannulated compression screw from January 2004 to December 2007. The mean age of the patients was 80 years (range 70-105 years.Using the Evan′s system of classification 49 were stable and 27 unstable fractures. Inclusion criteria was high risk elderly patients (age > 70 years with intertrochanteric fracture. The exclusion criteria included patients with pressure sores over the trochanteric region. Many patients had pre-existing co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, COPD, ischemic heart disease, CVA and coronary artery bypass surgery. The two Ender nails of 4.5mm each were passed across the fracture site into the proximal neck. This was reinforced with a 6.5 mm cannulated compression screw passed from the sub trochanteric region, across the fracture into the head. Results: The mean follow-up was 14 months (range 9-19 months Average time to fracture union was 10 weeks (range 6-16 weeks. The mean knee ROM was 130o (± 5o. There was no case of nail penetration into hip joint. In five cases with advanced osteoporosis there was minimal migration of Ender nails distally. Conclusions: The Ender nailing combined with compression screw fixation in cases of intertrochanteric fractures in high risk elderly patients could achieve reliable fracture stability with minimal complications.

  5. Effects of bandwidth, compression speed, and gain at high frequencies on preferences for amplified music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J

    2012-09-01

    This article reviews a series of studies on the factors influencing sound quality preferences, mostly for jazz and classical music stimuli. The data were obtained using ratings of individual stimuli or using the method of paired comparisons. For normal-hearing participants, the highest ratings of sound quality were obtained when the reproduction bandwidth was wide (55 to 16000 Hz) and ripples in the frequency response were small (less than ± 5 dB). For hearing-impaired participants listening via a simulated five-channel compression hearing aid with gains set using the CAM2 fitting method, preferences for upper cutoff frequency varied across participants: Some preferred a 7.5- or 10-kHz upper cutoff frequency over a 5-kHz cutoff frequency, and some showed the opposite preference. Preferences for a higher upper cutoff frequency were associated with a shallow high-frequency slope of the audiogram. A subsequent study comparing the CAM2 and NAL-NL2 fitting methods, with gains slightly reduced for participants who were not experienced hearing aid users, showed a consistent preference for CAM2. Since the two methods differ mainly in the gain applied for frequencies above 4 kHz (CAM2 recommending higher gain than NAL-NL2), these results suggest that extending the upper cutoff frequency is beneficial. A system for reducing "overshoot" effects produced by compression gave small but significant benefits for sound quality of a percussion instrument (xylophone). For a high-input level (80 dB SPL), slow compression was preferred over fast compression.

  6. Soliton compression to few-cycle pulses with a high quality factor by engineering cascaded quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin

    2012-01-01

    We propose an efficient approach to improve few-cycle soliton compression with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities by using an engineered multi-section structure of the nonlinear crystal. By exploiting engineering of the cascaded quadratic nonlinearities, in each section soliton compression...... with a low effective order is realized, and high-quality few-cycle pulses with large compression factors are feasible. Each subsequent section is designed so that the compressed pulse exiting the previous section experiences an overall effective self-defocusing cubic nonlinearity corresponding to a modest...... soliton order, which is kept larger than unity to ensure further compression. This is done by increasing the cascaded quadratic nonlinearity in the new section with an engineered reduced residual phase mismatch. The low soliton orders in each section ensure excellent pulse quality and high efficiency...

  7. Lean og arbejdsmiljø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    Bogen tager udgangspunkt i en undersøgelse af 10 private og offentlige virksomheders erfaringer med lean. Undersøgelsen viser at der ikke findes entydige sammenhænge mellem lean og det psykosociale arbejdsmiljø. Bogen forholder sig til sammenhængen mellem lean og ledelse, lean og medarbejderens...... rolle, lean og lean og forandringsprocessen. Bogen kommer desuden med anbefalinger til hvorledes virksomheden kan gribe dialogen an for at opnå et godt lean forløb der inddrager hensynet til og effekterne af et godt psykosocialt arbejdsmiljø....

  8. Compressive pre-stress effects on magnetostrictive behaviors of highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia R. Downing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Ga (Galfenol and Fe-Al (Alfenol are rare-earth-free magnetostrictive alloys with mechanical robustness and strong magnetoelastic coupling. Since highly textured Galfenol and Alfenol thin sheets along orientations have been developed with magnetostrictive performances of ∼270 ppm and ∼160 ppm, respectively, they have been of great interest in sensor and energy harvesting applications. In this work, we investigate stress-dependent magnetostrictive behaviors in highly textured rolled sheets of NbC-added Fe80Al20 and Fe81Ga19 alloys with a single (011 grain coverage of ∼90%. A compact fixture was designed and used to introduce a uniform compressive pre-stress to those thin sheet samples along a [100] direction. As compressive pre-stress was increased to above 100 MPa, the maximum observed magnetostriction increased 42% in parallel magnetostriction along the stress direction, λ//, in highly textured (011 Fe81Ga19 thin sheets for a compressive pre-stress of 60 MPa. The same phenomena were observed for (011 Fe80Al20 (maximum increase of 88% with a 49 MPa compressive stress. This trend is shown to be consistent with published results on the effect of pre-stress on magnetostriction in rods of single crystal and textured polycrystalline Fe-Ga alloy of similar compositions, and single crystal data gathered using our experimental set up. Interestingly, the saturating field (Hs does not vary with pre-stresses, while the saturating field in rod-shaped samples of Fe-Ga increases with an increase of pre-stress. This suggests that for a range of compressive pre-stresses, thin sheet samples have larger values of d33 transduction coefficients and susceptibility than rod-shaped samples of similar alloy compositions, and hence they should provide performance benefits when used in sensor and actuator device applications. Thus, we discuss potential reasons for the unexpected trends in Hs with pre-stress, and present preliminary results from tests conducted

  9. Stainless steel component with compressed fiber Bragg grating for high temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, Mathew; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2016-05-01

    A smart metal component having the potential for high temperature strain sensing capability is reported. The stainless steel (SS316) structure is made by selective laser melting (SLM). A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is embedded in to a 3D printed U-groove by high temperature brazing using a silver based alloy, achieving an axial FBG compression of 13 millistrain at room temperature. Initial results shows that the test component can be used for up to 700°C for sensing applications.

  10. Explosive magnetic flux compression plate generators as fast high-energy power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.; Fowler, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    A type of explosive driven generator, called a plate generator, is described. It is capable of delivering electrical energies in the MJ range at TW power levels. Plane wave detonated explosive systems accelerate two large-area metal plates to high opposing velocities. An initial magnetic field is compressed and the flux transferred to an external load. The characteristics of the plate generator are described and compared with those of other types of generators. Methods of load matching are discussed. The results of several high-power experiments are also given

  11. Influence of Random Inclusion of Coconut Fibres on the Short term Strength of Highly Compressible Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani Sujatha, Evangelin; SaiSree, S.; Prabalini, C.; Aysha Farsana, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The choice of natural fibres for soil stabilization provides an economic, safe and eco-friendly alternative to improve the properties of soil. They are an important step forward toward sustainable development. An attempt was made to study the influence of the random addition of untreated coconut fibres on the short term strength of soil, its stress-strain behavior, compaction characteristics and index properties. The soil selected for the study is a highly compressible clay sample with a liquid limit of 52.5 % and plasticity index of 38 %. The soil has no organic content. The study reveals that the compaction curves tend to shift to the right side, indicating more plastic behavior with the addition of fibres. The addition of fibres also reorient the soil structure to a more dispersed fashion. A significant increase in the unconfined compressive strength is also observed. An increase of nearly 51 % in the unconfined compressive strength is observed at 0.75 % coir inclusion. The stress-strain behavior of the soil shows a shift toward more plastic behavior. The mode of failure of the soil specimen is by cracking and with fibre inclusion, length of the failure cracks is restrained as the fibre tends to hold the cracks together, resulting in shorter cracks, with significant bulging of the specimen at failure.

  12. Experimental Study on Compression/Absorption High-Temperature Hybrid Heat Pump with Natural Refrigerant Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Chang, Ki Chang; Ra, Ho Sang; Kim, Min Sung [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Chan [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This research concerns the development of a compression/absorption high-temperature hybrid heat pump that uses a natural refrigerant mixture. Heat pumps based on the compression/absorption cycle offer various advantages over conventional heat pumps based on the vapor compression cycle, such as large temperature glide, temperature lift, flexible operating range, and capacity control. In this study, a lab-scale prototype hybrid heat pump was constructed with a two-stage compressor, absorber, desorber, desuperheater, solution heat exchanger, solution pump, liquid/vapor separator, and rectifier as the main components. The hybrid heat pump system operated at 10-kW-class heating capacity producing hot water whose temperature was more than 90 .deg. C when the heat source and sink temperatures were 50 .deg. C. Experiments with various NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O mass fractions and compressor/pump circulation ratios were performed on the system. From the study, the system performance was optimized at a specific NH{sub 3} concentration.

  13. Orchestrating Lean Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Mikkelsen, Hans; Andersen, Jesper Rank

    2008-01-01

    The notion of Lean Manufacturing is not merely confined to a set of well defined techniques, but represents a broad approach to managing a company. Working with lean entails many aspects, such as production planning and control, production engineering, product development, supply chain......, and organizational issues. To become effective, many functional areas and departments must be involved. At the same time companies are embedded in a dynamic environment. The aim of the paper is to propose a comprehensive approach to better implementation of lean initiatives, based on two empirical studies. The paper...... will discuss how a concerted effort can be staged taking into account the interdependencies among individual improvement initiatives. The notion of orchestration will be introduced, and several means for orchestration will be presented. Critical behavioral issues for lean implementation will be discussed....

  14. Lean Government Methods Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  15. Lean Enterprise Value Phase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shields, John T

    2005-01-01

    ... using a philosophy called "lean." LAl's mission is to research, develop, and promulgate practices, tools, and knowledge that enable and accelerate the envisioned transformation of the greater US aerospace enterprise through people and processes...

  16. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  17. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn,

  18. Lean and Obese Zucker Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFES Data: Regulation of p70S6kinase Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic exercise has been advocated as a prescribed treatment for the management of diabetes: however, alterations in exercise-induced signaling remain largely unexplored in the diabetic muscle. Here, we compare the basal and the in situ contraction-induced phosphorylation of the AKT, GSK3beta, mTor, p70s6K, Pten, and Shp2 in the lean and obese (fa/fa Zucker rat Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscle following a single bout of contractile stimuli. This article represents data associated with prior publications from our lab (Katta et al., 2009a, 2009b; Tullgren et al., 1991 [1–3] and concurrent Data in Brief articles (Ginjupalli et al., 2017a, 2017b; Rice et al., 2017a, 2017b [4–7]. Keywords: Diabetes, Skeletal muscle, High-frequency electrical stimulation (HFES, Zucker rat, Extensor Digitorum Longus, p70s6k

  19. High Temperature Uniaxial Compression and Stress-Relaxation Behavior of India-Specific RAFM Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naimish S.; Sunil, Saurav; Sarkar, Apu

    2018-05-01

    India-specific reduced activity ferritic martensitic steel (INRAFM), a modified 9Cr-1Mo grade, has been developed by India as its own structural material for fabrication of the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be installed in the International Thermonuclear Energy Reactor (ITER). The extensive study on mechanical and physical properties of this material has been currently going on for appraisal of this material before being put to use in the ITER. High temperature compression, stress-relaxation, and strain-rate change behavior of the INRAFM steel have been investigated. The optical microscopic and scanning electron microscopic characterizations were carried out to observe the microstructural changes that occur during uniaxial compressive deformation test. Comparable true plastic stress values at 300 °C and 500 °C and a high drop in true plastic stress at 600 °C were observed during the compression test. Stress-relaxation behaviors were investigated at 500 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1. The creep properties of the steel at different temperatures were predicted from the stress-relaxation test. The Norton's stress exponent (n) was found to decrease with the increasing temperature. Using Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn relationship, the temperature-compensated normalized strain rate vs stress was plotted. The stress exponent (n) value of 10.05 was obtained from the normalized plot. The increasing nature of the strain rate sensitivity (m) with the test temperature was found from strain-rate change test. The low plastic stability with m 0.06 was observed at 600 °C. The activation volume (V *) values were obtained in the range of 100 to 300 b3. By comparing the experimental values with the literature, the rate-controlling mechanisms at the thermally activated region of high temperature were found to be the nonconservative movement of jogged screw dislocations and thermal breaking of attractive junctions.

  20. Generation of high intensity rf pulses in the ionosphere by means of in situ compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Perkins, F.W.; Valeo, E.J.

    1993-04-01

    We demonstrate, using a simple model, that high intensity pulses can be generated from a frequency-chirped modifier of much lower intensity by making use of the dispersive properties of the ionosphere. We show that a frequency-chirped pulse can be constructed so that its various components overtake each other at a prescribed height, resulting in large (up to one hundred times) transient intensity enhancements as compared to those achievable from a steady modifier operating at the same power. We examine briefly one possible application: the enhancement of plasma wave amplitudes which occurs as a result of the interaction of such a compressed pulse with pre-generated turbulence

  1. Upgrade of the SLAC SLED II Pulse Compression System Based on Recent High Power Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlieks, A.E.; Fowkes, W.R.; Loewen, R.J.; Tantawi, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the Next Linear Collider (NLC) it is expected that the high power rf components be able to handle peak power levels in excess of 400 MW. We present recent results of high power tests designed to investigate the RF breakdown limits of the X-band pulse compression system used at SLAC. (SLED-II). Results of these tests show that both the TE 01 -TE 10 mode converter and the 4-port hybrid have a maximum useful power limit of 220-250 MW. Based on these tests, modifications of these components have been undertaken to improve their peak field handling capability. Results of these modifications will be presented. As part of an international effort to develop a new 0.5-1.5 TeV electron-positron linear collider for the 21st century, SLAC has been working towards a design, referred to as 'The Next Linear Collider' (NLC), which will operate at 11.424 GHz and utilize 50-75 MW klystrons as rf power sources. One of the major challenges in this design, or any other design, is how to generate and efficiently transport extremely high rf power from a source to an accelerator structure. SLAC has been investigating various methods of 'pulse compressing' a relatively wide rf pulse ((ge) 1 μs) from a klystron into a narrower, but more intense, pulse. Currently a SLED-II pulse compression scheme is being used at SLAC in the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) and in the Accelerator Structures Test Area (ASTA) to provide high rf power for accelerator and component testing. In ASTA, a 1.05 μs pulse from a 50 MW klystron was successfully pulse compressed to 205 MW with a pulse width of 150 ns. Since operation in NLC will require generating and transporting rf power in excess of 400 MW it was decided to test the breakdown limits of the SLED-II rf components in ASTA with rf power up to the maximum available of 400 MW. This required the combining of power from two 50 MW klystrons and feeding the summed power into the SLED-II pulse compressor. Results from this experiment demonstrated that two of

  2. The lean service machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Cynthia Karen

    2003-10-01

    Jefferson Pilot Financial, a life insurance and annuities firm, like many U.S. service companies at the end of the 1990s was looking for new ways to grow. Its top managers recognized that JPF needed to differentiate itself in the eyes of its customers, the independent life-insurance advisers who sell and service policies. To establish itself as these advisers' preferred partner, it set out to reduce the turnaround time on policy applications, simplify the submission process, and reduce errors. JPF's managers looked to the "lean production" practices that U.S. manufacturers adopted in response to competition from Japanese companies. Lean production is built around the concept of continuous-flow processing--a departure from traditional production systems, in which large batches are processed at each step. JPF appointed a "lean team" to reengineer its New Business unit's operations, beginning with the creation of a "model cell"--a fully functioning microcosm of JPF's entire process. This approach allowed managers to experiment and smooth out the kinks while working toward an optimal design. The team applied lean-manufacturing practices, including placing linked processes near one another, balancing employees' workloads, posting performance results, and measuring performance and productivity from the customer's perspective. Customer-focused metrics helped erode the employees' "My work is all that matters" mind-set. The results were so impressive that JPF is rolling out similar systems across many of its operations. To convince employees of the value of lean production, the lean team introduced a simulation in which teams compete to build the best paper airplane based on invented customer specifications. This game drives home lean production's basic principles, establishing a foundation for deep and far-reaching changes in the production system.

  3. Effect of mix proportion of high density concrete on compressive strength, density and radiation absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Azreen Masenwat; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Ismail Mustapha; Nasharuddin Isa; Mohamad Haniza Mahmud; Mohammad Shahrizan Samsu

    2014-01-01

    To prevent radiation leaks at nuclear reactors, high-density concrete is used as an absorbent material for radiation from spreading into the environment. High-density concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate (usually high-density minerals) and water. In this research, hematite stone is used because of its mineral density higher than the granite used in conventional concrete mixing. Mix concrete in this study were divided into part 1 and part 2. In part 1, the concrete mixture is designed with the same ratio of 1: 2: 4 but differentiated in terms of water-cement ratio (0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80 ). Whereas, in part 2, the concrete mixture is designed to vary the ratio of 1: 1: 2, 1: 1.5: 3, 1: 2: 3, 1: 3: 6, 1: 2: 6 with water-cement ratio (0.7, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9). In each section, the division has also performed in a mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. Then, the physical characteristics of the density and the compressive strength of the mixture of part 1 and part 2 is measured. Comparisons were also made in terms of absorption of radiation by Cs-137 and Co-60 source for each mix. This paper describes and discusses the relationship between the concrete mixture ratio, the relationship with the water-cement ratio, compressive strength, density, different mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. (author)

  4. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  5. High-energy-throughput pulse compression by off-axis group-delay compensation in a laser-induced filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Alisauskas, S.; Muecke, O. D.; Pugzlys, A.; Baltuska, A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Off-axial beam dynamics of ultrashort laser pulses in a filament enable a radical energy-throughput improvement for filamentation-assisted pulse compression. We identify regimes where a weakly diverging wave, produced on the trailing edge of the pulse, catches up with a strongly diverging component, arising in the central part of the pulse, allowing sub-100-fs millijoule infrared laser pulses to be compressed to 20-25-fs pulse widths with energy throughputs in excess of 70%. Theoretical predictions have been verified by experimental results on filamentation-assisted compression of 70-fs, 1.5-μm laser pulses in high-pressure argon.

  6. Environmentally friendly drive for gas compression applications: enhanced design of high-speed induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Karina Velloso; Pradurat, Jean Francois; Mercier, Jean Charles [Institut National Polytechncique, Lorrain (France). Converteam Motors Div.; Truchot, Patrick [Nancy Universite (France). Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs (ERPI)

    2008-07-01

    Taking into account the key issues faced by gas compressors users, this paper aims to help optimize the choice of the drive equipment as well as the driven equipment, in function of the cost of the whole installation life cycle. The design of the enhanced high-speed induction motor (MGV-Moteuer a Grande Vitesse) represents a technological breakthrough for the industry, it allows the direct coupling to the compressor, without using a gearbox making the system more efficient and reliable. From both micro and macro-economic viewpoints, the high-speed electric driver becomes a more efficient use of natural gas energy resources. This new technology associated with the electric option offers challenging and rewarding work to those responsible for the operation and maintenance of the compressor station. The electric option is not only conceptually viable but has a proven track record that justifies serious consideration as an alternative for reliably powering. Once an operator becomes comfortable with the prospects of motor-driven compression, the analysis of machine options requires only a few new approaches to fairly evaluate the alternatives. The application of this reasoning in projects using compression units is especially opportune, in view of the great variations of operational conditions and environmental issues. (author)

  7. Study on Relaxation Damage Properties of High Viscosity Asphalt Sand under Uniaxial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhen Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory investigations of relaxation damage properties of high viscosity asphalt sand (HVAS by uniaxial compression tests and modified generalized Maxwell model (GMM to simulate viscoelastic characteristics coupling damage were carried out. A series of uniaxial compression relaxation tests were performed on HVAS specimens at different temperatures, loading rates, and constant levels of input strain. The results of the tests show that the peak point of relaxation modulus is highly influenced by the loading rate in the first half of an L-shaped curve, while the relaxation modulus is almost constant in the second half of the curve. It is suggested that for the HVAS relaxation tests, the temperature should be no less than −15°C. The GMM is used to determine the viscoelastic responses, the Weibull distribution function is used to characterize the damage of the HVAS and its evolution, and the modified GMM is a coupling of the two models. In this paper, the modified GMM is implemented through a secondary development with the USDFLD subroutine to analyze the relaxation damage process and improve the linear viscoelastic model in ABAQUS. Results show that the numerical method of coupling damage provides a better approximation of the test curve over almost the whole range. The results also show that the USDFLD subroutine can effectively predict the relaxation damage process of HVAS and can provide a theoretical support for crack control of asphalt pavements.

  8. Single stock dynamics on high-frequency data: from a compressed coding perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fushing

    Full Text Available High-frequency return, trading volume and transaction number are digitally coded via a nonparametric computing algorithm, called hierarchical factor segmentation (HFS, and then are coupled together to reveal a single stock dynamics without global state-space structural assumptions. The base-8 digital coding sequence, which is capable of revealing contrasting aggregation against sparsity of extreme events, is further compressed into a shortened sequence of state transitions. This compressed digital code sequence vividly demonstrates that the aggregation of large absolute returns is the primary driving force for stimulating both the aggregations of large trading volumes and transaction numbers. The state of system-wise synchrony is manifested with very frequent recurrence in the stock dynamics. And this data-driven dynamic mechanism is seen to correspondingly vary as the global market transiting in and out of contraction-expansion cycles. These results not only elaborate the stock dynamics of interest to a fuller extent, but also contradict some classical theories in finance. Overall this version of stock dynamics is potentially more coherent and realistic, especially when the current financial market is increasingly powered by high-frequency trading via computer algorithms, rather than by individual investors.

  9. Prediction of compression strength of high performance concrete using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, A; Moromi, I; Garcia, F; Espinoza, P; Acuña, L

    2015-01-01

    High-strength concrete is undoubtedly one of the most innovative materials in construction. Its manufacture is simple and is carried out starting from essential components (water, cement, fine and aggregates) and a number of additives. Their proportions have a high influence on the final strength of the product. This relations do not seem to follow a mathematical formula and yet their knowledge is crucial to optimize the quantities of raw materials used in the manufacture of concrete. Of all mechanical properties, concrete compressive strength at 28 days is most often used for quality control. Therefore, it would be important to have a tool to numerically model such relationships, even before processing. In this aspect, artificial neural networks have proven to be a powerful modeling tool especially when obtaining a result with higher reliability than knowledge of the relationships between the variables involved in the process. This research has designed an artificial neural network to model the compressive strength of concrete based on their manufacturing parameters, obtaining correlations of the order of 0.94

  10. Identification of Lean Implementation Hurdles in Indian Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhim Singh

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased pressure from global competitors, manufacturing organizations are switching over to lean philosophies from traditional mass production. Lean manufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy which focuses on elimination of various types of wastes and creates maximum value for the end customers. Lean thinking aims to produce high quality products and services at the lowest possible cost with maximum customer responsiveness. Indian Industry is facing lot of problems in this transform...

  11. A high-compression electron gun for C6+ production: concept, simulations and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertzig, Robert; Breitenfeldt, M.; Mathot, S.; Pitters, J.; Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we report on simulations and the mechanical design of a high-compression electron gun for an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) dedicated for production of high intensity and high repetition rate pulses of bare carbon ions for injection into linac-based hadron therapy facilities. The gun is presently under construction at CERN to be retrofitted into the TwinEBIS test bench for experimental studies. We describe the design constraints, show results of numeric simulations and report on the mechanical design featuring several novel ideas. The reported design makes use of combined-function units with reduced number of mechanical joints that were carefully controlled and tuned during the manufacturing phase. The simulations addressed a wide range of topics including the influence of thermal effects, focusing optics, symmetry-breaking misalignments and injection into a full 5 T field.

  12. Percutaneous micro-balloon compression for treatment of high risk idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianjun; Ma Yi; Wang Bin; Li Yanfeng; Huang Haitao; Li Fuyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and complications of percutaneous micro- balloon compression (PMC) of trigeminal ganglion for high risk idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: To analyze retrospectively the clinical data of 3053 cases of idiopathic trigeminal nemalgia, of which 804 cases were in high risk, who underwent PMC from Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2007 in our department. Results: 833 procedures were performed on these 804 patients. The immediate effective rate was 97.3%; with recurrence rate of 6.8%, ipsilateral paresthesia incidence 3.7%; and no keratohelcosis with approximately 2/3 masticator, muscles weakness and diplopia 0.2%. Mean follow-up time was 36 months. Conclusions: PMC procedure is very effective for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia especially in high risk patients, and especially prefer for the pain involved the first branch neuralgia. (authors)

  13. EPA Lean Government Initiative: How to Replicate Lean Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Lean Replication Primer describes how EPA Offices and Regions can identify and adapt successful practices from previous Lean projects to “replicate” their successes and generate further improvements.

  14. High pressure phase transitions and compressibilities of Er2Zr2O7 and Ho2Zr2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. X.; Lang, M.; Becker, U.; Ewing, R. C.; Lian, J.

    2008-01-01

    Phase stability and compressibility of rare earth zirconates with the defect-fluorite structure were investigated by in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A sluggish defect-fluorite to a cotunnitelike phase transformation occurred at pressures of ˜22 and ˜30GPa for Er2Zr2O7 and Ho2Zr2O7, respectively. Enhanced compressibility was found for the high pressure phase as a result of increasing cation coordination number and cation-anion bond length.

  15. High Pressure Phase Transitions and Compressibilities of Er2Zr2O7 and Ho2Zr2O7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,F.; Lang, M.; Becker, U.; Ewing, R.; Lian, J.

    2008-01-01

    Phase stability and compressibility of rare earth zirconates with the defect-fluorite structure were investigated by in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. A sluggish defect-fluorite to a cotunnitelike phase transformation occurred at pressures of {approx} 22 and {approx} 30 GPa for Er2Zr2O7 and Ho2Zr2O7, respectively. Enhanced compressibility was found for the high pressure phase as a result of increasing cation coordination number and cation-anion bond length.

  16. Can lean save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how over the last 18 months Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust have been exploring whether or not lean methodologies, often known as the Toyota Production System, can indeed be applied to healthcare. This paper is a viewpoint. One's early experience is that lean really can save lives. The Toyota Production System is an amazingly successful way of manufacturing cars. It cannot be simply translated unthinkingly into a hospital but lessons can be learned from it and the method can be adapted and developed so that it becomes owned by healthcare staff and focused towards the goal of improved patient care. Working in healthcare is a stressful and difficult thing. Everyone needs a touch of inspiration and encouragement. Applying lean to healthcare in Bolton seems to be achieving just that for those who work there.

  17. Rethinking Lean Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, John; O'Donovan, Brendan; Zokaei, Keivan

    Ever since Levitt's influential Harvard Business Review article 'Production-Line Approach to Service' was published in 1972, it has been common for services to be treated like production lines in both the academic literature and more widely in management practice. The belief that achieving economies of scale will reduce unit costs is a common feature of management decision-making. As technological advancement has produced ever more sophisticated IT and telephony, it has become increasingly easier for firms to standardise and off-shore services. The development of the 'lean' literature has only helped to emphasise the same underlying management assumptions: by managing cost and workers' activity, organisational performance is expected to improve. This chapter argues that through misinterpretation of the core paradigm 'lean' has become subsumed into the 'business as usual' of conventional service management. As a result, 'lean' has become synonymous with 'process efficiency' and the opportunity for significant performance improvement - as exemplified by Toyota - has been missed.

  18. Application of High-Resolution Ultrasonic Spectroscopy for analysis of complex formulations. Compressibility of solutes and solute particles in liquid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckin, V

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes key aspects of interpretation of compressibility of solutes in liquid mixtures obtained through high-resolution measurements of ultrasonic parameters. It examines the fundamental relationships between the characteristics of solutes and the contributions of solutes to compressibility of liquid mixtures expressed through apparent adiabatic compressibility of solutes, and adiabatic compressibility of solute particles. In addition, it analyses relationships between the adiabatic compressibility of solutes and the measured ultrasonic characteristics of mixtures. Especial attention is given to the effects of solvents on the measured adiabatic compressibility of solutes and on concentration increment of ultrasonic velocity of solutes in mixtures.

  19. Lean Management Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkes Aneta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean Management is a philosophy and management concept, based on reduction of the waste and resources used in the process of producing goods and providing services. Lean Management genesis dates back to scientific management in America (for example concepts of H. Ford and F.W. Taylor and quality management, including development of TQM concept. Japanese Toyota Production System has been inspired by chosen elements of these concepts, and then it evolved towards global concept called Toyota Way (which connects production rules with values and work attitude.

  20. Does accelerometer feedback on high-quality chest compression improve survival rate? An in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Hee; Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Chang, Wen Joen

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether visual feedback from an accelerometer device facilitated high-quality chest compressions during an in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation using a manikin. Thirty health care providers participated in an in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation with 1 minute of continuous chest compressions. Chest compressions were performed on a manikin lying on a bed according to visual feedback from an accelerometer feedback device. The manikin and accelerometer recorded chest compression data simultaneously. The simulated patient was deemed to have survived when the chest compression data satisfied all of the preset high-quality chest compression criteria (depth ≥51 mm, rate >100 per minute, and ≥95% full recoil). Survival rates were calculated from the feedback device and manikin data. The survival rate according to the feedback device data was 80%; however, the manikin data indicated a significantly lower survival rate (46.7%; P = .015). The difference between the accelerometer and manikin survival rates was not significant for participants with a body mass index greater than or equal to 20 kg/m(2) (93.3 vs 73.3%, respectively; P = .330); however, the difference in survival rate was significant in participants with body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2) (66.7 vs 20.0%, respectively; P = .025). The use of accelerometer feedback devices to facilitate high-quality chest compression may not be appropriate for lightweight rescuers because of the potential for compression depth overestimation. Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001449). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods for compressible fluid simulation on GPUs using high-order finite differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkilä, Johannes; Väisälä, Miikka S.; Käpylä, Maarit J.; Käpylä, Petri J.; Anjum, Omer

    2017-08-01

    We focus on implementing and optimizing a sixth-order finite-difference solver for simulating compressible fluids on a GPU using third-order Runge-Kutta integration. Since graphics processing units perform well in data-parallel tasks, this makes them an attractive platform for fluid simulation. However, high-order stencil computation is memory-intensive with respect to both main memory and the caches of the GPU. We present two approaches for simulating compressible fluids using 55-point and 19-point stencils. We seek to reduce the requirements for memory bandwidth and cache size in our methods by using cache blocking and decomposing a latency-bound kernel into several bandwidth-bound kernels. Our fastest implementation is bandwidth-bound and integrates 343 million grid points per second on a Tesla K40t GPU, achieving a 3 . 6 × speedup over a comparable hydrodynamics solver benchmarked on two Intel Xeon E5-2690v3 processors. Our alternative GPU implementation is latency-bound and achieves the rate of 168 million updates per second.

  2. Assessment of high-resolution methods for numerical simulations of compressible turbulence with shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Eric; Larsson, Johan; Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H.C.; Zhong Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2010-01-01

    Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.

  3. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...... limits may be possible to exceed if needed for actual applications. Feasible heat supply temperatures using these component limits are investigated. A feasible solution is defined as one that satisfies constraints on the COP, low and high pressure, compressor discharge temperature, vapour water content...... and volumetric heat capacity. The ammonia mass fraction and the liquid circulation ratio both influence these constraining parameters. The paper investigates feasible combinations of these parameters through the use of a numerical model. 28 bar components allow temperatures up to 111 °C, 50 bar up to 129°C...

  4. Improving Healthcare through Lean Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Paarup; Edwards, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    The ideas and principles from lean management are now widely being adopted within the healthcare sector. The analysis in this paper shows that organizations within healthcare most often only implement a limited set of tools and methods from the lean tool-box. Departing from a theoretical analysis...... of the well-known and universal lean management principles in the context of the healthcare this paper will attempt to formulate and test four hypotheses about possible barriers to the successful implementation of lean management in healthcare. The first hypothesis states that lean management in healthcare....... The paper concludes by discussing the implications of hypothesis two, three, and four for the successful application of lean management within healthcare. Is it concluded that this requires a transformative and contingent approach to lean management where the universal principles of the lean philosophy...

  5. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  6. The Lean and Environment Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Lean and Environment Toolkit assembles practical experience collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and partner companies and organizations that have experience with coordinating Lean implementation and environmental management.

  7. Mechanical behavior and microstructure during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Weiwei; Luo Shoujing

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical behavior during compression of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy at high solid content is researched in this paper. The alloy was prepared from ZK60 alloy and rare earth elements by casting, equal channel angular extruding, and liquidus forging. Semi-solid isothermal pre-treatment was carried out to make the grains globular before the compression. Here, several groups of true strain-true stress curves with different variables during compression are given to make comparisons of their mechanical behaviors. Liquid paths were the most essential to deformation, and its variation during compression depends on the strain rate. Here, thixotropic strength is defined as the true stress at the first peak in the true stress-true strain curve

  8. A study on the effect of nano silica on compressive strength of high volume fly ash mortars and concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.U.A.; Supit, S.W.M.; Sarker, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of NS compensates low early age compressive strength of HVFA system. • NS also contributes to later age compressive strength gain of HVFA system. • The XRD results confirm the reduction of CH in HVFA paste due to addition of NS. - Abstract: This paper presents the effect of nano silica (NS) on the compressive strength of mortars and concretes containing different high volume fly ash (HVFA) contents ranging from 40% to 70% (by weight) as partial replacement of cement. The compressive strength of mortars is measured at 7 and 28 days and that for concretes is measured at 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The effects of NS in microstructure development and pozzolanic reaction of pastes containing above HVFA contents are also studied through backscattered electron (BSE) image and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Results show that among different NS contents ranging from 1% to 6%, cement mortar containing 2% NS exhibited highest 7 and 28 days compressive strength. This NS content (2%) is then added to the HVFA mortars and concretes and the results show that the addition of 2% NS improved the early age (7 days) compressive strength of mortars containing 40% and 50% fly ash by 5% and 7%, respectively. However, this improvement is not observed at high fly ash contents beyond 50%. On the other hand, all HVFA mortars exhibited improvement in 28 days compressive strength due to addition of 2% NS and the most significant improvement is noticed in mortars containing more than 50% fly ash. In HVFA concretes, the improvement of early age (3 days) compressive strength is also noticed due to addition of 2% NS. The BSE and XRD analysis results also support the above findings

  9. Lean leadership: an ethnographic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aij, K.H.; Visse, M.A.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to provide a critical analysis of contemporary Lean leadership in the context of a healthcare practice. The Lean leadership model supports professionals with a leading rolein implementing Lean.This article presents a case study focusing specifcally on

  10. Lean With a Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2008-01-01

    The consequences for quality of work of lean manufacturing is discussed in the international litterature, and several authors suggest increased work speed, stress, and muscoskeletal diseases as a consequence of lean. The Danish experience with lean has been studied through interviews with managers...

  11. Feasibility of high temporal resolution breast DCE-MRI using compressed sensing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Miao, Yanwei; Zhou, Kun; Yu, Yanming; Bao, Shanglian; He, Qiang; Dai, Yongming; Xuan, Stephanie Y; Tarabishy, Bisher; Ye, Yongquan; Hu, Jiani

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of high temporal resolution breast DCE-MRI using compressed sensing theory. Two experiments were designed to investigate the feasibility of using reference image based compressed sensing (RICS) technique in DCE-MRI of the breast. The first experiment examined the capability of RICS to faithfully reconstruct uptake curves using undersampled data sets extracted from fully sampled clinical breast DCE-MRI data. An average approach and an approach using motion estimation and motion compensation (ME/MC) were implemented to obtain reference images and to evaluate their efficacy in reducing motion related effects. The second experiment, an in vitro phantom study, tested the feasibility of RICS for improving temporal resolution without degrading the spatial resolution. For the uptake-curve reconstruction experiment, there was a high correlation between uptake curves reconstructed from fully sampled data by Fourier transform and from undersampled data by RICS, indicating high similarity between them. The mean Pearson correlation coefficients for RICS with the ME/MC approach and RICS with the average approach were 0.977 +/- 0.023 and 0.953 +/- 0.031, respectively. The comparisons of final reconstruction results between RICS with the average approach and RICS with the ME/MC approach suggested that the latter was superior to the former in reducing motion related effects. For the in vitro experiment, compared to the fully sampled method, RICS improved the temporal resolution by an acceleration factor of 10 without degrading the spatial resolution. The preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of RICS for faithfully reconstructing uptake curves and improving temporal resolution of breast DCE-MRI without degrading the spatial resolution.

  12. Design thinking & lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravos, Cynthia; Adler, Isabel K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting how a Brazilian innovation consultancy guided a collaborative development of a mobile solution using the Design Thinking approach (Vianna et al, 2012) and Lean principles (Ries, 2011). It will describe tools and methods used and how it was applied to requirement gath...

  13. Intelligent condition monitoring method for bearing faults from highly compressed measurements using sparse over-complete features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H. O. A.; Wong, M. L. D.; Nandi, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    Condition classification of rolling element bearings in rotating machines is important to prevent the breakdown of industrial machinery. A considerable amount of literature has been published on bearing faults classification. These studies aim to determine automatically the current status of a roller element bearing. Of these studies, methods based on compressed sensing (CS) have received some attention recently due to their ability to allow one to sample below the Nyquist sampling rate. This technology has many possible uses in machine condition monitoring and has been investigated as a possible approach for fault detection and classification in the compressed domain, i.e., without reconstructing the original signal. However, previous CS based methods have been found to be too weak for highly compressed data. The present paper explores computationally, for the first time, the effects of sparse autoencoder based over-complete sparse representations on the classification performance of highly compressed measurements of bearing vibration signals. For this study, the CS method was used to produce highly compressed measurements of the original bearing dataset. Then, an effective deep neural network (DNN) with unsupervised feature learning algorithm based on sparse autoencoder is used for learning over-complete sparse representations of these compressed datasets. Finally, the fault classification is achieved using two stages, namely, pre-training classification based on stacked autoencoder and softmax regression layer form the deep net stage (the first stage), and re-training classification based on backpropagation (BP) algorithm forms the fine-tuning stage (the second stage). The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to achieve high levels of accuracy even with extremely compressed measurements compared with the existing techniques.

  14. Tribological properties of high-speed steel treated by compression plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenda, K.K.; Uglov, V.V.; Anishchik, V.M.; Stalmashonak, A.K.; Astashinski, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The investigation of tribological properties of two high-speed steels AISI M2 and AISI Tl treated by the nitrogen compression plasma flow was the main aim of this work. Two types of samples were investigated before and after quenching. The plasma flow was received in a magneto-plasma compressor. The impulse duration was ∼100 μs, the number of impulses varied in the range of 1-5, the nitrogen pressure in the chamber was 400-4000 Pa, the energy absorbed by the sample was 2-10 J/cm 2 per impulse. Tribological properties were examined by means of a tribometer TAYl under conditions of dry friction. The Vickers's microhardness was measured by a hard meter PMT3. X-ray diffraction analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion microanalysis were used for samples characterization. The earlier conducted investigations showed that the compression plasma flow suited well for the improvement of tribological properties of iron and low-alloyed steels due to the formation of hardening nitrides in the near surface layer. It was found that in the case of high-speed steels only not quenched samples had increased hardness after treatment. The latter can be explained by the formation of hardening nitrides though the phase analysis did not clearly reveal their presence. The element composition confirmed the presence of nitrogen in the surface layer with the concentration up to 30 at. %. The treatment of quenched samples almost always resulted in the hardness decrease due to the dissolution or partial dissolution of alloying elements carbides: M 6 C, MC, M 23 C 6 . The rate of carbides dissolution increased with the growth of the energy absorbed by the sample. The treated samples showed a lower value of the friction coefficient than the untreated one. It could be explained by the formation of nitrogenous austenite which was found out by the phase analysis. At the same time the compression plasma flow strongly influenced surface

  15. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space–time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge–Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that

  16. High-speed photographic methods for compression dynamics investigation of laser irradiated shell target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Kologrivov, A.A.; Krokhin, O.N.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Three methods are described for a high-speed diagnostics of compression dynamics of shell targets being spherically laser-heated on the installation ''Kal'mar''. The first method is based on the direct investigation of the space-time evolution of the critical-density region for Nd-laser emission (N sub(e) asymptotically equals 10 21 I/cm 3 ) by means of the streak photography of plasma image in the second-harmonic light. The second method involves investigation of time evolution of the second-harmonic spectral distribution by means of a spectrograph coupled with a streak camera. The use of a special laser pulse with two time-distributed intensity maxima for the irradiation of shell targets, and the analysis of the obtained X-ray pin-hole pictures constitute the basis of the third method. (author)

  17. Double Compression Expansion Engine: A Parametric Study on a High-Efficiency Engine Concept

    KAUST Repository

    Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar

    2018-04-03

    The Double compression expansion engine (DCEE) concept has exhibited a potential for achieving high brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). The effect of different engine components on system efficiency was evaluated in this work using GT Power simulations. A parametric study on piston insulation, convection heat transfer multiplier, expander head insulation, insulation of connecting pipes, ports and tanks, and the expander intake valve lift profiles was conducted to understand the critical parameters that affected engine efficiency. The simulations were constrained to a constant peak cylinder pressure of 300 bar, and a fixed combustion phasing. The results from this study would be useful in making technology choices that will help realise the potential of this engine concept.

  18. Fuel Vaporization and Its Effect on Combustion in a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Waldron, C D

    1933-01-01

    The tests discussed in this report were conducted to determine whether or not there is appreciable vaporization of the fuel injected into a high-speed compression-ignition engine during the time available for injection and combustion. The effects of injection advance angle and fuel boiling temperature were investigated. The results show that an appreciable amount of the fuel is vaporized during injection even though the temperature and pressure conditions in the engine are not sufficient to cause ignition either during or after injection, and that when the conditions are such as to cause ignition the vaporization process affects the combustion. The results are compared with those of several other investigators in the same field.

  19. The Impact of Feeding Diets of High or Low Energy Concentration on Carcass Measurements and the Weight of Primal and Subprimal Lean Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pigs from four sire lines were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.15 to 3.21 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal-based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.41 to 3.45 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Barrows (N = 2,178 and gilts (N = 2,274 were fed either high energy (HE or low energy (LE diets from 27 kg BW to target BWs of 118, 127, 131.5 and 140.6 kg. Carcass primal and subprimal cut weights were collected. The cut weights and carcass measurements were fitted to allometric functions (Y = A CWB of carcass weight. The significance of diet, sex or sire line with A and B was evaluated by linearizing the equations by log to log transformation. The effect of diet on A and B did not interact with sex or sire line. Thus, the final model was B where Diet = −0.5 for the LE and 0.5 for HE diets and A and B are sire line-sex specific parameters. cut weight = (1+bD(Diet A(CW Diet had no affect on loin, Boston butt, picnic, baby back rib, or sparerib weights (p>0.10, bD = −0.003, −0.0029, 0.0002, 0.0047, −0.0025, respectively. Diet affected ham weight (bD = −0.0046, p = 0.01, belly weight (bD = 0.0188, p = 0.001 three-muscle ham weight (bD = −0.014, p = 0.001, boneless loin weight (bD = −0.010, p = 0.001, tenderloin weight (bD = −0.023, p = 0.001, sirloin weight (bD = −0.009, p = 0.034, and fat-free lean mass (bD = −0.0145, p = 0.001. Overall, feeding the LE diets had little impact on primal cut weight except to decrease belly weight. Feeding LE diets increased the weight of lean trimmed cuts by 1 to 2 percent at the same carcass weight.

  20. Lean Transformation Guidance: Why Organizations Fail To Achieve and Sustain Excellence Through Lean Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hamed Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many companies are complaining that lean didn’t achieve their long-term goals, and the improvement impact was very short-lived. 7 out of each 10 lean projects fail as companies try to use lean like a toolkit, copying and pasting the techniques without trying to adapt the employee’s culture, manage the improvement process, sustain the results, and develop their leaders. When the Toyota production system was created, the main goal was to remove wastes from the shop floor using some lean techniques and tools. What was not clear is that this required from Toyota a long process of leadership development, and a high commitment to training and coaching their employee. A Failure to achieve and sustain the improvement is a problem of both management and leadership as well as the improper understanding of the human behavior, and the required culture to success.

  1. Lean principles adoption in environmental management system (EMS - ISO 14001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Puvanasvaran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristic of the lean principles into ISO 14001 and to propose linkage of the lean principles and ISO 14001.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the objective of the study, literature survey and quantitative research method using questionnaires survey are used.Findings and Originality/value: The findings of this study confirm that ISO 14001 certified company adopted lean production practices.  The study also proves that lean principles have positive and significant relationship with ISO 14001 EMS and the linkage can be made between lean principles and ISO 14001 to achieve Continual Improvement.Research limitations/implications: The small sizes of the sample of the participating companies are the main limitations of this study and this research mainly focuses on the manufacturing environment and services industry.Practical implications: This research show that all ISO 14001 companies do adopt at least one lean production practices and the main findings are lean principles has positive and highly significant relationship with ISO 14001 requirements.  This is because the integration of lean principles into ISO 14001 will serve practical methods for ISO14001 EMS to achieve the continual improvement.Originality/value: This research is amongst the first to study the combined lean principles with ISO 1400.  Based on the current situation, there is no integration within this two management system. 

  2. High-speed video analysis improves the accuracy of spinal cord compression measurement in a mouse contusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournely, Marion; Petit, Yvan; Wagnac, Éric; Laurin, Jérôme; Callot, Virginie; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2018-01-01

    Animal models of spinal cord injuries aim to utilize controlled and reproducible conditions. However, a literature review reveals that mouse contusion studies using equivalent protocols may show large disparities in the observed impact force vs. cord compression relationship. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate possible sources of bias in these measurements. The specific objective was to improve spinal cord compression measurements using a video-based setup to detect the impactor-spinal cord time-to-contact. A force-controlled 30kDyn unilateral contusion at C4 vertebral level was performed in six mice with the Infinite Horizon impactor (IH). High-speed video was used to determine the time-to-contact between the impactor tip and the spinal cord and to compute the related displacement of the tip into the tissue: the spinal cord compression and the compression ratio. Delayed time-to-contact detection with the IH device led to an underestimation of the cord compression. Compression values indicated by the IH were 64% lower than those based on video analysis (0.33mm vs. 0.88mm). Consequently, the mean compression ratio derived from the device was underestimated when compared to the value derived from video analysis (22% vs. 61%). Default time-to-contact detection from the IH led to significant errors in spinal cord compression assessment. Accordingly, this may explain some of the reported data discrepancies in the literature. The proposed setup could be implemented by users of contusion devices to improve the quantative description of the primary injury inflicted to the spinal cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wellhead compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  4. Compressed sensing cine imaging with high spatial or high temporal resolution for analysis of left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Juliane; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P; Maderwald, Stefan; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To assess two compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with high spatial or high temporal resolution in comparison to a reference steady-state free precession cine (SSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes. LV short axis stacks of two compressed sensing breath-hold cine sequences with high spatial resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HS: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.0 × 1.0 mm(2) ) and high temporal resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HT: temporal resolution: 11 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) and of a reference cine SSFP sequence (standard SSFP: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers on a 1.5T MR system. LV parameters were analyzed semiautomatically twice by one reader and once by a second reader. The volumetric agreement between sequences was analyzed using paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, and Passing-Bablock regression. Small differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HS for stroke volume (SV; -7 ± 11 ml; P = 0.024), ejection fraction (EF; -2 ± 3%; P = 0.019), and myocardial mass (9 ± 9 g; P = 0.001), but not for end-diastolic volume (EDV; P = 0.079) and end-systolic volume (ESV; P = 0.266). No significant differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HT regarding EDV (P = 0.956), SV (P = 0.088), and EF (P = 0.103), but for ESV (3 ± 5 ml; P = 0.039) and myocardial mass (8 ± 10 ml; P = 0.007). Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the sequences (maximum bias ≤ -8%). Two compressed sensing cine sequences, one with high spatial resolution and one with high temporal resolution, showed good agreement with standard SSFP for LV volume assessment. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:366-374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lean and the Learning Organization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Canadian post-secondary institutions are seeking enhanced efficiencies due to ongoing funding shortfalls and expanding teaching, research, and service mandates. These institutions have considered or enacted Lean methodology based on results reported by public service and healthcare organizations worldwide. Lean requires a high level of…

  6. An exact and consistent adjoint method for high-fidelity discretization of the compressible flow equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme

  7. Power and compression : both high-tech and low-tech combos succeed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2006-05-15

    Recently commercialized compressors were discussed. The Gas Hog is a low-horsepower compressor with a piston rod that is driven by 2 sheaves with a wrist pin. The piston has a huge 48 inch stroke which operates at only 45 revolutions per minute (RPM), which cuts down on mechanical wear and tear. There are fewer strokes per cubic foot of gas compressed, meaning that there is less waste of compression. There are currently 100 Gas Hog units in the field, as its suction/discharge profile is well suited to coalbed methane activities. The Gas Hog also has a muffler to reduce exhaust noise, and its engine compartment can be insulated. The new range of gas compressors from Brahma is designed to provide greater precision for greater energy efficiency. Varying screw speeds enhance production, allowing operators to manually adjust speeds. Scroll compressor technology has gained widespread acceptance over the last 15 years in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, and is now being applied to oil and gas applications in vapour recovery, casing pressure modification, conventional gas and coalbed methane. The compressors can be run for a year without maintenance and can react within milliseconds to pressure change. The electric motor shaft, main bearing, counterweights and scroll are housed within a sealed unit. There are no external or internal shafts and seals to check or lubricate. There are no leaks, and no need for periodic alignment of belts. It was concluded that localized power sources will remain a key to the expanding wellhead compressor sector, due to the high cost of installing power lines for electricity. 1 fig.

  8. In situ oxide dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys with high compressive strength and high strain-to-failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lin; Jiang, Lin; Topping, Troy D.; Dai, Chen; Wang, Xin; Carpenter, Ryan; Haines, Christopher; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk tungsten materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the application of a high pressure of 1 GPa during SPS significantly accelerates the densification process. Concurrently, the second phase oxide nanoparticles with an average grain size of 108 nm, which are distributed within the interiors of the W grains, simultaneously provide strengthening and plasticity by inhibiting grain growth, and generating, blocking, and storing dislocations. - Graphical abstract: In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk W materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS).

  9. Compression of fiber supercontinuum pulses to the Fourier-limit in a high-numerical-aperture focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    A multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan (MIIPS) adaptively and automatically compensates the combined phase distortion from a fiber supercontinuum source, a spatial light modulator pulse shaper, and a high-NA microscope objective, allowing Fourier-transform-limited compression of the sup......A multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan (MIIPS) adaptively and automatically compensates the combined phase distortion from a fiber supercontinuum source, a spatial light modulator pulse shaper, and a high-NA microscope objective, allowing Fourier-transform-limited compression...... power of 18–70mW, and a repetition rate of 76MHz, permitting the application of this source to nonlinear optical microscopy and coherently controlled microspectroscopy....

  10. The humeral origin of the brachioradialis muscle: an unusual site of high radial nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchel, A; Zirak, C; De Mey, A

    2013-11-01

    Radial nerve compression is seldom encountered in the upper arm, and most commonly described compression syndromes have their anatomical cause in the forearm. The teres major, the triceps muscle, the intermuscular septum region and the space between the brachialis and brachioradialis muscles have all been identified as radial nerve compression sites above the elbow. We describe the case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with dorso-lateral forearm pain and paraesthesias without neurological deficit. Surgical exploration revealed radial nerve compression at the humeral origin of the brachioradialis muscle. Liberation of the nerve at this site was successful at relieving the symptoms. To our knowledge, this compression site has not been described in the literature. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  12. EBLAST: an efficient high-compression image transformation 3. application to Internet image and video transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.

    2001-12-01

    A wide variety of digital image compression transforms developed for still imaging and broadcast video transmission are unsuitable for Internet video applications due to insufficient compression ratio, poor reconstruction fidelity, or excessive computational requirements. Examples include hierarchical transforms that require all, or large portion of, a source image to reside in memory at one time, transforms that induce significant locking effect at operationally salient compression ratios, and algorithms that require large amounts of floating-point computation. The latter constraint holds especially for video compression by small mobile imaging devices for transmission to, and compression on, platforms such as palmtop computers or personal digital assistants (PDAs). As Internet video requirements for frame rate and resolution increase to produce more detailed, less discontinuous motion sequences, a new class of compression transforms will be needed, especially for small memory models and displays such as those found on PDAs. In this, the third series of papers, we discuss the EBLAST compression transform and its application to Internet communication. Leading transforms for compression of Internet video and still imagery are reviewed and analyzed, including GIF, JPEG, AWIC (wavelet-based), wavelet packets, and SPIHT, whose performance is compared with EBLAST. Performance analysis criteria include time and space complexity and quality of the decompressed image. The latter is determined by rate-distortion data obtained from a database of realistic test images. Discussion also includes issues such as robustness of the compressed format to channel noise. EBLAST has been shown to perform superiorly to JPEG and, unlike current wavelet compression transforms, supports fast implementation on embedded processors with small memory models.

  13. Development of High Speed Imaging and Analysis Techniques Compressible Dynamics Stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Carr, L. W.; Wilder, M. C.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic stall has limited the flight envelope of helicopters for many years. The problem has been studied in the laboratory as well as in flight, but most research, even in the laboratory, has been restricted to surface measurement techniques such as pressure transducers or skin friction gauges, except at low speed. From this research, it became apparent that flow visualization tests performed at Mach numbers representing actual flight conditions were needed if the complex physics associated with dynamic stall was to be properly understood. However, visualization of the flow field during compressible conditions required carefully aligned and meticulously reconstructed holographic interferometry. As part of a long-range effort focused on exposing of the physics of compressible dynamic stall, a research wind tunnel was developed at NASA Ames Research Center which permits visual access to the full flow field surrounding an oscillating airfoil during compressible dynamic stall. Initially, a stroboscopic schlieren technique was used for visualization of the stall process, but the primary research tool has been point diffraction interferometry(PDI), a technique carefully optimized for use in th is project. A review of the process of development of PDI will be presented in the full paper. One of the most valuable aspects of PDI is the fact that interferograms are produced in real time on a continuous basis. The use of a rapidly-pulsed laser makes this practical; a discussion of this approach will be presented in the full paper. This rapid pulsing(up to 40,000 pulses/sec) produces interferograms of the rapidly developing dynamic stall field in sufficient resolution(both in space and time) that the fluid physics of the compressible dynamic stall flowfield can be quantitatively determined, including the gradients of pressure in space and time. This permits analysis of the influence of the effect of pitch rate, Mach number, Reynolds number, amplitude of oscillation, and other

  14. Size effects in fcc crystals during the high rate compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoobi, Mohammadreza; Voyiadjis, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    The present work studies the different mechanisms of size effects in fcc metallic samples of confined volumes during high rate compression tests using large scale atomistic simulation. Different mechanisms of size effects, including the dislocation starvation, source exhaustion, and dislocation source length effect are investigated for pillars with different sizes. The results show that the controlling mechanisms of size effects depend only on the pillar size and not on the value of applied strain. Dislocation starvation is the governing mechanism for very small pillars, i.e. pillars with diameters less than 30 nm. Increasing the pillar size, the dislocation exhaustion mechanism becomes active and there is no more source-limited activations. Next, the average dislocation source length is obtained and compared for pillars with different sizes. The results show that in the case of high rate deformations, the source length does not depend on the sample size, and the related size effects mechanisms are not active anymore. Also, in the case of high rate deformations, there are no size effects for pristine pillars with the diameters larger than 135 nm. In other words, increasing the strain rate decreases the pillar size at which there is no more size effects in the absence of strain gradient. The governing mechanisms of plastic deformation at high strain rate experiments are also different from those of the quasi-static tests. First, the diameter in which the dislocation nucleation at the free surface becomes the dominant mechanism changes from around 200 nm–30 nm. Next, in the case of the pillars with larger diameters, the plastic deformation is governed by the cross-slip instead of the operation of truncated dislocation sources, which is dominant at slower rates of deformation. In order to study the effects of pillar initial structure on the controlling mechanism of size effects, an initial loading and unloading procedure is conducted on some samples prior to the

  15. Active high-power RF pulse compression using optically switched resonant delay lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantawi, S.G.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1996-11-01

    The authors present the design and a proof of principle experimental results of an optically controlled high power rf pulse compression system. The design should, in principle, handle few hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band. The system is based on the switched resonant delay line theory. It employs resonant delay lines as a means of storing rf energy. The coupling to the lines is optimized for maximum energy storage during the charging phase. To discharge the lines, a high power microwave switch increases the coupling to the lines just before the start of the output pulse. The high power microwave switch, required for this system, is realized using optical excitation of an electron-hole plasma layer on the surface of a pure silicon wafer. The switch is designed to operate in the TE 01 mode in a circular waveguide to avoid the edge effects present at the interface between the silicon wafer and the supporting waveguide; thus, enhancing its power handling capability

  16. A 7-day high protein hypocaloric diet promotes cellular metabolic adaptations and attenuates lean mass loss in healthy males

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Furber; Ana Anton-Solanas; Emma Koppe; Charlotte Ashby; Michael Roberts; Justin Roberts

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial quantity and density are associated with increased oxidative metabolism. It has been demonstrated that a hypocaloric high fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC) diet can up-regulate transcriptional markers of mitochondrial biogenesis; this was yet to be explored in vivo subsequent to a high protein/low carbohydrate (HP/LC) diet. Thus the aims of the study were to explore such diets on transcriptional markers or mitochondrial biogenesis, body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR). F...

  17. Lean leadership: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aij, Kjeld Harald; Visse, Merel; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical analysis of contemporary Lean leadership in the context of a healthcare practice. The Lean leadership model supports professionals with a leading role in implementing Lean. This article presents a case study focusing specifically on leadership behaviours and issues that were experienced, observed and reported in a Dutch university medical centre. This ethnographic case study provides auto-ethnographic accounts based on experiences, participant observation, interviews and document analysis. Characteristics of Lean leadership were identified to establish an understanding of how to achieve successful Lean transformation. This study emphasizes the importance for Lean leaders to go to the gemba, to see the situation for one's own self, empower health-care employees and be modest. All of these are critical attributes in defining the Lean leadership mindset. In this case study, Lean leadership is specifically related to healthcare, but certain common leadership characteristics are relevant across all fields. This article shows the value of an auto-ethnographic view on management learning for the analysis of Lean leadership. The knowledge acquired through this research is based on the first author's experiences in fulfilling his role as a health-care leader. This may help the reader examining his/her own role and reflecting on what matters most in the field of Lean leadership.

  18. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-08-01

    Future infrared remote sensing systems, such as monitoring of the Earth's environment by satellites, infrastructure inspection by unmanned airborne vehicles etc., will require 16 bit depth infrared images to be compressed and stored or transmitted for further analysis. Such systems are equipped with low power embedded platforms where image or video data is compressed by a hardware block called the video processing unit (VPU). However, in many cases using two 8-bit VPUs can provide advantages compared with using higher bit depth image compression directly. We propose to compress 16 bit depth images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed by an image or video codec with 8 bits per pixel input format. We analyze how the compression parameters for both MSB and LSB images should be chosen to provide the maximum objective quality for a given compression ratio. Finally, we apply the proposed infrared image compression method utilizing JPEG and H.264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can achieve similar result as 16 bit HEVC codec.

  19. Formation of nanosecond SBS-compressed pulses for pumping an ultra-high power parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz’min, A. A.; Kulagin, O. V.; Rodchenkov, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    Compression of pulsed Nd : glass laser radiation under stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in perfluorooctane is investigated. Compression of 16-ns pulses at a beam diameter of 30 mm is implemented. The maximum compression coefficient is 28 in the optimal range of laser pulse energies from 2 to 4 J. The Stokes pulse power exceeds that of the initial laser pulse by a factor of about 11.5. The Stokes pulse jitter (fluctuations of the Stokes pulse exit time from the compressor) is studied. The rms spread of these fluctuations is found to be 0.85 ns.

  20. Study of Various Techniques for Improving Weak and Compressible Clay Soil under a High Earth Embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein A.K. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of three soil improvement techniques for the construction of a high earth embankment on thick weak and highly compressible clay soil. The eastern approach embankment of Alhalfaya Bridge on the River Nile linking Khartoum North and Omdurman cities was chosen as a case study and a comprehensive site investigation program was carried out to determine the properties the subsurface soils. The study results showed that unless the subsurface soils have been improved they may fail or undergo excessively large settlements due to the embankment construction. Three ground improvement techniques based on the principles of the “staged construction method, SCM”, “vertical sand drain, VSD” and “sand compaction piles, SCP” of embankment foundation soil treatment are discussed and evaluated. Embankment design options based on applications of the above methods have been proposed for foundation treatment to adequately support embankment loads. A method performance evaluation based on the improvement of soil properties achieved; the time required for construction and compared estimated costs criteria was made to assess the effectiveness and expected overall performance. Adoption of any of the soil improvement techniques considered depends mainly on the most critical and decisive factor governing the embankment design. Based on the overall performance for the embankment case studied, the sand drains is considered as the most appropriate improvement method followed by the sand compaction piles technique whereas the staged construction method showed the poorest overall performance.

  1. Modelling and design of high compression electron guns for EBIS/T charge breeders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087190; Zschornack, G.; Lettry, J.; Wenander, F.

    In this thesis the optimization of the REXEBIS charge breeder at the ISOLDE facility is presented. REXEBIS in its current state provides a current density of 200A/cm² inside the trapping region at 2 T and will be optimized to the physical limit of its design. To overcome this limit a new electron gun, the HEC² gun, was designed in collaboration with the BNL and is in commission at TestEBIS. This electron gun promises a current density of >10 kA/cm², which decreases the charge breeding time significantly. This thesis presents novel simulation techniques supporting the commissioning phase by explaining the sources of occurring loss current and, in addition, evaluate the currently installed collector for compatibility with the HEC2 gun operating at its design limit. The experience gained from the commission of the HEC² gun and the established numerical techniques lead to the development of a smaller high-compression electron gun for medical purposes, the MEDeGUN. This electron gun should provide a high-quali...

  2. Nonlinear vibration analysis of the high-efficiency compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengbao; Zu, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Power source is critical to achieve independent and autonomous operations of electronic mobile devices. The vibration-based energy harvesting is extensively studied recently, and recognized as a promising technology to realize inexhaustible power supply for small-scale electronics. Among various approaches, the piezoelectric energy harvesting has gained the most attention due to its high conversion efficiency and simple configurations. However, most of piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) to date are based on bending-beam structures and can only generate limited power with a narrow working bandwidth. The insufficient electric output has greatly impeded their practical applications. In this paper, we present an innovative lead zirconate titanate (PZT) energy harvester, named high-efficiency compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester (HC-PEH), to enhance the performance of energy harvesters. A theoretical model was developed analytically, and solved numerically to study the nonlinear characteristics of the HC-PEH. The results estimated by the developed model agree well with the experimental data from the fabricated prototype. The HC-PEH shows strong nonlinear responses, favorable working bandwidth and superior power output. Under a weak excitation of 0.3 g (g = 9.8 m/s2), a maximum power output 30 mW is generated at 22 Hz, which is about ten times better than current energy harvesters. The HC-PEH demonstrates the capability of generating enough power for most of wireless sensors.

  3. Relating speech production to tongue muscle compressions using tagged and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Ye, Chuyang; Woo, Jonghye; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry

    2015-03-01

    The human tongue is composed of multiple internal muscles that work collaboratively during the production of speech. Assessment of muscle mechanics can help understand the creation of tongue motion, interpret clinical observations, and predict surgical outcomes. Although various methods have been proposed for computing the tongue's motion, associating motion with muscle activity in an interdigitated fiber framework has not been studied. In this work, we aim to develop a method that reveals different tongue muscles' activities in different time phases during speech. We use fourdimensional tagged magnetic resonance (MR) images and static high-resolution MR images to obtain tongue motion and muscle anatomy, respectively. Then we compute strain tensors and local tissue compression along the muscle fiber directions in order to reveal their shortening pattern. This process relies on the support from multiple image analysis methods, including super-resolution volume reconstruction from MR image slices, segmentation of internal muscles, tracking the incompressible motion of tissue points using tagged images, propagation of muscle fiber directions over time, and calculation of strain in the line of action, etc. We evaluated the method on a control subject and two postglossectomy patients in a controlled speech task. The normal subject's tongue muscle activity shows high correspondence with the production of speech in different time instants, while both patients' muscle activities show different patterns from the control due to their resected tongues. This method shows potential for relating overall tongue motion to particular muscle activity, which may provide novel information for future clinical and scientific studies.

  4. Stages of destruction and elastic compression of granular nanoporous carbon medium at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Ledenyov, O.P.; Bobrova, N.B.; Chupikov, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The granular nanoporous carbon medium, made of the cylindrical coal granules of the adsorbent of CKT-3, at an influence by the high pressures from 1 MPa to 3 GPa has been researched. The eight consecutive stages of the material's specific volume change, which is characterized by a certain dependence of the volume change on the pressure change, have been registered. It is shown that there is a linear dependence on the double log-log plot of the material's specific volume change on the pressure for an every stage of considered process. The two stages are clearly distinguished: a stage of material's mechanical destruction, and a stage of elastic compression of material without the disintegration of structure at a nano-scale. The hysteresis dependence of the material's specific volume change on the pressure change at the pressure decrease is observed. The small disperse coal dust particles jettisoning between the high pressure cell and the base plate was observed, resulting in the elastic stress reduction in relation to the small disperse coal dust particles volume. The obtained research data can be used to improve the designs of air filters for the radioactive chemical elements absorption at the NPP with the aims to protect the environment

  5. Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Duc Cung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline compression ignition (GCI has been shown as one of the advanced combustion concepts that could potentially provide a pathway to achieve cleaner and more efficient combustion engines. Fuel and air in GCI are not fully premixed compared to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI, which is a completely kinetic-controlled combustion system. Therefore, the combustion phasing can be controlled by the time of injection, usually postinjection in a multiple-injection scheme, to mitigate combustion noise. Gasoline usually has longer ignition delay than diesel. The autoignition quality of gasoline can be indicated by research octane number (RON. Fuels with high octane tend to have more resistance to autoignition, hence more time for fuel-air mixing. In this study, three fuels, namely, aromatic, alkylate, and E30, with similar RON value of 98 but different hydrocarbon compositions were tested in a multicylinder engine under GCI combustion mode. Considerations of exhaust gas recirculating (EGR, start of injection, and boost were investigated to study the sensitivity of dilution, local stratification, and reactivity of the charge, respectively, for each fuel. Combustion phasing (location of 50% of fuel mass burned was kept constant during the experiments. This provides similar thermodynamic conditions to study the effect of fuels on emissions. Emission characteristics at different levels of EGR and lambda were revealed for all fuels with E30 having the lowest filter smoke number and was also most sensitive to the change in dilution. Reasonably low combustion noise (<90 dB and stable combustion (coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure <3% were maintained during the experiments. The second part of this article contains visualization of the combustion process obtained from endoscope imaging for each fuel at selected conditions. Soot radiation signal from GCI combustion were strong during late injection and also more intense

  6. High-resolution coded-aperture design for compressive X-ray tomography using low resolution detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Edson; Pertuz, Said; Arguello, Henry

    2017-12-01

    One of the main challenges in Computed Tomography (CT) is obtaining accurate reconstructions of the imaged object while keeping a low radiation dose in the acquisition process. In order to solve this problem, several researchers have proposed the use of compressed sensing for reducing the amount of measurements required to perform CT. This paper tackles the problem of designing high-resolution coded apertures for compressed sensing computed tomography. In contrast to previous approaches, we aim at designing apertures to be used with low-resolution detectors in order to achieve super-resolution. The proposed method iteratively improves random coded apertures using a gradient descent algorithm subject to constraints in the coherence and homogeneity of the compressive sensing matrix induced by the coded aperture. Experiments with different test sets show consistent results for different transmittances, number of shots and super-resolution factors.

  7. Microbunching and RF Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-01-01

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  8. The LEAN Payload Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lee P.; Young, Yancy; Rice, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    It is recognized that payload development and integration with the International Space Station (ISS) can be complex. This streamlined integration approach is a first step toward simplifying payload integration; making it easier to fly payloads on ISS, thereby increasing feasibility and interest for more research and commercial organizations to sponsor ISS payloads and take advantage of the ISS as a National Laboratory asset. The streamlined integration approach was addressed from the perspective of highly likely initial payload types to evolve from the National Lab Pathfinder program. Payloads to be accommodated by the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) Racks and Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) pressurized facilities have been addressed. It is hoped that the streamlined principles applied to these types of payloads will be analyzed and implemented in the future for other host facilities as well as unpressurized payloads to be accommodated by the EXPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC). Further, a payload does not have to be classified as a National Lab payload in order to be processed according to the lean payload integration process; any payload that meets certain criteria can follow the lean payload integration process.

  9. Low-latency video transmission over high-speed WPANs based on low-power video compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Turlikov, Andrey; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents latency-constrained video transmission over high-speed wireless personal area networks (WPANs). Low-power video compression is proposed as an alternative to uncompressed video transmission. A video source rate control based on MINMAX quality criteria is introduced. Practical...

  10. The Scientific Underpinning of Lean Six Sigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; de Koning, H.; Bisgaard, S.

    2007-01-01

    The twentieth century saw an incredible development of professional organizations. The impact of technological advances is obvious, but besides these, innovations in management structures and methods have resulted in the highly productive organizations of today. Lean Six Sigma is not revolutionary.

  11. Compression and channel-coding algorithms for high-definition television signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alparone, Luciano; Benelli, Giuliano; Fabbri, A. F.

    1990-09-01

    In this paper results of investigations about the effects of channel errors in the transmission of images compressed by means of techniques based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DOT) and Vector Quantization (VQ) are presented. Since compressed images are heavily degraded by noise in the transmission channel more seriously for what concern VQ-coded images theoretical studies and simulations are presented in order to define and evaluate this degradation. Some channel coding schemes are proposed in order to protect information during transmission. Hamming codes (7 (15 and (31 have been used for DCT-compressed images more powerful codes such as Golay (23 for VQ-compressed images. Performances attainable with softdecoding techniques are also evaluated better quality images have been obtained than using classical hard decoding techniques. All tests have been carried out to simulate the transmission of a digital image from HDTV signal over an AWGN channel with P5K modulation.

  12. New experimental platform to study high density laser-compressed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, M.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Gamboa, E. J.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Heimann, P.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Schropp, A.; Falcone, R.; Glenzer, S. H.; Ravasio, A.; Gleason, A.; Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; MacDonald, M. J.; Ali, S.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new experimental platform at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) which combines simultaneous angularly and spectrally resolved x-ray scattering measurements. This technique offers a new insights on the structural and thermodynamic properties of warm dense matter. The < 50 fs temporal duration of the x-ray pulse provides near instantaneous snapshots of the dynamics of the compression. We present a proof of principle experiment for this platform to characterize a shock-compressed plastic foil. We observe the disappearance of the plastic semi-crystal structure and the formation of a compressed liquid ion-ion correlation peak. The plasma parameters of shock-compressed plastic can be measured as well, but requires an averaging over a few tens of shots

  13. The effects of a high dosage of creatine and caffeine supplementation on the lean body mass composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro-Junior Miguel A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influences of creatine and caffeine supplementation associated with power exercise on lean body mass (LBM composition are not clear. The purpose of this research was to determine whether supplementation with high doses of creatine and caffeine, either solely or combined, affects the LBM composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: Sedentary (S or Exercised (E [placebo (Pl, creatine (Cr, caffeine (Caf or creatine plus caffeine (CrCaf]. The supplemented groups received creatine [load: 0.430 g/kg of body weight (BW for 7 days; and maintenance: 0.143 g/kg of BW for 35 days], caffeine (15 mg/kg of BW for 42 days or creatine plus caffeine. The exercised groups underwent a vertical jump training regime (load: 20 - 50% of BW, 4 sets of 10 jumps interspersed with 1 min resting intervals, 5 days/wk, for 6 weeks. LBM composition was evaluated by portions of water, protein and fat in the rat carcass. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test and Student's t test. Results Exercised animals presented a lower carcass weight (10.9%; P = 0.01, as compared to sedentary animals. However, no effect of supplementation was observed on carcass weight (P > 0.05. There were no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05 for percentage of water in the carcass. The percentage of fat in the group SCr was higher than in the groups SCaf and ECr (P Conclusions High combined doses of creatine and caffeine does not affect the LBM composition of either sedentary or exercised rats, however, caffeine supplementation alone reduces the percentage of fat. Vertical jumping training increases the percentages of water and protein and reduces the fat percentage in rats.

  14. Local Limit Phenomena, Flow Compression, and Fuel Cracking Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    e.g. local extinction and re- ignition , interactions between flow compression and fast-reaction induced dilatation (reaction compression ), and to...time as a function of initial temperature in constant-pressure auto - ignition , and (b) the S-curves of perfectly stirred reactors (PSRs), for n...mechanism. The reduction covered auto - ignition and perfectly stirred reactors for equivalence ratio range of 0.5~1.5, initial temperature higher than

  15. The lean product design and development journey a practical view

    CERN Document Server

    Pessôa, Marcus Vinicius Pereira

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a series of high performance product design (PD) and development best practices that can create or improve product development organization. In contrast to other books that focus only on Toyota or other individual companies applying lean IPD, this book explains the lean philosophy more broadly and includes discussions of systems engineering, design for X (DFX), agile development, integrated product development, and project management. The “Lean Journey” proposed here takes a value-centric approach, where the lean principles are applied to PD to allow the tools and methods selected to emerge from observation of the individual characteristics of each enterprise. This means that understanding lean product development (LPD) is not about knowing which tools are available but knowing how to apply the philosophy. The book comes with an accompanying manual with problems and solutions available on Springer Extras.

  16. Organizational change through Lean Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy

    2008-08-01

    In production and manufacturing plants, Lean Thinking has been used to improve processes by eliminating waste and thus enhancing efficiency. In health care, Lean Thinking has emerged as a comprehensive approach towards improving processes embedded in the diagnostic, treatment and care activities of health-care organizations with cost containment results. This paper provides a case study example where Lean Thinking is not only used to improve efficiency and cost containment, but also as an approach to effective organizational change.

  17. Investigation of shock compression in toroidal geometry in the high voltage belt pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeldner, F.

    1977-06-01

    Fast magnetic compression in investigated in the High Voltage Belt Pinch at two initial densities nsub(eo) = 3 x 10 13 cm -3 and nsub(eo) = 7 x 10 13 cm -3 . At the lower density the electrons are heated to 3 keV in the piston region, the ions trapped in the piston obtaining an energy of 0.7 keV. A third of the ions are reflected off the piston attaining an energy of 2.5 keV. At the higher initial density a central β = 1 plasma in formed. Electrons are heated to 1 keV in the sheath, the piston ions obtaining an energy of 0.4 keV. The degree of ion reflection is 60%. Ion acoustic turbulence in both cases dominates the implosion phase and gives rise to the anomalous field diffusion and electron heating observed. Steep electron density and temperature gradients decisively enhance the effective drift velocity for wave growth. The experimental results are compared with numerical calculations using a hybrid code which includes anomalous transport. Scaling studies with the hybrid code in a wider density range show in agreement with the experiment increasing efficiency of shock heating for higher initial densities due to increasing ion reflection. (orig.) [de

  18. Isentropic/shock compression and recovery methodology for materials using high-amplitude laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B.R., E-mail: maddox3@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Park, H.-S., E-mail: park1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lu, C.-H., E-mail: chiahuilu@gmail.com [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Remington, B.A., E-mail: remington2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Prisbrey, S., E-mail: prisbrey1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kad, B., E-mail: bkad@ucsd.edu [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Luo, R., E-mail: luorwga@gmail.com [General Atomics, 3483 Dunhill Street, San Diego, CA 92121-1200 (United States); Meyers, M.A., E-mail: mameyers@eng.ucsd.edu [University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Abstarct: A new method of subjecting samples to high-amplitude laser pulses with durations in the ns range and recovering them for characterization is presented. It is applied to tantalum monocrystals and nanocrystals that are subjected to controlled and prescribed ramp loading configurations, creating a quasi-isentropic loading in the front that is retained up to 40 μm into the specimen. This is enabled by the use of a reservoir into which six laser beams impinge simultaneously, thereby creating plasma in a reservoir, from which the pulse is launched into the metal. This technique enables, with proper wave trapping devices, the recovery of the specimens for subsequent characterization. Successful experiments conducted in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, U. of Rochester, generated pressure pulses with initial amplitudes ranging from 15 to 110 GPa and initial durations of ∼3 ns. The quasi-isotropic loading minimizes thermal effects at the front surface. The compression history of the recovered samples is measured using velocity interferometry from an Al-coated LiF witness target on the same shot driven by a separate, but equivalent set of laser beams. These experimental measurements are compared with computations using a radiation hydrodynamics code. Recovered samples are investigated using optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The laser damage to the surface is characterized.

  19. Micro-deformation behavior in micro-compression with high-purity aluminum processed by ECAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine-grained (UFG materials have a potential for applications in micro-forming since grain size appears to be the dominant factor which determines the limiting size of the geometrical features. In this research, high-purity Al was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP at room temperature through 1–8 passes. Analysis shows that processing by ECAP produces a UFG structure with a grain size of ~1.3 μm and with microhardness and microstructural homogeneity. Micro-compression testing was carried out with different specimen dimensions using the annealed sample and after ECAP processing through 1–8 passes. The results show the flow stress increases significantly after ECAP processing by comparison with the annealed material. The flow stress generally reaches a maximum value after 2 passes which is consistent with the results of microhardness. The flow stress decreases with decreasing specimen diameter from 4 mm to 1 mm which demonstrates that size effects also exist in the ultrafine-grained materials. However, the deformation mechanism in ultrafine-grained pure Al changes from strain strengthening to softening by dynamic recovery by comparison with the annealed material.

  20. Designing sparse sensing matrix for compressive sensing to reconstruct high resolution medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Tiwari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing theory enables faithful reconstruction of signals, sparse in domain $ \\Psi $, at sampling rate lesser than Nyquist criterion, while using sampling or sensing matrix $ \\Phi $ which satisfies restricted isometric property. The role played by sensing matrix $ \\Phi $ and sparsity matrix $ \\Psi $ is vital in faithful reconstruction. If the sensing matrix is dense then it takes large storage space and leads to high computational cost. In this paper, effort is made to design sparse sensing matrix with least incurred computational cost while maintaining quality of reconstructed image. The design approach followed is based on sparse block circulant matrix (SBCM with few modifications. The other used sparse sensing matrix consists of 15 ones in each column. The medical images used are acquired from US, MRI and CT modalities. The image quality measurement parameters are used to compare the performance of reconstructed medical images using various sensing matrices. It is observed that, since Gram matrix of dictionary matrix ($ \\Phi \\Psi \\mathrm{} $ is closed to identity matrix in case of proposed modified SBCM, therefore, it helps to reconstruct the medical images of very good quality.

  1. Vertebral metastases with high risk of symptomatic malignant spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Senba, Takatoshi

    2009-01-01

    To find vertebral metastases with high risk of symptomatic malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC), features of vertebral metastases caused motor deficits of the lower extremities were examined. From 2004 through 2006, 78 patients with metastases of the thoracic and/or the cervical spine were treated with radiation therapy (RT). Of these, 86 irradiated lesions in 73 patients were evaluable by magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography at the initiation of RT and were reviewed retrospectively in this study. Twenty-eight patients (38%) had motor deficits at the initiation of RT. Assessed factors were age, sex, primary disease (lung, breast, digestive system and other cancer), lamina involvement, main level of tumor location and vertebral-body involvement. Incidence of motor deficits at the initiation of RT was 55% for lesions with lamina involvement and 5% for lesions without lamina involvement (P 0.9999, P=0.7798, P=0.1702 and P=0.366, respectively). Vertebral metastases with lamina involvement tended to cause symptomatic MSCC. Latent development of MSCC occurred more frequently in the MTS compared with other levels of the thoracic and the cervical spine. (author)

  2. Compression Behavior of Confined Columns with High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fly ash in ordinary concrete provides practical benefits to concrete structures, such as a gain in long-term strength, reduced hydration heat, improved resistance to chloride, and enhanced workability. However, few studies with high-volume fly ash (HVFA concrete have been conducted that focus on the structural applications such as a column. Thus, there is a need to promote field applications of HVFA concrete as a sustainable construction material. To this end, this study investigated the compressive behavior of reinforced concrete columns that contain HVFA with a 50 percent replacement rate. Six columns were fabricated for this study. The study variables were the HVFA replacement rate, tied steel ratio, and tie steel spacing. The computed ultimate strength by the American Concrete Institute (ACI code conservatively predicted the measured values, and, thus, the existing equation in the ACI code is feasible for confined RC columns that contain HVFA. In addition, an analysis model was calibrated based on the experimental results and is recommended for predicting the stress-strain relationship of confined reinforced concrete columns that contain HVFA.

  3. Structural Phase Transition and Compressibility of CaF2 Nanocrystals under High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshu Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural phase transition and compressibility of CaF2 nanocrystals with size of 23 nm under high pressure were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement. A pressure-induced fluorite to α-PbCl2-type phase transition starts at 9.5 GPa and completes at 20.2 GPa. The phase-transition pressure is lower than that of 8 nm CaF2 nanocrystals and closer to bulk CaF2. Upon decompression, the fluorite and α-PbCl2-type structure co-exist at the ambient pressure. The bulk modulus B0 of the 23 nm CaF2 nanocrystals for the fluorite and α-PbCl2-type phase are 103(2 and 78(2 GPa, which are both larger than those of the bulk CaF2. The CaF2 nanocrystals exhibit obviously higher incompressibility compare to bulk CaF2. Further analysis demonstrates that the defect effect in our CaF2 nanocrystals plays a dominant role in the structural stability.

  4. Electric-gun studies of conductors in high magnetic fields and experiments in dynamic flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.; Chau, H.H.; Lee, R.S.; Tipton, R.E.; Weingart, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Electric guns operate by discharging a fast capacitor bank through a thin, metallic bridge-foil load. The explosion of the foil and the accompanying magnetic forces acting on the bridge-foil plasma accelerate a thin flyer plate of dielectric material initially placed on top of the bridge foil. In hypervelocity impact studies with the linear electric gun, a thin, flat flyer is punched out of a cover sheet of dielectric (or dielectric/metallic composite) material by the explosion of the bridge foil and accelerated down a short barrel to impact on a target. In the coaxial gun, a cylindrical bridge foil is used to implode a cylindrical dielectric or dielectric/metallic composite (liner) flyer to produce a high peak compression through axial convergence. In this paper the authors discuss the range of currents, their rate of rise, and the magnetic fields attained by their fast capacitor banks, which supply power to the electric gun to explode the bridge foil. Also included is a study of the change of resistance of the bridge-foil element as a function of time for various flyer mass loadings for the linear geometry of the gun

  5. Highly compressible three-dimensional graphene hydrogel for foldable all-solid-state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Zou, Shuai; Liu, Kaixi; Lv, Chao; Wu, Ziping; Yin, Yanhong; Liang, Tongxiang; Xie, Zailai

    2018-04-01

    The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based macroscopic materials with superior mechanical and electrical properties for flexible energy storage devices is still extremely challenging. Here, we report a novel 3D graphene hydrogel decorated by the biomass phytic acid (PAGH) with developed porosity and strengthen mechanical property via hydrothermal and freeze-drying methods. The phytic acid molecules are intercalated into the graphene sheets, enabling robust network structure. This induces the formation of materials with larger specific surface area, lower density and enhanced compressive strength compared with pure GH. When directly employed as an electrode, the PAGH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 248.8 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and excellent rate performance of 67.9% as current density increasing to 20 A g-1. Furthermore, the all-solid-state supercapacitor based PAGH can deliver outstanding cycle life (86.2% after cycling 10,000 times), glorious energy density (26.5 Wh kg-1) and power density (5135.1 W kg-1). The prepared device shows stable electrochemical behaviors at random bending angles. Therefore, the present work will open a new avenue to design and fabricate new flexible and portable graphene-based electrodes for future applications in energy storage devices.

  6. High Pressure Compression-Molding of α-Cellulose and Effects of Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Rouilly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial α-cellulose was compression-molded to produce 1A dog-bone specimens under various operating conditions without any additive. The resulting agromaterials exhibited a smooth, plastic-like surface, and constituted a suitable target as replacement for plastic materials. Tensile and three-points bending tests were conducted according to ISO standards related to the evaluation of plastic materials. The specimens had strengths comparable to classical petroleum-based thermoplastics. They also exhibited high moduli, which is characteristic of brittle materials. A higher temperature and higher pressure rate produced specimens with higher mechanical properties while low moisture content produced weaker specimens. Generally, the strong specimen had higher specific gravity and lower moisture content. However, some parameters did not follow the general trend e.g., thinner specimen showed much higher Young’s Modulus, although their specific gravity and moisture content remained similar to control, revealing a marked skin-effect which was confirmed by SEM observations.

  7. Effect of Curing Temperature Histories on the Compressive Strength Development of High-Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relative strength-maturity relationship of high-strength concrete (HSC specifically developed for nuclear facility structures while considering the economic efficiency and durability of the concrete. Two types of mixture proportions with water-to-binder ratios of 0.4 and 0.28 were tested under different temperature histories including (1 isothermal curing conditions of 5°C, 20°C, and 40°C and (2 terraced temperature histories of 20°C for an initial age of individual 1, 3, or 7 days and a constant temperature of 5°C for the subsequent ages. On the basis of the test results, the traditional maturity function of an equivalent age was modified to consider the offset maturity and the insignificance of subsequent curing temperature after an age of 3 days on later strength of concrete. To determine the key parameters in the maturity function, the setting behavior, apparent activation energy, and rate constant of the prepared mixtures were also measured. This study reveals that the compressive strength development of HSC cured at the reference temperature for an early age of 3 days is insignificantly affected by the subsequent curing temperature histories. The proposed maturity approach with the modified equivalent age accurately predicts the strength development of HSC.

  8. High level compressive residual stresses produced in aluminum alloys by laser shock processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Chi-Moreno, W.; Morales, M.

    2005-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/cm 2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG, two laser spot diameters were used: 0.8 and 1.5 mm. Results using pulse densities of 2500 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 2024 aluminum samples are presented. High level of compressive residual stresses are produced -1600 MPa for 6061-T6 Al alloy, and -1400 MPa for 2024 Al alloy. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is higher than that achieved by conventional shot peening and with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products

  9. High performance optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging with QR code and compressive sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengmei; Wang, Le; Liang, Wenqiang; Cheng, Weiwen; Gong, Longyan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a high performance optical encryption (OE) scheme based on computational ghost imaging (GI) with QR code and compressive sensing (CS) technique, named QR-CGI-OE scheme. N random phase screens, generated by Alice, is a secret key and be shared with its authorized user, Bob. The information is first encoded by Alice with QR code, and the QR-coded image is then encrypted with the aid of computational ghost imaging optical system. Here, measurement results from the GI optical system's bucket detector are the encrypted information and be transmitted to Bob. With the key, Bob decrypts the encrypted information to obtain the QR-coded image with GI and CS techniques, and further recovers the information by QR decoding. The experimental and numerical simulated results show that the authorized users can recover completely the original image, whereas the eavesdroppers can not acquire any information about the image even the eavesdropping ratio (ER) is up to 60% at the given measurement times. For the proposed scheme, the number of bits sent from Alice to Bob are reduced considerably and the robustness is enhanced significantly. Meantime, the measurement times in GI system is reduced and the quality of the reconstructed QR-coded image is improved.

  10. Simulations of viscous and compressible gas-gas flows using high-order finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, M.; Bogey, C.; Spelt, P. D. M.

    2018-05-01

    A computational method for the simulation of viscous and compressible gas-gas flows is presented. It consists in solving the Navier-Stokes equations associated with a convection equation governing the motion of the interface between two gases using high-order finite-difference schemes. A discontinuity-capturing methodology based on sensors and a spatial filter enables capturing shock waves and deformable interfaces. One-dimensional test cases are performed as validation and to justify choices in the numerical method. The results compare well with analytical solutions. Shock waves and interfaces are accurately propagated, and remain sharp. Subsequently, two-dimensional flows are considered including viscosity and thermal conductivity. In Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, generated on an air-SF6 interface, the influence of the mesh refinement on the instability shape is studied, and the temporal variations of the instability amplitude is compared with experimental data. Finally, for a plane shock wave propagating in air and impacting a cylindrical bubble filled with helium or R22, numerical Schlieren pictures obtained using different grid refinements are found to compare well with experimental shadow-photographs. The mass conservation is verified from the temporal variations of the mass of the bubble. The mean velocities of pressure waves and bubble interface are similar to those obtained experimentally.

  11. High-speed combustion diagnostics in a rapid compression machine by broadband supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werblinski, Thomas; Fendt, Peter; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2017-05-20

    The first results under fired internal combustion engine conditions based on a supercontinuum absorption spectrometer are presented and discussed. Temperature, pressure, and water mole fraction are inferred simultaneously from broadband H 2 O absorbance spectra ranging from 1340 nm to 1440 nm. The auto-ignition combustion process is monitored for two premixed n-heptane/air mixtures with 10 kHz in a rapid compression machine. Pressure and temperature levels during combustion exceed 65 bar and 1900 K, respectively. To allow for combustion measurements, the robustness of the spectrometer against beam steering has been improved compared to its previous version. Additionally, the detectable wavelength range has been extended further into the infrared region to allow for the acquisition of distinct high-temperature water transitions located in the P-branch above 1410 nm. Based on a theoretical study, line-of-sight (LOS) effects introduced by temperature stratification on the broadband fitting algorithm in the complete range from 1340 nm to 1440 nm are discussed. In this context, the recorded spectra during combustion were evaluated only within a narrower spectral region exhibiting almost no interference from low-temperature molecules (here, P-branch from 1410 nm to 1440 nm). It is shown that this strategy mitigates almost all of the LOS effects introduced by cold molecules and the evaluation of the spectrum in the entirely recorded wavelength range at engine combustion conditions.

  12. Ultra high-speed x-ray imaging of laser-driven shock compression using synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, Margie P.; Cantelli, Valentina; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Grenzer, Joerg; Pelka, Alexander; Roedel, Melanie; Prencipe, Irene; Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Helbig, Uwe; Kraus, Dominik; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom; Scheel, Mario; Pradel, Pierre; De Resseguier, Thibaut; Rack, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    A high-power, nanosecond pulsed laser impacting the surface of a material can generate an ablation plasma that drives a shock wave into it; while in situ x-ray imaging can provide a time-resolved probe of the shock-induced material behaviour on macroscopic length scales. Here, we report on an investigation into laser-driven shock compression of a polyurethane foam and a graphite rod by means of single-pulse synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging with MHz frame rate. A 6 J, 10 ns pulsed laser was used to generate shock compression. Physical processes governing the laser-induced dynamic response such as elastic compression, compaction, pore collapse, fracture, and fragmentation have been imaged; and the advantage of exploiting the partial spatial coherence of a synchrotron source for studying low-density, carbon-based materials is emphasized. The successful combination of a high-energy laser and ultra high-speed x-ray imaging using synchrotron light demonstrates the potentiality of accessing complementary information from scientific studies of laser-driven shock compression.

  13. Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J; Day, M; Almgren, A; Lijewski, M; Rendleman, C; Cheng, R; Shepherd, I

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable technological interest in developing new fuel-flexible combustion systems that can burn fuels such as hydrogen or syngas. Lean premixed systems have the potential to burn these types of fuels with high efficiency and low NOx emissions due to reduced burnt gas temperatures. Although traditional Scientific approaches based on theory and laboratory experiment have played essential roles in developing our current understanding of premixed combustion, they are unable to meet the challenges of designing fuel-flexible lean premixed combustion devices. Computation, with its ability to deal with complexity and its unlimited access to data, has the potential for addressing these challenges. Realizing this potential requires the ability to perform high fidelity simulations of turbulent lean premixed flames under realistic conditions. In this paper, we examine the specialized mathematical structure of these combustion problems and discuss simulation approaches that exploit this structure. Using these ideas we can dramatically reduce computational cost, making it possible to perform high-fidelity simulations of realistic flames. We illustrate this methodology by considering ultra-lean hydrogen flames and discuss how this type of simulation is changing the way researchers study combustion

  14. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  15. Lean software development in action

    CERN Document Server

    Janes, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book illustrates how goal-oriented, automated measurement can be used to create Lean organizations and to facilitate the development of Lean software, while also demonstrating the practical implementation of Lean software development by combining tried and trusted tools. In order to be successful, a Lean orientation of software development has to go hand in hand with a company's overall business strategy. To achieve this, two interrelated aspects require special attention: measurement and experience management. In this book, Janes and Succi provide the necessary knowledge to establish "

  16. Effects of High Glucose on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synthesis and Secretion in Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Trovati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency, type 2 by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance: in both conditions, hyperglycaemia is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular risk, due to increased atherosclerotic plaque formation/instabilization and impaired collateral vessel formation. An important factor in these phenomena is the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, a molecule produced also by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC. We aimed at evaluating the role of high glucose on VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from lean insulin-sensitive and obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats (LZR and OZR. In cultured aortic VSMC from LZR and OZR incubated for 24 h with D-glucose (5.5, 15 and 25 mM or with the osmotic controls L-glucose and mannitol, we measured VEGF-A164 synthesis (western, blotting and secretion (western blotting and ELISA. We observed that: (i D-glucose dose-dependently increases VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from LZR and OZR (n = 6, ANOVA p = 0.002–0.0001; (ii all the effects of 15 and 25 mM D-glucose are attenuated in VSMC from OZR vs. LZR (p = 0.0001; (iii L-glucose and mannitol reproduce the VEGF-A164 modulation induced by D-glucose in VSMC from both LZR and OZR. Thus, glucose increases via an osmotic mechanism VEGF synthesis and secretion in VSMC, an effect attenuated in the presence of insulin resistance.

  17. Cation-dependent anomalous compression of gallosilicate zeolites with CGS topology: A high-pressure synchrotron powder diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongjae; Lee, Hyun-Hwi; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Kim, Sun Jin; Kao, Chi-chang

    2008-01-01

    The high-pressure compression behaviour of 3 different cation forms of gallosilicate zeolite with CGS topology has been investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell technique. Under hydrostatic conditions mediated by a nominally penetrating pressure-transmitting medium, unit-cell lengths and volume compression is modulated by different degrees of pressure-induced hydration and accompanying channel distortion. In a Na-exchanged CGS (Na 10 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .16H 2 O), the unit-cell volume expands by ca. 0.6% upon applying hydrostatic pressure to 0.2 GPa, whereas, in an as-synthesized K-form (K 10 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .5H 2 O), this initial volume expansion is suppressed to ca. 0.1% at 0.16 GPa. In the early stage of hydrostatic compression below ∼1 GPa, relative decrease in the ellipticity of the non-planar 10-rings is observed, which is then reverted to a gradual increase in the ellipticity at higher pressures above ∼1 GPa, implying a change in the compression mechanism. In a Sr-exchanged sample (Sr 5 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .19H 2 O), on the other hand, no initial volume expansion is observed. Instead, a change in the slope of volume contraction is observed near 1.5 GPa, which leads to a 2-fold increase in the compressibility. This is interpreted as pressure-induced rearrangement of water molecules to facilitate further volume contraction at higher pressures. - Graphical abstract: Three different cation forms of gallosilicate CGS zeolites have been investigated using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell. Under hydrostatic conditions, unit-cell lengths and volume show anomalous compression behaviours depending on the non-framework cation type and initial hydration level, which implies different modes of pressure-induced hydration and channel distortion

  18. First Lean, then modularisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian R.; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne

    2016-01-01

    of Europe’s leading offshore wind power operators with more than 1,000 wind turbine generators in operation. By focusing on this company, in-depth insights into its operations and maintenance processes are investigated. Findings – Lean is identified to constitute an important first step before...... and resources can take place. The authors also establish a foundation for the development of a software tool to support the development of the modularisation of maintenance tasks. Originality/value – The present study contributes to the rather immature field of research on the operations and maintenance...

  19. High-pressure behavior of intermediate scapolite: compressibility, structure deformation and phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Paolo; Comboni, Davide; Merlini, Marco; Hanfland, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Scapolites are common volatile-bearing minerals in metamorphic rocks. In this study, the high-pressure behavior of an intermediate member of the scapolite solid solution series (Me47), chemical formula (Na1.86Ca1.86K0.23Fe0.01)(Al4.36Si7.64)O24[Cl0.48(CO3)0.48(SO4)0.01], has been investigated up to 17.79 GPa, by means of in situ single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The isothermal elastic behavior of the studied scapolite has been described by a III-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, which provided the following refined parameters: V 0 = 1110.6(7) Å3, {K_{{V_0}}} = 70(2) GPa ({β _{{V_0}}} = 0.0143(4) GPa-1) and {K_{{V}}^' = 4.8(7). The refined bulk modulus is intermediate between those previously reported for Me17 and Me68 scapolite samples, confirming that the bulk compressibility among the solid solution increases with the Na content. A discussion on the P-induced structure deformation mechanisms of tetragonal scapolite at the atomic scale is provided, along with the implications of the reported results for the modeling of scapolite stability. In addition, a single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition, which is displacive in character, has been observed toward a triclinic polymorph at 9.87 GPa. The high-pressure triclinic polymorph was found to be stable up to the highest pressure investigated.

  20. Dynamic Behavior of AA2519-T8 Aluminum Alloy Under High Strain Rate Loading in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A. T.; Owolabi, G. M.; Odeshi, A. G.; Yilmaz, N.; Zeytinci, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effects of strain rate on the dynamic behavior, microstructure evolution and hence, failure of the AA2519-T8 aluminum alloy were investigated under compression at strain rates ranging from 1000 to 3500 s-1. Cylindrical specimens of dimensions 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm (L/D = 1) were tested using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with a digital image correlation system. The microstructure of the alloy was assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Results showed that the dynamic yield strength of the alloy is strain rate dependent, with the maximum yield strength attained by the material being 500 MPa. The peak flow stress of 562 MPa was attained by the material at 3500 s-1. The alloy also showed a significant rate of strain hardening that is typical of other Al-Cu alloys; the rate of strain hardening, however, decreased with increase in strain rate. It was determined that the strain rate sensitivity coefficient of the alloy within the range of high strain rates used in this study is approximately 0.05 at 0.12 plastic strain; a more significant value than what was reported in literature under quasi-static loading. Micrographs obtained showed potential sites for the evolution of adiabatic shear band at 3500 s-1, with a characteristic circular-shaped surface profile comprising partially dissolved second phase particles in the continuous phase across the incident plane of the deformed specimen. The regions surrounding the site showed little or no change in the size of particles. However, the constituent coarse particles were observed as agglomerations of fractured pieces, thus having a shape factor different from those contained in the as-received alloy. Since the investigated alloy is a choice material for military application where it can be exposed to massive deformation at high strain rates, this study provides information on its microstructural and mechanical responses to such extreme loading condition.

  1. A high-speed lossless data compression system for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Joe; Fong, Wai; Miller, Warner

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the integration of a lossless data compression/decompression chipset into a space data system architecture. For its compression engine, the data system incorporates the Universal Source Encoder (USE) designed for the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Currently, the data compression testbed generates video frames consisting of 512 lines of 512 pixels having 8-bit resolution. Each image is passed through the USE where the lines are internally partitioned into 16-word blocks. These blocks are adaptively encoded across widely varying entropy levels using a Rice 12-option set coding algorithm. The current system operates at an Input/Output rate of 10 Msamples/s or 80 Mbits/s for each buffered input line. Frame and line synchronization for each image are maintained through the use of uniquely decodable command words. Length information of each variable length compressed image line is also included in the output stream. The data and command information are passed to the next stage of the system architecture through a serial fiber-optic transmitter. The initial segment of this stage consists of packetizer hardware which adds an appropriate CCSDS header to the received source data. An uncompressed mode is optionally available to pass image lines directly to the packetizer hardware. A data decompression testbed has also been developed to confirm the data compression operation.

  2. Lean approach in knowledge work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kropsu-Vehkapera

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Knowledge work productivity is a key area of improvement for many organisations. Lean approach is a sustainable way to achieve operational excellence and can be applied in many areas. The purpose of this novel study is to examine the potential of using lean approach for improving knowledge work practices. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review has been carried out to study how lean approach is realised in knowledge work. The research is conceptual in nature and draws upon earlier research findings. Findings: This study shows that lean studies’ in knowledge work is an emerging research area. This study documents the methods and practices implemented in knowledge work to date, and presents a knowledge work continuum, which is an essential framework for effective lean approach deployment and to frame future research focus in knowledge work productivity. Research limitations/implications: This study structures the concept of knowledge work and outlines a concrete concept derived from earlier literature. The study summarises the literature on lean in knowledge work and highlights, which methods are used. More research is needed to understand how lean can be implemented in complex knowledge work environment and not only on the repetitive knowledge work. The limitations of this research are due to the limited availability of previous research. Practical implications: To analyse the nature of knowledge work, we implicate the areas where lean methods especially apply to improving knowledge work productivity. When applying lean in knowledge work context the focus should be using the people better and improving information flow. Originality/value: This study focuses on adapting lean methods into a knowledge work context and summarises earlier research done in this field. The study discusses the potential to improve knowledge work productivity by implementing lean methods and presents a unique knowledge work continuum to

  3. EDUCATION FOR LEAN & LEAN FOR EDUCATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveta Vukadinovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate and understand how tools and principles of Lean philosophy can be adopted to improve the effectiveness of engineering education by providing services beyond the competition and costs below the competition, and how engineering education can provide better prepared engineering professionals capable to work in dynamic Lean environments by developing multidisciplinary knowledge and skills. Paper will be based on analysis of relevant scientific and professional literature sources, including certain elements of description, classification, explanation and prediction. The authors will use detailed literature review to explain complex relationship and interdependence between Lean philosophy and engineering education and answer the question what benefits modern Lean enterprises may expect from properly educated and qualified engineers and how application of Lean tools and principles can improve the system of engineering education.

  4. Seeding magnetic fields for laser-driven flux compression in high-energy-density plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotchev, O V; Knauer, J P; Chang, P Y; Jang, N W; Shoup, M J; Meyerhofer, D D; Betti, R

    2009-04-01

    A compact, self-contained magnetic-seed-field generator (5 to 16 T) is the enabling technology for a novel laser-driven flux-compression scheme in laser-driven targets. A magnetized target is directly irradiated by a kilojoule or megajoule laser to compress the preseeded magnetic field to thousands of teslas. A fast (300 ns), 80 kA current pulse delivered by a portable pulsed-power system is discharged into a low-mass coil that surrounds the laser target. A >15 T target field has been demonstrated using a hot spot of a compressed target. This can lead to the ignition of massive shells imploded with low velocity-a way of reaching higher gains than is possible with conventional ICF.

  5. High Strength Concrete Columns under Axial Compression Load: Hybrid Confinement Efficiency of High Strength Transverse Reinforcement and Steel Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perceka, Wisena; Liao, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yo-de

    2016-01-01

    Addition of steel fibers to high strength concrete (HSC) improves its post-peak behavior and energy absorbing capability, which can be described well in term of toughness. This paper attempts to obtain both analytically and experimentally the efficiency of steel fibers in HSC columns with hybrid confinement of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. Toughness ratio (TR) to quantify the confinement efficiency of HSC columns with hybrid confinement is proposed through a regression analysis by involving sixty-nine TRs of HSC without steel fibers and twenty-seven TRs of HSC with hybrid of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. The proposed TR equation was further verified by compression tests of seventeen HSC columns conducted in this study, where twelve specimens were reinforced by high strength rebars in longitudinal and transverse directions. The results show that the efficiency of steel fibers in concrete depends on transverse reinforcement spacing, where the steel fibers are more effective if the spacing transverse reinforcement becomes larger in the range of 0.25–1 effective depth of the section column. Furthermore, the axial load–strain curves were developed by employing finite element software (OpenSees) for simulating the response of the structural system. Comparisons between numerical and experimental axial load–strain curves were carried out. PMID:28773391

  6. Ares Launch Vehicles Lean Practices Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.

  7. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    images via 8 bit depth codecs in the following way. First, an input 16 bit depth image is mapped into 8 bit depth images, e.g., the first image contains only the most significant bytes (MSB image) and the second one contains only the least significant bytes (LSB image). Then each image is compressed.......264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can...

  8. Investigation of non-uniform airflow signal oscillation during high frequency chest compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jongwon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High frequency chest compression (HFCC is a useful and popular therapy for clearing bronchial airways of excessive or thicker mucus. Our observation of respiratory airflow of a subject during use of HFCC showed the airflow oscillation by HFCC was strongly influenced by the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. We used a computational model-based approach to analyse the respiratory airflow during use of HFCC. Methods The computational model, which is based on previous physiological studies and represented by an electrical circuit analogue, was used for simulation of in vivo protocol that shows the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. Besides, airflow was measured during use of HFCC. We compared the simulation results to either the measured data or the previous research, to understand and explain the observations. Results and discussion We could observe two important phenomena during respiration pertaining to the airflow signal oscillation generated by HFCC. The amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals varied depending on spontaneous airflow signals. We used the simulation results to investigate how the nonlinearity of airway resistance, lung capacitance, and inertance of air characterized the respiratory airflow. The simulation results indicated that lung capacitance or the inertance of air is also not a factor in the non-uniformity of HFCC airflow signals. Although not perfect, our circuit analogue model allows us to effectively simulate the nonlinear characteristics of the respiratory system. Conclusion We found that the amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals behave as a function of spontaneous airflow signals. This is due to the nonlinearity of the respiratory system, particularly variations in airway resistance.

  9. LEAN thinking in Finnish healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorma, Tapani; Tiirinki, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Turkki, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to evaluate how LEAN thinking is used as a management and development tool in the Finnish public healthcare system and what kind of outcomes have been achieved or expected by using it. The main focus is in managing and developing patient and treatment processes. Design/methodology/approach - A mixed-method approach incorporating the Webropol survey was used. Findings - LEAN is quite a new concept in Finnish public healthcare. It is mainly used as a development tool to seek financial savings and to improve the efficiency of patient processes, but has not yet been deeply implemented. However, the experiences from LEAN initiatives have been positive, and the methodology is already quite well-known. It can be concluded that, because of positive experiences from LEAN, the environment in Finnish healthcare is ready for the deeper implementation of LEAN. Originality/value - This paper evaluates the usage of LEAN thinking for the first time in the public healthcare system of Finland as a development tool and a management system. It highlights the implementation and achieved results of LEAN thinking when used in the healthcare environment. It also highlights the expectations for LEAN thinking in Finnish public healthcare.

  10. Effects of polytetrafluoroethylene treatment and compression on gas diffusion layer microstructure using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, Navvab; Sasabe, Takashi; Tokumasu, Takashi; Pasaogullari, Ugur

    2014-11-01

    The microstructure of a TGP-H-120 Toray paper gas diffusion layer (GDL) was investigated using high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) technique, with a resolution of 1.8 μm and a field of view (FOV) of ∼1.8 × 1.8 mm. The images obtained from the tomography scans were further post processed, and image thresholding and binarization methodologies are presented. The validity of Otsu's thresholding method was examined. Detailed information on bulk porosity and porosity distribution of the GDL at various Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) treatments and uniform/non-uniform compression pressures was provided. A sample holder was designed to investigate the effects of non-uniform compression pressure, which enabled regulating compression pressure between 0, and 3 MPa at a gas channel/current collector rib configuration. The results show the heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructure of the GDL, non-uniform distribution of PTFE, and significant microstructural change under uniform/non-uniform compression. These findings provide useful inputs for numerical models to include the effects of microstructural changes in the study of transport phenomena within the GDL and to increase the accuracy and predictability of cell performance.

  11. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  12. The effects of a high dosage of creatine and caffeine supplementation on the lean body mass composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Frederico Sc; Costa, Neuza Mb; Ferreira, Susana A; Carneiro-Junior, Miguel A; Natali, Antônio J

    2011-03-01

    The influences of creatine and caffeine supplementation associated with power exercise on lean body mass (LBM) composition are not clear. The purpose of this research was to determine whether supplementation with high doses of creatine and caffeine, either solely or combined, affects the LBM composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: Sedentary (S) or Exercised (E) [placebo (Pl), creatine (Cr), caffeine (Caf) or creatine plus caffeine (CrCaf)]. The supplemented groups received creatine [load: 0.430 g/kg of body weight (BW) for 7 days; and maintenance: 0.143 g/kg of BW for 35 days], caffeine (15 mg/kg of BW for 42 days) or creatine plus caffeine. The exercised groups underwent a vertical jump training regime (load: 20 - 50% of BW, 4 sets of 10 jumps interspersed with 1 min resting intervals), 5 days/wk, for 6 weeks. LBM composition was evaluated by portions of water, protein and fat in the rat carcass. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test and Student's t test. Exercised animals presented a lower carcass weight (10.9%; P = 0.01), as compared to sedentary animals. However, no effect of supplementation was observed on carcass weight (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05) for percentage of water in the carcass. The percentage of fat in the group SCr was higher than in the groups SCaf and ECr (P < 0.05). A higher percentage of protein was observed in the groups EPl and ECaf when compared to the groups SPl and SCaf (P < 0.001). The percentage of fat in the carcass decreased (P < 0.001), while those of water and protein increased (P < 0.05) in exercised animals, compared to sedentary animals. Caffeine groups presented reduced percentage of fat when compared to creatine supplemented groups (P < 0.05). High combined doses of creatine and caffeine does not affect the LBM composition of either sedentary or exercised rats, however, caffeine

  13. High bit depth infrared image compression via low bit depth codecs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    .264/AVC codecs, which are usually available in efficient implementations, and compare their rate-distortion performance with JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and H.265/HEVC codecs supporting direct compression of infrared images in 16 bit depth format. A preliminary result shows that two 8 bit H.264/AVC codecs can...

  14. A novel method for fabrication of biodegradable scaffolds with high compression moduli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeGroot, JH; Kuijper, HW; Pennings, AJ

    1997-01-01

    It has been previously shown that, when used for meniscal reconstruction, porous copoly(L-lactide/epsilon-caprolactone) implants enhanced healing of meniscal lesions owing to their excellent adhesive properties. However, it appeared that the materials had an insufficient compression modulus to

  15. PET image reconstruction with rotationally symmetric polygonal pixel grid based highly compressible system matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunhan; Xia Yan; Liu Yaqiang; Wang Shi; Ma Tianyu; Chen Jing; Hong Baoyu

    2013-01-01

    To achieve a maximum compression of system matrix in positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction, we proposed a polygonal image pixel division strategy in accordance with rotationally symmetric PET geometry. Geometrical definition and indexing rule for polygonal pixels were established. Image conversion from polygonal pixel structure to conventional rectangular pixel structure was implemented using a conversion matrix. A set of test images were analytically defined in polygonal pixel structure, converted to conventional rectangular pixel based images, and correctly displayed which verified the correctness of the image definition, conversion description and conversion of polygonal pixel structure. A compressed system matrix for PET image recon was generated by tap model and tested by forward-projecting three different distributions of radioactive sources to the sinogram domain and comparing them with theoretical predictions. On a practical small animal PET scanner, a compress ratio of 12.6:1 of the system matrix size was achieved with the polygonal pixel structure, comparing with the conventional rectangular pixel based tap-mode one. OS-EM iterative image reconstruction algorithms with the polygonal and conventional Cartesian pixel grid were developed. A hot rod phantom was detected and reconstructed based on these two grids with reasonable time cost. Image resolution of reconstructed images was both 1.35 mm. We conclude that it is feasible to reconstruct and display images in a polygonal image pixel structure based on a compressed system matrix in PET image reconstruction. (authors)

  16. Compressive and flexural strength of expanded perlite aggregate mortar subjected to high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifeli, Muhamad Faqrul Hisham bin Mohd; Saman@Hj Mohamed, Hamidah binti Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Work on thermal resistant of outer structures of buildings is one of the solution to reduce death, damages and properties loss in fire cases. Structures protected with thermal resistant materials can delay or avoid failure and collapse during fire. Hence, establishment of skin cladding with advance materials to protect the structure of buildings is a necessary action. Expanded perlite is a good insulation material which can be used as aggregate replacement in mortar. This study is to study on mortar mechanical properties of flexural and compressive strength subjected to elevated temperatures using expanded perlite aggregate (EPA). This study involved experimental work which was developing mortar with sand replacement by volume of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of EPA and cured for 56 days. The mortars then exposed to 200°C, 400 °C, 700 °C and 1000 °C. Flexural and compressive strength of the mortar were tested. The tests showed that there were increased of flexural and compressive strength at 200°C, and constantly decreased when subjected to 400°C, 700°C and 1000 °C. There were also variation of strengths at different percentages of EPA replacement. Highest compressive strength and flexural strength recorded were both at 200 °C with 65.52 MPa and 21.34 MPa respectively. The study conclude that by using EPA as aggregate replacement was ineffective below elevated temperatures but increased the performance of the mortar at elevated temperatures.

  17. Patterns of neurovascular compression in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia: A high-resolution MRI-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzoni, José; David, Philippe; Levivier, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the anatomical characteristics and patterns of neurovascular compression in patients suffering classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN), using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The analysis of the anatomy of the trigeminal nerve, brain stem and the vascular structures related to this nerve was made in 100 consecutive patients treated with a Gamma Knife radiosurgery for CTN between December 1999 and September 2004. MRI studies (T1, T1 enhanced and T2-SPIR) with axial, coronal and sagital simultaneous visualization were dynamically assessed using the software GammaPlan™. Three-dimensional reconstructions were also developed in some representative cases. Results: In 93 patients (93%), there were one or several vascular structures in contact, either, with the trigeminal nerve, or close to its origin in the pons. The superior cerebellar artery was involved in 71 cases (76%). Other vessels identified were the antero-inferior cerebellar artery, the basilar artery, the vertebral artery, and some venous structures. Vascular compression was found anywhere along the trigeminal nerve. The mean distance between the nerve compression and the origin of the nerve in the brainstem was 3.76 ± 2.9 mm (range 0–9.8 mm). In 39 patients (42%), the vascular compression was located proximally and in 42 (45%) the compression was located distally. Nerve dislocation or distortion by the vessel was observed in 30 cases (32%). Conclusions: The findings of this study are similar to those reported in surgical and autopsy series. This non-invasive MRI-based approach could be useful for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in CTN, and it could help to understand its pathogenesis.

  18. Experimental investigation on high temperature anisotropic compression properties of ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Feng, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yang, Xiaoguang, E-mail: yxg@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Yonggang [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Qi, Hongyu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis.

  19. Experimental investigation on high temperature anisotropic compression properties of ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO2 aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao; Feng, Jian; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu; Jiang, Yonggang; Qi, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO 2 aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis

  20. A new chest compression depth feedback algorithm for high-quality CPR based on smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeongtak; Oh, Jaehoon; Chee, Youngjoon

    2015-01-01

    Although many smartphone application (app) programs provide education and guidance for basic life support, they do not commonly provide feedback on the chest compression depth (CCD) and rate. The validation of its accuracy has not been reported to date. This study was a feasibility assessment of use of the smartphone as a CCD feedback device. In this study, we proposed the concept of a new real-time CCD estimation algorithm using a smartphone and evaluated the accuracy of the algorithm. Using the double integration of the acceleration signal, which was obtained from the accelerometer in the smartphone, we estimated the CCD in real time. Based on its periodicity, we removed the bias error from the accelerometer. To evaluate this instrument's accuracy, we used a potentiometer as the reference depth measurement. The evaluation experiments included three levels of CCD (insufficient, adequate, and excessive) and four types of grasping orientations with various compression directions. We used the difference between the reference measurement and the estimated depth as the error. The error was calculated for each compression. When chest compressions were performed with adequate depth for the patient who was lying on a flat floor, the mean (standard deviation) of the errors was 1.43 (1.00) mm. When the patient was lying on an oblique floor, the mean (standard deviation) of the errors was 3.13 (1.88) mm. The error of the CCD estimation was tolerable for the algorithm to be used in the smartphone-based CCD feedback app to compress more than 51 mm, which is the 2010 American Heart Association guideline.

  1. Compression for radiological images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.

    1992-07-01

    The viewing of radiological images has peculiarities that must be taken into account in the design of a compression technique. The images may be manipulated on a workstation to change the contrast, to change the center of the brightness levels that are viewed, and even to invert the images. Because of the possible consequences of losing information in a medical application, bit preserving compression is used for the images used for diagnosis. However, for archiving the images may be compressed to 10 of their original size. A compression technique based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) takes the viewing factors into account by compressing the changes in the local brightness levels. The compression technique is a variation of the CCITT JPEG compression that suppresses the blocking of the DCT except in areas of very high contrast.

  2. Lean management beyond manufacturing a holistic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bhasin, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Exploring Lean manufacturing in a holistic manner, this book helps organizations to implement Lean principles successfully by offering theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge. It empirically demonstrates how a successful Lean initiative can improve organizational efficiency, and incorporates valuable primary research to substantiate findings. It argues that Lean principles need to be applied throughout the value chain in order to be successful , and suggests that these tools need to be aligned with culture and change management. Chapters examine issues including Lean cultures, impediments to Lean, Lean and performance measurement, and the impact of Lean. Viewing Lean as a never-ending journey, this book provides a valuable resource to practising Lean managers, and specialist researchers and students, and also offers an important reference for organizations embarking on their Lean voyage.

  3. Intermittent hypoxia induces hyperlipidemia in lean mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Thorne, Laura N; Punjabi, Naresh M; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Marino, Rafael L; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Hubbard, Walter C; O'Donnell, Christopher P; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2005-09-30

    Obstructive sleep apnea, a syndrome leading to recurrent intermittent hypoxia (IH), has been associated previously with hypercholesterolemia, independent of underlying obesity. We examined the effects of experimentally induced IH on serum lipid levels and pathways of lipid metabolism in the absence and presence of obesity. Lean C57BL/6J mice and leptin-deficient obese C57BL/6J-Lep(ob) mice were exposed to IH for five days to determine changes in serum lipid profile, liver lipid content, and expression of key hepatic genes of lipid metabolism. In lean mice, exposure to IH increased fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, phospholipids (PLs), and triglycerides (TGs), as well as liver TG content. These changes were not observed in obese mice, which had hyperlipidemia and fatty liver at baseline. In lean mice, IH increased sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) levels in the liver, increased mRNA and protein levels of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD-1), an important gene of TG and PL biosynthesis controlled by SREBP-1, and increased monounsaturated fatty acid content in serum, which indicated augmented SCD-1 activity. In addition, in lean mice, IH decreased protein levels of scavenger receptor B1, regulating uptake of cholesterol esters and HDL by the liver. We conclude that exposure to IH for five days increases serum cholesterol and PL levels, upregulates pathways of TG and PL biosynthesis, and inhibits pathways of cholesterol uptake in the liver in the lean state but does not exacerbate the pre-existing hyperlipidemia and metabolic disturbances in leptin-deficient obesity.

  4. Characterization of Athabasca lean oil sands and mixed surficial materials: Comparison of capillary electrophoresis/low-resolution mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Matthew S; Peru, Kerry M; Swyngedouw, Chris; Fleming, Ian; Chen, David D Y; Headley, John V

    2018-05-15

    Oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada, requires removal and stockpiling of considerable volumes of near-surface overburden material. This overburden includes lean oil sands (LOS) which cannot be processed economically but contain sparingly soluble petroleum hydrocarbons and naphthenic acids, which can leach into environmental waters. In order to measure and track the leaching of dissolved constituents and distinguish industrially derived organics from naturally occurring organics in local waters, practical methods were developed for characterizing multiple sources of contaminated water leakage. Capillary electrophoresis/positive-ion electrospray ionization low-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE/LRMS), high-resolution negative-ion electrospray ionization Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HRMS) and conventional gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) were used to characterize porewater samples collected from within Athabasca LOS and mixed surficial materials. GC/FID was used to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon and HRMS was used to measure total naphthenic acid fraction components (NAFCs). HRMS and CE/LRMS were used to characterize samples according to source. The amounts of total petroleum hydrocarbon in each sample as measured by GC/FID ranged from 0.1 to 15.1 mg/L while the amounts of NAFCs as measured by HRMS ranged from 5.3 to 82.3 mg/L. Factors analysis (FA) on HRMS data visually demonstrated clustering according to sample source and was correlated to molecular formula. LRMS coupled to capillary electrophoresis separation (CE/LRMS) provides important information on NAFC isomers by adding analyte migration time data to m/z and peak intensity. Differences in measured amounts of total petroleum hydrocarbons by GC/FID and NAFCs by HRMS indicate that the two methods provide complementary information about the nature of dissolved organic species in a soil or water leachate samples. NAFC molecule class O x S y is a possible tracer for LOS

  5. Lean implementation strategies: how are the Toyota way principles addressed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coetzee, Rojanette

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is widely considered to be a proven organisational improvement philosophy, yet the success rate of lean implementation in industry remains relatively low. Neglect of the human aspect of lean manufacturing is often cited as the leading reason for this, despite the emphasis so clearly placed upon this aspect by the creators of the lean philosophy. This article reviews the extent to which the human dimensions of the lean philosophy, as described in the Toyota Way management principles, have been incorporated in lean implementation strategies. It is found that few of the principles feature prominently in these strategies. Notably absent are those linked to the ‘respect for people’ pillar , which forms half of the T oyota Way’s foundation. This conclusion indicates that the adoption of the lean philosophy runs contrary to the oft-repeated message from its creators that no tenet of the philosophy should be favoured at the expense of another. This may provide valuable insight into the reasons for the high implementation failure rate.

  6. Medical and scientific writing: Time to go lean and mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lean Six Sigma methodology for process improvements and driving efficiency is old, but lean writing was adopted late by the pharmaceutical world in terms of size of the documents. The documents were lean earlier, and then became voluminous, and now we are about to complete a full circle in this regard, i.e., coming back to the lean documents again using e-formats and hyperlinking. Furthermore, writing has become more and more precise over time. The need for this lean and mean medical and scientific writing arose from voluminous research globally, both industry and academia which are abuzz with skyrocketing regulatory and scientific submission volumes. The quantum of literature is so much that reviewers or information seekers firmly believe that going through even selected and relevant literature has become highly challenging. Considering this, there has been much insistence on downsizing the medical writing documents, which could be tempting enough to be leveraged for scientific publications as well. Here, we present the need for lean and mean medical writing, discuss this concept in relation to the pharmaceutical industry, and how to apply this to key documents. Furthermore, presented is the proposed algorithm for lean and mean clinical study reports and manuscripts. These thoughts are aligned to the recently established concept of data transparency, and can be easily achieved by web links between the protocols and clinical trial results disclosed publicly, and the corresponding manuscripts.

  7. High failure rate of trochanteric fracture osteosynthesis with proximal femoral locking compression plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, C; Abbassi, F; Evangelopoulos, D S; Kohl, S; Siebenrock, K A; Krüger, A

    2013-06-01

    Stable reconstruction of proximal femoral (PF) fractures is especially challenging due to the peculiarity of the injury patterns and the high load-bearing requirement. Since its introduction in 2007, the PF-locking compression plate (LCP) 4.5/5.0 has improved osteosynthesis for intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures of the femur. This study reports our early results with this implant. Between January 2008 and June 2010, 19 of 52 patients (12 males, 7 females; mean age 59 years, range 19-96 years) presenting with fractures of the trochanteric region were treated at the authors' level 1 trauma centre with open reduction and internal fixation using PF-LCP. Postoperatively, partial weight bearing was allowed for all 19 patients. Follow-up included a thorough clinical and radiological evaluation at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. Failure analysis was based on conventional radiological and clinical assessment regarding the type of fracture, postoperative repositioning, secondary fracture dislocation in relation to the fracture constellation and postoperative clinical function (Merle d'Aubigné score). In 18 patients surgery achieved adequate reduction and stable fixation without intra-operative complications. In one patient an ad latus displacement was observed on postoperative X-rays. At the third month follow-up four patients presented with secondary varus collapse and at the sixth month follow-up two patients had 'cut-outs' of the proximal fragment, with one patient having implant failure due to a broken proximal screw. Revision surgeries were performed in eight patients, one patient receiving a change of one screw, three patients undergoing reosteosynthesis with implantation of a condylar plate and one patient undergoing hardware removal with secondary implantation of a total hip prosthesis. Eight patients suffered from persistent trochanteric pain and three patients underwent hardware removal. Early results for PF-LCP osteosynthesis show major

  8. Assessing mesoscale material response under shock & isentropic compression via high-resolution line-imaging VISAR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Clint Allen; Furnish, Michael David; Podsednik, Jason W.; Reinhart, William Dodd; Trott, Wayne Merle; Mason, Joshua

    2003-10-01

    Of special promise for providing dynamic mesoscale response data is the line-imaging VISAR, an instrument for providing spatially resolved velocity histories in dynamic experiments. We have prepared two line-imaging VISAR systems capable of spatial resolution in the 10-20 micron range, at the Z and STAR facilities. We have applied this instrument to selected experiments on a compressed gas gun, chosen to provide initial data for several problems of interest, including: (1) pore-collapse in copper (two variations: 70 micron diameter hole in single-crystal copper) and (2) response of a welded joint in dissimilar materials (Ta, Nb) to ramp loading relative to that of a compression joint. The instrument is capable of resolving details such as the volume and collapse history of a collapsing isolated pore.

  9. High compressive resistance drainage geo composites; Geocompuestos de drenaje de alta resistencia a compresion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo Nolla, J.; Gutierrez Cuevas, J.

    2014-02-01

    There are several typologies of drainage geo composites available in the market which can be classified according to their structures as: cus pated, mono filaments, geo nets and those products formed by the combination of a draining blanket with a series of mini-pipes. Each one of them has its own range of compressive resistances. There are applications, such as are the new cells of landfills or mines and roads or railways over large embankments, where the pressure exerted on the geo composite exceeds the compressive resistance of the majority of these typologies. For all this applications, besides providing and adequate flow capacity, it must be ensured that the chosen typology is able to withstand the required loading without collapsing and guaranteeing an adequate factor of safety. This article will expose that, currently, the only typology of drainage geo composites that can bear these loadings while maintaining its drainage properties is the tri-planar geo net. (Author)

  10. The effects of friction on the compressive behaviour of high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, M.; Parry, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation, covering a wide range of strain rate and temperature, has been performed into the effects of interfacial friction on the compressive properties of an armour plate steel. In order to calculate the coefficient of friction, ring tests were carried out and the Avitzur analysis applied. In general, coefficients of friction decreased with increasing temperature and strain rate. Other specimen observations indicated the same friction trends. It is essential that friction corrections be applied if meaningful results are to be obtained. (orig.)

  11. Influence of Temperature on Workability and Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete with High Calcium Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołaszewski Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of fresh ordinary concrete are closely affected by temperature and time. The paper presents the study of consistency of fresh concrete mixtures made with Portland cement and cement with calcareous fly ash. Two types of admixtures were used. It was proven that the temperature has a clear effect on workability and compressive strength concrete. Influence on workability can be reduced by selecting the appropriate superplasticizer and cement.

  12. Observation of a New High-Pressure Solid Phase in Dynamically Compressed Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsin, D. N.

    2017-10-01

    Aluminum is ideal for testing theoretical first-principles calculations because of the relative simplicity of its atomic structure. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that Al transforms from an ambient-pressure, face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystal to the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) and body-centered-cubic (bcc) structures as it is compressed. Laser-driven experiments performed at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) ramp compressed Al samples to pressures up to 540 GPa without melting. Nanosecond in-situ x-ray diffraction was used to directly measure the crystal structure at pressures where the solid-solid phase transformations of Al are predicted to occur. Laser velocimetry provided the pressure in the Al. Our results show clear evidence of the fcc-hcp and hpc-bcc transformations at 216 +/- 9 GPa and 321 +/- 12 GPa, respectively. This is the first experimental in-situ observation of the bcc phase in compressed Al and a confirmation of the fcc-hcp transition previously observed under static compression at 217 GPa. The observations indicate these solid-solid phase transitions occur on the order of tens of nanoseconds time scales. In the fcc-hcp transition we find the original texture of the sample is preserved; however, the hcp-bcc transition diminishes that texture producing a structure that is more polycrystalline. The importance of this dynamic is discussed. The NIF results are the first demonstration of x-ray diffraction measurements at two different pressures in a single laser shot. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  13. Using an artificial neural network to predict carbon dioxide compressibility factor at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohagheghian, Erfan [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada); Zafarian-Rigaki, Habiballah; Motamedi-Ghahfarrokhi, Yaser; Hemmati-Sarapardeh, Abdolhossein [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Carbon dioxide injection, which is widely used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, has the potential of being coupled with CO{sub 2} sequestration and reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Hence, knowing the compressibility factor of carbon dioxide is of a vital significance. Compressibility factor (Z-factor) is traditionally measured through time consuming, expensive and cumbersome experiments. Hence, developing a fast, robust and accurate model for its estimation is necessary. In this study, a new reliable model on the basis of feed forward artificial neural networks is presented to predict CO{sub 2} compressibility factor. Reduced temperature and pressure were selected as the input parameters of the proposed model. To evaluate and compare the results of the developed model with pre-existing models, both statistical and graphical error analyses were employed. The results indicated that the proposed model is more reliable and accurate compared to pre-existing models in a wide range of temperature (up to 1,273.15 K) and pressure (up to 140MPa). Furthermore, by employing the relevancy factor, the effect of pressure and temprature on the Z-factor of CO{sub 2} was compared for below and above the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, and the physcially expected trends were observed. Finally, to identify the probable outliers and applicability domain of the proposed ANN model, both numerical and graphical techniques based on Leverage approach were performed. The results illustrated that only 1.75% of the experimental data points were located out of the applicability domain of the proposed model. As a result, the developed model is reliable for the prediction of CO{sub 2} compressibility factor.

  14. The Effect of PFSA Membrane Compression on the Predicted Performance of a High Pressure PEM Electrolysis Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a non-equilibrium formulation of a compression dependent water uptake model has been implemented in a two-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component and non-isothermal high pressure PEM electrolysis model. The non-equilibrium formulation of the water uptake model was chosen in order...... to account for interfacial transport kinetics between each fluid phase and the perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane. Besides modeling water uptake, the devised membrane model accounts for water transport through diffusion and electro-osmotic drag in the electrolyte phase, and hydraulic permeation...... in the liquid phase. Charge transport and electrochemistry are likewise included. The obtained model is validated against experimental measurements. In order to investigate the effect of membrane compression, a parametric study is carried. Results underline that the predicted water uptake and cell voltage...

  15. Ge nanobelts with high compressive strain fabricated by secondary oxidation of self-assembly SiGe rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Li, Cheng; Lin, Guangyang

    2015-01-01

    Curled Ge nanobelts were fabricated by secondary oxidation of self-assembly SiGe rings, which were exfoliated from the SiGe stripes on the insulator. The Ge-rich SiGe stripes on insulator were formed by hololithography and modified Ge condensation processes of Si0.82Ge0.18 on SOI substrate. Ge...... nanobelts under a residual compressive strain of 2% were achieved, and the strain should be higher before partly releasing through bulge islands and breakage of the curled Ge nanobelts during the secondary oxidation process. The primary factor leading to compressive strain is thermal shrinkage of Ge...... nanobelts, which extrudes to Ge nanobelts in radial and tangent directions during the cooling process. This technique is promising for application in high-mobility Ge nano-scale transistors...

  16. Effects of Friction and Anvil Design on Plastic Deformation during the Compression Stage of High-Pressure Torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yuepeng; Chen, Miaomiao; Xu, Baoyan; Guo, Jing; Xu, Lingfeng; Wang, Zheng [Mechanical and Electronic Engineering College, Tai’an (China); Gao, Dongsheng [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Horticultural Machineries and Equipments, Tai’an (China); Kim, Hyoung Seop [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Herein, we report the results of our investigation on the effect of friction and anvil design on the heterogeneous plastic-deformation characteristics of copper during the compressive stage of high-pressure torsion (HPT), using the finite element method. The results indicate that the friction and anvil geometry play important roles in the homogeneity of the deformation. These variables affect the heterogeneous level of strain in the HPT compressed disks, as well as the flash in the disk edge region. The heterogeneous plastic deformation of the disks becomes more severe with the increasing depth of the cavity, as anvil angle and friction coefficient increase. However, the homogeneity increases with increases in the wall angle. The length of flash and the area of the dead metal zone increase with the depth of the cavity, while they decrease at a wall angle of 180°.

  17. Lean Startup and Lean Canvas Using for Innovative Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new approaches to product development have emerged that focus on idea generation techniques and customer itself. One of them is the Lean Startup method that is described in this article along with the Lean Canvas method. The main goal of the article is to demonstrate the application of both methods to an innovative product development focused on providing interactive trips for families with children. The development of the product during individual phases is described and application of the Lean Startup and Lean Canvas principles is demonstrated. Finally, benefits of both methods contributing to the product success are discussed. Similar case studies start emerging worldwide, however in the Czech context are quite rare.

  18. Numerical analysis of knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine based on LES with detailed chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xudong; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine was modeled. • A detailed methanol mechanism was used to simulate the knocking combustion. • Compared with the SI engines, the HCCI knocking combustion burnt faster. • The reaction rate of HCO had two obvious peaks, one was positive, and another was negative. • Compared with the SI engines, the values of the reaction rates of CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HO 2 were higher, and it had negative peaks. - Abstract: In this study, knock during HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) was studied based on LES (large eddy simulation) with methanol chemical kinetics (84-reaction, 21-species) in a high compression ratio methanol engine. The non-knocking and knocking combustion of SI (spark ignition) and HCCI engines were compared. The results showed that the auto-ignition spots were initially occurred near the combustion chamber wall. The knocking combustion burnt faster during HCCI than SI methanol engine. The HCO reaction rate was different from SI engine, it had two obvious peaks, one was positive peak, and another was negative peak. Compared with the SI methanol engine, in addition to the concentration of HCO, the concentrations of the other intermediate products and species such as CO, OH, CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , HO 2 were increased significantly; the reaction rates of CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HO 2 had negative peaks, and whose values were several times higher than SI methanol engine

  19. Experimental study on efficacy of compression systems with a high static stiffness index for treatment of venous ulcer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Andriessen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study measured interface pressure and static stiffness index of four different compression systems in fifty-two healthy volunteers. For the study interface pressure (3 cm ø probe was placed at the anatomical B1 point was recorded on application of the compression systems every 15 min for 4 h, in supine, standing, while sitting and during walking. For this purpose a portable Kikuhime (Harada Corp., Osaka, Japan device was used. Further static stiffness index (SSI was calculated. The evaluated systems were: short stretch bandage system (SSB Rosidal sys (Lohmann & Rauscher, Rengsdorf, Germany, multi-layer bandaging (LSB Profore (Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK, varistretch bandage (VSB Proguide (Smith & Nephew and tubular compression (CS Rosidal mobil (Lohmann & Rauscher. The mean interface pressure of SSB, LSB and VSB was significantly higher (P<0.05 in each position measured over 4 h, compared to CS. In supine VSB showed high-pressure levels, up to 60 mmHg, which remained high. The other systems had more tolerable levels of about 30 mmHg. Interface pressure exerted on limbs is an indicator of their clinical effect. The experimental study results showed different patterns of interface pressure and SSI, which may enable clinicians to predict the frequency of bandage application, supporting an adequate and safe choice of bandage system.

  20. Single-event transient imaging with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Futa; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Okihara, Shin-ichiro; Seo, Min-Woong; Zhang, Bo; Takasawa, Taishi; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2016-02-22

    In the work described in this paper, an image reproduction scheme with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor was demonstrated. The sensor captures an object by compressing a sequence of images with focal-plane temporally random-coded shutters, followed by reconstruction of time-resolved images. Because signals are modulated pixel-by-pixel during capturing, the maximum frame rate is defined only by the charge transfer speed and can thus be higher than those of conventional ultra-high-speed cameras. The frame rate and optical efficiency of the multi-aperture scheme are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed imaging method, a 5×3 multi-aperture image sensor was fabricated. The average rising and falling times of the shutters were 1.53 ns and 1.69 ns, respectively. The maximum skew among the shutters was 3 ns. The sensor observed plasma emission by compressing it to 15 frames, and a series of 32 images at 200 Mfps was reconstructed. In the experiment, by correcting disparities and considering temporal pixel responses, artifacts in the reconstructed images were reduced. An improvement in PSNR from 25.8 dB to 30.8 dB was confirmed in simulations.

  1. Improving healthcare using Lean processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G Ross

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, healthcare organizations across Canada have been using Lean management tools to improve care processes, reduce preventable adverse events, increase patient satisfaction and create better work environments. The largest system-wide effort in Canada, and perhaps anywhere, is currently under way in Saskatchewan. The jury is still out on whether Lean efforts in that province, or elsewhere in Canada, are robust enough to transform current delivery systems and sustain new levels of performance. This issue of Healthcare Quarterly features several articles that provide a perspective on Lean methods in healthcare. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  2. Compressed-air work is entering the field of high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Péchon, J Cl; Gourdon, G

    2010-01-01

    Since 1850, compressed-air work has been used to prevent shafts or tunnels under construction from flooding. Until the 1980s, workers were digging in compressed-air environments. Since the introduction of tunnel boring machines (TBMs), very little digging under pressure is needed. However, the wearing out of cutter-head tools requires inspection and repair. Compressed-air workers enter the pressurized working chamber only occasionally to perform such repairs. Pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 bar, that stand outside a reasonable range for air breathing, were reached by 2002. Offshore deep diving technology had to be adapted to TBM work. Several sites have used mixed gases: in Japan for deep shaft sinking (4.8 bar), in The Netherlands at Western Scheldt Tunnels (6.9 bar), in Russia for St. Petersburg Metro (5.8 bar) and in the United States at Seattle (5.8 bar). Several tunnel projects are in progress that may involve higher pressures: Hallandsås (Sweden) interventions in heliox saturation up to 13 bar, and Lake Mead (U.S.) interventions to about 12 bar (2010). Research on TBMs and grouting technologies tries to reduce the requirements for hyperbaric works. Adapted international rules, expertise and services for saturation work, shuttles and trained personnel matching industrial requirements are the challenges.

  3. High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhi Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME. Pixels of reconstructed frames are kept on-chip until they are used by the next current frame to avoid off-chip memory access. On-chip buffers with smart schedules of data access are designed to perform the new data reuse scheme. Three levels of the proposed inter-frame data reuse scheme are presented and analyzed. They give different choices with tradeoff between off-chip bandwidth requirement and on-chip memory size. All three levels have better data reuse efficiency than their intra-frame counterparts, so off-chip memory traffic is reduced effectively. Comparing the new inter-frame data reuse scheme with the traditional intra-frame data reuse scheme, the memory traffic can be reduced by 50% for VC-ME.

  4. Influence of Eco-Friendly Mineral Additives on Early Age Compressive Strength and Temperature Development of High-Performance Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszynska, Maria; Skibicki, Szymon

    2017-12-01

    High-performance concrete (HPC) which contains increased amount of both higher grade cement and pozzolanic additives generates more hydration heat than the ordinary concrete. Prolonged periods of elevated temperature influence the rate of hydration process in result affecting the development of early-age strength and subsequent mechanical properties. The purpose of the presented research is to determine the relationship between the kinetics of the heat generation process and the compressive strength of early-age high performance concrete. All mixes were based on the Portland Cement CEM I 52.5 with between 7.5% to 15% of the cement mass replaced by the silica fume or metakaolin. Two characteristic for HPC water/binder ratios of w/b = 0.2 and w/b = 0.3 were chosen. A superplasticizer was used to maintain a 20-50 mm slump. Compressive strength was determined at 8h, 24h, 3, 7 and 28 days on 10x10x10 cm specimens that were cured in a calorimeter in a constant temperature of T = 20°C. The temperature inside the concrete was monitored continuously for 7 days. The study determined that the early-age strength (t<24h) of concrete with reactive mineral additives is lower than concrete without them. This is clearly visible for concretes with metakaolin which had the lowest compressive strength in early stages of hardening. The amount of the superplasticizer significantly influenced the early-age compressive strength of concrete. Concretes with additives reached the maximum temperature later than the concretes without them.

  5. DNABIT Compress - Genome compression algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajeswari, Pothuraju; Apparao, Allam

    2011-01-22

    Data compression is concerned with how information is organized in data. Efficient storage means removal of redundancy from the data being stored in the DNA molecule. Data compression algorithms remove redundancy and are used to understand biologically important molecules. We present a compression algorithm, "DNABIT Compress" for DNA sequences based on a novel algorithm of assigning binary bits for smaller segments of DNA bases to compress both repetitive and non repetitive DNA sequence. Our proposed algorithm achieves the best compression ratio for DNA sequences for larger genome. Significantly better compression results show that "DNABIT Compress" algorithm is the best among the remaining compression algorithms. While achieving the best compression ratios for DNA sequences (Genomes),our new DNABIT Compress algorithm significantly improves the running time of all previous DNA compression programs. Assigning binary bits (Unique BIT CODE) for (Exact Repeats, Reverse Repeats) fragments of DNA sequence is also a unique concept introduced in this algorithm for the first time in DNA compression. This proposed new algorithm could achieve the best compression ratio as much as 1.58 bits/bases where the existing best methods could not achieve a ratio less than 1.72 bits/bases.

  6. Effect of High-Temperature Curing Methods on the Compressive Strength Development of Concrete Containing High Volumes of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsuk Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the high-temperature curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete containing high volumes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. GGBS was used to replace Portland cement at a replacement ratio of 60% by binder mass. The high-temperature curing parameters used in this study were the delay period, temperature rise, peak temperature (PT, peak period, and temperature down. Test results demonstrate that the compressive strength of the samples with PTs of 65°C and 75°C was about 88% higher than that of the samples with a PT of 55°C after 1 day. According to this investigation, there might be optimum high-temperature curing conditions for preparing a concrete containing high volumes of GGBS, and incorporating GGBS into precast concrete mixes can be a very effective tool in increasing the applicability of this by-product.

  7. Compression stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call your health insurance or prescription plan: Find out if they pay for compression stockings. Ask if your durable medical equipment benefit pays for compression stockings. Get a prescription from your doctor. Find a medical equipment store where they can ...

  8. Lean Manufacturing measurement: The relationships between Lean activities and Lean metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Manotas Duque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Medición en Lean Manufacturing: Relaciones entre Actividades Lean y Métricas Lean Lean Manufacturing fue desarrollada por Toyota para satisfacer sus necesidades específicas en un mercado restringido y en tiempos de estrechez económica. Estos conceptos han sido estudiados y se ha comprobado su aplicabilidad en una amplia variedad de industrias. El objetivo de este artículo es el de integrar un conjunto de métricas que han sido propuestas por diferentes autores, de tal manera que sean consistentes con las etapas y elementos de implementaciones de Lean Manufacturing. Para lograrlo se presentan dos marcos de referencia para implementaciones Lean y los principales factores de éxito se utilizan como base para proponer métricas que identifiquen el avance en estos factores. Posteriormente se propone una tabla que cruza el impacto de las “Actividades Lean” sobre las métricas, postulando que muchos de los supuestos a priori sobre estos impactos deberían ser precisos. Finalmente se proponen algunas ideas para proyectos de investigación hacia el futuro y posibles extensiones de las aplicaciones propuestas aquí.

  9. Researching Lean: Methodological Implications of Loose Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Brännmark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Lean Production (Lean has become a prevailing management concept in Sweden. However, previous research seems to show that the Lean concept and the impact of Lean vary considerably between organizations. This paper illustrates some key methodological issues that need to be considered when researching loosely defined management concepts such as Lean. The paper is based on a review of the literature and five comparative Swedish cases studies. Our study indicates that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization and interpretations of the concept vary considerably. This study concludes that future Lean studies should include a thorough assessment of the Lean interventions, study settings, and in particular non-Lean factors mediating the outcomes of Lean-inspired change programs.

  10. Use of lean and six sigma methodology to improve operating room efficiency in a high-volume tertiary-care academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Robert R; Brown, Michael J; Hebl, James R; Moore, Robin; Rogers, James C; Kollengode, Anantha; Amstutz, Gwendolyn J; Weisbrod, Cheryl A; Narr, Bradly J; Deschamps, Claude

    2011-07-01

    Operating rooms (ORs) are resource-intense and costly hospital units. Maximizing OR efficiency is essential to maintaining an economically viable institution. OR efficiency projects often focus on a limited number of ORs or cases. Efforts across an entire OR suite have not been reported. Lean and Six Sigma methodologies were developed in the manufacturing industry to increase efficiency by eliminating non-value-added steps. We applied Lean and Six Sigma methodologies across an entire surgical suite to improve efficiency. A multidisciplinary surgical process improvement team constructed a value stream map of the entire surgical process from the decision for surgery to discharge. Each process step was analyzed in 3 domains, ie, personnel, information processed, and time. Multidisciplinary teams addressed 5 work streams to increase value at each step: minimizing volume variation; streamlining the preoperative process; reducing nonoperative time; eliminating redundant information; and promoting employee engagement. Process improvements were implemented sequentially in surgical specialties. Key performance metrics were collected before and after implementation. Across 3 surgical specialties, process redesign resulted in substantial improvements in on-time starts and reduction in number of cases past 5 pm. Substantial gains were achieved in nonoperative time, staff overtime, and ORs saved. These changes resulted in substantial increases in margin/OR/day. Use of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies increased OR efficiency and financial performance across an entire operating suite. Process mapping, leadership support, staff engagement, and sharing performance metrics are keys to enhancing OR efficiency. The performance gains were substantial, sustainable, positive financially, and transferrable to other specialties. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Macroscopic Expressions of Molecular Adiabatic Compressibility of Methyl and Ethyl Caprate under High Pressure and High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxi Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular compressibility, which is a macroscopic quantity to reveal the microcompressibility by additivity of molecular constitutions, is considered as a fixed value for specific organic liquids. In this study, we introduced two calculated expressions of molecular adiabatic compressibility to demonstrate its pressure and temperature dependency. The first one was developed from Wada’s constant expression based on experimental data of density and sound velocity. Secondly, by introducing the 2D fitting expressions and their partial derivative of pressure and temperature, molecular compressibility dependency was analyzed further, and a 3D fitting expression was obtained from the calculated data of the first one. The third was derived with introducing the pressure and temperature correction factors based on analogy to Lennard-Jones potential function and energy equipartition theorem. In wide range of temperatures (293compressibility was certified.

  12. High Precision Motion Control System for the Two-Stage Light Gas Gun at the Dynamic Compression Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, E.; Guarino, V.; Konrad, C.; Williams, B.; Capatina, D.; D'Amico, K.; Arganbright, N.; Zimmerman, K.; Turneaure, S.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has a diverse set of dynamic compression drivers to obtain time resolved x-ray data in single event, dynamic compression experiments. Because the APS x-ray beam direction is fixed, each driver at DCS must have the capability to move through a large range of linear and angular motions with high precision to accommodate a wide variety of scientific needs. Particularly challenging was the design and implementation of the motion control system for the two-stage light gas gun, which rests on a 26' long structure and weighs over 2 tons. The target must be precisely positioned in the x-ray beam while remaining perpendicular to the gun barrel axis to ensure one-dimensional loading of samples. To accommodate these requirements, the entire structure can pivot through 60° of angular motion and move 10's of inches along four independent linear directions with 0.01° and 10 μm resolution, respectively. This presentation will provide details of how this system was constructed, how it is controlled, and provide examples of the wide range of x-ray/sample geometries that can be accommodated. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  13. A modified compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics method and its application on the numerical simulation of low and high velocity impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanifard, N.; Haghighat Namini, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method is introduced which is applicable in problems involving shock wave structures and elastic-plastic deformations of solids. As a matter of fact, algorithm of the method is based on an approach which descritizes the momentum equation into three parts and solves each part separately and calculates their effects on the velocity field and displacement of particles. The most exclusive feature of the method is exactly removing artificial viscosity of the formulations and representing good compatibility with other reasonable numerical methods without any rigorous numerical fractures or tensile instabilities while Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics does not use any extra modifications. Two types of problems involving elastic-plastic deformations and shock waves are presented here to demonstrate the capability of Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics in simulation of such problems and its ability to capture shock. The problems that are proposed here are low and high velocity impacts between aluminum projectiles and semi infinite aluminum beams. Elastic-perfectly plastic model is chosen for constitutive model of the aluminum and the results of simulations are compared with other reasonable studies in these cases.

  14. Lean Design and Management for Manufactoring

    OpenAIRE

    NIU, Zhanwen

    2009-01-01

    Most enterprises inducting lean production were confined by the innate limitations of existing production systems, which make it difficult to fulfill lean production comprehensively. To solve this problem, the theory of lean design and management for the manufacturing enterprise lifecycle was proposed. First, the necessities of lean design were analyzed and its theoretical system was established; second, the principles, process, methods and tools for lean design was introduced. Techniques and...

  15. The evolution of Lean organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Serafinas, Dalius; Ruželė, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Remiantis evoliucijos tyrimų modeliais bei autorių sudarytu evoliucionuojančios organizacijos modeliu,straipsnyje analizuojama Lean vadybos metodologija ir tiriama, kaip evoliucionuoja ją įgyvendinančios Lietuvosgamybinės organizacijos. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of Lean organizations.Design/methodology/approach: a conceptual literature on the evolution of species, organisms and organizations was reviewed and an original model (framework) of the evolution of orga...

  16. Lean Transformation of Multinational Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    triggered. This paper reports on exploratory studies from a multinational company adopting centrally managed pilot projects as a transformation mechanism for continuous change towards a lean business system and an organizational culture of continuous improvements (CI). Competitive pressure demands...... from a multinational company adopting centrally managed pilot projects as a transformation mechanism for continuous change towards a lean business system and an organizational culture of continuous improvements (CI)....

  17. The Effects of Application of Lean Concept in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean principles and techniques can be successfully applied in the retail sector. In the retail sector, lean approach improves operational flows. Lean retail encourages manufacturers to produce standard products in accordance with the created (placed orders from retailers pursuant to the demand of their consumers. Characteristics of the retail market are: strong competition, shorter product life cycle, longer product development time and high sensitivity of demand. In order to be more competitive and profitable today's retailers operate strategically oriented to lower prices and gain exemption from holding unnecessary stocks. Lean retail is an example of best practices of successful operational strategies which management need to accept - to maximize the operating efficiency of the retail process.

  18. Low-complexity Compression of High Dynamic Range Infrared Images with JPEG compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    data size, then we include the raw residual image instead. If the residual image contains only zero values or the quality factor for it is 0 then we do not include the residual image into the header. Experimental results show that compared with JPEG-XT Part 6 with ’global Reinhard’ tone-mapping....... Then we compress each image by a JPEG baseline encoder and include the residual image bit stream into the application part of JPEG header of the base image. As a result, the base image can be reconstructed by JPEG baseline decoder. If the JPEG bit stream size of the residual image is higher than the raw...

  19. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  20. Compressive Sensing Based Bayesian Sparse Channel Estimation for OFDM Communication Systems: High Performance and Low Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Shan, Lin; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM) communication systems, channel state information (CSI) is required at receiver due to the fact that frequency-selective fading channel leads to disgusting intersymbol interference (ISI) over data transmission. Broadband channel model is often described by very few dominant channel taps and they can be probed by compressive sensing based sparse channel estimation (SCE) methods, for example, orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm, which can take the advantage of sparse structure effectively in the channel as for prior information. However, these developed methods are vulnerable to both noise interference and column coherence of training signal matrix. In other words, the primary objective of these conventional methods is to catch the dominant channel taps without a report of posterior channel uncertainty. To improve the estimation performance, we proposed a compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation (BSCE) method which cannot only exploit the channel sparsity but also mitigate the unexpected channel uncertainty without scarifying any computational complexity. The proposed method can reveal potential ambiguity among multiple channel estimators that are ambiguous due to observation noise or correlation interference among columns in the training matrix. Computer simulations show that proposed method can improve the estimation performance when comparing with conventional SCE methods. PMID:24983012

  1. High-dynamic range compressive spectral imaging by grayscale coded aperture adaptive filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Eduardo Diaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging system (CASSI is an imaging architecture which senses the three dimensional informa-tion of a scene with two dimensional (2D focal plane array (FPA coded projection measurements. A reconstruction algorithm takes advantage of the compressive measurements sparsity to recover the underlying 3D data cube. Traditionally, CASSI uses block-un-block coded apertures (BCA to spatially modulate the light. In CASSI the quality of the reconstructed images depends on the design of these coded apertures and the FPA dynamic range. This work presents a new CASSI architecture based on grayscaled coded apertu-res (GCA which reduce the FPA saturation and increase the dynamic range of the reconstructed images. The set of GCA is calculated in a real-time adaptive manner exploiting the information from the FPA compressive measurements. Extensive simulations show the attained improvement in the quality of the reconstructed images when GCA are employed.  In addition, a comparison between traditional coded apertures and GCA is realized with respect to noise tolerance.

  2. Lean manufacturing measurement: the relationship between lean activities and lean metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manotas Duque Diego Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Lean Manufacturing was developed by Toyota Motor company to address their specific needs in a restricted market in times of economic trouble. These concepts have been studied and proven to be transferrable and applicable to a wide variety of industries. This paper aims to integrate a set of metrics that have been proposed by different authors in such a way that they are consistent with the different stages and elements of Lean Manufacturing implementations. To achieve this, two frameworks for Lean implementations are presented and then the main factors for success are used as the basis to propose metrics that measure the advance in these factors. A tabular display of the impact of “Lean activities” on the metrics is presented, proposing that many a priori assumptions about the benefits on many different levels of improvement should be accurate. Finally, some ideas for future research and extension of the applications proposed on this paper are presented as closing points.

  3. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Solikin Mochamad; Setiawan Budi

    2017-01-01

    High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly ...

  4. Experimental Investigation and Prediction of Compressive Strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Containing Supplementary Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC has superior mechanical properties and durability to normal strength concrete. However, the high amount of cement, high environmental impact, and initial cost are regarded as disadvantages, restricting its wider application. Incorporation of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs in UHPC is an effective way to reduce the amount of cement needed while contributing to the sustainability and cost. This paper investigates the mechanical properties and microstructure of UHPC containing fly ash (FA and silica fume (SF with the aim of contributing to this issue. The results indicate that, on the basis of 30% FA replacement, the incorporation of 10% and 20% SF showed equivalent or higher mechanical properties compared to the reference samples. The microstructure and pore volume of the UHPCs were also examined. Furthermore, to minimise the experimental workload of future studies, a prediction model is developed to predict the compressive strength of the UHPC using artificial neural networks (ANNs. The results indicate that the developed ANN model has high accuracy and can be used for the prediction of the compressive strength of UHPC with these SCMs.

  5. Spark ignition engine performance and emissions in a high compression engine using biogas and methane mixtures without knock occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Montoya Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to use biogas in an internal combustion engine with high compression ratio and in order to get a high output thermal efficiency, this investigation used a diesel engine with a maximum output power 8.5 kW, which was converted to spark ignition mode to use it with gaseous fuels. Three fuels were used: Simulated biogas, biogas enriched with 25% and 50% methane by volume. After conversion, the output power of the engine decreased by 17.64% when using only biogas, where 7 kW was the new maximum output power of the engine. The compression ratio was kept at 15.5:1, and knocking did not occur during engine operation. Output thermal efficiency operating the engine in SI mode with biogas enriched with 50% methane was almost the same compared with the engine running in diesel-biogas dual mode at full load and was greater at part loads. The dependence of the diesel pilot was eliminated when biogas was used in the engine converted in SI mode. The optimum condition of experiment for the engine without knocking was using biogas enriched with 50% methane, with 12 degrees of spark timing advance and equivalence ratio of 0.95, larger output powers and higher values of methane concentration lead the engine to knock operation. The presence of CO2 allows operating engines at high compression ratios with normal combustion conditions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt methane all in g/kWh decreased when the biogas was enriched with 50% methane.

  6. Lean versus Quick Response Manufacturing og andre koncepter - er Lean den eneste ene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U

    2005-01-01

    Begrebet Lean har gennem de senere år vundet en enorm udbredelse. Antallet af publikationer om Lean har været eksplosivt stigende, og mange virksomheder har gennemført eller gennemfører Lean-projekter. Er Lean et nyt koncept? Er Lean den eneste løsning? Kan Lean kombineres med tankegange og princ...... løsning af en anden produktionsopgave. I fjerde afsnit skitseres kort relationerne mellem Lean og to andre begreber, Six Sigma og TPM, der begge har samme mål som Lean, men forskellige udgangspunkter og forskellige indfaldsvinkler....

  7. Look at energy compression as an assist for high power rf production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The desire to construct electron linacs of higher and higher energies, coupled with the realities of available funding and real estate, has forced machine designers to reassess the limitations in both accelerator gradient (MeV/m) and energy. The gradients achieved in current radio-frequency (RF) linacs are sometimes set by electrical breakdown in the accelerating structure, but are in most cases determined by the RF power level available to drive the linac. In this paper we will not discuss RF power sources in general, but rather take a brief look at several energy compression schemes which might be of service in helping to make better use of the sources we employ. We will, however, diverge for a bit and discuss what the RF power requirements are. 12 references, 21 figures, 3 tables

  8. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  9. Numerical Analysis on the Compressible Flow Characteristics of Supersonic Jet Caused by High-Pressure Pipe Rupture Using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jong-Kil; Yoon, Jun-Kyu [Gachon Univ., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Chu [KEPCO-E& C, Kimchun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    A rupture in a high-pressure pipe causes the fluid in the pipe to be discharged in the atmosphere at a high speed resulting in a supersonic jet that generates the compressible flow. This supersonic jet may display complicated and unsteady behavior in general . In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to investigate the compressible flow generated by a supersonic jet ejected from a high-pressure pipe. A Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model was selected to analyze the unsteady nature of the flow, which depends upon the various gases as well as the diameter of the pipe. In the CFD analysis, the basic boundary conditions were assumed to be as follows: pipe of diameter 10 cm, jet pressure ratio of 5, and an inlet gas temperature of 300 K. During the analysis, the behavior of the shockwave generated by a supersonic jet was observed and it was found that the blast wave was generated indirectly. The pressure wave characteristics of hydrogen gas, which possesses the smallest molecular mass, showed the shortest distance to the safety zone. There were no significant difference observed for nitrogen gas, air, and oxygen gas, which have similar molecular mass. In addition, an increase in the diameter of the pipe resulted in the ejected impact caused by the increased flow rate to become larger and the zone of jet influence to extend further.

  10. DCS - A high flux beamline for time resolved dynamic compression science – Design highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D., E-mail: capatina@aps.anl.gov; D’Amico, K., E-mail: kdamico@aps.anl.gov; Nudell, J., E-mail: jnudell@aps.anl.gov; Collins, J., E-mail: collins@aps.anl.gov; Schmidt, O., E-mail: oschmidt@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm{sup 2}. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm{sup 2}. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  11. Lean Production Applications in a Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Görener; Humeyra Baser; Ali Turkyilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Lean production is a production model which comes about the pursuit of companies to be able to meet competition and make effective production. The main purpose of lean production is to get control about the wastage. This study includes the requirements for the success of the lean production and how the lean production system can be established. In this paper, lean production techniques were applied to the electric water heater line. Measurements using lean initiatives were made, operation cyc...

  12. On mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of chemical kinetics in turbulent lean premixed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleberg, Bjorn

    2011-07-01

    This thesis investigates turbulent reacting lean premixed flows with detailed treatment of the chemistry. First, the fundamental equations which govern laminar and turbulent reacting flows are presented. A perfectly stirred reactor numerical code is developed to investigate the role of unmixedness and chemical kinetics in driving combustion instabilities. This includes both global single-step and detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. The single-step mechanisms predict to some degree a similar behavior as the detailed mechanisms. However, it is shown that simple mechanisms can by themselves introduce instabilities. Magnussens Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) for turbulent combustion is implemented in the open source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM R for treatment of both fast and detailed chemistry. RANS turbulence models account for the turbulent compressible flow. A database of pre-calculated chemical time scales, which contains the influence of chemical kinetics, is coupled to EDC with fast chemistry to account for local extinction in both diffusion and premixed flames. Results are compared to fast and detailed chemistry calculations. The inclusion of the database shows significantly better results than the fast chemistry calculations while having a comparably small computational cost. Numerical simulations of four piloted lean premixed jet flames falling into the 'well stirred reactor/broken reaction zones' regime, with strong finite-rate chemistry effects, are performed. Measured and predicted scalars compare well for the two jets with the lowest velocities. The two jets with the highest velocities experience extinction and reignition, and the simulations are able to capture the decrease and increase of the OH mass fractions, but the peak values are higher than in the experiments. Also numerical simulations of a lean premixed lifted jet flame with high sensitivity to turbulence modeling and chemical kinetics are performed. Limitations of the applied turbulence and

  13. Thermomechanical process optimization of U-10 wt% Mo – Part 1: high-temperature compressive properties and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V., E-mail: vineet.joshi@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Garmestani, Hamid [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Burkes, Douglas E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Nuclear power research facilities require alternatives to existing highly enriched uranium alloy fuel. One option for a high density metal fuel is uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U–10Mo). Fuel fabrication process development requires specific mechanical property data that, to date has been unavailable. In this work, as-cast samples were compression tested at three strain rates over a temperature range of 400–800 °C to provide data for hot rolling and extrusion modeling. The results indicate that with increasing test temperature the U–10Mo flow stress decreases and becomes more sensitive to strain rate. In addition, above the eutectoid transformation temperature, the drop in material flow stress is prominent and shows a strain-softening behavior, especially at lower strain rates. Room temperature X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of the as-cast and compression tested samples were conducted. The analysis revealed that the as-cast samples and the samples tested below the eutectoid transformation temperature were predominantly γ phase with varying concentration of molybdenum, whereas the ones tested above the eutectoid transformation temperature underwent significant homogenization.

  14. The effects of high temperature and fiber diameter on the quasi static compressive behavior of metal fiber sintered sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Weidong, E-mail: swdgh@bit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Jianzhong; Tang, Huiping [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Non-ferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China)

    2017-04-06

    The compressive mechanical properties of the sintered sheets of continuous stainless steel fibers with different fiber diameters (8 µm, 12 µm, 28 µm) are investigated at temperatures from 298 K to 1073 K. The stress-strain curves of metal fiber sintered sheet (MFSS) are obtained by testing under uniaxial compression and 0.2% offset yield stress are determined. Inner micro-structures of the material are revealed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and microscopic computer tomography. The results indicates that fabrication technique and porosity are two principle factors affecting the yield strength of MFSS and the strength of MFSS is insensitive to the temperature below 873 K while softening occurs at temperature 1073 K. At relative high porosity (e.g. 77%), the material with small diameter fibers tends to have higher yield strength while at low porosity, MFSS's yield strength becomes high with the increase of the fiber diameter, which is probably attributed to the joint size, the surface appearance of fibers and prehardening generated during the manufacturing of MFSS. A simplified structure model taking joint size into consideration is established to explain the influence of the joint size on the yield strength of MFSS.

  15. Contact Behavior of Composite CrTiSiN Coated Dies in Compressing of Mg Alloy Sheets under High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard coatings have been adopted in cutting and forming applications for nearly two decades. The major purpose of using hard coatings is to reduce the friction coefficient between contact surfaces, to increase strength, toughness and anti-wear performance of working tools and molds, and then to obtain a smooth work surface and an increase in service life of tools and molds. In this report, we deposited a composite CrTiSiN hard coating, and a traditional single-layered TiAlN coating as a reference. Then, the coatings were comparatively studied by a series of tests. A field emission SEM was used to characterize the microstructure. Hardness was measured using a nano-indentation tester. Adhesion of coatings was evaluated using a Rockwell C hardness indentation tester. A pin-on-disk wear tester with WC balls as sliding counterparts was used to determine the wear properties. A self-designed compression and friction tester, by combining a Universal Testing Machine and a wear tester, was used to evaluate the contact behavior of composite CrTiSiN coated dies in compressing of Mg alloy sheets under high pressure. The results indicated that the hardness of composite CrTiSiN coating was lower than that of the TiAlN coating. However, the CrTiSiN coating showed better anti-wear performance. The CrTiSiN coated dies achieved smooth surfaces on the Mg alloy sheet in the compressing test and lower friction coefficient in the friction test, as compared with the TiAlN coating.

  16. Contact Behavior of Composite CrTiSiN Coated Dies in Compressing of Mg Alloy Sheets under High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T S; Yao, S H; Chang, Y Y; Deng, J H

    2018-01-08

    Hard coatings have been adopted in cutting and forming applications for nearly two decades. The major purpose of using hard coatings is to reduce the friction coefficient between contact surfaces, to increase strength, toughness and anti-wear performance of working tools and molds, and then to obtain a smooth work surface and an increase in service life of tools and molds. In this report, we deposited a composite CrTiSiN hard coating, and a traditional single-layered TiAlN coating as a reference. Then, the coatings were comparatively studied by a series of tests. A field emission SEM was used to characterize the microstructure. Hardness was measured using a nano-indentation tester. Adhesion of coatings was evaluated using a Rockwell C hardness indentation tester. A pin-on-disk wear tester with WC balls as sliding counterparts was used to determine the wear properties. A self-designed compression and friction tester, by combining a Universal Testing Machine and a wear tester, was used to evaluate the contact behavior of composite CrTiSiN coated dies in compressing of Mg alloy sheets under high pressure. The results indicated that the hardness of composite CrTiSiN coating was lower than that of the TiAlN coating. However, the CrTiSiN coating showed better anti-wear performance. The CrTiSiN coated dies achieved smooth surfaces on the Mg alloy sheet in the compressing test and lower friction coefficient in the friction test, as compared with the TiAlN coating.

  17. Lean computing for the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Applies lean manufacturing principles across the cloud service delivery chain to enable application and infrastructure service providers to sustainably achieve the shortest lead time, best quality, and value This book focuses on lean in the context of cloud computing capacity management of applications and the physical and virtual cloud resources that support them. Lean Computing for the Cloud considers business, architectural and operational aspects of efficiently delivering valuable services to end users via cloud-based applications hosted on shared cloud infrastructure. The work also focuses on overall optimization of the service delivery chain to enable both application service and infrastructure service providers to adopt leaner, demand driven operations to serve end users more efficiently. The book’s early chapters analyze how capacity management morphs with cloud computing into interlocked physical infrastructure capacity management, virtual resou ce capacity management, and application capacity ma...

  18. Lean management in academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Ryan M; Shuman, Andrew G; Feiner, Sandra; McGonegal, Amy K; Heidel, Natalie; Duck, Mary; McLean, Scott A; Billi, John E; Healy, David W; Bradford, Carol R

    2012-06-01

    Lean is a management system designed to enhance productivity by eliminating waste. Surgical practice offers many opportunities for improving efficiency. Our objective was to determine whether systematic implementation of lean thinking in an academic otolaryngology operating room improves efficiency and profitability and preserves team morale and educational opportunities. In an 18-month prospective quasi-experimental study, a multidisciplinary task force systematically implemented lean thinking within an otolaryngology operating room of an academic health system. Operating room turnover time and turnaround time were measured during a baseline period; an observer-effect period in which workers were made aware that their efficiency was being measured but before implementing lean changes; and an intervention period after redesign principles had been used. The impact on teamwork, morale, and surgical resident education were measured during the baseline and intervention periods through validated surveys. A profit model was applied to estimate the financial implications of the study. There was no difference between the baseline and observer-effect periods of the study for turnover time (p = 0.98) or turnaround time (p = 0.20). During the intervention period, the mean turnover time and turnaround time were significantly shorter than during the baseline period (29 vs 38 minutes; p improved morale after implementation (p = 0.011). Educational metrics were unchanged before and after implementation. The annual opportunity revenue for the involved operating room is $330,000; when extrapolated throughout the operating rooms, lean thinking could create 6,500 hours of capacity annually. Application of lean management techniques to a single operating room and surgical service improved operating room efficiency and morale, sustained resident education, and can provide considerable financial gains when scaled to an entire academic surgical suite. Copyright © 2012. Published by

  19. Systematic model for lean product development implementation in an automotive related company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Osezua Aikhuele

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lean product development is a major innovative business strategy that employs sets of practices to achieve an efficient, innovative and a sustainable product development. Despite the many benefits and high hopes in the lean strategy, many companies are still struggling, and unable to either achieve or sustain substantial positive results with their lean implementation efforts. However, as the first step towards addressing this issue, this paper seeks to propose a systematic model that considers the administrative and implementation limitations of lean thinking practices in the product development process. The model which is based on the integration of fuzzy Shannon’s entropy and Modified Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (M-TOPSIS model for the lean product development practices implementation with respective to different criteria including management and leadership, financial capabilities, skills and expertise and organization culture, provides a guide or roadmap for product development managers on the lean implementation route.

  20. Leadership requirements for Lean versus servant leadership in health care: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aij, Kjeld Harald; Rapsaniotis, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    As health care organizations face pressures to improve quality and efficiency while reducing costs, leaders are adopting management techniques and tools used in manufacturing and other industries, especially Lean. Successful Lean leaders appear to use a coaching leadership style that shares underlying principles with servant leadership. There is little information about specific similarities and differences between Lean and servant leaderships. We systematically reviewed the literature on Lean leadership, servant leadership, and health care and performed a comparative analysis of attributes using Russell and Stone's leadership framework. We found significant overlap between the two leadership styles, although there were notable differences in origins, philosophy, characteristics and behaviors, and tools. We conclude that both Lean and servant leaderships are promising models that can contribute to the delivery of patient-centered, high-value care. Servant leadership may provide the means to engage and develop employees to become successful Lean leaders in health care organizations.

  1. Understanding size effects on the strength of single crystals through high-temperature micropillar compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Rafael; Wheeler, Jeffrey M.; Chang, Hyung-Jun; Segurado, Javier; Michler, Johann; Llorca, Javier; Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Compression tests of 〈1 1 1〉-oriented LiF single-crystal micropillars 1–5 μm in diameter were carried out from 25 °C to 250 °C. While the flow stress at ambient temperature was independent of the micropillar diameter, a strong size effect developed with elevated temperature. This behavior was explained by rigorously accounting for the different contributions to the flow stress of the micropillars as a function of temperature and pillar diameter: the lattice resistance, the forest hardening; and the size-dependent contribution as a result of the operation of single-arm dislocation sources. This was possible because the micropillars were obtained by chemically etching away the surrounding matrix in directionally solidified LiF–NaCl and LiF–KCl eutectics, avoiding any use of focused ion beam methods, yielding micropillars with a controlled dislocation density, independent of the sample preparation technique. In particular, the role of the lattice resistance on the size effect of micrometer-size single crystals was demonstrated unambiguously for the first time. This result rationalizes the different values of power-law exponent for the size effect found in the literature for face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic metals as well as for covalent and ionic solids

  2. Fractal Characteristics of Rock Fracture Surface under Triaxial Compression after High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM test on 30 pieces of fractured granite has been researched by using S250MK III SEM under triaxial compression of different temperature (25~1000°C and confining pressure (0~40 MPa. Research results show that (1 the change of fractal dimension (FD of rock fracture with temperature is closely related to confining pressure, which can be divided into two categories. In the first category, when confining pressure is in 0~30 MPa, FD fits cubic polynomial fitting curve with temperature, reaching the maximum at 600°C. In the second category, when confining pressure is in 30~40 MPa, FD has volatility with temperature. (2 The FD of rock fracture varies with confining pressure and is also closely related to the temperature, which can be divided into three categories. In the first category, FD has volatility with confining pressure at 25°C, 400°C, and 800°C. In the second category, it increases exponentially at 200°C and 1000°C. In the third category, it decreases exponentially at 600°C. (3 It is found that 600°C is the critical temperature and 30 MPa is the critical confining pressure of granite. The rock transfers from brittle to plastic phase transition when temperature exceeds 600°C and confining pressure exceeds 30 MPa.

  3. Entropy stable high order discontinuous Galerkin methods for ideal compressible MHD on structured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Shu, Chi-Wang; Zhang, Mengping

    2018-02-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme with suitable quadrature rules [15] for ideal compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations on structural meshes. The semi-discrete scheme is analyzed to be entropy stable by using the symmetrizable version of the equations as introduced by Godunov [32], the entropy stable DG framework with suitable quadrature rules [15], the entropy conservative flux in [14] inside each cell and the entropy dissipative approximate Godunov type numerical flux at cell interfaces to make the scheme entropy stable. The main difficulty in the generalization of the results in [15] is the appearance of the non-conservative "source terms" added in the modified MHD model introduced by Godunov [32], which do not exist in the general hyperbolic system studied in [15]. Special care must be taken to discretize these "source terms" adequately so that the resulting DG scheme satisfies entropy stability. Total variation diminishing / bounded (TVD/TVB) limiters and bound-preserving limiters are applied to control spurious oscillations. We demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of this new scheme on standard MHD examples.

  4. The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions - a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard A; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D

    2012-03-01

    Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables. Twenty healthcare professionals performed 2 min of continuous compressions on an instrumented manikin at rates of 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 min(-1) in a random order. An electronic metronome was used to guide compression rate. Compression data were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA and are presented as mean (SD). Non-parametric data was analysed by Friedman test. At faster compression rates there were significant improvements in the number of compressions delivered (160(2) at 80 min(-1) vs. 312(13) compressions at 160 min(-1), P<0.001); and compression duty-cycle (43(6)% at 80 min(-1) vs. 50(7)% at 160 min(-1), P<0.001). This was at the cost of a significant reduction in compression depth (39.5(10)mm at 80 min(-1) vs. 34.5(11)mm at 160 min(-1), P<0.001); and earlier decay in compression quality (median decay point 120 s at 80 min(-1) vs. 40s at 160 min(-1), P<0.001). Additionally not all participants achieved the target rate (100% at 80 min(-1) vs. 70% at 160 min(-1)). Rates above 120 min(-1) had the greatest impact on reducing chest compression quality. For Guidelines 2005 trained rescuers, a chest compression rate of 100-120 min(-1) for 2 min is feasible whilst maintaining adequate chest compression quality in terms of depth, duty-cycle, leaning, and decay in compression performance. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of the Guidelines 2010 recommendation for deeper and faster chest compressions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lean spare parts delivery chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöstrand, Niklas; Larsson, Mona-Liza

    2015-01-01

    AbstractWhen a product has been sold to a customer a new market arises for the company to earn profit from and to differentiate itself within. According to Bartwal, et al. (2010) the after sales market generally does not provide great revenues but good profits of the total revenue. In order to gain competiveness and live up to customer’s expectations a company needs to be efficient (Atkinson, 2004). He continuous that this can be accomplished if companies implement Lean. Lean is different too...

  6. 'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere.

  7. A Simulation of Lean Manufacturing: The Lean Lemonade Tycoon 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the functions and effectiveness of games and simulations in the learning processes, in particular as an experiential learning methodology. The application of the game Lemonade Tycoon in the development of lean manufacturing concepts is described. This article addresses the use of the game to teach the principles of lean…

  8. Learning Lean: A Survey of Industry Lean Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Gene; Mathieson, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined business practitioners' preferences for higher education curricula design in general and for what graduates should know about Lean, or waste-reduction efforts. The authors conducted a Web-based survey and found that practitioners are not as concerned about graduates' possessing specific technical skills as they are about them…

  9. Lean Application to Manufacturing Ramp-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene; Rymaszewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    . Abstracting from the extant literature, the authors considered the competitiveness of manufacturing companies from two principal perspectives: the leanness of the ramp-up process and the new-value creation of quality managers. While much of the literature fails to acknowledge that the roots of lean actually......This article provides a theoretical overview of the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up in an attempt to conceptualize the strategic areas in which lean philosophy and principles can be applied for continuous improvements. The application of lean principles during the final stage of a new...... product development process, that is, the ramp-up process, is a critical, early enabler of lean manufacturing. The manufacturing strategy literature conceptualizes a state of “leanness in operations,” which can consolidate both the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up, providing a dual perspective...

  10. Supercomputer implementation of finite element algorithms for high speed compressible flows. Progress report, period ending 30 June 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.A.; Ramakrishnan, R.

    1986-06-01

    Prediction of compressible flow phenomena using the finite element method is of recent origin and considerable interest. Two shock capturing finite element formulations for high speed compressible flows are described. A Taylor-Galerkin formulation uses a Taylor series expansion in time coupled with a Galerkin weighted residual statement. The Taylor-Galerkin algorithms use explicit artificial dissipation, and the performance of three dissipation models are compared. A Petrov-Galerkin algorithm has as its basis the concepts of streamline upwinding. Vectorization strategies are developed to implement the finite element formulations on the NASA Langley VPS-32. The vectorization scheme results in finite element programs that use vectors of length of the order of the number of nodes or elements. The use of the vectorization procedure speeds up processing rates by over two orders of magnitude. The Taylor-Galerkin and Petrov-Galerkin algorithms are evaluated for 2D inviscid flows on criteria such as solution accuracy, shock resolution, computational speed and storage requirements. The convergence rates for both algorithms are enhanced by local time-stepping schemes. Extension of the vectorization procedure for predicting 2D viscous and 3D inviscid flows are demonstrated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the finite element procedures for realistic problems that require hundreds of thousands of nodes

  11. Detailed experimental study of a highly compressible supersonic turbulent plane mixing layer and comparison with most recent DNS results: “Towards an accurate description of compressibility effects in supersonic free shear flows”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, S.; Bonnet, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed a careful experiment on a highly compressible mixing layer. • We validated the most recent DNS with the present results. • We discuss some aspects of the thermodynamics of the turbulent flow. • We performed a comparison between a computed and a measured turbulent kinetic energy budget. - Abstract: A compressible supersonic mixing layer at convective Mach number (Mc) equal to 1 has been studied experimentally in a dual stream supersonic/subsonic wind-tunnel. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (L.D.V.) measurements were performed making possible a full estimation of the mean and turbulent 3D velocity fields in the mixing layer. The Reynolds stress tensor was described. In particular, some anisotropy coefficients were obtained. It appears that the structure of the Reynolds tensor is almost not affected by compressibility at least up to Mc = 1. The turbulent kinetic energy budget was also experimentally estimated. Reynolds analogies assumptions were used to obtain density/velocity correlations in order to build the turbulent kinetic energy budget from LDV measurements. Results have been compared to other experimental and numerical results. Compressibility effects on the turbulent kinetic energy budget have been detected and commented. A study about thermodynamics flow properties was also performed using most recent DNS results experimentally validated by the present data. A non-dimensional number is then introduced in order to quantify the real effect of pressure fluctuations on the thermodynamics quantities fluctuations

  12. Low Power CMOS Circuit Techniques for Optical Interconnects and High Speed Pulse Compression Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    High performance computing and high resolution range sensor motivates the intelligent system innovations such as smart car, smart home/community and 3D motion games. Most importantly, 3D graphics technique requires high performance computation to provide high quality and vivid real-time videos. Accurate motion sensing requires high resolution radar sensor. However, in general, data transmission limits the large scale computation while high resolution radar signal processor limits the detectio...

  13. Behaviour of concrete under high confinement: study in triaxial compression and in triaxial extension at the mesoscopic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupray, F.

    2008-12-01

    This Ph.D. thesis aims at characterising and modeling the mechanical behaviour of concrete under high confinement at the mesoscopic scale. This scale corresponds to that of the large aggregates and the cementitious matrix. The more general scope of this study is the understanding of concrete behaviour under dynamic loading. A dynamic impact can generate mean pressures around 1 GPa. But the characterisation of a material response, in an homogeneous state of stress, can only be achieved through quasi-static tests. The experimentations led in 3S-R Laboratory have underlined the importance of the aggregates in the triaxial response of concrete. Modeling concrete at the mesoscopic level, as a composite of an aggregates phase and a mortar phase, permits a representation of the aggregates effect. An experimental study of the behaviour of mortar phase is performed. Usual tests and hydrostatic and triaxial high confinement tests are realised. The parameters of a constitutive model that couples plasticity with a damage law are identified from these tests. This model is able to reproduce the nonlinear compaction of mortar, the damage behaviour under uniaxial tension or compression, and plasticity under high confinement. The biphasic model uses the finite element method with a cubic and regular mesh. A Monte-Carlo method is used to place quasi-spherical aggregates that respect the given particle size of a reference concrete. Each element is identified by belonging either to the mortar or to the aggregate phase. Numerical simulations are compared with the experimental tests on this concrete. The parameters for these simulations are only identified on the mortar. The simulations reproduce the different phases observed in hydrostatic compression. The evolution of axial moduli under growing confinement is shown, as is the good reproduction of the limit-states experimentally observed under high confinement. The fracture aspect of numerical simulations is comparable with that of

  14. A Sand Cone Model of Lean Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Yestemessov, Azamat

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years Lean Production system has been a focus of researches by different academicians. A numerous works have been written in the field of Lean implementation in manufacturing companies. However, as shown, most of the academic topics relate to the issues of implementing Lean tools and techniques. Critical Success Factors have been also described widely; however, no efforts in systematization have been made. Only several works have a focus on integration of Lean implementation ...

  15. Performance Improvement through Implementation of Lean Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kolanjiappan; Dr. K. Maran

    2011-01-01

    Lean Maintenance is a relatively new term, invented in the last decade of the twentieth century, but the principles are well established in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). Lean Maintenance—taking its lead from Lean Manufacturing—applies some new techniques to TPM concepts to render a more structured implementation path. Tracing its roots back to Henry Ford with modern refinements born in Japanese manufacturing, specifically the Toyota Production System (TPS). Lean seeks to eliminate a...

  16. Training for successful lean manufacturing implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimura, Maki; Jahankhani, Hamid; Arunachalam, Subramaniam

    2006-01-01

    Implementing lean manufacturing is a complex and everlasting task. The workers involving in production processes are the pivot of the lean manufacturing implementation. Training is known as a vehicle to assist the implementation process. Despite awareness of the training importance, so far, a little is available to assist to organise an efficient training. This paper summarises the overview of lean manufacturing and discuss the importance of human resource within lean implementation process. ...

  17. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  18. High-Intensity Jump Training Is Tolerated during 60 Days of Bed Rest and Is Very Effective in Preserving Leg Power and Lean Body Mass: An Overview of the Cologne RSL Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kramer

    Full Text Available Space agencies are looking for effective and efficient countermeasures for the degrading effects of weightlessness on the human body. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel jump exercise countermeasure during bed rest on vitals, body mass, body composition, and jump performance.23 male participants (29±6 years, 181±6 cm, 77±7 kg were confined to a bed rest facility for 90 days: a 15-day ambulatory measurement phase, a 60-day six-degree head-down-tilt bed rest phase (HDT, and a 15-day ambulatory recovery phase. Participants were randomly allocated to the jump training group (JUMP, n = 12 or the control group (CTRL, n = 11. A typical training session consisted of 4x10 countermovement jumps and 2x10 hops in a sledge jump system. The training group had to complete 5-6 sessions per week.Peak force for the reactive hops (3.6±0.4 kN as well as jump height (35±4 cm and peak power (3.1±0.2 kW for the countermovement jumps could be maintained over the 60 days of HDT. Lean body mass decreased in CTRL but not in JUMP (-1.6±1.9 kg and 0±1.0 kg, respectively, interaction effect p = 0.03. Resting heart rate during recovery was significantly increased for CTRL but not for JUMP (interaction effect p<0.001.Participants tolerated the near-daily high-intensity jump training and maintained high peak forces and high power output during 60 days of bed rest. The countermeasure was effective in preserving lean body mass and partly preventing cardiac deconditioning with only several minutes of training per day.

  19. Lean and psychosocial work environment in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Thye, Nina; Nielsen, Anders P.

    2011-01-01

    Lean is currently the rationalization method of choice in the Danish manufacturing industry. This paper reports finding from three lean implementation cases. All cases are manufacturing companies focusing on upmarket products produced in small series. Prior to lean production was organized as sel...

  20. Lean - set i et historisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U

    2006-01-01

    I kapitlet redegøres for, hvordan begrebet Lean opstod som en karakteristik af Toyota Production System (TPS), der igen har sin rod i scientific management. Gennem eksempler illustreres det, at centrale Lean-principper således har været anvendt i årtier. Der argumenteres for, at Lean i mange...

  1. Lean Six Sigma in financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Bisgaard, S.

    2008-01-01

    Lean Thinking and Six Sigma are typically considered as separate approaches to process innovation, with complementary strengths. When combined as Lean Six Sigma, this approach provides a unified framework for systematically developing innovations. Lean Six Sigma can also bring about significant

  2. On the electrical contact and long-term behavior of compression-type connections with conventional and high-temperature conductor ropes with low sag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In Germany and in Europe it is due to the ''Energiewende'' necessary to transmit more electrical energy with existing overhead transmission lines. One possible technical solution to reach this aim is the use of high temperature low sag conductors (HTLS-conductors). Compared to the common Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR), HTLS-conductors have higher rated currents and rated temperatures. Thus the electrical connections for HTLS-conductors are stressed to higher temperatures too. These components are most important for the safe and reliable operation of an overhead transmission line. Besides other connection technologies, hexagonal compression connections with ordinary transmission line conductors have proven themselves since decades. From the literature, mostly empirical studies with electrical tests for compression connections are known. The electrical contact behaviour, i.e. the quality of the electrical contact after assembly, of these connections has been investigated insufficiently. This work presents and enhances an electrical model of compression connections, so that the electrical contact behaviour can be determined more accurate. Based on this, principal considerations on the current distribution in the compression connection and its influence on the connection resistance are presented. As a result from the theoretical and the experimental work, recommendations for the design of hexagonal compression connections for transmission line conductors were developed. Furthermore it is known from the functional principle of compression type connections, that the electrical contact behaviour can be influenced from their form fit, force fit and cold welding. In particular the forces in compression connections have been calculated up to now by approximation. The known analytical calculations simplify the geometry and material behaviour and do not consider the correct mechanical load during assembly. For these reasons the joining process

  3. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  4. Change management in lean enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is the analysis of a process of change focusing particularly on the concept of slimmed production (Lean and its implementation in the enterprise. A case study method was chosen as a research tool because it offers wide array of techniques and means of gaining and analysing data.

  5. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Mochamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. The experiment and data analysis were prepared using minitab, a statistic software for design of experimental. The specimens were concrete cylinder with diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm, tested for its compressive strength at 56 days. The result of the research demonstrates that high volume fly ash concrete can produce comparable compressive strength which meets the strength of OPC design strength especially for high strength concrete. In addition, the best mix proportion to achieve the design strength is the combination of high strength concrete and 50% content of fly ash. Moreover, the use of spraying method for curing method of concrete on site is still recommended as it would not significantly reduce the compressive strength result.

  6. Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Irwan Sutirman Wahdiat

    2015-01-01

    This research purpose to analyze the concept of Lean Manufacturing which is influenced by the role of JIT. This research uses a theoretical approach. This study portrait thinking companies that have yet to implement lean manufacturing and after doing the concept of lean manufacturing. This study shows that the concept of lean manufacturing can make the company more efficient and effective. This paper shows some lean manufacturing dimensions of the researchers previous researchers. This study ...

  7. Comparative Analysis between Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Mirela Cristina MUNTEANU

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the benefits of Lean Six Sigma in comparison with Lean and Six Sigma, traditional improvement methodologies. The introduction highlights the appearance of Lean Six Sigma, early 2000s, as well as the benefits brought by the integrated approach. The following parts of the study emphasize the main differences between methodologies and their commonalities based on their synergy. Finally the advantages of Lean Six Sigma versus Lean and Six Sigma are analyzed and systematized by...

  8. High-Intensity Jump Training Is Tolerated during 60 Days of Bed Rest and Is Very Effective in Preserving Leg Power and Lean Body Mass: An Overview of the Cologne RSL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andreas; Kümmel, Jakob; Mulder, Edwin; Gollhofer, Albert; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Gruber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Space agencies are looking for effective and efficient countermeasures for the degrading effects of weightlessness on the human body. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel jump exercise countermeasure during bed rest on vitals, body mass, body composition, and jump performance. 23 male participants (29±6 years, 181±6 cm, 77±7 kg) were confined to a bed rest facility for 90 days: a 15-day ambulatory measurement phase, a 60-day six-degree head-down-tilt bed rest phase (HDT), and a 15-day ambulatory recovery phase. Participants were randomly allocated to the jump training group (JUMP, n = 12) or the control group (CTRL, n = 11). A typical training session consisted of 4x10 countermovement jumps and 2x10 hops in a sledge jump system. The training group had to complete 5-6 sessions per week. Peak force for the reactive hops (3.6±0.4 kN) as well as jump height (35±4 cm) and peak power (3.1±0.2 kW) for the countermovement jumps could be maintained over the 60 days of HDT. Lean body mass decreased in CTRL but not in JUMP (-1.6±1.9 kg and 0±1.0 kg, respectively, interaction effect p = 0.03). Resting heart rate during recovery was significantly increased for CTRL but not for JUMP (interaction effect pjump training and maintained high peak forces and high power output during 60 days of bed rest. The countermeasure was effective in preserving lean body mass and partly preventing cardiac deconditioning with only several minutes of training per day.

  9. Experimental Study and Modelling of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) and Polycarbonate Compressive Behavior from Low to High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Qoubaa, Z.; Colard, L.; Matadi Boumbimba, R.; Rusinek, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper concerns an experimental investigation of Polycarbonate and Poly (methyl methacrylate) compressive behavior from low to high strain rates. Experiments were conducted from 0.001/s to ≈ 5000/s for PC and from 0.001/s to ≈ 2000/s for PMMA. The true strain-stress behavior is established and analyzed at various stain rates. Both PC and PMMA mechanical behavior appears as known, to be strain rate and temperature dependent. The DSGZ model is selected for modelling the strain-stress curves while the yield stress is reproduced using the cooperative model and a modified Eyring equation based on Eyring first process theory. All the three models predictions are in agreement with experiments performed on PC and PMMA.

  10. Using X-ray Thomson Scattering to Characterize Highly Compressed, Near-Degenerate Plasmas at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeppner, Tilo; Kraus, D.; Neumayer, P.; Bachmann, B.; Divol, L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Fletcher, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Falcone, R. W.; MacDonald, M. J.; Saunders, A.; Witte, B.; Redmer, R.; Chapman, D.; Baggott, R.; Gericke, D. O.; Yi, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We are developing x-ray Thomson scattering for implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility to characterize plasma conditions in plastic and beryllium capsules near stagnation, reaching more than 20x compression and electron densities of 1025 cm-3, corresponding to a Fermi energy of 170 eV. Using a zinc He- α x-ray source at 9 keV, experiments at a large scattering angle of 120° measure non-collective scattering spectra with high sensitivity to K-shell ionization, and find higher charge states than predicted by widely used ionization models. Reducing the scattering angle to 30° probes the collective scattering regime with sensitivity to collisions and conductivity. We will discuss recent results and future plans. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Estimation of lean and fat composition of pork ham using image processing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Schinckel, Allan P.; Forrest, John C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a method of estimating the lean and fat composition in pork ham from cross-sectional area measurements using image processing technology. The relationship between the quantity of ham lean and fat mass with the ham lean and fat areas was studied. The prediction equations for pork ham composition based on the ham cross-sectional area measurements were developed. The results show that ham lean weight was related to the ham lean area (r equals .75, P lean weight was highly related to the product of ham total weight times percentage ham lean area (r equals .96, P product of ham total weight times percentage ham fat area (r equals .88, P lean weight was trimmed wholesale ham weight and percentage ham fat area with a coefficient of determination of 92%. The best combination of independent variables for estimating ham fat weight was trimmed wholesale ham weight and percentage ham fat area with a coefficient of determination of 78%. Prediction equations with either two or three independent variables did not significantly increase the accuracy of prediction. The results of this study indicate that the weight of ham lean and fat could be predicted from ham cross-sectional area measurements using image analysis in combination with wholesale ham weight.

  12. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  13. WSNs Microseismic Signal Subsection Compression Algorithm Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouzhou Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For wireless network microseismic monitoring and the problems of low compression ratio and high energy consumption of communication, this paper proposes a segmentation compression algorithm according to the characteristics of the microseismic signals and the compression perception theory (CS used in the transmission process. The algorithm will be collected as a number of nonzero elements of data segmented basis, by reducing the number of combinations of nonzero elements within the segment to improve the accuracy of signal reconstruction, while taking advantage of the characteristics of compressive sensing theory to achieve a high compression ratio of the signal. Experimental results show that, in the quantum chaos immune clone refactoring (Q-CSDR algorithm for reconstruction algorithm, under the condition of signal sparse degree higher than 40, to be more than 0.4 of the compression ratio to compress the signal, the mean square error is less than 0.01, prolonging the network life by 2 times.

  14. Lean Principles and Defense Information Technology Acquisition: An Investigation of the Determinants of Successful Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there have been successful applications of lean manufacturing principles in highly variable defense IT environments. Specifically, the study assessed if implementation of the lean philosophies by a defense organization yielded repeatable, predictable results in software release schedules…

  15. Exploiting HRM in support of lean manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in HRM practices are-and could potentially be-exploited to support lean manufacturing in practice. First, a review of the pertinent literature regarding HRM, SHRM, and lean manufacturing is presented to provide an understanding of the mechanisms...... by which HRM practices could, theoretically, be used to support a lean implementation. Data presented in the paper are derived from 1) a longitudinal case study on lean implementation and 2) from managers currently involved with lean manufacturing in a second company. The relevant literature and the data...... depicting the potential role in supporting HRM/lean integrated practices. The analysis of the model with respect to the theoretical background emphasizes a number of areas in which HRM could be more fully exploited in order to more successfully support lean implementation, for example, by stressing HRM...

  16. Lean manufacturing in Indian context: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to examine the implementation of Lean Manufacturing system in the Indian industries. Predominant elements of Lean Manufacturing, benefits gained after its implementation and obstacles observed by Indian Industry have been recognized. The results of this survey support the opinion that Lean Manufacturing had potential to improve the organizational performance of Indian industries. Nevertheless, Indian industries are required to be passionate to transform their manufacturing by adopting Lean manufacturing to gain the full benefits. A large numbers of literature papers are available on the better side of Lean manufacturing approach and its benefits gained by manufacturing organizations after implementation. But the adverse impacts of Lean manufacturing are not discussed to a great extent. Some drawbacks of Lean manufacturing are also highlighted in this paper.

  17. Lean Production Applications in a Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Görener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean production is a production model which comes about the pursuit of companies to be able to meet competition and make effective production. The main purpose of lean production is to get control about the wastage. This study includes the requirements for the success of the lean production and how the lean production system can be established. In this paper, lean production techniques were applied to the electric water heater line. Measurements using lean initiatives were made, operation cycle times were determined, and Kaizen improvement methods and line balancing methods were applied according to the results. And the last section of study showed conclusion of lean implementation.

  18. High speed and high resolution interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating sensor based on microwave photonic filtering and chirped microwave pulse compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ou; Zhang, Jiejun; Yao, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    High speed and high resolution interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor based on microwave photonic filtering and chirped microwave pulse compression is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed sensor, a broadband linearly chirped microwave waveform (LCMW) is applied to a single-passband microwave photonic filter (MPF) which is implemented based on phase modulation and phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion using a phase modulator (PM) and a phase-shifted FBG (PS-FBG). Since the center frequency of the MPF is a function of the central wavelength of the PS-FBG, when the PS-FBG experiences a strain or temperature change, the wavelength is shifted, which leads to the change in the center frequency of the MPF. At the output of the MPF, a filtered chirped waveform with the center frequency corresponding to the applied strain or temperature is obtained. By compressing the filtered LCMW in a digital signal processor, the resolution is improved. The proposed interrogation technique is experimentally demonstrated. The experimental results show that interrogation sensitivity and resolution as high as 1.25 ns/με and 0.8 με are achieved.

  19. Numerical Modelling of the Compressive and Tensile Response of Glass and Ceramic under High Pressure Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Richard A.; Hayhurst, Colin J.

    1999-06-01

    Ceramic materials, including glass, are commonly used as ballistic protection materials. The response of a ceramic to impact, perforation and penetration is complex and difficult and/or expensive to instrument for obtaining detailed physical data. This paper demonstrates how a hydrocode, such as AUTODYN, can be used to aid in the understanding of the response of brittle materials to high pressure impact loading and thus promote an efficient and cost effective design process. Hydrocode simulations cannot be made without appropriate characterisation of the material. Because of the complexitiy of the response of ceramic materials this often requires a number of complex material tests. Here we present a methodology for using the results of flyer plate tests, in conjunction with numerical simulations, to derive input to the Johnson-Holmquist material model for ceramics. Most of the research effort in relation to the development of hydrocode material models for ceramics has concentrated on the material behaviour under compression and shear. While the penetration process is dominated by these aspects of the material response, the final damaged state of the material can be significantly influenced by the tensile behaviour. Modelling of the final damage state is important since this is often the only physical information which is available. In this paper we present a unique implementation, in a hydrocode, for improved modelling of brittle materials in the tensile regime. Tensile failure initiation is based on any combination of principal stress or strain while the post-failure tensile response of the material is controlled through a Rankine plasticity damaging failure surface. The tensile failure surface can be combined with any of the traditional plasticity and/or compressive damage models. Finally, the models and data are applied in both traditional grid based Lagrangian and Eulerian solution techniques and the relativley new SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) meshless

  20. Numerical Analysis of Joule Heating Behavior and Residual Compressive Stress around Crack Tip under High Electric Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Joule heating effect and residual compressive stress near the crack tip under the electro-thermo-structural coupling state. For the crack tip field, the compressive condition is important for retarding or stopping the crack growth.

  1. Application of plasma erosion opening switches to high power accelerators for pulse compression and power multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Boller, J.R.; Commisso, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new vacuum opening switch called a plasma erosion opening switch is described. A model of its operation is presented and the energy efficiency of such a switch is discussed. Recent high power experiments on the Gamble II accelerator are described and compared to previous experiments

  2. Study on a High Compression Processing for Video-on-Demand e-learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Matsuda, Ryutaro; Sakamoto, Ryota; Sugiura, Tokuhiro; Matsui, Hirokazu; Kato, Norihiko

    The authors proposed a high-quality and small-capacity lecture-video-file creating system for distance e-learning system. Examining the feature of the lecturing scene, the authors ingeniously employ two kinds of image-capturing equipment having complementary characteristics : one is a digital video camera with a low resolution and a high frame rate, and the other is a digital still camera with a high resolution and a very low frame rate. By managing the two kinds of image-capturing equipment, and by integrating them with image processing, we can produce course materials with the greatly reduced file capacity : the course materials satisfy the requirements both for the temporal resolution to see the lecturer's point-indicating actions and for the high spatial resolution to read the small written letters. As a result of a comparative experiment, the e-lecture using the proposed system was confirmed to be more effective than an ordinary lecture from the viewpoint of educational effect.

  3. Dynamic Evaluation of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Subjected to High-Strain-Rate Compressive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Riddick, J. C.; Hall, A. J.; Haile, M. A.; Von Wahlde, R.; Cole, D. P.; Biggs S. J. Effect of Manufacturing Parameters on Failure in Acrylonitrile...for Tensile Properties of Plastics Annu. Book ASTM Stand. 2004, 1–15. 17. Zukas, J. High Velocity Impact Dynamics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York

  4. High-Average-Power Diffraction Pulse-Compression Gratings Enabling Next-Generation Ultrafast Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Pulse compressors for ultrafast lasers have been identified as a technology gap in the push towards high peak power systems with high average powers for industrial and scientific applications. Gratings for ultrashort (sub-150fs) pulse compressors are metallic and can absorb a significant percentage of laser energy resulting in up to 40% loss as well as thermal issues which degrade on-target performance. We have developed a next generation gold grating technology which we have scaled to the petawatt-size. This resulted in improvements in efficiency, uniformity and processing as compared to previous substrate etched gratings for high average power. This new design has a deposited dielectric material for the grating ridge rather than etching directly into the glass substrate. It has been observed that average powers as low as 1W in a compressor can cause distortions in the on-target beam. We have developed and tested a method of actively cooling diffraction gratings which, in the case of gold gratings, can support a petawatt peak power laser with up to 600W average power. We demonstrated thermo-mechanical modeling of a grating in its use environment and benchmarked with experimental measurement. Multilayer dielectric (MLD) gratings are not yet used for these high peak power, ultrashort pulse durations due to their design challenges. We have designed and fabricated broad bandwidth, low dispersion MLD gratings suitable for delivering 30 fs pulses at high average power. This new grating design requires the use of a novel Out Of Plane (OOP) compressor, which we have modeled, designed, built and tested. This prototype compressor yielded a transmission of 90% for a pulse with 45 nm bandwidth, and free of spatial and angular chirp. In order to evaluate gratings and compressors built in this project we have commissioned a joule-class ultrafast Ti:Sapphire laser system. Combining the grating cooling and MLD technologies developed here could enable petawatt laser systems to

  5. Dense sampled transmission matrix for high resolution angular spectrum imaging through turbid media via compressed sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwanchol; Yoon, Changhyeong; Choi, Wonshik; Eom, Tae Joong; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-03-01

    We provide an approach to improve the quality of image reconstruction in wide-field imaging through turbid media (WITM). In WITM, a calibration stage which measures the transmission matrix (TM), the set of responses of turbid medium to a set of plane waves with different incident angles, is preceded to the image recovery. Then, the TM is used for estimation of object image in image recovery stage. In this work, we aim to estimate highly resolved angular spectrum and use it for high quality image reconstruction. To this end, we propose to perform a dense sampling for TM measurement in calibration stage with finer incident angle spacing. In conventional approaches, incident angle spacing is made to be large enough so that the columns in TM are out of memory effect of turbid media. Otherwise, the columns in TM are correlated and the inversion becomes difficult. We employ compressed sensing (CS) for a successful high resolution angular spectrum recovery with dense sampled TM. CS is a relatively new information acquisition and reconstruction framework and has shown to provide superb performance in ill-conditioned inverse problems. We observe that the image quality metrics such as contrast-to-noise ratio and mean squared error are improved and the perceptual image quality is improved with reduced speckle noise in the reconstructed image. This results shows that the WITM performance can be improved only by executing dense sampling in the calibration stage and with an efficient signal reconstruction framework without elaborating the overall optical imaging systems.

  6. A simple, robust and efficient high-order accurate shock-capturing scheme for compressible flows: Towards minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwada, Taku; Shibata, Yuki; Kato, Takuma; Nakamura, Taichi

    2018-06-01

    Developed is a high-order accurate shock-capturing scheme for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations; the formal accuracy is 5th order in space and 4th order in time. The performance and efficiency of the scheme are validated in various numerical tests. The main ingredients of the scheme are nothing special; they are variants of the standard numerical flux, MUSCL, the usual Lagrange's polynomial and the conventional Runge-Kutta method. The scheme can compute a boundary layer accurately with a rational resolution and capture a stationary contact discontinuity sharply without inner points. And yet it is endowed with high resistance against shock anomalies (carbuncle phenomenon, post-shock oscillations, etc.). A good balance between high robustness and low dissipation is achieved by blending three types of numerical fluxes according to physical situation in an intuitively easy-to-understand way. The performance of the scheme is largely comparable to that of WENO5-Rusanov, while its computational cost is 30-40% less than of that of the advanced scheme.

  7. Leaning in to "muddy" interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, qualitative research has been acknowledged as a peopled practice in which subjectivities come into play. The main argument presented in this article is that qualitative research involves “muddy,” troublesome, interactional passages, because of a complex interplay between...... situated identities among the participants cross each other. We emphasize the value of daring to lean in to the muddiness of peopled research, use it as an analytical tool and present it in its imperfect form. This approach contributes to transparency in qualitative research, opens up the data in a new way...... subjectivities, situated identities, emotions, and conversational genres. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish Vocational Educational Training College, we introduce the concept of “leaning in” to provide an analytical grasp of the “muddy” interactional tension field in an interview situation, in which...

  8. Clinical and biochemical profile of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Barma, Punyakrit Deb; Ranabir, Salam; Prasad, Lallan; Singh, Thangjam Premchand

    2011-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent form of diabetes worldwide. In western countries majority of the cases are obese. The scenario may be different in certain parts of India. Various studies have reported a high prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus with a body mass index < 19 kg/m 2 . Materials and Methods: We evaluated 100 cases of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus (62 males and 38 females). Results and Conclusion: The mean duration of diabetes was 51.7 months (rang...

  9. LEAN MANAGEMENT - THE WAY TO A PERFORMANT ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMALIA VENERA TODORUŢ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we approached issues related to new methods of production organization such as Lean Management, a method specific for a flexible production of great success which represents the guarantee for a performant enterprise. In this paper we presented the main concepts, the application and adaptation way in different contexts, both in industry and in services. We showed a modern tendency which is taking shape more and more in the contemporary economic context, such as the integration of this concept with the Six Sigma concept, and thus we can talk about Lean Six Sigma, as an integrator method which guarantees high-class quality and lower costs.

  10. Applying lean thinking to risk management in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Pelle Lundquist; Oehmen, Josef; Rossi, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This paper re-conceptualizes risk management (RM) in product development (PD) through a lean thinking perspective. Arguably, risk management in PD projects became a victim of its own success. It is often implemented as a highly formalized, compliance driven activity, ending up disconnected from...... delay or cost overrun. This paper explores the relationship between product development and risk management and proposes to make RM an integrated value adding part of PD. Through a literature review we identify the potential of re-conceptualizing RM through lean thinking. We then conceptualize...

  11. Lean six sigma in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Henk; Verver, John P S; van den Heuvel, Jaap; Bisgaard, Soren; Does, Ronald J M M

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare, as with any other service operation, requires systematic innovation efforts to remain competitive, cost efficient, and up-to-date. This article outlines a methodology and presents examples to illustrate how principles of Lean Thinking and Six Sigma can be combined to provide an effective framework for producing systematic innovation efforts in healthcare. Controlling healthcare cost increases, improving quality, and providing better healthcare are some of the benefits of this approach.

  12. High Efficiency Low Cost CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J; Aarnio, M; Grosvenor, A; Taylor, D; Bucher, J

    2010-12-31

    Development and testing results from a supersonic compressor are presented. The compressor achieved record pressure ratio for a fully-supersonic stage and successfully demonstrated the technology potential. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A high-pressure ratio compressor was retrofitted to improve rotordynamics behavior and successfully tested. An outside review panel confirmed test results and design approach. A computational fluid dynamics code used to analyze the Ramgen supersonic flowpath was extensively and successfully modified to improve use on high-performance computing platforms. A comprehensive R&D implementation plan was developed and used to lay the groundwork for a future full-scale compressor demonstration. Conceptual design for a CO2 demonstration compressor was developed and reviewed.

  13. High-pressure resistivity technique for quasi-hydrostatic compression experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundu, C R; Ćuk, T; Greene, R L; Shen, Z-X; Hemley, Russell J; Struzhkin, V V

    2013-06-01

    Diamond anvil cell techniques are now well established and powerful methods for measuring materials properties to very high pressure. However, high pressure resistivity measurements are challenging because the electrical contacts attached to the sample have to survive to extreme stress conditions. Until recently, experiments in a diamond anvil cell were mostly limited to non-hydrostatic or quasi-hydrostatic pressure media other than inert gases. We present here a solution to the problem by using focused ion beam ultrathin lithography for a diamond anvil cell loaded with inert gas (Ne) and show typical resistivity data. These ultrathin leads are deposited on the culet of the diamond and are attaching the sample to the anvil mechanically, therefore allowing for measurements in hydrostatic or nearly hydrostatic conditions of pressure using noble gases like Ne or He as pressure transmitting media.

  14. Comparative Analysis between Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mirela Cristina MUNTEANU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the benefits of Lean Six Sigma in comparison with Lean and Six Sigma, traditional improvement methodologies. The introduction highlights the appearance of Lean Six Sigma, early 2000s, as well as the benefits brought by the integrated approach. The following parts of the study emphasize the main differences between methodologies and their commonalities based on their synergy. Finally the advantages of Lean Six Sigma versus Lean and Six Sigma are analyzed and systematized by author in order to reveal Lean Six Sigma’s benefits.

  15. Maximum compression of Z-pinch in a gas with high atomic number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    An ideal system of equations with shock heating is used for describing of a Z pinch in a gas with high atomic number. In this case equations do not depend from the installation parameters. The approximate simple solution of such a system is presented. Numerical calculations of equations with radiative cooling and various dissipative effects have determined the employment conditions of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equation system. 10 refs

  16. Implementing Lean Manufacturing in Malaysian Small and Medium Startup Pharmaceutical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Khairi bin Wan; Rahman, Mohamed Abdul; Abu Bakar, Mohd Rushdi bin

    2017-03-01

    Domestic pharmaceutical industry has been identified by the Malaysian government as an industry to be developed under its 11th economic development plan. Most homegrown pharmaceutical companies fall under the category of small and medium enterprises (SME) and therefore need to be highly efficient in their operations to compete with the multinationals. Though lean manufacturing is a well-known methodology to achieve an efficient operation, only a small percentage of the local SMEs implement it. The study aims to determine the real success factors in lean implementation through systematic review of relevant literature on lean manufacturing implementation in local companies, onsite observation of a selected SME company, Global Factor Sdn. Bhd. (GFSB), that successfully implemented lean manufacturing followed by actual implementation of lean project at IKOP Sdn. Bhd., a small startup pharmaceutical company. Lean tools like Gemba, value stream map (VSM) and spaghetti diagram were used to analyze and improve a process at IKOP Sdn. Bhd. The literature review showed that the implementation of lean manufacturing at Malaysian SMEs involved in pharmaceutical industry is at its infancy. Study at GFSB indicated that successful implementation of lean manufacturing stems from management support, employee’s commitment, government support and knowledge on lean among employees. Application of lean tools in IKOP Sdn. Bhd. to improve the process cycle efficiency of hand sanitizer, i-Hand 4.0, has shown that the GMP guidelines are not jeopardized. The Kaizen improvement project resulted in 46.3% reduction in lead time. It may be concluded that implementing lean manufacturing in any small local startup pharmaceutical company is beneficial in reducing operational costs and increasing the efficiency and effectiveness and does not conflict with the existing GMP guidelines.

  17. Use of Novel High-Protein Functional Food Products as Part of a Calorie-Restricted Diet to Reduce Insulin Resistance and Increase Lean Body Mass in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. Johnston

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in insulin resistance (IR can be achieved by either calorie restriction or by the increase of lean mass. However, calorie restriction usually results in significant loss of lean mass. A 6-week randomized controlled feeding trial was conducted to determine if a calorie-restricted, high-protein diet (~125 g protein/day consumed evenly throughout the day using novel functional foods would be more successful for reducing IR in comparison to a conventional diet (~80 g protein/day with a similar level of calorie restriction. Healthy adults (age 20–75 years; body mass index, 20–42 kg/m2 with raised triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratios were randomly assigned to the control group (CON: test foods prepared using gluten-free commercial pasta and cereal or to the high-protein group (HPR: test foods prepared using novel high-protein pasta and cereal both rich in wheat gluten. Mean weight loss did not differ between groups (−2.7 ± 2.6 and −3.2 ± 3.0 kg for CON (n = 11 and HPR (n = 10 respectively, p = 0.801; however, the 6-week change in fat-free mass (FFM differed significantly between groups (−0.5 ± 1.5 and +1.5 ± 3.8 kg for CON and HPR respectively, p = 0.008. IR improved in HPR vs. CON participants (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance [HOMAIR] change: −1.7 ± 1.4 and −0.7 ± 0.7 respectively; p = 0.020. The change in HOMA-IR was related to the change in FFM among participants (r = −0.511, p = 0.021. Thus, a high-protein diet using novel functional foods combined with modest calorie restriction was 140% more effective for reducing HOMA-IR in healthy adults compared to a lower protein, standard diet with an equal level of calorie restriction.

  18. Fracto-mechanoluminescent light emission of EuD4TEA-PDMS composites subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyeon; Castaño, Nicolas; Bhakta, Raj; Kimberley, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to understand light emission characteristics of fracto-mechanoluminescent (FML) europium tetrakis(dibenzoylmethide)-triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. As a sensing material that can play a pivotal role for the self-powered impact sensor technology, it is important to understand transformative light emission characteristics of the FML EuD4TEA crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. First, EuD4TEA crystals were synthesized and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to fabricate EuD4TEA-PDMS composite test specimens. Second, the prepared EuD4TEA-PDMS composites were tested using the modified Kolsky bar setup equipped with a high-speed camera. Third, FML light emission was captured to yield 12 bit grayscale video footage, which was processed to quantify the FML light emission. Finally, quantitative parameters were generated by taking into account pixel values and population of pixels of the 12 bit grayscale images to represent FML light intensity. The FML light intensity was correlated with high strain-rate compressive strain and strain rate to understand the FML light emission characteristics under high strain-rate compressive loading that can result from impact occurrences.

  19. High-vacuum pumping out of hydrogen isotopes by compressed and electrophysical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkova, A.D.; Ershova, Z.V.; Saksaganskij, G.L.; Serebrennikov, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    To explain the selection of parameters of vacuum systems of projected thermonuclear devices, experiments are performed on the pumping-out of deuterium and tritium by high-vacuum pumps of different types. The values of the fast response of turbomolecular, diffusion vapour-mercury, magneto-discharge and titanium getter pumps in the operation pressure range are determined. The rate of sorption of hydrogen isotopes by non-spraying gas absorber of cial alloy depending on the amount of the gas absorbed and temperature, is measured. Gas current is determined by the pressure drop on the diagram of the known conductivity. Individual calibration of manometric converters for different gases using a mercury burette is performed preliminarily. The means of high-vacuum pumping-out that have been studied have the following values of fast response for tritium (relatively to protium): turbomolecular pump-0.95; evaporation getter pump-0.25; magneto-discharge pumps-0.65-0.9; cial alloy-0.1...0.5

  20. Compressibility of the high-pressure rocksalt phase of ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recio, J.M.; Blanco, M.A.; Luana, V.

    1998-01-01

    We report the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation on the stability and the volume behavior under hydrostatic pressure of the rocksalt (B1) phase of ZnO. Synchrotron-radiation x-ray powder-diffraction data are obtained from 0 to 30 GPa. Static simulations of the ZnO B1...... phase are performed using the ab initio perturbed ion method and the local and nonlocal approximations to the density-functional theory. After the pressure induced transition from the wurtzite phase, we have found that a large fraction of the B1 high-pressure phase is retained when pressure is released....... The metastability of this ZnO polymorph is confirmed through the theoretical evaluation of the Hessian eigenvalues of a nine-parameter potential energy surface. This allows us to treat the experimental and theoretical pressure-volume data on an equal basis. In both cases, we have obtained values of the bulk modulus...

  1. A mathematical and numerical framework for the analysis of compressible thermal convection in gases at very high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappa, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.lappa@strath.ac.uk

    2016-05-15

    The relevance of non-equilibrium phenomena, nonlinear behavior, gravitational effects and fluid compressibility in a wide range of problems related to high-temperature gas-dynamics, especially in thermal, mechanical and nuclear engineering, calls for a concerted approach using the tools of the kinetic theory of gases, statistical physics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics and mathematical modeling in synergy with advanced numerical strategies for the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. The reason behind such a need is that in many instances of relevance in this field one witnesses a departure from canonical models and the resulting inadequacy of standard CFD approaches, especially those traditionally used to deal with thermal (buoyancy) convection problems. Starting from microscopic considerations and typical concepts of molecular dynamics, passing through the Boltzmann equation and its known solutions, we show how it is possible to remove past assumptions and elaborate an algorithm capable of targeting the broadest range of applications. Moving beyond the Boussinesq approximation, the Sutherland law and the principle of energy equipartition, the resulting method allows most of the fluid properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and diffusivity, etc.) to be derived in a rational and natural way while keeping empirical contamination to the minimum. Special attention is deserved as well to the well-known pressure issue. With the application of the socalled multiple pressure variables concept and a projection-like numerical approach, difficulties with such a term in the momentum equation are circumvented by allowing the hydrodynamic pressure to decouple from its thermodynamic counterpart. The final result is a flexible and modular framework that on the one hand is able to account for all the molecule (translational, rotational and vibrational) degrees of freedom and their effective excitation, and on the other hand can guarantee

  2. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  3. Faecal microbiota in lean and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Stefanie; German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Dowd, Scot E; Steiner, Jörg M; Heilmann, Romy M; Grant, Ryan W; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2013-05-01

    Previous work has shown obesity to be associated with changes in intestinal microbiota. While obesity is common in dogs, limited information is available about the role of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in the intestinal microbiota may be associated with canine obesity. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the composition of the faecal microbiota in 22 lean and 21 obese pet dogs, as well as in five research dogs fed ad libitum and four research dogs serving as lean controls. Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla. The phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Roseburia were significantly more abundant in the obese pet dogs. The order Clostridiales significantly increased under ad libitum feeding in the research dogs. Canine intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and shows considerable interindividual variation. In the pet dogs, influence on the intestinal microbiota besides body condition, like age, breed, diet or lifestyle, might have masked the effect of obesity. The study population of research dogs was small, and further work is required before the role of the intestinal microbiota in canine obesity is clarified. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  5. Lean methodology for performance improvement in the trauma discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Michael Shaymus; Ramaniuk, Aliaksandr; Graymire, Vickie; Rozzell, Monica; Martin, Stacey

    2014-07-01

    High-volume, complex services such as trauma and acute care surgery are at risk for inefficiency. Lean process improvement can reduce health care waste. Lean allows a structured look at processes not easily amenable to analysis. We applied lean methodology to the current state of communication and discharge planning on an urban trauma service, citing areas for improvement. A lean process mapping event was held. The process map was used to identify areas for immediate analysis and intervention-defining metrics for the stakeholders. After intervention, new performance was assessed by direct data evaluation. The process was completed with an analysis of effect and plans made for addressing future focus areas. The primary area of concern identified was interservice communication. Changes centering on a standardized morning report structure reduced the number of consult questions unanswered from 67% to 34% (p = 0.0021). Physical therapy rework was reduced from 35% to 19% (p = 0.016). Patients admitted to units not designated to the trauma service had 1.6 times longer stays (p miscommunication exists around patient education at discharge. Lean process improvement is a viable means of health care analysis. When applied to a trauma service with 4,000 admissions annually, lean identifies areas ripe for improvement. Our inefficiencies surrounded communication and patient localization. Strategies arising from the input of all stakeholders led to real solutions for communication through a face-to-face morning report and identified areas for ongoing improvement. This focuses resource use and identifies areas for improvement of throughput in care delivery.

  6. Compression and radiation of high-power short rf pulses. II. A novel antenna array design with combined compressor/radiator elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Pazynin, Vadim L.; Sirenko, Yu K.; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation of compressed high power short RF pulses using two different types of antennas: (i) A simple monopole antenna and (ii) a novel array design, where each of the elements is constructed by combining a compressor and a

  7. High-pressure compressibility and vibrational properties of (Ca,Mn)CO 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin; Caracas, Razvan; Fan, Dawei; Bobocioiu, Ema; Zhang, Dongzhou; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of potential carbon carriers such as carbonates is critical for our understanding of the deep-carbon cycle and related geological processes within the planet. Here we investigated the high-pressure behavior of (Ca,Mn)CO3 up to 75 GPa by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. MnCO3-rich carbonate underwent a structural phase transition from the CaCO3-I structure into the CaCO3-VI structure at 45–48 GPa, while CaCO3-rich carbonate transformed into CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI at approximately 2 and 15 GPa, respectively. The equation of state and vibrational properties of MnCO3-rich and CaCO3-rich carbonates changed dramatically across the phase transition. The CaCO3-VI-structured CaCO3-rich and MnCO3-rich carbonates were stable at room temperature up to at least 53 and 75 GPa, respectively. The addition of smaller cations (e.g., Mn2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+) can enlarge the stability field of the CaCO3-I phase as well as increase the pressure of the structural transition into the CaCO3-VI phase.

  8. The maintenance management for lean organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. GEORGESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of lean maintenance approach is to maintain organization international competitiveness. In the spirit of continuously improvement, in the paper it is shown how by adjusting some Lean manufacturing specific techniques for Total Productive Maintenance (TPM system, was born new maintenance system named Lean TPM. This is a systemic approach with three techniques, which don’t exclude specific techniques of TPM pillars, but complete them: the 7Ss as a critical first step in any improvement program; instantaneous maintenance; improvement setup operations. In the spirit of Lean principle, Lean TPM adjusts overall equipment effectiveness concept for all supply-chain from supplier to customer. Maintaining equipment in its optimal state and continually improving its productivity is the whole strategy behind Lean TPM.

  9. Compressed sensing for high-resolution nonlipid suppressed 1 H FID MRSI of the human brain at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassirpour, Sahar; Chang, Paul; Avdievitch, Nikolai; Henning, Anke

    2018-04-29

    The aim of this study was to apply compressed sensing to accelerate the acquisition of high resolution metabolite maps of the human brain using a nonlipid suppressed ultra-short TR and TE 1 H FID MRSI sequence at 9.4T. X-t sparse compressed sensing reconstruction was optimized for nonlipid suppressed 1 H FID MRSI data. Coil-by-coil x-t sparse reconstruction was compared with SENSE x-t sparse and low rank reconstruction. The effect of matrix size and spatial resolution on the achievable acceleration factor was studied. Finally, in vivo metabolite maps with different acceleration factors of 2, 4, 5, and 10 were acquired and compared. Coil-by-coil x-t sparse compressed sensing reconstruction was not able to reliably recover the nonlipid suppressed data, rather a combination of parallel and sparse reconstruction was necessary (SENSE x-t sparse). For acceleration factors of up to 5, both the low-rank and the compressed sensing methods were able to reconstruct the data comparably well (root mean squared errors [RMSEs] ≤ 10.5% for Cre). However, the reconstruction time of the low rank algorithm was drastically longer than compressed sensing. Using the optimized compressed sensing reconstruction, acceleration factors of 4 or 5 could be reached for the MRSI data with a matrix size of 64 × 64. For lower spatial resolutions, an acceleration factor of up to R∼4 was successfully achieved. By tailoring the reconstruction scheme to the nonlipid suppressed data through parameter optimization and performance evaluation, we present high resolution (97 µL voxel size) accelerated in vivo metabolite maps of the human brain acquired at 9.4T within scan times of 3 to 3.75 min. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Experimental study on efficacy of compression systems with a high static stiffness index for treatment of venous ulcer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Anneke Andriessen; Martin Abel

    2013-01-01

    The experimental study measured interface pressure and static stiffness index of four different compression systems in fifty-two healthy volunteers. For the study interface pressure (3 cm ø probe was placed at the anatomical B1 point) was recorded on application of the compression systems every 15 min for 4 h, in supine, standing, while sitting and during walking. For this purpose a portable Kikuhime (Harada Corp., Osaka, Japan) device was used. Further static stiffness index (SSI) was...

  11. The Emergence of the Lean Global Startup as a New Type of Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Stavnsager Rasmussen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks, and early internationalization research by emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm: the lean global startup. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean startup and born-global internationalization strategies. The first path refers to generic lean startups that have undertaken a rapid internationalization strategy (i.e., lean-to-global startups. The second path refers to startups that have started operating on global scale since their inception and adopted the lean startup approach by seamlessly synergizing their global and lean product development activities. The article emphasizes several aspects that could be used as part of the theoretical foundation for conceptualizing lean global startups as a special new type of firm: i the emergent nature of their business models, including the challenges of partnership development on a global scale; ii the inherently relational nature of the global resource allocation processes; iii the integration of the entrepreneurial, effectuation, and global marketing perspectives; iv the need to deal with a high degree of uncertainty, including the uncertainty associated with cross-border business operations; and v linking the ex-ante characteristics of lean startups with the ex-post characteristics of born-global firms in order to develop a technology adoption marketing perspective that considers the “crossing the chasm” process as a successful entry into a global market niche.

  12. Lean Maintenance Applied to Improve Maintenance Efficiency in Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric power plants consist of a set of critical equipment that require high levels of availability and reliability. Due to this, maintenance of these physical assets is gaining momentum in industry. Maintenance is considered as an activity that contributes to improving the availability, efficiency and productivity of each piece of equipment. Several techniques have been used to achieve greater efficiencies in maintenance, among which we can find the lean maintenance philosophy. Despite the wide diffusion of lean maintenance, there is no structured method that supports the prescription of lean tools applied to the maintenance function. This paper presents the experience gathered in two lean maintenance projects in thermoelectric power plants. The application of lean techniques was based on using a previously developed multicriterial decision making process that uses the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methodology to carry out a diagnosis and prescription tasks. That methodology allowed the prescription of the appropriated lean techniques to resolve the main deficiencies in maintenance function. The results of applying such lean tools show that important results can be obtained, making the maintenance function in thermoelectric power plants more efficient and lean.

  13. A healthcare Lean Six Sigma System for postanesthesia care unit workflow improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alex Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Lee, Te-Shu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a new model called Healthcare Lean Six Sigma System that integrates Lean and Six Sigma methodologies to improve workflow in a postanesthesia care unit. The methodology of the proposed model is fully described. A postanesthesia care unit case study is also used to demonstrate the benefits of using the Healthcare Lean Six Sigma System model by combining Lean and Six Sigma methodologies together. The new model bridges the service gaps between health care providers and patients, balances the requirements of health care managers, and delivers health care services to patients by taking the benefits of the Lean speed and Six Sigma high-quality principles. The full benefits of the new model will be realized when applied at both strategic and operational levels. For further research, we will examine how the proposed model is used in different real-world case studies.

  14. Wireless EEG System Achieving High Throughput and Reduced Energy Consumption Through Lossless and Near-Lossless Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Guillermo Dufort Y; Favaro, Federico; Lecumberry, Federico; Martin, Alvaro; Oliver, Juan P; Oreggioni, Julian; Ramirez, Ignacio; Seroussi, Gadiel; Steinfeld, Leonardo

    2018-02-01

    This work presents a wireless multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system featuring lossless and near-lossless compression of the digitized EEG signal. Two novel, low-complexity, efficient compression algorithms were developed and tested in a low-power platform. The algorithms were tested on six public EEG databases comparing favorably with the best compression rates reported up to date in the literature. In its lossless mode, the platform is capable of encoding and transmitting 59-channel EEG signals, sampled at 500 Hz and 16 bits per sample, at a current consumption of 337 A per channel; this comes with a guarantee that the decompressed signal is identical to the sampled one. The near-lossless mode allows for significant energy savings and/or higher throughputs in exchange for a small guaranteed maximum per-sample distortion in the recovered signal. Finally, we address the tradeoff between computation cost and transmission savings by evaluating three alternatives: sending raw data, or encoding with one of two compression algorithms that differ in complexity and compression performance. We observe that the higher the throughput (number of channels and sampling rate) the larger the benefits obtained from compression.

  15. Lean Construction Supply Chain : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Jiamei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to enhance the management of supply systems in construction industry using lean principles. This study is an attempt to identify what kind of activities causes’ construction process delay and how to perform lean concept into supply chain in practice. The objective is to assure on-time delivery of information and materials to construction sites at lowest cost and maximum value for the customer. These study problems have been analysed from a lean construction supply ch...

  16. The maintenance management for lean organization

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel D. GEORGESCU

    2010-01-01

    The goal of lean maintenance approach is to maintain organization international competitiveness. In the spirit of continuously improvement, in the paper it is shown how by adjusting some Lean manufacturing specific techniques for Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) system, was born new maintenance system named Lean TPM. This is a systemic approach with three techniques, which don’t exclude specific techniques of TPM pillars, but complete them: the 7Ss as a critical first step in any improvemen...

  17. Apply Lean Thinking in Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Ngoc, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the effects of Lean Thinking in Project Management and how applying Lean Project Management could enhance the productivity of project work. The study was carried using theoretical research and collecting empirical data from three interviews and one case study at a local company. At the end of the study, the major project management problems at the company were identified and analyzed following Lean Principles. It was also pointed out where there...

  18. Lean Six Sigma in financial services

    OpenAIRE

    de Koning, H.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Bisgaard, S.

    2008-01-01

    Lean Thinking and Six Sigma are typically considered as separate approaches to process innovation, with complementary strengths. When combined as Lean Six Sigma, this approach provides a unified framework for systematically developing innovations. Lean Six Sigma can also bring about significant results and breakthrough improvements in financial services, as demonstrated with four case studies from Dutch multinational insurance companies. These cases demonstrate the importance of incremental i...

  19. A simulation tool to study high-frequency chest compression energy transfer mechanisms and waveforms for pulmonary disease applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Clock, George D; Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwon; Warwick, Warren J

    2010-07-01

    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC) can be used as a therapeutic intervention to assist in the transport and clearance of mucus and enhance water secretion for cystic fibrosis patients. An HFCC pump-vest and half chest-lung simulation, with 23 lung generations, has been developed using inertance, compliance, viscous friction relationships, and Newton's second law. The simulation has proven to be useful in studying the effects of parameter variations and nonlinear effects on HFCC system performance and pulmonary system response. The simulation also reveals HFCC waveform structure and intensity changes in various segments of the pulmonary system. The HFCC system simulation results agree with measurements, indicating that the HFCC energy transport mechanism involves a mechanically induced pulsation or vibration waveform with average velocities in the lung that are dependent upon small air displacements over large areas associated with the vest-chest interface. In combination with information from lung physiology, autopsies and a variety of other lung modeling efforts, the results of the simulation can reveal a number of therapeutic implications.

  20. System behaviour of compressed-air energy-storage in Denmark with a high penetration of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgi, Georges; Lund, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, wind power supplied 19% of the 36 TWh annual electricity demand in Denmark, while 50% was produced at combined heat-and-power plants (CHP). The installed wind-turbine capacity in Western Denmark exceeds the local demand at certain points in time. So far, excess production has been exported to neighbouring countries. However, plans to expand wind power both in Denmark and in its neighbouring countries could restrain the export option and create transmission congestion challenges. This results in a need to increase the flexibility of the local electricity-system. Compressed-Air Energy-Storage (CAES) has been proposed as a potential solution for levelling fluctuating wind-power production and maintaining a system balance. This paper analyses the energy-balance effects of adding CAES to the Western Danish energy-system. Results show that even with an unlimited CAES plant capacity, excess power production is not eliminated because of the high percentage of CHP production. The optimal wind-power penetration for maximum CAES operation is found to be around 55%. The minimum storage size for CAES to fully eliminate condensing power plants operation in the optimized system is over 500 GWh, which corresponds to a cavern volume of around 234 Mm 3 at an average pressure of 60 bar. Such a storage size would be technically and economically unfeasible. The analysis, however, did not include the potential role of a CAES plant in regulating the power services. (author)

  1. Performance of a Compression-ignition Engine with a Precombustion Chamber Having High-Velocity Air Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanogle, J A; Moore, C S

    1931-01-01

    Presented here are the results of performance tests made with a single-cylinder, four stroke cycle, compression-ignition engine. These tests were made on a precombustion chamber type of cylinder head designed to have air velocity and tangential air flow in both the chamber and cylinder. The performance was investigated for variable load and engine speed, type of fuel spray, valve opening pressure, injection period and, for the spherical chamber, position of the injection spray relative to the air flow. The pressure variations between the pear-shaped precombustion chamber and the cylinder for motoring and full load conditions were determined with a Farnboro electric indicator. The combustion chamber designs tested gave good mixing of a single compact fuel spray with the air, but did not control the ensuing combustion sufficiently. Relative to each other, the velocity of air flow was too high, the spray dispersion by injection too great, and the metering effect of the cylinder head passage insufficient. The correct relation of these factors is of the utmost importance for engine performance.

  2. Lean and the quality of work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    2008-01-01

    Lean has for the last decade developed as the dominating model for developing productions processes not only within industry but also in health care, administration and service industries in general. With this development a discussion on human factors aspects of lean has developed internationally....... Literature studies documents that it is not possible to establish a clear relation between lean and the psychosocial aspects of work. The studies also indicate that the context and the implementations process play a dominating role in how lean is experienced. This has been the basis for establishing...

  3. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillikens, M Carola; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Chou, Wen-Chi; Stolk, Lisette; Livshits, Gregory; Broer, Linda; Johnson, Toby; Koller, Daniel L; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Malkin, Ida; Ried, Janina S; Smith, Albert V; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Weihua; Aghdassi, Ali; Åkesson, Kristina; Amin, Najaf; Baier, Leslie J; Barroso, Inês; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Biffar, Rainer; Bochud, Murielle; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Buchman, Aron S; Byberg, Liisa; Campbell, Harry; Campos Obanda, Natalia; Cauley, Jane A; Cawthon, Peggy M; Cederberg, Henna; Chen, Zhao; Cho, Nam H; Jin Choi, Hyung; Claussnitzer, Melina; Collins, Francis; Cummings, Steven R; De Jager, Philip L; Demuth, Ilja; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Diatchenko, Luda; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Enneman, Anke W; Erdos, Mike; Eriksson, Johan G; Eriksson, Joel; Estrada, Karol; Evans, Daniel S; Feitosa, Mary F; Fu, Mao; Garcia, Melissa; Gieger, Christian; Girke, Thomas; Glazer, Nicole L; Grallert, Harald; Grewal, Jagvir; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hanson, Robert L; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Hoffman, Eric P; Homuth, Georg; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hubal, Monica J; Hubbard, Alan; Huffman, Kim M; Husted, Lise B; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ittermann, Till; Jansson, John-Olov; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Karlsson, Magnus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Klopp, Norman; Kloth, Jacqueline S L; Koistinen, Heikki A; Kraus, William E; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lahti, Jari; Lang, Thomas; Langdahl, Bente L; Launer, Lenore J; Lee, Jong-Young; Lerch, Markus M; Lewis, Joshua R; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert N; Maixner, William; McGuigan, Fiona E; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Meitinger, Thomas; Melhus, Håkan; Mellström, Dan; Melov, Simon; Michaëlsson, Karl; Mitchell, Braxton D; Morris, Andrew P; Mosekilde, Leif; Newman, Anne; Nielson, Carrie M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Orwoll, Eric S; Palotie, Aarno; Parker, Stephen C J; Peacock, Munro; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Prince, Richard L; Räikkönen, Katri; Ralston, Stuart H; Ripatti, Samuli; Robbins, John A; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schadt, Eric E; Schipf, Sabine; Scott, Laura; Sehmi, Joban; Shen, Jian; Soo Shin, Chan; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Smith, Shad; Soranzo, Nicole; Stančáková, Alena; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Swart, Karin M A; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Thompson, Patricia; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Tranah, Gregory J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verma, Arjun; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Walker, Mark; Weedon, Michael N; Welch, Ryan; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Williams, Frances M K; Wilson, James F; Wright, Nicole C; Xie, Weijia; Yu, Lei; Zhou, Yanhua; Chambers, John C; Döring, Angela; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Econs, Michael J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kooner, Jaspal S; Psaty, Bruce M; Spector, Timothy D; Stefansson, Kari; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ossowski, Vicky; Waterworth, Dawn; Loos, Ruth J F; Karasik, David; Harris, Tamara B; Ohlsson, Claes; Kiel, Douglas P

    2017-07-19

    Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.Lean body mass is a highly heritable trait and is associated with various health conditions. Here, Kiel and colleagues perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for whole body lean body mass and find five novel genetic loci to be significantly associated.

  4. A Methodology for the Assessment of Experiential Learning Lean: The Lean Experience Factory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zan, Giovanni; De Toni, Alberto Felice; Fornasier, Andrea; Battistella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to assess the experiential learning processes of learning lean in an innovative learning environment: the lean model factories. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on learning and lean management literatures was carried out to design the methodology. Then, a case study…

  5. Lean programm as a method of managing lean changes in the company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetina Tatiana Aleksandrovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about methods and ways of providing changes on enterprices which introduce instruments of lean production. The main accent is how to use metodology of the project management by providing lean-changes. Lean program is proposed as a program of strategic developement of enterprices.

  6. High-Pressure Shock Compression of Solids VIII The Science and Technology of High-Velocity Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Chhabildas, Lalit C; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Research in the field of shock physics and ballistic impact has always been intimately tied to progress in development of facilities for accelerating projectiles to high velocity and instrumentation for recording impact phenomena. The chapters of this book, written by leading US and European experts, cover a broad range of topics and address researchers concerned with questions of material behaviour under impulsive loading and the equations of state of matter, as well as the design of suitable instrumentation such as gas guns and high-speed diagnostics. Applications include high-speed impact dynamics, the inner composition of planets, syntheses of new materials and materials processing. Among the more technologically-oriented applications treated is the testing of the flight characteristics of aeroballistic models and the assessment of impacts in the aerospace industry.

  7. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate (low-glycaemic index) diet induces weight loss and preserves lean body mass in obese healthy subjects: results of a 24-week study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, B; Yazdani-Biuki, B; Krippl, P; Brath, H; Uitz, E; Wascher, T C

    2005-05-01

    The traditional treatment for obesity which is based on a reduced caloric diet has only been partially successful. Contributing factors are not only a poor long-term dietary adherence but also a significant loss of lean body mass and subsequent reduction in energy expenditure. Both low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets and diets using low-glycaemic index (GI) foods are capable of inducing modest weight loss without specific caloric restriction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and medium-term effect of a low-fat diet with high (low GI) carbohydrates on weight loss, body composition changes and dietary compliance. Obese patients were recruited from two obesity outpatient clinics. Subjects were given advise by a dietician, then they attended biweekly for 1-hour group meetings. Bodyweight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 24 weeks. One hundred and nine (91%) patients completed the study; after 24 weeks the average weight loss was 8.9 kg (98.6 vs. 89.7 kg; p fat mass (42.5 vs. 36.4 kg; p vs. 53.3 kg; p low-fat, low-GI diet led to a significant reduction of fat mass; adherence to the diet was very good. Our results suggest that such a diet is feasible and should be evaluated in randomized controlled trials.

  8. Lean and Green Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Demark, Robert E; Smith, Vanessa J S; Fiegen, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    Health care in the United States is both expensive and wasteful. The cost of health care in the United States continues to increase every year. Health care spending for 2016 is estimated at $3.35 trillion. Per capita spending ($10,345 per person) is more than twice the average of other developed countries. The United States also leads the world in solid waste production (624,700 metric tons of waste in 2011). The health care industry is second only to the food industry in annual waste production. Each year, health care facilities in the United States produce 4 billion pounds of waste (660 tons per day), with as much as 70%, or around 2.8 billion pounds, produced directly by operating rooms. Waste disposal also accounts for up to 20% of a hospital's annual environmental services budget. Since 1992, waste production by hospitals has increased annually by a rate of at least 15%, due in part to the increased usage of disposables. Reduction in operating room waste would decrease both health care costs and potential environmental hazards. In 2015, the American Association for Hand Surgery along with the American Society for Surgery of the Hand, American Society for Peripheral Nerve Surgery, and the American Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery began the "Lean and Green" surgery project to reduce the amount of waste generated by hand surgery. We recently began our own "Lean and Green" project in our institution. Using "minor field sterility" surgical principles and Wide Awake Local Anesthesia No Tourniquet (WALANT), both surgical costs and surgical waste were decreased while maintaining patient safety and satisfaction. As the current reimbursement model changes from quantity to quality, "Lean and Green" surgery will play a role in the future health care system. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lean production of intensive cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad; Bojesen, Anders; Bramming, Pia

    2014-01-01

    turnover. This is analysed in terms of Italo Calvino's Invisible cities. It is argued that Calvino's themes and prose help us understand change as a multiplicity of temporal intensities producing ambivalence and affect. We describe this use of literary abstractions as a ‘hyperbolic social epistemology......’. Through the depiction of four intensifications of Lean Production, the metaphors of Calvino's cities show how reality and illusion; hope and poverty; dreams and death and utopia and dystopia are intricately mingled and produce temporary and equally ambivalent affects of alienation, hypocrisy, self...

  10. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovich, J. L., E-mail: milovich1@llnl.gov; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 10{sup 14} and 5.5 × 10{sup 14}) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the “high-foot” experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3–10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm{sup 2}. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  11. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  12. Contribution to the understanding of the high magnetic field compression produced by the implosion of a thin metal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besancon, Jacques

    1970-12-01

    In this report we present the essential phenomena which occur during the magnetic flux compression obtained by the explosive-driven implosion of a thin conducting liner: acceleration time, dynamic evolution, heating and instability behaviour of the liner; field diffusion through the conducting wall and resulting flux losses which condition the increasing field in the cavity. Various implosion models are proposed and the one most elaborated leads to a numerical computation of the flux compression. Repeated experiments have permitted us to define and improve the flux injection techniques, the optical and electrical diagnostics and, consequently, the final compressed field. We now know how to obtain and record reproducible fields of 12 MOe in 0.8 cm diameter cavities. The final phase or the liner 'turnaround' has been specially observed. All the implosion shots are compared to the theoretical expectation. It may be concluded that the liner electrical conductivity and its variation essentially determine the final flux value. (author) [fr

  13. Small compression modulus of the flux line lattice and large density fluctuations at high fields may explain peak effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    The elastic properties of the flux line lattice in Type II superconductors as calculated from the Ginsburg-Landau theory are discussed. They are non-local on a length scale much larger than the flux line distance and divergent at Hsub(c2). The compression modulus may become much smaller than its long-wavelength limit, B 2 /4π, and if the deformation is not homogeneous, at Hsub(c2) the modulus vanishes as (Hsub(c2) - B) 2 . At arbitrary induction the compression modulus of strain waves with wavelengths of several flux line distances is of the order of the (small) shear modulus. (author)

  14. Lean production and business performance: influences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, this study aims to examine the influence of leadership style in the implementation of lean production. Data were gathered from randomly selected Malaysian manufacturing firms. Findings reveal a positive relationship between lean production and business performance. Specifically, democratic leadership style was ...

  15. Just-in-Time og Lean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Filosofi, principper og teknikker i JIT. Princip i Kanban-styring og dimensionering af et Kanban-system. Lean Thinking og Value Stream Mapping.......Filosofi, principper og teknikker i JIT. Princip i Kanban-styring og dimensionering af et Kanban-system. Lean Thinking og Value Stream Mapping....

  16. Indførelse af Lean principper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balmer, Christian; Michelsen, Aage U

    2004-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives, hvorledes lean-principper er indført i en forsikringsvirksomhed samt de opnåede resultater.......I artiklen beskrives, hvorledes lean-principper er indført i en forsikringsvirksomhed samt de opnåede resultater....

  17. Principles of lean planning and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2015-01-01

    Lean production systems use teams instead of functional departments as well as simple shop floor control methods to manage the flow of orders at the shop floor. Lean shop floor control focuses on robust and visual methods that are able to cope with variation in processing times, routing sequences,

  18. De praktijk van Lean Six Sigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; de Koning, H.

    2008-01-01

    Zowel Lean als Six Sigma zijn benaderingen van kwaliteits- en efficiëntieverbetering die op dit moment sterk in de belangstelling staan van zowel de industrie als de dienstverlening. Lean Six Sigma integreert beide benaderingen. Ze wordt door sommigen gezien als panacee voor alle mogelijke

  19. Disturbing Practices: Training Workers to Be Lean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Keiko; Brown, Tony; Black, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities for expansive learning during organisational change. It considers the introduction of "lean production" as a disturbance to the existing work practices. Design/methodology/approach: The paper considers two case studies of "lean production" training with…

  20. Advancing lean manufacturing, the role of IT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.; Klingenberg, W.

    This introduction to the special issue discusses the changing role of information technology (IT) in advancing lean production. Lean principles and techniques have been applied in a wide variety of organisations, from make-to-stock to engineer-to-order industries, and even in typical service

  1. Lean in healthcare from employees' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotz, Erik; Poksinska, Bozena

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute toward a deeper understanding of the new roles, responsibilities, and job characteristics of employees in Lean healthcare organizations. The paper is based on three cases studies of healthcare organizations that are regarded as successful examples of Lean applications in the healthcare context. Data were collected by methods including interviews, observations, and document studies. The implementation of Lean in healthcare settings has had a great influence on the roles, responsibilities, and job characteristics of the employees. The focus has shifted from healthcare professionals, where clinical autonomy and professional skills have been the guarding principles of patient care, to process improvement and teamwork. Different job characteristics may make it difficult to implement certain Lean practices in healthcare. Teamwork and decentralization of authority are examples of Lean practices that could be considered countercultural because of the strong professional culture and uneven power distribution, with doctors as the dominant decision makers. Teamwork, value flow orientation, and company-wide involvement in CI were associated with positive effects on the organizations' working environment, staff development, and organizational performance. In order to succeed with Lean healthcare, it is important to understand and recognize the differences in job characteristics between Lean manufacturing and healthcare. This paper provides insights into how Lean implementation changes the roles, responsibilities, and job characteristics of healthcare staff and the challenges and implications that may follow from this.

  2. Lean Six Sigma in a hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, J.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Koning, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Hospitals today face major challenges. Patients demand quality of care to be improved continuously. Health insurance companies demand the lowest possible prices. Lean Six Sigma is a program that can help healthcare providers to achieve these (seemingly) conflicting goals. Lean Six Sigma is

  3. Lean Production as an Innovative Approach to Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Kozlovská, Mária

    2013-06-01

    Lean production presents a new approach to the construction management which has enabled enterprises to attain very high levels of efficiency, competitiveness and flexibility in production systems. Nowadays, a number of industrial processes are managed in accordance with these advanced management principles [1]. The principles of lean production are applied within the integrated design and delivery solutions (IDDS) and prefabricated construction. IDDS uses collaborative work processes and enhanced skills, with integrated data, information, and knowledge management to minimize structural and process inefficiencies and to enhance the value delivered during design, build, and operation, and across projects. Prefabrication presents a one of opportunities for construction methods, which allows the compliance with principles of sustainable design, provides the potential benefits such as faster construction, fewer housing defects, reduction in energy use and waste and elimination of environmental and safety risks. This paper presents the lean production within the IDDS and its potential in the modern prefabrication. There is created a field providing of benefits of lean production in construction industry.

  4. LES/FMDF of turbulent jet ignition in a rapid compression machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Validi, Abdoulahad; Schock, Harold; Toulson, Elisa; Jaberi, Farhad; CFD; Engine Research Labs, Michigan State University Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is an efficient method for initiating and controlling combustion in combustion systems, e.g. internal combustion engines. It enables combustion in ultra-lean mixtures by utilizing hot product turbulent jets emerging from a pre-chamber combustor as the ignition source for the main combustion chamber. Here, we study the TJI-assisted ignition and combustion of lean methane-air mixtures in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) for various flow/combustion conditions with the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) computational model. In the LES/FMDF model, the filtered form of compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity, while the FMDF transport equation is solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar (species mass fraction and temperature) field. The LES/FMDF data are used to study the physics of TJI and combustion in RCM. The results show the very complex behavior of the reacting flow and the flame structure in the pre-chamber and RCM.

  5. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  6. Skaber lean bedre arbejdsmiljø?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nanette Juhler

    2007-01-01

    rationalization strategies, among others Lean, claim to improve working conditions. The aim of this thesis is to identify whether the application of Lean strategies leads to a reduction of the occupational health and safety problem repetitive work. Repetitive work is a problem created by the Taylorisation of work......, and therefore it is to be expected that a break with one or more of the Tayloristic principles can lead to a reduction of repetitive work. This thesis points out a number of areas within which Lean breaks with Tayloristic principles, whilst other principles are maintained. These breaks between Lean...... and Taylorism are also found in the study of the case company. By linking breaks with Taylorism with solutions for the reduction of repetitive work, I point out a number of openings in Lean that may lead to a reduction of repetitive work. By using the concept of openings I present the possibilities offered...

  7. THE LEAN AND SIX SIGMA SINERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Sokovic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations, dealing with continuous improvement methods, have realized that Lean and Six Sigma methodologies complement each other. Lean manufacturing focuses on the remova l of waste so that all processes in the total system add value from the customers' perspectives. The main emphasis of Six Sigma is the application of statistical tools in a disciplined manner, which requires data-driven decision-making. The integration of Lean and Six Sigma provides a synergetic effect, a rapid process improvement strategy for attaining organizational goals. When separated, Lean manufacturing cannot bring a process under statistical control, and Six Sigma cannot dramatically improve cycle time or reduce invested capital. Together, synergistic qualities are created to maximize the potential for a process improvement. The paper deals with Lean and Six Sigma principles and approaches used in modern manufacturing for process improvements, and bring forward benefits that are gained when these two methodologies are integrated.

  8. Lean thinking for a maintenance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance process shares significant operating costs in an organisation. Lean thinking can be incorporated into maintenance activities through applying its principles and practices/tools. Lean maintenance (LM is a prerequisite for lean manufacturing systems. This research proposes a new structure for LM process based on a systematic literature review of a significant number of related articles that were published on LM. The process structure is designed based on the five lean principles to guide and support organisations to pursue maintenance excellence. This study establishes a scheme for LM tools that are structured into 2 level 4 bundles and 26 lean practices/tools and develops a House of Waste (HoW to demonstrate the association between maintenance wastes and the LM tools. With a successful accomplishment of the proposed scheme, the performance of a maintenance department can create more improvement opportunities over time to reach the maintenance excellence status.

  9. Transferring lean management infrastructure for increasing productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D.Daniel Georgescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available These years, manufacturing function have been transferred rapidly and globally from matured countries to emerging countries. In this paper is about the critical elements for successful transfer of lean management among sites and countries. Based on this general descriptive analysis, current global transfer activity of Lean as well as its future direction is also described. According to the gradual progress of lean management transfer, necessity of its refinement/reinforcement is recognized and some research subjects are proposed for contributing further encouragement of its global activities. In this paper, based on this understanding, requisites for transfer of lean management are discussed through investigating global activity of Lean and specification of infrastructure enabling its smooth transfer is examined

  10. Modelling Lean and Green Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Susana Carla Vieira Lino Medina

    The success of an organization depends on the effective control of its supply chain. It is important to recognize new opportunities for organization and its supply chain. In the last few years the approach to lean, agile, resilient and green supply chain paradigms has been addressed in the scientific literature. Research in this field shows that the integration of these concepts revealed some contradictions among so many paradigms. This thesis is mainly focused on the lean and green approaches. Thirteen different management frameworks, embodied in awards, standards and tools were studied to understand if they could contribute for the modelling process of a lean and green approach. The study reveals a number of categories that are common in most management frameworks, providing adequate conditions for a lean and green supply chain transformation. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of a lean and green organization`s supply chain was proposed. The framework considers six key criteria, namely, leadership, people, strategic planning, stakeholders, processes and results. It was proposed an assessment method considering a criteria score for each criterion. The purpose is to understand how lean and green supply chain can be compatible, using principles, practices, techniques or tools (i.e. elements) that support both, a lean and a green approach, in all key criteria. A case study in the automotive upstream supply chain was performed to understand more deeply if the elements proposed for the conceptual framework could be implemented in a real-scenario. Based on the conceptual framework and the case study, a roadmap to achieve a lean-green transformation is presented. The proposed roadmap revealed its contribution to the understanding on how and when an organization`s supply chain should apply the lean and green elements. This study is relevant to practice, as it may assist managers in the adoption of a lean and green supply chain approach, giving insights for the

  11. Optical pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The interest in using large lasers to achieve a very short and intense pulse for generating fusion plasma has provided a strong impetus to reexamine the possibilities of optical pulse compression at high energy. Pulse compression allows one to generate pulses of long duration (minimizing damage problems) and subsequently compress optical pulses to achieve the short pulse duration required for specific applications. The ideal device for carrying out this program has not been developed. Of the two approaches considered, the Gires--Tournois approach is limited by the fact that the bandwidth and compression are intimately related, so that the group delay dispersion times the square of the bandwidth is about unity for all simple Gires--Tournois interferometers. The Treacy grating pair does not suffer from this limitation, but is inefficient because diffraction generally occurs in several orders and is limited by the problem of optical damage to the grating surfaces themselves. Nonlinear and parametric processes were explored. Some pulse compression was achieved by these techniques; however, they are generally difficult to control and are not very efficient. (U.S.)

  12. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oona, H.; Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Rodriquez, P.J.; Younger, S.M.; Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal

  13. High Pressure In Situ X-ray Diffraction Study of MnO to 120 GPa and Comparison with Shock Compression Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Takehiko; Kondo, Tadashi; Syono, Yasuhiko

    1997-07-01

    In order to clarify the nature of the phase transformation in MnO observed at around 90 GPa by shock compression experiment (Syono et al., this symposium), high pressure in situ x-ray experiments were carried out up to 120 GPa. Powdered sample was directly compressed in Mao-Bell type diamond anvil and x-ray experiments were carried out using angle dispersive technique by combining synchrotron radiation and imaging plate detector. Distortion of the B1 structured phase into hexagonal unit cell was observed from 25-40 GPa, which continues to increase up to 90 GPa. At around 90 GPa, discontinuous change of the diffraction was observed. This new phase cannot be explained by a simple B2 structure and the analysis of this phase is in progress. This high pressure phase has metallic appearance, which reverses to transparent MnO on release of pressure.

  14. Gas compression infrared generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular gas is compressed in a quasi-adiabatic manner to produce pulsed radiation during each compressor cycle when the pressure and temperature are sufficiently high, and part of the energy is recovered during the expansion phase, as defined in U.S. Pat. No. 3,751,666; characterized by use of a cylinder with a reciprocating piston as a compressor

  15. Images compression in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, M.S.; Furuie, S.S.; Moura, L.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of two methods for images compression in nuclear medicine was evaluated. The LZW precise, and Cosine Transformed, approximate, methods were analyzed. The results were obtained, showing that the utilization of approximated method produced images with an agreeable quality for visual analysis and compression rates, considerably high than precise method. (C.G.C.)

  16. Improving a Dental School's Clinic Operations Using Lean Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.

  17. Lean health care: what can hospitals learn from a world-class automaker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher S; Spahlinger, David A; Kin, Jeanne M; Billi, John E

    2006-05-01

    With health care costs continuing to rise, a variety of process improvement methodologies have been proposed to address the reported inefficiencies in health care delivery. Lean production is one such method. The management philosophy and tools of lean production come from the manufacturing industry, where they were pioneered by Toyota Motor Corporation, which is viewed as the leader in utilizing these performance improvement methods. Lean has already enjoyed tremendous success in improving quality and efficiency in both the manufacturing and the service sector industries. Health care systems have just begun to utilize lean methods, with reports of improvements just beginning to appear in the literature. We describe some of the basic philosophy and principles of lean production methods and how these concepts can be applied in the health care environment. We describe some of the early success stories and ongoing endeavors of lean production in various health care organizations. We believe the hospital is an ideal setting for use of the lean production method, which could significantly affect how health care is delivered to patients. We conclude by discussing some of the potential challenges in introducing and implementing lean production methods in the health care environment. Lean production is a novel approach to delivering high-quality and efficient care to patients, and we believe that the health care sector can anticipate the same high level of success that the manufacturing and service industries have achieved using this approach. Hospitalists are primed to take action in delivering care of greater quality with more efficiency by applying these new principles in the hospital setting. (c) 2006 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  18. Extending the Riemann-Solver-Free High-Order Space-Time Discontinuous Galerkin Cell Vertex Scheme (DG-CVS) to Solve Compressible Magnetohydrodynamics Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics,” J. Com- put. Phys., Vol. 153, No. 2, 1999, pp. 334–352. [14] Tang, H.-Z. and Xu, K., “A high-order gas -kinetic method for...notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...Riemann-solver-free spacetime discontinuous Galerkin method for general conservation laws to solve compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The

  19. Adapting lean to histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2009-10-01

    Histology laboratories (histolabs) can increase productivity and reduce turnaround time and errors by using any one of several available management tools. After a few years of operation, all histolabs develop workflow problems. Histology laboratories handling more than 20,000 cases per year benefit the most from implementing management tools, as occurred in the 25 facilities summarized in this article. Discontinuous workflow, lack of "pulling" between steps, accepting unavoidable waiting times while working with small batches within work cells, and a workflow with an uneven rate of completion, are some of the adaptations required by the Lean system when it is used in histology because 70% of the tasks are manual and the flow has to be interrupted to add value to the pieces of tissue during tissue processing, no matter how short that step is. After all these adaptations are incorporated, the histolab becomes as "Lean" as it can be, and the qualifier is also a recognition of the effort and personnel involvement in the implementation. Given its service nature, productivity increments do not expand the histolab customer base and could lead to staffing reductions. This is one of the causes of reluctance by some employees for implementing these techniques which are mostly driven by cost reductions sought by insurance companies and administrators, and not necessarily because of a real medical need to reduce the turnaround time. Finally, any histolab wanting to improve its workflow can follow some easy steps presented here as a guide to accomplish that objective. These steps stress the need for the supervisors to insure that the personnel in the histology laboratory are being paid at a comparable rate as other histolabs in the area.

  20. The Miller cycle effects on improvement of fuel economy in a highly boosted, high compression ratio, direct-injection gasoline engine: EIVC vs. LIVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie; Gao, Yi; Wang, Jiasheng; Chen, Ziqian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • At high load, LIVC is superior over EIVC in improving fuel economy. • The improvement with LIVC is due to advanced combustion phasing and increased pumping work. • At low load, EIVC is better than LIVC in improving fuel economy. • Pumping loss with EIVC is smaller than with LIVC at low load. • But heat release rate with EIVC is slower than with LIVC. - Abstract: A combination of downsizing, highly boosting and direct injection (DI) is an effective way to improve fuel economy of gasoline engines without the penalties of reduced torque or power output. At high loads, however, knock problem becomes severer when increasing the intake boosting. As a compromise, geometric compression ratio (CR) is usually reduced to mitigate knock, and the improvement of fuel economy is discounted. Application of Miller cycle, which can be realized by either early or late intake valve closing (EIVC or LIVC), has the potential to reduce the effective CR and suppress knock. In this paper, the effects of EIVC and LIVC on the fuel economy of a boosted DI gasoline production engine reformed with a geometric CR of 12.0 are experimentally compared at low and high loads. Compared to the original production engine with CR 9.3, at the high load operation, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is improved by 4.7% with CR12.0 and LIVC, while the effect of EIVC on improving BSFC is negligibly small. At the low load operation, combined with CR12.0, LIVC and EIVC improve the fuel economy by 6.8% and 7.4%, respectively, compared to the production engine. The mechanism behind the effects of LIVC and EIVC on improving the fuel economy is discussed. These results will be a valuable reference for engine designers and researchers