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Sample records for high cognitive demand

  1. The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Mild positive affect has been shown in the psychological literature to improve cognitive skills of creative problem-solving and systematic thinking. Individual preferred music listening offers opportunity for improved positive affect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preferred music listening on state-mood and cognitive performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Twenty-four professional computer information systems developers (CISD) from a North American IT company participated in a 3-week study with a music/no music/music weekly design. During the music weeks, participants listened to their preferred music "when they wanted, as they wanted." Self-reports of State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect, and Cognitive Performance were measured throughout the 3 weeks. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in both state-mood and cognitive performance scores. "High-cognitive demand" is a relative term given that challenges presented to individuals may occur on a cognitive continuum from need for focus and selective attention to systematic analysis and creative problem-solving. The findings and recommendations have important implications for music therapists in their knowledge of the effect of music on emotion and cognition, and, as well, have important implications for music therapy consultation to organizations.

  2. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  3. The Cognitive Demands of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor

    1999-01-01

    Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive deman

  4. Cognitive demands of lower paleolithic toolmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin; Khreisheh, Nada; Bradley, Bruce; Chaminade, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Stone tools provide some of the most abundant, continuous, and high resolution evidence of behavioral change over human evolution, but their implications for cognitive evolution have remained unclear. We investigated the neurophysiological demands of stone toolmaking by training modern subjects in known Paleolithic methods ("Oldowan", "Acheulean") and collecting structural and functional brain imaging data as they made technical judgments (outcome prediction, strategic appropriateness) about planned actions on partially completed tools. Results show that this task affected neural activity and functional connectivity in dorsal prefrontal cortex, that effect magnitude correlated with the frequency of correct strategic judgments, and that the frequency of correct strategic judgments was predictive of success in Acheulean, but not Oldowan, toolmaking. This corroborates hypothesized cognitive control demands of Acheulean toolmaking, specifically including information monitoring and manipulation functions attributed to the "central executive" of working memory. More broadly, it develops empirical methods for assessing the differential cognitive demands of Paleolithic technologies, and expands the scope of evolutionary hypotheses that can be tested using the available archaeological record.

  5. The cognitive demands of hypnotic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyzenbeek, Miriam; Bryant, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the proposal that hypnotic responding is effortless. The authors compared the responses of high and low hypnotizable participants (N = 70) in and out of hypnosis on a dual-task paradigm in which they were required to maintain hypnotic blindness during presentation of visual stimuli of varying salience intensities while simultaneously completing a secondary task. Whereas high hypnotizable participants in both hypnosis and wake conditions reported comparable levels of conviction in the hallucination suggestion, hypnotized highs performed poorer on the secondary task when the stimulus was present. Performance on the secondary task deteriorated when the visual stimulus was intensified. These findings contradict the notion that hypnotic response is not demanding on cognitive resources and suggest that increased effort is required to resolve the extent of conflict between reality and suggestion.

  6. Cognitive task demands, self-control demands and the mental well-being of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Robert S; Brasher, Kate

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive task demands of office workers and the self-control demands of their work roles were measured in a sample of 196 employees in two different office layouts using a self-report questionnaire, which was circulated electronically. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both factors were associated with mental well-being, but not with physical well-being, while controlling for exposure to psychosocial stressors. The interaction between cognitive task demands and self-control demands had the strongest association with mental well-being, suggesting that the deleterious effect of one was greater when the other was present. An exploratory analysis revealed that the association was stronger for employees working in a large open-plan office than for those working in smaller offices with more privacy. Frustration of work goals was the cognitive task demand having the strongest negative impact on mental well-being. Methodological limitations and scale psychometrics (particularly the use of the NASA Task Load Index) are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Modern office work has high mental demands and low physical demands and there is a need to design offices to prevent adverse psychological reactions. It is shown that cognitive task demands interact with self-control demands to degrade mental well-being. The association was stronger in an open-plan office.

  7. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mollerstrom

    Full Text Available Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  8. Age and sex differences in steadiness of elbow flexor muscles with imposed cognitive demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo M; Spears, Vincent C; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Yoon, Tejin; Nielson, Kristy A; Hunter, Sandra K

    2015-06-01

    These studies determined (1) age- and sex-related differences in steadiness of isometric contractions when high cognitive demand was imposed across a range of forces with the elbow flexor muscles (study 1) and; (2) sex differences in steadiness among older adults when low cognitive demand was imposed (study 2). 36 young adults (18-25 years; 18 women) and 30 older adults (60-82 years; 17 women) performed isometric contractions at 5, 30 and 40 % of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Study 1 involved a high-cognitive demand session (serial subtractions by 13 during the contraction) and a control session (no mental math). Study 2 (older adults only) involved a low-cognitive demand session (subtracting by 1s). Older individuals exhibited greater increases in force fluctuations (coefficient of variation of force, CV) with high cognitive demand than young adults, with the largest age difference at 5 % MVC (P = 0.01). Older adults had greater agonist EMG activity with high-cognitive demand and women had greater coactivation than men (P demand for the older women but not for the older men (P = 0.03). Older adults had reduced steadiness and increased muscle activation when high cognitive demand was imposed while low cognitive demand induced increased force fluctuations in older women but not older men. These findings have implications for daily and work-related tasks that involve cognitive demand performed simultaneously during submaximal isometric contractions in an aging workforce.

  9. Effects of gestational age at birth on cognitive performance: a function of cognitive workload demands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jaekel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n = 1326 children (gestation range: 23-41 weeks were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. RESULTS: Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA² (quadratic term on low cognitive workload: R²  = .02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R²  = .09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R²  = .14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation and moderately (32-33 weeks gestation preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5% compared with moderate (8.1% and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth.

  10. Mathematics Teachers' Enactment of Cognitively Demanding Tasks: Investigating Links to Teachers' Knowledge and Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Anne Garrison

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand how aspects of middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge and conceptions are related to their enactment of cognitively demanding tasks. I defined the enactment of cognitively demanding tasks to involve task selection and maintenance of the cognitive demand of high-level tasks and examined those two…

  11. Quantitative work demands, emotional demands, and cognitive stress symptoms in surgery nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone; Leitner, Monika; Hirschmüller, Anja; Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Baur, Heiner

    2017-06-01

    In surgery, cognitive stress symptoms, including problems in concentrating, deciding, memorising, and reflecting are risks to patient safety. Recent evidence points to social stressors as antecedents of cognitive stress symptoms in surgery personnel. The current study tests whether cognitive stress symptoms are positively associated with emotional abuse, emotional- and task-related demands and resources in surgery work. Forty-eight surgery nurses from two hospitals filled out the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire in its German version. Task-related and emotional demands were positively related to cognitive stress symptoms. In a stepwise, multiple, linear regression of cognitive stress symptoms on task-related and emotional demands, emotional abuse and emotional demands were unique predictors (p < .05). Efforts to increase patient safety should address emotional abuse, emotional demands, and, therefore, communication and cooperation team climate in surgery personnel.

  12. Free recall and outdoor running: cognitive and physical demand interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, Samantha L; Blakely, Megan J; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive resource theory is a proposed explanation for people's limited ability to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Reallocation of a restricted supply of cognitive resources to two or more tasks may be detrimental to performance on one or both tasks. Many professionals in high-risk fields, such as those engaged in firefighting, military, and search and rescue missions, face simultaneous mental and physical demands, yet little is known about the resources required to move over the natural terrain these operators may encounter. In the present research, we investigated whether interference was found between outdoor running and a word recall task. As hypothesized, a reduction in word recall was observed in the dual task compared to a recall-alone task; however, the distance run was not significantly different between the dual task and the run-alone task. Subjective reports of workload, task focus, and being "spent" (measures calculated from responses on a questionnaire) were greatest in the dual task. These results support the cognitive resource theory and have important theoretical and practical implications. Further research is required to better understand the type and extent of cognitive resources required by such physical tasks and the potential interference with simultaneous mental tasks.

  13. Decision Making and the Avoidance of Cognitive Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; McGuire, Joseph T.; Rosen, Zev B.; Botvinick, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and economic theories have long maintained that actions are chosen so as to minimize demands for exertion or work, a principle sometimes referred to as the “law of less work.” The data supporting this idea pertain almost entirely to demands for physical effort. However, the same minimization principle has often been assumed also to apply to cognitive demand. We set out to evaluate the validity of this assumption. In six behavioral experiments, participants chose freely between courses of action associated with different levels of demand for controlled information processing. Together, the results of these experiments revealed a bias in favor of the less demanding course of action. The bias was obtained across a range of choice settings and demand manipulations, and was not wholly attributable to strategic avoidance of errors, minimization of time on task, or maximization of the rate of goal achievement. Remarkably, the effect also did not depend on awareness of the demand manipulation. Consistent with a motivational account, avoidance of demand displayed sensitivity to task incentives and co-varied with individual differences in the efficacy of executive control. The findings reported, together with convergent neuroscientific evidence, lend support to the idea that anticipated cognitive demand plays a significant role in behavioral decision-making. PMID:20853993

  14. Motor variability during sustained contractions increases with cognitive demand in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Vanden Noven

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20 ± 2 yr: 8 men, 8 women and 17 older adults (69 ±4 yr: 9 men, 8 women attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: 1 high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number; 2 low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by one; and 3 control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p0.05, but the variability between sessions (standard deviation [SD] of 3 sessions was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 min vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, P<0.05. Thus, variability in lower limb motor performance for low and moderate force isometric tasks increased with age and was exacerbated when cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks that are relevant to functional and ergonomic in an aging workforce.

  15. Investigating the Effects of Assembly Order on the Performance in Relation to Cognitive and Physical Demands Under Takt Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed Shaikh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Assembly line operations generally involve physical and cognitive demanding tasks. Simultaneous performance under physical and cognitive demanding tasks may create physical and mental stresses. A within subjects study was carried out to determine the effects of assembly levels (variable assembly and consistent assembly on working conditions. Nine participants participated in a study and performed 8 conditions. The objective of the study was to determine the relation between physical and cognitive demands in a simulated task involving simultaneous performance of physical (fastening nuts and bolts and cognitive (code matching with secondary task of memorizing the code demanding task. Results showed the significant effects of assembly order (consisted of the concurrent performance of physically and cognitively demanding task on the working conditions. Quality of performance was affected by variable assembly order, high mental demand and above shoulder height

  16. Cognitively Demanding Learning Materials with Texts and Instructional Pictures: Teachers' Diagnostic Skills, Pedagogical Beliefs and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvany, Nele; Schroeder, Sascha; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Learning materials incorporating written texts as well as instructional pictures are the basis for learning in many subjects. However, text-picture integration makes high cognitive demands of learners, and it seems plausible that the development of this competence is influenced by teachers' instructional skills. The present studies investigated…

  17. Motor Variability during Sustained Contractions Increases with Cognitive Demand in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Noven, Marnie L; Pereira, Hugo M; Yoon, Tejin; Stevens, Alyssa A; Nielson, Kristy A; Hunter, Sandra K

    2014-01-01

    To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations) and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20.4 ± 2.1 year: 8 men, 9 women) and 17 older adults (68.8 ± 4.4 years: 9 men, 8 women) attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: (1) high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number); (2) low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by 1); and (3) control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p  Older adults had larger force fluctuations than young adults during: (1) the 5% MVC task as cognitive demand increased (p  = 0.007), and (2) the fatiguing contraction for all sessions (p  = 0.002). Time to task failure did not differ between sessions or age groups (p  > 0.05), but the variability between sessions (standard deviation of three sessions) was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, p  cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks that are relevant to functional and ergonomic in an aging workforce.

  18. eHealth literacy demands and cognitive processes underlying barriers in consumer health information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie V. Chan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumer eHealth tools play an increasingly important role in engaging patients as participants in managing their health and seeking health information. However, there is a documented gap between the skill and knowledge demands of eHealth systems and user competencies to benefit from these tools. Objective: This research aims to reveal the knowledge- and skill-related barriers to effective use of eHealth tools. Methods: We used a micro-analytic framework for characterizing the different cognitive dimensions of eHealth literacy to classify task demands and barriers that 20 participants experienced while performing online information-seeking and decision-making tasks. Results: Participants ranged widely in their task performance across all 6 tasks as measured by task scores and types of barriers encountered. The highest performing participant experienced only 14 barriers whereas the lowest scoring one experienced 153. A more detailed analysis of two tasks revealed that the highest number of incorrect answers and experienced barriers were caused by tasks requiring: (a Media literacy and Science literacy at high cognitive complexity levels and (b a combination of Numeracy and Information literacy at different cognitive complexity levels. Conclusions: Applying this type of analysis enabled us to characterize task demands by literacy type and by cognitive complexity. Mapping barriers to literacy types provided insight into the interaction between users and eHealth tasks. Although the gap between eHealth tools, users’ skills, and knowledge can be difficult to bridge, an understanding of the cognitive complexity and literacy demands can serve to reduce the gap between designer and consumer.

  19. Delivering Training for Highly Demanding Information Systems

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    Norton, Andrew Lawrence; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette May; Coulson-Thomas, Colin Joseph; Ashurst, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of research covering the training requirements of organisations implementing highly demanding information systems (HDISs). The aim of this paper is to help in the understanding of appropriate training requirements for such systems. Design/methodology/approach: This research investigates the training delivery within a…

  20. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the subjectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results showed......Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive processingdemands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were recorded...... that increasing noise levels had a greater impact on the perceived difficulty than sentence complexity. In contrast, the processing of complex sentences resulted in greater and more prolonged pupil dilations. The results suggest that while pupil dilations may correlate with cognitive processing demands, acoustic...

  1. Science teachers' learning to notice from video cases of the enactment of cognitively demanding instructional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Miray Tekkumru

    Members of a profession develop a professional vision that enables them to see and understand complex situations in particular ways. This study focuses on developing science teachers' professional vision by supporting their learning to attend to particular classroom interactions and make sense of them in particular ways. Specifically, this study investigated high school biology teachers' learning to notice in a professional development (PD) setting from video cases that depict classroom interactions during the enactment of high-level, cognitively demanding science tasks. A seven-session, video-based PD intervention in which teachers analyzed short video clips that illustrated students' engagement with cognitively demanding tasks was designed and implemented. The findings focused on changes in teacher noticing from pre- to post-PD as revealed through the analysis of two sets of baseline and exit interviews with each individual teacher as well as the analysis of particular PD sessions. According to the findings, there were mostly significant changes in what teachers attended to in the video cases and how they made sense of what they saw. In addition, there was a shift towards connecting the specifics of what they noticed in the video cases to the level or kind of student thinking as outlined in the Task Analysis Guide in Science framework. The findings are promising in terms of developing science teachers' professional vision of classroom interactions during the enactment of cognitively demanding tasks. The study findings provide implications for designing effective PD programs to support teachers' professional vision.

  2. Decision Making and the Avoidance of Cognitive Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; McGuire, Joseph T.; Rosen, Zev B.; Botvinick, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and economic theories have long maintained that actions are chosen so as to minimize demands for exertion or work, a principle sometimes referred to as the "law of less work". The data supporting this idea pertain almost entirely to demands for physical effort. However, the same minimization principle has often been assumed also to…

  3. Negative core affect and employee silence: How differences in activation, cognitive rumination, and problem-solving demands matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Hector P; Patterson, Malcolm G; Leiva, Pedro I

    2015-11-01

    Employees can help to improve organizational performance by sharing ideas, suggestions, or concerns about practices, but sometimes they keep silent because of the experience of negative affect. Drawing and expanding on this stream of research, this article builds a theoretical rationale based on core affect and cognitive appraisal theories to describe how differences in affect activation and boundary conditions associated with cognitive rumination and cognitive problem-solving demands can explain employee silence. Results of a diary study conducted with professionals from diverse organizations indicated that within-person low-activated negative core affect increased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive rumination was high. Furthermore, within-person high-activated negative core affect decreased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive problem-solving demand was high. Thus, organizations should manage conditions to reduce experiences of low-activated negative core affect because these feelings increase silence in individuals high in rumination. In turn, effective management of experiences of high-activated negative core affect can reduce silence for individuals working under high problem-solving demand situations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Efficient Kill-Save Ratios Ease Up the Cognitive Demands on Counterintuitive Moral Utilitarianism.

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    Trémolière, Bastien; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2014-04-10

    The dual-process model of moral judgment postulates that utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas (e.g., accepting to kill one to save five) are demanding of cognitive resources. Here we show that utilitarian responses can become effortless, even when they involve to kill someone, as long as the kill-save ratio is efficient (e.g., 1 is killed to save 500). In Experiment 1, participants responded to moral dilemmas featuring different kill-save ratios under high or low cognitive load. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants responded at their own pace or under time pressure. Efficient kill-save ratios promoted utilitarian responding and neutered the effect of load or time pressure. We discuss whether this effect is more easily explained by a parallel-activation model or by a default-interventionist model.

  5. special issue: Cognition, imagination and institutions in demand creation

    OpenAIRE

    Brian J. Loasby

    2001-01-01

    Formal rationality plays a limited role in human cognition, which originated in the creation of patterns to interpret phenomena and link phenomena with action. The creation of new patterns rests on imagination, not logic, typically stimulated by a perceived inadequacy in established patterns. Internal routines of the brain and external institutions form structures of cognitive capital; the institutions of markets, including money prices, aid the development of consumption capital, which simpl...

  6. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  7. Ocular accommodation and cognitive demand: An additional indicator besides pupil size and cardiovascular measures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschinski Wolfgang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess accommodation as a possible indicator of changes in the autonomic balance caused by altered cognitive demand. Accounting for accommodative responses from a human factors perspective may be motivated by the interest of designing virtual image displays or by establishing an autonomic indicator that allows for remote measurement at the human eye. Heart period, pulse transit time, and the pupillary response were considered as reference for possible closed-loop accommodative effects. Cognitive demand was varied by presenting monocularly numbers at a viewing distance of 5 D (20 cm which had to be read, added or multiplied; further, letters were presented in a "n-back" task. Results Cardiovascular parameters and pupil size indicated a change in autonomic balance, while error rates and reaction time confirmed the increased cognitive demand during task processing. An observed decrease in accommodation could not be attributed to the cognitive demand itself for two reasons: (1 the cognitive demand induced a shift in gaze direction which, for methodological reasons, accounted for a substantial part of the observed accommodative changes. (2 Remaining effects disappeared when the correctness of task processing was taken into account. Conclusion Although the expectation of accommodation as possible autonomic indicator of cognitive demand was not confirmed, the present results are informative for the field of applied psychophysiology noting that it seems not to be worthwhile to include closed-loop accommodation in future studies. From a human factors perspective, expected changes of accommodation due to cognitive demand are of minor importance for design specifications – of, for example, complex visual displays.

  8. An empirical investigation of operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center; Lewis, P.M. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Research

    1994-07-01

    This report documents the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally `situation assessment`, play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize procedures in responding to the events. The study examined crew performance in variants of two emergencies: (1) an Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accident and (2) a Loss of Heat Sink scenario. Data on operator performance were collected using training simulators at two plant sites. Up to 11 crews from each plant participated in each of two simulated emergencies for a total of 38 cases. Crew performance was videotaped and partial transcripts were produced and analyzed. The results revealed a number of instances where higher-level cognitive activities such as situation assessment and response planning enabled crews to handle aspects of the situation that were not fully addressed by the procedures. This report documents these cases and discusses their implications for the development and evaluation of training and control room aids, as well as for human reliability analyses.

  9. Stress reactions to cognitively demanding tasks and open-plan office noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of cognitively demanding work tasks and office noise on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiovascular responses and electromyography (EMG) activity in the trapezius muscles. METHODS: Ten female volunteers were exposed to simulated open-plan office noise for 35...... min (Leq 65 dBA), while engaged in cognitively demanding tasks. Task performance, self-rated stress and energy, affective state, perceived exertion in the shoulders and in the head, EMG in the left and right trapezius muscle, blood pressure, heart period length, HRV, and salivary cortisol were...... measured. RESULTS: Cognitively demanding work tasks were associated with changes in HRV, systolic blood pressure and EMG that reflects increased sympathetic activity in the autonomic nervous system. No effect of noise was observed, except for a higher rating of perceived exertion in the head and, contrary...

  10. Cognition of and Demand for Education and Teaching in Medical Statistics in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhou, Liang; Li, Gaoming; Yi, Dali; Wu, Xiaojiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Ling; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although a substantial number of studies focus on the teaching and application of medical statistics in China, few studies comprehensively evaluate the recognition of and demand for medical statistics. In addition, the results of these various studies differ and are insufficiently comprehensive and systematic. This investigation aimed to evaluate the general cognition of and demand for medical statistics by undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff in China. We performed a comprehensive database search related to the cognition of and demand for medical statistics from January 2007 to July 2014 and conducted a meta-analysis of non-controlled studies with sub-group analysis for undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff. There are substantial differences with respect to the cognition of theory in medical statistics among undergraduates (73.5%), graduates (60.7%), and medical staff (39.6%). The demand for theory in medical statistics is high among graduates (94.6%), undergraduates (86.1%), and medical staff (88.3%). Regarding specific statistical methods, the cognition of basic statistical methods is higher than of advanced statistical methods. The demand for certain advanced statistical methods, including (but not limited to) multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple linear regression, and logistic regression, is higher than that for basic statistical methods. The use rates of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and statistical analysis software (SAS) are only 55% and 15%, respectively. The overall statistical competence of undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff is insufficient, and their ability to practically apply their statistical knowledge is limited, which constitutes an unsatisfactory state of affairs for medical statistics education. Because the demand for skills in this area is increasing, the need to reform medical statistics education in China has become urgent.

  11. Cognition of and Demand for Education and Teaching in Medical Statistics in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaoming; Yi, Dali; Wu, Xiaojiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Ling; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a substantial number of studies focus on the teaching and application of medical statistics in China, few studies comprehensively evaluate the recognition of and demand for medical statistics. In addition, the results of these various studies differ and are insufficiently comprehensive and systematic. Objectives This investigation aimed to evaluate the general cognition of and demand for medical statistics by undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff in China. Methods We performed a comprehensive database search related to the cognition of and demand for medical statistics from January 2007 to July 2014 and conducted a meta-analysis of non-controlled studies with sub-group analysis for undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff. Results There are substantial differences with respect to the cognition of theory in medical statistics among undergraduates (73.5%), graduates (60.7%), and medical staff (39.6%). The demand for theory in medical statistics is high among graduates (94.6%), undergraduates (86.1%), and medical staff (88.3%). Regarding specific statistical methods, the cognition of basic statistical methods is higher than of advanced statistical methods. The demand for certain advanced statistical methods, including (but not limited to) multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple linear regression, and logistic regression, is higher than that for basic statistical methods. The use rates of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and statistical analysis software (SAS) are only 55% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion The overall statistical competence of undergraduates, graduates, and medical staff is insufficient, and their ability to practically apply their statistical knowledge is limited, which constitutes an unsatisfactory state of affairs for medical statistics education. Because the demand for skills in this area is increasing, the need to reform medical statistics education in China has become urgent

  12. Effective Performance Evaluation of On-Demand Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sethi, Sangita Pal, Ashima Rout

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To solveSpectrum decision and route selectionproblemwhich have vital role in cognitive radio adhoc network (CRAHN,many researchersdeveloped different methodology how efficientlyselect the proper route between source anddestination. In this paperit has beenanalysed theefficiency and routing load ofon-demand routingprotocolbased onad hoc on-demand distance vector(AODV routing protocolfor CRAHN. It observedthat the overall performanceof routing protocol inCRAHNis better at less numbers of secondary users(SUs presents in the Cognitive radio ad hocnetwork.

  13. Personality, risk cognitions and motivation related to demand of risk mitigation in transport among Norwegians

    OpenAIRE

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient knowledge regarding the role of personality traits, transport-related risk cognitions and safety motivation for demand for transport risk mitigation. The aim of this study is to test a model aimed to predict public demand for transport risk mitigation by these psychological risk constructs. A mailed self-completion questionnaire survey was conducted in a random sample of the Norwegian population aged 18–65 years obtained from the Norwegian population registry (n...

  14. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  15. Relating Aspects of Motivation to Facets of Mathematical Competence Varying in Cognitive Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    The author investigated the relationship between aspects of student motivation and performance on mathematical tasks varying in cognitive demand relevant to meeting the expectations of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSS-M). A sample of 479 primarily Latino middle school students completed established survey measures of…

  16. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  17. The impact of social context on learning and cognitive demands for interactive virtual human simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lyons

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Interactive virtual human (IVH simulations offer a novel method for training skills involving person-to-person interactions. This article examines the effectiveness of an IVH simulation for teaching medical students to assess rare cranial nerve abnormalities in both individual and small-group learning contexts. Individual (n = 26 and small-group (n = 30 interaction with the IVH system was manipulated to examine the influence on learning, learner engagement, perceived cognitive demands of the learning task, and instructional efficiency. Results suggested the IVH activity was an equally effective and engaging instructional tool in both learning structures, despite learners in the group learning contexts having to share hands-on access to the simulation interface. Participants in both conditions demonstrated a significant increase in declarative knowledge post-training. Operation of the IVH simulation technology imposed moderate cognitive demand but did not exceed the demands of the task content or appear to impede learning.

  18. Stress and eating: the effects of ego-threat and cognitive demand on food intake in restrained and emotional eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2004-08-01

    Restrained and emotional eaters overeat in response to stress. To compare differential effects of cognitive demand and ego-threatening stressors on subsequent chocolate intake, 38 females completed a neutral (control), an ego threatening and an incongruent Stroop colour-naming task on three separate occasions. Participants were assigned to four groups based on median-split scores on the restrained and emotional eating scales of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire-high restraint/high emotional, high restraint/low emotional, low restraint/high emotional and low restraint/low emotional. Higher response latencies were observed in the incongruent task, confirming its greater cognitive (attentional) demand. Overall intake was enhanced by 23% after ego-threat and 15% after the incongruent Stroop task relative to control. Restraint was associated with greater intake after both ego-threat and the incongruent task than in the control condition. In contrast, emotional eating was associated with greater intake after only the ego-threat, relative to control. A positive association between reaction time and subsequent intake in all conditions for high restraint/low emotional eaters provided support for the limited capacity hypothesis. Enhanced intake in emotional eaters is proposed to relate to escape from self-awareness. These findings demonstrate differential effects of threat and demand on stress-related eating in restrained and emotional eaters.

  19. Evidence that a transient but cognitively demanding process underlies forward blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Pei; Luhmann, Christian C

    2013-01-01

    Blocking is a learning phenomenon in which prior experience inhibits learning about novel cues. Though the phenomenon itself has been well documented, the details of blocking-related processes still remain contentious. Two experiments investigated whether participants were engaged in demanding cognitive processing during different portions of a standard blocking paradigm. Participants in Experiment 1 engaged in a simple secondary task while completing a standard blocking procedure. Results showed that performance on the secondary task was briefly diminished early in the second phase of the blocking paradigm, when the novel cue is first paired with the pretrained cue. Participants in Experiment 2 performed a difficult cognitive load task during either the early or the late portions of the second phase of blocking. The blocking effect was eliminated when learners were under load early in the second phase, but not when learners were under load late in the second phase. These results suggest that blocking relies on a cognitively demanding process with a distinct time course. Computational simulations illustrate how a model that includes top-down (i.e., cognitively demanding) attentional modulation can reproduce the observed behaviour. This suggests that purely associative processes are not sufficient to explain the observed behaviour. Implications for current accounts of blocking are discussed.

  20. Modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity: the role of aversive reinforcement, cognitive demand, and trait-BIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian; Beauducel, André

    2012-06-01

    According to Botvinick's (2007) integrative account, conflict monitoring is aversive because individuals anticipate cognitive demand, whereas the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (rRST) predicts that conflict processing is aversive because individuals anticipate aversive reinforcement of erroneous responses. Because these accounts give different reasons for the aversive aspects of conflict, we manipulated cognitive demand and the aversive reinforcement as a consequence of wrong choices in a go/no-go task. Thereby, we also aimed to investigate whether individual differences in conflict sensitivity (i.e., in trait anxiety, linked to high sensitivity of the behavioral inhibition system [trait-BIS]) represent the effects of aversive reinforcement and cognitive demand in conflict tasks. We expected that these manipulations would have effects on the frontal N2 component representing activity of the anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, higher-trait-BIS individuals should be more sensitive than lower-trait-BIS individuals to aversive effects in conflict situations, resulting in a more negative frontal N2 for higher-trait-BIS individuals. In Study 1, with N = 104 students, and Study 2, with N = 47 students, aversive reinforcement was manipulated in three levels (within-subjects factor) and cognitive demand in two levels (between-subjects factor). The behavioral findings from the go/no-go task with noncounterbalanced reinforcement levels (Study 1) could be widely replicated in a task with counterbalanced reinforcement levels (Study 2). The frontal mean no-go N2 amplitude and the frontal no-go N2 dipole captured predicted reinforcement-related variations of conflict monitoring, indicating that the anticipation of aversive reinforcement induces variations in conflict monitoring intensity in frontal brain areas. The aversive nature of conflict was underlined by the more pronounced conflict monitoring in higher- than in lower-trait-BIS individuals.

  1. Snack purchasing is healthier when the cognitive demands of choice are reduced: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julia L; Johnston, Marie; Campbell, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with inefficient executive (higher level cognitive) function have a reduced ability to resist dietary temptation. The present study aimed to design and test a theory-based point-of-purchase intervention for coffee shops that reduced the calorie content of customers' purchases by reducing the need for executive function (EF) at the moment of choice. Key facets of EF were identified by a multidisciplinary group and used to develop a point-of-purchase intervention (signage). This intervention was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a public coffee shop on consumer purchases of >20,000 snacks and drinks over 12 weeks. A sample of customers (n = 128) was recruited to complete an embedded cross-sectional study measuring EF strength, dietary intentions, typical purchases, and purchases made after exposure to the intervention. The proportion of snack purchases that were high in calorie reduced significantly (t(10) = 2.34, p = .04) in intervention weeks relative to control. High calorie drink purchases were also lower in intervention than control weeks, however, this difference was not significant (t(10) = 1.56, p = .15). On average, customers purchased items containing 66 calories < usual after exposure to the intervention. The magnitude of the intervention's positive effect on customer behavior increased as EF strength decreased (β = .24, p = .03). The calorie content of cafe purchases can be lowered by reducing the cognitive demands of healthy food choice at the moment of purchase, especially in those with poor EF. Environmental changes like these have the potential to help achieve population weight control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Blocking-out auditory distracters while driving : A cognitive strategy to reduce task-demands on the road

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, Ayca Berfu; Platteel, Samantha; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The current research examined how drivers handle task-demands induced by listening to the radio while driving. In particular, we explored the traces of a possible cognitive strategy that might be used by drivers to cope with task-demands, namely blocking-out auditory distracters. In Study 1 (N = 15)

  3. Blocking-out auditory distracters while driving : A cognitive strategy to reduce task-demands on the road

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, Ayca Berfu; Platteel, Samantha; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    The current research examined how drivers handle task-demands induced by listening to the radio while driving. In particular, we explored the traces of a possible cognitive strategy that might be used by drivers to cope with task-demands, namely blocking-out auditory distracters. In Study 1 (N =

  4. An Examination of the Role of Technological Tools in Relation to the Cognitive Demand of Mathematical Tasks in Secondary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Milan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of digital cognitive technologies in supporting students' mathematical thinking while engaging with instructional tasks. Specifically, the study sought to better understand how the use of technology is related to the cognitive demand of tasks. Data were collected in four secondary mathematics classrooms via…

  5. Identifying children who may be cognitively gifted: the gap between practical demands and scientific supply

    OpenAIRE

    KLAUS D. KUBINGER; STEFANA HOLOCHER-ERTL; CHRISTINE HOHENSINN

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to high cognitive ability assessment, traditional “IQ-diagnosis” has not proven to be particularly helpful. Psychological assessment aimed at promoting the development of gifted individuals requires a scientifically based theoretical model that identifies which cognitive strengths are necessary and which weaknesses can be compensated, and that takes the moderating effects of personality and environment into account when describing the interplay between ability and achievement. W...

  6. Functional brain connectivity and cognition: effects of adult age and task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ying-Hui; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Madden, David J

    2013-08-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has documented that patterns of intrinsic (resting state) functional connectivity (FC) among brain regions covary with individual measures of cognitive performance. Here, we examined the relation between intrinsic FC and a reaction time (RT) measure of performance, as a function of age group and task demands. We obtained filtered, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data, and RT measures of visual search performance, from 21 younger adults (19-29 years old) and 21 healthy, older adults (60-87 years old). Age-related decline occurred in the connectivity strength in multiple brain regions, consistent with previous findings. Among 8 pairs of regions, across somatomotor, orbitofrontal, and subcortical networks, increasing FC was associated with faster responding (lower RT). Relative to younger adults, older adults exhibited a lower strength of this RT-connectivity relation and greater disruption of this relation by a salient but irrelevant display item (color singleton distractor). Age-related differences in the covariation of intrinsic FC and cognitive performance vary as a function of task demands.

  7. Promoting Cognitive Flexibility Under Attention-demanding Conditions in Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowski, Christine T; Burk, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in cognitive flexibility and learning contributes to poorer quality of life. Thus, it is important to develop procedures that minimize age-related cognitive decline. Previous research has shown that, when young adult rats were trained in an attention-demanding task with a distracter, they learned a new task more quickly compared with rats trained in the same attention- demanding task without a distracter. The goal of the present experiment was to test whether this beneficial effect of distracter exposure was observed in aged rats. Male FBNF hybrid rats (n=20) trained in a two-lever visual sustained attention task that required discrimination of brief illumination of a centrally located panel light compared with trials when the light was not illuminated. At age 20 months, half of the animals received a flashing houselight distracter for the remaining testing sessions and the other animals did not. After 20 sessions, new task trials were interspersed within the sessions, when the rats received water access for pressing the lever under the left or right panel light after that light was illuminated. When 70% of the trials in a session were the new discrimination task, the distracter-exposed animals had higher accuracy in detecting the shortest signal in the remaining attention task trials compared with rats not exposed to the distracter. The present results suggest that aged animals' learning can benefit from overcoming distracter exposure, although not to the same extent as younger animals.

  8. Analyzing the pupil response due to increased cognitive demand: an independent component analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Baccino, T

    2010-07-01

    Pupillometry is used to indicate the relative extent of processing demands within or between tasks; however, this analysis is complicated by the fact that the pupil also responds to low-level aspects of visual input. First, we attempted to identify "principal" components that contribute to the pupil response by computing a principal component analysis (PCA) and second, to reveal "hidden" sources within the pupil response by calculating an independent component analysis (ICA). Pupil response data were collected while subjects read, added or multiplied numbers. A set of 3 factors/components were identified as resembling the individual pupil responses, but only one ICA component changed in concordance to the cognitive demand. This component alone accounted for about 50% of the variance of the pupil response during the most demanding task, i.e. the multiplication task. The highest impact of this factor was observed for 2000 to 300ms after task onset. Even though we did not attempt to answer the question of the functional background of the components 1 and 3, we speculated that component 2 might reflect the effort a subject engages to perform a task with greater difficulty.

  9. Investigating the Effects of Concurrent Performance of Physical and Cognitive Demanding Task in Paced Assembly Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahmed Shaikh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to investigate the effects of pacing on aspects of performance at an assembly task and on the operators' responses related to work behaviour, perceived workload and perceived stress. A particular objective of the study was to investigate whether physical and cognitive demands may interact in their influences on these effects. An assembly task was simulated in the laboratory and the level of pacing imposed, work height and memory load within the task were all varied. The results showed that the type of pacing commonly imposed (as is common with a lean manufacturing Takt time system in industry can significantly affect both performance and perceived workload and stress. Physical demands (through work height affecting posture and mental demand (through memory load were also found to have significant effects, as would be expected from the many studies of these in the literature. More importantly, some interactions were found between pacing and work height in their effects on quality of assembly and the operator's own rating of performance, and between work height and memory load in their effects on errors. These findings will need to be taken into account by companies when implementing Takt time systems.

  10. Insula Demonstrates a Non-Linear Response to Varying Demand for Cognitive Control and Weaker Resting Connectivity With the Executive Control Network in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedota, John R; Matous, Allison L; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Gu, Hong; Ross, Thomas J; Stein, Elliot A

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in cognitive control processes are a primary characteristic of nicotine addiction. However, while network-based connectivity measures of dysfunction have frequently been observed, empirical evidence of task-based dysfunction in these processes has been inconsistent. Here, in a sample of smokers (n=35) and non-smokers (n=21), a previously validated parametric flanker task is employed to characterize addiction-related alterations in responses to varying (ie, high, intermediate, and low) demands for cognitive control. This approach yields a demand-response curve that aims to characterize potential non-linear responses to increased demand for control, including insensitivities or lags in fully activating the cognitive control network. We further used task-based differences in activation between groups as seeds for resting-state analysis of network dysfunction in an effort to more closely link prior inconsistencies in task-related activation with evidence of impaired network connectivity in smokers. For both smokers and non-smokers, neuroimaging results showed similar increases in activation in brain areas associated with cognitive control. However, reduced activation in right insula was seen only in smokers and only when processing intermediate demand for cognitive control. Further, in smokers, this task-modulated right insula showed weaker functional connectivity with the superior frontal gyrus, a component of the task-positive executive control network. These results demonstrate that the neural instantiation of salience attribution in smokers is both more effortful to fully activate and has more difficulty communicating with the exogenous, task-positive, executive control network. Together, these findings further articulate the cognitive control dysfunction associated with smoking and illustrate a specific brain circuit potentially responsible.

  11. Gaze-Contingent Motor Channelling, haptic constraints and associated cognitive demand for robotic MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, George P; Kwok, Ka-Wai; James, David R C; Leff, Daniel; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2012-04-01

    The success of MIS is coupled with an increasing demand on surgeons' manual dexterity and visuomotor coordination due to the complexity of instrument manipulations. The use of master-slave surgical robots has avoided many of the drawbacks of MIS, but at the same time, has increased the physical separation between the surgeon and the patient. Tissue deformation combined with restricted workspace and visibility of an already cluttered environment can raise critical issues related to surgical precision and safety. Reconnecting the essential visuomotor sensory feedback is important for the safe practice of robot-assisted MIS procedures. This paper introduces a novel gaze-contingent framework for real-time haptic feedback and virtual fixtures by transforming visual sensory information into physical constraints that can interact with the motor sensory channel. We demonstrate how motor tracking of deforming tissue can be made more effective and accurate through the concept of Gaze-Contingent Motor Channelling. The method is also extended to 3D by introducing the concept of Gaze-Contingent Haptic Constraints where eye gaze is used to dynamically prescribe and update safety boundaries during robot-assisted MIS without prior knowledge of the soft-tissue morphology. Initial validation results on both simulated and robot assisted phantom procedures demonstrate the potential clinical value of the technique. In order to assess the associated cognitive demand of the proposed concepts, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy is used and preliminary results are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Tamara G; Gleason, Lauren J; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N; Schmitt, Eva M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Saczynski, Jane S; Gross, Alden L; Bean, Jonathan F; Brown, Cynthia J; Fick, Donna M; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A; Marcantonio, Edward R; Inouye, Sharon K

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Expert panel survey. Web-based platform. Eleven experts from 8 academic medical centers and 300 community-dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective noncardiac surgery from 2 academic medical centers. Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychologic tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, whereas walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychologic performance (r = 0.13-0.23, P < .05) and largely physical activities correlated with physical performance (r = 0.15-0.46, P < .05). Quantifying the degree of cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, postacute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Generalizability Investigation of Cognitive Demand and Rigor Ratings of Items and Standards in an Alignment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Allison; Seburn, Mary; Conley, David; Snow, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In alignment studies, expert raters evaluate assessment items against standards and ratings are used to compute various alignment indices. Questions about rater reliability, however, are often ignored or inadequately addressed. This paper reports the results of a generalizability theory study of cognitive demand and rigor ratings of assessment…

  14. Cognitive and emotional demands of black humour processing: the role of intelligence, aggressiveness and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Hergovich, Andreas; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Stoettner, Susanne; Bunda, Iris; Witting, Andrea; Seidler, Melanie; Moser, Reinhilde; Kacena, Stefanie; Jaeckle, David; Loader, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Auff, Eduard

    2017-05-01

    Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. Cluster analysis yields three groups comprising following properties: (1) moderate black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence; low mood disturbance and moderate aggressiveness; (2) low black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence, high mood disturbance and high aggressiveness; and (3) high black humour preference and high comprehension; high nonverbal and verbal intelligence; no mood disturbance and low aggressiveness. Age and gender do not differ significantly, differences in education level can be found. Black humour preference and comprehension are positively associated with higher verbal and nonverbal intelligence as well as higher levels of education. Emotional instability and higher aggressiveness apparently lead to decreased levels of pleasure when dealing with black humour. These results support the hypothesis that humour processing involves cognitive as well as affective components and suggest that these variables influence the execution of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in the course of humour processing.

  15. How Do Clinical Information Systems Affect the Cognitive Demands of General Practitioners?: Usability Study with a Focus on Cognitive Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ariza

    2015-11-01

    than others and should be considered carefully during the design of a system.• GPs did not report overall very high levels of subjective cognitive workload when undertaking common clinical tasks with their systems.• Further usability studies on GP systems should focus on the tasks incurring higher cognitive workload.• Users, policymakers, and designers and developers should remain aware of the importance of usability in system design. 

  16. Working memory capacity and mind-wandering during low-demand cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K; Unsworth, Nash

    2017-07-01

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) typically predict reduced rates of mind-wandering during laboratory tasks (Randall, Oswald, & Beier, 2014). However, some studies have shown a positive relationship between WMC and mind-wandering during particularly low-demand tasks (Levinson, Smallwood, & Davidson, 2012; Rummel & Boywitt, 2014; Zavagnin, Borella, & De Beni, 2014). More specifically, Baird, Smallwood, and Schooler (2011) found that when individuals with greater WMC do mind-wander, they tend entertain more future-oriented thoughts. This piece of evidence is frequently used to support the context-regulation hypothesis, which states that using spare capacity to think productively (e.g. plan) during relatively simple tasks is indicative of a cognitive system that is functioning in an adaptive manner (Smallwood & Andrews-Hanna, 2013). The present investigation failed to replicate the finding that WMC is positively related to future-oriented off-task thought, which has implications for several theoretical viewpoints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effective Management of High-Use/High-Demand Space Using Restaurant-Style Pagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The library landscape is changing at a fast pace, with an increase in the demand for study space including quiet, individualized study space; open group study space; and as enclosed group study space. In large academic libraries, managing limited high-demand resources is crucial and is partially being driven by the greater emphasis on group…

  18. Assessing the Cognitive Demands of a Century of Reading Curricula: An Analysis of Reading Text and Comprehension Tasks from 1910 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert J.; Lu, Xiaofei; Baker, David P.; Ray, Melissa N.; Eckert, Sarah A.; Gamson, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the cognitive demands of reading curricula from 1910 to 2000. We considered both the nature of the text used and the comprehension tasks asked of students in determining the cognitive demands of the curricula. Contrary to the common assumption of a trend of simplification of the texts and comprehension tasks in third-…

  19. Identifying children who may be cognitively gifted: the gap between practical demands and scientific supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLAUS D. KUBINGER

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to high cognitive ability assessment, traditional “IQ-diagnosis” has not proven to be particularly helpful. Psychological assessment aimed at promoting the development of gifted individuals requires a scientifically based theoretical model that identifies which cognitive strengths are necessary and which weaknesses can be compensated, and that takes the moderating effects of personality and environment into account when describing the interplay between ability and achievement. While such models – including the one described in the following paper – do exist, they currently lack an adequate theoretical foundation or at least a convincing empirical validation. Science still stands before the challenge of offering appropriate psychodiagnostic instruments to measure model components while fulfilling practitioners’ requirements. The following work describes a prototypic example of how such requirements might be met for ability testing. Yet in terms of personality and environmental variables, particularly caregiving, currently available methods are wholly unsuitable for meeting intended goals. Systematic behavioral observation offers a possible solution. Its validity, objectivity, comprehensiveness and efficiency in terms of high ability testing – as well as that of interview guides – must, however, be further explored.

  20. Generalist genes and high cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The concept of generalist genes operating across diverse domains of cognitive abilities is now widely accepted. Much less is known about the etiology of the high extreme of performance. Is there more specialization at the high extreme? Using a representative sample of 4,000 12-year-old twin pairs from the UK Twins Early Development Study, we investigated the genetic and environmental overlap between web-based tests of general cognitive ability, reading, mathematics and language performance for the top 15% of the distribution using DF extremes analysis. Generalist genes are just as evident at the high extremes of performance as they are for the entire distribution of abilities and for cognitive disabilities. However, a smaller proportion of the phenotypic intercorrelations appears to be explained by genetic influences for high abilities.

  1. ICT Solutions for Highly-Customized Water Demand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Cominola, A.; Castelletti, A.; Fraternali, P.; Guardiola, J.; Barba, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The recent deployment of smart metering networks is opening new opportunities for advancing the design of residential water demand management strategies (WDMS) relying on improved understanding of water consumers' behaviors. Recent applications showed that retrieving information on users' consumption behaviors, along with their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas where targeting water saving efforts, and to design user-tailored WDMS. In this study, we explore the potential of ICT-based solutions in supporting the design and implementation of highly customized WDMS. On one side, the collection of consumption data at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires big data analytics and machine learning techniques to extract typical consumption features from the metered population of water users. On the other side, ICT solutions and gamifications can be used as effective means for facilitating both users' engagement and the collection of socio-psychographic users' information. This latter allows interpreting and improving the extracted profiles, ultimately supporting the customization of WDMS, such as awareness campaigns or personalized recommendations. Our approach is implemented in the SmartH2O platform and demonstrated in a pilot application in Valencia, Spain. Results show how the analysis of the smart metered consumption data, combined with the information retrieved from an ICT gamified web user portal, successfully identify the typical consumption profiles of the metered users and supports the design of alternative WDMS targeting the different users' profiles.

  2. Musculoskeletal demands of progressions for the longswing on high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2007-09-01

    Kinetic analyses of the chalked bar longswing on high bar and its associated progressions were used to explain musculoskeletal contributions during the performance of these skills. Data on four international male gymnasts performing three series of chalked bar longswings and eight progressions were recorded. Customized body segment inertia parameters, two-dimensional kinematics (50 Hz), and bar forces (1000 Hz) were used as input to inverse dynamic modelling. The analysis focused on the relative contributions of the knees, hips, and shoulders with root mean squared differences between the chalked bar longswing and the progressions being used to rank the progressions. Seventy per cent of the total work occurred between 200 degrees and 240 degrees of angular rotation in the longswing, 67% of which was contributed by the shoulders. The shoulders were also dominant in all progressions, with the largest such contribution occurring in the looped bar longswing with "no action". The least similar progression was the looped bar pendulum swing, while the most similar was the chalked bar bent knee longswing. This study provides a useful means for ranking progressions based on their kinetic similarity to the chalked bar longswing and builds on earlier research in identifying that progressions can be classified into those similar in physical demand (kinetics) and those similar in geometry (kinematics).

  3. Virtual slides: high-quality demand, physical limitations, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz-Krieger, Katharina; Glatz, Dieter; Mihatsch, Michael J

    2003-10-01

    Virtual slides (VSs) have been around since the beginning of telepathology. As recently as a couple of years ago, only single small images could be acquired, and their distribution was limited to e-mail at best. Today, whole slides can be acquired, covering an area up to 100,000 times larger than that possible only a few years ago. Moreover, advanced Internet and world-wide web technologies enable delivery of those images to a broad audience. Despite considerable advances in technology, few good examples of VSs for public use can be found on the web. One of the reasons for this is a lack of sophisticated and integrated commercial solutions covering the needs from acquisition to delivery at reasonable cost. This article describes physical and technical limitations of the VS technology to clarify the demands on a VS acquisition system. A new type of web-based VS viewer (vMic; http://alf3.urz.unibas.ch/vmic/) open to public use is introduced, allowing anyone to set up a VS system with high usability at low cost.

  4. Approach to Learning, the Cognitive Demands of Assessment, and Achievement in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Leslie O.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to determine first-year physics students' approaches to learning, the intellectual demands of their exams (using Bloom's taxonomy), and correlations between the approach to learning, assessment demands, and student performance. Found that most students approached physics with the intention of memorizing formulae rather than understanding…

  5. Investigation on Cognitive Status and Demands for HPV Infection Knowledge among Spouses Whose Wife Infected with High Risk HPV%高危型人乳头瘤病毒感染女性的配偶感染认知及需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学伟; 赵学英; 刘京生; 杜昆; 赵海英

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cognitive status and demands for HPV infection knowledge a-mong spouses whose wife infected with high risk HPV. Methods: The HPV infection knowledge and their de-tection wishes of 372 men whose wife infected with high risk HPV were investigated by a questionnaire. Re-sults:365 valid questionnaires were collected, the valid rate was 98.1%. HPV infection knowledge awareness rate of the male was 32.3%. Cognitive degree was related to their age, residence, educational levels and in-comes. 93.7% of the men agreed his wife to receive HPV detection, but only 34.5% of the men have wish of their own. The channel which men want to obtain HPV-related knowledge were network information platform, medical institutions and traditional information media. Conclusion: The men whose wife infected with high risk HPV are lack of HPV infection knowledge, it is necessary to carry out health education of HPV infection knowledge among infected women’s husband.%目的:了解高危型人乳头瘤病毒( human papilloma virus,HPV)感染女性的配偶对 HPV 感染知识的认知状况及需求情况。方法:对372例高危型 HPV 检测阳性女性的配偶进行 HPV 感染知识和 HPV 检测意愿的问卷调查。结果:回收有效问卷365份,有效率98.1%。 HPV 感染知识问卷部分回答全部正确率为4.4%(16/365)。各单项知识的知晓率均未超过40%。认知度与年龄、居住地、文化程度、收入等有关。93.7%的男性愿意妻子接受 HPV 检测,34.5%的男性愿意自己接受 HPV 检测。男性希望获取 HPV 相关知识的渠道为网络信息平台、医疗卫生机构和传统信息媒介。结论:感染高危型HPV 女性的配偶对 HPV 感染知识匮乏,有必要对其开展 HPV 知识的健康教育。

  6. High resolution heat atlases for demand and supply mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Möller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions of heat demand, low-carbon and renewable energy sources, and district heating are key elements in 100% renewable energy systems. Appraisal of district heating along with energy efficient buildings and individual heat supply requires a geographical representation of heat demand, energy efficiency and energy supply. The present paper describes a Heat Atlas built around a spatial database using geographical information systems (GIS. The present atlas allows for per-building calculations of potentials and costs of energy savings, connectivity to existing district heat, and current heat supply and demand. For the entire building mass a conclusive link is established between the built environment and its heat supply. The expansion of district heating; the interconnection of distributed district heating systems; or the question whether to invest in ultra-efficient buildings with individual supply, or in collective heating using renewable energy for heating the current building stock, can be based on improved data.

  7. High resolution heat atlases for demand and supply mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Significant reductions of heat demand, low-carbon and renewable energy sources, and district heating are key elements in 100% renewable energy systems. Appraisal of district heating along with energy efficient buildings and individual heat supply requires a geographical representation of heat dem...

  8. Is seeking bad mood cognitively demanding? Contra-hedonic orientation and working-memory capacity in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Schmiedek, Florian; Wagner, Gert G; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-06-01

    Hedonism, or wanting to feel good, is central to human motivation. At times, however, people also seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect, and this can be instrumental for the later attainment of their goals. Here, we investigate the assumption that such contra-hedonic orientation is cognitively more demanding than prohedonic orientation, above and beyond the effects of momentary affective experience. We provided 378 participants with mobile phones that they carried with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants at least 54 times to report their current affect-regulation orientation and to work on two trials of a cognitively demanding working memory task. As expected, contra-hedonic orientation was substantially less prevalent than prohedonic orientation. It was reported in 15% of the measurement occasions. Participants who reported on average more contra-hedonic orientation showed lower average working memory performance throughout the study interval. Further, controlling for the effects of accompanying affective experiences, momentary occurrences of contra-hedonic orientation were associated with temporary declines in working memory performance within individuals, and this could neither be explained by lacking task compliance nor by other characteristics of the individual or the situation. Prohedonic orientation showed a considerably smaller association with working memory performance. These findings are consistent with the view that contra-hedonic orientation is accompanied by momentarily more diminished cognitive resources than is prohedonic orientation.

  9. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    automobiles. ?? Community Noise: Hub and smaller GA airports are facing increasing noise restrictions, and while commercial airliners have dramatically decreased their community noise footprint over the past 30 years, GA aircraft noise has essentially remained same, and moreover, is located in closer proximity to neighborhoods and businesses. ?? Operating Costs: GA operating costs have risen dramatically due to average fuel costs of over $6 per gallon, which has constrained the market over the past decade and resulted in more than 50% lower sales and 35% less yearly operations. Infusion of autonomy and electric propulsion technologies can accomplish not only a transformation of the GA market, but also provide a technology enablement bridge for both larger aircraft and the emerging civil Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) markets. The NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) project successfully used a similar approach to enable the introduction of primary composite structures and flat panel displays in the 1990s, establishing both the technology and certification standardization to permit quick adoption through partnerships with industry, academia, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Regional and airliner markets are experiencing constant pressure to achieve decreasing levels of community emissions and noise, while lowering operating costs and improving safety. But to what degree can these new technology frontiers impact aircraft safety, the environment, operations, cost, and performance? Are the benefits transformational enough to fundamentally alter aircraft competiveness and productivity to permit much greater aviation use for high speed and On-Demand Mobility (ODM)? These questions were asked in a Zip aviation system study named after the Zip Car, an emerging car-sharing business model. Zip Aviation investigates the potential to enable new emergent markets for aviation that offer "more flexibility than the existing transportation solutions

  10. Cognitive load and autonomic response patterns under negative priming demand in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemche, Erwin; Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L; Gasston, David; Williams, Steven C R; Giampietro, Vincent P

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups. Evoked haemodynamic responses for basic Stroop/negative priming activations were compared. For basic Stroop to neutral contrast, patients with DPRD differed in the location (inferior vs. superior lobule) of the parietal region involved, but showed similar activations in the left frontal region. In addition, patients with DPRD also co-activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (BA9) and posterior cingulate cortex (BA31), which were also found to be the main between-group difference regions. These regions furthermore showed connectivity with frequency of depersonalization states. Evoked haemodynamic responses drawn from regions of interest indicated significant between-group differences in 30-40% of time points. Brain-behaviour correlations differed mainly in laterality, yet only slightly in regions. A reversal of autonomic patterning became evident in patients with DPRD for cognitive load spans, indicating less effective arousal suppression under cognitive stress - patients with DPRD showed positive associations of cognitive load with autonomic responses, whereas controls exhibit respective inverse association. Overall, the results of the present study show only minor executive cognitive peculiarities, but further support the notion of abnormalities in autonomic functioning in patients with DPRD.

  11. Extending hierarchical task analysis to identify cognitive demands and information design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Meakin, George H; Beatty, Paul C W

    2011-07-01

    While hierarchical task analysis (HTA) is well established as a general task analysis method, there appears a need to make more explicit both the cognitive elements of a task and design requirements that arise from an analysis. One way of achieving this is to make use of extensions to the standard HTA. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the use of two such extensions--the sub-goal template (SGT) and the skills-rules-knowledge (SRK) framework--to analyse the cognitive activity that takes place during the planning and delivery of anaesthesia. In quantitative terms, the two methods were found to have relatively poor inter-rater reliability; however, qualitative evidence suggests that the two methods were nevertheless of value in generating insights about anaesthetists' information handling and cognitive performance. Implications for the use of an extended HTA to analyse work systems are discussed.

  12. Emotional labor demands and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, Theresa M; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Rotundo, Maria

    2004-08-01

    The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level. Theories describing the expected effects of job demands and working conditions on wages are described. Results suggest that higher levels of emotional labor demands are associated with lower wage rates for jobs low in cognitive demands and with higher wage rates for jobs high in cognitive demands. Implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2004 APA

  13. Developmental Demands of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Children and Adolescents: Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Judy; Frankel, Sarah A.; Herrington, Catherine G.

    2017-01-01

    Although some treatments for depression in children and adolescents have been found to be efficacious, the effects sizes have tended to be modest. Thus, there is considerable room to improve upon existing depression treatments. Some children may respond poorly because they do not yet have the cognitive, social, or emotional maturity needed to understand and apply the skills being taught in therapy. Therefore, treatments for depression may need to be tailored to match children’s ability to both comprehend and implement the therapeutic techniques. This paper outlines the steps needed for such developmental tailoring: (1) specify the skills being taught in depression treatments; (2) identify what cognitive, social, and emotional developmental abilities are needed to attain these skills; (3) describe the normative developmental course of these skills, and how to determine a child’s developmental level; and (4) use this information to design an individualized treatment plan. Possible approaches to intervening include: alter the therapy to meet the child’s level of development, train the child on the skills needed to engage in the therapy, or apply a dynamic assessment approach that integrates evaluation into treatment and measures children’s potential as well as their current abilities. PMID:27019397

  14. Developmental Demands of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Children and Adolescents: Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Judy; Frankel, Sarah A; Herrington, Catherine G

    2016-01-01

    Although some treatments for depression in children and adolescents have been found to be efficacious, the effects sizes have tended to be modest. Thus, there is considerable room to improve upon existing depression treatments. Some children may respond poorly because they do not yet have the cognitive, social, or emotional maturity needed to understand and apply the skills being taught in therapy. Therefore, treatments for depression may need to be tailored to match children's ability to both comprehend and implement the therapeutic techniques. This review outlines the steps needed for such developmental tailoring: (a) Specify the skills being taught in depression treatments; (b) identify what cognitive, social, and emotional developmental abilities are needed to attain these skills; (c) describe the normative developmental course of these skills and how to determine a child's developmental level; and (d) use this information to design an individualized treatment plan. Possible approaches to intervening include: alter the therapy to meet the child's level of development, train the child on the skills needed to engage in the therapy, or apply a dynamic assessment approach that integrates evaluation into treatment and measures children's current abilities as well as their potential.

  15. Learner-Learner Interaction during Collaborative Pragmatic Tasks: The Role of Cognitive and Pragmatic Task Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YouJin; Taguchi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Previous task complexity studies have suggested that learners produce more negotiation of meaning opportunities during complex tasks than simple tasks (Robinson, 2011). The present study builds on the existing task complexity literature by examining the impact of task complexity and pragmatic situational demands on the number of learning…

  16. The Language, Working Memory, and Other Cognitive Demands of Verbal Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of the cognitive processes supporting verbal abilities, the underlying structure and interrelationships between common verbal measures were investigated. Methods: An epidemiological sample (n = 374) of school-aged children completed standardized tests of language, intelligence, and short-term and working…

  17. Effects of a Cognitively Demanding Aerobic Intervention During Recess on Children's Physical Fitness and Executive Functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Smith, Joanne; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program including both aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities on children's physical fitness and executive functions. Children from 3 primary schools (aged 8-12 years) were recruited. A

  18. On achieving network throughput demand in cognitive radio-based home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarijari, M.A.B.; Abdullah, M.S.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Van der Veen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of wireless devices for in-house use is causing a more intense use of the spectrum to satisfy the required quality-of-service such as throughput. This has contributed to spectrum scarcity and interference problems particularly in home area networks (HAN). Cognitive radio (CR) has

  19. Electricity demand profile with high penetration of heat pumps in Nordic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the heat pump (HP) demand profile with high HP penetration in the Nordic area in order to achieve the carbon neutrality power system. The calculation method in the European Standard EN14825 was used to estimate the HP electricity demand profile. The study results show there wi......This paper presents the heat pump (HP) demand profile with high HP penetration in the Nordic area in order to achieve the carbon neutrality power system. The calculation method in the European Standard EN14825 was used to estimate the HP electricity demand profile. The study results show...... there will be high power demand from HPs and the selection of supplemental heating for heat pumps has a big impact on the peak electrical power load of heating. The study in this paper gives an estimate of the scale of the electricity demand with high penetration of heat pumps in the Nordic area....

  20. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, Judith K

    2006-07-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in work ability in the context of high-demand jobs. In this paper, the work ability of ageing workers is addressed according to aspects of diversity in specific job demands and the research methods that are needed to shed light upon the relevant associated questions. From the international literature, a body of evidence was elicited concerning rates of chronological ageing in distinct bodily systems and functions. Intra-age-cohort differences in capacities and work ability, however, require (not yet existing) valid estimates of functional age or biological age indices for the specific populations of workers in high-demand jobs. Many studies have drawn on the highly demanding work of fire-fighters, ambulance workers, police officers, medical specialists, pilots/astronauts and submarine officers. Specific job demands in these jobs can be physical, mental or psychosocial in origin but may cause combined task-level loadings. Therefore, the assessment of single demands probably will not reveal enough relevant information about work ability in high-demand jobs and there will be a call for more integrated measures. Existing studies have used a variety of methodologies to address parts of the issue: task analyses for quantifying physical work demands, observations of psychological and physiological parameters, measures of psychosocial work demands and health complaints. Specific details about the work ability of ageing workers in high-demand jobs are scarce. In general, specific demands are more likely to overtax the capacities of older workers than those of younger workers in high-demand jobs, implying greater repercussions for health, although these effects also vary considerably

  1. Effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication and hangover on cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nicole; Gussek, Philipp; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2016-10-27

    The effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication on cognitive flexibility processes are not well understood, and processes related to hangover after intoxication have remained even more elusive. Similarly, it is unknown in how far the complexity of cognitive flexibility processes is affected by intoxication and hangover effects. We performed a neurophysiological study applying high density electroencephalography (EEG) recording to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) and perform source localization in a task switching paradigm which varied the complexity of task switching by means of memory demands. The results show that high-dose ethanol intoxication only affects task switching (i.e. cognitive flexibility processes) when memory processes are required to control task switching mechanisms, suggesting that even high doses of ethanol compromise cognitive processes when they are highly demanding. The EEG and source localization data show that these effects unfold by modulating response selection processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Perceptual and attentional selection processes as well as working memory processes were only unspecifically modulated. In all subprocesses examined, there were no differences between the sober and hangover states, thus suggesting a fast recovery of cognitive flexibility after high-dose ethanol intoxication. We assume that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) system accounts for the observed effects, while they can hardly be explained by the dopaminergic system. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Functional Outcomes in High-function-demand patients after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Calderón, Santiago A; Shen, Jianhua; Doumato, Diana F; Zelicof, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is a safe last-resort treatment for osteoarthritis that has excellent results in low-function-demand elderly patients. Current implants offer the same results in high-function-demand patients. However, supportive data do not exist.One-year Krackow Activity Scores (KAS) of 552 patients from 2 prospective studies were used to retrospectively determine low- and high-function-demand populations. Low function demand was defined as a KAS between 1 and 9 points, and high function demand was defined as a KAS between 10 and 18 points. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 and 2 years postoperatively per the Knee Society Score-function domain, KAS, SF-36, range of motion, and pain. Comparability between groups was tested for demographics and comorbidities.Both groups showed significant improvement in function, range of motion, and pain 2 years postoperatively. High-function-demand patients had comparable improvement in function compared with low-function-demand patients. Excellent function can be achieved in high-function-demand patients.

  3. Staying Well and Engaged When Demands Are High: The Role of Psychological Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Binnewies, Carmen; Mojza, Eva J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study examined the relation between job demands and psychological detachment from work during off-job time (i.e., mentally switching off) with psychological well-being and work engagement. They hypothesized that high job demands and low levels of psychological detachment predict poor well-being and low work engagement. They…

  4. Career Technical Education: Keeping Adult Learners Competitive for High-Demand Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In today's turbulent economy, how can adult workers best position themselves to secure jobs in high-demand fields where they are more likely to remain competitive and earn more? Further, how can employers up-skill current employees so that they meet increasingly complex job demands? Research indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) aligned…

  5. On the Demand for High-Beta Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Simutin, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have documented that pension plan sponsors often monitor a fund’s performance relative to a benchmark. We use a first-difference approach to show that in an effort to beat benchmarks, fund managers controlling large pension assets tend to increase their exposure to high-beta stocks......, while aiming to maintain tracking errors around the benchmark. The findings support theoretical conjectures that benchmarking can lead managers to tilt their portfolio toward high-beta stocks and away from low-beta stocks, which can reinforce observed pricing anomalies....

  6. The nature of mind wandering during reading varies with the cognitive control demands of the reading strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D; Schneider, Walter; McNamara, Danielle S

    2013-11-20

    Prior studies of mind wandering find the default network active during mind wandering, but these studies have yielded mixed results concerning the role of cognitive control brain regions during mind wandering. Mind wandering often interferes with reading comprehension, and prior neuroimaging studies of discourse comprehension and strategic reading comprehension have shown that there are at least two networks of brain regions that support strategic discourse comprehension: a domain-general control network and a network of regions supporting coherence-building comprehension processes. The present study was designed to further examine the neural correlates of mind wandering by examining mind wandering during strategic reading comprehension. Participants provided ratings of mind wandering frequency that were used to investigate interactions between the strategy being performed and brain regions whose activation was modulated by wind wandering. The results support prior findings showing that cognitive control regions are at times more active during mind wandering than during a task with low control demands, such as rereading. This result provides an initial examination of the neural correlates of mind wandering during discourse comprehension and shows that the processes being engaged by the primary task need to be considered when studying mind wandering. The results also replicate, in a different learning domain, prior findings of key brain areas associated with different reading strategies.

  7. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes.

  8. Age Trajectory of High Cognitive Functioning Among the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    individual differences. This decline of cognitive functioning at an individual level may suggest that cognitive function at a population level decreases with age. However, in the Danish 1905 cohort, the age trajectory of both average and high cognitive functioning is constant at a population level from......The chance of reaching age 90 years has increased markedly over the last 50 years, and this chance will probably continue to increase with successive cohorts. There is a widespread concern that a large fraction of the future oldest old will be cognitively impaired. However, there is strong evidence...... that later born cohorts may have better late-life cognitive function than earlier born cohorts as studies have shown a decline both in the prevalence and in the incidence of dementia. Cognitive functioning generally declines after the age of 40 years at an individual level, but there are substantial...

  9. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral...... theory based training (CBTr). Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT...... aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr...

  10. Cognitive Inhibition in Elderly High-Lethality Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A.; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition – active suppression of task-irrelevant processing – is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. Methods 102 participants aged 60+ (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. Results High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared to psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, MMSE score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Conclusions Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. PMID:24816626

  11. Optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Fahri; Tuna, M Cihat; Baylar, Ahmet; Ozturk, Mualla

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is an important component of water quality and its ability to sustain life. Water aeration is the process of introducing air into a body of water to increase its oxygen saturation. Water aeration can be accomplished in a variety of ways, for instance, closed-conduit aeration. High-speed flow in a closed conduit involves air-water mixture flow. The air flow results from the subatmospheric pressure downstream of the gate. The air entrained by the high-speed flow is supplied by the air vent. The air entrained into the flow in the form of a large number of bubbles accelerates oxygen transfer and hence also increases aeration efficiency. In the present work, the optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits was studied experimentally. Results showed that aeration efficiency increased with the air-demand ratio to a certain point and then aeration efficiency did not change with a further increase of the air-demand ratio. Thus, there was an optimum value for the air-demand ratio, depending on the Froude number, which provides maximum aeration efficiency. Furthermore, a design formula for aeration efficiency was presented relating aeration efficiency to the air-demand ratio and Froude number.

  12. High visual demand following theta burst stimulation modulates the effect on visual cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Sabrina; Kammer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Modulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) depend on the activity of the stimulated cortical area before, during, and even after application. In the present study, we investigated the effects of theta burst stimulation (TBS) on visual cortex excitability using phosphene threshold (PTs). In a between-group design either continuous or intermittent TBS was applied with 100% of individual PT intensity. We varied visual demand following stimulation in form of high demand (acuity task) or low demand (looking at the wall). No change of PTs was observed directly after TBS. We found increased PTs only if subjects had high visual demand following continuous TBS. With low visual demand following stimulation no change of PT was observed. Intermittent TBS had no effect on visual cortex excitability at all. Since other studies showed increased PTs following continuous TBS using subthreshold intensities, our results highlight the importance of stimulation intensity applying TBS to the visual cortex. Furthermore, the state of the neurons in the stimulated cortex area not only before but also following TBS has an important influence on the effects of stimulation, making it necessary to scrupulously control for activity during the whole experimental session in a study.

  13. Review of the Leaving Certificate Biology Examination Papers (1999-2008) Using Bloom's Taxonomy--An Investigation of the Cognitive Demands of the Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, Alison; Liston, Maeve

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognised that high-stakes assessment can significantly influence what is taught in the classroom. Many argue that high-stakes assessment results in a narrowed curriculum where students learn by rote rather than developing higher cognitive skills. This paper describes a study investigating the various cognitive objectives present…

  14. 77 FR 19076 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...\\ 33 FR 17896 (Dec. 3, 1968). In 1985, the FAA issued part 93 subpart S (the ``Buy/Sell Rule'').\\2\\ As... the 0600 hour is not a low demand period.\\3\\ \\2\\ 50 FR 52195 (Dec. 20, 1985). \\3\\ 76 FR 58393 (Sept... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 93 High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of...

  15. Employees facing high job demands: How to keep them fit, satisfied, and intrinsically motivated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Nagao, DH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine why some employees faced with high job demands feel fatigued, dissatisfied, and unmotivated, whereas others feel fatigued but satisfied and intrinsically motivated. It is argued and demonstrated that two job conditions, namely job control and job

  16. Employees facing high job demands: How to keep them fit, satisfied, and intrinsically motivated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Nagao, DH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine why some employees faced with high job demands feel fatigued, dissatisfied, and unmotivated, whereas others feel fatigued but satisfied and intrinsically motivated. It is argued and demonstrated that two job conditions, namely job control and job

  17. In vitro effects on mobile polyethylene insert under highly demanding daily activities: stair climbing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaber, Sami Abdel; Taddei, Paola; Tozzi, Silvia; Sudanese, Alessandra; Affatato, Saverio

    2015-01-01

    ...?One set of the same total knee prosthesis (TKP), equal in design and size, was tested on a three-plus-one knee joint simulator for two million cycles using a highly demanding daily load waveform, replicating a stair-climbing movement...

  18. High-resolution Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cigarette Demand to Inform Tax Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Few, Lauren R.; Murphy, James G.; Wier, Lauren M.; Acker, John; Murphy, Cara; Stojek, Monika; Carrigan, Maureen; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Aims Novel methods in behavioral economics permit the systematic assessment of the relationship between cigarette consumption and price. Toward informing tax policy, the goals of this study were to conduct a high-resolution analysis of cigarette demand in a large sample of adult smokers and to use the data to estimate the effects of tax increases in ten U.S. States. Design In-person descriptive survey assessment. Setting Academic departments at three universities. Participants Adult daily smokers (i.e., 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education); N = 1056. Measurements Estimated cigarette demand, demographics, expired carbon monoxide. Findings The cigarette demand curve exhibited highly variable levels of price sensitivity, especially in the form of ‘left-digit effects’ (i.e., very high price sensitivity as pack prices transitioned from one whole number to the next; e.g., $5.80-$6/pack). A $1 tax increase in the ten states was projected to reduce the economic burden of smoking by an average of $531M (range: $93.6M-$976.5M) and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162% (range: 114%- 247%). Conclusions Tobacco price sensitivity is nonlinear across the demand curve and in particular for pack-level left-digit price transitions. Tax increases in U.S. states with similar price and tax rates to the sample are projected to result in substantial decreases in smoking-related costs and substantial increases in tax revenues. PMID:22845784

  19. A Statist Political Economy and High Demand for Education in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Su Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1998 academic year, 84 percent of South Korea's high school "leavers" entered a university or college while almost all children went up to high schools. This is to say, South Korea is now moving into a new age of universal higher education. Even so, competition for university entrance remains intense. What is here interesting is South Koreans' unusually high demand for education. In this article, I criticize the existing cultural and socio-economic interpretations of the phenomenon. Instead, I explore a new interpretation by critically referring to the recent political economy debate on South Korea's state-society/market relationship. In my interpretation, the unusually high demand for education is largely due to the powerful South Korean state's losing flexibility in the management of its "developmental" policies. For this, I blame the traditional "personalist ethic" which still prevails as the

  20. Ubiquitous Green Computing Techniques for High Demand Applications in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Moya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time.

  1. Ubiquitous green computing techniques for high demand applications in Smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater, Marina; Sanchez, Cesar; Ayala, Jose L; Moya, Jose M; Risco-Martín, José L

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time.

  2. Using high frequency consumption data to identify demand response potential for solar energy integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Borgeson, S.; Fredman, D.; Hans, L.; Spurlock, A.; Todd, A.

    2015-12-01

    California's renewable portfolio standard (2012) requires the state to get 33% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020. Increased share of variable renewable sources such as solar and wind in the California electricity system may require more grid flexibility to insure reliable power services. Such grid flexibility can be potentially provided by changes in end use electricity consumptions in response to grid conditions (demand-response). In the solar case, residential consumption in the late afternoon can be used as reserve capacity to balance the drop in solar generation. This study presents our initial attempt to identify, from a behavior perspective, residential demand response potentials in relation to solar ramp events using a data-driven approach. Based on hourly residential energy consumption data, we derive representative daily load shapes focusing on discretionary consumption with an innovative clustering analysis technique. We aggregate the representative load shapes into behavior groups in terms of the timing and rhythm of energy use in the context of solar ramp events. Households of different behavior groups that are active during hours with high solar ramp rates are identified for capturing demand response potential. Insights into the nature and predictability of response to demand-response programs are provided.

  3. Perceived Demands of Schooling, Stress and Mental Health: Changes from Grade 6 to Grade 9 as a Function of Gender and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-08-17

    The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Demand In the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shiliang; Wang, Chenggang; James P. Bordovsky; Sheng, Zhuping; Gastelum, Jesus R.

    2011-01-01

    Developing groundwater management plans requires a good understanding of the interdependence of groundwater hydrology and producer water use behavior. While state-of-the-art groundwater models require water demand data at highly disaggregated levels, the lack of producer water use data has held up the progress to meet that need. This paper proposes an econometric framework that links county-level crop acreage data to well-level hydrologic data to produce heterogeneous patterns of crop choice ...

  5. Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Demand In the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shiliang; Wang, Chenggang; James P. Bordovsky; Sheng, Zhuping; Gastelum, Jesus R.

    2011-01-01

    Developing groundwater management plans requires a good understanding of the interdependence of groundwater hydrology and producer water use behavior. While state-of-the-art groundwater models require water demand data at highly disaggregated levels, the lack of producer water use data has held up the progress to meet that need. This paper proposes an econometric framework that links county-level crop acreage data to well-level hydrologic data to produce heterogeneous patterns of crop choice ...

  6. High Dynamic Range Cognitive Radio Front Ends: Architecture to Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Arun; Subbiah, Iyappan; Varga, Gabor; Schrey, Moritz; Heinen, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Advent of TV white space digitization has released frequencies from 470 MHz to 790 MHz to be utilized opportunistically. The secondary user can utilize these so called TV spaces in the absence of primary users. The most important challenge for this coexistence is mutual interference. While the strong TV stations can completely saturate the receiver of the cognitive radio (CR), the cognitive radio spurious tones can disturb other primary users and white space devices. The aim of this paper is to address the challenges for enabling cognitive radio applications in WLAN and LTE. In this process, architectural considerations for the design of cognitive radio front ends are discussed. With high-IF converters, faster and flexible implementation of CR enabled WLAN and LTE are shown. The effectiveness of the architecture is shown by evaluating the CR front ends for compliance of standards namely 802.11b/g (WLAN) and 3GPP TS 36.101 (LTE).

  7. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  8. Caffeine and cognitive decline in elderly women at high vascular risk. : Caffeine and cognition in high-risk women

    OpenAIRE

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Berr, Claudine; Ritchie, Karen,; Kang, Jae,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Persons with vascular disorders are at higher risk of cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether caffeine may be associated with cognitive decline reduction in elderly at high vascular risk. METHODS: We included 2,475 women aged 65+ years in the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study, a randomized trial of antioxidants and B vitamins for cardiovascular disease secondary prevention. We ascertained regular caffeine intake at baseline (1995-1996) usi...

  9. Cognition of and Demand for Education and Teaching in Medical Statistics in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhou, Liang; Li, Gaoming; Yi, Dali; Wu, Xiaojiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Ling; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although a substantial number of studies focus on the teaching and application of medical statistics in China, few studies comprehensively evaluate the recognition of and demand for medical statistics...

  10. [High ability children and their differential cognitive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, S

    2008-01-01

    From the neuroconstructivist point of view, cognitive development is understood as a process of successive and continuous reorganization whose changing mechanisms and differential outcomes (typical and atypical) must be studied. High intellectual abilities are one of their differential manifestations but its concept and nature is confused conditioning the validity of its identification and the efficacy of the interventional programs. To propose a clarifying definition of the nature of high intellectual abilities and their manifestations: giftedness, talent and genious, as well as their cognitive functioning and neurological correlates. A qualitative task analysis is applied to 41 participants with intellectual profiles corresponding to: giftedness, talent and typical intelligence, previously obtained. Results show differences on the cognitive results, not only referred to the quantity of informations produced but in the data organization more complex and hard interrelated among the gifted participants. It must be a differential process of resolution adjusted to each one of the profiles studied.

  11. Demand Forecasting: DLA’S Aviation Supply Chain High Value Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    seems to dominate the pattern of product demand from FY10 to FY13. However, as discussed above, the outlier demand value in FY13 could have zapped out...seems to dominate the pattern of product demand, and on the other, an extreme outlier value that could zap out some of the FY14 product demand. We

  12. Visual Cues Contribute Differentially to Audiovisual Perception of Consonants and Vowels in Improving Recognition and Reducing Cognitive Demands in Listeners With Hearing Impairment Using Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Danielsson, Henrik; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2017-09-18

    We sought to examine the contribution of visual cues in audiovisual identification of consonants and vowels-in terms of isolation points (the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus), accuracy, and cognitive demands-in listeners with hearing impairment using hearing aids. The study comprised 199 participants with hearing impairment (mean age = 61.1 years) with bilateral, symmetrical, mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Gated Swedish consonants and vowels were presented aurally and audiovisually to participants. Linear amplification was adjusted for each participant to assure audibility. The reading span test was used to measure participants' working memory capacity. Audiovisual presentation resulted in shortened isolation points and improved accuracy for consonants and vowels relative to auditory-only presentation. This benefit was more evident for consonants than vowels. In addition, correlations and subsequent analyses revealed that listeners with higher scores on the reading span test identified both consonants and vowels earlier in auditory-only presentation, but only vowels (not consonants) in audiovisual presentation. Consonants and vowels differed in terms of the benefits afforded from their associative visual cues, as indicated by the degree of audiovisual benefit and reduction in cognitive demands linked to the identification of consonants and vowels presented audiovisually.

  13. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-17

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems.

  14. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems. PMID:28049820

  15. [Withdrawal of high estrogen containing oral contraceptives and the demand for medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamper-Jorgensen, F; Albertsen, J; Almind, G; Andersen, K; Braae, M; Dybkjaer, L; Frolund, F; Granlie, K; Hald, E; Hald, J; Hector, O; Jacobsen, K; Kaltoft, S; Kjaerulff, E; Mabeck, C D; Magnusson, B; Nielsen, A; Novella, P; Olsen, O M; Pedersen, P A; Rasmussen, I; Strunk, K; Traeden, J B; Veje, J O

    1975-03-24

    The results of a survey are presented conerning the effectiveness of mass media publicity with the public. After oral contraceptives containing high levels of estrogen were prohibited in Denmark, a telephone survey of 23 doctors was taken to determine the fluctuation in demand for medical information from patients, and the reason for the fluctuation. The reasons were divided into 3 groups: 1) resulting from mass media publicity, 2) resulting from the unavailability of a particular contraceptive, and 3) other. 3 surveys were conducted of the frequency of demand for information on the high estrogen contraceptives, 1 for each of the 2 weeks after the prohibition and withdrawal of the contraceptives took place, and 1 1 month after the prohibition. 2-3% of the inquiries received by the doctors concerned the prohibited contraceptives, and half of these could be attributed directly to the mass media publicity. The number of requests in categories 1 and 2 dropped sharply in the 2nd and 3rd surveys, indicating that the effect of the mass meida publicity and the withdrawal of the contraceptive from the market had only a very immediate effect. It is also shown that the telephone can be used successfully to ascertain the effects of a short-term social phenomenon on the public.

  16. An fMRI investigation of analogical mapping in metaphor comprehension: the influence of context and individual cognitive capacities on processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Chantel S; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-03-01

    This study used fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of analogical mapping during metaphor comprehension, with a focus on dynamic configuration of neural networks with changing processing demands and individual abilities. Participants with varying vocabulary sizes and working memory capacities read 3-sentence passages ending in nominal critical utterances of the form "X is a Y." Processing demands were manipulated by varying preceding contexts. Three figurative conditions manipulated difficulty by varying the extent to which preceding contexts mentioned relevant semantic features for relating the vehicle and topic of the critical utterance to one another. In the easy condition, supporting information was mentioned. In the neutral condition, no relevant information was mentioned. In the most difficult condition, opposite features were mentioned, resulting in an ironic interpretation of the critical utterance. A fourth, literal condition included context that supported a literal interpretation of the critical utterance. Activation in lateral and medial frontal regions increased with increasing contextual difficulty. Lower vocabulary readers also had greater activation across conditions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In addition, volumetric analyses showed increased right temporo-parietal junction and superior medial frontal activation for all figurative conditions over the literal condition. The results from this experiment imply that the cortical regions are dynamically recruited in language comprehension as a function of the processing demands of a task. Individual differences in cognitive capacities were also associated with differences in recruitment and modulation of working memory and executive function regions, highlighting the overlapping computations in metaphor comprehension and general thinking and reasoning.

  17. High-Fidelity Down-Conversion Source for Secure Communications Using On-Demand Single Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tony

    2015-01-01

    AdvR, Inc., has built an efficient, fully integrated, waveguide-based source of spectrally uncorrelated photon pairs that will accelerate research and development (R&D) in the emerging field of quantum information science. Key to the innovation is the use of submicron periodically poled waveguides to produce counter propagating photon pairs, which is enabled by AdvR's patented segmented microelectrode poling technique. This novel device will provide a high brightness source of down-conversion pairs with enhanced spectral properties and low attenuation, and it will operate in the visible to the mid-infrared spectral region. A waveguide-based source of spectrally and spatially pure heralded photons will contribute to a wide range of NASA's advanced technology development efforts, including on-demand single photon sources for high-rate spaced-based secure communications.

  18. A modified method for estimation of chemical oxygen demand for samples having high suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadvika; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Sreekrishnan, T R; Satya, Santosh; Kohli, Sangeeta

    2006-03-01

    Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of samples having high suspended solids concentration such as cattle dung slurry with open reflux method of APHA-AWWA-WPCF did not give consistent results. This study presents a modification of the open reflux method (APHA-AWWA-WPCF) to make it suitable for samples with high percentage of suspended solids. The new method is based on a different technique of sample preparation, modified quantities of reagents and higher reflux time as compared to the existing open reflux method. For samples having solids contents of 14.0 g/l or higher, the modified method was found to give higher value of COD with much higher consistency and accuracy as compared to the existing open reflux method.

  19. Varying Overhead Ad Hoc on Demand Vector Routing in Highly Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An inherent feature of mobile ad hoc networks is the frequent change of network topology leading to stability and reliability problems of the network. Highly dynamic and dense network have to maintain acceptable level of service to data packets and limit the network control overheads. This capability is closely related as how quickly the network protocol control overhead is managed as a function of increased link changes. Dynamically limiting the routing control overheads based on the network topology improves the throughput of the network. Approach: In this study we propose Varying Overhead - Ad hoc on Demand Vector routing protocol (VO-AODV for highly dynamic mobile Ad hoc network. The VO-AODV routing protocol proposed dynamically modifies the active route time based on the network topology. Results and Conclusion: Simulation results prove that the proposed model decreases the control overheads without decreasing the QOS of the network.

  20. Developing on-demand secure high-performance computing services for biomedical data analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Nicholas; Anderson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technical and process model to support biomedical researchers requiring on-demand high performance computing on potentially sensitive medical datasets. Our approach describes the use of cost-effective, secure and scalable techniques for processing medical information via protected and encrypted computing clusters within a model High Performance Computing (HPC) environment. The process model supports an investigator defined data analytics platform capable of accepting secure data migration from local clinical research data silos into a dedicated analytic environment, and secure environment cleanup upon completion. We define metrics to support the evaluation of this pilot model through performance and stability tests, and describe evaluation of its suitability towards enabling rapid deployment by individual investigators.

  1. Does good leadership buffer effects of high emotional demands at work on risk of antidepressant treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Hanson, Linda L Magnusson; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst;

    2014-01-01

    Emotionally demanding work has been associated with increased risk of common mental disorders. Because emotional demands may not be preventable in certain occupations, the identification of workplace factors that can modify this association is vital. This article examines whether effects of emoti......Emotionally demanding work has been associated with increased risk of common mental disorders. Because emotional demands may not be preventable in certain occupations, the identification of workplace factors that can modify this association is vital. This article examines whether effects...... of emotional demands on antidepressant treatment, as an indicator of common mental disorders, are buffered by good leadership....

  2. Down but not out in posterior cingulate cortex: Deactivation yet functional coupling with prefrontal cortex during demanding semantic cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Seymour, Robert; Nunes, Adonany; Ang, Jit Wei Aaron; Majernikova, Vierra; Mollo, Giovanna; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    The posterior cingulate cortex (pCC) often deactivates during complex tasks, and at rest is often only weakly correlated with regions that play a general role in the control of cognition. These observations led to the hypothesis that pCC contributes to automatic aspects of memory retrieval and cognition. Recent work, however, has suggested that the pCC may support both automatic and controlled forms of memory processing and may do so by changing its communication with regions that are important in the control of cognition across multiple domains. The current study examined these alternative views by characterising the functional coupling of the pCC in easy semantic decisions (based on strong global associations) and in harder semantic tasks (matching words on the basis of specific non-dominant features). Increasingly difficult semantic decisions led to the expected pattern of deactivation in the pCC; however, psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that, under these conditions, the pCC exhibited greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), relative to both easier semantic decisions and to a period of rest. In a second experiment using different participants, we found that functional coupling at rest between the pCC and the same region of dorsolateral PFC was stronger for participants who were more efficient at semantic tasks when assessed in a subsequent laboratory session. Thus, although overall levels of activity in the pCC are reduced during external tasks, this region may show greater coupling with executive control regions when information is retrieved from memory in a goal-directed manner. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and

  4. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  5. Computerized and virtual reality cognitive training for individuals at high risk of cognitive decline: systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Hannah; Traynor, Victoria; Solowij, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of cognitive training, specifically computerized cognitive training (CCT) and virtual reality cognitive training (VRCT), programs for individuals living with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and therefore at high risk of cognitive decline. After searching a range of academic databases (CINHAL, PSYCinfo, and Web of Science), the studies evaluated (N = 16) were categorized as CCT (N = 10), VRCT (N = 3), and multimodal interventions (N = 3). Effect sizes were calculated, but a meta-analysis was not possible because of the large variability of study design and outcome measures adopted. The cognitive domains of attention, executive function, and memory (visual and verbal) showed the most consistent improvements. The positive effects on psychological outcomes (N = 6) were significant reductions on depressive symptoms (N = 3) and anxiety (N = 2) and improved perceived use of memory strategy (N = 1). Assessments of activities of daily living demonstrated no significant improvements (N = 8). Follow-up studies (N = 5) demonstrated long-term improvements in cognitive and psychological outcomes (N = 3), and the intervention groups showed a plateau effect of cognitive functioning compared with the cognitive decline experienced by control groups (N = 2). CCT and VRCT were moderately effective in long-term improvement of cognition for those at high risk of cognitive decline. Total intervention time did not mediate efficacy. Future research needs to improve study design by including larger samples, longitudinal designs, and a greater range of outcome measures, including functional and quality of life measures, to assess the wider effect of cognitive training on individuals at high risk of cognitive decline.

  6. Operational characterisation of requirements and early validation environment for high demanding space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

    1993-01-01

    The definition of some modern high demanding space systems requires a different approach to system definition and design from that adopted for traditional missions. System functionality is strongly coupled to the operational analysis, aimed at characterizing the dynamic interactions of the flight element with its surrounding environment and its ground control segment. Unambiguous functional, operational and performance requirements are to be defined for the system, thus improving also the successive development stages. This paper proposes a Petri Nets based methodology and two related prototype applications (to ARISTOTELES orbit control and to Hermes telemetry generation) for the operational analysis of space systems through the dynamic modeling of their functions and a related computer aided environment (ISIDE) able to make the dynamic model work, thus enabling an early validation of the system functional representation, and to provide a structured system requirements data base, which is the shared knowledge base interconnecting static and dynamic applications, fully traceable with the models and interfaceable with the external world.

  7. Does High Emotional Demand with Low Job Control Relate to Suicidal Ideation among Service and Sales Workers in Korea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin

    2016-07-01

    We examined the relationship of high emotional demands and low job control to suicidal ideation among service and sales workers in Korea. A total of 1,995 service and sales workers participated in this study. Suicidal ideation and level of emotional demand and job control were assessed by self-reported questionnaire in 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for suicidal ideation were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The results show that workers who suffered from high emotional demands (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.24-3.45 in men, OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in women) or low job control (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in men, OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.93 in women) were more likely to experience suicidal ideation after controlling for age, household income, and employment characteristics. The interaction model of emotional demands and job control revealed that workers with high emotional demands and high job control (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.08-3.45 in men, OR, 1.60; 95% CI,1.06-2.42 in women) and high emotional demands and low job control (OR; 4.60, 95% CI;1.88-11.29 in men, OR; 2.78, 95% CI;1.64-4.44 in women) had a higher risk for suicidal ideation compared to those with low emotional demands and high job control after controlling for age, household income, employment characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity habit. These results suggest that high emotional demands in both genders and low job control in men might play a crucial role in developing suicidal ideation among sales and service workers in Korea.

  8. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of demand side resources is set to increase over the coming years with the advent of advanced metering infrastructure, home area networks and the promotion of increased energy efficiency. Demand side resources are proposed as an energy resource that, through aggregation, can form ...

  9. Relative Brain and Brain Part Sizes Provide Only Limited Evidence that Machiavellian Behaviour in Cleaner Wrasse Is Cognitively Demanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Dominika; Isler, Karin; Barski, Jaroslaw Jerzy; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently widely accepted that the complexity of a species' social life is a major determinant of its brain complexity, as predicted by the social brain hypothesis. However, it remains a challenge to explain what social complexity exactly is and what the best corresponding measures of brain anatomy are. Absolute and relative size of the brain and of the neocortex have often been used as a proxy to predict cognitive performance. Here, we apply the logic of the social brain hypothesis to marine cleaning mutualism involving the genus Labroides. These wrasses remove ectoparasites from 'client' reef fish. Conflict occurs as wrasse prefer client mucus over ectoparasites, where mucus feeding constitutes cheating. As a result of this conflict, cleaner wrasse show remarkable Machiavellian-like behaviour. Using own data as well as available data from the literature, we investigated whether the general brain anatomy of Labroides provides any indication that their Machiavellian behaviour is associated with a more complex brain. Neither data set provided evidence for an increased encephalisation index compared to other wrasse species. Published data on relative sizes of brain parts in 25 species of the order Perciformes suggests that only the diencephalon is relatively enlarged in Labroides dimidiatus. This part contains various nuclei of the social decision making network. In conclusion, gross brain anatomy yields little evidence for the hypothesis that strategic behaviour in cleaning selects for larger brains, while future research should focus on more detailed aspects like the sizes of specific nuclei as well as their cryoarchitectonic structure and connectivity.

  10. Enabling Airspace Integration for High-Density On-Demand Mobility Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric; Kopardekar, Parimal; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    Aviation technologies and concepts have reached a level of maturity that may soon enable an era of on-demand mobility (ODM) fueled by quiet, efficient, and largely automated air taxis. However, successfully bringing such a system to fruition will require introducing orders of magnitude more aircraft to a given airspace volume than can be accommodated by the traditional air traffic control system, among other important technical challenges. The airspace integration problem is further compounded by requirements to set aside appropriate ground infrastructure for take-off and landing areas and ensuring these new aircraft types and their operations do not burden traditional airspace users and air traffic control. This airspace integration challenge may be significantly reduced by extending the concepts and technologies developed to manage small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) at low altitudethe UAS traffic management (UTM) systemto higher altitudes and new aircraft types, or by equipping ODM aircraft with advanced sensors, algorithms, and interfaces. The precedent of operational freedom inherent in visual flight rules and the technologies developed for large UAS and commercial aircraft automation will contribute to the evolution of an ODM system enabled by UTM. This paper describes the set of air traffic services, normally provided by the traditional air traffic system, that an ODM system would implement to achieve the high densities needed for ODMs economic viability. Finally, the paper proposes a framework for integrating, evaluating, and deploying low-, medium-, and high-density ODM concepts that build on each other to ensure operational and economic feasibility at every step.

  11. Demand Response in Low Voltage Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    the required flexibility from the electricity market through an aggregator. The optimum demand response enables consumption of maximum renewable energy within the network constraints. Simulation studies are conducted using Matlab and DigSilent Power factory software on a Danish low-voltage distribution system...... generation and load forecasts, network topology and market price signals as inputs, limits of network voltages, line power flows, transformer loading and demand response dynamics as constraints to find the required demand response at each time step. The proposed method can be used by the DSOs to purchase...

  12. A High Throughput On-Demand Routing Protocol for Multirate Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    Routing in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging issue because it dynamically controls the network topology and determines the network performance. Most of the available protocols are based on single-rate radio networks and they use hop-count as the routing metric. There have been some efforts for multirate radios as well that use transmission-time of a packet as the routing metric. However, neither the hop-count nor the transmission-time may be a sufficient criterion for discovering a high-throughput path in a multirate wireless ad hoc network. Hop-count based routing metrics usually select a low-rate bound path whereas the transmission-time based metrics may select a path with a comparatively large number of hops. The trade-off between transmission time and effective transmission range of a data rate can be another key criterion for finding a high-throughput path in such environments. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing metric based on the efficiency of a data rate that balances the required time and covering distance by a transmission and results in increased throughput. Using the new metric, we propose an on-demand routing protocol for multirate wireless environment, dubbed MR-AODV, to discover high-throughput paths in the network. A key feature of MR-AODV is that it controls the data rate in transmitting both the data and control packets. Rate control during the route discovery phase minimizes the route request (RREQ) avalanche. We use simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed MR-AODV protocol and results reveal significant improvements in end-to-end throughput and minimization of routing overhead.

  13. GLIF – striving towards a high-performance on-demand network

    CERN Document Server

    Kristina Gunne

    2010-01-01

    If you were passing through the Mezzanine in the Main Building a couple of weeks ago, you probably noticed the large tiled panel display showing an ultra-high resolution visualization model of dark matter, developed by Cosmogrid. The display was one of the highlights of the 10th Annual Global Lambda Grid Workshop demo session, together with the first ever transfer of over 35 Gbit/second from one PC to another between the SARA Computing Centre in Amsterdam and CERN.   GLIF display. The transfer of such large amounts of data at this speed has been made possible thanks to the GLIF community's vision of a new computing paradigm, in which the central architectural element is an end-to-end path built on optical network wavelengths (so called lambdas). You may think of this as an on-demand private highway for data transfer: by using it you avoid the normal internet exchange points and “traffic jams”. GLIF is a virtual international organization managed as a cooperative activity, wi...

  14. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  15. 护理实习生心肺复苏术的认知及需求调查%Survey of Nursing Students' Cognitive Knowledge and Demands on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素芳; 彭幼清; 张梅英; 张晓莉

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解护理实习生心肺复苏术(cardiopulmonary resuscitation,CPR)的理论知识掌握及培训需求情况,为实习护生的CPR知识及技能培训提供依据及建议.方法 采用自行设计的"护理实习生认知及需求调查问卷",对上海市同济大学附属东方医院202名护理实习生进行调查.结果 护生CPR理论知识认知水平不高;及格率不高(49.00%),良好率及优秀率低(6.93%及2.97%);不同学历护生理论知识掌握情况间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);护生接受CPR系统培训只占17.82%,从未接受过培训的占8.42%;实习护生对CPR有强烈的培训需求(95.05%).结论 实习护生CPR的认知水平有待提高,应采取相应措施加大培训力度.%Objective To explore the status of theoretical knowledge, training demands in nursing students,so as to provide evidence and some proposals for cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) training.Methods A total of 202 nursing students were randomly selected from a hospital in Shanghai by using a self-designed questionnaire on awareness and demands for nursing students. Results The level of nursing students' theoretical cognitive knowledge of CPR was not high. The pass rate was not high(49.00%).Meanwhile, the good and distinguished achiever ratios were low(6.93 % vs 2.97 %). The levels of theoretical knowledge in students with different educational history were significantly different ( P < 0. 01). Besides,students who received CPR trainings just accounted for 17.82%. And 8.42% of the students didn't receive CPR trainings at all. Through the investigation it can also be seen that students showed strong demands on CPR trainings(95.05%). Conclusion Nursing students' cognitive knowledge on CPR needs to be improved and some measures should be taken to strengthen the trainings.

  16. Underreporting on the MMPI-2-RF in a high-demand police officer selection context: an illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T

    2014-09-01

    Positive response distortion is common in the high-demand context of employment selection. This study examined positive response distortion, in the form of underreporting, on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Police officer job applicants completed the MMPI-2-RF under high-demand and low-demand conditions, once during the preemployment psychological evaluation and once without contingencies after completing the police academy. Demand-related score elevations were evident on the Uncommon Virtues (L-r) and Adjustment Validity (K-r) scales. Underreporting was evident on the Higher-Order scales Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction and Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction; 5 of 9 Restructured Clinical scales; 6 of 9 Internalizing scales; 3 of 4 Externalizing scales; and 3 of 5 Personality Psychopathology 5 scales. Regression analyses indicated that L-r predicted demand-related underreporting on behavioral/externalizing scales, and K-r predicted underreporting on emotional/internalizing scales. Select scales of the MMPI-2-RF are differentially associated with different types of underreporting among police officer applicants. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Status and Prospects of Supply/Demand for Polyethylene Made by High-Pressure Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Qing

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with analysis of the market position of LDPE inside and outside China, including domestic and overseas market demand and production capacities of LDPE inside and outside China. The economic indicators of LDPE and LLDPE production processes, including the technical and economic indi cators, production cost, price trend and properties of PE products, have been compared. Results have shown that the supply of LDPE in the world tends to be geared to the demand. LLDPE and LDPE in a long period of time to come will continue to play their roles in their respective domains to co-exist on the market and complement each other.

  18. Motor system evolution and the emergence of high cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Germán; Merchant, Hugo

    2014-11-01

    In human and nonhuman primates, the cortical motor system comprises a collection of brain areas primarily related to motor control. Existing evidence suggests that no other mammalian group has the number, extension, and complexity of motor-related areas observed in the frontal lobe of primates. Such diversity is probably related to the wide behavioral flexibility that primates display. Indeed, recent comparative anatomical, psychophysical, and neurophysiological studies suggest that the evolution of the motor cortical areas closely correlates with the emergence of high cognitive abilities. Advances in understanding the cortical motor system have shown that these areas are also related to functions previously linked to higher-order associative areas. In addition, experimental observations have shown that the classical distinction between perceptual and motor functions is not strictly followed across cortical areas. In this paper, we review evidence suggesting that evolution of the motor system had a role in the shaping of different cognitive functions in primates. We argue that the increase in the complexity of the motor system has contributed to the emergence of new abilities observed in human and nonhuman primates, including the recognition and imitation of the actions of others, speech perception and production, and the execution and appreciation of the rhythmic structure of music. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Cognitive-Aware Multimodal Presentation: The Modality Effects in High-Load HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Nijholt, Anton; Harris, D,

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we argue that multimodal presentations should be created in a cognitive-aware manner, especially in a high-load HCI situation where the user task challenges the full capacity of the human cognition. An experiment was conducted to investigate the cognitive effects of modalities, using

  20. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1) j

  1. When Actions Speak Too Much Louder than Words: Hand Gestures Disrupt Word Learning when Phonetic Demands Are High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Lee, Angela L.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that hand gestures help people understand and learn language. Here, we provide an exception to this general rule--when phonetic demands are high, gesture actually hurts. Native English-speaking adults were instructed on the meaning of novel Japanese word pairs that were for non-native speakers phonetically hard (/ite/ vs.…

  2. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)

  3. Job Resources Boost Work Engagement, Particularly when Job Demands Are High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Hakanen, Jari J.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Xanthopoulou, Despoina

    2007-01-01

    This study of 805 Finnish teachers working in elementary, secondary, and vocational schools tested 2 interaction hypotheses. On the basis of the job demands-resources model, the authors predicted that job resources act as buffers and diminish the negative relationship between pupil misbehavior and work engagement. In addition, using conservation…

  4. Job Resources Boost Work Engagement, Particularly when Job Demands Are High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Hakanen, Jari J.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Xanthopoulou, Despoina

    2007-01-01

    This study of 805 Finnish teachers working in elementary, secondary, and vocational schools tested 2 interaction hypotheses. On the basis of the job demands-resources model, the authors predicted that job resources act as buffers and diminish the negative relationship between pupil misbehavior and work engagement. In addition, using conservation…

  5. Do traditional male role norms modify the association between high emotional demands in work, and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Hansen, Claus D.; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    if adherence to traditional male role norms modifies the effect of emotional demands on sickness absence/presenteeism. Methods Data derive from MARS (Men, accidents, risk and safety), a two-wave panel study of ambulance workers and fire fighters in Denmark (n = 2585). Information was collected from......Objectives Ambulance workers are exposed to high levels of emotional demands, which could affect sickness absence. Being a male dominated occupation, it is hypothesised that ambulance workers adhere to more traditional male role norms than men in other occupations. The aim is to investigate...... of emotional demands on mental health varies according to adherence to traditional male role norms. The presentation will furthermore include results from prospective analyses on not-yet collected follow-up data on absenteeism taken from a national register....

  6. A high turndown, ultra low emission low swirl burner for natural gas, on-demand water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Previous research has shown that on-demand water heaters are, on average, approximately 37% more efficient than storage water heaters. However, approximately 98% of water heaters in the U.S. use storage water heaters while the remaining 2% are on-demand. A major market barrier to deployment of on-demand water heaters is their high retail cost, which is due in part to their reliance on multi-stage burner banks that require complex electronic controls. This project aims to research and develop a cost-effective, efficient, ultra-low emission burner for next generation natural gas on-demand water heaters in residential and commercial buildings. To meet these requirements, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are adapting and testing the low-swirl burner (LSB) technology for commercially available on-demand water heaters. In this report, a low-swirl burner is researched, developed, and evaluated to meet targeted on-demand water heater performance metrics. Performance metrics for a new LSB design are identified by characterizing performance of current on-demand water heaters using published literature and technical specifications, and through experimental evaluations that measure fuel consumption and emissions output over a range of operating conditions. Next, target metrics and design criteria for the LSB are used to create six 3D printed prototypes for preliminary investigations. Prototype designs that proved the most promising were fabricated out of metal and tested further to evaluate the LSB’s full performance potential. After conducting a full performance evaluation on two designs, we found that one LSB design is capable of meeting or exceeding almost all the target performance metrics for on-demand water heaters. Specifically, this LSB demonstrated flame stability when operating from 4.07 kBTU/hr up to 204 kBTU/hr (50:1 turndown), compliance with SCAQMD Rule 1146.2 (14 ng/J or 20 ppm NOX @ 3% O2), and lower CO emissions than state

  7. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple countries in which to export, some firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  8. Demand-based urban forest planning using high-resolution remote sensing and AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanuvada, Srinivasa Raju; Mariappan, Muneeswaran; Krishnan, Vani

    2016-05-01

    Urban forest planning is important for providing better urban ecosystem services and conserve the natural carbon sinks inside the urban area. In this study, a demand based urban forest plan was developed for Chennai city by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Population density, Tree cover, Air quality index and Carbon stocks are the parameters were considered in this study. Tree cover and Above Ground Biomass (AGB) layers were prepared at a resolution of 1m from airborne LiDAR and aerial photos. The ranks and weights are assigned by the spatial priority using AHP. The results show that, the actual status of the urban forest is not adequate to provide ecosystem services on spatial priority. From this perspective, we prepared a demand based plan for improving the urban ecosystem.

  9. Study effective factors on customer compliance in high contact services based on Bandura social - Cognitive theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    zahra asadi; bahman hajipour

    2014-01-01

    ... . According Bandura social - Cognitive theory and the nature of high contact service characteristics contain of communication skills, customer orientation, expertise and reputation of service providers...

  10. 基于年龄差异的女性主题酒店认知与需求研究%Research on Cognitive and Demand for Feminine Theme Hotel Based on Differente Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维胜

    2011-01-01

    女性主题酒店是"个性化"时代的产物,也是现代女性消费需求的必然产物。文章通过调查发现,22岁以下及22-28岁的年轻女性对女性主题酒店认知程度相对较低,但消费需求潜力巨大;40岁以上中老年女性对女性主题酒店的认知程度较高,对女性客房的服务和品牌要求相对较高。针对调查结果,最后提出推行女性主题酒店的经营策略和建议。%Feminine Theme hotel is the producti of "personalized" and consume demand of women.Through the survey we found that different age groups of women have different cognitive for the feminine theme hotel.Young women under 22 years old and 22-28 years old have relatively low awareness level,but a huge potential consumer demand.Middle-aged women over 40 years have rich experience and high stable income,on the awareness level of women,service and brand requirements are relatively high.Based on these findings.finally,it proposes the implementation of operate strategy and recommendations of the feminine theme hotel operators,to provide reference and reference for operators.

  11. High Demand, Core Geosciences, and Meeting the Challenges through Online Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; Leahy, P. Patrick; Houlton, Heather; Wilson, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    As the geosciences has evolved over the last several decades, so too has undergraduate geoscience education, both from a standpoint of curriculum and educational experience. In the United States, we have been experiencing very strong growth in enrollments in geoscience, as well as employment demand for the last 7 years. That growth has been largely fueled by all aspects of the energy boom in the US, both from the energy production side and the environmental management side. Interestingly the portfolio of experiences and knowledge required are strongly congruent as evidenced from results of the American Geosciences Institute's National Geoscience Exit Survey. Likewise, the demand for new geoscientists in the US is outstripping even the nearly unprecedented growth in enrollments and degrees, which is calling into question the geosciences' inability to effectively reach into the largest growing segments of the U.S. College population - underrepresented minorities. We will also examine the results of the AGI Survey on Geoscience Online Learning and examine how the results of that survey are rectified with Peter Smith's "Middle Third" theory on "wasted talent" because of spatial, economic, and social dislocation. In particular, the geosciences are late to the online learning game in the United States and most faculty engaged in such activities are "lone wolves" in their department operating with little knowledge of the support structures that exist in such development. Yet the most cited barriers for faculty not engaging actively in online learning is the assertion that laboratory and field experiences will be lost and thus fight engaging in this medium. However, the survey shows that faculty are discovering novel approaches to address these issues, many of which have great application to enabling geoscience programs in the United States to meet the expanding demand for geoscience degrees.

  12. Energy Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehfest, E. et al.

    2014-01-01

    Key policy issues – How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low- income economies? – What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand? – How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on t

  13. The Demand Side Management Potential to Balance a Highly Renewable European Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kies

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shares of renewables continue to grow in the European power system. A fully renewable European power system will primarily depend on the renewable power sources of wind and photovoltaics (PV, which are not dispatchable but intermittent and therefore pose a challenge to the balancing of the power system. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been proposed and investigated in the past, including storage, backup power, reinforcement of the transmission grid, and demand side management (DSM. In this paper, we investigate the potential of DSM to balance a simplified, fully renewable European power system. For this purpose, we use ten years of weather and historical load data, a power-flow model and the implementation of demand side management as a storage equivalent, to investigate the impact of DSM on the need for backup energy. We show that DSM has the potential to reduce the need for backup energy in Europe by up to one third and can cover the need for backup up to a renewable share of 67%. Finally, it is demonstrated that the optimal mix of wind and PV is shifted by the utilisation of DSM towards a higher share of PV, from 19% to 36%.

  14. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Perquin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism.A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study.After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL of 2.8% and 4.8% and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8-34.3] as trustworthy.Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data.

  15. Interference Control for Cognitive Network with High Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference control (IC between the secondary system and the primary system is an important issue for underlay cognitive radio network (CRN. The secondary system should limit the interference power to primary system by adjusting its transmission power. Many relevant works have been done based on the assumption of the quasistatic channel which is not suitable for the fast time-varying fading channel; the performance of IC in underlay CRN will become worse when the channel varies fast. This paper studies the IC issue in high mobility environment. By considering the channel state information (CSI outdatedness, a short frame structure scheme and a mean interference power constraint scheme are proposed to reduce the influence of CSI outdatedness on IC performance. Furthermore, by considering the channel estimation error, a spherical error region model based robust IC scheme is designed as well. The proposed IC schemes of the secondary system are converted to the power allocation problems, and then they are formulated to optimization problem whose objects are to maximize the capacity of the secondary system with the interference constraints. The above optimization problems are solved by the water-filling style method. The simulation results show that the proposed IC schemes can effectively control the interference power to the primary system.

  16. Cognitive control processes underlying time-based prospective memory impairment in individuals with high depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi Ryan; Weinborn, Michael; Loft, Shayne; Maybery, Murray

    2014-06-01

    The current study compared time-based prospective memory (PM) for individuals with high depressive symptomatology (HDS) and low depressive symptomatology (LDS). We examined PM accuracy rate, clock-checking frequency, and decrements in ongoing task performance (i.e., costs to ongoing tasks) associated with an embedded time-based PM task. HDS participants demonstrated numerically lower but statistically comparable clock-checking frequency to LDS participants. However, their PM performance was significantly poorer than that of LDS participants. The pattern of observed costs to ongoing tasks and correlational analyses between ongoing task performance and PM accuracy showed that, relative to LDS participants, HDS participants were restricted in their allocation of attentional resources to support PM. We concluded that although HDS and LDS participants externally controlled their time-based PM task performance (i.e., clock-checking) similarly, the HDS participants lacked the cognitive initiative to allocate attentional resources to internally control PM task performance. Such internal control might reflect time-estimation processes, the resources required to maintain the PM task response intention, and/or the ability to coordinate the PM task response with ongoing task demands. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to have examined time-based PM strategies used by HDS individuals beyond clock-checking. The data suggest that interventions that encourage intermittent strategic reviews of PM goals may be beneficial for individuals with high depressive symptomatology.

  17. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM. To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  18. A Study of the Cognitive Diffusion Model: Facilitating Students' High Level Cognitive Processes with Authentic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Shadiev, Rustam; Sun, Ai; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Liu, Tzu-Yu

    2017-01-01

    For this study the researchers designed learning activities to enhance students' high level cognitive processes. Students learned new information in a classroom setting and then applied and analyzed their new knowledge in familiar authentic contexts by taking pictures of objects found there, describing them, and sharing their homework with peers.…

  19. High-throughput cognitive assessment using BrainTest.org: examining cognitive control in a family cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabb, Fred W; Hellemann, Gerhard; Lau, Deanna; Vanderlan, Jessica R; Cohen, Heather J; Bilder, Robert M; McCracken, James T

    2013-09-01

    Introduction Understanding the relationship between brain and complex latent behavioral constructs like cognitive control will require an inordinate amount of data. Internet-based methods can rapidly and efficiently refine behavioral measures in very large samples that are needed for genetics and behavioral research. Cognitive control is a multifactorial latent construct that is considered to be an endophenotype in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While previous studies have demonstrated high correlations between Web- and lab-based scores, skepticism remains for its broad implementation. Methods Here, we promote a different approach by characterizing a completely Web-recruited and tested community family sample on measures of cognitive control. We examine the prevalence of attention deficit symptoms in an online community sample of adolescents, demonstrate familial correlations in cognitive control measures, and use construct validation techniques to validate our high-throughput assessment approach. Results A total of 1214 participants performed Web-based tests of cognitive control with over 200 parent-child pairs analyzed as part of the primary study aims. The data show a wide range of "subclinical" symptomatology in a web community sample of adolescents that supports a dimensional view of attention and also provide preliminary narrow-sense heritability estimates for commonly used working memory and response inhibition tests. Conclusions Finally, we show strong face and construct validity for these measures of cognitive control that generally exceeds the evidence required of new lab-based measures. We discuss these results and how broad implementation of this platform may allow us to uncover important brain-behavior relationships quickly and efficiently.

  20. Comparison of social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and high functioning autism: more convergence than divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Couture, S. M.; Penn, D. L.; Losh, M.; Adolphs, R.; Hurley, R; Piven, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with schizophrenia and individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) seem to share some social, behavioral and biological features. Although marked impairments in social cognition have been documented in both groups, little empirical work has compared the social cognitive functioning of these two clinical groups. Method: Forty-four individuals with schizophrenia, 36 with HFA and 41 non-clinical controls completed a battery of social cognitive measures that have been l...

  1. Temporal Dynamics of Motivation-Cognitive Control Interactions Revealed by High-Resolution Pupillometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chiew, Kimberly S.; Braver, Todd S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivational manipulations, such as the presence of performance-contingent reward incentives, can have substantial influences on cognitive control. Previous evidence suggests that reward incentives may enhance cognitive performance specifically through increased preparatory, or proactive, control processes. The present study examined reward influences on cognitive control dynamics in the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT), using high-resolution pupillometry. In the AX-CPT, contextual cue...

  2. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of resource allocation and supply-demand balance in clinical practice with high-cost technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi; Lee, Jason; Hayashida, Kenshi

    2011-12-01

    Japan has one of the highest numbers of high-cost medical devices installed relative to its population. While evaluations of the distribution of these devices traditionally involve simple population-based assessments, an indicator that includes the demand of these devices would more accurately reflect the situation. The purpose of this study was to develop an indicator of the supply-demand balance of such devices, using examples of magnetic resonance imaging scanners (MRI) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripters (ESWL), and to investigate the relationship between this indicator, personnel distribution statuses and operating statuses at the prefectural level. Using data from nation-wide surveys and claims data from 16 hospitals, we developed an indicator based on the ratio of the supplied number of device units to the number of device units in demand for MRI and ESWL. The latter value was based on patient volume and utilization proportion. Correlation analyses were conducted between the supply-demand balances of these devices, personal distribution and operating statuses. Comparisons between our indicator and conventional population-based indicators revealed that 15% and 30% of prefectures were at risk of underestimating the availability of MRI and ESWL, respectively. The numbers of specialist personnel/device units showed significant, negative correlations with our indicators in both devices. Utilization-based analyses of health care resource placement and utilization status provide a more accurate indication than simple population-based assessments, and can assist decision makers in reviewing gaps between health policy and management. Such an indicator therefore has the potential to be a tool in helping to improve the efficiency of the allocation and placement of such devices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Algorithms in a Computer Science Course for High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    Computer science for high school faces many challenging issues. One of these is whether the students possess the appropriate cognitive ability for learning the fundamentals of computer science. Online tests were created based on known cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms and were implemented among the second grade students in the…

  5. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  6. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Algorithms in a Computer Science Course for High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    Computer science for high school faces many challenging issues. One of these is whether the students possess the appropriate cognitive ability for learning the fundamentals of computer science. Online tests were created based on known cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms and were implemented among the second grade students in the…

  7. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  8. Psychosocial working conditions and cognitive complaints among Swedish employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751 and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. CROSS/SECTIONAL RESULTS: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT demands, under qualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and over qualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. PROSPECTIVE RESULTS: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and under qualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively

  9. Psychosocial Working Conditions and Cognitive Complaints among Swedish Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Theorell, Töres; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751) and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart) sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. Cross-sectional results High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT) demands, underqualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and overqualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. Prospective results Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and underqualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively associated with future

  10. Distributed cognition artifacts on clinical research data collection forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Meredith; Nguyen, Vickie D; Razzouk, Elie; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jiajie

    2010-03-01

    Medical record abstraction, a primary mode of data collection in secondary data use, is associated with high error rates. Cognitive factors have not been studied as a possible explanation for medical record abstraction errors. We employed the theory of distributed representation and representational analysis to systematically evaluate cognitive demands in medical record abstraction and the extent of external cognitive support employed in a sample of clinical research data collection forms.We show that the cognitive load required for abstraction in 61% of the sampled data elements was high, exceedingly so in 9%. Further, the data collection forms did not support external cognition for the most complex data elements. High working memory demands are a possible explanation for the association of data errors with data elements requiring abstractor interpretation, comparison, mapping or calculation. The representational analysis used here can be used to identify data elements with high cognitive demands.

  11. Design of Demand Driven Return Supply Chain for High-Tech Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Tuzkaya, G.

    2010-01-01

    Many high-tech supply chain operate in a context of high process and market uncertainties due to shorter product life cycles. When introducing a new product, a company must manage the cost of supply, including the cost of returns over its short life cycle. The returns distribution looks like a negat

  12. Career Clusters: Forecasting Demand for High School through College Jobs, 2008-2018. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Stone, James R., III; Kotamraju, Pradeep; Steuernagel, Bruce; Green, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Going directly from high school to college is not possible for everyone. Many who go to college will not do so straight out of high school, and many more need to work to pay for college. Good jobs for people without college degrees certainly still exist, although they are on a steady decline as computers and related technology take over routine…

  13. Design of Demand Driven Return Supply Chain for High-Tech Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Tuzkaya, G.

    2010-01-01

    Many high-tech supply chain operate in a context of high process and market uncertainties due to shorter product life cycles. When introducing a new product, a company must manage the cost of supply, including the cost of returns over its short life cycle. The returns distribution looks like a

  14. Estimation of the Demand for Hospital Care After a Possible High-Magnitude Earthquake in the City of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambarén, Celso; Uyen, Angela; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Introduction A model prepared by National Civil Defense (INDECI; Lima, Peru) estimated that an earthquake with an intensity of 8.0 Mw in front of the central coast of Peru would result in 51,019 deaths and 686,105 injured in districts of Metropolitan Lima and Callao. Using this information as a base, a study was designed to determine the characteristics of the demand for treatment in public hospitals and to estimate gaps in care in the hours immediately after such an event. A probabilistic model was designed that included the following variables: demand for hospital care; time of arrival at the hospitals; type of medical treatment; reason for hospital admission; and the need for specialized care like hemodialysis, blood transfusions, and surgical procedures. The values for these variables were obtained through a literature search of the databases of the MEDLINE medical bibliography, the Cochrane and SciELO libraries, and Google Scholar for information on earthquakes over the last 30 years of over magnitude 6.0 on the moment magnitude scale. If a high-magnitude earthquake were to occur in Lima, it was estimated that between 23,328 and 178,387 injured would go to hospitals, of which between 4,666 and 121,303 would require inpatient care, while between 18,662 and 57,084 could be treated as outpatients. It was estimated that there would be an average of 8,768 cases of crush syndrome and 54,217 cases of other health problems. Enough blood would be required for 8,761 wounded in the first 24 hours. Furthermore, it was expected that there would be a deficit of hospital beds and operating theaters due to the high demand. Sudden and violent disasters, such as earthquakes, represent significant challenges for health systems and services. This study shows the deficit of preparation and capacity to respond to a possible high-magnitude earthquake. The study also showed there are not enough resources to face mega-disasters, especially in large cities. Bambarén C , Uyen A

  15. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li Hu

    Full Text Available Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD, stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200 detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and homocysteine was estimated at 500 m altitude, 3650 m altitude, 3 day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m, and 1 month after coming back to the 500 m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m. P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng Li; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Zhi Qiang; Zhao, Heng Li; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200) detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homocysteine was estimated at 500m altitude, 3650m altitude, 3day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400m), and 1 month after coming back to the 500m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400m). P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26731740

  17. Analysis of stationary fuel cell dynamic ramping capabilities and ultra capacitor energy storage using high resolution demand data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, James R.; Jabbari, Faryar; Brouwer, Jacob; Mauzey, Josh L.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    Current high temperature fuel cell (HTFC) systems used for stationary power applications (in the 200-300 kW size range) have very limited dynamic load following capability or are simply base load devices. Considering the economics of existing electric utility rate structures, there is little incentive to increase HTFC ramping capability beyond 1 kWs -1 (0.4% s -1). However, in order to ease concerns about grid instabilities from utility companies and increase market adoption, HTFC systems will have to increase their ramping abilities, and will likely have to incorporate electrical energy storage (EES). Because batteries have low power densities and limited lifetimes in highly cyclic applications, ultra capacitors may be the EES medium of choice. The current analyses show that, because ultra capacitors have a very low energy storage density, their integration with HTFC systems may not be feasible unless the fuel cell has a ramp rate approaching 10 kWs -1 (4% s -1) when using a worst-case design analysis. This requirement for fast dynamic load response characteristics can be reduced to 1 kWs -1 by utilizing high resolution demand data to properly size ultra capacitor systems and through demand management techniques that reduce load volatility.

  18. Why Electricity Demand Is Highly Income-Elastic in Spain: A Cross-Country Comparison Based on an Index-Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez-García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, Spain has had one of the highest elasticities of electricity demand in the European Union. We provide an in-depth analysis into the causes of this high elasticity, and we examine how these same causes influence electricity demand in other European countries. To this end, we present an index-decomposition analysis of growth in electricity demand which allows us to identify three key factors in the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP and electricity demand: (i structural change; (ii GDP growth; and (iii intensity of electricity use. Our findings show that the main differences in electricity demand elasticities across countries and time are accounted for by the fast convergence in residential per capita electricity consumption. This convergence has almost concluded, and we expect the Spanish energy demand elasticity to converge to European standards in the near future.

  19. Demand for alternative-fuel vehicles when registration taxes are high

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential futures for alternative-fuel vehicles in Denmark, where the vehicle registration tax is very high and large tax rebates can be given. A large stated choice dataset has been collected concerning vehicle choice among conventional, hydrogen, hybrid, bio......-diesel, and electric vehicles. We estimate a mixed logit model that improves on previous contributions by controlling for reference dependence and allowing for correlation of random effects. Both improvements are found to be important. An application of the model shows that alternative-fuel vehicles with present...... technology could obtain fairly high market shares given tax regulations possible in the present high-tax vehicle market....

  20. On-demand optical immobilization of Caenorhabditis elegans for high-resolution imaging and microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Krajniak, Jan; Matsunaga, Yohei; Benian, Guy M; Lu, Hang

    2014-09-21

    This paper describes a novel selective immobilization technique based on optical control of the sol-gel transition of thermoreversible Pluronic gel, which provides a simple, versatile, and biocompatible approach for high-resolution imaging and microinjection of Caenorhabditis elegans.

  1. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  2. Cognition of and Demand for Education and Teaching in Medical Statistics in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: e0128721

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yazhou Wu; Liang Zhou; Gaoming Li; Dali Yi; Xiaojiao Wu; Xiaoyu Liu; Yanqi Zhang; Ling Liu; Dong Yi

    2015-01-01

      Background Although a substantial number of studies focus on the teaching and application of medical statistics in China, few studies comprehensively evaluate the recognition of and demand for medical statistics...

  3. High removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand from tequila vinasses by using physicochemical and biological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retes-Pruneda, Jose Luis; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Medina-Ramírez, Iliana; Chavez-Vela, Norma Angelica; Lozano-Alvarez, Juan Antonio; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Jauregui-Rincon, Juan

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this research is to find a more effective treatment for tequila vinasses (TVs) with potential industrial application in order to comply with the Mexican environmental regulations. TVs are characterized by their high content of solids, high values of biochemical oxygen demand (BODs), chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and intense colour; thus, disposal of untreated TVs severely impacts the environment. Physicochemical and biological treatments, and a combination of both, were probed on the remediation of TVs. The use of alginate for the physicochemical treatment of TVs reduced BOD5 and COD values by 70.6% and 14.2%, respectively. Twenty white-rot fungi (WRF) strains were tested in TV-based solid media. Pleurotus ostreatus 7992 and Trametes trogii 8154 were selected due to their ability to grow on TV-based solid media. Ligninolytic enzymes' production was observed in liquid cultures of both fungi. Using the selected WRF for TVs' bioremediation, both COD and BOD5 were reduced by 88.7% and 89.7%, respectively. Applying sequential physicochemical and biological treatments, BOD5 and COD were reduced by 91.6% and 93.1%, respectively. Results showed that alginate and selected WRF have potential for the industrial treatment of TVs.

  4. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakanen, Jari J.; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly

  5. Demand forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Belčec

    2011-01-01

    Companies operate in an increasingly challenging environment that requires them to continuously improve all areas of the business process. Demand forecasting is one area in manufacturing companies where we can hope to gain great advantages. Improvements in forecasting can result in cost savings throughout the supply chain, improve the reliability of information and the quality of the service for our customers. In the company Danfoss Trata, d. o. o. we did not have a system for demand forecast...

  6. Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure in some high-alpine plants: adaptation to metabolic demands and climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, C; Engel, L

    2007-01-01

    The cytology of leaf cells from five different high-alpine plants was studied and compared with structures in chloroplasts from the typical high-alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis previously described as having frequent envelope plus stroma protrusions. The plants under investigation ranged from subalpine/alpine Geum montanum through alpine Geum reptans, Poa alpina var. vivipara, and Oxyria digyna to nival Cerastium uniflorum and R. glacialis. The general leaf structure (by light microscopy) and leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure (by transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) did not show any specialized structures unique to these mountain species. However, chloroplast protrusion formation could be found in G. reptans and, to a greater extent, in O. digyna. The other species exhibited only a low percentage of such chloroplast structural changes. Occurrence of protrusions in samples of G. montanum and O. digyna growing in a mild climate at about 50 m above sea level was drastically reduced. Serial TEM sections of O. digyna cells showed that the protrusions can appear as rather broad and long appendices of plastids, often forming pocketlike structures where mitochondria and microbodies are in close vicinity to the plastid and to each other. It is suggested that some high-alpine plants may form such protrusions to facilitate fast exchange of molecules between cytoplasm and plastid as an adaptation to the short, often unfavorable vegetation period in the Alps, while other species may have developed different types of adaptation that are not expressed in ultrastructural changes of the plastids.

  7. Design of demand driven return supply chain for high-tech products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Ashayeri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to design a responsive network for after-sale services of high-tech products. Design/methodology/approach: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and weighted max-min approach are integrated to solve a fuzzy goal programming model. Findings: Uncertainty is an important characteristic of reverse logistics networks, and the level of uncertainty increases with the decrease of the products’ life-cycle. Research limitations/implications: Some of the objective functions of our model are simplified to deal with non-linearities. Practical implications: Designing after-sale services networks for high-tech products is an overwhelming task, especially when the external environment is characterized by high levels of uncertainty and dynamism. This study presents a comprehensive modeling approach to simplify this task. Originality/value: Consideration of multiple objectives is rare in reverse logistics network design literature. Although the number of multi-objective reverse logistics network design studies has been increasing in recent years, the last two objective of our model is unique to this research area.

  8. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect on Young People's Cardiometabolic Health and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    With only a quarter of young people currently meeting physical activity guidelines, two key areas of concern are the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health and cognition. Despite the fact that physical activity in young people is typically high intensity and intermittent in nature, much of the literature examines traditional endurance-type exercise. This review provides an update on the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on young people's cardiometabolic health and cognition. High-intensity intermittent exercise has acute beneficial effects on endothelial function and postprandial lipemia and chronic positive effects on weight management. In addition, there is emerging evidence regarding chronic benefits on the blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests beneficial acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on cognition. However, further research is required in both cardiometabolic health and cognition, particularly regarding the impact of school-based interventions in adolescents.

  9. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T is associated with cognitive decline in older adults at high cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W; de Craen, Anton JM; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), measured with a high-sensitivity (hs) assay, is associated with cognitive decline, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We investigated the association of hs-cTnT with cognitive function and decline, and studied whether this association was independent....... Participants with pre-existent advanced clinical heart failure were excluded. Hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP obtained after 6 months of follow-up were related with cognitive function, tested repeatedly during a mean follow-up of 3.2 years. Participants with higher hs-cTnT performed worse at baseline on Stroop test...... diseases risk factors or Apolipoprotein E genotype. Further adjusting for NT-proBNP levels revealed the same results. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of hs-cTnT associate with worse cognitive function and steeper cognitive decline in older adults independent of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and NT-proBNP....

  10. Study effective factors on customer compliance in high contact services based on Bandura social - Cognitive theory

    OpenAIRE

    zahra asadi; bahman hajipour

    2014-01-01

    In today's competitive world, all market participants ranging from individuals, organizations should be looking for ways to success in the market. The secret to success high contact service providers as important part of market participants is, compliance and follow customers of high contact service providers the instructions and guidance. In this paper, a model based on Bandura social - Cognitive theory has Provided to customer compliance . According Bandura social - Cognitive theory and t...

  11. High Electricity Demand in the Northeast U.S.: PJM Reliability Network and Peaking Unit Impacts on Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Henderson, Barron H; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2016-08-01

    On high electricity demand days, when air quality is often poor, regional transmission organizations (RTOs), such as PJM Interconnection, ensure reliability of the grid by employing peak-use electric generating units (EGUs). These "peaking units" are exempt from some federal and state air quality rules. We identify RTO assignment and peaking unit classification for EGUs in the Eastern U.S. and estimate air quality for four emission scenarios with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model during the July 2006 heat wave. Further, we population-weight ambient values as a surrogate for potential population exposure. Emissions from electricity reliability networks negatively impact air quality in their own region and in neighboring geographic areas. Monitored and controlled PJM peaking units are generally located in economically depressed areas and can contribute up to 87% of hourly maximum PM2.5 mass locally. Potential population exposure to peaking unit PM2.5 mass is highest in the model domain's most populated cities. Average daily temperature and national gross domestic product steer peaking unit heat input. Air quality planning that capitalizes on a priori knowledge of local electricity demand and economics may provide a more holistic approach to protect human health within the context of growing energy needs in a changing world.

  12. High Performance Computing for Agent-Based Cognitive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    2.2.2.2 EX2 and EX3 Agents - ACT-R A simple agent was developed by Jaehyon Paik using the LISP -based ACT-R cognitive framework. Unlike the EX1...current user, and connecting the new one to the same account. 5 Both of these issues were overcome by generating pieces of the agent LISP code during...on a single local machine. The Fenrir VM was used to host the environment. Versions of MPI (MPICH2), and LISP (Clozure LISP ) that are available on

  13. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi;

    2010-01-01

    A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  14. DNA methylation and cognitive aging

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    With ever-increasing elder population, the high incidence of age-related diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders has turned out to be a huge public concern. Especially the elders and their families dreadfully suffer from the learning, behavioral and cognitive impairments. The lack of effective therapies for such a horrible symptom makes a great demanding for biological mechanism study for cognitive aging. Epigenetics is an emerging field that broadens the dimensions of mammalian genome b...

  15. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  16. Personnel and patient scheduling in the high demanded hospital services: a case study in the physiotherapy service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulata, S Noyan; Koyuncu, Melik; Karaskas, Esra

    2008-06-01

    High demand but limited staffs within some services of a hospital require a proper scheduling of staff and patients. In this study, a hierarchical mathematical model is proposed to generate weekly staff scheduling. Due to computational difficulty of this scheduling problem, the entire model is broken down into manageable three hierarchical stages: (1) selection of patients, (2) assignment of patients to the staff, (3) scheduling of patients throughout a day. The developed models were tested on the data collected in College of Medicine Research Hospital at Cukurova University using GAMS and MPL optimization packages. From the results of the case study, the presented hierarchical model provided a schedule that ensures to maximize the number of selected patients, to balance the workload of physiotherapist, and to minimize waiting time of patients in their treatment day.

  17. Characteristics of High School Students' and Science Teachers' Cognitive Frame about Effective Teaching Method for High School Science Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Kyu Seong

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the cognitive frame of high school students and inservice high school science teachers about effective teaching method, and we also explored how they understood about the teaching methods suggested by the 2009 revised Science Curriculum. Data were collected from 275 high school science teachers and 275 high school students. We analyzed data in terms of the words and the cognitive frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The results were as follows. First, the teachers perceived that an activity oriented class was the effective science class that helped improve students'' problem-solving abilities and their inquiry skills. The students had the cognitive frame that their teacher had to present relevant and enough teaching materials to students, and that they should also receive assistance from teachers in science class to better prepare for college entrance exam. Second, both students and teachers retained the cognitive frame about the efficient science class that was not reflected 2009 revised Science Curriculum exactly. Especially, neither groups connected the elements of ''convergence'' as well as ''integration'' embedded across science subject areas to their cognitive frame nor cognized the fact that many science learning contents were closed related to one another. Therefore, various professional development opportunities should be offered so that teachers succinctly comprehend the essential features and the intents of the 2009 revised Science Curriculum and thereby implement it in their science lessons effectively. Keywords : semantic network analysis, cognitive frame, teaching method, science lesson

  18. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY IS PREDICTED BY SELF-EFFICACY AND ACHIEVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Binnaz Kiran Esen; H. Duygu Özcan; Mehtap Sezgin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the prediction cognitive flexibility obtained by general self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and achievement is examined. This study is executed in 2014- 2015 academic year on 760 high school students who are between ages 15 and 18. Cognitive flexibility Scale is developed by Bilgin (2009b) is used for defining cognitive flexibility, Self-Efficacy Scale is developed by Çelikkaleli, Gündoğdu ve Kıran-Esen (2006) is used for def...

  19. Definition and evaluation of testing scenarios for knee wear simulation under conditions of highly demanding daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesau, Jens; Schilling, Carolin; Kaddick, Christian; Utzschneider, Sandra; Jansson, Volkmar; Fritz, Bernhard; Blömer, Wilhelm; Grupp, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of our study was the definition of testing scenarios for knee wear simulation under various highly demanding daily activities of patients after total knee arthroplasty. This was mainly based on a review of published data on knee kinematics and kinetics followed by the evaluation of the accuracy and precision of a new experimental setup. We combined tibio-femoral load and kinematic data reported in the literature to develop deep squatting loading profiles for simulator input. A servo-hydraulic knee wear simulator was customised with a capability of a maximum flexion of 120°, a tibio-femoral load of 5000N, an anterior-posterior (AP) shear force of ±1000N and an internal-external (IE) rotational torque of ±50Nm to simulate highly demanding patient activities. During the evaluation of the newly configurated simulator the ability of the test machine to apply the required load and torque profiles and the flexion kinematics in a precise manner was examined by nominal-actual profile comparisons monitored periodically during subsequent knee wear simulation. For the flexion kinematics under displacement control a delayed actuator response of approximately 0.05s was inevitable due to the inertia of masses in movement of the coupled knee wear stations 1-3 during all applied activities. The axial load and IE torque is applied in an effective manner without substantial deviations between nominal and actual load and torque profiles. During the first third of the motion cycle a marked deviation between nominal and actual AP shear load profiles has to be noticed but without any expected measurable effect on the latter wear simulation due to the fact that the load values are well within the peak magnitude of the nominal load amplitude. In conclusion the described testing method will be an important tool to have more realistic knee wear simulations based on load conditions of the knee joint during activities of daily living.

  20. High tech cognitive and acoustic enrichment for captive elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Fiona; Mancini, Clara; Sharp, Helen

    2017-09-23

    This paper investigates the potential for using technology to support the development of sensory and cognitive enrichment activities for captive elephants. It explores the usefulness of applying conceptual frameworks from interaction design and game design to the problem of developing species-specific smart toys that promote natural behaviours and provide stimulation. We adopted a Research through Design approach, and describe how scientific inquiry supported our design process, while the creation of artefacts guided our investigations into possible future solutions. Our fieldwork resulted in the development of an interactive prototype of an acoustic toy that elephants are able to control using interface elements constructed from a range of natural materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Components of High-Level Vision: A Cognitive Neuroscience Analysis and Accounts of Neurological Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-28

    orientation (e.g., "connected to;" see also Mehta, Newcombe, and Damasio, 1987; Olson and Bialystok , 1983). Components of high-level vision 20 In summary...Crofts. Neisser, U. (1976). Cognition and Reality. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. Olson, D., and Bialystok , E. (1983). Spatial Cognition: the Structure...versity- Nashville TN’ 37240 Or Ellen N. "avkwn Psychology Building 420 Or Lester Lefton Stanford University Department of Psychology Stanford CA

  2. The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    OpenAIRE

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive appraisals about sex may represent an important component of the maintenance and treatment of hypersexuality, but they are not currently represented in conceptual models of hypersexuality. Therefore, we validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality. Qualitative interviews with a pilot sample of 60 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men and expert review of items yielded a pool of 17 items regarding maladaptive ...

  3. Demanding Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  4. An Investigation of Cognitive Skills and Behavior in High Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles of high ability students. Performance on measures of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory and general ability (vocabulary and block design) was compared across the following groups: high, average, and low ability students. The behavioral profile of high ability…

  5. Early signs of pathological cognitive aging in mice lacking high-affinity nicotinic receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eKonsolaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. Α deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-, which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioural signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviours, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm and extend the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments, manifested in both spatial learning and recognition memory tasks. In addition, we reveal deficits in spontaneous behaviour and habituation processes earlier in life. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioural examination of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioural changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  6. Body mass index, cognitive deficit and depressive symptoms in high cardiovascular risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lucas da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the relationship of obesity, cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in patients with high cardiovascular risk. Methods: A sample of 93 patients aged 50 years or older was selected from the Center of Dyslipidemia and High Cardiovascular Risk from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA. Patients with stroke were excluded. For cognitive evaluation, the MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination was used. A score of 24 or less was considered as cognitive impairment, and for those who had 4 years or less of education, the cutoff point was 17. The GDS-15 (Geriatric Depression Scale was also used, with the cutoff of 6 for presence of depressive symptoms. Results: Obese patients showed lower mean MMSE scores compared to non-obese patients (p=0.0012. Additionally, for every one point increase in BMI above 30 there was a 27% increase in the chances of the patient having cognitive impairment. The obese patients presented 31% chance of having cognitive impairment compared with overweight subjects. Conclusions: Our findings corroborated the association between obesity and cognitive impairment in high cardiovascular risk patients. This association however, was not observed for depressive symptoms.

  7. Gait variability in healthy old adults is more affected by a visual perturbation than by a cognitive or narrow step placement demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Carrie A; Franz, Jason R; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-09-01

    Gait variability measures have been linked to fall risk in older adults. However, challenging walking tasks may be required to elucidate increases in variability that arise from subtle age-related changes in cognitive processing and sensorimotor function. Hence, the study objective was to investigate the effects of visual perturbations, increased cognitive load, and narrowed step width on gait variability in healthy old and young adults. Eleven old (OA, 71.2±4.2 years) and twelve young (YA, 23.6±3.9 years) adults walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched virtual hallway. Subjects walked: (1) normally, (2) with mediolateral visual perturbations, (3) while performing a cognitive task (serial seven subtractions), and (4) with narrowed step width. We computed the mean and variability of step width (SW and SWV, respectively) and length (SL, SLV) over one 3-min trial per condition. Walking normally, old and young adults exhibited similar SWV and SLV. Visual perturbations significantly increased gait variability in old adults (by more than 100% for both SWV and SLV), but not young adults. The cognitive task and walking with narrowed step width did not show any effect on SWV or SLV in either group. The dramatic increase in step width variability when old adults were subjected to mediolateral visual perturbations was likely due to increased reliance on visual feedback for assessing whole-body position. Further work is needed to ascertain whether these findings may reflect sub-clinical balance deficits that could contribute to the increased fall risk seen with advancing age.

  8. High self-monitors' cognitive access to self-presentation-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, James M; McIntyre, Miranda M; Graziano, William G; Sands, Kaleigh J

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether high self-monitors cognitively process self-presentation-related information and concepts more readily than low self-monitors. Results across three studies indicate that compared to low self-monitors, high self-monitors have greater cognitive access to self-presentation-related information and concepts. High self-monitors produced more words related to self-presentation in a shorter amount of time (Study 1) and in a cognitive load condition (Study 2). In both studies, the number of words did not differ when participants took longer to create their list and when they were in a no cognitive load condition. In Study 3, high (vs. low) self-monitors showed faster reaction time to self-presentation-related concepts. In contrast, reaction time to non-self-presentation items did not differ. The findings contribute to both the theory and knowledge of self-monitoring by demonstrating that information processing related to self-presentational concepts is an important component of self-monitoring, in that such information is more cognitively accessible to high self-monitors.

  9. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Group Therapy on Decreasing Depression among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad nazariy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depending on its etiology, many methods have been established for the treatment of depression among adolescents; cognitive therapy is one of them. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of cognitive group therapy on decreasing depression among high school students. Methods: From the male students of a boarding high school in Tarom district of Gazvin province, a sample of 16 students were randomly selected and assigned into experimental and control groups. The measurement tool was Beck depression inventory. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of cognitive therapy, while the control group did not receive any treatment. The mean scores of the two groups were compared through independent t-test. Results: The results of the study showed significant differences between the mean scores of the pre-tests and post-tests of the experimental and control groups, so that cognitive group therapy had reduced the depression mean score in the experimental group (-2.1 vs. -0.25. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate that cognitive group therapy can reduce the depression among students. These findings can be used for therapeutic planning within the cognitive paradigm to reduce or prevent depression among student

  10. Cognitive MIMO Frequency Diverse Array Radar with High LPI Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency diverse array (FDA has its unique advantage in realizing low probability of intercept (LPI technology for its dependent beam pattern. In this paper, we proposed a cognitive radar based on the frequency diverse array multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO. To implement LPI of FDA MIMO transmit signals, a scheme for array weighting design is proposed, which is to minimize the energy of the target location and maximize the energy of the receiver. This is based on the range dependent characteristics of the frequency diverse array transmit beam pattern. To realize the objective problem, the algorithm is proposed as follows: the second-order nonconvex optimization problem is converted into a convex problem and solved by the bisection method and convex optimization. To get the information of target, the FDA MIMO radar is proposed to estimate the target parameters. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective in decreasing the detection probability of radar with lossless detection performance of the receive signal.

  11. High metabolic demand in neural tissues: Information and control theory perspectives on the synergism between rate and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-11-21

    Evolutionary process has been selected for inherently unstable systems in higher animals that can react swiftly to changing patterns of threat or opportunity, for example blood pressure, the immune response, and gene expression. However, these require continual strict regulation: uncontrolled blood pressure is fatal, immune cells can attack 'self' tissues, and improper gene expression triggers developmental disorders. Consciousness in particular demands high rates of metabolic free energy to both operate and regulate the fundamental biological machinery: both the 'stream of consciousness' and the 'riverbanks' that confine it to useful realms are constructed and reconstructed moment-by-moment in response to highly dynamic internal and environmental circumstances. We develop powerful necessary conditions models for such phenomena based on the Data Rate Theorem linking control and information theories in the context of inherent instability. The synergism between conscious action and its regulation underlies the ten-fold higher rate of metabolic energy consumption in human neural tissues and implies a close, culturally modulated relation between sleep disorders and certain psychopathologies.

  12. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  13. Puzzlingly High Correlations in fMRI Studies of Emotion, Personality, and Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vul, Edward; Harris, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Pashler, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition have drawn much attention in recent years, with high-profile studies frequently reporting extremely high (e.g., > 8) correlations between behavioral and self-report measures of personality or emotion and measures of brain activation. We show that…

  14. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  15. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  16. Acute Administration of MK-801 in an Animal Model of Psychosis in Rats Interferes with Cognitively Demanding Forms of Behavioral Flexibility on a Rotating Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eSvoboda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF or the stationary room (room frame task, RF. We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions and a test phase (five sessions in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal. In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather

  17. Early Signs of Pathological Cognitive Aging in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Polissidis, Alexia V; Stamatakis, Antonios; Skaliora, Irini

    2016-01-01

    In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioral signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviors, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments in spatial learning. In addition, they document age-related deficits in other areas, such as recognition memory, burrowing and nesting building, thereby extending the validity of this animal model for the study of pathological aging. Finally, our data reveal deficits in spontaneous behavior and habituation processes that precede the onset of cognitive decline and could therefore be useful as a non-invasive behavioral screen for identifying animals at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioral assessment of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioral changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  18. Aiming High: Exploring the Influence of Implementation Fidelity and Cognitive Demand Levels on Struggling Readers' Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jill; Feighan, Kelly; Kirtcheva, Elena; Heereen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Researchers studied components of a two-year school-wide Striving Readers intervention aimed at bolstering middle school teachers' use of literacy strategies to raise students' reading achievement. Although students of intervention teachers had significantly higher Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) scores than students of non-participating…

  19. On the Regulation of Cognitive Control: Action Orientation Moderates the Impact of High Demands in Stroop Interference Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostmann, Nils B.; Koole, Sander L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has established that people vary in action orientation, a tendency toward decisiveness and initiative, versus state orientation, a tendency toward indecisiveness and hesitation (J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann, 1994b). In the present 3 studies, the authors examined whether action orientation versus state orientation regulates cognitive…

  20. High Intellectual Ability: Extracurricular Enrichment and Cognitive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide a better understanding of high intellectual abilities and of how to address the educational needs of those who possess such abilities. Within the emergent paradigm, high intellectual abilities are understood as multidimensional and as the result of lifetime development; that is, not only are they the result of their…

  1. Association of Playing High School Football With Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer K; Hasegawa, Raiden B; Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Whyte, John; Roan, Carol L; Tabatabaei, Andrew; Baiocchi, Michael; Karlawish, Jason H; Master, Christina L; Small, Dylan S

    2017-08-01

    American football is the largest participation sport in US high schools and is a leading cause of concussion among adolescents. Little is known about the long-term cognitive and mental health consequences of exposure to football-related head trauma at the high school level. To estimate the association of playing high school football with cognitive impairment and depression at 65 years of age. A representative sample of male high school students who graduated from high school in Wisconsin in 1957 was studied. In this cohort study using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, football players were matched between March 1 and July 1, 2017, with controls along several baseline covariates such as adolescent IQ, family background, and educational level. For robustness, 3 versions of the control condition were considered: all controls, those who played a noncollision sport, and those who did not play any sport. Athletic participation in high school football. A composite cognition measure of verbal fluency and memory and attention constructed from results of cognitive assessments administered at 65 years of age. A modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale score was used to measure depression. Secondary outcomes include results of individual cognitive tests, anger, anxiety, hostility, and heavy use of alcohol. Among the 3904 men (mean [SD] age, 64.4 [0.8] years at time of primary outcome measurement) in the study, after matching and model-based covariate adjustment, compared with each control condition, there was no statistically significant harmful association of playing football with a reduced composite cognition score (-0.04 reduction in cognition vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -0.14 to 0.05) or an increased modified Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale depression score (-1.75 reduction vs all controls; 97.5% CI, -3.24 to -0.26). After adjustment for multiple testing, playing football did not have a significant adverse association with

  2. The early cognitive development of children at high risk of developing an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Radha; Rosinska, Magda; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) has been associated with differences in cognition. Recent evidence suggests that differences may be present prior to onset. Children at familial high risk for ED show cognitive differences at ages 8-10 years. Research is required to investigate differences in cognitive development at various time points. This is the first study to investigate cognitive development in children at high risk at 18 months (Griffiths Mental Development Scale; n=982) and 4 years old (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised; n=582), in comparison with children not at risk, using a general population sample, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Children of women with lifetime anorexia nervosa revealed difficulties in social understanding, visual-motor function, planning and abstract reasoning. Cognitive differences observed here have also been observed in clinical groups. This suggests difficulties may be present prior to onset, potentially affecting risk status for development of ED. Findings contribute to an understanding of aetiology, and design of prevention/intervention strategies.

  3. High-frequency binaural beats increase cognitive flexibility: evidence from dual-task crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hommel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing. We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style towards flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm. We replicated earlier findings that the reaction time in the first-performed task is sensitive to the compatibility between the responses in the first and the second task—an indication of crosstalk. As predicted, exposing participants to binaural beats in the gamma range increased this effect as compared to a control condition in which participants were exposed to a continuous tone of 340 Hz. These findings provide converging evidence that the cognitive-control style can be systematically biased by inducing particular internal states; that high-frequency binaural beats bias the control style towards more flexibility; and that different styles are implemented by changing the strength of local competition and top-down bias.

  4. The role of maladaptive cognitions in hypersexuality among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive appraisals about sex may represent an important component of the maintenance and treatment of hypersexuality, but they are not currently represented in conceptual models of hypersexuality. Therefore, we validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality. Qualitative interviews with a pilot sample of 60 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men and expert review of items yielded a pool of 17 items regarding maladaptive cognitions about sex. A separate sample of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men completed measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, depression and anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and a measure of problematic hypersexuality. Factor analysis confirmed the presence of three subscales: perceived sexual needs, sexual costs, and sexual control efficacy. Structural equation modeling results were consistent with a cognitive model of hypersexuality whereby magnifying the necessity of sex and disqualifying the benefits of sex partially predicted minimized self-efficacy for controlling one's sexual behavior, all of which predicted problematic hypersexuality. In multivariate logistic regression, disqualifying the benefits of sex predicted unique variance in hypersexuality, even after adjusting for the role of core constructs of existing research on hypersexuality, AOR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.02, 3.10. Results suggest the utility of a cognitive approach for better understanding hypersexuality and the importance of developing treatment approaches that encourage adaptive appraisals regarding the outcomes of sex and one's ability to control his sexual behavior.

  5. Cognitive situation and health education demand of Chinese women to human papillomavirus and its vaccine%中国妇女对人乳头瘤病毒和疫苗认知情况及健康教育需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婧; 郭秋月

    2013-01-01

    介绍了中国各地妇女对于人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)及疫苗的认知情况、影响因素、健康教育需求,为进一步完善和加强宣教手段,推广疫苗,提高妇女生命质量提供研究方向.%It introduced the cognitive situation and health education demand of Chinese women to human papillomavirus and its vaccine and introduced its influencing factors,so as to provide the research direction for further improving and strengthening propaganda means,promoting the vaccine and enhancing the quality of life of women.

  6. Cognitive radio networks efficient resource allocation in cooperative sensing, cellular communications, high-speed vehicles, and smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the AuthorsIntroductionCognitive Radio-Based NetworksOpportunistic Spectrum Access NetworksCognitive Radio Networks with Cooperative SensingCognitive Radio Networks for Cellular CommunicationsCognitive Radio Networks for High-Speed VehiclesCognitive Radio Networks for a Smart GridContent and OrganizationTransmission Slot Allocation in an Opportunistic Spectrum Access NetworkSingle-User Single-Channel System ModelProbabilistic Slot Allocation SchemeOptimal Probabilistic Slot AllocationBaseline PerformanceExponential DistributionHyper-Erlang DistributionPerformance An

  7. Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Differences Between High and Low Procrastinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothblum, Esther D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relation between procrastination and academically related trait measures. Self-reported procrastination was positively correlated with delay in taking self-paced quizzes and negatively correlated with grade point average. High procrastinators, particularly women, were significantly more likely to report more test anxiety and to…

  8. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  9. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Kesby

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old and aged (15 months old mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  10. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  11. Social Cognitive Predictors of Mexican American High School Students' Math/Science Career Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriott, Patton O.; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Zoma, Lorrine; Mackie-Hernandez, Dylan; Lavin, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of math/science career goals in a sample (N = 258) of Mexican American high school students. Familism and proximal family supports for math/science careers were examined as predictors of math/science: performance accomplishments, self-efficacy, interests, and goals. Results showed that the hypothesized…

  12. Testing Social Cognitive Interest and Choice Hypotheses across Holland Types in Italian High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    Italian high school students (n=796) completed measures related to Social Cognitive Career Theory and Holland's personality types. Findings supported hypotheses that self-efficacy and outcome expectations predict interests. Whether the mediation effect of interests was full or partial varied across types. Social supports/barriers related to career…

  13. Testing a mobile digital cognitive support system for high functioning adolescents with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyori, Miklos; Aagaard, Morten; Kanizsai-Nagy, Ildiko

    HANDS Project is aimed at developing a cognitive support system for high functioning (HF) adolescents with ASD, running on smartphones and PDAs, complemented by a webbased management system. It is designed to teach/facilitate adaptive social behaviours and daily living skills, and is based...... on a detailed understanding of the cognitiveprofile of ASD, and on evidence‐based intervention techniques. Development of the system was based on recurrent interactions of expert groups from persuasive design, child psychiatry,cognitive psychology, (special) education, software development, and intended users...

  14. Social Cognition in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J M van Donkersgoed

    Full Text Available Treatment in the ultra-high risk stage for a psychotic episode is critical to the course of symptoms. Markers for the development of psychosis have been studied, to optimize the detection of people at risk of psychosis. One possible marker for the transition to psychosis is social cognition. To estimate effect sizes for social cognition based on a quantitative integration of the published evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis of social cognitive performance in people at ultra high risk (UHR.A literature search (1970-July 2015 was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, and ISI Web of Science, using the search terms 'social cognition', 'theory of mind', 'emotion recognition', 'attributional style', 'social knowledge', 'social perception', 'empathy', 'at risk mental state', 'clinical high risk', 'psychosis prodrome', and 'ultra high risk'. The pooled effect size (Cohen's D and the effect sizes for each domain of social cognition were calculated. A random effects model with 95% confidence intervals was used.Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. The overall significant effect was of medium magnitude (d = 0.52, 95% Cl = 0.38-0.65. No moderator effects were found for age, gender and sample size. Sub-analyses demonstrated that individuals in the UHR phase show significant moderate deficits in affect recognition and affect discrimination in faces as well as in voices and in verbal Theory of Mind (TOM. Due to an insufficient amount of studies, we did not calculate an effect size for attributional bias and social perception/ knowledge. A majority of studies did not find a correlation between social cognition deficits and transition to psychosis, which may suggest that social cognition in general is not a useful marker for the development of psychosis. However some studies suggest the possible predictive value of verbal TOM and the recognition of specific emotions in faces for the transition into psychosis. More research is needed on

  15. Efficacy of Cognitive Processes in Young People with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Novel Visual Information-Processing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Samantha J.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Robinson, Stephen R.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Yelland, Gregory W.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by a unique pattern of preserved abilities and deficits within and across cognitive domains. The Complex Information Processing Theory proposes this pattern reflects an altered capacity to respond to cognitive demands. This study compared how complexity induced by time constraints on processing…

  16. Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Social Challenge (p = .001, d = 1.05). Aspects of emotion recognition were associated with role functioning and social skill performance. The level of attributional bias was associated with overall functioning, and theory of mind ability was associated with self-reported functioning. Negative symptoms...... an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients......Objective: Patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show significant impairments in functioning. It is essential to determine which factors influence functioning, as it may have implications for intervention strategies. This study examined whether social cognitive abilities and clinical...

  17. Demand response - Non-electric storage devices for electric utilities with a high participation of renewable energy sources; Demand response - Nichtelektrische Speicher fuer Elektrizitaetsversorgungssysteme mit hohem Anteil erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, I.

    2005-10-15

    Electrical power supply is mainly based on fossil and nuclear fuels. Their availability will be dramatically reduced within the next half century. The only possibility to maintain our high living and economic standard which is based on high energy consumption will be a reorganisation of our supplies towards renewable energies such as wind, photovoltaics and biomass. It is generally accepted that the maximum fraction of stochastically available renewable energies that can be integrated into our electricity supplies is 20 to 25 %. Reasons are stability of the electricity network and absence of possibilities to store large amounts of electricity. The author demonstrates that by integrating already existing intrinsic storage capacities on the demand side into the control of electricity supplies there is no longer an upper limit for integration of renewable energies. The following technologies on the demand side are taken into account: storage heating and electrical water heating, ventilation, refrigeration, circulation pumps and compressed air in industry. Furthermore, changes in user behaviour, compressed air energy storage, and transition to flexible electricity usage by integration of thermal storage are discussed. (orig.)

  18. 环境改善需求、环境责任认知和公众环境行为%Environmental Improvement Demand, Environmental Responsibility Cognition and Public Environmental Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成钢; 何兴邦

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influences of environmental improvement demand and environmental responsibility cog -nition upon public environmental behavior based on CGSS (2013) data.The results show that residents'demand for environ-mental improvement is positively correlated to personal environmental behavior.Moreover , the cognition weakening of two types of environmental responsibilities reduce the participation rate of residents 'environmental behavior: for one thing , resi-dents are apt to impute environmental responsibilities to governments , enterprises and social organizations; for another , it is widely believed that individuals only exert small positive externalities upon environmental improvement .Furthermore, the effi-ciency of environmental improvement demand on personal environmental behavior is affected by residents 'cognition of environ-mental responsibility.In conclusion , governments and media should enhance propaganda of the effect of personal environmen -tal behavior so as to raise the participation rate of public environmental behavior.%基于CGSS (2013)数据,本文实证分析了环境改善需求和环境责任认知对公众环境行为的影响。本研究发现居民对环境的改善需求与个人环境行为呈正相关。另外,两类环境责任自我弱化认知降低了居民的环境行为参与率:一类是居民倾向于把环境责任归咎给政府、企业和社会团体等社会组织,另一类是居民倾向于认为个人对于环境改善只存在微小的正外部性。最后,本研究还发现环境改善需求对个人环境行为的效力受到居民环境责任认知的影响。本研究认为政府和媒体应强化个人环境行为作用的宣导以提升公众环境行为参与率。

  19. Simultaneous efficient removal of high-strength ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand from landfill leachate by using an extremely high ammonia nitrogen-resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Yang, Jiyu; Fang, Xuexun; Ren, Hejun

    2015-01-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology for pollutant elimination from stressed environments, and it would provide an efficient way to solve challenges in traditional biotreatment of wastewater with high strength of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). A high NH4(+)-N-resistant bacteria strain, identified as Bacillus cereus (Jlu BC), was domesticated and isolated from the bacteria consortium in landfill leachate. Jlu BC could survive in 100 g/L NH4(+)-N environment, which indicated its extremely high NH4(+)-N tolerance than the stains found before. Jlu BC was employed in the bioaugmented system to remove high strength of NH4(+)-N from landfill leachate, and to increase the removal efficiency, response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing bioaugmentation degradation conditions. At the optimum condition (initial pH 7.33, 4.14 days, initial chemical oxygen demand [COD] concentration [18,000 mg/L], 3.5 mL inoculated domesticated bacteria strain, 0.3 mg/mL phosphorus supplement, 30 °C, and 170 rpm), 94.74 ± 3.8% removal rate of NH4(+)-N was obtained, and the experiment data corresponded well with the predicted removal rate of the RSM models (95.50%). Furthermore, COD removal rate of 81.94 ± 1.4% was obtained simultaneously. The results presented are promising, and the screened strain would be of great practical importance in mature landfill leachate and other NH4(+)-N enrichment wastewater pollution control.

  20. Disturbed hepatic carbohydrate management during high metabolic demand in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrema, H.J.; Derks, T.G.; Dijk, van T.H.; Bloks, V.W.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Tietge, U.J.; Müller, M.R.; Smit, G.P.; Kuipers, F.; Reijngoud, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) catalyzes crucial steps in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, a process that is of key relevance for maintenance of energy homeostasis, especially during high metabolic demand. To gain insight into the metabolic consequences of MCAD deficiency

  1. Holistic face perception in young and older adults: effects of feedback and attentional demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Evidence exists for age-related decline in face cognition ability. However, the extents to which attentional demand and flexibility to adapt viewing strategies contribute to age-related decline in face cognition tests is poorly understood. Here, we studied holistic face perception in older (age range 65-78 years, mean age 69.9) and young adults (age range 20-32 years, mean age 23.1) using the complete design for a sequential study-test composite face task (Richler et al., 2008b). Attentional demand was varied using trials that required participants to attend to both face halves and to redirect attention to one face half during the test (high attentional demand), and trials that allowed participants to keep a pre-adjusted focus (low attentional demand). We also varied viewing time and provided trial-by-trial feedback or no feedback. We observed strong composite effects, which were larger for the elderly in all conditions, independent of viewing time. Composite effects were smaller for low attentional demand, and larger for high attentional demand. No age-related differences were found in this respect. Feedback also reduced the composite effects in both age groups. Young adults could benefit from feedback in conditions with low and high attentional demands. Older adults performed better with feedback only in trials with low attentional demand. When attentional demand was high, older adults could no longer use the feedback signal, and performed worse with feedback than without. These findings suggest that older adults tend to use a global focus for faces, albeit piecemeal analysis is required for the task, and have difficulties adapting their viewing strategies when task demands are high. These results are consistent with the idea that elderly rely more on holistic strategies as a means to reduce perceptual and cognitive load when processing resources are limited (Konar et al., 2013).

  2. 基于需求的高职数学教学优化策略%The Optimal Strategies of High Vocational Mathematics Based on Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金环

    2011-01-01

    通过现状分析,给出基于需求的高职数学教学优化策略:精心设计实例,激发学生内在需求;提炼数学问题,引导学生学习需求;改进教学方法,适应学生多元需求;鼓励学科交叉,应对社会发展需求;采用综合评价,满足学生进步需求.%By means of analyzing current situation, the optimal strategies of high vocational mathematics based on demand are provided: used well-designed example to arouse internal need of student; refined mathematical problem to guide requirement; improved teaching method to adapt polybasic demand; overlapped subject to reply social development; evaluated comprehensively to meet the demand of student.

  3. A comparison of cognitive skills utilized in high school physical education, English, mathematics, and science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Claudia Janette

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first purpose was to identify cognitive skills and cognitive concepts perceived to be common among the high school physical education environment, and the science, math, and English classrooms. The second purpose was to identify various attitudes regarding physical education that influence the integration of the physical education curriculum with other academic subject areas, specifically, math, English, and science. Data for the study were accumulated over a six-month period using a survey instrument. Respondents included sixty-three teachers from fourteen different schools. The following findings were drawn from the analysis of data: (1) There is a significant difference (p $.05) among disciplines when teachers rank their attitudes regarding the value of physical education in the school; (4) there is no significant difference (p >.05) among disciplines when teachers rank their attitudes regarding the role of cognitive learning in physical education programs; and (5) there is no significant difference (p >$.05) among disciplines when teachers rank their attitudes regarding the integration of other academic disciplines in the school within the physical education curriculum. The following conclusions were made from the research findings: (1) English, math, and science share common cognitive skills; (2) physical education shares common cognitive concepts with math and science which provides a basis for linking these subjects together in the curriculum; (3) teachers in each of the four disciplines have a positive attitude toward the value of physical education; (4) teachers in each discipline possess a positive attitude toward the role of cognitive learning in physical education; and (5) teachers in each discipline have a positive attitude toward integration and a willingness to integrate physical education with the other subject areas.

  4. Speed and path control for conflict-free flight in high air traffic demand in terminal airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ali

    To accommodate the growing air traffic demand, flights will need to be planned and navigated with a much higher level of precision than today's aircraft flight path. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) stands to benefit significantly in safety and efficiency from such movement of aircraft along precisely defined paths. Air Traffic Operations (ATO) relying on such precision--the Precision Air Traffic Operations or PATO--are the foundation of high throughput capacity envisioned for the future airports. In PATO, the preferred method is to manage the air traffic by assigning a speed profile to each aircraft in a given fleet in a given airspace (in practice known as (speed control). In this research, an algorithm has been developed, set in the context of a Hybrid Control System (HCS) model, that determines whether a speed control solution exists for a given fleet of aircraft in a given airspace and if so, computes this solution as a collective speed profile that assures separation if executed without deviation. Uncertainties such as weather are not considered but the algorithm can be modified to include uncertainties. The algorithm first computes all feasible sequences (i.e., all sequences that allow the given fleet of aircraft to reach destinations without violating the FAA's separation requirement) by looking at all pairs of aircraft. Then, the most likely sequence is determined and the speed control solution is constructed by a backward trajectory generation, starting with the aircraft last out and proceeds to the first out. This computation can be done for different sequences in parallel which helps to reduce the computation time. If such a solution does not exist, then the algorithm calculates a minimal path modification (known as path control) that will allow separation-compliance speed control. We will also prove that the algorithm will modify the path without creating a new separation violation. The new path will be generated by adding new

  5. High-resolution temperature fields to evaluate the response of Italian electricity demand to meteorological variables: an example of climate service for the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapin, Simone; Apadula, Francesco; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The dependence of Italian daily electricity demand on cooling degree-days, heating degree-days and solar radiation is investigated by means of a regression model applied to 12 consecutive 2-year intervals in the 1990-2013 period. The cooling and heating degree-days records used in the model are obtained by (i) estimating, by means of a network of 92 synoptic stations and high-resolution gridded temperature climatologies, a daily effective temperature record for all urbanised grid points of a high-resolution grid covering Italy; (ii) using these records to calculate corresponding grid point degree-days records; and (iii) averaging them to get national degree-days records representative of urban areas. The solar radiation record is obtained with the same averaging approach, with grid point solar radiation estimated from the corresponding daily temperature range. The model is based on deterministic components related to the weekly cyclical pattern of demand and to long-term demand changes and on weather-sensitive components related to cooling degree-days, heating degree-days and solar radiation. It establishes a strong contribution of cooling degree-days to the Italian electricity demand, with values peaking in summer months of the latest years up to 211 GWh day-1 (i.e. about 23 % of the corresponding average Italian electricity demand). This contribution shows a strong positive trend in the period considered here: the coefficient of the cooling degree-days term in the regression models increases from the first 2-year period (1990-1991) to the last one (2012-2013) by a factor 3.5, which is much greater than the increase of the Italian total electricity demand.

  6. Cognitive task load and support on a ship's bridge : Design and evaluation of a prototype user interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjen, M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Passenier, P.O.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, four cognitive support concepts were developed, that should help to handle high-y demand situations. These concepts are based on a cognitive task load model and can be realised with a specific method for cognitive task load analysis. The model and method describe task load in terms of thre

  7. Researching the cognitive validity of GEPT High-Intermediate and Advanced Reading: an eye tracking and stimulated recall study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    It is important for any language test to establish its cognitive validity in order to ensure that the test elicits from test takers those cognitive processes which correspond to the processes which they would normally employ in the target real-life context (Weir 2005). This study investigates the cognitive validity of the GEPT Reading Test at two levels. High-intermediate (CEFR B2) and Advanced (CEFR C1), using innovative eye-tracking technology and detailed stimulated recall interviews and s...

  8. Investigation of cognition on nursing service demands in Chinese inpatients and foreign inpatients%对外籍与国内患者护理服务需求认知的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜金霞; 彭幼清; 沈静之

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨国内住院患者与外籍患者对护理服务需求的认知差异.方法 采用自制住院患者护理服务需求调查问卷调查300例国内患者与300例外籍患者对护理服务需求的认知情况.结果 不同文化背景患者需求呈现多元性与差异性,外籍患者爱与归属需求(15.72±1.86)分、认知需求(33.18±5.12)分、自我实现需求(18.54 ±2.28)分,均低于国内患者;国内患者生理需求(68.18±4.76)分、尊重需求(57.56±6.91)分、审美需求(28.71±3.01)分,均低于外籍患者,差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为7.49,18.19,2.59,-5.35,-7.58,-2.58;P<0.05);安全需求方面外籍患者与国内患者间差异无统计学意义(t=0.92,P>0.05);在生理需求、爱与归属需求、尊重需求、认知需求、审美需求、自我实现需求方面的具体项目,国内患者与外籍患者对此类需求的认知差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 护理服务应以不同文化背景患者的实际多元需求为导向,并将文化多样性和差异性融入到护理工作中,以全球化的观点提供基于科学知识和人文关怀的健康照护.%Objective To survey and compare the differences of cognition on nursing service demands between Chinese inpatients and foreign inpatients.Methods To conduct a questionnaire survey of cognition on nursing service demands in 300 Chinese inpatients and 300 foreign inpatients by using self-designed questionnaire on nursing service demands of inpatients.Results The demands of patients from different cultural backgrounds were diversified and differentiated.The scores of love and belongingness needs,cognition needs and self-actualization needs in foreign patients were (15.72 ± 1.86),(33.18 ± 5.12),and (18.54 ± 2.28),respectively,and all of them were less than that in Chinese patients; while the scores of biological and physiological needs,esteem needs and aesthetic needs in foreign patients [(68.18 ±4.76),(57.56 ±6.91),(28.71

  9. Emotion and cognition in high and low stress sensitive mouse strains: a combined neuroendocrine and behavioral study in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing experiences and stress influence cognitive processes and vice versa. Understanding the relations and interactions between these three systems forms the core of this study. We tested two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6J; male; 3-month-old for glucocorticoid stress system markers (expression of MR and GR mRNA and protein in hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex; blood plasma corticosterone, used behavioral tasks for emotions and cognitive performance (elevated plus maze, holeboard to assess the interdependence of these factors. We hypothesize that BALB/c mice have a stress-vulnerable neuroendocrine phenotype and that emotional expressions in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice will differentially contribute to learning and memory. We applied factor analyses on emotional and cognitive parameters to determine the behavioral structure of BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Glucocorticoid stress system markers indeed show that BALB/c mice are more stress-vulnerable than C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, emotional and explorative factors differed between naïve BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/c mice display high movement in anxiogenic zones and high risk assessment, while C57BL/6J mice show little movement in anxiogenic zones and display high vertical exploration. Furthermore, BALB/c mice are superior learners, showing learning related behavior which is highly structured and emotionally biased when exposed to a novel or changing situation. In contrast, C57BL/6J mice display a rather ‘‘chaotic’’ behavioral structure during learning in absence of an emotional factor. These results show that stress vulnerability coincides with more emotionality, which drives well orchestrated goal directed behavior to the benefit of cognition. Both phenotypes have their advantage depending on environmental demands.

  10. Relationship between Contraceptive Knowledge, Cognition and Behaviors among Vocational High School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jin WANG; Chao-hua LOU; Xiaowen Tu; Er-sheng GAO

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between contraceptive knowledge, cognition and behaviors among vocational high school students.Methods A cross-sectional survey was anonymously self-administrated by way of computer to all the 1st graders among three vocational high schools in a district of Shanghai. Four cognition indicators, including perceived benefits, perceived barriers,perceived risks and self efficacy were applied according to Health Belief Model.Results The percentage of respondents who reported ever sexual practices and contraceptives use at first sex was 7.01% and 56.64% respectively. Condom (58.70%)and oral contraceptive pills (27.78%) were used by the majority. Main reasons for non-use were "shy to buy it" (26.53%) and "partner don't want to use any" (18.37%).Proportion of respondents who ever had sex regarded withdrawal and rhythm as effective were 68.35% and 68.42% respectively. Proportion of respondents having sex knew "Ifa person was infected with STDs, he/she might not have noticeable symptoms" were 22.86%. Proportion of respondents who reported non-use of contraceptives at first sex considered that "Infrequent intercourse could not cause a girl pregnant even she had experienced her menstruation" were 40.63%. Proportion of respondents who had ever used condom got full score of knowledge on "how to correctly use condom" were 23.26%. Perceived risks were poorest among four cognition indicators. High level of contraceptive knowledge was connected with high rate of contraceptives use at first sex, whereas high level contraceptive cognition was connected with high rate of contraceptive use both at first and recent sex.Conclusions It is important to provide youth-friendly services as well as message on contraceptives among vocational school students.

  11. The Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Project: lifetime history of axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y; Hogan, M E; Whitehouse, W G; Rose, D T; Robinson, M S; Kim, R S; Lapkin, J B

    2000-08-01

    The authors tested the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression with a retrospective behavioral high-risk design. Individuals without current Axis I diagnoses who exhibited either negative or positive cognitive styles were compared on lifetime prevalence of depressive and other disorders and the clinical parameters of depressive episodes. Consistent with predictions, cognitively high-risk participants had higher lifetime prevalence than low-risk participants of major and hopelessness depression and marginally higher prevalence of minor depression. These group differences were specific to depressive disorders. The high-risk group also had more severe depressions than the low-risk group, but not longer duration or earlier onset depressions. The risk group differences in prevalence of depressive disorders were not mediated by current depressive symptoms.

  12. The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive appraisals about sex may represent an important component of the maintenance and treatment of hypersexuality, but they are not currently represented in conceptual models of hypersexuality. Therefore, we validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality. Qualitative interviews with a pilot sample of 60 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men and expert review of items yielded a pool of 17 items regarding maladaptive cognitions about sex. A separate sample of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men completed measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, depression and anxiety, sexual compulsivity, the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory proposed by the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (2010). Factor analysis confirmed the presence of three subscales: perceived sexual needs, sexual costs, and sexual control efficacy. Structural equation modeling results were consistent with a cognitive model of hypersexuality whereby magnifying the necessity of sex and disqualifying the benefits of sex partially predicted minimized self-efficacy for controlling one’s sexual behavior, all of which predicted problematic hypersexuality. In multivariate logistic regression, disqualifying the benefits of sex predicted unique variance in hypersexuality, even after adjusting for the role of core constructs of existing research on hypersexuality, AOR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.02, 3.10. Results suggest the utility of a cognitive approach for better understanding hypersexuality and the importance of developing treatment approaches that encourage adaptive appraisals regarding the outcomes of sex and one’s ability to control his sexual behavior. PMID:24558123

  13. Temporal dynamics of motivation-cognitive control interactions revealed by high-resolution pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sarah Chiew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivational manipulations, such as the presence of performance-contingent reward incentives, can have substantial influences on cognitive control. Previous evidence suggests that reward incentives may enhance cognitive performance specifically through increased preparatory, or proactive, control processes. The present study examined reward influences on cognitive control dynamics in the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT, using high-resolution pupillometry. In the AX-CPT, contextual cues must be actively maintained over a delay in order to appropriately respond to ambiguous target probes. A key feature of the task is that it permits dissociable characterization of preparatory, proactive control processes (i.e., utilization of context and reactive control processes (i.e., target-evoked interference resolution. Task performance profiles suggested that reward incentives enhanced proactive control (context utilization. Critically, pupil dilation was also increased on reward incentive trials during context maintenance periods, suggesting trial-specific shifts in proactive control, particularly when context cues indicated the need to overcome the dominant target response bias. Reward incentives had both transient (i.e., trial-by-trial and sustained (i.e., block-based effects on pupil dilation, which may reflect distinct underlying processes. The transient pupillary effects were present even when comparing against trials matched in task performance, suggesting a unique motivational influence of reward incentives. These results suggest that pupillometry may be a useful technique for investigating reward motivational signals and their dynamic influence on cognitive control.

  14. Temporal dynamics of motivation-cognitive control interactions revealed by high-resolution pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Kimberly S; Braver, Todd S

    2013-01-01

    Motivational manipulations, such as the presence of performance-contingent reward incentives, can have substantial influences on cognitive control. Previous evidence suggests that reward incentives may enhance cognitive performance specifically through increased preparatory, or proactive, control processes. The present study examined reward influences on cognitive control dynamics in the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT), using high-resolution pupillometry. In the AX-CPT, contextual cues must be actively maintained over a delay in order to appropriately respond to ambiguous target probes. A key feature of the task is that it permits dissociable characterization of preparatory, proactive control processes (i.e., utilization of context) and reactive control processes (i.e., target-evoked interference resolution). Task performance profiles suggested that reward incentives enhanced proactive control (context utilization). Critically, pupil dilation was also increased on reward incentive trials during context maintenance periods, suggesting trial-specific shifts in proactive control, particularly when context cues indicated the need to overcome the dominant target response bias. Reward incentives had both transient (i.e., trial-by-trial) and sustained (i.e., block-based) effects on pupil dilation, which may reflect distinct underlying processes. The transient pupillary effects were present even when comparing against trials matched in task performance, suggesting a unique motivational influence of reward incentives. These results suggest that pupillometry may be a useful technique for investigating reward motivational signals and their dynamic influence on cognitive control.

  15. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  16. High-throughput cognitive assessment using BrainTest.org: examining cognitive control in a family cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Sabb, Fred W.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Lau, Deanna; Vanderlan, Jessica R; Cohen, Heather J; Bilder, Robert M.; McCracken, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the relationship between brain and complex latent behavioral constructs like cognitive control will require an inordinate amount of data. Internet-based methods can rapidly and efficiently refine behavioral measures in very large samples that are needed for genetics and behavioral research. Cognitive control is a multifactorial latent construct that is considered to be an endophenotype in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity...

  17. The predicting role of self-efficacyin the Job Demands-Resources Model: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Perea, María; Salanova Soria, Marisa; Lorente Prieto, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Taking Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory as our starting point, we analysed the predicting role of self-efficacy in the Job Demands-Resources Model. We tested longitudinally the two underlying psychological processes, namely: 1) the motivational process, in which job resources (i.e., job autonomy and social support climate) foster engagement, and 2) the erosion process, in which high job demands (i.e., quantitative overload and role conflict) lead to burnout. Structural equ...

  18. The Relationship between Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence and High School Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matešić, Krunoslav

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship between intelligence, emotional intelligence and academic achievement in high school. The study was conducted within the standardization of two instruments for Croatian samples. A total of 369 high school students from the Republic of Croatia participated in the study. They completed the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT)--a test of cognitive intelligence and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV). Academic achievement criteria were general school achievement, Croatian language and mathematics. Several regression analyses were conducted on the results. The results show that cognitive intelligence and the adaptability scale to be consistent predictors of academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was not shown to be a significant predictor of school success.

  19. Social Cognition in Children at Familial High Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha eKothari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED has been associated with differences in social cognition. To date research investigating social cognition and ED has mainly employed patient and recovered samples. It is therefore unclear whether differences in social cognition are present prior to onset of ED, potentially contributing to development, or whether differences observed are a consequence of the disorder. We aimed to further explore whether individuals at high-risk for ED present social cognition characteristics previously found in ED groups. MethodsOur sample was drawn from a population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Data on maternal ED behaviors over the lifetime were collected through in-depth clinical interviews (n = 1,128 conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID, and were used to categorize mothers according to ED behaviors over the lifetime: Restricting & Excessive Exercising (n = 58, Purging (n = 70, Binge-eating (n = 72, Bingeing and Purging (n = 66, no ED (n = 862. High-risk status of children was determined using these maternal lifetime behavioral phenotypes. Children at high-risk (maternal ED exposure were compared to children at low-risk (born to mothers with no ED on three measures of social cognition: the Social Communication Disorders Checklist (n = 922, the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy (n = 722, and the Emotional Triangles Task (n = 750.ResultsChildren at high-risk for ED showed poorer performance on measures of social cognition compared to children at low-risk. Maternal lifetime binge-eating, and maternal lifetime bingeing and purging were associated with poorer social communication in children (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.7, p = 0.05; and OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 6.5, p = 0.03 respectively. Maternal bingeing and purging was also found to be associated with differential facial emotion processing and poorer recognition of fear fr

  20. The addition of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and isomaltulose to whey protein improves recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Kupchak, Brian R; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Sterczala, Adam J; DuPont, William H; Pryor, J Luke; Luk, Hiu-Ying; Maladoungdock, Jesse; McDermott, Danielle; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a combination of whey protein (WP), calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrate exert additive effects on recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise. Thirteen resistance-trained men (age: 22.6 ± 3.9 years; height: 175.3 ± 12.2 cm; weight: 86.2 ± 9.8 kg) completed a double-blinded, counterbalanced, within-group study. Subjects ingested EAS Recovery Protein (RP; EAS Sports Nutrition/Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) or WP twice daily for 2 weeks prior to, during, and for 2 days following 3 consecutive days of intense resistance exercise. The workout sequence included heavy resistance exercise (day 1) and metabolic resistance exercise (days 2 and 3). The subjects performed no physical activity during day 4 (+24 hours) and day 5 (+48 hours), where recovery testing was performed. Before, during, and following the 3 workouts, treatment outcomes were evaluated using blood-based muscle damage markers and hormones, perceptual measures of muscle soreness, and countermovement jump performance. Creatine kinase was lower for the RP treatment on day 2 (RP: 166.9 ± 56.4 vs WP: 307.1 ± 125.2 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05), day 4 (RP: 232.5 ± 67.4 vs WP: 432.6 ± 223.3 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05), and day 5 (RP: 176.1 ± 38.7 vs 264.5 ± 120.9 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 was lower for the RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 1.2 ± 0.2 vs WP: 1.6 ± 0.6 pg · ml(-1), p ≤ 0.05) and day 5 (RP: 1.1 ± 0.2 vs WP: 1.6 ± 0.4 pg · ml(-1), p ≤ 0.05). Muscle soreness was lower for RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 2.0 ± 0.7 vs WP: 2.8 ± 1.1 cm, p ≤ 0.05). Vertical jump power was higher for the RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 5983.2 ± 624 vs WP 5303.9 ± 641.7 W, p ≤ 0.05) and day 5 (RP: 5792.5 ± 595.4 vs WP: 5200.4 ± 501 W, p ≤ 0.05). Our findings suggest that during times of intense conditioning, the recovery benefits of WP are enhanced with the addition of HMB and a slow-release carbohydrate. We

  1. Characterizing Design Cognition of High School Students: Initial Analyses Comparing Those with and without Pre-Engineering Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John; Lammi, Matthew; Gero, John; Grubbs, Michael E.; Paretti, Marie; Williams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Reported in this article are initial results from of a longitudinal study to characterize the design cognition and cognitive design styles of high school students with and without pre-engineering course experience over a 2-year period, and to compare them with undergraduate engineering students. The research followed a verbal protocol analysis…

  2. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  3. Skills-demands compatibility as a determinant of flow experience in an inductive reasoning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefele, Ulrich; Raabe, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The skills-demands fit hypothesis of flow theory was examined. Based on the earlier finding that high demands in a game situation do not reduce the experience of flow, a cognitive task paradigm was used. The effect of skills-demands compatibility on the experience of flow but not of other, similar psychological states (i.e., concentration, negative and positive activation) was also investigated. Participants were 89 undergraduate students who worked on a number of inductive reasoning tasks in four successive trials with or without skills-demands compatibility. The results clearly supported the skills-demands fit hypothesis; concentration and activation were affected only by the tasks' difficulty. Inductive reasoning tasks are a useful tool for the experimental analysis of flow, and skills-demands compatibility is a significant and powerful condition of flow, but not of other, similar psychological states.

  4. Acute cognitive effects of high doses of dextromethorphan relative to triazolam in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Reissig, Chad J.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although concerns surrounding high-dose dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have recently increased, few studies have examined the acute cognitive effects of high doses of DXM. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive effects of DXM with those of triazolam and placebo. METHODS Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg /70 kg), and placebo were administered p.o. to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Effects on cognitive performance were examined at baseline and after drug administration for up to 6 hours. RESULTS Both triazolam and DXM produced acute impairments in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and metacognition. Impairments observed following doses of 100-300 mg/70 kg DXM were generally smaller in magnitude than those observed after 0.5 mg/70 kg triazolam. Doses of DXM that impaired performance to the same extent as triazolam were in excess of 10-30 times the therapeutic dose of DXM. CONCLUSION The magnitude of the doses required for these effects and the absence of effects on some tasks within the 100-300 mg/70 kg dose range of DXM, speak to the relatively broad therapeutic window of over-the-counter DXM preparations when used appropriately. However, the administration of supratherapeutic doses of DXM resulted in acute cognitive impairments on all tasks that were examined. These findings are likely relevant to cases of high-dose DXM abuse. PMID:22989498

  5. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn; Theorell, T;

    1998-01-01

    referents were included in the analysis. Exposure categories of job strain were formed from self reported questionnaire information. The results show that high demands and low decision latitude interact with a synergy index of 7.5 (95% C.I.: 1.8-30.6) providing empirical support for the core mechanism......The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material...... of the job strain model. Manual workers are more susceptible when exposed to job strain and its components and this increased susceptibility explains about 25-50% of the relative excess risk among manual workers. Low decision latitude may also, as a causal link, explain about 30% of the socioeconomic...

  6. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral training in mental health in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Goal Garmekhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the behavioral sciences generally and in psychology and specifically a special attention to the importance of mental health in successes there in different spheres life of people. The present study aimed investigates the effectiveness of training cognitive-behavioral on mental health high school students the city Kermanshah.Therefore, through applying a semi-experimental method with control group design a sample of 36 individuals was selected through multi-cluster sampling from Among of all high school students in Kermanshah. The sample was assigned into the experimental and control groups (experimental group=18, control group=18. The experimental group underwent the cognitive behavioral training. Post test was administered subsequent to the intervention on both groups. The covariance analysis was used to analyze the data. The results of the research indicated that there exists significant difference between the mental healthof individuals in the experimental groups and their counterparts in the control groups in terms of mental health. Overall, it can be concluded that cognitive-behavioral training on improving mental health of students

  7. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  8. Plant Based Extracts and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Change in Cognitive Function and Fatigue During Extended Performance of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) at 1, 3 and 6 Hours Post Consumption; Change in Long Term Declarative Memory at 1, 3 and 6 Hours Post-intervention.

  9. Understanding the Reading Attributes and Their Cognitive Relationships on a High-Stakes Biology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlusyk, Kevin James

    Test items used to assess learners' knowledge on high-stakes science examinations contain contextualized questions that unintentionally assess reading skill along with conceptual knowledge. Therefore, students who are not proficient readers are unable to comprehend the text within the test item to demonstrate effectively their level of science knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what reading attributes were required to successfully answer the Biology 30 Diploma Exam. Furthermore, the research sought to understand the cognitive relationships among the reading attributes through quantitative analysis structured by the Attribute Hierarchy Model (AHM). The research consisted of two phases: (1) Cognitive development, where the cognitive attributes of the Biology 30 Exam were specified and hierarchy structures were developed; and (2) Psychometric analysis, that statistically tested the attribute hierarchy using the Hierarchy Consistency Index (HCI), and calculate attribute probabilities. Phase one of the research used January 2011, Biology 30 Diploma Exam, while phase two accessed archival data for the 9985 examinees who took the assessment on January 24th, 2011. Phase one identified ten specific reading attributes, of which five were identified as unique subsets of vocabulary, two were identified as reading visual representations, and three corresponded to general reading skills. Four hierarchical cognitive model were proposed then analyzed using the HCI as a mechanism to explain the relationship among the attributes. Model A had the highest HCI value (0.337), indicating an overall poor data fit, yet for the top achieving examinees the model had an excellent model fit with an HCI value of 0.888, and for examinees that scored over 60% there was a moderate model fit (HCI = 0.592). Linear regressions of the attribute probability estimates suggest that there is a cognitive relationship among six of the ten reading attributes (R2 = 0.958 and 0

  10. MEG network differences between low- and high-grade glioma related to epilepsy and cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin van Dellen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reveal possible differences in whole brain topology of epileptic glioma patients, being low-grade glioma (LGG and high-grade glioma (HGG patients. We studied functional networks in these patients and compared them to those in epilepsy patients with non-glial lesions (NGL and healthy controls. Finally, we related network characteristics to seizure frequency and cognitive performance within patient groups. METHODS: We constructed functional networks from pre-surgical resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings of 13 LGG patients, 12 HGG patients, 10 NGL patients, and 36 healthy controls. Normalized clustering coefficient and average shortest path length as well as modular structure and network synchronizability were computed for each group. Cognitive performance was assessed in a subset of 11 LGG and 10 HGG patients. RESULTS: LGG patients showed decreased network synchronizability and decreased global integration compared to healthy controls in the theta frequency range (4-8 Hz, similar to NGL patients. HGG patients' networks did not significantly differ from those in controls. Network characteristics correlated with clinical presentation regarding seizure frequency in LGG patients, and with poorer cognitive performance in both LGG and HGG glioma patients. CONCLUSION: Lesion histology partly determines differences in functional networks in glioma patients suffering from epilepsy. We suggest that differences between LGG and HGG patients' networks are explained by differences in plasticity, guided by the particular lesional growth pattern. Interestingly, decreased synchronizability and decreased global integration in the theta band seem to make LGG and NGL patients more prone to the occurrence of seizures and cognitive decline.

  11. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  12. Voluntary medical male circumcision: matching demand and supply with quality and efficiency in a high-volume campaign in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Hally R; Kileo, Baldwin; Curran, Kelly; Plotkin, Marya; Adamu, Tigistu; Hellar, Augustino; Koshuma, Sifuni; Nyabenda, Simeon; Machaku, Michael; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Fimbo, Bennett

    2011-11-01

    The government of Tanzania has adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an important component of its national HIV prevention strategy and is scaling up VMMC in eight regions nationwide, with the goal of reaching 2.8 million uncircumcised men by 2015. In a 2010 campaign lasting six weeks, five health facilities in Tanzania's Iringa Region performed 10,352 VMMCs, which exceeded the campaign's target by 72%, with an adverse event (AE) rate of 1%. HIV testing was almost universal during the campaign. Through the adoption of approaches designed to improve clinical efficiency-including the use of the forceps-guided surgical method, the use of multiple beds in an assembly line by surgical teams, and task shifting and task sharing-the campaign matched the supply of VMMC services with demand. Community mobilization and bringing client preparation tasks (such as counseling, testing, and client scheduling) out of the facility and into the community helped to generate demand. This case study suggests that a campaign approach can be used to provide high-volume quality VMMC services without compromising client safety, and provides a model for matching supply and demand for VMMC services in other settings.

  13. Voluntary medical male circumcision: matching demand and supply with quality and efficiency in a high-volume campaign in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hally R Mahler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The government of Tanzania has adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC as an important component of its national HIV prevention strategy and is scaling up VMMC in eight regions nationwide, with the goal of reaching 2.8 million uncircumcised men by 2015. In a 2010 campaign lasting six weeks, five health facilities in Tanzania's Iringa Region performed 10,352 VMMCs, which exceeded the campaign's target by 72%, with an adverse event (AE rate of 1%. HIV testing was almost universal during the campaign. Through the adoption of approaches designed to improve clinical efficiency-including the use of the forceps-guided surgical method, the use of multiple beds in an assembly line by surgical teams, and task shifting and task sharing-the campaign matched the supply of VMMC services with demand. Community mobilization and bringing client preparation tasks (such as counseling, testing, and client scheduling out of the facility and into the community helped to generate demand. This case study suggests that a campaign approach can be used to provide high-volume quality VMMC services without compromising client safety, and provides a model for matching supply and demand for VMMC services in other settings.

  14. Effects of high fructose diets on central appetite signaling and cognitive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien eLowette

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fructose has increased tremendously over the last five decades, which is to a large extent due to the development of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, a commercial sugar additive that contains high amounts of free fructose. HFCS is often added to processed food and beverages partly because it is a powerful sweetener but even more so because the production is cheap. Although fructose in combination with fiber, vitamins and minerals, as present in fruits, is a healthy source of energy, isolated fructose, in processed food products has been associated with several health disorders such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Apart from its metabolic consequences, a growing body of literature suggests that free fructose can also affect neuronal systems. High fructose intake may on the one hand affect central appetite regulation by altering specific components of the endocannabinoid system. On the other hand it appears to impact on cognitive function by affecting phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor, synapsin 1 and synaptophysin. The present report reviews the recent evidence showing a negative effect of free fructose consumption on central appetite control, as well as cognitive function.

  15. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge.

  16. High frequency oscillations are associated with cognitive processing in human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucewicz, Michal T; Cimbalnik, Jan; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Vasoli, Vincent; Sulc, Vlastimil; Meyer, Fred; Marsh, W R; Stead, S M; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-08-01

    High frequency oscillations are associated with normal brain function, but also increasingly recognized as potential biomarkers of the epileptogenic brain. Their role in human cognition has been predominantly studied in classical gamma frequencies (30-100 Hz), which reflect neuronal network coordination involved in attention, learning and memory. Invasive brain recordings in animals and humans demonstrate that physiological oscillations extend beyond the gamma frequency range, but their function in human cognitive processing has not been fully elucidated. Here we investigate high frequency oscillations spanning the high gamma (50-125 Hz), ripple (125-250 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) frequency bands using intracranial recordings from 12 patients (five males and seven females, age 21-63 years) during memory encoding and recall of a series of affectively charged images. Presentation of the images induced high frequency oscillations in all three studied bands within the primary visual, limbic and higher order cortical regions in a sequence consistent with the visual processing stream. These induced oscillations were detected on individual electrodes localized in the amygdala, hippocampus and specific neocortical areas, revealing discrete oscillations of characteristic frequency, duration and latency from image presentation. Memory encoding and recall significantly modulated the number of induced high gamma, ripple and fast ripple detections in the studied structures, which was greater in the primary sensory areas during the encoding (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.002) and in the higher-order cortical association areas during the recall (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.001) of memorized images. Furthermore, the induced high gamma, ripple and fast ripple responses discriminated the encoded and the affectively charged images. In summary, our results show that high frequency oscillations, spanning a wide range of frequencies, are associated with memory processing and

  17. Cognitive response to a cold pressor challenge in high and low blood pressure reactive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, L A; Larkin, K T; Knowlton, G E

    1991-01-01

    To examine the relationship between cognitive and cardiovascular reactions to a cold pressor challenge, 20 high and 20 low blood-pressure-reactive males were identified. Subjects were trained using a think-aloud procedure and asked to report their thoughts aloud during task presentation. In comparison to low-reactors, high-reactive subjects exhibited greater increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but not heart rate, in response to the task. High-reactive subjects reported fewer distracting self-statements than low-reactors during the task. No group differences in positive, neutral, or negative self-statements were observed. These findings corroborate the importance of distraction strategies in mediating acute cardiovascular reactions to stress.

  18. Using Pharmacological Manipulation and High-precision Radio Telemetry to Study the Spatial Cognition in Free-ranging Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Timothy C; Krochmal, Aaron R; Gerwig, William B; Rush, Sage; Simmons, Nathaniel T; Sullivan, Jeffery D; Wachter, Katrina

    2016-11-06

    An animal's ability to perceive and learn about its environment plays a key role in many behavioral processes, including navigation, migration, dispersal and foraging. However, the understanding of the role of cognition in the development of navigation strategies and the mechanisms underlying these strategies is limited by the methodological difficulties involved in monitoring, manipulating the cognition of, and tracking wild animals. This study describes a protocol for addressing the role of cognition in navigation that combines pharmacological manipulation of behavior with high-precision radio telemetry. The approach uses scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, to manipulate cognitive spatial abilities. Treated animals are then monitored with high frequency and high spatial resolution via remote triangulation. This protocol was applied within a population of Eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) that has inhabited seasonally ephemeral water sources for ~100 years, moving between far-off sources using precise (± 3.5 m), complex (i.e., non-linear with high tortuosity that traverse multiple habitats), and predictable routes learned before 4 years of age. This study showed that the processes used by these turtles are consistent with spatial memory formation and recall. Together, these results are consistent with a role of spatial cognition in complex navigation and highlight the integration of ecological and pharmacological techniques in the study of cognition and navigation.

  19. An fMRI study on variation of visuospatial cognitive performance of young male due to highly concentrated oxygen administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Kim, Ik Hyeon; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 30% oxygen administration on the visuospatial cognitive performance using fMRI. Eight college students (right-handed, average age 23.5) were selected as subjects for this study. Oxygen supply equipment which gives 21% and 30% oxygen at a constant rate of 8L/min was developed for this study. To measure the performance of visuospatial cognition, two questionnaires with similar difficulty containing 20 questions each were also developed. Experiment was designed as two runs: run for visuospatial cognition test with normal air (21% of oxygen) and run for visuospatial cognition test with highly concentrated air (30% of oxygen). Run consists of 4 blocks and each block has 8 control problems and 5 visuospatial problems. Functional brain images were taken from 3T MRI using single-shot EPI method. Activities of neural network due to performing visuospatial cognition test were identified using subtraction procedure, and activation areas while performing visuospatial cognition test were extracted using double subtraction procedure. Activities were observed at occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobe when performing visuospatial cognition test following both 21% and 30% oxygen administration. But in case of only 30% oxygen administration there were more activities at left precuneus, left cuneus, right postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, bilateral uvula, bilateral pyramis, and nodule compared with 21% oxygen administration. From results of visuospatial cognition test, accuracy rate increased in case of 30% oxygen administration. Thus it could be concluded that highly concentrated oxygen administration has positive effects on the visuospatial cognitive performance.

  20. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation...... of a Purcellenhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines...

  1. Caffeine prevents weight gain and cognitive impairment caused by a high-fat diet while elevating hippocampal BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Gregory A; McNay, Ewan C

    2013-01-17

    Obesity, high-fat diets, and subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with cognitive impairment. Moreover, T2DM increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and leads to abnormal elevation of brain beta-amyloid levels, one of the hallmarks of AD. The psychoactive alkaloid caffeine has been shown to have therapeutic potential in AD but the central impact of caffeine has not been well-studied in the context of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the impact of caffeine administration on metabolism and cognitive performance, both in control rats and in rats placed on a high-fat diet. The effects of caffeine were significant: caffeine both (i) prevented the weight-gain associated with the high-fat diet and (ii) prevented cognitive impairment. Caffeine did not alter hippocampal metabolism or insulin signaling, likely because the high-fat-fed animals did not develop full-blown diabetes; however, caffeine did prevent or reverse a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen in high-fat-fed animals. These data confirm that caffeine may serve as a neuroprotective agent against cognitive impairment caused by obesity and/or a high-fat diet. Increased hippocampal BDNF following caffeine administration could explain, at least in part, the effects of caffeine on cognition and metabolism.

  2. Cognitive and oculomotor performance in subjects with low and high schizotypy: implications for translational drug development studies

    OpenAIRE

    Koychev, I; D. Joyce; Barkus, E; Ettinger, U; Schmechtig, A; Dourish, C T; Dawson, G R; Craig, K J; Deakin, J.F.W.

    2016-01-01

    The development of drugs to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia is a major unmet clinical need. A number of promising compounds failed in recent clinical trials, a pattern linked to poor translation between preclinical and clinical stages of drug development. Seeking proof of efficacy in early Phase 1 studies in surrogate patient populations (for example, high schizotypy individuals where subtle cognitive impairment is present) has been suggested as a strategy to reduce attrition...

  3. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  4. Cognitive Modeling for Closed-Loop Task Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As flightdeck equipment becomes more sophisticated and complex, operations become significantly more cognitively demanding. When tasks demands exceed the operator's...

  5. Examining the association between social cognition and functioning in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Jack; Bartholomeusz, Cali; Papas, Alicia; Allott, Kelly; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison R; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Social and role functioning are compromised for the majority of individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, and it is important to identify factors that contribute to this functional decline. This study aimed to investigate social cognitive abilities, which have previously been linked to functioning in schizophrenia, as potential factors that impact social, role and global functioning in ultra-high risk patients. A total of 30 ultra-high risk patients were recruited from an established at-risk clinical service in Melbourne, Australia, and completed a battery of social cognitive, neurocognitive, clinical and functioning measures. We examined the relationships between all four core domains of social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind, social perception and attributional style), neurocognitive, clinical and demographic variables with three measures of functioning (the Global Functioning Social and Role scales and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale) using correlational and multiple regression analyses. Performance on a visual theory of mind task (visual jokes task) was significantly correlated with both concurrent role ( r = 0.425, p = 0.019) and global functioning ( r = 0.540, p = 0.002). In multivariate analyses, it also accounted for unique variance in global, but not role functioning after adjusting for negative symptoms and stress. Social functioning was not associated with performance on any of the social cognition tasks. Among specific social cognitive abilities, only a test of theory of mind was associated with functioning in our ultra-high risk sample. Further longitudinal research is needed to examine the impact of social cognitive deficits on long-term functional outcome in the ultra-high risk group. Identifying social cognitive abilities that significantly impact functioning is important to inform the development of targeted intervention programmes for ultra-high risk individuals.

  6. Communication practices and cognitive development in cyberculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Regis Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyberculture enhances communication practices which demands cognitive refinement. The present text exposes how cognitive sciences broadened the cognitive notion, including body, technical objects and social interactions in order to demonstrate: 1 Cognition doesn’t restrain itself to processes in the superior levels of human intellect, and 2 Media systems, instead of hinder cognitive abilities, activate several of them.

  7. Combined coagulation-flocculation and sequencing batch reactor with phosphorus adjustment for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate: experimental kinetics and chemical oxygen demand fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Matar, F; Hashisho, J

    2013-05-01

    The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is challenging and relatively limited. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate (chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 7,760-11,770 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]: 2,760-3,569 mg/L, total nitrogen [TN] = 980-1,160 mg/L) using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) preceded by a coagulation-flocculation process with phosphorus nutritional balance under various mixing and aeration patterns. Simulations were also conducted to define kinetic parameters and COD fractionation. Removal efficiencies reached 89% for BOD5, 60% for COD, and 72% for TN, similar to and better than reported studies, albeit with a relatively lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid retention time (SRT). The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap toward managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications. The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate, which is challenging and relatively limited, was demonstrated using a combined coagulation-flocculation with SBR technology and nutrient balance adjustment. The most suitable coagulant, kinetic design parameters, and COD fractionation were defined using coupled experimental and simulation results contributing in filling a gap toward managing high-strength leachate by providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications and anticipating potential constraints related to the non-biodegradable COD fraction. In this context, while the combined coagulation-flocculation and SBR process improved removal efficiencies, posttreatment may be required for high-strength leachate, depending on discharge standards and ultimate usage of the treated leachate.

  8. Demand Forecasting Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James

    2005-01-01

    Demand forecasts form a key input to the economic appraisal. As such any errors present within the demand forecasts will undermine the reliability of the economic appraisal. The minimization of demand forecasting errors is therefore important in the delivery of a robust appraisal. This issue is addressed in this note by introducing the key issues, and error types present within demand fore...

  9. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  10. The impact of sustained engagement on cognitive function in older adults: the Synapse Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Denise C; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Gérard N; Aamodt, Whitley

    2014-01-01

    In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in these productive-engagement conditions relative to receptive-engagement conditions, in which participants either engaged in nonintellectual activities with a social group or performed low-demand cognitive tasks with no social contact. The findings suggest that sustained engagement in cognitively demanding, novel activities enhances memory function in older adulthood, but, somewhat surprisingly, we found limited cognitive benefits of sustained engagement in social activities.

  11. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude? Results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, F; Theorell, T; Reuterwall, C; Ahlbom, A

    1998-06-01

    The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material is a population-based case-referent study having incident first events of myocardial infarction as outcome (SHEEP: Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). The analysis is restricted to males 45-64 yr of age with a more detailed analysis confined to those still working at inclusion. In total, 1047 cases and 1450 referents were included in the analysis. Exposure categories of job strain were formed from self reported questionnaire information. The results show that high demands and low decision latitude interact with a synergy index of 7.5 (95% C.I.: 1.8-30.6) providing empirical support for the core mechanism of the job strain model. Manual workers are more susceptible when exposed to job strain and its components and this increased susceptibility explains about 25-50% of the relative excess risk among manual workers. Low decision latitude may also, as a causal link, explain about 30% of the socioeconomic difference in risk of myocardial infarction. The distinction between the interaction and the causal link mechanisms identifies new etiologic questions and intervention alternatives. The specific causes of the increased susceptibility among manual workers to job strain and its components seem to be an interesting and important research question.

  12. [Inhibitor development after early high exposure and cerebral haemorrhage. Costs and factor demand for a successful immunotolerance induction therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, K; Moorthi, C; Bade, A; Niekrens, C; Auerswald, G

    2010-11-01

    Severe haemophilia A was diagnosed postpartum in a newborn. The mother was known as a conductor (intron 22 inversion) and an uncle had a persistently high titer inhibitor after failed ITI. Due to a cephalhaematoma, a high-dose pdFVIII substitution was given within the first days after birth. At the age of six month a severe cerebral haemorrhage occurred, making a high-dose pdFVIII substitution and neurosurgical intervention necessary. Several days later a porth-a-cath-system was implanted. The development of a high titer inhibitor occured six days later, an ITI was started according to the Bonn Protocol. Initially rFVIIa was given in addition to the pdFVIII substitution. Seven days after the beginning of treatment the inhibitor was no longer detectable. At monthly intervals the FVIII dosage was reduced until the dosage complied with a prophylaxis in severe haemophilia A. The duration of the ITI was nine months. A total of 30 mg rFVIIa and 276000 IU pdFVIII were used; costs in total: 280173.60 Euro.

  13. Moving Beyond Concepts: Getting Urban High School Students Engaged in Science through Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu

    In order to maintain its global position, the United States needs to increase the number of students opting for science careers. Science teachers face a formidable challenge. Students are not choosing science because they do not think coursework is interesting or applies to their lives. These problems often compound for adolescents in urban areas. This action research investigated an innovation aimed at engaging a group of adolescents in the science learning process through cognitive processes and conceptual understanding. It was hoped that this combination would increase students' engagement in the classroom and proficiency in science. The study was conducted with 28 juniors and sophomores in an Environmental Science class in an urban high school with a student body of 97% minority students and 86% students receiving free and reduced lunch. The study used a mixed-methods design. Instruments included a pre- and post-test, Thinking Maps, transcripts of student discourse, and a two-part Engagement Observation Instrument. Data analysis included basic descriptives and a grounded theory approach. Findings show students became engaged in activities when cognitive processes were taught prior to content. Furthermore it was discovered that Thinking Maps were perceived to be an easy tool to use to organize students' thinking and processing. Finally there was a significant increase in student achievement. From these findings implications for future practice and research are offered.

  14. Investigation of cognitive abilities related to reading and spelling in Korean: readers with high, average, and low skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive processing, visual cognitive processing, and naming speed. Our results indicated that receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, and naming speed served as factors for predicting reading test score; receptive vocabulary served as a factor for predicting spelling test score. We found that low reading-level groups had significantly slower performance on the naming speed task and lower scores on the receptive vocabulary test, as compared with the other groups (average and high reading-level groups). The present results have implications concerning useful tasks for screening for Korean poor readers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eLeue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS and by means of reasoning abilities–a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss. Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict-monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  16. How do working-memory-related demand, reasoning ability and aversive reinforcement modulate conflict monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Weber, Bernd; Beauducel, André

    2014-01-01

    Conflict monitoring is a process of stimulus evaluation and a pre-requisite for subsequent recruitment of cognitive control and behavioral adaptations. This study investigated how experimentally manipulated working-memory-related cognitive demand and aversive reinforcement modulate individual differences of conflict monitoring intensity and behavioral adjustments. Individual differences were assessed by means of an anxiety-related trait dimension (trait-BIS) and by means of reasoning abilities-a core determinant of intelligence. Moreover, we investigated the special role of verbal reasoning ability and figural reasoning ability for the modulation of the conflict monitoring intensity. Ninety participants performed a go/nogo task with four conditions each comprising a combination of low vs. high working-memory-related cognitive demand and low vs. high aversive reinforcement. No effect of aversive reinforcement was observed for the N2 amplitude. The fronto-central nogo N2 amplitude was more pronounced for high demand vs. low demand suggesting that cognitive demand served as an aversive costly event. Higher total reasoning abilities were associated with more intense conflict monitoring and shorter response times with increasing aversive reinforcement (defined as verbal error-feedback vs. monetary loss). Individuals with higher trait-BIS scores demonstrated a more intense conflict monitoring even in conditions with low aversive reinforcement and also a more cautious responding (i.e., response times slowing) with increasing aversive reinforcement indicating a focus on negative feedback prevention. The findings provide evidence for the conflict monitoring theory and suggest that working-memory-related demand overrules the impact of aversive reinforcement on conflict monitoring intensity. Reasoning abilities and anxiety-related traits go along with an intensification of conflict monitoring but differences in the flexibility of behavioral adjustment.

  17. Global nitrogen fertilizer supply and demand outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michel; Prud'homme

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the world nitrogen fertilizer demand, high-lights trends in the global and regional developments of production capacity and provides a medium-term perspective of the global nitrogen supply/demand balance.

  18. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School: Effects on Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Outcomes and Implications on the Development of STEM Academic and Career Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Malene Warming; Makransky, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory...... the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks......, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning...

  19. On the Design of High-Rise Buildings for Multihazard: Fundamental Differences between Wind and Earthquake Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mousaad Aly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, high-rise buildings have received a renewed interest in many city business locations, where land is scarce, as per their economics, sustainability, and other benefits. Taller and taller towers are being built everywhere in the world. However, the increased frequency of multihazard disasters makes it challenging to balance between a resilient and sustainable construction. Accordingly, it is essential to understand the behavior of such structures under multihazard loadings, in order to apply such knowledge to design. The results obtained from the dynamic analysis of two different high-rise buildings (54-story and 76-story buildings investigated in the current study indicate that earthquake loads excite higher modes that produce lower interstory drift, compared to wind loads, but higher accelerations that occur for a shorter time. Wind-induced accelerations may have comfort and serviceability concerns, while excessive interstory drifts can cause security issues. The results also show that high-rise and slender buildings designed for wind may be safe under moderate earthquake loads, regarding the main force resisting system. Nevertheless, nonstructural components may present a significant percentage of loss exposure of buildings to earthquakes due to higher floor acceleration. Consequently, appropriate damping/control techniques for tall buildings are recommended for mitigation under multihazard.

  20. Avoiding the conflict: Metacognitive awareness drives the selection of low-demand contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desender, Kobe; Buc Calderon, Cristian; Van Opstal, Filip; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2017-07-01

    Previous research attempted to explain how humans strategically adapt behavior in order to achieve successful task performance. Recently, it has been suggested that 1 potential strategy is to avoid tasks that are too demanding. Here, we report 3 experiments that investigate the empirically neglected role of metacognitive awareness in this process. In these experiments, participants could freely choose between performing a task in either a high-demand or a low-demand context. Using subliminal priming, we ensured that participants were not aware of the visual stimuli creating these different demand contexts. Our results showed that participants who noticed a difference in task difficulty (i.e., metacognitive aware participants) developed a clear preference for the low-demand context. In contrast, participants who experienced no difference in task difficulty (i.e., metacognitive unaware participants) based their choices on variables unrelated to cognitive demand (e.g., the color or location associated with a context), and did not develop a preference for the low-demand context. Crucially, this pattern was found despite identical task performance in both metacognitive awareness groups. A multiple regression approach confirmed that metacognitive awareness was the main factor driving the preference for low-demand contexts. These results argue for an important role of metacognitive awareness in the strategic avoidance of demanding tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg- 1) compared with 1.3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates...... are necessarily correlated with short circulation times. Our data are the first to imply that a similar relationship occurs in fishes....

  2. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z-C; Gregersen, Niels; Chen, M-C; Unsleber, S; Maier, S; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation of a Purcell-enhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines the features of high efficiency and near-perfect levels of purity and indistinguishabilty, and thus opens the way to multiphoton experiments with semiconductor quantum dots.

  3. Cognitive and oculomotor performance in subjects with low and high schizotypy: implications for translational drug development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koychev, I; Joyce, D; Barkus, E; Ettinger, U; Schmechtig, A; Dourish, C T; Dawson, G R; Craig, K J; Deakin, J F W

    2016-05-17

    The development of drugs to improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia is a major unmet clinical need. A number of promising compounds failed in recent clinical trials, a pattern linked to poor translation between preclinical and clinical stages of drug development. Seeking proof of efficacy in early Phase 1 studies in surrogate patient populations (for example, high schizotypy individuals where subtle cognitive impairment is present) has been suggested as a strategy to reduce attrition in the later stages of drug development. However, there is little agreement regarding the pattern of distribution of schizotypal features in the general population, creating uncertainty regarding the optimal control group that should be included in prospective trials. We aimed to address this question by comparing the performance of groups derived from the general population with low, average and high schizotypy scores over a range of cognitive and oculomotor tasks. We found that tasks dependent on frontal inhibitory mechanisms (N-Back working memory and anti-saccade oculomotor tasks), as well as a smooth-pursuit oculomotor task were sensitive to differences in the schizotypy phenotype. In these tasks the cognitive performance of 'low schizotypes' was significantly different from 'high schizotypes' with 'average schizotypes' having an intermediate performance. These results indicate that for evaluating putative cognition enhancers for treating schizophrenia in early-drug development studies the maximum schizotypy effect would be achieved using a design that compares low and high schizotypes.

  4. Solvent-Assisted Metal Metathesis: A Highly Efficient and Versatile Route towards Synthetically Demanding Chromium Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Hao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Mian; Yan, Shu; Li, Dan; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Chromium(III)-based metal-organic frameworks (Cr-MOFs) are very attractive in a wide range of investigations because of their robustness and high porosity. However, reports on Cr-MOFs are scarce owing to the difficulties in their direct synthesis. Recently developed postsynthetic routes to obtain Cr-MOFs suffered from complicated procedures and a lack of general applicability. Herein, we report a highly efficient and versatile strategy, namely solvent-assisted metal metathesis, to obtain Cr-MOFs from a variety of Fe(III) -MOFs, including several well-known MOFs and a newly synthesized one, through judicious selection of a coordinating solvent. The versatility of this strategy was demonstrated by producing Cr-MIL-100, Cr-MIL-142A/C, Cr-PCN-333, and Cr-PCN-600 from their Fe(III) analogues and Cr-SXU-1 from a newly synthesized MOF precursor, Fe-SXU-1, in acetone as the solvent under very mild conditions. We have thus developed a general approach for the preparation of robust Cr-MOFs, which are difficult to synthesize by direct methods. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The demanding attention of tuberculosis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: High incidence compared with general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Su-Mi; Park, Sun Hee; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Choi, Jae-Ki; Kim, Si-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Cho, Byung-Sik; Eom, Ki-Seong; Lee, Seok; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Hee-Je; Min, Chang-Ki; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Jong-Wook; Min, Woo-Sung; Jung, Jung Im

    2017-01-01

    Background The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is expected to be relatively high in an intermediate TB burden country. This single-center retrospective study was conducted to investigate risk factors and the incidence of TB after allogeneic HSCT. Methods From January 2004 to March 2011, 845 adult patients were enrolled. Starting April 2009, patients were given isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis based on interferon-γ release assay results. The incidence of TB was analyzed before and after April 2009, and compared it with that of the general population in Korea. Results TB was diagnosed in 21 (2.49%) of the 845 allogeneic HSCT patients. The median time to the development of TB was 386 days after transplantation (range, 49–886). Compared with the general population, the standardized incidence ratio of TB was 9.10 (95% CI; 5.59–14.79). Extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was associated with the development of TB (P = 0.003). Acute GVHD, conditioning regimen with total body irradiation and conditioning intensity were not significantly related. INH prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of TB (P = 0.548). Among 21 TB patients, one patient had INH prophylaxis. Conclusion Allogeneic HSCT recipients especially those who suffer from extensive chronic GVHD are at a high risk of developing TB. INH prophylaxis did not statistically change the incidence of TB, however, further well-designed prospective studies are needed. PMID:28278166

  6. You sneeze, you lose:: The impact of pollen exposure on cognitive performance during high-stakes high school exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensnes, Simon Søbstad

    2016-09-01

    Pollen is known to cause allergic reactions and affect cognitive performance in around 20% of the population. Although pollen season peaks when students take high-stakes exams, the effect of pollen allergies on school performance has received nearly no attention from economists. Using a student fixed effects model and administrative Norwegian data, this paper finds that increasing the ambient pollen levels by one standard deviation at the mean leads to a 2.5% standard deviation decrease in test scores, with potentially larger effects for allergic students. There also appear to be longer-run effects. The findings imply that random increases in pollen counts reduce test scores for allergic students relative to their peers, who consequently will be at a disadvantage when competing for jobs or higher education. This paper contributes to the literature by illuminating the interplay between individual health and human capital accumulation, which in turn can impact long-run economic growth.

  7. Analysis of cognition of clinicians on clinical trails and their educational demand%临床医师对临床试验的认知及教育需求现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁菁; 方红娟; 陈立章

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cognition of clinicians on clinical trials and their educational demand, and provide reasonable proposals for clinical trial education. Methods A total of 160 clinicians with experience in clinical trials were randomly selected from 5 upper first-class hospitals in Beijing, Ji'nan, Hangzhou and Chongqing for questionnaire survey. One hundred and forty-one questionnaires were recovered, with the recovery rate of 88. 1%. The questionnaire included the basic information of clinicians, cognition of clinicians on clinical trials (basic knowledge, recent advances or relevant knowledge about clinical trials), current situation on clinical trial taining and influencing factors. Results The scores of trial procedure, ethics and monitor knowledge and total score of basic knowledge in clinicians with training were significantly higher than those in clinicians without training (P 0.05). The scores of clinical trial design, new technology and idea in clinical trials, and scientific report of findings were lower in clinicians. The influencing factors for mastery of basic knowledge of clinical trials were training participation, educational degree and technical titles, and the influencing factors for training participation were training opportunity, training content and job involvement. Conclusion Clinicians have a poor cognition on clinical trials, and most clinicians have not received systemic training on clinical trials. The current training is not standardized or systemic, but it can improve the cognition of clinicians to some degree. The establishment of occupation qualification system, professional clinician team and qualified teachers for clinical trials is the effective way to improve the clinical trial levels.%目的 探讨临床医师对临床试验的认知水平和受教育需求,对我国临床试验教育提出合理化建议.方法 从北京、济南、杭州和重庆4个城市的5所三级甲等医院参加过临床

  8. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-08-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were highest among children who experienced high-quality care in both the infant-toddler and preschool periods, somewhat lower among children who experienced high-quality child care during only 1 of these periods, and lowest among children who experienced low-quality care during both periods. Irrespective of the care received during infancy-toddlerhood, high-quality preschool care was related to better language and preacademic outcomes at the end of the preschool period; high-quality infant-toddler care, irrespective of preschool care, was related to better memory skills at the end of the preschool period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. High resolution mapping of traits related to whole-plant transpiration under increasing evaporative demand in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppach, Rémy; Taylor, Julian D; Majerus, Elisabeth; Claverie, Elodie; Baumann, Ute; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Fleury, Delphine; Sadok, Walid

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is a key component of drought and has a strong influence on yields. Whole-plant transpiration rate (TR) response to increasing VPD has been linked to drought tolerance in wheat, but because of its challenging phenotyping, its genetic basis remains unexplored. Further, the genetic control of other key traits linked to daytime TR such as leaf area, stomata densities and - more recently - nocturnal transpiration remains unknown. Considering the presence of wheat phenology genes that can interfere with drought tolerance, the aim of this investigation was to identify at an enhanced resolution the genetic basis of the above traits while investigating the effects of phenology genes Ppd-D1 and Ppd-B1 Virtually all traits were highly heritable (heritabilities from 0.61 to 0.91) and a total of mostly trait-specific 68 QTL were detected. Six QTL were identified for TR response to VPD, with one QTL (QSLP.ucl-5A) individually explaining 25.4% of the genetic variance. This QTL harbored several genes previously reported to be involved in ABA signaling, interaction with DREB2A and root hydraulics. Surprisingly, nocturnal TR and stomata densities on both leaf sides were characterized by highly specific and robust QTL. In addition, negative correlations were found between TR and leaf area suggesting trade-offs between these traits. Further, Ppd-D1 had strong but opposite effects on these traits, suggesting an involvement in this trade-off. Overall, these findings revealed novel genetic resources while suggesting a more direct role of phenology genes in enhancing wheat drought tolerance.

  10. A new methodology for automating acoustic emission detection of metallic fatigue fractures in highly demanding aerospace environments: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holford, Karen M.; Eaton, Mark J.; Hensman, James J.; Pullin, Rhys; Evans, Sam L.; Dervilis, Nikolaos; Worden, Keith

    2017-04-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) phenomenon has many attributes that make it desirable as a structural health monitoring or non-destructive testing technique, including the capability to continuously and globally monitor large structures using a sparse sensor array and with no dependency on defect size. However, AE monitoring is yet to fulfil its true potential, due mainly to limitations in location accuracy and signal characterisation that often arise in complex structures with high levels of background noise. Furthermore, the technique has been criticised for a lack of quantitative results and the large amount of operator interpretation required during data analysis. This paper begins by introducing the challenges faced in developing an AE based structural health monitoring system and then gives a review of previous progress made in addresing these challenges. Subsequently an overview of a novel methodology for automatic detection of fatigue fractures in complex geometries and noisy environments is presented, which combines a number of signal processing techniques to address the current limitations of AE monitoring. The technique was developed for monitoring metallic landing gear components during pre-flight certification testing and results are presented from a full-scale steel landing gear component undergoing fatigue loading. Fracture onset was successfully identify automatically at 49,000 fatigue cycles prior to final failure (validated by the use of dye penetrant inspection) and the fracture position was located to within 10 mm of the actual location.

  11. Maladaptive cognitive appraisals in children with high-functioning autism: associations with fear, anxiety and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpi; Woolfson, Lisa M; Hunter, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Despite the well-documented success of cognitive restructuring techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there is still little clarity on which cognitions underpin fear and anxiety in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. This study examined whether certain cognitive appraisals, known to be associated with fear and anxiety in typically developing groups, may help explain these emotions in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. It also investigated relations between these cognitive appraisals and theory of mind. Appraisals, fear and anxiety were assessed using a vignette approach in 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and 22 typically developing children. The two groups differed significantly on all four appraisal types. Anxiety was negatively correlated with future expectancy and positively with problem-focused coping potential in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group but was not correlated with appraisals in the typically developing group. The two appraisals associated with fear were emotion-focused coping potential (in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorder group only) and self-accountability (in the typically developing group only). Linear regression analysis found that appraisals of emotion-focused coping potential, problem-focused coping potential and future expectancy were significant predictors of theory-of-mind ability in the high-functioning autism spectrum disorders group. These findings indicate that specific, problematic patterns of appraisal may characterise children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

  12. Association between serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yuying; Xu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Huihong; Liu, Liping; Tian, Zhiyan

    2016-08-26

    Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) could be a good predictor of vascular disease outcomes. To evaluate the association between serum non-HDL-C and cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A total of 725 hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. They received conventional treatment. Cognitive function was assessed on the 3rd day after admission using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, and Hamilton depression rating scale 21-item (HAMD-21). Lipid profile and biochemical markers were measured, and non-HDL-C was calculated. Compared with patients with normal non-HDL-C, those with high non-HDL-C showed lower MMSE (23.1 ± 4.9 vs. 26.0 ± 4.6, P acute ischemic stroke (P = 0.034, odds ratio = 3.115, 95 % confidence interval: 1.088-8.917). High serum non-HDL-C levels, age, education, homocysteine levels, and HAMD score were independent risk factors of cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The risk of cognitive disorders after acute ischemic stroke increased with increasing non-HDL-C levels. This parameter is easy to assess in the clinical setting.

  13. Transfer value of learning music on cognitive development of elementary school and high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Vujošević Nevena J.

    2016-01-01

    Examining positive effects of music on cognitive development is often part of empirical researches within cognitive and general psychology of music. Starting from the studies conducted by the most modern technologies and methods of studying interconnectedness of mental processes and individual musical development, the conclusion is that active musical participation influences a large specter of enhancing the student's abilities even within other cognitive areas of his actions. Positive effect...

  14. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vaivre-Douret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities.

  15. Daily Job Demands and Employee Work Engagement: The Role of Daily Transformational Leadership Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-03-30

    Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between daily transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that daily transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' daily challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' daily hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Early Age-Related Functional Connectivity Decline in High-Order Cognitive Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Tali; Bosak, Noam; Sprecher, Elliot; Paz, Rotem; Eran, Ayelet; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Kahn, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    As the world ages, it becomes urgent to unravel the mechanisms underlying brain aging and find ways of intervening with them. While for decades cognitive aging has been related to localized brain changes, growing attention is now being paid to alterations in distributed brain networks. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) has become a particularly useful tool to explore large-scale brain networks; yet, the temporal course of connectivity lifetime changes has not been established. Here, an extensive cross-sectional sample (21–85 years old, N = 887) from a public fcMRI database was used to characterize adult lifespan connectivity dynamics within and between seven brain networks: the default mode, salience, dorsal attention, fronto-parietal control, auditory, visual and motor networks. The entire cohort was divided into young (21–40 years, mean ± SD: 25.5 ± 4.8, n = 543); middle-aged (41–60 years, 50.6 ± 5.4, n = 238); and old (61 years and above, 69.0 ± 6.3, n = 106) subgroups. Correlation matrices as well as a mixed model analysis of covariance indicated that within high-order cognitive networks a considerable connectivity decline is already evident by middle adulthood. In contrast, a motor network shows increased connectivity in middle adulthood and a subsequent decline. Additionally, alterations in inter-network interactions are noticeable primarily in the transition between young and middle adulthood. These results provide evidence that aging-related neural changes start early in adult life. PMID:28119599

  17. Development Scaffolding for Construction of Evaluation Instrument Training Program on The Cognitive Domain For Senior High School Physics Teachers and The Same Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, W.; Suhandi, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Setiawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    The development of scaffolding for evaluation instrument construction training program on the cognitive domain for senior high school physics teacher and the same level that is specified in the test instrument has been done. This development was motivated by the low ability of the majority of physics teachers in constructing the physics learning achievement test. This situation not in accordance with the demands of Permendiknas RI no. 16 tahun 2007 concerning the standard of academic qualifications and competence of teachers, stating that teachers should have a good ability to develop instruments for assessment and evaluation of process and learning outcomes. Based on the preliminary study results, it can be seen that the main cause of the inability of teachers in developing physics achievement test is because they do not good understand of the indicators for each aspect of cognitive domains. Scaffolding development is done by using the research and development methods formulated by Thiagarajan which includes define, design and develope steps. Develop step includes build the scaffolding, validation of scaffolding by experts and the limited pilot implementations on the training activities. From the build scaffolding step, resulted the scaffolding for the construction of test instruments training program which include the process steps; description of indicators, operationalization of indicators, construction the itemsframework (items scenarios), construction the items stem, construction the items and checking the items. The results of the validation by three validator indicates that the built scaffolding are suitable for use in the construction of physics achievement test training program, especially for novice. The limited pilot implementation of the built scaffolding conducted in training activities attended by 10 senior high school physics teachers in Garut district. The results of the limited pilot implementation shows that the built scaffolding have a medium

  18. Acute high-intensity exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in young, healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Brothers, R Matthew; Castelli, Darla M; Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Chen, Yen T; Salinas, Mandy M; Kim, Jihoon; Jung, Yeonhak; Calvert, Hannah G

    2016-09-06

    Acute exercise can positively impact cognition. The present study examined the effect of acute high-intensity aerobic exercise on prefrontal-dependent cognitive performance and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Fifty-eight young adults were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (a) an acute bout of high-intensity exercise (n=29) or (b) a non-exercise control (n=29). Participants in the exercise group improved performance on inhibitory control in Stroop interference and on cognitive flexibility in Trail Making Test (TMT) Part-B compared with participants in the control group and increased BDNF immediately after exercise. There was a significant relationship between BDNF and TMT Part-B on the pre-post change following exercise. These findings provide support for the association between improved prefrontal-dependent cognitive performance and increased BDNF in response to acute exercise. We conclude that the changes in BDNF concentration may be partially responsible for prefrontal-dependent cognitive functioning following an acute bout of exercise.

  19. Effects of Experiment Learning Strategy versus Expository and Cognitive Style for Physical Learning Result for Senior High School Student at Class XI of Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to know Effects of Experiment Learning Strategy versus Expository and Cognitive Style for Physical Learning Result of Senior High School Student at Class XI of Senior High School. Data was collected by test and observation. It is processed by ANCOVA and different test (t-test). (1) The result showed that all learning system…

  20. Cache County Water Demand/Supply Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Trevor C.; Norby, Gregory J.; Thyagarajan, Laxman

    1996-01-01

    This report descibes a municipal water demand forecasting model for use in areas of mixed rural and urban housing types. A series of residential demand functions were derived which forecast water demand based on the ype and density of housing and season. Micro sampling techniques were used to correlate water use data and explanatory variable data for low, medium, and high density housing. The demand functions were...

  1. Using a Word Association Test for the Assessment of High School Students' Cognitive Structures on Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Aysegul; Eilks, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding students' cognitive structures in a specific knowledge domain helps to determine the ''what, how and why'' features of such knowledge, so that we can take these structures into consideration in teaching. The purpose of the present study was to identify students' cognitive structures about solution and dissolution concepts. The study…

  2. "Assessment Drives Learning": Do Assessments Promote High-Level Cognitive Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, M. J.; Alt, H.

    2011-01-01

    Students tend to learn in the way they know, or think, they will be assessed. Therefore, to ensure deep, meaningful learning, assessments must be geared to promote cognitive processing that requires complex, contextualised thinking to construct meaning and create knowledge. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive levels is used worldwide to assist in…

  3. Transfer value of learning music on cognitive development of elementary school and high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević Nevena J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining positive effects of music on cognitive development is often part of empirical researches within cognitive and general psychology of music. Starting from the studies conducted by the most modern technologies and methods of studying interconnectedness of mental processes and individual musical development, the conclusion is that active musical participation influences a large specter of enhancing the student's abilities even within other cognitive areas of his actions. Positive effects of music influence directly the development of student's verbal and visual-spatial abilities, abstract thinking, movement coordination, concentration and memory capacity, creativity in thinking and task solving, as well as the development of emotional, aesthetic and social intelligence of the individual. Some of them will be especially stressed in the paper. The paper informs about newer results of examining positive effects of music on non-musical cognitive abilities of students and indicates to positive implications that music and musical education can enhance overall cognitive development of personality.

  4. Caffeine prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic psychosocial stress and/or high fat-high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-15

    Caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a variety of health conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine treatment on chronic stress- and/or high fat-high carbohydrate Western diet (WD)-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Chronic psychosocial stress, WD and caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water) were simultaneously administered for 3 months to adult male Wistar rats. At the conclusion of the 3 months, and while the previous treatments continued, rats were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for learning, short-term and long-term memory. This procedure was applied on a daily basis to all animals for 5 consecutive days or until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Chronic stress and/or WD groups caused impaired learning, which was prevented by chronic caffeine administration. In the memory tests, chronic caffeine administration also prevented memory impairment during chronic stress conditions and/or WD. Furthermore, DTC value for caffeine treated stress, WD, and stress/WD groups indicated that caffeine normalizes memory impairment in these groups. These results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented stress and/or WD-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory.

  5. Cognitive fatigue: A Time-based Resource-sharing account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borragán, Guillermo; Slama, Hichem; Bartolomei, Mario; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive Fatigue (CF) is an important confound impacting cognitive performance. How CF is triggered and what are the features that make a cognitive effort perceived as exhausting remain unclear. In the theoretical framework of the Time-based Resource-sharing (TBRS) model (Barrouillet et al., 2004), we hypothesized that CF is an outcome of increased cognitive load due to constrained time to process ongoing cognitive demands. We tested this cognitive load-related CF hypothesis across 2 experiments manipulating both task complexity and cognitive load induced by the processing time interval. To do so, we used the TloadDback paradigm, a working memory dual task in which high and low cognitive load levels can be individually adjusted. In Experiment 1, participants were administered a high cognitive load (HCL, short processing time interval) and a low cognitive load (LCL, large processing time interval) conditions while complexity of the task was kept constant (1-back dual task). In Experiment 2, two tasks featuring different levels of complexity were both administered at the individual's maximal processing speed capacity for each task (i.e., short processing time interval). Results disclosed higher CF in the HCL than in the LCL condition in Experiment 1. On the contrary, in Experiment 2 similar levels of CF were obtained for different levels of task complexity when processing time interval was individually adjusted to induce a HCL condition. Altogether, our results indicate that processing time-related cognitive load eventually leads to the subjective feeling of CF, and to a decrease in alertness. In this framework, we propose that the development of CF can be envisioned as the result of sustained cognitive demands irrespective of task complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimizing high strength acetic acid bioprocess by cognitive methods in an unsteady state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S; Becker, T; Delgado, A; Emde, F; Enenkel, A

    2002-08-07

    Methods of adapting micro-organisms to an inhibiting factor in an active industrial bioprocess were examined with an acetic acid fermentation as model. With the aim of automatic control, a fuzzy-logic system was developed on the basis of the collected knowledge of skilled vinegar brewers. In a first step, this fuzzy system was to assess the actual adaptation degree of the bacteria on the basis of data from robust and reasonably priced sensors. From this information an appropriate setpoint value for the inhibiting factor 'final acid concentration' was derived for each batch cycle. As a result a further acid tolerance was found after several batch cycles. This adaptation effect should be used to increase the product concentration to more than 20 g per 100 ml acetic acid with a high productivity. The stepwise adapted culture was productive over the aimed acetic acid concentration, a 10% improvement of the product formation rate could be found compared with the status before conditioning. High product concentration and increased productivity finally result in shorter cycle times, less transport and storage volumes, an improved utilization of energy and material resources, and, last but not least, they are an essential steps towards the fulfillment of economical and ecological demands.

  7. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  8. Contributions Emotional Intelligence on Cognitive Learning Result of Biology of Senior High School Students in Medan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Anggi Tias; Corebima, Aloysius Duran

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is one of the factors affecting the success of students' learning results. Students having high emotional intelligence will be able to overcome the problems faced in school and in society. This research aims at investigating the correlation between emotional intelligence (EQ) and students' cognitive learning results of…

  9. Mori Folium and Mori Fructus Mixture Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Geun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global health problem, contributing to various diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and dementia. Increasing evidence suggests that obesity can also cause neuronal damage, long-term memory loss, and cognitive impairment. The leaves and the fruits of Morus alba L., containing active phytochemicals, have been shown to possess antiobesity and hypolipidemic properties. Thus, in the present study, we assessed their effects on cognitive functioning in mice fed a high-fat diet by performing immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against c-Fos, synaptophysin, and postsynaptic density protein 95 and a behavioral test. C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 21 weeks exhibited increased body weight, but mice coadministered an optimized Mori Folium and Mori Fructus extract mixture (2 : 1; MFE for the final 12 weeks exhibited significant body weight loss. Additionally, obese mice exhibited not only reduced neural activity, but also decreased presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, while MFE-treated mice exhibited recovery of these activities. Finally, cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet were recovered by cotreatment with MFE in the novel object recognition test. Our findings suggest that the antiobesity effects of MFE resulted in recovery of the cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet by regulation of neural and synaptic activities.

  10. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  11. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  12. The effect of task load on the occurrence of cognitive lockup in a high-fidelity flight simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looije, R.; Mioch, T.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation To analyse human errors and determine the underlying reason for these errors, in particular by investigating the error production mechanism cognitive lockup. Research approach A within subjects experiment has been conducted with 16 pilots in a high-fidelity and realistic environment. The

  13. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  14. Modeling high resolution space-time variations in energy demand/CO2 emissions of human inhabited landscapes in the United States under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, A. V.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    components of the human-climate system must be coupled in climate modeling efforts to better understand the impacts and feedbacks. To implement modeling strategies for coupling the human and climate systems, their interactions must first be examined in greater detail at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This work attempts to quantify the impact of high resolution variations in projected climate change on energy use/emissions in the United States. We develop a predictive model for the space heating component of residential and commercial energy demand by leveraging results from the high resolution fossil fuel CO2 inventory of the Vulcan Project (Gurney et al., 2009). This predictive model is driven by high resolution temperature data from the RegCM3 model obtained by implementing a downscaling algorithm (Chow and Levermore, 2007). We will present the energy use/emissions in both the space and time domain from two different predictive models highlighting strengths and weaknesses in both. Furthermore, we will explore high frequency variations in the projected temperature field and how these might place potentially large burdens on energy supply and delivery.

  15. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School: Effects on Cognitive and Non-cognitive Outcomes and Implications on the Development of STEM Academic and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning simulations may be a useful tool in enhancing student's interest in and goals toward STEM related careers.

  16. The Impact of Cognitive Tools on the Development of the Inquiry Skills of High School Students in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two teaching strategies that utilize two different cognitive tools on the development of students’ inquiry skills in mechanics. The strategies were used to help students formulate Newton’s 2nd law of motion. Two cognitive tools had been used: a computer simulation and manipulations of concrete objects in physics laboratory. A quasi-experimental method that employed the 2 Cognitive Tools ? 2 Time of learning split-plot factorial design was applied in the study. The sample consisted of 54 Grade 11 students from two physics classes of the university preparation section in a high school of the province of Ontario (Canada. One class was assigned to interactive computer simulations (treatment and the other to concrete objects in physics laboratory (control. Both tools were embedded in the general framework of the guided-inquiry cycle approach. The results showed that the interaction effect of the Cognitive Tools ? Time of learning was not statistically significant. However, the results also showed a significant effect on the development of students’ inquiry skills regardless of the type of cognitive tool they had used. Although the findings suggested that these two strategies are effective in developing students’ inquiry skills in mechanics, students in the computer simulation group had shown larger gain in their inquiry skills test than their counterparts in the laboratory group.

  17. Prospective incidence of first onsets and recurrences of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Whitehouse, Wayne G; Hogan, Michael E; Panzarella, Catherine; Rose, Donna T

    2006-02-01

    Do negative cognitive styles provide similar vulnerability to first onsets versus recurrences of depressive disorders, and are these associations specific to depression? The authors followed for 2.5 years prospectively college freshmen (N = 347) with no initial psychiatric disorders at high-risk (HR) versus low-risk (LR) for depression on the basis of their cognitive styles. HR participants had odds of major, minor, and hopelessness depression that were 3.5-6.8 times greater than the odds for LR individuals. Negative cognitive styles were similarly predictive of first onsets and recurrences of major depression and hopelessness depression but predicted first onsets of minor depression more strongly than recurrences. The risk groups did not differ in incidence of anxiety disorders not comorbid with depression or other disorders, but HR participants were more likely to have an onset of anxiety comorbid with depression. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Childhood abuse and neglect may induce deficits in cognitive precursors of psychosis in high-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Nicolas; Paccalet, Thomas; Gilbert, Elsa; Moreau, Isabel; Mérette, Chantal; Gingras, Nathalie; Rouleau, Nancie; Maziade, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Millions of children are born to parents affected by major psychoses. Cognitive dysfunctions seen in patients are already detectable in these children. In parallel, childhood maltreatment increases the risk of adult psychoses through unknown mechanisms. We investigated whether high-risk offspring exposed to abuse/neglect displayed more cognitive precursors of adult psychoses in childhood and adolescence than nonexposed offspring. We used a stepwise selection strategy from a 25-year follow-up of 48 densely affected kindreds including 1500 adults (405 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) to select high-risk offspring aged 6-22 years for inclusion in our study. All offspring were assessed for childhood trauma from direct interviews with the offspring, parents and relatives and from the review of lifetime medical records of parents and children and administered a neuropsychological battery including IQ and 4 of the most impaired neuropsychological domains in psychoses. Our study included 66 high-risk offspring. Those who were exposed to abuse/neglect had significantly lower IQ (effect size [ES] = 0.61) than nonexposed offspring and displayed poorer cognitive performance in visual episodic memory (ES = 0.67) and in executive functions of initiation (ES = 1.01). Moreover, exposed offspring presented more combinations of cognitive deficits that were associated with lower Global Assessment of Functioning scores. Exposure to abuse/neglect was not assessed in the control group, thus the study could not test whether the effect of childhood maltreatment occurred only in a high-risk setting and not in the general population. In high-risk youths, maltreatment in childhood/adolescence may negatively impact cognitive domains known to be impaired in adults with psychoses, suggesting an early mediating effect in the association between abuse/neglect and adult psychoses. This finding provides a target for future developmental and preventive research.

  19. Cognitive Complexity and Attentional Control in the Bilingual Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    Investigated in preschoolers whether the bilingual advantage in cognitive control or selective attention could be found in a nonverbal task, the dimensional change card sort, requiring minimal demands for analysis or representation. Found that bilingual children were more advanced than monolinguals in solving problems requiring high levels of…

  20. Numerical Cognition without Words: Evidence from Amazonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Gordon

    2004-01-01

    .... This addresses the classic Whorfian question about whether language can determine thought. Results of numerical tasks with varying cognitive demands show that numerical cognition is clearly affected by the lack of a counting system in the language...

  1. An Experimental QoE Performance Study for the Efficient Transmission of High Demanding Traffic over an Ad Hoc Network Using BATMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communications are attracting great attention from the research, industry, and end-user communities. The latter are increasingly claiming for higher levels of quality and the possibility of consuming multimedia content from a plethora of devices at their disposal. Clearly, the most appealing gadgets are those that communicate wirelessly to access these services. However, current wireless technologies raise severe concerns to support extremely demanding services such as real-time multimedia transmissions. This paper evaluates from QoE and QoS perspectives the capability of the ad hoc routing protocol called BATMAN to support Voice over IP and video traffic. To this end, two test-benches were proposed, namely, a real (emulated testbed and a simulation framework. Additionally, a series of modifications was proposed on both protocols’ parameters settings and video-stream characteristics that contributes to further improving the multimedia quality perceived by the users. The performance of the well-extended protocol OLSR is also evaluated in detail to compare it with BATMAN. From the results, a notably high correlation between real experimentation and computer simulation outcomes was observed. It was also found out that, with the proper configuration, BATMAN is able to transmit several QCIF video-streams and VoIP calls with high quality. In addition, BATMAN outperforms OLSR supporting multimedia traffic in both experimental and simulated environments.

  2. Stress in highly demanding IT jobs: transformational leadership moderates the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrek, Christine J; Apostel, Ella; Antoni, Conny H

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate transformational leadership as a potential moderator of the negative relationship of time pressure to work-life balance and of the positive relationship between time pressure and exhaustion. Recent research regards time pressure as a challenge stressor; while being positively related to motivation and performance, time pressure also increases employee strain and decreases well-being. Building on the Job Demand-Resources model, we hypothesize that transformational leadership moderates the relationships between time pressure and both employees' exhaustion and work-life balance such that both relationships will be weaker when transformational leadership is higher. Of seven information technology organizations in Germany, 262 employees participated in the study. Established scales for time pressure, transformational leadership, work-life balance, and exhaustion were used, all showing good internal consistencies. The results support our assumptions. Specifically, we find that under high transformational leadership the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance was less strong. The results of this study suggest that, particularly under high time pressure, transformational leadership is an important factor for both employees' work-life balance and exhaustion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. An integrated multi-source JDL high-level fusion architecture using recombinant cognition synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Marco A.; Ekwaro-Osire, Stephen; Tanik, Murat M.

    2009-04-01

    High-Level fusion systems based on the JDL model are relatively immature. Current solutions lack a comprehensive ability to manage multi-source data in a multi-dimensional vector space, and generally do not integrate collection to action models in a cohesive thread. Recombinant Cognition Synthesis (RCS) leverages best-of-breed techniques with a geospatial, temporal and semantic data model to provide a unified methodology that recombines multi-source data with analytic and predictive algorithms to synthesize actionable intelligence. This architecture framework enables the traversal of entity relationships at different level of granularities and the discovery of latent knowledge, thereby facilitating the domain problem analysis and the development of a Course-of-Action to mitigate adversarial threats. RCS also includes process refinement techniques to achieve superior information dominance, by incorporating specialized metadata. This comprehensive and unified methodology delivers enhanced utility to the intelligence analyst, and addresses key issues of relevancy, timeliness, accuracy, and uncertainty by providing metrics via feedback loops within the RCS infrastructure that augment the efficiency and effectiveness of the end-to-end fusion processing chain.

  4. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  5. Parallel high-performance grid computing: capabilities and opportunities of a novel demanding service and business class allowing highest resource efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepper, Nick; Ettig, Ramona; Dickmann, Frank; Stehr, Rene; Grosveld, Frank G; Wedemann, Gero; Knoch, Tobias A

    2010-01-01

    Especially in the life-science and the health-care sectors the huge IT requirements are imminent due to the large and complex systems to be analysed and simulated. Grid infrastructures play here a rapidly increasing role for research, diagnostics, and treatment, since they provide the necessary large-scale resources efficiently. Whereas grids were first used for huge number crunching of trivially parallelizable problems, increasingly parallel high-performance computing is required. Here, we show for the prime example of molecular dynamic simulations how the presence of large grid clusters including very fast network interconnects within grid infrastructures allows now parallel high-performance grid computing efficiently and thus combines the benefits of dedicated super-computing centres and grid infrastructures. The demands for this service class are the highest since the user group has very heterogeneous requirements: i) two to many thousands of CPUs, ii) different memory architectures, iii) huge storage capabilities, and iv) fast communication via network interconnects, are all needed in different combinations and must be considered in a highly dedicated manner to reach highest performance efficiency. Beyond, advanced and dedicated i) interaction with users, ii) the management of jobs, iii) accounting, and iv) billing, not only combines classic with parallel high-performance grid usage, but more importantly is also able to increase the efficiency of IT resource providers. Consequently, the mere "yes-we-can" becomes a huge opportunity like e.g. the life-science and health-care sectors as well as grid infrastructures by reaching higher level of resource efficiency.

  6. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  7. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Methods Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1–4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5–8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. Results The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Conclusions Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning

  8. Comparison of Freshmen's Cognitive Frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon Taking the Earth Science 1 in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1I in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science 1 fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth Science 1, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, improves learning and memory in high-fat diet-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev; Ramagiri, Shruti

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is increasingly recognized for its effects on cognitive health. Recent studies have highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in metabolic syndrome and cognitive functions. The present study was designed to investigate the possible therapeutic role of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), in cognitive impairment associated with metabolic syndrome. To ascertain the mechanisms involved, we fed mice with high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks and examined changes in behavioral and biochemical/oxidative stress markers. Mice subjected to HFD exhibited characteristic features of metabolic disorder, viz., hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Moreover, these mice showed severe deficits in learning and memory as assessed by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks along with elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in brain homogenates. The observed changes occurred concurrently with reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In contrast, the mice treated with the HDAC inhibitor, TSA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), showed a significant and dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol along with improvement in HDL-cholesterol levels and learning and memory performance. TSA treatment also results in alleviation of oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. Moreover, TSA significantly augmented the BDNF levels in HFD-fed mice. Thus, based upon these observations, it may be suggested that HDAC inhibition could be a novel therapeutic strategy to combat cognitive impairment associated with metabolic syndrome.

  10. Classroom-based physical activity breaks and children’s attention: cognitive engagement works!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Schmidt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom-based physical activity breaks are postulated to positively impact children’s attention during their school day. However, empirical evidence for this claim is scarce and the role of cognitive engagement in enhancing children’s attentional performance is unexplored in studies on physical activity breaks. The aim of the present study was therefore to disentangle the separate and/or combined effects of physical exertion and cognitive engagement induced by physical activity breaks on primary school children’s attention. In addition, the role of children’s affective reactions to acute interventions at school was investigated. Using a 2 × 2 between-subjects experimental design, 92 children between the ages of 11 and 12 years (M = 11.77, SD = 0.41 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: (1 combo group (physical activity with high cognitive demands, (2 cognition group (sedentary with high cognitive demands, (3 physical group (physical activity with low cognitive demands, and (4 control group (sedentary with low cognitive demands. Attention and affect were measured before and immediately after a 10-minute intervention. ANCOVAs revealed that whereas physical exertion had no effect on any measure of children’s attentional performance, cognitive engagement was the crucial factor leading to increased focused attention and enhanced processing speed. Mediational analyses showed that changes in positive affect during the interventions mediated the effect between cognitive engagement and focused attention as well as between cognitive engagement and processing speed. These surprising results are discussed in the light of theories predicting both facilitating and deteriorative effects of positive affect on cognitive performance.

  11. Cognitive Reserve in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Importance of Occupational Complexity as a Buffer of Declining Cognition in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldberg Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Work is one of the most important sources of cognitive stimulation during adulthood. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents an intermediate status between normal aging and dementia. As a consequence, this is considered a risk group regarding cognition. In order to study the probable association between occupational complexity and cognitive performance in a group of patients with MCI, a non-probabilistic intentional sample was dispensed on a group of 80 patients. Occupational complexity was explored by the Questionnaire on Agency of Labor Activity (CAAL, according to its acronym in Spanish and a set of neuropsychological tests, which assessed cognitive performance in different areas: memory, attention, language and executive function, were administered. Results reveal that occupational complexity is associated to cognitive performance of elderly adults with MCI. With respect to working with Data, an increase in neuropsychological tests that demand high levels of attention and imply processing speed and working memory can be noted. Regarding the complexity of working with People, an association between the level of occupational complexity and an increase in verbal abilities and verbal reasoning can be seen. On the other hand, working with Things could be associated with better performance in specific areas of cognition such as visuospatial abilities. These results add up as empirical evidence to the fields of cognitive neurology and gerontology and to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, showing how complex environments can enhance cognition in old age. It adds evidence that help to understand which psychological, social and labor factors intervene in the cognitive reserve of an elder adult in cognitive risk.

  12. Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism: language, motor and cognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterdaeme, Michele; Wriedt, Elke; Höhne, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the cognitive profile, the motor and language functioning and the psychosocial adaptation of children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and with high-functioning autism (HFA). Subjects were recruited through the department Autism and Developmental Disorders of the Heckscher-Klinikum. To be included in the study, the full-scale-IQ had to be at least 80. Subjects with AS had to have a normal early language development and subjects with HFA a clear delay in language development, as reported by their parents. The sample consisted of 57 children with Asperger syndrome and 55 children with high-functioning autism. The mean age of the children was 10 years. All subjects were examined with a standardised test battery. Children with AS had a higher full-scale-IQ than children with HFA. This was due to a higher verbal-IQ. There were no significant differences in the performance-IQ. At a mean age of 10 years, subjects with AS had better language skills than subjects with HFA, but at least 30% showed clear receptive language problems. Motor problems were present in about 50% of the children with AS and HFA. The level of psychosocial adaptation was clearly reduced, but was comparable for the two groups. The differences in verbal-IQ and language skills between the two groups could be explained through the definition of the syndromes. The presence of language problems in the subjects with AS at age 10, the comparable degree of motor impairment and level of psychosocial adaptation question the validity of the distinction between AS and HFA within the category of pervasive developmental disorders.

  13. Cognitive strategies and quality of life of patients with high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchiari, C; Botturi, A; Silvani, A; Lamperti, E; Gaviani, P; Innocenti, A; Finocchiaro, C Y; Masiero, M; Pravettoni, G

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychological well-being, quality of life, and cognitive strategies activated by patients with high-grade glioma. We hypothesized that the self-perceived quality of life is modulated by physical and psychological factors and that in order to understand this modulation more psychometric approaches are necessary. Data were collected from a sample of 73 consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of primary malignant brain cancer (grade IV glioblastoma and grade III anaplastic astrocytoma) hospitalized in a specialized Italian center. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) scale and the Schedule of Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting (SEIQoL-DW) scale were used to assess quality of life. The mean FACT-Brain (Br) score was 122.37. Similarly, the median SEIQoL-DW score was 72.9 out of a maximum value of 100. No gender effect was found in relation to overall quality of life. Patients with high depression and/or anxiety scores reported lower quality of life (QoL) scores in all the instruments considered. We did not find any gender effect concerning depression and anxiety levels. However, we found that men and women, though having similar physical and functional well-being, reported different QoL determinants, since men seem to rely more on physical adjustment, while women activate more introspective strategies. Positive actions, family issues, negative thoughts, health, and positive thoughts were found to be the most reported themes. In conclusion, the present study strongly suggests that a positive psychological adjustment is possible also in the event of a severe diagnosis and during aggressive treatments, but QoL determinants might be considered too in order to help health professionals to understand patients' experience and to meet their needs.

  14. Multiple Past Concussions in High School Football Players: Are There Differences in Cognitive Functioning and Symptom Reporting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing concern about the possible long-term effects of multiple concussions, particularly on the developing adolescent brain. Whether the effect of multiple concussions is detectable in high school football players has not been well studied, although the public health implications are great in this population. To determine if there are measureable differences in cognitive functioning or symptom reporting in high school football players with a history of multiple concussions. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Participants included 5232 male adolescent football players (mean [±SD] age, 15.5 ± 1.2 years) who completed baseline testing between 2009 and 2014. On the basis of injury history, athletes were grouped into 0 (n = 4183), 1 (n = 733), 2 (n = 216), 3 (n = 67), or ≥4 (n = 33) prior concussions. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery, and symptom ratings were obtained from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. There were no statistically significant differences between groups (based on the number of reported concussions) regarding cognitive functioning. Athletes with ≥3 prior concussions reported more symptoms than did athletes with 0 or 1 prior injury. In multivariate analyses, concussion history was independently related to symptom reporting but less so than developmental problems (eg, attention or learning problems) or other health problems (eg, past treatment for psychiatric problems, headaches, or migraines). In the largest study to date, high school football players with multiple past concussions performed the same on cognitive testing as those with no prior concussions. Concussion history was one of several factors that were independently related to symptom reporting. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  16. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  17. Treadmill exercise alleviates impairment of cognitive function by enhancing hippocampal neuroplasticity in the high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods for managing obesity, and exercise exerts positive effects on various brain functions. Excessive weight gain is known to be related to the impairment of cognitive function. High-fat diet-induced obesity impairs hippocampal neuroplasticity, which impedes cognitive function, such as learning ability and memory function. In this study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on impairment of cognitive function in relation with hippo...

  18. An on-demand gas segmented flow generator with high spatiotemporal resolution for in vivo analysis of neuronal response in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Ge, Anle; Wang, Xixian; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Yue; Feng, Xiaojun; Du, Wei; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2016-10-05

    Studies of chemo-sensing in C. elegans to fluctuating gaseous cues are limited due to the lack of a method of precise gas control. In this paper, we describe a microfluidic-based on-demand gas segmented flow generator for performing fluctuating gaseous stimulations to worms. This highly versatile and programmable micro-device integrated with pneumatic valves for flexible and stable gas flow control and worm immobilization enabled us to examine the temporal features of neuronal response to multiple gas pulses with sub-second precision. As a result, we demonstrated the capability of the micro-device to generate repetitive gaseous chemical pulses with varying durations. By characterizing intracellular calcium signals, we showed that URX sensory neurons were sensitive to O2 pulses with duration of more than 0.5 s. Furthermore, URX neuronal adaptation and recovery in response to gaseous chemical pulses were investigated by varying the durations and intervals. The developed microfluidic system is shown to be a useful tool for studying the dynamics of in vivo gas-evoked neuronal responses and revealing the temporal properties of environmental stimulations.

  19. Short-term changes in 10-km race pace aerobic demand and gait mechanics following a bout of high-intensity distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D W; Strohmeyer, H S; Daniels, J T; Beaudoin, C C; Craib, M W; Borden, R A; Greer, P J; Burleson, C L

    1996-01-01

    Following treadmill accommodation and a 3-day period of tapered running, ten well-trained male distance runners [x maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) = 71.3 ml.kg-1.min-1] performed two 10-min level treadmill runs designed to assess running economy at 90% VO2max. Video recordings were obtained during the last minute of each run to quantify selected gait descriptors. Two to 3 days following the second economy run, each subject completed 30 min of high-intensity (HI) running at 90% VO2max. One 2, and 4 days after the HI run, subjects repeated the 10-min economy runs. Compared to pre HI-run values, no significant change (P > 0.05) in running economy was observed during the post-HI runs. Biomechanical analyses also revealed that running style remained unaltered after the HI run. These results support earlier findings obtained on moderately trained subjects featuring measurement of running economy and gait mechanics at less-demanding intensities and suggest that among well-trained athletes, 30 min of HI running does not elicit an increase in VO2 or disrupt gait mechanics over the short term in subsequent distance runs performed at near-maximal speeds.

  20. Performance of a stratified sand filter in removal of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and ammonia nitrogen from high-strength wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M G; Rodgers, M; Mulqueen, J

    2007-06-01

    A stratified sand filter column, operated in recirculation mode and treating synthetic effluent resembling high-strength dairy wastewaters was studied over a 342-d duration. The aim of this paper was to examine the organic, total suspended solids (TSS) and nutrient removal rates of the sand filter, operated in recirculation mode, under incrementally increasing hydraulic and organic loading rates and to propose a field filter-sizing criterion. Best performance was obtained at a system hydraulic loading rate of 10 L m(-2) d(-1); a higher system hydraulic loading rate (of 13.4 L m(-2) d(-1)) caused surface ponding. The system hydraulic loading rate of 10 L m(-2) d(-1) gave a filter chemical oxygen demand (COD), TSS, and total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) loading rate of 14, 3.7, and 2.1 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively, and produced consistent COD and TSS removals of greater than 99%, and an effluent NO(3)-N concentration of 42 mg L(-1) (accounting for an 86% reduction in total nitrogen (Tot-N)). As the proportional surface area requirement for the sand filter described in this study is less than the recommended surface area requirement of a free-water surface (FWS) wetland treating an effluent of similar quality, it could provide an economic and sustainable alternative to conventional wetland treatment.

  1. Assessment of a modified and optimised method for determining chemical oxygen demand of solid substrates and solutions with high suspended solid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, F; de la Rubia, M A; Borja, R; Alaiz, M

    2008-07-15

    A modified approach to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of solid substrates based on the DIN 38414-S9 standard method is proposed. The adapted procedure is assessed and compared with standard methods widely used for water and wastewater such as the American Public Health Association-American Water Works Association-Water Pollution Control Federation (APHA-AWWA-WPCF) standard methods 5220 B-open reflux (SM-OR) and 5220 D-closed reflux colorimetric (SM-CR). Solutions with high suspended concentration of solids, as well as digestates from an anaerobic reactor, were used during the comparative test. For solid substrates, the COD recovery was about 100% when the proposed method was used. For solutions with solid content higher than 20 g TS L(-1), the recovery was only completed when the proposed method was used, showing that the methods traditionally employed are not very appropriate for samples with the described characteristics. For instance, percentages of COD recovery in the ranges of 77.3-87.1% and 89.4-94.1% were achieved when the SM-OR and SM-CR methods were used, respectively.

  2. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2013-06-21

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. Distribution of Cognitive Load in Web Search

    CERN Document Server

    Gwizdka, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The search task and the system both affect the demand on cognitive resources during information search. In some situations, the demands may become too high for a person. This article has a three-fold goal. First, it presents and critiques methods to measure cognitive load. Second, it explores the distribution of load across search task stages. Finally, it seeks to improve our understanding of factors affecting cognitive load levels in information search. To this end, a controlled Web search experiment with forty-eight participants was conducted. Interaction logs were used to segment search tasks semi-automatically into task stages. Cognitive load was assessed using a new variant of the dual-task method. Average cognitive load was found to vary by search task stages. It was significantly higher during query formulation and user description of a relevant document as compared to examining search results and viewing individual documents. Semantic information shown next to the search results lists in one of the st...

  4. Cognitive change trajectories in virally suppressed HIV-infected individuals indicate high prevalence of disease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, Chloe; Gates, Thomas; Dermody, Nadene; Brew, Bruce J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The longitudinal rate and profile of cognitive decline in persons with stable, treated, and virally suppressed HIV infection is not established. To address this question, the current study quantifies the rate of cognitive decline in a cohort of virally suppressed HIV+ persons using clinically relevant definitions of decline, and determine cognitive trajectories taking into account historical and baseline HAND status. Methods Ninety-six HIV+ (clinically stable and virally undetectable) and 44 demographically comparable HIV- participants underwent standard neuropsychological testing at baseline and 18-months follow-up. We described clinically relevant cognitive trajectories based on standard definitions of historical and baseline HAND status and cognitive decline. Historical, moderate to severe HAND was formally diagnosed at the start of the cART era in 15/96 participants based on clinical neurological and neuropsychological assessment. The same standard of care has been applied to all participants at St. Vincent’s Hospital Infectious Disease Department for the duration of their HIV infection (median of 20 years). Results Relative to HIV- controls (4.5%), 14% of HIV+ participants declined (p = .11), they also scored significantly lower on the global change score (p = .03), processing speed (p = .02), and mental flexibility/inhibition (p = .02) domains. Having HAND at baseline significantly predicted cognitive decline at follow up (p = .005). We determined seven clinically relevant cognitive trajectories taking into account whether participant has a history of HAND prior to study entry (yes/no); their results on the baseline assessment (baseline impairment: yes/no) and their results on the 18-month follow up (decline or stable) which in order of prevalence were: 1) No HAND history, no baseline impairment, 18-month follow-up stable (39%), 2) No HAND history, baseline impairment, 18-month follow-up stable (35%), 3) History of HAND; baseline impairment, 18

  5. Paramedic Physical Demands Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    medical bags, cardiac monitor, stretcher, stair chair, etc.) were not standardized across services. As a result the total amount of equipment weight ...report describes the pushing/pulling, walking, and stair climbing demands as observed during the observation periods. Walking demands varied between the...standard deviation about the mean. .................................................................. 25 Figure 7 - The maximum weight (heaviest patient

  6. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  7. Assessing the utility of a demand assessment for functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Eileen M; Rooker, Griffin W; Pence, Sacha T; Longworth, Lynlea J

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of an assessment for identifying tasks for the functional analysis demand condition with 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism. During the demand assessment, a therapist presented a variety of tasks, and observers measured problem behavior and compliance to identify demands associated with low levels of compliance or high levels of problem behavior (low-probability demands) and demands associated with high levels of compliance or low levels of problem behavior (high-probability demands). Results showed that clearer functional analysis outcomes were obtained for 3 of the 4 participants when low-probability rather than high-probability demands were used.

  8. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari;

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...... to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...... implication is that more explicit focus on causality in demand analyses provides improved information. The results suggest that frozen trout forms part of a large European whitefish market, where prices of fresh trout are formed on a relatively separate market. Redfish is a substitute on both markets...

  9. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  10. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...

  11. Long-Term High-Effort Endurance Exercise in Older Adults: Diminishing Returns for Cognitive and Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeremy C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Watt, Peter W; Tabet, Naji; Rusted, Jennifer M

    2016-10-01

    While there is evidence that age-related changes in cognitive performance and brain structure can be offset by increased exercise, little is known about the impact long-term high-effort endurance exercise has on these functions. In a cross-sectional design with 12-month follow-up, we recruited older adults engaging in high-effort endurance exercise over at least 20 years, and compared their cognitive performance and brain structure with a nonsedentary control group similar in age, sex, education, IQ, and lifestyle factors. Our findings showed no differences on measures of speed of processing, executive function, incidental memory, episodic memory, working memory, or visual search for older adults participating in long-term high-effort endurance exercise, when compared without confounds to nonsedentary peers. On tasks that engaged significant attentional control, subtle differences emerged. On indices of brain structure, long-term exercisers displayed higher white matter axial diffusivity than their age-matched peers, but this did not correlate with indices of cognitive performance.

  12. Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks and Children's Attention: Cognitive Engagement Works!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko; Benzing, Valentin; Kamer, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Classroom-based physical activity breaks are postulated to positively impact children's attention during their school day. However, empirical evidence for this claim is scarce and the role of cognitive engagement in enhancing children's attentional performance is unexplored in studies on physical activity breaks. The aim of the present study was therefore to disentangle the separate and/or combined effects of physical exertion and cognitive engagement induced by physical activity breaks on primary school children's attention. In addition, the role of children's affective reactions to acute interventions at school was investigated. Using a 2 × 2 between-subjects experimental design, 92 children between the ages of 11 and 12 years (M = 11.77, SD = 0.41) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: (1) combo group (physical activity with high cognitive demands), (2) cognition group (sedentary with high cognitive demands), (3) physical group (physical activity with low cognitive demands), and (4) control group (sedentary with low cognitive demands). Attention and affect were measured before and immediately after a 10-min intervention. ANCOVAs revealed that whereas physical exertion had no effect on any measure of children's attentional performance, cognitive engagement was the crucial factor leading to increased focused attention and enhanced processing speed. Mediational analyses showed that changes in positive affect during the interventions mediated the effect between cognitive engagement and focused attention as well as between cognitive engagement and processing speed. These surprising results are discussed in the light of theories predicting both facilitating and deteriorative effects of positive affect on attention.

  13. Cognitive profiles of adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Antoinette Alida

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the cognitive strengths and weaknesses have been examined. The results show impairment in advanced theory of mind. Furthermore, impairment was found in processing speed. The results pointed to strengths in detailed information processing. No impairment was found in executive

  14. Doubtful association of antipsychotic polypharmacy and high dosage with cognition in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Kleisas, Spyridon; Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Psaras, Rafael; Makris, Yannis; Karouzos, Charalambos; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2010-10-01

    Despite consistent recommendations for antipsychotic monotherapy, antipsychotic polypharmacy (the use of two or more antipsychotic agents) and the administration of excessive doses (higher than 1000 mgr/day of chloropromazine equivalents) is a common practice in schizophrenia. The therapeutic and adverse effects of this practice are poorly studied, in particular with regards to the cognitive symptoms of the disease. In this cross-sectional study we investigated the cognitive effects of antipsychotic polypharmacy and excessive doses in 53 patients with chronic schizophrenia using non-verbal cognitive tasks involving speed of movement, memory and executive functions. No significant difference in performance scores was found between the groups under polypharmacy and monotherapy, or the groups receiving either excessive or normal doses of antipsychotics. Since these groups did not also differ in demographic, clinical, other pharmacologic parameters, in the relative anticholinergic potency of antipsychotics, or in intelligence scores, we raise doubts about the association of polypharmacy and excessive doses with non-verbal cognitive performance in chronic schizophrenia.

  15. Cognitive profiles of adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Antoinette Alida

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the cognitive strengths and weaknesses have been examined. The results show impairment in advanced theory of mind. Furthermore, impairment was found in processing speed. The results pointed to strengths in detailed information processing. No impairment was found in executive functioni

  16. Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practices Cognitive Dissonance in High Stakes Test-Influenced Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Wubbena, Zane C.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the authors qualitatively investigate, through the theoretical perspective of cognitive dissonance, the relationship between teacher beliefs and their associated teacher practices at two public elementary schools with diverse student populations. They argue that while teachers may hold theoretical beliefs about culturally…

  17. Spanish High School Students' Interests in Technology: Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda-Caro, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Menéndez, Carmen; Peña-Calvo, José-Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The authors have examined the relative contribution of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and barriers), and cognitive (self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations) variables to technological interests in a sample (N = 2,364) of 10th-grade Spanish students. The results of path analysis…

  18. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Århus Universitet, Marianne

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  19. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  20. College-Level Choice of Latino High School Students: A Social-Cognitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Latino students attend 2-year colleges more often than 4-year colleges. This has an impact on the rate of bachelor's degree attainment, because the transfer rate between the 2 levels is low. The author uses national data to identify predictors associated with college-level choice and then uses social-cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, &…

  1. Cognitively Guided Instruction: An Implementation Case Study of a High Performing School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, William D. B.

    2011-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation developed goals for every student to be proficient in each academic subject by 2014. California's students are far from meeting this goal, especially in mathematics. One Southern Californian school district, renamed Green Valley Unified School District for anonymity, began using Cognitively Guided Instruction…

  2. Cognitive Development of Fourth Graders in a High-Stakes State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Lola; Boram, Robert

    Jean Piaget's classic theory of cognitive development would imply that the higher-order items on the Kentucky state assessment would only be possible for students well into concrete operations or beginning formal operations. The implication would be that Kentucky fourth graders who are not fully concrete yet may be hitting a developmental ceiling…

  3. College-Level Choice of Latino High School Students: A Social-Cognitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Latino students attend 2-year colleges more often than 4-year colleges. This has an impact on the rate of bachelor's degree attainment, because the transfer rate between the 2 levels is low. The author uses national data to identify predictors associated with college-level choice and then uses social-cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, &…

  4. Cognitive profiles of adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Antoinette Alida

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the cognitive strengths and weaknesses have been examined. The results show impairment in advanced theory of mind. Furthermore, impairment was found in processing speed. The results pointed to strengths in detailed information processing. No impairment was found in executive functioni

  5. High compliance to computerized tests for assessment of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, W.F.; van Harten, A.E.; Scheeren, Thomas; Absalom, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study: After cardiac surgery many patients experience postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), usually comprising impaired concentration, attention, working memory and executive function. These sometimes subtle defects are usually assessed by neuropsychological examination,

  6. Managing Mathematics: How Does Classroom Management Affect the Maintenance of High Cognitive Demand Tasks during Lessons with Standards-Based Instructional Materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriteau Phaire, Candace

    2013-01-01

    The teaching and learning of mathematics has been the subject of debate for over 30 years and the most recent reform efforts are in response to concerns regarding the mathematical competence of students in the United States (Ball, Hill, & Bass, 2005; Battista, 1994; Cavanagh, 2008). Standards-based Instructional Materials (SBIM) allows…

  7. Effect of high dose fish oil supplementation on cerebral blood flow and cognitive performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a proof of concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Claassen, J.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cerebral blood flow and age-related loss of cognitive functioning in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design, setting and participants: A total of 20 patients with single or

  8. Domestic Demand Will Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China can invigorate its economy by expanding domestic demand and boosting consumption chinese bankers are preparing to set up finance companies that provide consumer loans in major cities like Beijing and Shanghai.

  9. Intelligent energy demand forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Wei-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    This book offers approaches and methods to calculate optimal electric energy allocation, using evolutionary algorithms and intelligent analytical tools to improve the accuracy of demand forecasting. Focuses on improving the drawbacks of existing algorithms.

  10. Household fuel demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.; Hirst, E.; Jackson, J.

    1976-01-01

    This study develops econometric models of residential demands for electricity, natural gas, and petroleum products. Fuel demands per household are estimated as functions of fuel prices, per capita income, heating degree days, and mean July temperature. Cross-sectional models are developed using a large data base containing observations for each state and year from 1951 through 1974. Long-run own-price elasticities for all three fuels are greater than unity with natural gas showing the greatest sensitivity to own-price changes. Cross-price elasticities are all less than unity except for the elasticity of demand for oil with respect to the price of gas (which is even larger than the own-price elasticity of demand for oil). The models show considerable stabiity with respect to own-price elasticities but much instability with respect to the cross-price and income elasticities.

  11. Impact of Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambel, Ali B.

    1970-01-01

    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  12. A twin study of the genetics of high cognitive ability selected from 11,000 twin pairs in six studies from four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M A; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicolas W; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike; Posthuma, Danielle; Davis, Oliver S P; Brant, Angela M; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matthew; Thompson, Lee A; Hart, Sara A; Petrill, Stephen A; Lubinski, David; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Although much genetic research has addressed normal variation in intelligence, little is known about the etiology of high cognitive abilities. Using data from 11,000 twin pairs (age range = 6-71 years) from the genetics of high cognitive abilities consortium, we investigated the genetic and environmental etiologies of high general cognitive ability (g). Age-appropriate psychometric cognitive tests were administered to the twins and used to create g scores standardized within each study. Liability-threshold model fitting was used to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for the top 15% of the distribution of g. Genetic influence for high g was substantial (0.50, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.41-0.60). Shared environmental influences were moderate (0.28, 0.19-0.37). We conclude that genetic variation contributes substantially to high g in Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States.

  13. High field fMRI reveals thalamocortical integration of segregated cognitive and emotional processing in mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Danielle Metzger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive-emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla.Using an event related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex (CM/PF. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo-striato-cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behaviour such as sexual

  14. Adolescent maturational transitions in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine signalling as a risk factor for the development of obesity and high fat / high sugar diet induced cognitive deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Claire Reichelt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence poses as both a transitional period in neurodevelopment and lifestyle practices. In particular, the developmental trajectory of the prefrontal cortex, a critical region for behavioural control and self-regulation, is enduring, not reaching functional maturity until the early 20s in humans. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter dopamine is particularly abundant during adolescence, tuning the brain to rapidly learn about rewards and regulating aspects of neuroplasticity. Thus, adolescence is proposed to represent a period of vulnerability towards reward-driven behaviours such as the consumption of palatable high fat and high sugar diets. This is reflected in the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents as they are the greatest consumers of junk foods. Excessive consumption of diets laden in saturated fat and refined sugars not only leads to weight gain and the development of obesity, but experimental studies with rodents indicate they evoke cognitive deficits in learning and memory process by disrupting neuroplasticity and altering reward processing neurocircuitry. Consumption of these high fat and high sugar diets have been reported to have a particularly pronounced impact on cognition when consumed during adolescence, demonstrating a susceptibility of the adolescent brain to enduring cognitive deficits. The adolescent brain, with heightened reward sensitivity and diminished behavioural control compared to the mature adult brain, appears to be a risk for aberrant eating behaviours that may underpin the development of obesity. This review explores the neurodevelopmental changes in the prefrontal cortex and mesocortical dopamine signalling that occur during adolescence, and how these potentially underpin the overconsumption of palatable food and development of obesogenic diet induced cognitive deficits.

  15. When does anxiety help or hinder cognitive test performance? The role of working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A; Norgate, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive interference theories (e.g. attentional control theory, processing efficiency theory) suggest that high levels of trait anxiety predict adverse effects on the performance of cognitive tasks, particularly those that make high demands on cognitive resources. We tested an interaction hypothesis to determine whether a combination of high anxiety and low working memory capacity (WMC) would predict variance in demanding cognitive test scores. Ninety six adolescents (12- to 14-years-old) participated in the study, which measured self-report levels of trait anxiety, working memory, and cognitive test performance. As hypothesized, we found that the anxiety-WMC interaction explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test performance (ΔR(2) .07, p anxiety was unrelated to cognitive test performance for those adolescents with average WMC scores (β = .13, p > .10). In contrast, trait anxiety was negatively related to test performance in adolescents with low WMC (β = -.35, p test performance in those with high WMC (β = .49, p anxiety and cognitive test performance and may be a determinant factor in explaining some discrepancies found in the literature. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved.

  16. Caffeine prevents weight gain and cognitive impairment caused by a high-fat diet while elevating hippocampal BDNF

    OpenAIRE

    Moy, Gregory A.; McNay, Ewan C.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, high-fat diets, and subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with cognitive impairment. Moreover, T2DM increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and leads to abnormal elevation of brain beta-amyloid levels, one of the hallmarks of AD. The psychoactive alkaloid caffeine has been shown to have therapeutic potential in AD but the central impact of caffeine has not been well-studied in the context of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the impact of caffeine administration...

  17. Analytical determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand in samples considered to be difficult to analyse: solid substrates and liquid samples with high suspended solid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in the field of waste and wastewater treatment processes, and more specifically in anaerobic digestion processes. However, little is known about the COD measurement quality of anaerobic digestion samples. Taking into account the lack...

  18. Academic Task Demand in the 21st-Century, High-Stakes-Accountability School: Mapping the Journey from Poor [To Fair to Good to Great] to Excellent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Nehring, James; Carey, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical and empirical research concerning the relationship between academic work and student learning, this article explores the following questions: What skills are required to execute the academic tasks teachers assign on a daily basis? How do teachers and administrators interpret the task demands represented in instructional…

  19. Academic Task Demand in the 21st-Century, High-Stakes-Accountability School: Mapping the Journey from Poor [To Fair to Good to Great] to Excellent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Nehring, James; Carey, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical and empirical research concerning the relationship between academic work and student learning, this article explores the following questions: What skills are required to execute the academic tasks teachers assign on a daily basis? How do teachers and administrators interpret the task demands represented in instructional…

  20. Disturbed hepatic carbohydrate management during high metabolic demand in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrema, Hilde; Derks, Terry G J; van Dijk, Theo H; Bloks, Vincent W; Gerding, Albert; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J F; Müller, Michael; Smit, G Peter A; Kuipers, Folkert; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2008-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) catalyzes crucial steps in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, a process that is of key relevance for maintenance of energy homeostasis, especially during high metabolic demand. To gain insight into the metabolic consequences of MCAD deficiency under these conditions, we compared hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in vivo in wild-type and MCAD(-/-) mice during fasting and during a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute phase response (APR). MCAD(-/-) mice did not become more hypoglycemic on fasting or during the APR than wild-type mice did. Nevertheless, microarray analyses revealed increased hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (Pgc-1alpha) and decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppar alpha) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (Pdk4) expression in MCAD(-/-) mice in both conditions, suggesting altered control of hepatic glucose metabolism. Quantitative flux measurements revealed that the de novo synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) was not affected on fasting in MCAD(-/-) mice. During the APR, however, this flux was significantly decreased (-20%) in MCAD(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Remarkably, newly formed G6P was preferentially directed toward glycogen in MCAD(-/-) mice under both conditions. Together with diminished de novo synthesis of G6P, this led to a decreased hepatic glucose output during the APR in MCAD(-/-) mice; de novo synthesis of G6P and hepatic glucose output were maintained in wild-type mice under both conditions. APR-associated hypoglycemia, which was observed in wild-type mice as well as MCAD(-/-) mice, was mainly due to enhanced peripheral glucose uptake. Our data demonstrate that MCAD deficiency in mice leads to specific changes in hepatic carbohydrate management on exposure to metabolic stress. This deficiency, however, does not lead to reduced de novo synthesis of G6P during fasting alone, which may be due to the

  1. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively

  2. Junior high school students' cognitive process in solving the developed algebraic problems based on information processing taxonomy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwoko, Saad, Noor Shah; Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to: i) develop problem solving questions of Linear Equations System of Two Variables (LESTV) based on levels of IPT Model, ii) explain the level of students' skill of information processing in solving LESTV problems; iii) explain students' skill in information processing in solving LESTV problems; and iv) explain students' cognitive process in solving LESTV problems. This study involves three phases: i) development of LESTV problem questions based on Tessmer Model; ii) quantitative survey method on analyzing students' skill level of information processing; and iii) qualitative case study method on analyzing students' cognitive process. The population of the study was 545 eighth grade students represented by a sample of 170 students of five Junior High Schools in Hilir Barat Zone, Palembang (Indonesia) that were chosen using cluster sampling. Fifteen students among them were drawn as a sample for the interview session with saturated information obtained. The data were collected using the LESTV problem solving test and the interview protocol. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while the qualitative data were analyzed using the content analysis. The finding of this study indicated that students' cognitive process was just at the step of indentifying external source and doing algorithm in short-term memory fluently. Only 15.29% students could retrieve type A information and 5.88% students could retrieve type B information from long-term memory. The implication was the development problems of LESTV had validated IPT Model in modelling students' assessment by different level of hierarchy.

  3. Science anxiety and social cognitive factors predicting STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skells, Kristin Marie

    Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.

  4. Hypothetical high-level cognitive functions cannot be localized in the brain: another argument for a revitalized behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, William R

    2004-01-01

    A key epistemological difference between behaviorism and cognitivism concerns their respective attitudes toward the analysis of so-called cognitive processes into functional modules. Behaviorists generally say it is not possible. Cognitivists argue that this is an achievable goal. The question has been concretized by recent developments in brain imaging technology. A consideration of the matter suggests that technical and conceptual difficulties abound in the effort to localize "high-level cognitive functions" in narrowly circumscribed regions of the brain. Some of the most serious involve the ambiguous definition of the putative mental components that are to be localized and the generally unacknowledged nonlinear complexity of both psychological processes and the brain. In addition, the imaging techniques themselves are replete with technical difficulties that raise additional questions about this particular application, even though these wonderful machines can make extraordinary contributions to our knowledge of brain anatomy and physiology. The cumulative implication of these difficulties is that the cognitive approach to the study of scientific psychology has once again set out on a search for a chimera. New approaches to behaviorism may be required to set psychology back on the correct track.

  5. More automation and less cognitive control of imagined walking movements in high versus low fit older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Godde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using motor imagery, we investigated brain activation in simple and complex walking tasks (walking forward and backward on a treadmill and analyzed if the motor status of older adults influenced these activation patterns. 51 older adults (64-79 years of age were trained in motor execution and imagery and then performed the imagination task and two control tasks (standing, counting backward in a horizontal position within a 3T MRI scanner (first person perspective, eyes closed. Walking backward as compared to walking forward required larger activations in the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum, but less activation in the cerebellum and brainstem. Motor high-fit individuals showed more activations and larger BOLD signals in motor-related areas compared to low-fit participants but demonstrated lower activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, parietal activation in high-fit participants remained stable throughout the movement period whereas low-fit participants revealed an early drop in activity in this area accompanied by increasing activity in frontal brain regions. Overall, walking forward seemed to be more automated (more activation in cerebellum and brainstem, whereas walking backward required more resources, e.g. for visual-spatial processing and sensorimotor control. Low-fit subjects in particular seemed to require more cognitive resources for planning and controlling. High-fit subjects, on the contrary, revealed more movement automation and a higher “attention span.” Our results support the hypothesis that high fitness corresponds with more automation and less cognitive control of complex motor tasks, which might help to free up cognitive resources.

  6. Changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity during cognitive task-induced cerebral fatigue in high performance fighter pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that sustained cognitive tasks can induce cognitive fatigue and that the mean cerebral blood flow velocity changes in some cerebral regions during cerebral fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically monitor the changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in different brain regions of high performance fighter pilots during mental arithmetic tasks and consecutive performance tasks. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present neurophysiological trial, based on controlled observation, was performed at the Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Institute of Aviation Medicine, Air Force of China between January 2003 and December 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five males, high performance fighter pilots, averaging (27.6 ± 2.5) years, were recruited for this study. METHODS: The mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery of subjects was dynamically tested using transcranial Doppler during 5- hour mental arithmetic tasks and during 5- hour consecutive performance tasks. The neurobehavioral ability index was analyzed throughout each trial according to the number of correct responses, false responses, and lost responses. Simultaneously, cerebral cognitive fatigue-induced lethargy was assessed by the Stanford Sleepiness Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery; neurobehavioral ability index of mental arithmetic and consecutive performance tasks; Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores. RESULTS: During mental arithmetic tasks, the mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the anterior cerebral artery increased during hour 2 and decreased after hour 4. There was no significant change in mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery. During hour 4, cerebral cognitive fatigue was observed and, simultaneously, Stanford Sleepiness

  7. Disruptive innovation: the demand side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Clark C

    2008-01-01

    The notion of disruptive innovation provides a welcome framework for considering the prospects for low-cost alternatives in American medicine. Such innovations as have been seen, however, are largely the result of demand by patients paying their own bills because they have high-deductible coverage or are uninsured. Many other cost-saving innovations are discouraged by financing systems that are themselves largely immune to competition from disruptive innovators.

  8. Complex Mobile Learning That Adapts to Learners' Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning is cognitively demanding and frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where these fields interact and presents an…

  9. Complex Mobile Learning That Adapts to Learners' Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning is cognitively demanding and frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where these fields interact and presents an…

  10. The Impact of Sustained Engagement on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Synapse Project

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Denise C.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Gérard N.; Aamodt, Whitley

    2013-01-01

    In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in ...

  11. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  12. Analytical determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand in samples considered to be difficult to analyse: solid substrates and liquid samples with high suspended solid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in the field of waste and wastewater treatment processes, and more specifically in anaerobic digestion processes. However, little is known about the COD measurement quality of anaerobic digestion samples. Taking into account the lack...... PTs related with COD determination have been organised, and the results reported have been compared; showing the importance of continuous participation in proficiency testing (PT) schemes in order to improve the results obtained....

  13. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  14. Alzheimer's disease and non-demented high pathology control nonagenarians: comparing and contrasting the biochemistry of cognitively successful aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chera L Maarouf

    Full Text Available The amyloid cascade hypothesis provides an economical mechanistic explanation for Alzheimer's disease (AD dementia and correlated neuropathology. However, some nonagenarian individuals (high pathology controls, HPC remain cognitively intact while enduring high amyloid plaque loads for decades. If amyloid accumulation is the prime instigator of neurotoxicity and dementia, specific protective mechanisms must enable these HPC to evade cognitive decline. We evaluated the neuropathological and biochemical differences existing between non-demented (ND-HPC and an age-matched cohort with AD dementia. The ND-HPC selected for our study were clinically assessed as ND and possessed high amyloid plaque burdens. ELISA and Western blot analyses were used to quantify a group of proteins related to APP/Aβ/tau metabolism and other neurotrophic and inflammation-related molecules that have been found to be altered in neurodegenerative disorders and are pivotal to brain homeostasis and mental health. The molecules assumed to be critical in AD dementia, such as soluble or insoluble Aβ40, Aβ42 and tau were quantified by ELISA. Interestingly, only Aβ42 demonstrated a significant increase in ND-HPC when compared to the AD group. The vascular amyloid load which was not used in the selection of cases, was on the average almost 2-fold greater in AD than the ND-HPC, suggesting that a higher degree of microvascular dysfunction and perfusion compromise was present in the demented cohort. Neurofibrillary tangles were less frequent in the frontal cortices of ND-HPC. Biochemical findings included elevated vascular endothelial growth factor, apolipoprotein E and the neuroprotective factor S100B in ND-HPC, while anti-angiogenic pigment epithelium derived factor levels were lower. The lack of clear Aβ-related pathological/biochemical demarcation between AD and ND-HPC suggests that in addition to amyloid plaques other factors, such as neurofibrillary tangle density and vascular

  15. Travel Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Garrow, Dr. Laurie [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  16. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  17. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  18. Highly religious participants recruit areas of social cognition in personal prayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoedt, Uffe; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Geertz, Armin W; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how performing formalized and improvised forms of praying changed the evoked BOLD response in a group of Danish Christians. Distinct from formalized praying and secular controls, improvised praying activated a strong response in the temporopolar region, the medial prefrontal cortex, the temporo-parietal junction and precuneus. This finding supports our hypothesis that religious subjects, who consider their God to be 'real' and capable of reciprocating requests, recruit areas of social cognition when they pray. We argue that praying to God is an intersubjective experience comparable to 'normal' interpersonal interaction.

  19. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...... universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... poorer child outcomes....

  20. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moya-Albiol

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  1. Treadmill exercise alleviates impairment of cognitive function by enhancing hippocampal neuroplasticity in the high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2016-06-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods for managing obesity, and exercise exerts positive effects on various brain functions. Excessive weight gain is known to be related to the impairment of cognitive function. High-fat diet-induced obesity impairs hippocampal neuroplasticity, which impedes cognitive function, such as learning ability and memory function. In this study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on impairment of cognitive function in relation with hippocampal neuroplasticity using high-fat diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by a 20-week high-fat (60%) diet, treadmill exercise was performed for 12 weeks. In the present results, cognitive function was impaired in the high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosin kinase B (TrkB) expression and cell proliferation were decreased in the high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Treadmill exercise improved cognitive function through enhancing neuroplasticity, including increased expression of BDNF and TrkB and enhanced cell proliferation. The present results suggest that treadmill exercise enhances hippocampal neuroplasticity, and then potentially plays a protective role against obesity-induced cognitive impairment.

  2. Taxonomy of high-risk situations for alcohol relapse: evolution and development of a cognitive-behavioral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, G A

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an historical overview of the development of the taxonomy of high-risk situations for relapse in patients receiving abstinence-based treatment for alcoholism. Research conducted during the 1970s on determinants of relapse is briefly reviewed, beginning with a preliminary analysis of relapse patterns in alcoholics treated with aversion therapy. Theoretical foundations underlying the development of the taxonomy are then discussed with an emphasis on social-learning theory and its implications for cognitive-behavioral interventions for relapse prevention. Findings supporting the efficacy of coping-skills training for high-risk relapse situations, based on a prospective treatment outcome study for inpatient alcoholics, are also presented in support of the clinical validity of the relapse model. The paper concludes with a description of the refined and extended taxonomy of high-risk situations and the associated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse described in the Marlatt & Gordon (1985) text on relapse prevention.

  3. Extreme Environment Effects on Cognitive Functions: A Longitudinal Study in High Altitude in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaszi, Irén; Takács, Endre; Czigler, István; Balázs, László

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of long-term Antarctic conditions on cognitive processes. Behavioral responses and event-related potentials were recorded during an auditory distraction task and an attention network paradigm. Participants were members of the over-wintering crew at Concordia Antarctic Research Station. Due to the reduced partial pressure of oxygen this environment caused moderate hypoxia. Beyond the hypoxia, the fluctuation of sunshine duration, isolation and confinement were the main stress factors of this environment. We compared 6 measurement periods completed during the campaign. Behavioral responses and N1/MMN (mismatch negativity), N1, N2, P3, RON (reorientation negativity) event-related potential components have been analyzed. Reaction time decreased in both tasks in response to repeated testing during the course of mission. The alerting effect increased, the inhibition effect decreased and the orienting effect did not change in the ANT task. Contrary to our expectations the N2, P3, RON components related to the attentional functions did not show any significant changes. Changes attributable to early stages of information processing were observed in the ANT task (N1 component) but not in the distraction task (N1/MMN). The reaction time decrements and the N1 amplitude reduction in ANT task could be attributed to sustained effect of practice. We conclude that the Antarctic conditions had no negative impacts on cognitive activity despite the presence of numerous stressors.

  4. COGNITIVE METHOD OF TEACHING TRUST- BASED RELATIONSHIP IN HIGH SCHOOLS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sergeevna МOSHCHENKO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust is one of the most important features of people’s relationship. In this regard, it is one of the subjects of scientific research, especially in items of business communication, assessment of empathic potential, studies of conflicts and evaluation of the culture of conducting negotiations. In its turn, the cognitive process is the method by which we acquire, transform and store information from the environment, i.e. higher mental processes that we use to see and explain the world. Based on this position, students should be taught at universities of physical culture and sports. In other words, there are two methods of learning: cognitive and ordinary (common nowadays. The purpose of the article is to try to consider the pedagogical conditions of formation of the economic potential of university students in the process of professional training of students-economists. As shown in the work, it is this potential that determines the social order of society competitive graduates of universities of physical culture, who are able to choose right strategies of communication and to assess results of the confidence of market relations. Trust and empathy are presented as basics of the culture of business communication (communicative leadership. Special attention is paid to the development and practical implementation of the model aimed at rising trust of future economists in the educational process of universities of physical culture. 

  5. Interrelations of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive school engagement in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yibing; Lerner, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    School engagement, or the extent to which students are involved in, attached and committed to the academic and social activities in school, plays a prominent role in preventing academic failure, promoting competence, and influencing a wide range of adolescent outcomes. Although the multidimensional nature of school engagement is well-recognized, how the three purported parts of the construct work together is largely unknown. By using data from the longitudinal, 4-H study of Positive Youth Development, involving a sample of 1,029 adolescents (67.7 % female; mean age at Grade 9 = 14.92 years; 74.4 % of participants were European American, 5.2 % were Latino/a, 7.3 % were African American), the current study examined the interrelationships of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive aspects of school engagement over three years in adolescence (Grades 9-11). We used autoregressive lagged effects models to assess the relationships among the three engagement constructs. Results indicated that behavioral and emotional engagement were related bidirectionally (each variable was a basis and an outcome of the other). In addition, behavioral engagement influenced cognitive engagement (but the reverse of this relation was not found). Implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  7. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  8. DEMAND AND PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying the consumer’s behavior by the ordinal approach of utility with the help of indifference curves allows us to deduce the two “movement laws of demand” in this chapter: the demand for a “normal” good is decreasing function of its price and an increasing function of income. We will use the elasticity concept to measure the intensity of the relation that is established between the demand, on the one hand, and prices or income, on the other hand: elasticity – price, direct and crossed, and elasticity – income. We can classify the goods in many categories, depending on the values that this elasticity takes. The demand elasticity can be determined depending on price and income. It reflects the proportion in which the demand for different products changes with the modification of the consumers’ income, the other factors remaining constant. The elasticity compared to the income is a demonstration of legality from the consumer’s sphere, which determines a certain hierarchy of the needs of each population category in a certain level of income. The movement of prices orients both the options and decisions of producers, namely the most useful productions and the most efficient investments, as well as the consumers’ options and decisions on the most advantageous buying of goods and services that they need. The prices appear as a “signal system” coordinating and making coherence the economic agents’ decisions – producers, consumers and population.

  9. Do cognitive schema mediate the association between childhood trauma and being at ultra-high risk for psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah-Kusi, E; Fisher, H L; Petros, N; Wilson, R; Mondelli, V; Garety, P A; Mcguire, P; Bhattacharyya, S

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to childhood trauma has been associated with psychotic symptoms, being at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Negative self-beliefs have been shown to partially mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and paranoia and have been shown to be characteristic of patients with psychosis. However, whether the association between childhood trauma and being at high risk of developing psychosis (e.g., UHR) and paranoia symptoms is mediated by altered cognitive schema is unknown and warrants investigation to inform preventive interventions. Data was collected on 30 UHR patients from Outreach and Support in South London about exposure to childhood trauma, cognitive schema, paranoia and cannabis use. Relative to healthy controls (n = 38), UHR patients were significantly more likely to report exposure to various types of childhood trauma (emotional and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect), had more negative schema and less positive schema about themselves and others, and were more likely to use cannabis more than once a month. Emotional neglect was found to be significantly associated with UHR status even after controlling for the effects of previous exposure to cannabis use (b = 0.262, 95% CI: 0.115-0.408), and this association was partially mediated by negative self-schema (b = 0.045, 95% CI: 0.004-0.159). Similarly, emotional neglect was significantly associated with paranoia (b = 1.354, 95% CI: 0.246-2.462), and this association was partially mediated by negative self-schema (b = 0.988, 95% CI: 0.323-1.895). These findings provide preliminary evidence about the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the association between childhood trauma and later risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High Field fMRI Reveals Thalamocortical Integration of Segregated Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Mediodorsal and Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, C. D.; Eckert, U.; Steiner, J.; Sartorius, A.; Buchmann, J. E.; Stadler, J.; Tempelmann, C.; Speck, O.; Bogerts, B.; Abler, B.; Walter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thalamocortical loops, connecting functionally segregated, higher order cortical regions, and basal ganglia, have been proposed not only for well described motor and sensory regions, but also for limbic and prefrontal areas relevant for affective and cognitive processes. These functions are, however, more specific to humans, rendering most invasive neuroanatomical approaches impossible and interspecies translations difficult. In contrast, non-invasive imaging of functional neuroanatomy using fMRI allows for the development of elaborate task paradigms capable of testing the specific functionalities proposed for these circuits. Until recently, spatial resolution largely limited the anatomical definition of functional clusters at the level of distinct thalamic nuclei. Since their anatomical distinction seems crucial not only for the segregation of cognitive and limbic loops but also for the detection of their functional interaction during cognitive–emotional integration, we applied high resolution fMRI on 7 Tesla. Using an event-related design, we could isolate thalamic effects for preceding attention as well as experience of erotic stimuli. We could demonstrate specific thalamic effects of general emotional arousal in mediodorsal nucleus and effects specific to preceding attention and expectancy in intralaminar centromedian/parafascicular complex. These thalamic effects were paralleled by specific coactivations in the head of caudate nucleus as well as segregated portions of rostral or caudal cingulate cortex and anterior insula supporting distinct thalamo–striato–cortical loops. In addition to predescribed effects of sexual arousal in hypothalamus and ventral striatum, high resolution fMRI could extent this network to paraventricular thalamus encompassing laterodorsal and parataenial nuclei. We could lend evidence to segregated subcortical loops which integrate cognitive and emotional aspects of basic human behavior such as sexual processing. PMID:21088699

  11. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  12. Survey and Analysis on cognition on protective constraint and nursing demand for family members of long-term inpatients with psychosis%长期住院精神病患者家属对保护性约束认知及护理需求的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云仙; 温爱玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解长期住院精神病患者家属对保护性约束的认知及护理需求.方法 自行设计调查表,对71例长期住院精神病患者家属进行调查.结果患者家属中,83.09%对精神病患者接受保护性约束有心理准备、87.32%对精神病患者接受保护性约束持支持态度,大部分患者家属有陪护需求.结论 长期住院精神病患者家属对保护性约束有一定认识,大部分家属的护理需求合理.%Objective To study the protective constraint and nursing demand for family members of long-term inpa-tients with psychosis. Method Investigate 71 family members of long- term inpatients with psychosis by self- designed questionnaire. Result 83. 09% of the family members have psychological preparation on protective constraint towards patients with psychosis. 87. 32% are supportive on protective constraint Most family members have a requirement of company care. Conclusion Family members of long-term inpatients with psychosis have cognition on protective constraint Most family members' demand is reasonable.

  13. EGCG ameliorates high-fat- and high-fructose-induced cognitive defects by regulating the IRS/AKT and ERK/CREB/BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yashi; Qi, Guoyuan; Fan, Rong; Qiao, Qinglian; Sun, Yali; Gao, Yuqi; Liu, Xuebo

    2017-07-24

    Obesity, which is caused by an energy imbalance between calorie intake and consumption, has become a major international health burden. Obesity increases the risk of insulin resistance and age-related cognitive decline, accompanied by peripheral inflammation. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities; however, few reports have focused on its potential effect on cognitive disorders. In this study, our goal was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG treatment on insulin resistance and memory impairment induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD). We randomly assigned 3-mo-old C57BL/6J mice to 3 groups with different diets: control group, HFFD group, and HFFD plus EGCG group. Memory loss was assessed by using the Morris water maze test, during which EGCG was observed to prevent HFFD-elicited memory impairment and neuronal loss. Consistent with these results, EGCG attenuated HFFD-induced neuronal damage. Of note, EGCG significantly ameliorated insulin resistance and cognitive disorder by up-regulating the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/AKT and ERK/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways. Long-term HFFD-triggered neuroinflammation was restored by EGCG supplementation by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB pathways, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α. EGCG also reversed high glucose and glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by improving the oxidized cellular status and mitochondrial function. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide compelling evidence that the nutritional compound EGCG has the potential to ameliorate HFFD-triggered learning and memory loss.-Mi, Y., Qi, G., Fan, R., Qiao, Q., Sun, Y., Gao, Y., Liu, X. EGCG ameliorates high-fat- and high-fructose-induced cognitive defects by regulating the IRS/AKT and

  14. Cognitive Vision and Perceptual Grouping by Production Systems with Blackboard Control - An Example for High-Resolution SAR-Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Eckart; Middelmann, Wolfgang; Sörgel, Uwe

    The laws of gestalt-perception play an important role in human vision. Psychological studies identified similarity, good continuation, proximity and symmetry as important inter-object relations that distinguish perceptive gestalts from arbitrary sets of clutter objects. Particularly, symmetry and continuation possess a high potential in detection, identification, and reconstruction of man-made objects. This contribution focuses on coding this principle in an automatic production system. Such systems capture declarative knowledge. Procedural details are defined as control strategy for an interpreter. Often an exact solution is not feasible while approximately correct interpretations of the data with the production system are sufficient. Given input data and a production system the control acts accumulatively instead of reducing. The approach is assessment driven features any-time capability and fits well into the recently discussed paradigms of cognitive vision. An example from automatic extraction of groupings and symmetry in man-made structure from high resolution SAR-image data is given. The contribution also discusses the relations of such approach to the "mid-level" of what is today proposed as "cognitive vision".

  15. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    universal preschool programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in preschool at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or the mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, longer hours in non-parental care lead to poorer child outcomes.......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  16. Modernisation of power plants in central and eastern Europe: High demand for creativity; Modernisierung von Kraftwerken in Mittel- und Osteuropa: Viel Kreativitaet gefragt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegmann, P.

    1998-07-01

    The retrofitting of old power plants in central and eastern Europe is a task of enormous dimensions and great importance. As all governments there are low in funds, measures to extend service life of the plants are an essential economic alternative to erecting new plants. The demand for retrofitting work opens up good marketing chances for power plant manufacturers of the West on the basis of cooperation agreements with domestic plant manufacturers in those countries, as is shown by the activities of Siemens/KWU. Now as before, creativity is much in demand for solving a substantial problem, the financing of retrofitting projects. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Rekonstruktion alter Kraftwerke in Mittel- und Osteuropa ist eine Aufgabe von enormem Ausmass und grosser Bedeutung. Lebensdauerverlaengernde Massnahmen sind angesichts knapper Finanzen eine wirtschaftliche Alternative zum Anlagenneubau. Gute Marktchancen eroeffnen sich westlichen Firmen durch Kooperationen mit oestlichen Anlagenbauern, wie das Beispiel Siemens/KWU zeigt. Bei der Finanzierung von Projekten ist nach wie vor Phantasie gefragt. (orig.)

  17. Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis: What is the relation to social skills and functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise B. Glenthøj

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.

  18. High-frequency neural activity and human cognition: past, present and possible future of intracranial EEG research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Axmacher, Nikolai; Mormann, Florian; Halgren, Eric; Crone, Nathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Human intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings are primarily performed in epileptic patients for presurgical mapping. When patients perform cognitive tasks, iEEG signals reveal high-frequency neural activities (HFA, between around 40 Hz and 150 Hz) with exquisite anatomical, functional and temporal specificity. Such HFA were originally interpreted in the context of perceptual or motor binding, in line with animal studies on gamma-band (‘40Hz’) neural synchronization. Today, our understanding of HFA has evolved into a more general index of cortical processing: task-induced HFA reveals, with excellent spatial and time resolution, the participation of local neural ensembles in the task-at-hand, and perhaps the neural communication mechanisms allowing them to do so. This review promotes the claim that studying HFA with iEEG provides insights into the neural bases of cognition that cannot be derived as easily from other approaches, such as fMRI. We provide a series of examples supporting that claim, drawn from studies on memory, language and default-mode networks, and successful attempts of real-time functional mapping. These examples are followed by several guidelines for HFA research, intended for new groups interested by this approach. Overall, iEEG research on HFA should play an increasing role in cognitive neuroscience in humans, because it can be explicitly linked to basic research in animals. We conclude by discussing the future evolution of this field, which might expand that role even further, for instance through the use of multi-scale electrodes and the fusion of iEEG with MEG and fMRI. PMID:22750156

  19. Stimulation of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Adaptive Cognitive Control: A High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadeyan, Oyetunde; McMahon, Katie; Steinhauser, Marco; Meinzer, Marcus

    2016-12-14

    Conflict adaptation is a hallmark effect of adaptive cognitive control and refers to the adjustment of control to the level of previously experienced conflict. Conflict monitoring theory assumes that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is causally involved in this adjustment. However, to date, evidence in humans is predominantly correlational, and heterogeneous with respect to the lateralization of control in the DLPFC. We used high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), which allows for more focal current delivery than conventional tDCS, to clarify the causal involvement of the DLPFC in conflict adaptation. Specifically, we investigated the regional specificity and lateralization of potential beneficial stimulation effects on conflict adaptation during a visual flanker task. One hundred twenty healthy participants were assigned to four HD-tDCS conditions: left or right DLPFC or left or right primary motor cortex (M1). Each group underwent both active and sham HD-tDCS in crossover, double-blind designs. We obtained a sizeable conflict adaptation effect (measured as the modulation of the flanker effect as a function of previous response conflict) in all groups and conditions. However, this effect was larger under active HD-tDCS than under sham stimulation in both DLPFC groups. In contrast, active stimulation had no effect on conflict adaptation in the M1 groups. In sum, the present results indicate that the DLPFC plays a causal role in adaptive cognitive control, but that the involvement of DLPFC in control is not restricted to the left or right hemisphere. Moreover, our study confirms the potential of HD-tDCS to modulate cognition in a regionally specific manner.

  20. "Pushing the Limits": Rethinking Motor and Cognitive Resources After a Highly Challenging Balance Training Program for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Breiffni; Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Nylund, Kamilla; Hagströmer, Maria; Franzén, Erika

    2016-08-11

    There is growing evidence for the positive effects of exercise training programs on balance control in Parkinson disease (PD). To be effective, balance training needs to be specific, progressive, and highly challenging. Little evidence exists, however, for how people with PD-related balance impairments perceive highly challenging and progressive balance training programs with dual-task components. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe perceptions of a highly challenging balance training program among people with mild to moderate PD. This study was qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 individuals with mild to moderate PD who had participated in a highly challenging balance training program. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with an inductive approach. The analysis revealed 3 subthemes concerning participants' perceptions of highly challenging and progressive balance training: (1) movement to counter the disease, (2) dual-task training in contrast to everyday strategies, and (3) the struggle to maintain positive effects. The first subtheme reflects how physical activity was used as a short-term and long-term strategy for counteracting PD symptoms and their progression. The second subtheme incorporates the described experiences of being maximally challenged in a secure and supportive group environment, circumstances that stood in contrast to participants' everyday lives. The third subtheme describes participants' long-term struggle to maintain program effects on cognitive and physical function in the face of disease progression. Interpretation of the underlying patterns of these subthemes resulted in one overarching theme: training at the limits of balance capacity causes a rethinking motor and cognitive resources. The findings of this study cannot be considered to reflect the beliefs of those with weaker or negative beliefs concerning physical activity or be transferred to those at

  1. Demand surge following earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  2. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  3. Market Expects Demand Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  4. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  5. A diet containing grape powder ameliorates the cognitive decline in aged rats with a long-term high-fructose-high-fat dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Liao, Hsiang; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Research has suggested that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols is beneficial to the cognitive functions of the elderly. We investigated the effects of grape consumption on spatial learning, memory performance and neurodegeneration-related protein expression in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Six-week-old Wistar rats were fed an HFHF diet to 66 weeks of age to establish a model of an HFHF dietary pattern, before receiving intervention diets containing different amounts of grape powder for another 12 weeks in the second part of the experiment. Spatial learning, memory performance and cortical and hippocampal protein expression levels were assessed. After consuming the HFHF diet for a year, results showed that the rats fed a high grape powder-containing diet had significantly better spatial learning and memory performance, lower expression of β-amyloid and β-secretase and higher expression of α-secretase than the rats fed a low grape powder-containing diet. Therefore, long-term consumption of an HFHF diet caused a decline in cognitive functions and increased the risk factors for neurodegeneration, which could subsequently be ameliorated by the consumption of a polyphenol-rich diet.

  6. A cognition and demand survey on chemotherapeutic self-protection knowledge among junior college and college nursing students before starting their internship in a tumor hopspital from Sichuan province%对四川省某肿瘤专科医院护生实习前化疗防护认知及需求情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗蕾; 缪艳; 易勇

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解本科及专科护生在实习前对化疗防护的认知及需求情况.方法 参考美国职业安全健康管理局(OSHA)抗肿瘤药物的使用和防护要求自行设计调查问卷,对四川省某肿瘤医院192名本科及专科护生在实习前进行问卷调查.结果 实习前护生化疗防护知识普遍缺乏,本、专科护生对化疗药物污染、化疗废弃物处理方法的认知和需求,以及获取化疗防护知识途径方面的差异均有统计学意义(x2值分别为25.608,27.587,50.718,53.251,54.173,66.088;P <0.05);专科护生认知水平相对较低、对化疗前防护认知需求较高,从医学网站和杂志上获取知识少;两组护生希望获取化疗防护知识的教学方式上比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 肿瘤护理课程体系与教学方式有待于进一步完善,护生在实习前需系统化培训化疗防护知识,重点加强对专科护生的培训.%Objective To investigate the situation of cognition and demand for the chemotherapeutic self-protection knowledge among junior college and college nursing students before starting their internship.Methods To design questionnaire according to the U.S.Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations on the usage and protection requirements of anti-tumor drag,and to conduct a questionnaire survey of 192 junior college and college nursing students in our hospital before starting their internship.Results Before starting their internship,the students were lack of the chemotherapeutic selfprotection knowledge generally.There were significant differences between junior college nursing students and college nursing students in the situation of cognition and demand for chemotherapy contamination,in chemotherapy waste disposal methods,as well as ways to get chemotherapeutic self-protection knowledge (x2 =25.608,27.587,50.718,53.251,54.173,66.088 ; P < 0.05).Compared with college nursing students,junior college nursing

  7. The system neurophysiological basis of non-adaptive cognitive control: Inhibition of implicit learning mediated by right prefrontal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Steenbergen, Laura; Colzato, Lorenza; Beste, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive control is adaptive in the sense that it inhibits automatic processes to optimize goal-directed behavior, but high levels of control may also have detrimental effects in case they suppress beneficial automatisms. Until now, the system neurophysiological mechanisms and functional neuroanatomy underlying these adverse effects of cognitive control have remained elusive. This question was examined by analyzing the automatic exploitation of a beneficial implicit predictive feature under conditions of high versus low cognitive control demands, combining event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization. It was found that cognitive control prohibits the beneficial automatic exploitation of additional implicit information when task demands are high. Bottom-up perceptual and attentional selection processes (P1 and N1 ERPs) are not modulated by this, but the automatic exploitation of beneficial predictive information in case of low cognitive control demands was associated with larger response-locked P3 amplitudes and stronger activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG, BA47). This suggests that the rIFG plays a key role in the detection of relevant task cues, the exploitation of alternative task sets, and the automatic (bottom-up) implementation and reprogramming of action plans. Moreover, N450 amplitudes were larger under high cognitive control demands, which was associated with activity differences in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA9). This most likely reflects a stronger exploitation of explicit task sets which hinders the exploration of the implicit beneficial information in case of high cognitive control demands. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4511-4522, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for futures studies : a methodological assessment of concepts and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetter, J.J.; Kok, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) modelling is highly suitable for the demands of future studies: it uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches, it enables the inclusion of multiple and diverse sources to overcome the limitations of expert opinions, it considers multivariate interactions that lea

  9. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for futures studies : a methodological assessment of concepts and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetter, J.J.; Kok, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) modelling is highly suitable for the demands of future studies: it uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches, it enables the inclusion of multiple and diverse sources to overcome the limitations of expert opinions, it considers multivariate interactions that

  10. High acceptability of cognitive screening in HIV-infected patients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Fasel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With combined antiretroviral therapy (cART life expectancy of HIV-infected persons is close to the one of non-infected persons. Identifying neurocognitive deficits in ageing HIV-infected individuals is important. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of screening neurocognitive deficits in HIV-infected patients. Thirty patients (26 men, 4 women from the HIV clinic were examined with a new screening test and an in-depth neuropsychological examination. The screening tests consisted of questions and examinations on cognition in everyday situations, mood and selected cognitive functions (word list memory, grooved pegboard, psychomotor speed, trail-making test, psychomotor speed and executive functions, digit symbol test. Also, patients received a questionnaire to evaluate test acceptance. The mean age of the patients was 52.5 (30–74 years, mean education 12.5 (8–18 years. Seven patients had HIV-stage CDC A, 12 B and 11 CDC stage C. The mean CD4 count was 657 cells/µl, the mean HIV viral load<20 cop./µl. All patients were treated with cART (7 with efavirenz. The screening test was done assisted by a nurse and lasted 26 minutes (mean. The screening indicated pathological signs of neurocognitive function in 11 (42% patients. The in-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed pathological conditions in 25 (83% of patients; i.e. 16 (53% patients had ANI (asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 8 (27% had MND (mild neurocognitive disorder and 1 (3% had HAD (HIV-associated dementia. Most patients (43.3% judged the test as not too difficult and 56.6% as partly difficult. 96.6% of patients viewed the instructions of nurses as clear, 3.3% as unclear. 93.3% felt the test has not affected privacy and 83.3% estimated the screening as valuable and not worriesome. 83.4% of all patients were interested in their results and for none of the patients the test was too long. The test acceptability by the study nurses was also good. Only in 3.4% of tested

  11. Headache in a high school student - a reminder of fundamental principles of clinical medicine and common pitfalls of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afghan, Zakira; Hussain, Abid; Asim, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Primary headache disorders account for the majority of the cases of headache. Nevertheless, the primary objective of a physician, when encountered with a patient with headache is to rule out a secondary cause the headache. This entails a search for specific associated red-flag symptoms or signs that may indicate a serious condition, as well as a heightened suspicion of and evaluation for a don't miss diagnosis. We present a case of a high-school student whose first manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was a headache due to cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis, initially misdiagnosed as tension-headache and 'ophthalmoplegic migraine' (now known as 'recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy'). The patient made a complete neurological and radiological recovery after systemic anticoagulation and treatment of SLE. An analysis of the clinical errors and cognitive biases leading to delayed referral to hospital is presented. We highlight the fact that adherence to the fundamental principles of clinical medicine and enhancement of cognitive awareness is required to reduce diagnostic errors.

  12. Sources of acute stress, cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies among highly skilled Mexican and U.S. competitive tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify sources of acute stress, cognitive appraisal (i.e., perceived controllability), and the use of coping strategies as a function of culture among highly skilled tennis players from Mexico and the United States. Participants were 112 competitive tennis players, 54 of whom were from Mexico (44 boys, 10 girls), and 58 of whom were from the United States (30 boys, 28 girls). A qualitative analysis indicated that the most common sources of acute stress in tennis include "receiving negative comments from coaches and relatives" and "opponent cheating." The authors adapted the COPE Instrument (C. Carver, M. F. Scheier, & J. K. Weintraub, 1989) to ascertain the athletes' use of coping strategies. Regression analysis assessed the extent to which culture predicted the athletes' perceived controllability of the stressors and their use of coping strategies. The results indicated that culture significantly predicted both perceived controllability and the use of coping strategies. The authors discussed implications for the role of culture in predicting cognitive appraisal and coping in sport.

  13. Highly reduced fine-structure splitting in InAs/InP quantum dots offering an efficient on-demand entangled 1.55-microm photon emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lixin; Gong, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Zunger, Alex

    2008-10-10

    To generate entangled photon pairs via quantum dots (QDs), the exciton fine-structure splitting (FSS) must be comparable to the exciton homogeneous linewidth. Yet in the (In,Ga)As/GaAs QD, the intrinsic FSS is about a few tens microeV. To achieve photon entanglement, it is necessary to cherry-pick a sample with extremely small FSS from a large number of samples or to apply a strong in-plane magnetic field. Using theoretical modeling of the fundamental causes of FSS in QDs, we predict that the intrinsic FSS of InAs/InP QDs is an order of magnitude smaller than that of InAs/GaAs dots, and, better yet, their excitonic gap matches the 1.55 microm fiber optic wavelength and, therefore, offers efficient on-demand entangled photon emitters for long distance quantum communication.

  14. Innovative Demand Creation for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Targeting a High Impact Male Population: A Pilot Study Engaging Pregnant Women at Antenatal Clinics in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey S.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Bbaale, Denis S.; Kiragga, Agnes N.; Kigozi, Joanita; Muganzi, Alex M.; Coutinho, Alex G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Circumcision has been shown to be an effective method of HIV prevention; however, only 28% of Ugandan men aged 15–49 years are circumcised. There is a paucity of data on the role of intimate partners in generating demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of a partner-focused intervention targeting males >25 years. Methods: Among pregnant women in their third trimester attending antenatal care we evaluated the impact of a pilot behavior change intervention on VMMC through a quasi-experimental approach. We observed VMMC numbers among spouses of women as per standard practice (comparison phase), and after introducing a behavioral change communication package (intervention phase). Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of VMMC uptake between comparison and intervention phases. We used qualitative methods to evaluate the casual chain using a thematic approach. Results: Of the 601 women studied, 90% articulated the health benefits of VMMC and 99% expressed interest in their spouse getting circumcised. Women's knowledge was not increased by the intervention. Four men were circumcised in the comparison and 7 in the intervention phase. The intervention was not associated with higher odds of circumcision (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI: 0.3 to 6.0, P = 0.65). We interviewed 117 individuals overall with the main enablers for VMMC being: free VMMC, transport reimbursement, and health benefits. Deterrents included misconceptions, lost wages and fear of pain. Most of the uncircumcised men interviewed reported interest in VMMC. Conclusions: Our pilot intervention had no significant impact on increasing VMMC demand. The study demonstrated the feasibility of pregnant women engaging their spouses to discuss VMMC. PMID:27404008

  15. Cognitive Correlates of Different Mentalizing Abilities in Individuals with High and Low Trait Schizotypy: Findings from an Extreme-Group Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated. The main aim of this study was to explore whether deficits in cognitive and affective ToM can be found in high trait schizotypy, and to identify in what way these deficits are related to the positive and negative dimensions of schizotypy. The secondary aim was to examine whether these deficits correlate with executive functions. Based on the dimensional view of the schizophrenia spectrum, an extreme-group design was applied to non-clinical volunteers demonstrating high (N = 39 and low (N = 47 trait schizotypy. Affective and cognitive ToM were investigated using the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition, a sensitive and video-based measurement. Cognitive inhibition was assessed using the Stroop Test, and cognitive flexibility was analyzed using the Trail-Making Test. Agency was measured using a computerized self-agency paradigm. Participants in the high-schizotypy group performed significantly worse in the affective ToM task (d = 0.79, and their overall ToM performance was significantly impaired (d = 0.60. No between-group differences were found with regards to cognitive ToM, executive functions, and self-agency. Cognitive flexibility correlated negatively with positive schizotypy, and contributed to a worse overall and affective ToM. Impaired cognitive inhibition contributed to undermentalizing-type errors. It

  16. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, increasing hours in family day care from 30-40 hours per week to 40-50 hours per week and hours in pre-school from 20-30 hours per week to 30-40 hours per week leads to significantly......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  17. Investigating the Neural Correlates of Emotion–Cognition Interaction Using an Affective Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Raschle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The human brain has the capacity to integrate various sources of information and continuously adapts our behavior according to situational needs in order to allow a healthy functioning. Emotion–cognition interactions are a key example for such integrative processing. However, the neuronal correlates investigating the effects of emotion on cognition remain to be explored and replication studies are needed. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated an involvement of emotion and cognition related brain structures including parietal and prefrontal cortices and limbic brain regions. Here, we employed whole brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during an affective number Stroop task and aimed at replicating previous findings using an adaptation of an existing task design in 30 healthy young adults. The Stroop task is an indicator of cognitive control and enables the quantification of interference in relation to variations in cognitive load. By the use of emotional primes (negative/neutral prior to Stroop task performance, an emotional variation is added as well. Behavioral in-scanner data showed that negative primes delayed and disrupted cognitive processing. Trials with high cognitive demand furthermore negatively influenced cognitive control mechanisms. Neuronally, the emotional primes consistently activated emotion-related brain regions (e.g., amygdala, insula, and prefrontal brain regions while Stroop task performance lead to activations in cognition networks of the brain (prefrontal cortices, superior temporal lobe, and insula. When assessing the effect of emotion on cognition, increased cognitive demand led to decreases in neural activation in response to emotional stimuli (negative > neutral within prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insular cortex. Overall, these results suggest that emotional primes significantly impact cognitive performance and increasing cognitive demand leads to reduced neuronal activation in

  18. Polyphenol-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet are associated with better cognitive function in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Quintana, Melibea; Corella, Dolores; Pintó, Xavier; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Brain oxidative processes play a major role in age-related cognitive decline, thus consumption of antioxidant-rich foods might help preserve cognition. Our aim was to assess whether consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet relates to cognitive function in the elderly. In asymptomatic subjects at high cardiovascular risk (n = 447; 52% women; age 55-80 y) enrolled in the PREDIMED study, a primary prevention dietary-intervention trial, we assessed food intake and cardiovascular risk profile, determined apolipoprotein E genotype, and used neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive function. We also measured urinary polyphenols as an objective biomarker of intake. Associations between energy-adjusted food consumption, urinary polyphenols, and cognitive scores were assessed by multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Consumption of some foods was independently related to better cognitive function. The specific associations [regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals)] were: total olive oil with immediate verbal memory [0.755 (0.151-1.358)]; virgin olive oil and coffee with delayed verbal memory [0.163 (0.010-0.316) and 0.294 (0.055-0.534), respectively]; walnuts with working memory [1.191 (0.061-2.322)]; and wine with Mini-Mental State Examination scores [0.252 (0.006-0.496)]. Urinary polyphenols were associated with better scores in immediate verbal memory [1.208 (0.236-2.180)]. Increased consumption of antioxidant-rich foods in general and of polyphenols in particular is associated with better cognitive performance in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The results reinforce the notion that Mediterranean diet components might counteract age-related cognitive decline.

  19. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  20. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  1. Relative effects of demand and control on task-related cardiovascular reactivity, task perceptions, performance accuracy, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Niamh; James, Jack E

    2009-05-01

    The hypothesis that work control has beneficial effects on well-being is the basis of the widely applied, yet inconsistently supported, Job Demand Control (JDC) Model [Karasek, R.A., 1979. Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Adm. Sci. Q. 24, 285-308.; Karasek, R., Theorell, T., 1990. Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and the Reconstruction of Working Life. Basic Books, Oxford]. The model was tested in an experiment (N=60) using a cognitive stressor paradigm that sought to prevent confounding between demand and control. High-demand was found to be associated with deleterious effects on physiological, subjective, and performance outcomes. In contrast, few main effects were found for control. Evidence for the buffer interpretation of the JDC Model was limited to a significant demand-control interaction for performance accuracy, whereas substantial support was found for the strain interpretation of the model [van der Doef, M., Maes, S., 1998. The job demand-control(-support) model and physical health outcomes: A review of the strain and buffer hypotheses. Psychol. Health 13, 909-936., van der Doef, M., Maes, S., 1999. The Job Demand-Control(-Support) model and psychological well-being: A review of 20 years of empirical research. Work Stress 13, 87-114]. Manipulation checks revealed that objective control altered perceptions of control but not perceptions of demand. It is suggested that beneficial effects of work-related control are unlikely to occur in the absence of reductions in perceived demand. Thus, contrary to the propositions of Karasek and colleagues, demand and control do not appear to be independent factors.

  2. Food-derived serotonergic modulators: effects on mood and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsken, Sjoerd; Märtin, Antje; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Homberg, Judith Regina

    2013-12-01

    The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, foods such as chicken, soyabeans, cereals, tuna, nuts and bananas may serve as an alternative to improve mood and cognition. Here we discuss the effects of high- or low-tryptophan-containing food, as well as plant extracts with a modest monoamine reuptake and MAO-A inhibition functional profile, on mood and cognition in healthy and vulnerable human subjects and rodents. Together the studies suggest that there is an inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels, with low and too high tryptophan levels impairing cognition, and moderate to high tryptophan levels improving cognition. This relationship is found for both healthy and vulnerable subjects. Whereas this relationship may also exist for mood, the inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels and mood may be based on different tryptophan concentrations in healthy v. vulnerable individuals. Animal studies are emerging and allow further understanding of effects and the mode of action of food-derived serotonergic components on mood, cognition and mechanisms. Ultimately, insight into the concentrations of tryptophan and other serotonergic components in food having beneficial effects on mood and cognition in healthy, but particularly vulnerable, subjects may support well-being in our highly demanding society.

  3. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  4. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  5. 二胎孕妇母乳喂养认知、态度现状及知识需求调查%Investigation of breastfeeding cognition,attitude and knowledge demand for pregnant women with the second child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾宝华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide the basis for health education by investigation of breastfeeding cognition,feeding pattern,attitude and knowledge for pregnant women with the second child.Methods Using a self-designed general information and breastfeeding knowledge questionnaire,a total of 1 98 pregnant women with second child who admitted from September 201 5 to March 201 6 and registered in-patient clinic received the investigation.Results Cognitive scores of second pregnant women with breastfeeding were in the range of 0 -20 points with average score (7.25 ±5.62)points,which was at a low level;top 3 ordinal breastfeeding knowledge sources were mother and other relatives,international circle of friends and health education from postpartum medical staff.The desired pathway to obtain knowledge in turn were health education from postpartum medical staff,hospital issued promotional text information,prenatal outpatient breast feeding counseling,and pregnant women school,etc.Different feeding ways for the first child:exclusive breastfeeding rate was 38.3%;mixed feeding rate was 48.4%;artificial feeding rate was 1 3.1 %;the breastfeeding rate was 86.8%.About 39.3%subjects experienced breastfeeding for more than 6 months with a good attitude,confidence for breastfeeding (88.3%) and willing to breastfeed (95.9%).Conclusions Second pregnant women′s perception of breastfeeding situation is not optimistic,which indicate promoting breastfeeding work is urgently needed.Medical staff should carry out a variety of forms,effective breastfeeding during pregnancy health education in timely.%目的:调查二胎孕妇母乳喂养知识、喂养方式和态度的现状,了解其知识需求,为健康教育的开展提供依据。方法采用自行设计的一般资料和母乳喂养知识问卷,对2015年9月—2016年3月在门诊建档198名二胎孕妇进行问卷调查。结果二胎孕妇对母乳喂养认知得分范围为0~20分,平均(7.25±5.62)分,得分偏低

  6. The neuroeconomics of alcohol demand: an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol cost-benefit decision making in heavy drinking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Acker, John; Gray, Joshua C; Brown, Courtney L; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2014-07-01

    Neuroeconomics integrates concepts and methods from psychology, economics, and cognitive neuroscience to understand how the brain makes decisions. In economics, demand refers to the relationship between a commodity's consumption and its cost, and, in behavioral studies, high alcohol demand has been consistently associated with greater alcohol misuse. Relatively little is known about how the brain processes demand decision making, and the current study is an initial investigation of the neural correlates of alcohol demand among heavy drinkers. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, participants (N=24) selected how much they would drink under varying levels of price. These choices determined access to alcohol during a subsequent bar laboratory self-administration period. During decisions to drink in general, greater activity was present in multiple distinct subunits of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. In contrast, during decisions to drink that were demonstrably affected by the cost of alcohol, significantly greater activation was evident in frontostriatal regions, suggesting an active interplay between cognitive deliberation and subjective reward value. These choices were also characterized by significant deactivation in default mode network regions, suggesting suppression resulting from greater cognitive load. Across choice types, the anterior insula was notably recruited in diverse roles, further implicating the importance of interoceptive processing in decision-making behavior. These findings reveal the neural signatures subserving alcohol cost-benefit decision making, providing a foundation for future clinical applications of this paradigm and extending this approach to understanding the neural correlates of demand for other addictive commodities.

  7. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  8. Maladaptive cognitions predict changes in problematic gaming in highly-engaged adults: A 12-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Cameron J; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the role of maladaptive gaming-related cognitions may assist in screening and interventions for problematic gaming, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Cognitive-behavioural interventions that target specific cognitions related to gaming may be more effective than more general approaches that focus only on preoccupation with games. Although past research has identified cross-sectional associations between maladaptive cognitions and problematic gaming, it is less clear whether these cognitions can predict future changes in problematic gaming behaviour. The present study employed an 18-item measure of gaming cognition, assessing perfectionism, cognitive salience, regret, and behavioural salience, to investigate potential changes in problematic gaming over a 12-month period. The sample included 465 Australian adults (84% male, Mage=26.2years). It was found that individuals who became problematic gamers over 12months had higher baseline scores on perfectionism (d=1.20), cognitive salience (d=0.74) and regret (d=0.69) than those who remained non-problematic gamers. Problematic gamers who became non-problematic gamers had lower baseline perfectionism scores (d=0.62) than those who remained problematic gamers. Cognitive change accounted for an additional 28% of variance in problematic gaming scores beyond gender, age, and frequency of gaming. These findings suggest that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions could be screened in clinical trials to aid in case formulation and inform decisions on needed interventions to deliver optimal client outcomes.

  9. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.

  10. Mathematical visualization process of junior high school students in solving a contextual problem based on cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo, Edy Setiyo; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research was to describe the mathematical visualization process of Junior High School students in solving contextual problems based on cognitive style. Mathematical visualization process in this research was seen from aspects of image generation, image inspection, image scanning, and image transformation. The research subject was the students in the eighth grade based on GEFT test (Group Embedded Figures Test) adopted from Within to determining the category of cognitive style owned by the students namely field independent or field dependent and communicative. The data collection was through visualization test in contextual problem and interview. The validity was seen through time triangulation. The data analysis referred to the aspect of mathematical visualization through steps of categorization, reduction, discussion, and conclusion. The results showed that field-independent and field-dependent subjects were difference in responding to contextual problems. The field-independent subject presented in the form of 2D and 3D, while the field-dependent subject presented in the form of 3D. Both of the subjects had different perception to see the swimming pool. The field-independent subject saw from the top, while the field-dependent subject from the side. The field-independent subject chose to use partition-object strategy, while the field-dependent subject chose to use general-object strategy. Both the subjects did transformation in an object rotation to get the solution. This research is reference to mathematical curriculum developers of Junior High School in Indonesia. Besides, teacher could develop the students' mathematical visualization by using technology media or software, such as geogebra, portable cabri in learning.

  11. High prevalence of malnutrition and deranged relationship between energy demands and food intake in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, A; Poulose, R; Kulshreshtha, I; Chautani, A M; Madan, K; Hadda, V; Guleria, R

    2016-04-21

    The relation between dietary intake and metabolic profile in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated. Patients with NSCLC were recruited and their caloric requirement and resting energy expenditure (REE) were calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation and Katch-McArdle formula respectively. Hypermetabolic state was defined as REE more than 10% above the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Body composition parameters were calculated by bioelectric impedance method. The 24-h dietary intake method and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool assessed nutritional intake. One hundred and forty-eight subjects were included (87% males). Of these, 46.6% subjects were hypermetabolic and 31% cachexic, with lower calorie and protein intakes than recommended, although per cent of total energy derived from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar. Hypermetabolic patients had lower BMI, though the per cent deficit in energy and protein consumption was similar. Cachexia was associated with lower BMR but not with deficit in energy or protein consumption. No correlation was seen between dietary intake and body composition parameters. The calorie and protein intake of NSCLC patients is lower than recommended. The discordance between elevated REE and dietary intake implies that the relationship between increased energy demands and food intake may be altered.

  12. Imaging-based biomarkers of cognitive performance in older adults constructed via high-dimensional pattern regression applied to MRI and PET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we used high-dimensional pattern regression methods based on structural (gray and white matter; GM and WM and functional (positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow; PET brain data to identify cross-sectional imaging biomarkers of cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA. We focused on specific components of executive and memory domains known to decline with aging, including manipulation, semantic retrieval, long-term memory (LTM, and short-term memory (STM. For each imaging modality, brain regions associated with each cognitive domain were generated by adaptive regional clustering. A relevance vector machine was adopted to model the nonlinear continuous relationship between brain regions and cognitive performance, with cross-validation to select the most informative brain regions (using recursive feature elimination as imaging biomarkers and optimize model parameters. Predicted cognitive scores using our regression algorithm based on the resulting brain regions correlated well with actual performance. Also, regression models obtained using combined GM, WM, and PET imaging modalities outperformed models based on single modalities. Imaging biomarkers related to memory performance included the orbito-frontal and medial temporal cortical regions with LTM showing stronger correlation with the temporal lobe than STM. Brain regions predicting executive performance included orbito-frontal, and occipito-temporal areas. The PET modality had higher contribution to most cognitive domains except manipulation, which had higher WM contribution from the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the genu of the corpus callosum. These findings based on machine-learning methods demonstrate the importance of combining structural and functional imaging data in understanding complex cognitive mechanisms and also their potential usage as biomarkers that predict cognitive

  13. Cognitive, Adaptive, and Psychosocial Differences between High Ability Youth with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doobay, Alissa F.; Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Ali, Saba R.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is thriving; however, scant empirical research has investigated how ASD manifests in high ability youth. Further research is necessary to accurately differentiate high ability students with ASD from those without the disorder, and thus decrease the risk of misdiagnosis. The purpose of the present study is…

  14. Tailored cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise training for high-risk patients with fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulil, S. van; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, R.; Jong, A.J.L. de; Haverman, J.F.; Korff, K.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Cats, H.A.; Evers, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The treatment of patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a high-prevalence chronic pain condition with a high impact on both patients and society, poses a great challenge to clinicians due to a lack of effective treatments. In view of the large individual variability in outcome, selecting patien

  15. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game.

  16. Entrepreneurial Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    in the experiment were selected based on their entrepreneurial intentions, with a high degree of comparability and a limited impact of prior entrepreneurial experience. The data include measures of behavior in situations of risk and uncertainty with real monetary incentives, risk perception, and a number...... of individual characteristics, including personality traits, cognitive biases, and demographics. In the first essay, I explore how individuals with and without entrepreneurial intentions differ in terms of risk behavior by testing their sensitivity to prior monetary outcomes and an increasing degree of risk...... faced with risk and uncertainty. The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to this latter stream of research by examining how individuals differ in their cognition and behaviors in situations of risk and uncertainty in a controlled environment. More specifically, the dissertation explores how...

  17. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR FOOD DIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Mark G. Brown

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, consumer demand for food diversity is measured by the entropy and Simpson indices for budget shares. Results show that consumer demand for food diversity is related to total food expenditures and household size and composition.

  18. 社区轻型复发性口腔溃疡患者健康教育认知和需求调查研究%Investigation research of the cognition and demand of the health education in the community patients with the minor recurrent oral ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐忠敏; 陈中萍; 彭德荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To understand the cognition and demand of the health education in the community patients with the minorrecurrent oral ulcer.Methods:A questionnaire survey was conducted in 85 patients with the minorrecurrent oral ulcer in the departments of traditional Chinese medicine and stomatology. Results:Thehealth education awareness was low and the demand for Chinese medicine service was different in the community patients with the minorrecurrent oral ulcer. Conclusion:The popularization and promotion of the knowledge of the community minorrecurrent oral ulcer should be strengthened and the characteristics and advantages of Chinese medicine service brought into play to shorten the course of the disease and reduce the frequency of its attack.%目的:了解社区轻型复发性口腔溃疡患者对健康教育认知和需求的情况。方法:选取2013年7月—2014年12月中医科、口腔科89名轻型复发性口腔溃疡患者进行面对面问卷调查。结果:社区轻型复发性口腔溃疡患者对健康教育认知较低,对中医服务的需求不同。结论:应加强社区轻型复发性口腔溃疡知识的普及和宣传,发挥中医服务的特色和优势,缩短病程,减少发作频次。

  19. Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Schreuder, K.J.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether perceive

  20. The energy demand of fast neuronal network oscillations: insights from brain slice preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eKann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast neuronal network oscillations in the gamma range (30-100 Hz in the cerebral cortex have been implicated in higher cognitive functions such as sensual perception, working memory, and, perhaps, consciousness. However, little is known about the energy demand of gamma oscillations. This is mainly caused by technical limitations that are associated with simultaneous recordings of neuronal activity and energy metabolism in small neuronal networks and at the level of mitochondria in vivo. Thus recent studies have focused on brain slice preparations to address the energy demand of gamma oscillations in vitro. Here, reports will be summarized and discussed that combined electrophysiological recordings, oxygen sensor microelectrodes and live-cell fluorescence imaging in acutely prepared slices and organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus from both, mouse and rat. These reports consistently show that gamma oscillations can be reliably induced in hippocampal slice preparations by different pharmacological tools. They suggest that gamma oscillations are associated with high energy demand, requiring both rapid adaptation of oxidative energy metabolism and sufficient supply with oxygen and nutrients. These findings might help to explain the exceptional vulnerability of higher cognitive functions during pathological processes of the brain, such as circulatory disturbances, genetic mitochondrial diseases, and neurodegeneration.

  1. Selective impairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adults with high functioning autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Torralva, Teresa; Rattazzi, Alexia; Marenco, Victoria; Roca, María; Manes, Facundo

    2013-01-01

    .... the utilitarian judgment, and an emotional aversion to harm, i.e. the deontological judgment. In the present study, we investigated moral judgment in adult individuals with high functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA...

  2. Bioeconomic Analysis of Pesticide Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, L. Joe; Farnsworth, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insects to develop resistance to specific pesticides affects pesticide demand. However, the affect of resistance on demand cannot be observed or measured. This analysis substitutes an expression for the unobserved resistance variable in a pesticide demand model and then illustrates the model's potential by estimating demand for DDT. To arrive at the expression characterizing the unobserved resistance variable a biological resistance model is constructed then incorporated into t...

  3. High Resolution Modelling of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand, Crop Nutrient Usage and GHG emissions, Similkameen Watershed, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmasoudi, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Kroebel, R.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.; McKenzie, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Similkameen watershed in southern British Columbia, Canada is expected to warm substantially in the coming decades. A higher proportion of winter rain to snow and an earlier onset of spring snowmelt are likely to result in lower spring stream flow peaks. The reduction in winter water storage, combined with longer, warmer, and drier summers, poses a challenge for water resources in an irrigation-based agricultural watershed. There are already substantial irrigation developments, and water demands are expected to increase to maintain current agricultural production, further stressing a shrinking summer water supply. Agriculture releases significant amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere, accounting for approximately 8% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, excluding CO2 emissions from fuels. Agricultural GHG fluxes are complex but the active management of agricultural systems offers possibilities for mitigating GHG emissions. Although GHG emissions derived from soil have been researched for several decades, there are still geographic regions and agricultural systems that have not been well characterized. This work will address a series of questions for the Similkameen watershed. For a range of climate scenarios, we will: (i) use the GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model to simulate historical and future water supplies; (ii) link GENESYS and AquaCrop models to assess climate driven changes in water requirement and associated crop productivity; and (iii) link GENESYS and HOLOS (whole-farm model and software program that estimates GHG emissions) to estimate farm and regional level GHG emissions and seasonal nutrient balance for the crops in the watershed.

  4. Physical demands during folk dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigaeus, E; Kilbom, A

    1980-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the aerobic demands during one of the most popular and demanding Swedish folk dances the "hambo". Six men and six women, ranging in age from 22 to 32, participated. Their physical work capacity was investigated on a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill, using two to three submaximal and one maximal loads. All subjects were moderately well-trained and their average maximal oxygen uptake on the treadmill were 2.5 and 3.7 l/min (42.8 and 53.2 ml/kg . min-1) for women and men, respectively. When dancing the "hambo" the heart rate was telemetered, and the Douglas bag technique was used for measurements of pulmonary ventilation and oxygen uptake. The physical demand during "hambo" dancing was high in all subjects. Oxygen uptake was 38.5 and 37.3 ml/kg . min-1 and heart rate 179 and 172 in women and men, respectively. Women used 90% and men 70% of their maximal aerobic power obtained on the treadmill. The pulmonary ventilation and respiratory quotient of the female subjects were lower when dancing as compared to running, possibly because of voluntary restriction of the movements of the thoracic cage. Some popular Scandinavian folk dances are performed at a speed and with an activity pattern resembling the "hambo", while others are performed at a slower pace. The exercise intensity used in "hambo" is more than sufficient to induce training effects in the average individual provided that the dancing is performed at the frequency and for length of time usually recommended for physical training. For older or less fit people dances with a slow pace can be used for training purposes.

  5. Effects of a high protein diet on cognition and brain metabolism in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Arias, J; Arias, J L

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological complication observed in patients with liver disease. Patients who suffer from HE present neuropsychiatric, neuromuscular and behavioral symptoms. Animal models proposed to study HE resulting from cirrhosis mimic the clinical characteristics of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and require the administration of hepatotoxins such as thioacetamide (TAA). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a high protein diet on motor function, anxiety and memory processes in a model of cirrhosis induced by TAA administration. In addition, we used cytochrome c-oxidase (COx) histochemistry to assess the metabolic activity of the limbic system regions. Male rats were distributed into groups: control, animals with cirrhosis, Control rats receiving a high protein diet, and animals with cirrhosis receiving a high protein diet. Results showed preserved motor function and normal anxiety levels in all the groups. The animals with cirrhosis showed an impairment in active avoidance behavior and spatial memory, regardless of the diet they received. However, the animals with cirrhosis and a high protein diet showed longer escape latencies on the spatial memory task. The model of cirrhosis presented an under-activation of the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subfields and the medial part of the medial mammillary nucleus. The results suggest that a high protein intake worsens spatial memory deficits shown by the TAA-induced model of cirrhosis. However, high protein ingestion has no influence on the COx hypoactivity associated with the model.

  6. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study, by exploring client perspectives, was to achieve a better understanding of how people with schizophrenia experience an occupational therapy intervention designed to enable them to carry out meaningful occupations in the early phases of recovery. METHOD: A qualitative......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION......: The study provided unique insight into how participants experienced a client-centred partnership with an occupational therapist in the early phases of recovery. The intervention was feasible and supported the participants' recovery process....

  7. Physical demands in worklife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, I

    1988-01-01

    Industrial occupations which are physically strenuous in the traditional sense of the word have decreased in number. They have partly been replaced by "light," repetitive, monotonous work tasks performed in a sitting position. The number of heavy work tasks within the service sector has increased. Specialization has been intensified. The individual's capacity for strenuous work is still of importance to successful work performance. Many studies show that an optional choice of work pace in physically demanding occupational work results in an adaptation of pace or intensity until the worker is utilizing 40-50% of her or his capacity. When the work rate is constrained, the relative strain of the individual varies inversely with the physical work capacity. The frequency of musculoskeletal disorders has concurrently increased with the implementation of industrial mechanization. New, wise, ergonomic moves are needed to stop this development.

  8. Modeling psychotic and cognitive symptoms of affective disorders: Disrupted latent inhibition and reversal learning deficits in highly stress reactive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapman, A; Heinzmann, J-M; Holsboer, F; Landgraf, R; Touma, C

    2010-09-01

    Increased stress reactivity has repeatedly been reported in patients suffering from psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia and major depression. These disorders also have other symptoms in common, such as cognitive deficits and psychotic-like behavior. We have therefore investigated if increased stress reactivity is associated with these phenotypic endpoints in an animal model of affective disorders. The stress reactivity mouse model used in this study consists of three CD-1-derived mouse lines, that have been selectively bred for high (HR), intermediate (IR) or low (LR) stress reactivity. Male mice from these three breeding lines were subjected to a reversal learning task and latent inhibition (Li) was assessed using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Furthermore, as the dopaminergic system is involved in both Li and reversal learning, the dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression levels were assessed in relevant brain areas of these animals. The results demonstrate that HR mice show perseveration in the reversal learning task and have disrupted Li. Furthermore, compared to LR mice, HR mice have decreased D2R mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area, as well as decreased D1R mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex, and an increased expression of D2R mRNA in the nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the HR mice display cognitive deficits associated with psychotic-like behavior, similar to those observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia and major depression and could be utilized in the search for better treatment strategies for these symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  9. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which

  10. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which

  11. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit....... This prediction reconciles the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple destinations to which they can export, many firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  12. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  13. The Impact of Task Demands on Fixation-Related Brain Potentials during Guided Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Barry; Connolly, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recording synchronous data from EEG and eye-tracking provides a unique methodological approach for measuring the sensory and cognitive processes of overt visual search. Using this approach we obtained fixation related potentials (FRPs) during a guided visual search task specifically focusing on the lambda and P3 components. An outstanding question is whether the lambda and P3 FRP components are influenced by concurrent task demands. We addressed this question by obtaining simultaneous eye-movement and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures during a guided visual search task while parametrically modulating working memory load using an auditory N-back task. Participants performed the guided search task alone, while ignoring binaurally presented digits, or while using the auditory information in a 0, 1, or 2-back task. The results showed increased reaction time and decreased accuracy in both the visual search and N-back tasks as a function of auditory load. Moreover, high auditory task demands increased the P3 but not the lambda latency while the amplitude of both lambda and P3 was reduced during high auditory task demands. The results show that both early and late stages of visual processing indexed by FRPs are significantly affected by concurrent task demands imposed by auditory working memory. PMID:27286248

  14. Cognitive Differences in Pictorial Reasoning between High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Cherif P.; Soulieres, Isabelle; Belliveau, John W.; Mottron, Laurent; Mody, Maria

    2009-01-01

    We investigated linguistic and visuospatial processing during pictorial reasoning in high-functioning autism (HFA), Asperger's syndrome (ASP), and age and IQ-matched typically developing participants (CTRL), using three conditions designed to differentially engage linguistic mediation or visuospatial processing (visuospatial, V; semantic, S;…

  15. Women with high scores for cognitive dietary restraint choose foods lower in fat and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Candice A; McLean, Judy A; Barr, Susan I

    2004-07-01

    Women with high dietary restraint typically report restricting energy intake and using reduced-kilocalorie foods in an effort to achieve or maintain a certain body weight. However, previous studies of food choices associated with dietary restraint have been limited by the self-report of participants' food selections. We provided all foods consumed during a free-living 24-hour period to 62 normal-weight women with high (n=33) or low (n=29) dietary restraint, and observed choices from among similar foods varying in fat, fiber, and energy content. Women with high dietary restraint consumed less energy and chose reduced-kilocalorie and reduced-fat foods more frequently than unrestrained eaters. Group differences in choices of milk, cream cheese, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and soda were noted. Dietitians may consider frequent use of reduced-kilocalorie and reduced-fat foods a potential indicator of high dietary restraint, which may have health consequences. Accordingly, further exploration of clients' tendency to restrict dietary intake may be warranted.

  16. Designing Middle and High School Instruction and Assessment: Using the Cognitive Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgett, John L.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    While today's curriculum is largely driven by standards, many teachers find the lack of specificity in the standards to be confounding and even intimidating. Now this practical book provides middle and high school teachers with explicit guidance on designing specific objectives and developing appropriate formative and summative assessments to…

  17. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  18. Designing Middle and High School Instruction and Assessment: Using the Cognitive Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgett, John L.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    While today's curriculum is largely driven by standards, many teachers find the lack of specificity in the standards to be confounding and even intimidating. Now this practical book provides middle and high school teachers with explicit guidance on designing specific objectives and developing appropriate formative and summative assessments to…

  19. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  20. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.