WorldWideScience

Sample records for high co2 concentrations

  1. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a powerful measure to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. Planetary-scale interventions of that kind are often portrayed as "last-resort strategies", which need to weigh in if humankind keeps on enhancing the climate-system stock of CO2. Yet even if CDR could restore atmospheric CO2 to substantially lower concentrations, would it really qualify to undo the critical impacts of past emissions? In the study presented here, we employed an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) to investigate how CDR might erase the emissions legacy in the marine environment, focusing on pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Against a background of a world following the RCP8.5 emissions path ("business-as-usual") for centuries, we simulated the effects of two massive CDR interventions with CO2 extraction rates of 5 GtC yr-1 and 25 GtC yr-1, respectively, starting in 2250. We found that the 5 GtC yr-1 scheme would have only minor ameliorative influence on the oceans, even after several centuries of application. By way of contrast, the extreme 25 GtC yr-1 scheme eventually leads to tangible improvements. However, even with such an aggressive measure, past CO2 emissions leave a substantial legacy in the marine environment within the simulated period (i.e., until 2700). In summary, our study demonstrates that anthropogenic alterations of the oceans, caused by continued business-as-usual emissions, may not be reversed on a multi-centennial time scale by the most aspirational geoengineering measures. We also found that a transition from the RCP8.5 state to the state of a strong mitigation scenario (RCP2.6) is not possible, even under the assumption of extreme extraction rates (25 GtC yr-1). This is explicitly demonstrated by simulating additional scenarios, starting CDR already in 2150 and operating until the atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 280 ppm and 180 ppm, respectively. The simulated

  2. High indoor CO2 concentrations in an office environment increases the transcutaneous CO2 level and sleepiness during cognitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehviläinen, Tommi; Lindholm, Harri; Rintamäki, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Hirvonen, Ari; Niemi, Olli; Vinha, Juha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a multiparametric analysis on the environmental factors, the physiological stress reactions in the body, the measured alertness, and the subjective symptoms during simulated office work. Volunteer male subjects were monitored during three 4-hr work meetings in an office room, both in a ventilated and a non-ventilated environment. The environmental parameters measured included CO(2), temperature, and relative humidity. The physiological test battery consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system functions, salivary stress hormones, blood's CO(2)- content and oxygen saturation, skin temperatures, thermal sensations, vigilance, and sleepiness. The study shows that we can see physiological changes caused by high CO(2) concentration. The findings support the view that low or moderate level increases in concentration of CO(2) in indoor air might cause elevation in the blood's transcutaneously assessed CO(2). The observed findings are higher CO(2) concentrations in tissues, changes in heart rate variation, and an increase of peripheral blood circulation during exposure to elevated CO(2) concentration. The subjective parameters and symptoms support the physiological findings. This study shows that a high concentration of CO(2) in indoor air seem to be one parameter causing physiological effects, which can decrease the facility user's functional ability. The correct amount of ventilation with relation to the number of people using the facility, functional air distribution, and regular breaks can counteract the decrease in functional ability. The findings of the study suggest that merely increasing ventilation is not necessarily a rational solution from a technical-economical viewpoint. Instead or in addition, more comprehensive, anthropocentric planning of space is needed as well as instructions and new kinds of reference values for the design and realization of office environments.

  3. Measurement of CO2 concentration at high-temperature based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiuying; Li, Chuanrong; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Jianguo; Kan, Ruifeng; Xu, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    A diode laser sensor based on absorption spectroscopy has been developed for sensitive measurement of CO2 concentration at high-temperature. Measurement of CO2 can provide information about the extent of combustion and mix in a combustor that may be used to improve fuel efficiency. Most methods of in-situ combustion measurement of CO2 use the spectroscopic parameters taken from database like HITEMP which is mainly derived from the theoretical calculation and remains a high degree of uncertainty in the spectroscopic parameters. A fiber-coupled diode laser system for measurement of CO2 in combustion environment by use of the high-temperature spectroscopic parameters which are obtained by experiment was proposed. Survey spectra of the R(50) line of CO2 at 5007.787 cm-1 were recorded at high-temperature and various pressures to determine line intensities. The line intensities form the theoretical foundation for future applications of this diode laser sensor system. Survey spectra of four test gas mixtures containing 5.01%CO2, 10.01%CO2, 20.08%CO2, and 49.82%CO2 were measured to verify the accuracy of the diode laser sensor system. The measured results indicate that this sensor can measure CO2 concentration with 2% uncertainty in high temperatures.

  4. Photorespiration and carbon concentrating mechanisms: two adaptations to high O2, low CO2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, James V; Jungnick, Nadine; Dimario, Robert J; Longstreth, David J

    2013-11-01

    This review presents an overview of the two ways that cyanobacteria, algae, and plants have adapted to high O2 and low CO2 concentrations in the environment. First, the process of photorespiration enables photosynthetic organisms to recycle phosphoglycolate formed by the oxygenase reaction catalyzed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Second, there are a number of carbon concentrating mechanisms that increase the CO2 concentration around Rubisco which increases the carboxylase reaction enhancing CO2 fixation. This review also presents possibilities for the beneficial modification of these processes with the goal of improving future crop yields.

  5. Carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla grown under high atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Marques Dos; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2017-01-06

    Photosynthetic organisms may be drastically affected by the future climate projections of a considerable increase in CO2 concentrations. Growth under a high concentration of CO2 could stimulate carbon assimilation-especially in C3-type plants. We used a proteomics approach to test the hypothesis of an increase in the abundance of the enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla plants grown under conditions of high atmospheric CO2. Our strategy allowed the profiling of all Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and associated protein species. Among the 816 isolated proteins, those involved in carbon fixation were found to be the most abundant ones. An increase in the abundance of six key enzymes out of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation was detected in plants grown at a high CO2 concentration. Proteome changes were corroborated by the detection of a decrease in the stomatal aperture and in the vascular bundle area in Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets grown in an environment of high atmospheric CO2. Our proteomics approach indicates a positive metabolic response regarding carbon fixation in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. The slight but significant increase in the abundance of the Calvin enzymes suggests that stomatal closure did not prevent an increase in the carbon assimilation rates.

  6. Experimental and modeling study of NO emission under high CO2 concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study of the NOx formation and reduction process in a designed coal combustion furnace under both traditional air atmosphere and O2/CO2 atmosphere was conducted, in an attempt to explore the chemistry mechanism of the experimentally observed NOx suppression under high CO2 concentration atmospheres. A simplified ‘chemically oriented’ approach, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-chemical kinetics modeling method, was validated and used to model the experimental process. The high CO2 concentration’s chemical effect on NO reduction has been studied, and the differences in NOx reaction behaviors between O2/CO2 atmosphere and air atmosphere were analyzed by detailed chemical kinetic model. On the basis of investigations through elementary chemical reactions, it can be concluded that high CO2 concentration plays an important role on NOx conversion process during oxy-fuel combustion. Moreover, the dominant reaction steps and the most important reactions for NO conversion under different atmospheres were discussed. Under O2/CO2 atmosphere, the main active sequence for NO reaction includes: NO→N→N2, and the main active path for NO reaction under air atmosphere is through N2→N→NO.

  7. Chemical effects of a high CO2 concentration in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Bentzen, L.L.B.

    2008-01-01

    in terms of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrocarbon oxidation. On the basis of results of the present study, it can be expected that oxy-fuel combustion will lead to strongly increased CO concentrations in the near-burner region. The CO2 present will compete with O-2 for atomic hydrogen......The oxidation of methane in an atmospheric-pres sure flow reactor has been studied experimentally under highly diluted conditions in N-2 and CO2, respectively. The stoichiometry was varied from fuel-lean to fuel-rich, and the temperatures covered the range 1200-1800 K. The results were interpreted...... and lead to formation of CO through the reaction CO2 + H reversible arrow CO + OH. Reactions of CO2 with hydrocarbon radicals may also contribute to CO formation. The most important steps are those of singlet and triplet CH2 with CO2, while other radicals such as CH3 and CH are less important for consuming...

  8. Effects of immersion in water containing high concentrations of CO2 (CO2-water) at thermoneutral on thermoregulation and heart rate variability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Nishimura, Naoki; Shimizu, Yuuki; de Chantemele, Eric Belin; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Inukai, Yoko; Taniguchi, Yumiko; Ogata, Akihiro; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2009-01-01

    Immersion in high concentrations of CO2 dissolved in freshwater (CO2-water) might induce peripheral vasodilatation in humans. In this study, we investigated whether such immersion could affect the autonomic nervous system in humans using spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Ten healthy men participated in this study. Tympanic temperature, cutaneous blood flow and electrocardiogram (ECG) were measured continuously during 20 min of immersion in CO2-water. The ECG was analyzed by spectral analysis of R-R intervals using the maximal entropy method. The decrease in tympanic temperature was significantly greater in CO2-water immersion than in freshwater immersion. Cutaneous blood flow at the immersed site was significantly increased with CO2-water immersion compared to freshwater. The high frequency component (HF: 0.15-0.40 Hz) was significantly higher in CO2-water immersion than in freshwater immersion, but the low frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) /high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) was significantly lower in CO2-water immersion than in freshwater immersion. The present study contributes evidence supporting the hypothesis that CO2-water immersion activates parasympathetic nerve activity in humans.

  9. Effect of Different High CO2 Concentrations on the Development of 2-cell Mouse Embryos in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hua LU; Wei-jie ZHU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of different high CO2 concentrations on the development of 2-cell mouse embryos in vitroMethods At levels of 5% CO2 (control group), 5.7% CO2, 6.0% CO2 and 15% CO2, embryos were incubated in drops with CZB medium, respectively, and the drops were covered by paraffin oil which was treated with three-distilled water. In addition, at the level of 15% CO2, there were another two groups, in which paraffin oil was treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution or the drops were uncovered. The development of embryos in all stages was noted.Results The developmental rates of blastocysts in five experimental groups were significantly lower than that of the control group (P0.05). At the level of 15% CO2, 15% embryos developed in the 4-cell stage with irregular blastomere and degenerated quickly in the group which paraffin oil was treated with distilled water; 2.2% embryos developed in the 4-cell stage in the group which paraffin oil was treated with PBS and the rest stagnated in the 2-cell stage. Conclusions High CO2 concentrations had toxic effect on the in vitro development of 2-cell mouse embryos, and was responsible for the inhibition of the embryos. It is important for the development of embryos in vitro to detect strictly CO2 concentration.

  10. Removal of high concentration CO2 from natural gas at elevated pressure via absorption process in packed column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.S.Tan; K.K.Lau; M.A.Bustam; A.M.Shariff

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) removal is an essential step in natural gas (NG) processing to provide high quality gas stream products and minimize operational difficulties.This preliminary study aims to investigate the removal of CO2 at high concentration level from the mixture of CO2-NG gas stream at elevated pressure via absorption process.This is to explore the possibility of exploring high CO2 content natural gas reserves by treatment at offshore platform.A mixed amine solvent,Stonvent-Ⅱ,was used for the absorption of approximately 75 vol% CO2 in CO2-NG stream at a pressure of 10 barg.The initial solvent temperature was varied in order to study the impact of initial temperature on the absorption performance.Preliminary study at temperatures of 35 ℃ and 45 ℃ indicates that Stonvent-Ⅱ was able to perform almost 100% removal of CO2 under both conditions.However,the CO2 absorption effect took place faster when the initial liquid temperature was lower.This is because when the initial liquid temperature is high,the temperature increase in the packing bed caused by the reaction heat is high which impacts the efficiency of absorption negatively.

  11. Seasonally varying contributions to urban CO2 in the Chicago, Illinois, USA region: Insights from a high-resolution CO2 concentration and δ13C record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding urban carbon cycling is essential given that cities sustain 54% of the global population and contribute 70% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When combined with CO2 concentration measurements ([CO2], stable carbon isotope analyses (δ13C can differentiate sources of CO2, including ecosystem respiration and combustion of fossil fuels, such as petroleum and natural gas. In this study, we used a wavelength scanned-cavity ringdown spectrometer to collect ∼2x106 paired measurements for [CO2] and δ13C values in Evanston, IL for August 2011 through February 2012. Evanston is located immediately north of Chicago, IL, the third largest city in the United States. The measurements represent one of the longest records of urban [CO2] and δ13C values thus far reported. We also compiled local meteorological information, as well as complementary [CO2] and δ13C data for background sites in Park Falls, WI and Mauna Loa, HI. We use the dataset to examine how ecosystem processes, fossil fuel usage, wind speed, and wind direction control local atmospheric [CO2] and δ13C in a midcontinent urban setting on a seasonal to daily basis. On average, [CO2] and δ13C values in Evanston were 16–23 ppm higher and 0.97–1.13‰ lower than the background sites. While seasonal [CO2] and δ13C values generally followed broader northern hemisphere trends, the difference between Evanston and the background sites was larger in winter versus summer. Mixing calculations suggest that ecosystem respiration and petroleum combustion equally contributed CO2 in excess of background during the summer and that natural gas combustion contributed 80%–94% of the excess CO2 in winter. Wind speed and direction strongly influenced [CO2] and δ13C values on an hourly time scale. The highest [CO2] and lowest δ13C values occurred at wind speeds <3 m s−1 and when winds blew from the northwest, west, and south over densely populated neighborhoods.

  12. Changes in the salinity tolerance of sweet pepper plants as affected by nitrogen form and high CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María C; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2016-08-01

    The assimilation and availability of nitrogen in its different forms can significantly affect the response of primary productivity under the current atmospheric alteration and soil degradation. An elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) triggers changes in the efficiency and efficacy of photosynthetic processes, water use and product yield, the plant response to stress being altered with respect to ambient CO2 conditions (a[CO2]). Additionally, NH4(+) has been related to improved plant responses to stress, considering both energy efficiency in N-assimilation and the overcoming of the inhibition of photorespiration at e[CO2]. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the response of sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) receiving an additional supply of NH4(+) (90/10 NO3(-)/NH4(+)) to salinity stress (60mM NaCl) under a[CO2] (400μmolmol(-1)) or e[CO2] (800μmolmol(-1)). Salt-stressed plants grown at e[CO2] showed DW accumulation similar to that of the non-stressed plants at a[CO2]. The supply of NH4(+) reduced growth at e[CO2] when salinity was imposed. Moreover, NH4(+) differentially affected the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency and the leaf Cl(-), K(+), and Na(+) concentrations, but the extent of the effects was influenced by the [CO2]. An antioxidant-related response was prompted by salinity, the total phenolics and proline concentrations being reduced by NH4(+) at e[CO2]. Our results show that the effect of NH4(+) on plant salinity tolerance should be globally re-evaluated as e[CO2] can significantly alter the response, when compared with previous studies at a[CO2].

  13. Estimation of background CO2 concentrations at the high alpine station Schneefernerhaus by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Ries, Ludwig; Frank, Gabriele; Hachinger, Stephan; Meyer-Arnek, Julian

    2016-04-01

    In order to estimate the influence of Central European CO2 emissions, a new method to retrieve background concentrations based on statistics of radon-222 and backward trajectories is developed and applied to the CO2 observations at the alpine high-altitude research station Schneefernerhaus (2670 m a.s.l.). The reliable identification of baseline conditions is important for perceiving changes in time as well as in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and thereby assessing the efficiency of existing mitigation strategies. In the particular case of Central Europe, the analysis of background concentrations could add further insights on the question why background CO2 concentrations increased in the last few decades, despite a significant decrease in the reported emissions. Ongoing effort to define the baseline conditions has led to a variety of data selection techniques. In this diversity of data filtering concepts, a relatively recent data selection method effectively appropriates observations of radon-222 to reliably and unambiguously identify baseline air masses. Owing to its relatively constant emission rate from the ice-free land surface and its half-life of 3.8 days that is solely achieved through radioactive decay, the tropospheric background concentration of the inert radioactive gas is low and temporal variations caused by changes in atmospheric transport are precisely detectable. For defining the baseline air masses reaching the high alpine research station Schneefernerhaus, an objective analysis approach is applied to the two-hourly radon records. The CO2 values of days by the radon method associated with prevailing atmospheric background conditions result in the CO2 concentrations representing the least land influenced air masses. Additionally, three-dimensional back-trajectories were retrieved using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) FLEXPART driven by analysis fields of the Global Forecast System (GFS) produced by the National Centers

  14. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, O.; Bugbee, B.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated [CO2] on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Veery 10) productivity was examined by analysing radiation capture, canopy quantum yield, canopy carbon use efficiency, harvest index and daily C gain. Canopies were grown at either 330 or 1200 micromoles mol-1 [CO2] in controlled environments, where root and shoot C fluxes were monitored continuously from emergence to harvest. A rapidly circulating hydroponic solution supplied nutrients, water and root zone oxygen. At harvest, dry mass predicted from gas exchange data was 102.8 +/- 4.7% of the observed dry mass in six trials. Neither radiation capture efficiency nor carbon use efficiency were affected by elevated [CO2], but yield increased by 13% due to a sustained increase in canopy quantum yield. CO2 enrichment increased root mass, tiller number and seed mass. Harvest index and chlorophyll concentration were unchanged, but CO2 enrichment increased average life cycle net photosynthesis (13%, P < 0.05) and root respiration (24%, P < 0.05). These data indicate that plant communities adapt to CO2 enrichment through changes in C allocation. Elevated [CO2] increases sink strength in optimal environments, resulting in sustained increases in photosynthetic capacity, canopy quantum yield and daily C gain throughout the life cycle.

  15. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, O.; Bugbee, B.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated [CO2] on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Veery 10) productivity was examined by analysing radiation capture, canopy quantum yield, canopy carbon use efficiency, harvest index and daily C gain. Canopies were grown at either 330 or 1200 micromoles mol-1 [CO2] in controlled environments, where root and shoot C fluxes were monitored continuously from emergence to harvest. A rapidly circulating hydroponic solution supplied nutrients, water and root zone oxygen. At harvest, dry mass predicted from gas exchange data was 102.8 +/- 4.7% of the observed dry mass in six trials. Neither radiation capture efficiency nor carbon use efficiency were affected by elevated [CO2], but yield increased by 13% due to a sustained increase in canopy quantum yield. CO2 enrichment increased root mass, tiller number and seed mass. Harvest index and chlorophyll concentration were unchanged, but CO2 enrichment increased average life cycle net photosynthesis (13%, P CO2 enrichment through changes in C allocation. Elevated [CO2] increases sink strength in optimal environments, resulting in sustained increases in photosynthetic capacity, canopy quantum yield and daily C gain throughout the life cycle.

  16. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, O.; Bugbee, B.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated [CO2] on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Veery 10) productivity was examined by analysing radiation capture, canopy quantum yield, canopy carbon use efficiency, harvest index and daily C gain. Canopies were grown at either 330 or 1200 micromoles mol-1 [CO2] in controlled environments, where root and shoot C fluxes were monitored continuously from emergence to harvest. A rapidly circulating hydroponic solution supplied nutrients, water and root zone oxygen. At harvest, dry mass predicted from gas exchange data was 102.8 +/- 4.7% of the observed dry mass in six trials. Neither radiation capture efficiency nor carbon use efficiency were affected by elevated [CO2], but yield increased by 13% due to a sustained increase in canopy quantum yield. CO2 enrichment increased root mass, tiller number and seed mass. Harvest index and chlorophyll concentration were unchanged, but CO2 enrichment increased average life cycle net photosynthesis (13%, P CO2 enrichment through changes in C allocation. Elevated [CO2] increases sink strength in optimal environments, resulting in sustained increases in photosynthetic capacity, canopy quantum yield and daily C gain throughout the life cycle.

  17. CO2气调储藏对大米食用品质调控效应的研究%Effects of Controlled Atmospheres with High CO2 Concentrations on Eating Quality of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维巧; 雷桂明; 刘霞; 李喜宏

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the effects of high CO2 atmosphere control condition on the insoluble amylase content and the quality of cooked rice. The sample named W45 from Tianjin was storaged at 10℃ and 30℃ separately for 6 months in gas-controlled chambers, which could quantitatively regulate the content of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The results showed that, under the condition of 10 ℃ and 8% O2, high-concentration CO2 could inhibit the increasing of insoluble amylase of rice, the effect of CO2 concentration was 20% > 10% > 2%, and the insoluble amylase content of rice, which storaged at 20% CO2 atmosphere control condition, increased by 9.39% compared to the initial value, the control (uninflated treatment) increased by 15.01% compared to the initial value. Under the storage condition of 30 X and 8% O2, there was no remarkable influence when high CO2 atmosphere charging at storage on insoluble amylase content At 10 X and 30 ℃ temperature storage conditions, the high CO2 treatment could effectively improve the cooking quality of rice, inhibit the heat water absorption rate of rice, increase the soluble solids content of rice water, the higher CO2 concentration the more obvious effects, and under the storage condition of 20% CO2 and 10 ℃, the heat water absorption rate of rice decreased by 12.71% compared to control, the soluble solids content of rice water increased by 24.56% compared to control.%以W45号大米为试材,定量控制储藏环境中的O2和CO2浓度,研究10℃和30℃条件下,高浓度CO2储藏6个月对大米不溶性直链淀粉含量及蒸煮品质的影响.结果表明:在低温10℃、O2浓度8%条件下,高浓度CO2可有效抑制大米不溶性直链淀粉含量的增加,CO2浓度作用效果20%>10%>2%,其中20%CO2气调储藏大米的不溶性直链淀粉含量与初始值相比仅增加了9.39%,显著低于对照(不充气处理);在高温30℃、O2浓度8%条件下,高浓度CO2调控大米不溶性直链

  18. Soret Effect Study on High-Pressure CO2-Water Solutions Using UV-Raman Spectroscopy and a Concentric-Tube Optical Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Charles F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Maupin, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved deep-UV Raman spectroscopy was applied to solutions of CO2 and H2O (or D2O), which were subject to a temperature gradient in a thermally regulated high-pressure concentric-tube Raman cell in an attempt to measure a Soret effect in the vicinity of the critical point of CO2. Although Raman spectra of solutions of CO2 dissolved in D2O at 10 MPa and temperatures near the critical point of CO2 had adequate signal-to-noise and spatial resolution to observe a Soret effect with a Soret coefficient with magnitude of |ST| > 0.03, no evidence for an effect of this size was obtained for applied temperature gradients up to 19oC. The presence of 1 M NaCl did not make a difference. In contrast, the concentration of CO2 dissolved in H2O was shown to vary significantly across the temperature gradient when excess CO2 was present, but the results could be explained simply by the variation in CO2 solubility over the temperature range and not to kinetic factors. For mixtures of D2O dissolved in scCO2 at 10 MPa and temperatures close to the critical point of CO2, the Raman peaks for H2O were too weak to measure with confidence even at the limit of D2O solubility.

  19. A direct detection 1.6μm DIAL with three wavelengths for high accuracy measurements of vertical CO2 concentration and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao; Abo, Makoto

    2013-10-01

    The accurate vertical CO2 profiles in the troposphere are highly desirable in the inverse techniques to improve quantification and understanding of the global budget of CO2 and also global climate changes. Moreover, wind information is an important parameter for transport simulations and inverse estimation of surface CO2 flux. A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is an attractive method for obtaining vertical CO2 profiles and we have developed an 1.6μm DIAL system to perform simultaneous measurements of CO2 concentration, atmospheric temperature profile and wind profile. The absorption cross sections of gas and air density depends on atmospheric temperature and pressure. Then precise temperature and pressure profiles are necessary for accurate CO2 mixing ratio measurement by DIAL. Laser beams of three wavelengths around a CO2 absorption line are transmitted alternately to the atmosphere for simultaneous measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature. The receiving optics include the near-infrared photomultiplier tube and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detect a Doppler shift.

  20. Dissolution and Sorption Processes on the Surface of Calcite in the Presence of High Co2+ Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the calcite surface with Co2+-rich aqueous solutions ([Co2+aq]initial = 1000 ppm, i.e., ca. 17 mM was investigated by means of macroscopic experiments and surface spectroscopic techniques. In the case of the macroscopic experiments, calcite powder and monocrystals were immersed into solutions for different time periods (from 1 min to one month. The Ca concentrations in the filtrates was measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS while the interacted solids were studied using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and 12C-rutherford backscattering spectrometry (12C-RBS. The macroscopic data showed a characteristic surface dissolution process, in parallel to the surface sorption processes. Adsorption and co-precipitation were seen for almost the entire immersion period for both calcite powder and monocrystals. The surface study by XPS (analyzed at a depth of approximately 12 nm suggested that adsorption takes place in the first hour of the interaction, followed by incorporation of Co2+ into calcite surface layers, leading to the formation of a Co2+-bearing surface (coprecipitate, which occurs over a period of hours and days. The 12C-RBS measurements on calcite { 10 1 ¯ 4 } indicated that the thickness of this surface co-precipitate was 270 nm after one day and then stabilized at 320 nm after more than a week.

  1. Hazardous indoor CO2 concentrations in volcanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Fátima; Gaspar, João L; Ferreira, Teresa; Silva, Catarina

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the main soil gases released silently and permanently in diffuse degassing areas, both in volcanic and non-volcanic zones. In the volcanic islands of the Azores (Portugal) several villages are located over diffuse degassing areas. Lethal indoor CO2 concentrations (higher than 10 vol %) were measured in a shelter located at Furnas village, inside the caldera of the quiescent Furnas Volcano (S. Miguel Island). Hazardous CO2 concentrations were detected not only underground, but also at the ground floor level. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to the CO2 and environmental time series recorded between April 2008 and March 2010 at Furnas village. The results show that about 30% of the indoor CO2 variation is explained by environmental variables, namely barometric pressure, soil water content and wind speed. The highest indoor CO2 concentrations were recorded during bad weather conditions, characterized by low barometric pressure together with rainfall periods and high wind speed. In addition to the spike-like changes observed on the CO2 time series, long-term oscillations were also identified and appeared to represent seasonal variations. In fact, indoor CO2 concentrations were higher during winter period when compared to the dry summer months. Considering the permanent emission of CO2 in various volcanic regions of the world, CO2 hazard maps are crucial and need to be accounted by the land-use planners and authorities.

  2. High CO2 concentration as an inductor agent to drive production of recombinant phytotoxic antimicrobial peptides in plant biofactories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria; Company, Nuri; Riudavets, Jordi; Nadal, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides such as BP100 are of increasing interest for developing novel phytosanitary or therapeutic agents and products with industrial applications. Biotechnological production of these peptides in plants can be severely impaired due to the toxicity exerted on the host by high-level expression. This can be overcome by using inducible promoters with extremely low activity throughout plant development, although the yields are limited. We examined the use of modified atmospheres using the increased levels of [CO2], commonly used in the food industry, as the inductor agent to biotechnologically produce phytotoxic compounds with higher yields. Here we show that 30% [CO2] triggered a profound transcriptional response in rice leaves, including a change in the energy provision from photosynthesis to glycolysis, and the activation of stress defense mechanisms. Five genes with central roles in up-regulated pathways were initially selected and their promoters successfully used to drive the expression of phytotoxic BP100 in genetically modified (GM) rice. GM plants had a normal phenotype on development and seed production in non-induction conditions. Treatment with 30 % [CO2] led to recombinant peptide accumulation of up to 1 % total soluble protein when the Os.hb2 promoter was used. This is within the range of biotechnological production of other peptides in plants. Using BP100 as a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that very high [CO2] can be considered an economically viable strategy to drive production of recombinant phytotoxic antimicrobial peptides in plant biofactories.

  3. The effect of exogenous sugar solution and high concentration of CO2 on the contents of sugar and protein of Betula platyphylla leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYu-mei; YANGChuan-ping; WANGShu-juan; WUYue-liang; WANGWen-zhang

    2003-01-01

    The content of total sugar,sucrose,fructose and protein in the leaves of 3-yr.-old Betula platyphylla was measured after the treatment by three exogenous sugar solutions(sucrose,fructose,glucose) and three high concentrations of CO2(700,1400,2100μL·L-1) for about a month in 1998.The results showed that spraying three exogenous sugar solutions increased markedly the content of sugar and protein of leaves under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The effect of spraying exogenous sucrose solution was the best among the three exogenous sugars.The treatment of spraying exogenous sugar solution and 2100μL·L-1 CO2 constrained the accumulation of total sugar and protein of leaves.There was no difference in protein content of leaves when spraying glucose and fructose solutions under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The treatrnent of 2100μL·L-1 CO2 concentration significantly increased the contents of total sugar,sucrose,fructose,and protein of leaves compared with that of the 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2 except the plants spraying fructose solution.there was positive correlation between the content of sugar of leaves and CO2 concentration when spraying same exogenous sugar solution.

  4. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eMartin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana with five transgenic lines (ndhF, pr-ndhF, T181D, T181A and ndhF FC and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrations. In contrast to wild type and ndhF FC, which reach the maximum photosynthetic rate in less than one min when light intensity suddenly increases, ndh defective plants (ndhF and T181A show up to a 5 min delay in reaching the maximum photosynthetic rate at CO2 concentrations higher than the ambient 360 ppm. Net photosynthesis was determined at different CO2 concentrations when sequences of 130, 870, 61, 870 and 130 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR sudden light changes were applied to leaves and photosynthetic efficiency and entropy production were determined as indicators of photosynthesis performance. The two ndh-defective plants, ndhF and T181A, had lower photosynthetic efficiency and higher entropy production than wt, ndhF FC and T181D tobacco plants, containing full functional ndh genes, at CO2 concentrations above 400 ppm. We propose that the Ndh complex improves cyclic electron transport by adjusting the redox level of transporters during the low light intensity stage. In ndhF-defective strains, the supply of electrons through the Ndh complex fails, transporters remain over-oxidized (specially at high CO2 concentrations and the rate of cyclic electron transport is low, impairing the ATP level required to rapidly reach high CO2 fixation rates in the following high light phase. Hence, ndh genes could be dispensable at low but not at high atmospheric concentrations of CO2.

  5. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Mercedes; Noarbe, Dolores M; Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana) with five transgenic lines (ΔndhF, pr-ΔndhF, T181D, T181A, and ndhF FC) and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrations. In contrast to wild type and ndhF FC, which reach the maximum photosynthetic rate in less than 1 min when light intensity suddenly increases, ndh defective plants (ΔndhF and T181A) show up to a 5 min delay in reaching the maximum photosynthetic rate at CO2 concentrations higher than the ambient 360 ppm. Net photosynthesis was determined at different CO2 concentrations when sequences of 130, 870, 61, 870, and 130 μmol m(-2) s(-1) PAR sudden light changes were applied to leaves and photosynthetic efficiency and entropy production (Sg) were determined as indicators of photosynthesis performance. The two ndh-defective plants, ΔndhF and T181A, had lower photosynthetic efficiency and higher Sg than wt, ndhF FC and T181D tobacco plants, containing full functional ndh genes, at CO2 concentrations above 400 ppm. We propose that the Ndh complex improves cyclic electron transport by adjusting the redox level of transporters during the low light intensity stage. In ndhF-defective strains, the supply of electrons through the Ndh complex fails, transporters remain over-oxidized (specially at high CO2 concentrations) and the rate of cyclic electron transport is low, impairing the ATP level required to rapidly reach high CO2 fixation rates in the following high light phase. Hence, ndh genes could be dispensable at low but not at high atmospheric concentrations of CO2.

  6. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  7. Use of high-scale traffic modeling to estimate road vehicle emissions of CO2 and impact on the atmospheric concentration in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Adequate estimations of motor vehicle CO2 emission inventories at high spatial and temporal urban scales are needed to establish transport policy measures aim to reduce climate change impacts from global cities. The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles (97% light-duty gasoline vehicles LDVs and 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles HDVs) and several environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions. Inventories match site measurements and remote sensing and help to assess the real impact of road vehicle emissions on city's air quality. In this paper we presented a high-resolution vehicle-based inventory of motor CO2 emissions mapped at a scale of 100 m and 1 hour. We used origin and destination (O/D) transport area zone trips from the mobility survey of the São Paulo Transport Metropolitan Company (Metro), a road network of the region and traffic datasets from the São Paulo Transport Engineering Company (CET). The inventory was done individually for LDVs and HDVs for the years 2008 and 2013 and was complemented with air quality datasets from the State Environmental Company (CETESB), together with census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Our inventory showed partial disagreement with the São Paulo State's GHG inventory, caused by the different approach used - bottom vs. top down - and characteristic spatial and temporal biases of the population inputs used (different emission factors). Higher concentrations became apparent near the road-network at the spatial scale used. The total emissions were estimated in 20,781 million tons per year of CO2eq (83.7% by LDVs and 16.3% HDVs). Temporal profiles - diurnal, weekly and monthly - in vehicle emission distributions were calculated using CET's traffic counts and surrogates of congestion. These profiles were compared with average road-site measurements of CO2 for the year 2013. Measurements showed two peaks associated to the

  8. Calculation of H2O-NH3-CO2 Vapor Liquid Equilibria at High Concentration Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏顺安; 张红晶

    2004-01-01

    A vapor liquid equilibrium model and its related interactive energy parameters based on UNIQUAC model for the H2O-NH3-CO2 system without solid phase at the conditions of temperature from 30℃ to 90℃, pressure from 0.1 MPa to 0.4 MPa, and the maximum NH3 mass fraction up to 0.4 are provided. This model agrees with experimental data well (average relative error < 1%) and is useful for analysis of industrial urea production.

  9. Stomatal response of Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations during the four years of exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-mei; HAN Shi-jie; LIU Ying; JIA Xia

    2005-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestriformis were exposed for four growing seasons in open top chambers to ambient CO2 concentration (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) and high CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol·mol-1) at Research Station of Changbai Mountain Forest Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences at Antu Town, Jilin Province, China (42oN, 128oE). Stomatal response to elevated CO2 concentrations was examined by stomatal conductance (gs), ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and stomatal number. Reciprocal transfer experiments of stomatal conductance showed that stomatal conductance in high-[CO2]-grown plants increased in comparison with ambient-[CO2]-grown plants when measured at their respective growth CO2 concentration and at the same measurement CO2 concentration (except a reduction in 700 μmol·mol-1 CO2 grown plants compared with plants on unchambered field when measured at growth CO2 concentration and 350 μmol·mol-1CO2). High-[CO2]-grown plants exhibited lower ci/ca ratios than ambient-[CO2]-grown plants when measured at their respective growth CO2 concentration. However, ci/ca ratios increased for plants grown in high CO2 concentrations compared with control plants when measured at the same CO2 concentration. There was no significant difference in stomatal number per unit long needle between elevated and ambient CO2. However, elevated CO2 concentrations reduced the total stomatal number of whole needle by the decline of stomatal line and changed the allocation pattern of stomata between upper and lower surface of needle.

  10. Investigation into optimal CO2 concentration for CO2 capture from aluminium production

    OpenAIRE

    Mathisen, Anette; Sørensen, Henriette; Melaaen, Morten Christian; Müller, Gunn-Iren

    2013-01-01

    Capture of CO2 from aluminum production has been simulated using Aspen Plus and Aspen Hysys. The technology used for aluminum production is the Hall-Héroult and the current cell design necessitates that large amounts of false air is supplied to the cells. This results in a CO2 concentration in the process gas at around 1 vol%, which is considered uneconomical for CO2 capture. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to evaluate the CO2 capture from aluminum production when the process g...

  11. Development of experimental structure and influence of high CO2 concentration in maize cro Desenvolvimento de estrutura experimentale influências da alta concentração de CO2 na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. Lopes da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a C4 plant that shows few or no response to high [CO2]. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the photosynthetic rate and yield of maize under high [CO2] and develop open-top chambers (OTC to create an atmosphere enriched with CO2. The experiment was conducted between October 2008 and March 2009. The OTCs were developed in modular scheme. Measurement of photosynthetic rates, transpiration, stomata conductance, grain yield and dry matter were performed. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and three treatments: P1 - plants grown in OTC with 700 ppm [CO2], P2 - plants grown in OTC with environmental [CO2], and P3 - control, cultivated in open field. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (PrO milho é uma planta C4 que apresenta pouca, ou nenhuma, resposta às elevadas [CO2]; assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar respostas fisiológicas e produtivas da cultura do milho sob alta [CO2], e desenvolver câmaras de topo aberto (CTA para criar uma atmosfera enriquecida com CO2. O experimento foi conduzido entre outubro de 2008 e março de 2009. As CTAs foram desenvolvidas em esquema modular. Foram realizadas medições da taxa fotossintética, transpiração, condutância estomática, produção de grãos e matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e três tratamentos: P1 - plantas cultivadas em CTA a [CO2] de 700ppm; P2 - plantas cultivadas em CTAcom [CO2] ambiente; e P3 -plantas cultivadas em campo aberto, testemunhas. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey (Pr<0,05. As câmaras reduzem em 25% a Radiação Fotossinteticamente Ativa e aumentam a temperatura do ar e das folhas, em relação ao ambiente externo. As plantas sob alta [CO2] (P1 apresentaram as maiores taxas fotossintéticas e as menores condutâncias estomáticas e transpiração. O peso total dos grãos (g e a matéria seca da parte a

  12. CO2-helium and CO2-neon mixtures at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, B; Ninet, S; Le Marchand, G; Munsch, P; Datchi, F

    2013-01-28

    The properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with helium or neon have been investigated as a function of CO(2) concentration and pressure up to 30 GPa at room temperature. The binary phase diagrams of these mixtures are determined over the full range of CO(2) concentrations using visual observations and Raman scattering measurements. Both diagrams are of eutectic type, with a fluid-fluid miscibility gap for CO(2) concentrations in the range [5, 75] mol. % for He and [8, 55] mol. % for Ne, and a complete separation between the two components in the solid phase. The absence of alloys or stoichiometric compounds for these two binary systems is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules of hard sphere mixtures. The Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction patterns of solid CO(2) embedded in He or Ne for various initial concentrations have been measured up to 30 GPa and 12 GPa, respectively. The frequencies of the Raman modes and the volume of solid phase I are identical, within error bars, to those reported for 100% CO(2) samples, thus confirming the total immiscibility of CO(2) with He and Ne in the solid phase. These results demonstrate the possibility to perform high-pressure experiments on solid CO(2) under (quasi-)hydrostatic conditions using He or Ne as pressure transmitting medium.

  13. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to regridding of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Errors in the specification or utilization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions within carbon budget or atmospheric CO2 inverse studies can alias the estimation of biospheric and oceanic carbon exchange. A key component in the simulation of CO2 concentrations arising from fossil fuel emissions is the spatial distribution of the emission near coastlines. Finite grid resolution can give rise to mismatches between the emissions and simulated atmospheric dynamics which differ over land or water. We test these mismatches by examining simulated global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by two different approaches to regridding fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The two approaches are: (1 a commonly-used method that allocates emissions to gridcells with no attempt to ensure dynamical consistency with atmospheric transport; (2 an improved method that reallocates emissions to gridcells to ensure dynamically consistent results. Results show large spatial and temporal differences in the simulated CO2 concentration when comparing these two approaches. The emissions difference ranges from −30.3 Tg C gridcell−1 yr−1 (−3.39 kg C m−2 yr−1 to +30.0 Tg C gridcell−1 yr−1 (+2.6 kg C m−2 yr−1 along coastal margins. Maximum simulated annual mean CO2 concentration differences at the surface exceed ±6 ppm at various locations and times. Examination of the current CO2 monitoring locations during the local afternoon, consistent with inversion modeling system sampling and measurement protocols, finds maximum hourly differences at 38 stations exceed ±0.10 ppm with individual station differences exceeding −32 ppm. The differences implied by not accounting for this dynamical consistency problem are largest at monitoring sites proximal to large coastal urban areas and point sources. These results suggest that studies comparing simulated to observed atmospheric CO2 concentration, such as atmospheric CO2 inversions, must take measures to correct for this potential

  14. Global high-resolution simulations of CO2 and CH4 using a NIES transport model to produce a priori concentrations for use in satellite data retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maksyutov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT measures column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively. Since the launch of GOSAT, model-simulated three-dimensional concentrations from a National Institute for Environmental Studies offline tracer Transport Model (NIES TM have been used as a priori concentration data for operational near real-time retrievals of XCO2 and XCH4 from GOSAT short-wavelength infrared spectra at NIES. Although the choice of a priori profile has only a minor effect on retrieved XCO2 or XCH4, a realistic simulation with minimal deviation from observed data is desirable. In this paper, we describe the newly developed version of NIES TM that has been adapted to provide global and near real-time concentrations of CO2 and CH4 using a high-resolution meteorological dataset, the Grid Point Value (GPV prepared by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The spatial resolution of the NIES TM is set to 0.5° × 0.5° in the horizontal in order to utilise GPV data, which have a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°, 21 pressure levels and a time interval of 3 h. GPV data are provided to the GOSAT processing system with a delay of several hours, and the near real-time model simulation produces a priori concentrations driven by diurnally varying meteorology. A priori variance–covariance matrices of CO2 and CH4 are also derived from the simulation outputs and observation-based reference data for each month of the year at a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and 21 pressure levels. Model performance is assessed by comparing simulation results with the GLOBALVIEW dataset and other observational data. The overall root-mean-square differences between model predictions and GLOBALVIEW analysis are estimated to be 1.45 ppm and 12.52 ppb for CO2 and CH4, respectively, and the seasonal correlation coefficients are 0.87 for CO2 and 0.53 for CH4. The model showed good performance particularly at oceanic and free

  15. Effect of CO2 concentrations on the activity of photosynthetic CO2 fixation and extracelluar carbonic anhydrase in the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiongwen; GAO Kunshan

    2003-01-01

    The growth and activity of photosynthetic CO2 uptake and extracellular carbonic anhydrase (Caext) of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum were investigated while cultured at different levels of CO2 in order to see its physiological response to different CO2 concentrations under either a low (30 μmol·m-2·s-1) or high (210 μmol·m-2·s-1) irradiance. The changes in CO2 concentrations (4-31 μmol/L) affected the growth and net photosynthesis to a greater extent under the low than under the high light regime. Caext was detected in the cells grown at 4 μmol/L CO2 but not at 31 and 12 μmol/L CO2, with its activity being about 2.5-fold higher at the high than at the low irradiance. Photo- synthetic CO2 affinity (1/ K1/2(CO2)) of the cells decreased with increased CO2 concentrations in culture. The cells cultured under the high-light show significantly higher photosynthetic CO2 affinity than those grown at the low-light level. It is concluded that the regulations of Caext activity and photosynthetic CO2 affinity are dependent not only on CO2 concentration but also on light availability, and that the development of higher Caext activity and CO2 affinity under higher light level could sufficiently support the photosynthetic demand for CO2 even at low level of CO2.

  16. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  17. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  18. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 efflux and soil profile CO2 concentrations in arboretum of Moscow botanical garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Olga; Udovenko, Maria; Matyshak, Georgy

    2016-04-01

    To analyse and predict recent and future climate change on a global scale exchange processes of greenhouse gases - primarily carbon dioxide - over various ecosystems are of rising interest. In order to upscale land-use dependent sources and sinks of CO2, knowledge of the local variability of carbon fluxes is needed. Among terrestrial ecosystems, urban areas play an important role because most of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide originate from these areas. On the other hand, urban soils have the potential to store large amounts of soil organic carbon and, thus, contribute to mitigating increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Research objectives: 1) estimate the seasonal dynamics of carbon dioxide production (emission - closed chamber technique and profile concentration - soil air sampling tubes method) by soils of Moscow State University Botanical Garden Arboretum planted with Picea obovata and Pinus sylvestris, 1) identification the factors that control CO2 production. The study was conducted with 1-2 weeks intervals between October 2013 and November 2015 at two sites. Carbon dioxide soil surface efflux during the year ranged from 0 to 800 mgCO2/(m2hr). Efflux values above 0 mgCO2/(m2hr) was observed during the all cold period except for only 3 weeks. Soil CO2 concentration ranged from 1600-3000 ppm in upper 10-cm layer to 10000-40000 ppm at a depth of 60 cm. The maximum concentrations of CO2 were recorded in late winter and late summer. We associate it with high biological activity (both heterotrophic and autotrophic) during the summer, and with physical gas jamming in the winter. The high value of annual CO2 production of the studied soils is caused by high organic matter content, slightly alkaline reaction, good structure and texture of urban soils. Differences in soil CO2 production by spruce and pine urban forest soils (in the pine forest 1.5-2.0 times higher) are caused by urban soil profiles construction, but not temperature regimes. Seasonal

  19. Detection of CO2 leakage by the surface-soil CO2-concentration monitoring (SCM) system in a small scale CO2 release test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Gitak; Yu, Soonyoung; Sung, Ki-Sung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Park, Jinyoung; Han, Raehee; Kim, Jeong-Chan; Park, Kwon Gyu

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of CO2 release through the ground surface is essential to testify the safety of CO2 storage projects. We conducted a feasibility study of the multi-channel surface-soil CO2-concentration monitoring (SCM) system as a soil CO2 monitoring tool with a small scale injection. In the system, chambers are attached onto the ground surface, and NDIR sensors installed in each chamber detect CO2 in soil gas released through the soil surface. Before injection, the background CO2 concentrations were measured. They showed the distinct diurnal variation, and were positively related with relative humidity, but negatively with temperature. The negative relation of CO2 measurements with temperature and the low CO2 concentrations during the day imply that CO2 depends on respiration. The daily variation of CO2 concentrations was damped with precipitation, which can be explained by dissolution of CO2 and gas release out of pores through the ground surface with recharge. For the injection test, 4.2 kg of CO2 was injected 1 m below the ground for about 30 minutes. In result, CO2 concentrations increased in all five chambers, which were located less than 2.5 m of distance from an injection point. The Chamber 1, which is closest to the injection point, showed the largest increase of CO2 concentrations; while Chamber 2, 3, and 4 showed the peak which is 2 times higher than the average of background CO2. The CO2 concentrations increased back after decreasing from the peak around 4 hours after the injection ended in Chamber 2, 4, and 5, which indicated that CO2 concentrations seem to be recovered to the background around 4 hours after the injection ended. To determine the leakage, the data in Chamber 2 and 5, which had low increase rates in the CO2 injection test, were used for statistical analysis. The result shows that the coefficient of variation (CV) of CO2 measurements for 30 minutes is efficient to determine a leakage signal, with reflecting the abnormal change in CO2

  20. [CO2-Concentrating Mechanism and Its Traits in Haloalkaliphilic Cyanobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanova, E V; Samylina, O S

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a group of oxygenic phototrophs existing for at least 3.5 Ga. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation by cyanobacteria occurs via the Calvin cycle, with RuBisCO, its key enzyme, having very low affinity to CO2. This is due to the fact that atmospheric CO2 concentration in Archaean, when the photosynthetic apparatus evolved, was several orders higher than now. Later, in the epoch of Precambrian microbial communities, CO2 content in the atmosphere decreased drastically. Thus, present-day phototrophs, including cyanobacteria, require adaptive mechanisms for efficient photosynthesis. In cyanobacterial cells, this function is performed by the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which creates elevated CO2 concentrations in the vicinity of RuBisCO active centers, thus significantly increasing the rate of CO2 fixation in the Calvin cycle. CCM has been previously studied only for freshwater and marine cyanobacteria. We were the first to investigate CCM in haloalkaliphilic cyanobacteria from soda lakes. Extremophilic haloalkaliphilic cyanobacteria were shown to possess a well-developed CCM with the structure and functional principles similar to those of freshwater and marine strains. Analysis of available data suggests that regulation of the amount of inorganic carbon transported into the cell is probably the general CCM function under these conditions.

  1. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-12-01

    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  2. Continuous and high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of COS, CO2, CO and H2O using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Uitslag, Nelly A. M.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Nelson, David D.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Chen, Huilin

    2016-11-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been suggested as a useful tracer for gross primary production as it is taken up by plants in a similar way as CO2. To explore and verify the application of this novel tracer, it is highly desired to develop the ability to perform continuous and high-precision in situ atmospheric measurements of COS and CO2. In this study we have tested a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) for its suitability to obtain accurate and high-precision measurements of COS and CO2. The instrument is capable of simultaneously measuring COS, CO2, CO and H2O after including a weak CO absorption line in the extended wavelength range. An optimal background and calibration strategy was developed based on laboratory tests to ensure accurate field measurements. We have derived water vapor correction factors based on a set of laboratory experiments and found that for COS the interference associated with a water absorption line can dominate over the effect of dilution. This interference can be solved mathematically by fitting the COS spectral line separately from the H2O spectral line. Furthermore, we improved the temperature stability of the QCLS by isolating it in an enclosed box and actively cooling its electronics with the same thermoelectric chiller used to cool the laser. The QCLS was deployed at the Lutjewad atmospheric monitoring station (60 m; 6°21' E, 53°24' N; 1 m a.s.l.) in the Netherlands from July 2014 to April 2015. The QCLS measurements of independent working standards while deployed in the field showed a mean difference with the assigned cylinder value within 3.3 ppt COS, 0.05 ppm for CO2 and 1.7 ppb for CO over a period of 35 days. The different contributions to uncertainty in measurements of COS, CO2 and CO were summarized and the overall uncertainty was determined to be 7.5 ppt for COS, 0.23 ppm for CO2 and 3.3 ppb for CO for 1-minute data. A comparison of in situ QCLS measurements with those from concurrently filled flasks that were

  3. CO2-Philic polymer membrane with extremely high separation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-01-12

    Polymeric membranes are attractive for CO2 separation and concentration from different gas streams because of their versatility and energy efficiency; they can compete with, and they may even replace, traditional absorption processes. Here we describe a simple and powerful method for developing nanostructured and CO2-philic polymer membranes for CO2 separation. A poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene terephthalate) multiblock copolymer is used as membrane material. Smart additives such as polyethylene glycol dibutyl ether are incorporated as spacers or fillers for producing nanostructured materials. The addition of these specific additives produces CO2-philic membranes and increases the CO2 permeability (750 barrer) up to five-fold without the loss of selectivity. The membranes present outstanding performance for CO2 separation, and the measured CO2 flux is extremely high ( > 2 m3 m -2 h-1 bar-1) with selectivity over H2 and N2 of 10 and 40, respectively, making them attractive for CO 2 capture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Effects of Controlled Atmospheres with High-O2 or High-CO2 Concentrations on Postharvest Physiology and Storability of "Napoleon" Sweet Cherry%高O2或高CO2浓度气调贮藏对"那翁"甜樱桃采后生理和贮藏性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜爱丽; 田世平; 徐勇

    2002-01-01

    Sweet cherries ( Prunus avium L. cv. Napoleon) were stored in controlled atmospheres (CA) of high O2 (70% O2+0% CO2) or high CO2 (5% O2+10% CO2), in modified atmosphere package (MAP, (13%-18%) O2+(2%-4%) CO2) and in air (control) at 1 ℃ to investigate the effects of different O2 and CO2 concentrations on physiological properties, quality and storability of the fruits during storage. The results indicated that compared with other treatments, CA with high O2 concentration decreased fruit decay and ethanol content, but increased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and stimulated browning. CA with high CO2 concentration inhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced MDA content, maintained vitamin C content and firmness, decreased fruit decay and browning. Soluble solids contents (SSC) were not significantly affected by different atmosphere treatments. "Napoleon" fruits stored in 5% O2+10% CO2 for as long as 80 d were of good quality, but only 40, 20 and 30 d stored in MAP, 70% O2+ 0% CO2 and air, respectively.%研究了甜樱桃品种"那翁" ( Prunus avium L. cv. Napoleon)在1 ℃的高O2 浓度气调(CA-I: 70% O2+0% CO2)、高CO2 浓度气调 (CA-II: 5% O2+10% CO2)、自发气调 (modified atmosphere package, MAP) 和普通冷藏条件下果实生理、品质、耐藏性的变化.结果表明:与其他处理相比,高O2 浓度的气调可以抑制果实腐烂、减少果肉中乙醇含量,但果实的丙二醛(MDA)含量迅速上升、褐变严重.高CO2浓度的气调能有效抑制MDA含量上升的速率和多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性,保持果实硬度和维生素C含量,减少果实腐烂和褐变,延长贮藏寿命.不同处理对果实可溶性固形物含量的影响不大."那翁" 甜樱桃在5% O2+10% CO2气调中贮藏80 d能保持果实固有的风味品质.在MAP下, 70% O2+0% CO2和普通冷藏中的适宜贮藏期分别为40 d、20 d和30 d.

  5. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae

  6. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves.

  7. Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, irradiance, and soil nitrogen availability on leaf photosynthetic traits of Polygonum sachalinense around natural CO2 springs in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Onoda, Yusuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2010-09-01

    Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration will affect the traits of wild plants in association with other environmental factors. We investigated multiple effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, irradiance, and soil N availability on the leaf photosynthetic traits of a herbaceous species, Polygonum sachalinense, growing around natural CO2 springs in northern Japan. Atmospheric CO2 concentration and its interaction with irradiance and soil N availability affected several leaf traits. Leaf mass per unit area increased and N per mass decreased with increasing CO2 and irradiance. Leaf N per area increased with increasing soil N availability at higher CO2 concentrations. The photosynthetic rate under growth CO2 conditions increased with increasing irradiance and CO2, and with increasing soil N at higher CO2 concentrations. The maximal velocity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation (V (cmax)) was affected by the interaction of CO2 and soil N, suggesting that down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 was more evident at lower soil N availability. The ratio of the maximum rate of electron transport to V (cmax) (J (max)/V (cmax)) increased with increasing CO2, suggesting that the plants used N efficiently for photosynthesis at high CO2 concentrations by changes in N partitioning. To what extent elevated CO2 influenced plant traits depended on other environmental factors. As wild plants are subject to a wide range of light and nutrient availability, our results highlight the importance of these environmental factors when the effects of elevated CO2 on plants are evaluated.

  8. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  9. Development of new measuring technique using sound velocity for CO2 concentration in Cameroonian volcanic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanemasa, M.; Saiki, K.; Kaneko, K.; Ohba, T.; Kusakabe, M.; Tanyileke, G.; Hell, J.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction Limnic eruptions at Lakes Monoun and Nyos in Cameroon, which are sudden degassing of magmatic CO2 dissolved in the lake water, occurred in 1984 and 1986, respectively. The disasters killed about 1800 people around the lakes. Because of ongoing CO2 accumulation in the bottom water of the lakes, tragedy of limnic eruptions will possibly occur again. To prevent from further disasters, artificial degassing of CO2 from the lake waters has been undergoing. Additionally, CO2 monitoring of the lake waters is needed. Nevertheless, CO2 measurement is done only once or twice a year because current methods of CO2 measurement, which require chemical analysis of water samples, are not suitable for frequent measurement. In engineering field, on the other hand, a method to measure salt concentration using sound velocity has been proposed (Kleis and Sanchez, 1990). This method allows us to evaluate solute concentration fast. We applied the method to dissolved CO2 and examined the correlation between sound velocity and CO2 concentration in laboratory experiment. Furthermore, using the obtained correlation, we tried to estimate the CO2 concentration of waters in the Cameroonian lakes. 2. Laboratory experiment We examined the correlation between sound velocity and CO2 concentration. A profiler (Minos X, made by AML oceanography) and pure water were packed in cylindrical stainless vessel and high-pressure CO2 gas was injected to produce carbonated water. The profiler recorded temperature, pressure and sound velocity. Change of sound velocity was defined as difference of sound velocity between carbonated water and pure water under the same temperature and pressure conditions. CO2 concentration was calculated by Henry's law. The result indicated that the change of sound velocity [m s-1] is proportional to CO2 concentration [mmol kg-1], and the coefficient is 0.021 [m kg s-1 mmol-1]. 3. Field application Depth profiles of sound velocity, pressure, and temperature of Lakes

  10. Characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations over contrasting land uses in a tropical urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore Kumar, M.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Indian cities feature high human population density, heterogeneous traffic, mixed land-use patterns and mostly tropical meteorological conditions. Characteristics of ambient CO2 concentrations under these distinctive features are very specific and the related studies are limited. This paper presents the characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations at three contrasting land uses (residential, commercial and industrial) in a tropical urban area of India. The CO2 concentrations were monitored in Chennai city for 31 days at each land use during June-September, 2013. Emissions of CO2 from all the major anthropogenic sources present at the three study sites were also quantified. Results indicated that the daily average CO2 concentrations were high at commercial (467 ± 35.15 ppm) and industrial (464 ± 31.68 ppm) sites than at residential site (448 ± 33.45 ppm). The quantified CO2 emissions were also showed high levels at commercial (1190 tons/day) and industrial sites (8886 tons/day) than at residential site (90 tons/day). On a diurnal scale, CO2 concentrations were low during afternoons and high during the late evenings and early morning hours at all the three types of land use sites. At the urban residential site, the domestic sector had a strong impact on the day time CO2 concentrations, while soil and plant respiration phenomena had a greater control over the night time CO2 concentrations. Further, the CO2 concentrations were high during the stagnation and stable meteorological conditions than the ventilation and unstable conditions.

  11. Calculation of H2O-NH3-CO2 Vapor Liquid Equilibria at High Concentration Conditions%高浓度H2O-NH3-CO2体系汽液平衡计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏顺安; 张红晶

    2004-01-01

    A vapor liquid equilibrium model and its related interactive energy parameters based on UNIQUAC model for the H2O-NH3-CO2 system without solid phase at the conditions of temperature from 30℃ to 90℃,pressure from 0.1 MPa to 0.4 MPa, and the maximum NH3 mass fraction up to 0.4 are provided. This model agrees with experimental data well (average relative error < 1%) and is useful for analysis of industrial urea production.

  12. Transcriptional response of the extremophile red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae to changes in CO2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Nadine; Wrobel, Thomas J; Rossoni, Alessandro W; Kurz, Samantha; Bräutigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P M; Eisenhut, Marion

    2017-10-01

    Cyanidioschyzon merolae (C. merolae) is an acidophilic red alga growing in a naturally low carbon dioxide (CO2) environment. Although it uses a ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase with high affinity for CO2, the survival of C. merolae relies on functional photorespiratory metabolism. In this study, we quantified the transcriptomic response of C. merolae to changes in CO2 conditions. We found distinct changes upon shifts between CO2 conditions, such as a concerted up-regulation of photorespiratory genes and responses to carbon starvation. We used the transcriptome data set to explore a hypothetical CO2 concentrating mechanism in C. merolae, based on the assumption that photorespiratory genes and possible candidate genes involved in a CO2 concentrating mechanism are co-expressed. A putative bicarbonate transport protein and two α-carbonic anhydrases were identified, which showed enhanced transcript levels under reduced CO2 conditions. Genes encoding enzymes of a PEPCK-type C4 pathway were co-regulated with the photorespiratory gene cluster. We propose a model of a hypothetical low CO2 compensation mechanism in C. merolae integrating these low CO2-inducible components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrasting CO2 concentration discharge dynamics in headwater streams: A multi-catchment comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, K. J.; Wallin, M. B.; Johnson, M. S.; Billett, M. F.; Bishop, K.; Pumpanen, J.; Ojala, A.

    2013-06-01

    CO2 concentrations are highly variable and strongly linked to discharge, but until recently, measurements have been largely restricted to low-frequency manual sampling. Using new in situ CO2 sensors, we present concurrent, high-frequency (data collected from five catchments across Canada, UK, and Fennoscandinavia to explore concentration-discharge dynamics; we also consider the relative importance of high flows to lateral aquatic CO2 export. The catchments encompassed a wide range of mean CO2 concentrations (0.73-3.05 mg C L-1) and hydrological flow regimes from flashy peatland streams to muted outflows within a Finnish lake system. In three of the catchments, CO2 concentrations displayed clear bimodal distributions indicating distinct CO2 sources. Concentration-discharge relationships were not consistent across sites with three of the catchments displaying a negative relationship and two catchments displaying a positive relationship. When individual high flow events were considered, we found a strong correlation between both the average magnitude of the hydrological and CO2 response peaks, and the average response lag times. An analysis of lateral CO2 export showed that in three of the catchments, the top 30% of flow (i.e., flow that was exceeded only 30% of the time) had the greatest influence on total annual load. This indicates that an increase in precipitation extremes (greater high-flow contributions) may have a greater influence on the flushing of CO2 from soils to surface waters than a long-term increase in mean annual precipitation, assuming source limitation does not occur.

  14. Quantification and modelling of on-road CO2 emissions and its impacts on ambient CO2 concentrations in an Indian coastal city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhipatla, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of CO2 emission inventory, monitoring of CO2 concentrations and modelling of on road CO2 emissions in an Indian coastal city. Bottom up approach was adopted for quantifying the grid wise on road CO2 emissions of Chennai city at a finer resolution of 1Km x 1Km using the real time traffic data of 56 major roads. In addition, monitoring of ground level CO2 concentrations and vehicular traffic were carried out at a residential site in Chennai to understand the impact of vehicular emissions on the ambient CO2 levels. Further, AERMOD, a US EPA regulatory model, was deployed to find the spatial variation of CO2 concentrations due to the emissions from 38 major corridors of Chennai. Results indicated that a total emission of 0.65 Tg/year of CO2 was emitted by the vehicular traffic from the major roads of Chennai. Cars were identified as the larger emitters of CO2 with a contribution of 25% of the total emissions followed by three wheelers (21%), trucks (16%), buses (15%), two wheelers (13%) and Light Commercial Vehicles (9%). Ground level CO2 concentrations at the study area were in the range 391.52 to 666.37 ppm, with a mean hourly concentration of 448 ± 33.45 ppm. It was observed that the CO2 concentrations were high during the morning and evening peak hours and low during the afternoons and further vehicular emissions were found to have a significant effect on the ambient CO2 concentrations during the morning peak hours (R2=0.78) and afternoons (R2=0.50). But, contrastingly, a weak correlation was observed between the vehicular emissions and CO2 concentrations during the evening peak hours (R2=0.02). In addition, night time CO2 concentrations were observed higher in the weekends corresponding to high vehicular traffic during the late evenings. From the modelling results, it was found that the considered 38 major corridors contribute 0.12 ppm of CO2 per year to the ambient atmosphere.

  15. Armazenamento da maçã cv. golden delicious em atmosfera controlada com altas concentrações de CO2 e ultra-baixas de O2 Controlled atmosphere storage of golden delicious apples with high CO2 and ulo concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de altas concentrações de CO2, e ultra-baixas de O2, sobre as qualidades fisico-químicas, distúrbios fisiológicos e podridões durante o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC de maçãs da cv. 'Golden Delicious'. Os frutos foram armazenados nas temperaturas de -0,5°C e +0,5°C e umidade relativa do ar de 97%. As condições de AC foram 1.0% de O2, e 6.0% de CO2; 1,5% de O2, e 6,0% de CO2; 1,0% de O2, e 4,0% de CO2, 2.0% de O2, e 4.0% de CO2; 3,0% de O2, e 4,0% de CO2, Os parâmetros avaliados foram: firmeza da polpa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável, escaldadura, degenerescência interna e podridões. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois momentos: na abertura das câmaras (8,5 meses de armazenamento e após 14 dias (7 dias em armazenamento refrigerado e 7 dias em temperatura ambiente a 23°C. Em concentrações ultra-baixa de O2, (1% combinado com 4% de CO2, a maçã 'Golden Delicious' apresentou uma melhor manutenção das qualidades fisico-químicas após longo período de armazenamento sem apresentar sintomas de fermentação. Concentrações de 6% de CO2, com baixas de O2 na temperatura de +0,5°C, não causou danos aos frutos, porém na temperatura de -0,5"C houve degenerescência interna e escaldadura superficial, sendo a temperatura de +0,5°C mais indicada para a cv. Golden Delicious'.The experiment was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effects of the high CO2, and ultra-low O2, (ULO concentrations on the fruit quality and incidence of physiological disorders and rots during controlled atmosphere (CA storage of 'Golden Delicious'. Fruits were stored at-0.5°C and +0.5°C, with 97% relative humidity. The CA conditions were: 1.0% of O2, and 6.0% of CO2,.1.5% of O2, and 6.0% of CO2; 1.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,; 2.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,; 3.0% of O2, and 4.0% of CO2,. After 8.5 months of storage and 14 days after chamber opening (seven days of

  16. Impacts of CO2 concentration on growth, lipid accumulation, and carbon-concentrating-mechanism-related gene expression in oleaginous Chlorella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianhua; Xu, Hui; Luo, Yuanchan; Wan, Minxi; Huang, Jianke; Wang, Weiliang; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-03-01

    Biodiesel production by microalgae with photosynthetic CO2 biofixation is thought to be a feasible way in the field of bioenergy and carbon emission reduction. Knowledge of the carbon-concentrating mechanism plays an important role in improving microalgae carbon fixation efficiency. However, little information is available regarding the dramatic changes of cells suffered upon different environmental factors, such as CO2 concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth, lipid accumulation, carbon fixation rate, and carbon metabolism gene expression under different CO2 concentrations in oleaginous Chlorella. It was found that Chlorella pyrenoidosa grew well under CO2 concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 %. The highest biomass and lipid productivity were 4.3 g/L and 107 mg/L/day under 5 % CO2 condition. Switch from high (5 %) to low (0.03 %, air) CO2 concentration showed significant inhibitory effect on growth and CO2 fixation rate. The amount of the saturated fatty acids was increased obviously along with the transition. Low CO2 concentration (0.03 %) was suitable for the accumulation of saturated fatty acids. Reducing the CO2 concentration could significantly decrease the polyunsaturated degree in fatty acids. Moreover, the carbon-concentrating mechanism-related gene expression revealed that most of them, especially CAH2, LCIB, and HLA3, had remarkable change after 1, 4, and 24 h of the transition, which suggests that Chlorella has similar carbon-concentrating mechanism with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The findings of the present study revealed that C. pyrenoidosa is an ideal candidate for mitigating CO2 and biodiesel production and is appropriate as a model for mechanism research of carbon sequestration.

  17. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Baker, D. F.; Liu, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a sensitivity analysis of the impact of sub-annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration using a global tracer transport model. Four sensitivity experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of three cyclic components (diurnal, weekly and monthly) and a complete cyclic component (the combination of the three) by comparing with a temporally "flat" fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory. A complete exploration of these impacts is quantified at annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal time scales of the CO2concentration for the surface, vertical profile and column-integral structure. Result shows an annual mean surface concentration difference varying from -1.35 ppm to 0.13 ppm at grid scale for the complete cyclic fossil fuel emissions, which is mainly driven by a large negative diurnal rectification and less positive seasonal rectification. The negative diurnal rectification is up to 1.45 ppm at grid scale and primarily due to the covariation of diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions and diurnal variations of vertical mixing. The positive seasonal rectification is up to 0.23 ppm at grid scale which is mainly driven by the monthly fossil fuel CO2emissions coupling with atmospheric transport. Both the diurnal and seasonal rectifier effects are indicated at local-to-regional scales with center at large source regions and extend to neighboring regions in mainly Northern Hemisphere. The diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions is found to significantly affect the simulated diurnal CO2 amplitude (up to 9.12 ppm at grid scale), which is primarily contributed by the minima concentration differences around local sunset time. Similarly, large impact on the seasonal CO2 amplitude (up to 6.11 ppm) is found at regional scale for the monthly fossil fuel emissions. An impact of diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions on simulated afternoon CO2 concentration is also identified by up to 1.13 ppm at local scales. The study demonstrates a large cyclic fossil fuel

  18. Stomatal density and stomatal index as indicators of paleoatmospheric CO(2) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, D L.

    2001-03-01

    A growing number of studies use the plant species-specific inverse relationship between atmospheric CO(2) concentration and stomatal density (SD) or stomatal index (SI) as a proxy for paleo-CO(2) levels. A total of 285 previously published SD and 145 SI responses to variable CO(2) concentrations from a pool of 176 C(3) plant species are analyzed here to test the reliability of this method. The percentage of responses inversely responding to CO(2) rises from 40 and 36% (for SD and SI, respectively) in experimental studies to 88 and 94% (for SD and SI, respectively) in fossil studies. The inconsistent experimental responses verify previous concerns involving this method, however the high percentage of fossil responses showing an inverse relationship clearly validates the method when applied over time scales of similar length. Furthermore, for all groups of observations, a positive relationship between CO(2) and SD/SI is found in only CO(2) appears to inversely affect stomatal initiation, although the mechanism may involve genetic adaptation and therefore is often not clearly expressed under short CO(2) exposure times.Experimental responses of SD and SI based on open-top chambers (OTCs) inversely relate to CO(2) less often than greenhouse-based responses (P<0.01 for both SD and SI), and should be avoided when experimental responses are required for CO(2) reconstructions. In the combined data set, hypostomatous species follow the inverse relationship more often than amphistomatous species (56 vs. 44% for SD; 69 vs. 32% for SI; P<0.03 for both comparisons). Both the SD and SI of fossil responses are equally likely to inversely relate to CO(2) when exposed to elevated versus subambient CO(2) concentrations (relative to today). This result casts doubt on previous claims that stomata cannot respond to CO(2) concentrations above present-day levels. Although the proportion of SD and SI responses inversely relating to CO(2) are similar, SD is more

  19. Stomatal proxy record of CO2 concentrations from the last termination suggests an important role for CO2 at climate change transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Kylander, Malin E.; Blaauw, Maarten; Reimer, Paula J.

    2013-05-01

    A new stomatal proxy-based record of CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), based on Betula nana (dwarf birch) leaves from the Hässeldala Port sedimentary sequence in south-eastern Sweden, is presented. The record is of high chronological resolution and spans most of Greenland Interstadial 1 (GI-1a to 1c, Allerød pollen zone), Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1, Younger Dryas pollen zone) and the very beginning of the Holocene (Preboreal pollen zone). The record clearly demonstrates that i) [CO2] were significantly higher than usually reported for the Last Termination and ii) the overall pattern of CO2 evolution through the studied time period is fairly dynamic, with significant abrupt fluctuations in [CO2] when the climate moved from interstadial to stadial state and vice versa. A new loss-on-ignition chemical record (used here as a proxy for temperature) lends independent support to the Hässeldala Port [CO2] record. The large-amplitude fluctuations around the climate change transitions may indicate unstable climates and that “tipping-point” situations were involved in Last Termination climate evolution. The scenario presented here is in contrast to [CO2] records reconstructed from air bubbles trapped in ice, which indicate lower concentrations and a gradual, linear increase of [CO2] through time. The prevalent explanation for the main climate forcer during the Last Termination being ocean circulation patterns needs to re-examined, and a larger role for atmospheric [CO2] considered.

  20. Measurement of Concentration of CO2 in Atmosphere In Situ Based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxin; Guo, Jinjia; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-11-01

    As one of the main greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, CO2has a significant impact on global climate change and the ecological environment. Because of close relationship between human activities and the CO2 emissions, it is very meaningful of detecting atmospheric CO2accurately. Based on the technology of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, the wavelength of distributed feedback laser is modulated, Fresnel lens is used as the receiving optical system, which receives the laser-beam reflected by corner reflector, and focuses the receiving laser-beam to the photoelectric detector. The second harmonic signal is received through lock-in amplifier and collected by AD data acquisition card, after that the system is built up.By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2at 1.57μm, the system is calibrated by 100% CO2 gas cell. The atmospheric CO2 in situ is measured with long open-path way. Furthermore, the results show that CO2 concentration decreases along time in the morning of day. It is proved that TDLAS technology has many advantages, including fast response, high sensitivity and resolution. This research provides a technique for monitoring secular change of CO2 in atmosphere.

  1. Reconstructing CO2 concentrations in basaltic melt inclusions using Raman analysis of vapor bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aster, Ellen M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Moore, Lowell R.; Watkins, James; Gazel, Esteban; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Melt inclusions record valuable information about pre-eruptive volatile concentrations of melts. However, a vapor bubble commonly forms in inclusions after trapping, and this decreases the dissolved CO2 concentration in the melt (glass) phase in the inclusion. To quantify CO2 loss to vapor bubbles, Raman spectroscopic analysis was used to determine the density of CO2 in bubbles in melt inclusions from two Cascade cinder cones near Mt. Lassen and two Mexican cinder cones (Jorullo, Parícutin). Using analyses of dissolved CO2 and H2O in the glass in the inclusions, the measured CO2 vapor densities were used to reconstruct the original dissolved CO2 contents of the melt inclusions at the time of trapping. Our results show that 30-90% of the CO2 in a melt inclusion is contained in the vapor bubble, values similar to those found in other recent studies. We developed a model for vapor bubble growth to show how post-entrapment bubbles form in melt inclusions as a result of cooling, crystallization, and eruptive quenching. The model allows us to predict the bubble volume fraction as a function of ΔT (the difference between the trapping temperature and eruptive temperature) and the amount of CO2 lost to a bubble. Comparison of the Raman and modeling methods shows highly variable agreement. For 10 of 17 inclusions, the two methods are within ± 550 ppm CO2 (avg. difference 290 ppm), equivalent to ±~300 bars uncertainty in estimated trapping pressure for restored inclusions. Discrepancies between the two methods occur for inclusions that have been strongly affected by post-entrapment diffusive H+ loss, because this process enhances bubble formation. For our dataset, restoring the CO2 lost to vapor bubbles increases inferred trapping pressures of the inclusions by 600 to as much as 4000 bars, highlighting the importance of accounting for vapor bubble formation in melt inclusion studies.

  2. Dynamics of dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethylsulphide under different CO2 concentrations during a mesocosm experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. LeQuéré

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of seawater acidification on the concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP, and the activity of the enzyme DMSP-lyase was investigated during a pelagic ecosystem CO2 enrichment experiment (PeECE III in spring 2005. Natural phytoplankton blooms were studied for 24 days under present, double and triple partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2; pH=8.3, 8.0, 7.8 in triplicate 25 m3 enclosures. The results indicate similar DMSP concentrations and DMSP-lyase activity (DLA patterns for all treatments. Hence, DMSP and DLA do not seem to have been affected by the CO2 treatment. In contrast, DMS concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in the temporal development of the low versus the high CO2 treatments. The low pCO2 enclosures had higher DMS concentrations during the first 10 days, after which the levels decreased earlier and more rapidly than in the other treatments. Integrated over the whole study period, DMS concentrations were not significantly different from those of the double and triple pCO2 treatments. Pigment and flow-cytometric data indicate that phytoplanktonic populations were generally similar between the treatments, suggesting a certain resilience of the marine ecosystem under study to the induced pH changes, which is reflected in DMSP and DLA. However, there were significant differences in bacterial community structure and the abundance of one group of viruses infecting nanoeukaryotic algae. The amount of DMS accumulated per total DMSP or chlorophyll-a differed significantly between the present and future scenarios, suggesting that the pathways for DMS production or bacterial DMS consumption were affected by seawater pH. A comparison with previous work (PeECE II suggests that DMS concentrations do not respond consistently to pelagic ecosystem CO2 enrichment experiments.

  3. Sensitive indicators of Stipa bungeana response to precipitation under ambient and elevated CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohui; Zhou, Guangsheng; Jiang, Yanling; Wang, Hui; Xu, Zhenzhu

    2017-09-01

    Precipitation is a primary environmental factor in the semiarid grasslands of northern China. With increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases, precipitation regimes will change, and high-impact weather events may be more common. Currently, many ecophysiological indicators are known to reflect drought conditions, but these indicators vary greatly among species, and few studies focus on the applicability of these drought indicators under high CO2 conditions. In this study, five precipitation levels (- 30%, - 15%, control, + 15%, and + 30%) were used to simulate the effects of precipitation change on 18 ecophysiological characteristics in Stipa bungeana, including leaf area, plant height, leaf nitrogen (N), and chlorophyll content, among others. Two levels of CO2 concentration (ambient, 390 ppm; 550 ppm) were used to simulate the effects of elevated CO2 on these drought indicators. Using gray relational analysis and phenotypic plasticity analysis, we found that total leaf area or leaf number (morphology), leaf water potential or leaf water content (physiology), and aboveground biomass better reflected the water status of S. bungeana under ambient and elevated CO2 than the 13 other analyzed variables. The sensitivity of drought indicators changed under the elevated CO2 condition. By quantifying the relationship between precipitation and the five most sensitive indicators, we found that the thresholds of precipitation decreased under elevated CO2 concentration. These results will be useful for objective monitoring and assessment of the occurrence and development of drought events in S. bungeana grasslands.

  4. Effect of High Concentration of CO2 Invasion on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties%高浓度二氧化碳入侵对土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴宇; 赵晓红; 邓红章; 李春荣; 韩枫; 张青海; 张徽

    2016-01-01

    In the impact of the leakage of CO2 geological storage on the ecological environment, especially, the soil, it is the main medium of the exchange of substances and energy in ecological system, so studying the soil physical and chemical properties are very significant. This experiment artificially simulated the leakage of CO2 to the soil surface, and then the changes in soil organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and water-soluble salts and the responses of plants were analyzed. The results show that, after the invasion of CO2, compared with the controlled area, the soil total organic carbon increases by 1.56%~43.75%, total nitrogen decreases by 0.88%~13.25%, ammonia and nitrate reduce as well, phosphorus, potassium and water-soluble salts also decline in general, while the pH of the soil is up,and every plant grows well, particularly, peas and radish. Conclusion:the invasion of high concentration of CO2 has some impacts on soil physical and chemical properties, in addition, can promote the growth of plants.%在地质储存CO2(GCS)泄漏对生态环境的影响中,土壤作为生态系统中物质与能量交换的主要介质,其理化性质的变化研究尤为重要。采用人工模拟CO2泄漏地表的方式,并分析土壤pH值、总有机碳、氮、磷、钾、水溶性盐浓度的变化及地表植物响应。结果表明:CO2入侵使土壤总有机碳相比于对照增加了1.56%~43.75%,总氮下降了0.88%~13.25%,氨氮与硝氮也同比下降,磷、钾、水溶性盐总体也是减少的,但土壤pH值有所上升,且各植物长势均较好,尤其是豌豆与萝卜的生长较好。结论:高浓度CO2入侵会对土壤理化性质产生一定影响,而且对植物的生长有促进作用。

  5. Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Pang, Yuanjie; Zhang, Bo; de Luna, Phil; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Zheng, Xueli; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Cao, Changhong; de Arquer, F. Pelayo García; Safaei, Tina Saberi; Mepham, Adam; Klinkova, Anna; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Filleter, Tobin; Sinton, David; Kelley, Shana O.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) is the first step in the synthesis of more complex carbon-based fuels and feedstocks using renewable electricity. Unfortunately, the reaction suffers from slow kinetics owing to the low local concentration of CO2 surrounding typical CO2 reduction reaction catalysts. Alkali metal cations are known to overcome this limitation through non-covalent interactions with adsorbed reagent species, but the effect is restricted by the solubility of relevant salts. Large applied electrode potentials can also enhance CO2 adsorption, but this comes at the cost of increased hydrogen (H2) evolution. Here we report that nanostructured electrodes produce, at low applied overpotentials, local high electric fields that concentrate electrolyte cations, which in turn leads to a high local concentration of CO2 close to the active CO2 reduction reaction surface. Simulations reveal tenfold higher electric fields associated with metallic nanometre-sized tips compared to quasi-planar electrode regions, and measurements using gold nanoneedles confirm a field-induced reagent concentration that enables the CO2 reduction reaction to proceed with a geometric current density for CO of 22 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.35 volts (overpotential of 0.24 volts). This performance surpasses by an order of magnitude the performance of the best gold nanorods, nanoparticles and oxide-derived noble metal catalysts. Similarly designed palladium nanoneedle electrocatalysts produce formate with a Faradaic efficiency of more than 90 per cent and an unprecedented geometric current density for formate of 10 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.2 volts, demonstrating the wider applicability of the field-induced reagent concentration concept.

  6. Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Pang, Yuanjie; Zhang, Bo; De Luna, Phil; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Zheng, Xueli; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Cao, Changhong; de Arquer, F Pelayo García; Safaei, Tina Saberi; Mepham, Adam; Klinkova, Anna; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Filleter, Tobin; Sinton, David; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-09-15

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) is the first step in the synthesis of more complex carbon-based fuels and feedstocks using renewable electricity. Unfortunately, the reaction suffers from slow kinetics owing to the low local concentration of CO2 surrounding typical CO2 reduction reaction catalysts. Alkali metal cations are known to overcome this limitation through non-covalent interactions with adsorbed reagent species, but the effect is restricted by the solubility of relevant salts. Large applied electrode potentials can also enhance CO2 adsorption, but this comes at the cost of increased hydrogen (H2) evolution. Here we report that nanostructured electrodes produce, at low applied overpotentials, local high electric fields that concentrate electrolyte cations, which in turn leads to a high local concentration of CO2 close to the active CO2 reduction reaction surface. Simulations reveal tenfold higher electric fields associated with metallic nanometre-sized tips compared to quasi-planar electrode regions, and measurements using gold nanoneedles confirm a field-induced reagent concentration that enables the CO2 reduction reaction to proceed with a geometric current density for CO of 22 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.35 volts (overpotential of 0.24 volts). This performance surpasses by an order of magnitude the performance of the best gold nanorods, nanoparticles and oxide-derived noble metal catalysts. Similarly designed palladium nanoneedle electrocatalysts produce formate with a Faradaic efficiency of more than 90 per cent and an unprecedented geometric current density for formate of 10 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.2 volts, demonstrating the wider applicability of the field-induced reagent concentration concept.

  7. Soil CO2 concentration does not affect growth or root respiration in bean or citrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Contrasting effects of soil CO2 concentration on root respiration rates during short-term CO2 exposure, and on plant growth during long-term CO2 exposure, have been reported, Here we examine the effects of both short-and long-term exposure to soil CO2 on the root respiration of intact plants and on

  8. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Mercedes; Noarbe, Dolores M.; Serrot, Patricia H.; Sabater, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana) with five transgenic lines (ΔndhF, pr-ΔndhF, T181D, T181A, and ndhF FC) and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrati...

  9. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes eMartin; Dolores Marin Noarbe; Patricia Hauke Serrot; Bartolome eSabater

    2015-01-01

    The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana) with five transgenic lines (ndhF, pr-ndhF, T181D, T181A and ndhF FC) and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentratio...

  10. Regulation of CO2 Concentrating Mechanism in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Burnap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter, we mainly focus on the acclimation of cyanobacteria to the changing ambient CO2 and discuss mechanisms of inorganic carbon (Ci uptake, photorespiration, and the regulation among the metabolic fluxes involved in photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic and heterotrophic growth. The structural components for several of the transport and uptake mechanisms are described and the progress towards elucidating their regulation is discussed in the context of studies, which have documented metabolomic changes in response to changes in Ci availability. Genes for several of the transport and uptake mechanisms are regulated by transcriptional regulators that are in the LysR-transcriptional regulator family and are known to act in concert with small molecule effectors, which appear to be well-known metabolites. Signals that trigger changes in gene expression and enzyme activity correspond to specific “regulatory metabolites” whose concentrations depend on the ambient Ci availability. Finally, emerging evidence for an additional layer of regulatory complexity involving small non-coding RNAs is discussed.

  11. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration determined with trenching, soil CO2 fluxes and 13CO2/12CO2 concentration gradients in a boreal forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Shurpali, Narasinha; Kulmala, Liisa; Kolari, Pasi; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux forms a substantial part of the ecosystem carbon balance, and it can contribute more than half of the annual ecosystem respiration. Recently assimilated carbon which has been fixed in photosynthesis during the previous days plays an important role in soil CO2 efflux, and its contribution is seasonally variable. Moreover, the recently assimilated C has been shown to stimulate the decomposition of recalcitrant C in soil and increase the mineralization of nitrogen, the most important macronutrient limiting gross primary productivity (GPP) in boreal ecosystems. Podzolic soils, typical in boreal zone, have distinctive layers with different biological and chemical properties. The biological activity in different soil layers has large seasonal variation due to vertical gradient in temperature, soil organic matter and root biomass. Thus, the source of CO2 and its components have a vertical gradient which is seasonally variable. The contribution of recently assimilated C and its seasonal as well as spatial variation in soil are difficult to assess without disturbing the system. The most common method of partitioning soil respiration into its components is trenching which entails the roots being cut or girdling where the flow of carbohydrates from the canopy to roots has been isolated by cutting of the phloem. Other methods for determining the contribution of autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration components in soil CO2 efflux are pulse labelling with 13CO2 or 14CO2 or the natural abundance of 13C and/or 14C isotopes. Also differences in seasonal and short-term temperature response of soil respiration have been used to separate Ra and Rh. We compared the seasonal variation in Ra and Rh using the trenching method and differences between seasonal and short-term temperature responses of soil respiration. I addition, we estimated the vertical variation in soil biological activity using soil CO2 concentration and the natural abundance of 13C and 12C

  12. Linking soil O2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations in a wetland soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Jensen, Louise Askær; Jørgensen, Christian Juncher

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) availability and diffusivity in wetlands are controlling factors for the production and consumption of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the subsoil and thereby potential emission of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. To examine the linkage between highresolution s...... plants tissue on soil gas dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions following marked changes in water level....... spatiotemporal trends in O2 availability and CH4/CO2 dynamics in situ, we compare high-resolution subsurface O2 concentrations, weekly measurements of subsurface CH4/CO2 concentrations and near continuous flux measurements of CO2 and CH4. Detailed 2-D distributions of O2 concentrations and depth-profiles of CO2...... and CH4 were measured in the laboratory during flooding of soil columns using a combination of planar O2 optodes and membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Microsensors were used to assess apparent diffusivity under both field and laboratory conditions. Gas concentration profiles were analyzed...

  13. Simulation of CO2 concentrations at Tsukuba tall tower using WRF-CO2 tracer transport model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srabanti Ballav; Prabir K Patra; Yousuke Sawa; Hidekazu Matsueda; Ahoro Adachi; Shigeru Onogi; Masayuki Takigawa; Utpal K De

    2016-02-01

    Simulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) at hourly/weekly intervals and fine vertical resolution at the continental or coastal sites is challenging because of coarse horizontal resolution of global transport models. Here the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with atmospheric chemistry is adopted for simulating atmospheric CO2 (hereinafter WRF-CO2) in nonreactive chemical tracer mode. Model results at horizontal resolution of 27 × 27 km and 31 vertical levels are compared with hourly CO2 measurements from Tsukuba, Japan (36.05°N, 140.13°E) at tower heights of 25 and 200 m for the entire year 2002. Using the wind rose analysis, we find that the fossil fuel emission signal from the megacity Tokyo dominates the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variations observed at Tsukuba. Contribution of terrestrial biosphere fluxes is of secondary importance for CO2 concentration variability. The phase of synoptic scale variability in CO2 at both heights are remarkably well simulated the observed data (correlation coefficient >0.70) for the entire year. The simulations of monthly mean diurnal cycles are in better agreement with the measurements at lower height compared to that at the upper height. The modelled vertical CO2 gradients are generally greater than the observed vertical gradient. Sensitivity studies show that the simulation of observed vertical gradient can be improved by increasing the number of vertical levels from 31 in the model WRF to 37 (4 below 200 m) and using the Mellor–Yamada–Janjic planetary boundary scheme. These results have large implications for improving transport model simulation of CO2 over the continental sites.

  14. Cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanisms facilitate sustained CO2 depletion in eutrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Morales-Williams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton blooms are increasing in frequency, intensity, and duration in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In many eutrophic lakes, these high levels of primary productivity correspond to periods of CO2 depletion in surface waters. Cyanobacteria and other groups of phytoplankton have the ability to actively transport bicarbonate (HCO3− across their cell membrane when CO2 concentrations are limiting, possibly giving them a competitive advantage over algae not using carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs. To investigate whether CCMs can maintain phytoplankton bloom biomass under CO2 depletion, we measured the δ13C signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC and phytoplankton particulate organic carbon (δ13Cphyto in 16 mesotrophic to hypereutrophic lakes during the ice-free season of 2012. We used mass–balance relationships to determine the dominant inorganic carbon species used by phytoplankton under CO2 stress. We found a significant positive relationship between phytoplankton biomass and phytoplankton δ13C signatures as well as a significant nonlinear negative relationship between water column ρCO2 and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, indicating a shift from diffusive uptake to active uptake by phytoplankton of CO2 or HCO3− during blooms. Calculated photosynthetic fractionation factors indicated that this shift occurs specifically when surface water CO2 drops below atmospheric equilibrium. Our results indicate that active HCO3− uptake via CCMs may be an important mechanism in maintaining phytoplankton blooms when CO2 is depleted. Further increases in anthropogenic pressure, eutrophication, and cyanobacteria blooms are therefore expected to contribute to increased bicarbonate uptake to sustain primary production.

  15. Cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanisms facilitate sustained CO2 depletion in eutrophic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Williams, Ana M.; Wanamaker, Alan D., Jr.; Downing, John A.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are increasing in frequency, intensity, and duration in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. In many eutrophic lakes, these high levels of primary productivity correspond to periods of CO2 depletion in surface waters. Cyanobacteria and other groups of phytoplankton have the ability to actively transport bicarbonate (HCO3-) across their cell membrane when CO2 concentrations are limiting, possibly giving them a competitive advantage over algae not using carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). To investigate whether CCMs can maintain phytoplankton bloom biomass under CO2 depletion, we measured the δ13C signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) and phytoplankton particulate organic carbon (δ13Cphyto) in 16 mesotrophic to hypereutrophic lakes during the ice-free season of 2012. We used mass-balance relationships to determine the dominant inorganic carbon species used by phytoplankton under CO2 stress. We found a significant positive relationship between phytoplankton biomass and phytoplankton δ13C signatures as well as a significant nonlinear negative relationship between water column ρCO2 and isotopic composition of phytoplankton, indicating a shift from diffusive uptake to active uptake by phytoplankton of CO2 or HCO3- during blooms. Calculated photosynthetic fractionation factors indicated that this shift occurs specifically when surface water CO2 drops below atmospheric equilibrium. Our results indicate that active HCO3- uptake via CCMs may be an important mechanism in maintaining phytoplankton blooms when CO2 is depleted. Further increases in anthropogenic pressure, eutrophication, and cyanobacteria blooms are therefore expected to contribute to increased bicarbonate uptake to sustain primary production.

  16. Amelioration of boron toxicity in sweet pepper as affected by calcium management under an elevated CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-03-10

    We investigated B tolerance in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuun L.) under an elevated CO2 concentration, combined with the application of calcium as a nutrient management amelioration technique. The data show that high B affected the roots more than the aerial parts, since there was an increase in the shoot/root ratio, when plants were grown with high B levels; however, the impact was lessened when the plants were grown at elevated CO2, since the root FW reduction caused by excess B was less marked at the high CO2 concentration (30.9% less). Additionally, the high B concentration affected the membrane permeability of roots, which increased from 39 to 54% at ambient CO2 concentration, and from 38 to 51% at elevated CO2 concentration, producing a cation imbalance in plants, which was differentially affected by the CO2 supply. The Ca surplus in the nutrient solution reduced the nutritional imbalance in sweet pepper plants produced by the high B concentration, at both CO2 concentrations. The medium B concentration treatment (toxic according to the literature) did not result in any toxic effect. Hence, there is a need to review the literature on critical and toxic B levels taking into account increases in atmospheric CO2.

  17. Regional disparities in the beneficial effects of rising CO2 concentrations on crop water productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2016-08-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated [CO2] and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find CO2 effects increase global CWP by 10[047]%-27[737]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rainfed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated [CO2] could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modelling the effects of rising [CO2] across crop and hydrological modelling communities.

  18. High-CO2 tolerance in microalgae: possible mechanisms and implications for biotechnology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna

    2013-11-01

    Recent developments in the field of microalgal biotechnology, including CO2 biomitigation and the discovery of new species of microalgae that are tolerant to extremely high CO2 levels (40-100 vol%), have renewed interest in the physiological effects and mechanisms of high-CO2 tolerance in photoautotrophs. Photosynthetic apparatus state transitions that increase ATP generation, upregulation of H(+)-ATPases pumping protons out of the cell, rapid shutdown of CO2-concentrating mechanisms, and adjustment of membranes' fatty acid composition are currently believed to be the key mechanisms governing cellular pH homeostasis and hence microalgae's tolerance to high CO2 levels, which is especially characteristic of extremophile and symbiotic species. The mechanisms governing acclimation to high CO2 comprise the subject of this review and are discussed in view of the use of CO2 enrichment to increase the productivity of microalgal cultures, as well as the practice of carbon capture from flue gases.

  19. CO2 background concentra-tion in the atmosphere over the Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the long-term monitoring data on CO2 concentration, variation trend and characteristics of CO2 background concentration in the atmosphere over the Chinese mainland are analyzed. Results show that the increasing trend of CO2 background concentration in the atmosphere over the Chinese mainland has appeared during the period of 1991-2000. The average annual CO2 growth increment is 1.59 μL/L, and the average annual CO2 growth rate is 0.44%. Distinct seasonal variations of CO2 background concentration are observed, and the averaged amplitude of CO2 seasonal variations is 10.35 μL/L. Regional variation characteristics of CO2 background concentration in the atmosphere and possible impact of human activities on these variations over the Chinese mainland are discussed as well.

  20. Impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and growth of micro- and macro-algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, HongYan; Zou, DingHui; Gao, KunShan

    2008-12-01

    Marine photosynthesis drives the oceanic biological CO(2) pump to absorb CO(2) from the atmosphere, which sinks more than one third of the industry-originated CO(2) into the ocean. The increasing atmospheric CO(2) and subsequent rise of pCO(2) in seawater, which alters the carbonate system and related chemical reactions and results in lower pH and higher HCO(3) (-) concentration, affect photosynthetic CO(2) fixation processes of phytoplanktonic and macroalgal species in direct and/or indirect ways. Although many unicellular and multicellular species can operate CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to utilize the large HCO(3) (-) pool in seawater, enriched CO(2) up to several times the present atmospheric level has been shown to enhance photosynthesis and growth of both phytoplanktonic and macro-species that have less capacity of CCMs. Even for species that operate active CCMs and those whose photosynthesis is not limited by CO(2) in seawater, increased CO(2) levels can down-regulate their CCMs and therefore enhance their growth under light-limiting conditions (at higher CO(2) levels, less light energy is required to drive CCM). Altered physiological performances under high-CO(2) conditions may cause genetic alteration in view of adaptation over long time scale. Marine algae may adapt to a high CO(2) oceanic environment so that the evolved communities in future are likely to be genetically different from the contemporary communities. However, most of the previous studies have been carried out under indoor conditions without considering the acidifying effects on seawater by increased CO(2) and other interacting environmental factors, and little has been documented so far to explain how physiology of marine primary producers performs in a high-CO(2) and low-pH ocean.

  1. Impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and growth of micro- and macro-algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU HongYan; ZOU DingHui; GAO KunShan

    2008-01-01

    Marine photosynthesis drives the oceanic biological CO2 pump to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, which sinks more than one third of the industry-originated CO2 into the ocean. The increasing atmospheric CO2 and subsequent rise of pCO2 in seawater, which alters the carbonate system and related chemical reactions and results in lower pH and higher HCO3- concentration, affect photosynthetic CO2 fixation processes of phytoplanktonic and macroalgal species in direct and/or indirect ways. Although many unicellular and multicellular species can operate CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to utilize the large HCO3- pool in seawater, enriched CO2 up to several times the present atmospheric level has been shown to enhance photosynthesis and growth of both phytoplanktonic and macro-species that have less capacity of CCMs. Even for species that operate active CCMs and those whose photosynthesis is not limited by CO2 in seawater, increased CO2 levels can down-regulate their CCMs and therefore enhance their growth under light-limiting conditions (at higher CO2 levels, less light energy is required to drive CCM). Altered physiological performances under high-CO2 conditions may cause genetic alteration in view of adaptation over long time scale. Marine algae may adapt to a high CO2 oceanic environment so that the evolved communities in future are likely to be genetically different from the contemporary communities. However, most of the previous studies have been carried out under indoor conditions without considering the acidifying effects on seawater by increased CO2 and other interacting environmental factors, and little has been documented so far to explain how physiology of marine primary producers performs in a high-CO2 and low-pH ocean.

  2. Impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and growth of micro-and macro-algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Marine photosynthesis drives the oceanic biological CO2 pump to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, which sinks more than one third of the industry-originated CO2 into the ocean. The increasing atmos-pheric CO2 and subsequent rise of pCO2 in seawater, which alters the carbonate system and related chemical reactions and results in lower pH and higher HCO3- concentration, affect photosynthetic CO2 fixation processes of phytoplanktonic and macroalgal species in direct and/or indirect ways. Although many unicellular and multicellular species can operate CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to util-ize the large HCO3- pool in seawater, enriched CO2 up to several times the present atmospheric level has been shown to enhance photosynthesis and growth of both phytoplanktonic and macro-species that have less capacity of CCMs. Even for species that operate active CCMs and those whose photo-synthesis is not limited by CO2 in seawater, increased CO2 levels can down-regulate their CCMs and therefore enhance their growth under light-limiting conditions (at higher CO2 levels, less light energy is required to drive CCM). Altered physiological performances under high-CO2 conditions may cause genetic alteration in view of adaptation over long time scale. Marine algae may adapt to a high CO2 oceanic environment so that the evolved communities in future are likely to be genetically different from the contemporary communities. However, most of the previous studies have been carried out under indoor conditions without considering the acidifying effects on seawater by increased CO2 and other interacting environmental factors, and little has been documented so far to explain how physi-ology of marine primary producers performs in a high-CO2 and low-pH ocean.

  3. Dynamics of dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethylsulphide under different CO2 concentrations during a mesocosm experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. LeQuéré

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential impact of seawater acidification on the concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP, and the activity of the enzyme DMSP-lyase during a pelagic ecosystem CO2 enrichment experiment (PeECE III in spring 2005. Natural phytoplankton blooms were studied for 24 days under present, double and triple partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2; pH=8.3, 8.0, 7.8 in triplicate 25 m³ enclosures. The results indicate similar DMSP concentrations and DMSP-lyase activity patterns for all treatments. Hence, DMSP and DLA do not seem to have been affected by the CO2 treatment. In contrast, DMS concentrations showed small but statistically significant differences in the temporal development of the "present" versus the high CO2 treatments. The "present" enclosures had higher DMS concentrations during the first 10 days, after which the levels decreased earlier and more rapidly than in the other treatments. Integrated over the whole study period, DMS concentrations were not significantly different from those of the double and triple pCO2 treatments. Pigment and flow-cytometric data indicate that phytoplanktonic populations were generally similar between the treatments, suggesting a certain resilience of the marine ecosystem under study to the induced pH changes, which is reflected in DMSP and DLA. However, there were significant differences in bacterial community structure and the abundance of one group of viruses. The amount of DMS accumulated per total DMSP or chlorophyll-a differed significantly between the present and future scenarios, suggesting that the pathways for DMS production or bacterial DMS consumption were affected by seawater pH.

  4. The behavior and concentration of CO2 in the suboceanic mantle: Inferences from undegassed ocean ridge and ocean island basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Peter J.; Graham, David W.

    2015-11-01

    In order to better determine the behavior of CO2 relative to incompatible elements, and improve the accuracy of mantle CO2 concentration and flux estimates, we determined CO2 glass and vesicle concentrations, plus trace element contents for fifty-one ultradepleted mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses from the global mid-ocean ridge system. Fifteen contained no vesicles and were volatile undersaturated for their depth of eruption. Thirty-six contained vesicles and/or were slightly oversaturated, and so may not have retained all of their CO2. If this latter group lost some bubbles during emplacement, then CO2/Ba calculated for the undersaturated group alone is the most reliable and uniform ratio at 98 ± 10, and CO2/Nb is 283 ± 32. If the oversaturated MORBs did not lose bubbles, then CO2/Nb is the most uniform ratio within the entire suite of ultradepleted MORBs at 291 ± 132, while CO2/Ba decreases with increasing incompatible element enrichment. Additional constraints on CO2/Ba and CO2/Nb ratios are provided by published estimates of CO2 contents in highly vesicular enriched basalts that may have retained their vesicles e.g., the Mid-Atlantic Ridge "popping rocks", and from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in normal MORBs. As incompatible element enrichment increases, CO2/Nb increases progressively from 283 ± 32 in ultradepleted MORBs to 603 ± 69 in depleted melt inclusions to 936 ± 132 in enriched, vesicular basalts. In contrast, CO2/Ba is nearly uniform in these sample suites at 98 ± 10, 106 ± 24 and 111 ± 11 respectively. This suggests that Ba is the best proxy for estimating CO2 contents of MORBs, with an overall average CO2/Ba = 105 ± 9. Atlantic, Pacific and Indian basalts have similar values. Gakkel Ridge has lower CO2/Ba because of anomalously high Ba, and is not included in our global averages. Using the CO2/Ba ratio and published compilations of trace elements in average MORBs, the CO2 concentration of a primary, average MORB is 2085+ 473/- 427

  5. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger; Binning, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water...... production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters are determined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical...... polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) [1]. The aPC is applied in this work to provide probabilities and risk values for salt concentrations at the water production well. Mixing in the aquifer has a key influence on the salt concentration at the well. Dispersion and diffusion are the relevant processes for mixing...

  6. Low concentration CO2 capture using physical adsorbents: Are Metal-Organic Frameworks becoming the new benchmark materials?

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2016-03-30

    The capture and separation of traces and concentrated CO2 from important commodities such as CH4, H2, O2 and N2, is becoming important in many areas related to energy security and environmental sustainability. While trace CO2 concentration removal applications have been modestly studied for decades, the spike in interest in the capture of concentrated CO2 was motivated by the need for new energy vectors to replace highly concentrated carbon fuels and the necessity to reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. CO2 capture from various gas streams, at different concentrations, using physical adsorbents, such as activated carbon, zeolites, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is attractive. However, the adsorbents must be designed with consideration of many parameters including CO2 affinity, kinetics, energetics, stability, capture mechanism, in addition to cost. Here, we perform a systematic analysis regarding the key technical parameters that are required for the best CO2 capture performance using physical adsorbents. We also experimentally demonstrate a suitable material model of Metal Organic Framework as advanced adsorbents with unprecedented properties for CO2 capture in a wide range of CO2 concentration. These recently developed class of MOF adsorbents represent a breakthrough finding in the removal of traces CO2 using physical adsorption. This platform shows colossal tuning potential for more efficient separation agents.

  7. Physiological characteristics of the primitive CO2 concentrating mechanism in PEPC transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦德茂; 匡廷云; 李霞; 戈巧英; 黄雪清; 郝乃斌; 白克智

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between carbon assimilation and high-level expression of the maize PEPC in PEPC transgenic rice was studied by comparison to that in the untransformed rice, japonica kitaake. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates in PEPC transgenic rice were higher than those of untransformed rice, but the increase of stomatal conductance had no statistical correlation with that of photosynthetic rate. Under high levels of light intensity, the protein contents of PEPC and CA were increased significantly. Therefore the photosynthetic capacity was increased greatly (50%) with atmospheric CO2 supply. While CO2 release in leaf was reduced and the compensation point was lowered correspondingly under CO2 free conditions. Treatment of the rice with the PEPC-specific inhibitor DCDP showed that overexpression of PEPC and enhancement of carbon assimilation were related to the stability of Fv/Fm. Labeling with 14CO2 for 20 s showed more 14C was distributed to C4 primary photosynthate asperate in PEPC transgenic rice, suggesting that there exists a limiting C4 photosynthetic mechanism in leaves. These results suggest that the primitive CO2 concentrating mechanism found in rice could be reproduced through metabolic engineering, and shed light on the physiological basis for transgenic breeding with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  8. Low Temperature Performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3 under a Concentrated CO2 Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR has been widely investigated to reduce NOx emissions from combustion processes, which cause environmental challenges. However, most of the current work on NOx reduction has focused on using feed gas without CO2 or containing small amounts of CO2. In the future, oxy-fuel combustion will play an important role for power generation, and this process generates high concentrations of CO2 in flue gas. Therefore, studies on the SCR process under concentrated CO2 atmosphere conditions are important for future SCR deployment in oxy-fuel combustion processes. In this work, Mn- and Ce-based catalysts using activated carbon as support were used to investigate the effect of CO2 on NO conversion. A N2 atmosphere was used for comparison. Different process conditions such as temperature, SO2 concentration, H2O content in the feed gas and space velocity were studied. Under Mn-Ce/AC conditions, the results suggested that Mn metal could reduce the inhibition effect of CO2 on the NO conversion, while Ce metal increased the inhibition effect of CO2. High space velocity also resulted in a reduction of CO2 inhibition on the NO conversion, although the overall performance of SCR was greatly reduced at high space velocity. Future investigations to design novel Mn-based catalysts are suggested to enhance the SCR performance under concentrated CO2 atmosphere conditions.

  9. Photosynthetic response to variation in CO2 concentrations and temperature of four broad-leaved trees in Beijing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibo MA; Shengqing SHI; Qinyan MA; Yutao WANG; Xingliang LIU

    2008-01-01

    Responses of the photosynthetic characteris-tics to variation in CO2 concentration and temperature of Ginkgo biloba, Eucornmia ulmoides, Magnolia denudata and Tiliajaponica were measured during the peak growing season. The results show that the ambient CO2 concentra-tion could not meet the requirements for photosynthesis of these four species. The optimal temperatures for pho-tosynthesis were lower than the average daytime air tem-perature. Hence, the photosynthesis of these four species was restricted by the low CO2 concentration and high daytime air temperature at the time of measurement. Marked enhancements in the net photosynthetic rate were found in all four species when the CO2 concentration was doubled. When the dependency on CO2 and temperature were examined simultaneously, it was seen that for increased CO2 concentrations there was a shift in the optimum temperature for M. denudata and T. japonica towards higher temperatures. Due to their independence on CO2 concentrations, this trend could not be found in the G. biloba and E. ulmoides data sets. The stomatal con-ductance (Gs) was sensitive to a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) which in turn was sensitive to temperature. An increase in temperature would cause the VPD to increase and plants might be assumed to react by reducing their stomatal apertures. The effect on stomatal resistance would be most significant at high temperatures. The restriction to stomatal conductance for these four species would increase if CO2 concentrations were elevated at the same temperature.

  10. A possible CO2 conducting and concentrating mechanism in plant stomata SLAC1 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plant SLAC1 is a slow anion channel in the membrane of stomatal guard cells, which controls the turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought, high levels of carbon dioxide, and bacterial invasion. Recent study demonstrated that bicarbonate is a small-molecule activator of SLAC1. Higher CO(2 and HCO(3(- concentration activates S-type anion channel currents in wild-type Arabidopsis guard cells. Based on the SLAC1 structure a theoretical model is derived to illustrate the activation of bicarbonate to SLAC1 channel. Meanwhile a possible CO(2 conducting and concentrating mechanism of the SLAC1 is proposed. METHODOLOGY: The homology structure of Arabidopsis thaliana SLAC1 (AtSLAC1 provides the structural basis for study of the conducting and concentrating mechanism of carbon dioxide in SLAC1 channels. The pK(a values of ionizable amino acid side chains in AtSLAC1 are calculated using software PROPKA3.0, and the concentration of CO(2 and anion HCO(3(- are computed based on the chemical equilibrium theory. CONCLUSIONS: The AtSLAC1 is modeled as a five-region channel with different pH values. The top and bottom layers of channel are the alkaline residue-dominated regions, and in the middle of channel there is the acidic region surrounding acidic residues His332. The CO(2 concentration is enhanced around 10(4 times by the pH difference between these regions, and CO(2 is stored in the hydrophobic region, which is a CO(2 pool. The pH driven CO(2 conduction from outside to inside balances the back electromotive force and maintain the influx of anions (e.g. Cl(- and NO(3(- from inside to outside. SLAC1 may be a pathway providing CO(2 for photosynthesis in the guard cells.

  11. Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 sorbent for highly selective CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwu; Zhai, Xinru; Liu, Dongyang; Sun, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Different CO2 absorbents-modified SBA-15 materials are used as CO2 sorbent to improve the selectivity of CH4/CO2 separation. The SBA-15 sorbents modified by physical CO2 absorbents are very limited to increasing CO2 adsorption and present poor selectivity. However, the SBA-15 sorbents modified by chemical CO2 absorbents increase CO2 adsorption capacity obviously. The separation coefficients of CO2/CH4 increase in this case. The adsorption and regeneration properties of the SBA-15 sorbents modified by TEA, MDEA and DIPA have been compared. The SBA-15 modified by triethanolamine (TEA) presents better CO2/CH4 separation performance than the materials modified by other CO2 absorbents.

  12. 大气CO_2变化与气候%Variations of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Global Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘植; 刘秀铭; 李平原; 吕镔; 陈家胜; 陈渠; 郭雪莲

    2012-01-01

    在地质历史时期,地球的气候不断在变化,全球大气CO2浓度也在变化,二者之间是否存在一种响应—反馈作用,目前存在争议较大.本研究从地质时间尺度、千年以来和现代气候变化3个角度进行介绍,认为全球气候变化是多重时间尺度变化规律的叠加,从长时间尺度来看,全球平均温度和大气CO2水平均表现出整体降低的趋势.地质历史时期存在多次大气CO2浓度升高的时期,有时甚至可达现在大气CO2水平的十几倍.气候变化与大气CO2的关系非常复杂,高CO2时期并不全部对应于高温时期.千年以来的气候变化在全球各大洲均有温暖时期的出现,并且很多地方的重建结果表明中世纪暖期的全球平均温度要比现代的全球平均温度还高.但这一区间的温度变化和大气CO2水平在1850年之前没有明显的相关性.近百年的气候观测资料表明全球平均温度上升了0.74℃,但对于这种上升的理解目前还存在较大争议.是否确实是由于人类活动(主要是工业革命以来)导致了全球CO2水平增高,进而导致全球变暖,需要更多的证据来验证.%In geological history, the earth's climate changed regularly and constantly and the concen- tration of atmospheric CO2 ~dso changed over time, so scientists argue whether there were response- feedback effects between them. In this paper, global climate change is assumed to be a multiple time- scale change, various time scales including long time orbital-scale, thousand year time-scale and nearly hundred years are introduced and analyzed. For long time-scale, both average global tempera- ture and atmospheric CO2 level present a reduction trend. Many times during geological history, at- mospheric CO2 level rose, sometimes to as high as ten times of the present level. It is found that the high C02 level period was not always corresponding to the high temperature period. For thousand year time-scale, it is

  13. Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Eleni; John, Eleanor H; Edgar, Kirsty M; Foster, Gavin L; Ridgwell, Andy; Inglis, Gordon N; Pancost, Richard D; Lunt, Daniel J; Pearson, Paul N

    2016-05-19

    The Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, which occurred about 51 to 53 million years ago), was the warmest interval of the past 65 million years, with mean annual surface air temperature over ten degrees Celsius warmer than during the pre-industrial period. Subsequent global cooling in the middle and late Eocene epoch, especially at high latitudes, eventually led to continental ice sheet development in Antarctica in the early Oligocene epoch (about 33.6 million years ago). However, existing estimates place atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during the Eocene at 500-3,000 parts per million, and in the absence of tighter constraints carbon-climate interactions over this interval remain uncertain. Here we use recent analytical and methodological developments to generate a new high-fidelity record of CO2 concentrations using the boron isotope (δ(11)B) composition of well preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Tanzania Drilling Project, revising previous estimates. Although species-level uncertainties make absolute values difficult to constrain, CO2 concentrations during the EECO were around 1,400 parts per million. The relative decline in CO2 concentration through the Eocene is more robustly constrained at about fifty per cent, with a further decline into the Oligocene. Provided the latitudinal dependency of sea surface temperature change for a given climate forcing in the Eocene was similar to that of the late Quaternary period, this CO2 decline was sufficient to drive the well documented high- and low-latitude cooling that occurred through the Eocene. Once the change in global temperature between the pre-industrial period and the Eocene caused by the action of all known slow feedbacks (apart from those associated with the carbon cycle) is removed, both the EECO and the late Eocene exhibit an equilibrium climate sensitivity relative to the pre-industrial period of 2.1 to 4.6 degrees Celsius per CO2 doubling (66 per cent confidence), which is similar to the

  14. Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Eleni; John, Eleanor H.; Edgar, Kirsty M.; Foster, Gavin L.; Ridgwell, Andy; Inglis, Gordon N.; Pancost, Richard D.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pearson, Paul N.

    2016-05-01

    The Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, which occurred about 51 to 53 million years ago), was the warmest interval of the past 65 million years, with mean annual surface air temperature over ten degrees Celsius warmer than during the pre-industrial period. Subsequent global cooling in the middle and late Eocene epoch, especially at high latitudes, eventually led to continental ice sheet development in Antarctica in the early Oligocene epoch (about 33.6 million years ago). However, existing estimates place atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during the Eocene at 500-3,000 parts per million, and in the absence of tighter constraints carbon-climate interactions over this interval remain uncertain. Here we use recent analytical and methodological developments to generate a new high-fidelity record of CO2 concentrations using the boron isotope (δ11B) composition of well preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Tanzania Drilling Project, revising previous estimates. Although species-level uncertainties make absolute values difficult to constrain, CO2 concentrations during the EECO were around 1,400 parts per million. The relative decline in CO2 concentration through the Eocene is more robustly constrained at about fifty per cent, with a further decline into the Oligocene. Provided the latitudinal dependency of sea surface temperature change for a given climate forcing in the Eocene was similar to that of the late Quaternary period, this CO2 decline was sufficient to drive the well documented high- and low-latitude cooling that occurred through the Eocene. Once the change in global temperature between the pre-industrial period and the Eocene caused by the action of all known slow feedbacks (apart from those associated with the carbon cycle) is removed, both the EECO and the late Eocene exhibit an equilibrium climate sensitivity relative to the pre-industrial period of 2.1 to 4.6 degrees Celsius per CO2 doubling (66 per cent confidence), which is similar to the

  15. Carbon allocation and element composition in four Chlamydomonas mutants defective in genes related to the CO2 concentrating mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmola, Francesco; Mukherjee, Bratati; Moroney, James V; Giordano, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Four mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with defects in different components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) or in Rubisco activase were grown autotrophically at high pCO2 and then transferred to low pCO2, in order to study the role of different components of the CCM on carbon allocation and elemental composition. To study carbon allocation, we measured the relative size of the main organic pools by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to analyze the elemental composition of algal cells. Our data show that although the organic pools increased their size at high CO2 in all strains, their stoichiometry was highly homeostatic, i.e., the ratios between carbohydrates and proteins, lipid and proteins, and carbohydrates and lipids, did not change significantly. The only exception was the wild-type 137c, in which proteins decreased relative to carbohydrates and lipids, when the cells were transferred to low CO2. It is noticeable that the two wild types used in this study responded differently to the transition from high to low CO2. Malfunctions of the CCM influenced the concentration of several elements, somewhat altering cell elemental stoichiometry: especially the C/P and N/P ratios changed appreciably in almost all strains as a function of the growth CO2 concentration, except in 137c and the Rubisco activase mutant rca1. In strain cia3, defective in the lumenal carbonic anhydrase (CA), the cell quotas of P, S, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were about 5-fold higher at low CO2 than at high CO2. A Principle Components Analysis showed that, mostly because of its elemental composition, cia3 behaved in a substantially different way from all other strains, at low CO2. The lumenal CA thus plays a crucial role, not only for the correct functioning of the CCM, but also for element utilization. Not surprisingly, growth at high CO2 attenuated differences among strains.

  16. Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Machado Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth chambers at three temperatures (day/night: 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER, leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaf lifespan (LL and senescence rate (SR, whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM, root mass (RM, shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

  17. High Energy 2-Micron Solid-State Laser Transmitter for NASA's Airborne CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  18. Carbon dioxide consumption of the microalga Scenedesmus obtusiusculus under transient inlet CO2 concentration variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Juan; Morales, Marcia; Revah, Sergio

    2017-04-15

    The extensive microalgae diversity offers considerable versatility for a wide range of biotechnological applications in environmental and production processes. Microalgal cultivation is based on CO2 fixation via photosynthesis and, consequently, it is necessary to evaluate, in a short time and reliable way, the effect of the CO2 gas concentration on the consumption rate and establish the tolerance range of different strains and the amount of inorganic carbon that can be incorporated into biomass in order to establish the potential for industrial scale application. Dynamic experiments allow calculating the short-term microalgal photosynthetic activity of strains in photobioreactors. In this paper, the effect of step-changes in CO2 concentration fed to a 20L bubble column photobioreactor on the CO2 consumption rate of Scenedesmus obtusiusculus was evaluated at different operation times. The highest apparent CO2 consumption rate (336μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 5.6% of CO2) was 6530mgCO2gb(-1)d(-1) and it decreased to 222mgCO2gb(-1)d(-1) when biomass concentration increased of 0.5 to 3.1gbL(-1) and 5.6% of CO2 was fed. For low CO2 concentrations (<3.8%) the pH remained close to the optimal value (7.5 and 8). The CO2 consumption rates show that S. obtusiusculus was not limited by CO2 availability for concentrations above of 3.8%. The CO2 mass balance showed that 90% of the C-CO2 transferred was used for S. obtusiusculus growth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Influence of the concentration of CO2 and SO2 on the absorption of CO2 by a lithium orthosilicate-based absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacciani, R; Torres, J; Solsona, P; Coe, C; Quinn, R; Hufton, J; Golden, T; Vega, L F

    2011-08-15

    A novel, high temperature solid absorbent based on lithium orthosilicate (Li(4)SiO(4)) has shown promise for postcombustion CO(2) capture. Previous studies utilizing a clean, synthetic flue gas have shown that the absorbent has a high CO(2) capacity, >25 wt %, along with high absorption rates, lower heat of absorption and lower regeneration temperature than other solids such as calcium oxide. The current effort was aimed at evaluating the Li(4)SiO(4) based absorbent in the presence of contaminants found in typical flue gas, specifically SO(2), by cyclic exposure to gas mixtures containing CO(2), H(2)O (up to 25 vol. %), and SO(2) (up to 0.95 vol. %). In the absence of SO(2), a stable CO(2) capacity of ∼ 25 wt % over 25 cycles at 550 °C was achieved. The presence of SO(2), even at concentrations as low as 0.002 vol. %, resulted in an irreversible reaction with the absorbent and a decrease in CO(2) capacity. Analysis of SO(2)-exposed samples revealed that the absorbent reacted chemically and irreversibly with SO(2) at 550 °C forming Li(2)SO(4). Thus, industrial application would require desulfurization of flue gas prior to contacting the absorbent. Reactivity with SO(2) is not unique to the lithium orthosilicate material, so similar steps would be required for other absorbents that chemically react with SO(2).

  20. High-precision gas gain and energy transfer measurements in Ar–CO2 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Şahin, Özkan; Veenhof, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Ar–CO2 is a Penning mixture since a fraction of the energy stored in Ar 3p53d3p53d and higher excited states can be transferred to ionize CO2 molecules. In the present work, concentration and pressure dependence of Penning transfer rate and photon feedback parameter in Ar–CO2 mixtures have been investigated with recent systematic high-precision gas gain measurements which cover the range 1–50% CO2 at 400, 800, 1200, 1800 hPa and gas gain from 1 to 5×105.

  1. Transcriptome response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Carbon dioxide (CO2 is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. Methods To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40% treatments. Results (1 Based on a high throughput sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 20 GB of clean data and revealed 189,421 unigenes, with a mean length and an N50 length of 629 bp and 974 bp, respectively. (2 The transcriptomic response of C. formosanus to elevated CO2 levels presented discontinuous changes. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed 2,936 genes regulated among 0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40% CO2 concentration treatments, 909 genes derived from termites and 2,027 from gut symbionts. Genes derived from termites appears selectively activated under 4% CO2 level. In 40% CO2 level, most of the down-regulated genes were derived from symbionts. (3 Through similarity searches to data from other species, a number of protein sequences putatively involved in chemosensory reception were identified and characterized in C. formosanus, including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, odorant binding proteins, and chemosensory proteins. Discussion We found that most genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and genetic information processing were regulated under different CO2 concentrations. Results

  2. [Measurements of CO2 Concentration Profile in Troposphere Based on Balloon-Borne TDLAS System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Liu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jian-guo; Kan, Rui-feng; Xu, Zhen-yu; Ruan, Jun; Yuan, Song

    2015-10-01

    The main source and sink of CO2 in the atmosphere are concentrated in the troposphere. It is of great significance to the study of CO2 flux and global climate change to obtain the accurate tropospheric CO2 concentration profile. For the characteristics of high resolution, high sensitivity and fast response of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), a compact balloon-borne system based on direct absorption was developed to detect the CO2 concentration profiles by use of the 2 004. 02 nm, R(16), v1+v3 line without the interfere of H2O absorption and the CO2 density of the number of molecules below 10 km in the troposphere was obtained. Due to the balloon-borne environment, a compact design of one single board integrated with laser driver, signal conditioning, spectra acquiring and concentration retrieving was developed. Limited by the working capability and hardware resources of embedded micro-processor, the spectra processing algorithm was optimized to reduce the time-cost. Compared with the traditional TDLAS sensors with WMS technique, this system was designed based on the direct absorption technique by means of an open-path Herriott cell with 20 m optical-path, which avoided the process of standardization and enhanced the environmental adaptation. The universal design of hardware and software platform achieved diverse gas measuring by changing the laser and adjusting some key parameters in algorithm. The concept of compact design helped to reduce the system's power and volume and balanced the response speed and measure precision. The power consumes below 1.5 W in room temperature and the volume of the single board is 120 mm x 100 mm x 25 mm, and the measurement accuracy is ± 0.6 x 10(-6) at 1.5 s response time. It has been proved that the system can realize high precision detection of CO2 profile at 15 m vertical resolution in troposphere and TDLAS is an available method for balloon-borne detection.

  3. Unconventional, highly selective CO2 adsorption in zeolite SSZ-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew R; Queen, Wendy L; Mason, Jarad A; Fickel, Dustin W; Lobo, Raul F; Brown, Craig M

    2012-02-01

    Low-pressure adsorption of carbon dioxide and nitrogen was studied in both acidic and copper-exchanged forms of SSZ-13, a zeolite containing an 8-ring window. Under ideal conditions for industrial separations of CO(2) from N(2), the ideal adsorbed solution theory selectivity is >70 in each compound. For low gas coverage, the isosteric heat of adsorption for CO(2) was found to be 33.1 and 34.0 kJ/mol for Cu- and H-SSZ-13, respectively. From in situ neutron powder diffraction measurements, we ascribe the CO(2) over N(2) selectivity to differences in binding sites for the two gases, where the primary CO(2) binding site is located in the center of the 8-membered-ring pore window. This CO(2) binding mode, which has important implications for use of zeolites in separations, has not been observed before and is rationalized and discussed relative to the high selectivity for CO(2) over N(2) in SSZ-13 and other zeolites containing 8-ring windows.

  4. Sorbents for CO2 capture from high carbon fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Yinzhi; Tang, Zhong

    2008-11-01

    Fly ashes with high-unburned-carbon content, referred to as fly ash carbons, are an increasing problem for the utility industry, since they cannot be marketed as a cement extender and, therefore, have to be disposed. Previous work has explored the potential development of amine-enriched fly ash carbons for CO2 capture. However, their performance was lower than that of commercially available sorbents, probably because the samples investigated were not activated prior to impregnation and, therefore, had a very low surface area. Accordingly, the work described here focuses on the development of activated fly ash derived sorbents for CO2 capture. The samples were steam activated at 850 degrees C, resulting in a significant increase of the surface area (1075 m2/g). The activated samples were impregnated with different amine compounds, and the resultant samples were tested for CO2 capture at different temperatures. The CO2 adsorption of the parent and activated samples is typical of a physical adsorption process. The impregnation process results in a decrease of the surface areas, indicating a blocking of the porosity. The highest adsorption capacity at 30 and 70 degrees C for the amine impregnated activated carbons was probably due to a combination of physical adsorption inherent from the parent sample and chemical adsorption of the loaded amine groups. The CO2 adsorption capacities for the activated amine impregnated samples are higher than those previously published for fly ash carbons without activation (68.6 vs. 45 mg CO2/g sorbent).

  5. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Ahmad, Altaf; Jain, Vanita; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning towards roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P

  6. Reduction of CO 2 concentration in a zinc/air battery by absorption in a rotating packed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Hsiang; Tan, Chung-Sung

    The reduction of CO 2 concentration in a gas stream containing 500 ppm of CO 2 by a technique combining chemical absorption with Higee (high gravity) was investigated in this study. Using a 2.0 L aqueous amine-based solution to treat the feed gas with a flow rate which varied from 12.9 to 20.6 L min -1, piperazine (PZ) was found to be more effective than 2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethanol (AEEA) and monoethanolamine (MEA) for reducing the CO 2 concentration to a level below 20 ppm. The effects of temperature, rotating speed, amine solution flow rate, and gas flow rate on the removal efficiency of CO 2 were systematically examined. The results indicated that the proposed compact device could effectively reduce CO 2 to a level below 20 ppm, as required by a zinc/air battery, for a long period of time using PZ and its mixture with AEEA and MEA as the absorbents.

  7. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet-scCO2: Dependence on Adsorbed Water Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, J.; Benezeth, P.; Qafoku, O.; Thompson, C.; Schaef, T.; Bonneville, A.; McGrail, P.; Felmy, A.; Rosso, K.

    2013-12-01

    Capturing and storing CO2 in basaltic formations is one of the most promising options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. These geologic reservoirs have high reactive potential for CO2-mineral trapping due to an abundance of divalent-cation containing silicates, such as forsterite (Mg2SiO4). Recent studies have shown that carbonation of these silicates under wet scCO2 conditions, e. g. encountered near a CO2 injection well, proceeds along a different pathway and is more effective than in CO2-saturated aqueous fluids. The presence of an adsorbed water film on the forsterite surface seems to be key to reactivity towards carbonation. In this study, we employed in situ high pressure IR spectroscopy to investigate the dependence of adsorbed water film thickness on forsterite carbonation chemistry. Post reaction ex situ SEM, TEM, TGA, XRD, and NMR measurements will also be discussed. Several IR titrations were performed of forsterite with water at 50 °C and 90 bar scCO2. Aliquots of water were titrated at 4-hour reaction-time increments. Once a desired total water concentration was reached, data were collected for about another 30 hours. One titration involved 10 additions, which corresponds to 6.8 monolayers of adsorbed water. Clearly, a carbonate was precipitating, and its spectral signature matched magnesite. Another titration involved 8 aliquots, or up to 4.4 monolayers of water. The integrated absorbance under the CO stretching bands of carbonate as a function of time after reaching 4.4 monolayers showed an increase and then a plateau. We are currently unsure of the identity of the carbonate that precipitated, but it could be an amorphous anhydrous phase or magnesite crystals with dimensions of only several nanometers. A third titration only involved 3 additions, or up to 1.6 monolayers of water. The integrated absorbance under the CO stretching bands of carbonate as a function of time after reaching 1.6 monolayers

  8. Decarbonization rate and the timing and magnitude of the CO2 concentration peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is the main contributor to anthropogenic global warming, and the timing of its peak concentration in the atmosphere is likely to be the major factor in the timing of maximum radiative forcing. Other forcers such as aerosols and non-CO2 greenhouse gases may also influence the timing of maximum radiative forcing. This paper approximates solutions to a linear model of atmospheric CO2 dynamics with four time-constants to identify factors governing the timing of its concentration peak. The most important emissions-related factor is the ratio between average rates at which emissions increase and decrease, which in turn is related to the rate at which the emissions intensity of CO2 is reduced. Rapid decarbonization of CO2 can not only limit global warming but also achieve an early CO2 concentration peak. The most important carbon cycle parameters are the long multi-century time-constant of atmospheric CO2, and the ratio of contributions to the impulse response function of atmospheric CO2 from the infinitely long lived and the multi-century contributions respectively. Reducing uncertainties in these parameters can reduce uncertainty in forecasts of the radiative forcing peak. A simple approximation for peak CO2 concentration, valid especially if decarbonization is slow, is developed. Peak concentration is approximated as a function of cumulative emissions and emissions at the time of the concentration peak. Furthermore peak concentration is directly proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions for a wide range of emissions scenarios. Therefore, limiting the peak CO2 concentration is equivalent to limiting cumulative emissions. These relationships need to be verified using more complex models of Earth system's carbon cycle.

  9. Effect of elevated ambient CO2 concentration on water use efficiency of Pinus sylvestriformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Shijie; Zhang Junhui; Wang Chenrui; Zou Chunjing; Zhou Yumei; Wang Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    Pinus sylvestriformis is an important species as an indicator of global climate changes in Changbai Mountain, China. The water use efficiency (WUE) of this species ( 11-year old ) was studied on response to elevated CO2 concentration at 500± 100 μL· L-1 by directly injecting CO2 into the canopy under natural condition in 1998-1999. The results showed that the elevated CO2 concentration reduced averagely stomatal opening, stomatal conductance and stomatal density to 78%, 80% and 87% respectively, as compared to normal ambient. The elevated CO2 reduced the transpiration and enhances the water use efficiency (WUE) of plant.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of near-surface CO2 concentration over China based on GOSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Cui, Weihong; Sun, Yunhua

    2014-11-01

    To study the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of near-surface CO2 concentration over China, the data of GOSAT L4B and auxiliary data of Mt Waliguan background observations, population density, total energy consumption (coal) and GDP in 2009 were applied to this study. The ArcGIS Geostatistical Analytical Method was used. The ground-based validation was processed by comparing GOSAT data with Mt Waliguan background observations. The variation characteristics of the near-surface CO2 concentration over China was analysed spatially and temporally. The results show that: GOSAT retrieved near-surface products are consistent with Mt Waliguan ground-based measurement; Near-surface CO2 concentration over China is relatively concentrated, and has significant differences between the East and the West, with a overall characteristic that CO2 concentration in the east of China is high and in the west is low; Near-surface CO2 concentration over China has a significant seasonal variation characteristic, and the monthly average concentration rise to the highest value of 396.512 ppmv in April (spring), which is significantly higher than other seasons, decline to the lowest value of 382.781 ppmv in July (summer); All relationships illustrate a big uncertainty, resulting a conclusion that the reasons causing the spatial distribution of near-surface CO2 concentration may be varied, could not be easily determined as anthropogenic or natural ressons, which need further study.

  11. Genes responsive to elevated CO2 concentrations in triploid white poplar and integrated gene network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The atmospheric CO2 concentration increases every year. While the effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, physiology and metabolism have been studied, there is now a pressing need to understand the molecular mechanisms of how plants will respond to future increases in CO2 concentration using genomic techniques. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression in triploid white poplar ((Populus tomentosa ×P. bolleana ×P. tomentosa leaves was investigated using the Affymetrix poplar genome gene chip, after three months of growth in controlled environment chambers under three CO2 concentrations. Our physiological findings showed the growth, assessed as stem diameter, was significantly increased, and the net photosynthetic rate was decreased in elevated CO2 concentrations. The concentrations of four major endogenous hormones appeared to actively promote plant development. Leaf tissues under elevated CO2 concentrations had 5,127 genes with different expression patterns in comparison to leaves under the ambient CO2 concentration. Among these, 8 genes were finally selected for further investigation by using randomized variance model corrective ANOVA analysis, dynamic gene expression profiling, gene network construction, and quantitative real-time PCR validation. Among the 8 genes in the network, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase were situated in the core and had interconnections with other genes. CONCLUSIONS: Under elevated CO2 concentrations, 8 significantly changed key genes involved in metabolism and responding to stimulus of external environment were identified. These genes play crucial roles in the signal transduction network and show strong correlations with elevated CO2 exposure. This study provides several target genes, further investigation of which could provide an initial step for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant acclimation and evolution in future rising CO2 concentrations.

  12. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebesell, U; Schulz, K G; Bellerby, R G J; Botros, M; Fritsche, P; Meyerhöfer, M; Neill, C; Nondal, G; Oschlies, A; Wohlers, J; Zöllner, E

    2007-11-22

    The oceans have absorbed nearly half of the fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into the atmosphere since pre-industrial times, causing a measurable reduction in seawater pH and carbonate saturation. If CO2 emissions continue to rise at current rates, upper-ocean pH will decrease to levels lower than have existed for tens of millions of years and, critically, at a rate of change 100 times greater than at any time over this period. Recent studies have shown effects of ocean acidification on a variety of marine life forms, in particular calcifying organisms. Consequences at the community to ecosystem level, in contrast, are largely unknown. Here we show that dissolved inorganic carbon consumption of a natural plankton community maintained in mesocosm enclosures at initial CO2 partial pressures of 350, 700 and 1,050 microatm increases with rising CO2. The community consumed up to 39% more dissolved inorganic carbon at increased CO2 partial pressures compared to present levels, whereas nutrient uptake remained the same. The stoichiometry of carbon to nitrogen drawdown increased from 6.0 at low CO2 to 8.0 at high CO2, thus exceeding the Redfield carbon:nitrogen ratio of 6.6 in today's ocean. This excess carbon consumption was associated with higher loss of organic carbon from the upper layer of the stratified mesocosms. If applicable to the natural environment, the observed responses have implications for a variety of marine biological and biogeochemical processes, and underscore the importance of biologically driven feedbacks in the ocean to global change.

  13. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration on microalgal communities in Antarctic pack ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Thomas; McMinn, Andrew; Nomura, Daiki; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Increased anthropogenic CO2 emissions are causing changes to oceanic pH and CO2 concentrations that will impact many marine organisms, including microalgae. Phytoplankton taxa have shown mixed responses to these changes with some doing well while others have been adversely affected. Here, the photosynthetic response of sea-ice algal communities from Antarctic pack ice (brine and infiltration microbial communities) to a range of CO2 concentrations (400 ppm to 11,000 ppm in brine algae experiments, 400 ppm to 20,000 ppm in the infiltration ice algae experiment) was investigated. Incubations were conducted as part of the Sea-Ice Physics and Ecosystem Experiment II (SIPEX-2) voyage, in the austral spring (September-November), 2012. In the brine incubations, maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and relative electron transfer rate (rETRmax) were highest at ambient and 0.049% (experiment 1) and 0.19% (experiment 2) CO2 concentrations, although, Fv/Fm was consistently between 0.53±0.10-0.68±0.01 across all treatments in both experiments. Highest rETRmax was exhibited by brine cultures exposed to ambient CO2 concentrations (60.15). In a third experiment infiltration ice algal communities were allowed to melt into seawater modified to simulate the changed pH and CO2 concentrations of future springtime ice-edge conditions. Ambient and 0.1% CO2 treatments had the highest growth rates and Fv/Fm values but only the highest CO2 concentration produced a significantly lower rETRmax. These experiments, conducted on natural Antarctic sea-ice algal communities, indicate a strong level of tolerance to elevated CO2 concentrations and suggest that these communities might not be adversely affected by predicted changes in CO2 concentration over the next century.

  14. Rapid, Long-term Monitoring of CO2 Concentration and δ13CO2 at CCUS Sites Allows Discrimination of Leakage Patterns from Natural Background Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfond, B.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    In order for Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) to gain wide acceptance as a method for mitigating atmospheric CO2 concentrations, schemes must be devised to ensure that potential leakage is detected. New regulations from the US Environmental Protection Agency require monitoring and accounting for Class VI injection wells, which will remain a barrier to wide scale CCUS deployment until effective and efficient monitoring techniques have been developed and proven. Monitoring near-surface CO2 at injection sites to ensure safety and operational success requires high temporal resolution CO2 concentration and carbon isotopic (δ13C) measurements. The only technologies currently capable of this rapid measurement of δ13C are optical techniques such as Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS). We have developed a comprehensive remote monitoring approach using CRDS and a custom manifold system to obtain accurate rapid measurements from a large sample area over an extended study period. Our modified Picarro G1101-i CRDS allows for automated rapid and continuous field measurement of δ13CO2 and concentrations of relevant gas species. At our field site, where preparations have been underway for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) operations, we have been able to measure biogenic effects on a diurnal scale, as well as variation due to precipitation and seasonality. Taking these background trends into account, our statistical treatment of real data has been used to improve signal-to-noise ratios by an order of magnitude over published models. Our system has proven field readiness for the monitoring of sites with even modest CO2 fluxes.

  15. Effect of HCO3- concentration on CO2 corrosion in oil and gas fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effect of HCO3- concentration on CO2 corrosion was investigated by polarization measurement of potentiodynamic scans and weight-loss method. Under the conditions of high pressure and high temperature, the corrosion rate of steel X65 decreased with the increase of HCO3- concentration, while pH of solution increased. SEM, EDS, and XRD results of the corrosion scales indicated that the typical FeCO3 crystallite was found at low HCO3- concentration but Ca(Fe,Mg)(CO3)2 was found at high HCO3 concentration. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are precipitated preferential to Fe2+ at high pH value. Potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that the cathodic current density decreases with the increase of HCO3- concentration at low HCO3- concentration. When the HCO3- concentration reaches 0.126 mol/L, increasing HCO3 concentration promotes cathodic reactions. Anodic behavior is an active process at low HCO3- concentration and the anodic current density decreases with the increase of HCO3- concentration. An evident active-passive behavior is exhibited in anodic process at 0.126 mol/L HCO3-.

  16. Dynamics of global atmospheric CO2 concentration from 1850 to 2010: a linear approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Nemani, R.

    2014-09-01

    The increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions largely followed an exponential path between 1850 and 2010, and the corresponding increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration were almost constantly proportional to the emissions by the so-called "airborne fraction". These observations suggest that the dynamics of atmospheric CO2 concentration through this time period may be properly approximated as a linear system. We demonstrate this hypothesis by deriving a linear box-model to describe carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and the surface reservoirs under the influence of disturbances such as anthropogenic CO2 emissions and global temperature changes. We show that the box model accurately simulates the observed atmospheric CO2 concentrations and growth rates across interannual to multi-decadal time scales. The model also allows us to analytically examine the dynamics of such changes/variations, linking its characteristic disturbance-response functions to bio-geophysically meaningful parameters. In particular, our results suggest that the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations have significantly promoted the gross carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere. However, such "fertilization" effects are partially offset by enhanced carbon release from surface reservoirs promoted by warmer temperatures. The result of these interactions appears to be a decline in net efficiency in sequestering atmospheric CO2 by ∼30% since 1960s. We believe that the linear modeling framework outlined in this paper provides a convenient tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future changes.

  17. Online monitoring of dissolved CO2 and MEA concentrations: effect of solvent degradation on predictive accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, L.V. van der; Eckeveld, A.C. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved CO2 and mono-ethanolamine (MEA) are two essential properties of common CO2 absorption processes. They can be predicted accurately and continuously using a combination of inline measurements and a multivariate model, also in the presence of various solvent degradation prod

  18. [Effects of elevated rhizosphere CO2 concentration on the photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and quality of muskmelon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Li, Tian-Lai; Gu, Feng-Ying; He, Yu

    2013-10-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the effects of elevated rhizosphere CO2 concentration on the leaf photosynthesis and the fruit yield and quality of muskmelon during its anthesis-fruiting period. In the fruit development period of muskmelon, as compared with those in the control (350 microL CO2 x L (-1)), the leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) in treatments 2500 and 5000 microL CO2 x L(-1) decreased to some extents, but the stomatal limitation value (Ls) increased significantly, and the variation amplitudes were larger in treatment 5000 microL CO2 x L(-1) than in treatment 2500 microL CO2 x L(-1). Under the effects of elevated rhizosphere CO2 concentration, the fruit yield per plant and the Vc and soluble sugar contents in fruits decreased markedly, while the fruit organic acid content was in adverse. It was suggested that when the rhizosphere CO2 concentration of muskmelon during its anthesis-fruiting period reached to 2500 microL x L(-1), the leaf photosynthesis and fruit development of muskmelon would be depressed obviously, which would result in the decrease of fruit yield and quality of muskmelon.

  19. Measurement of Lower-Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Distribution Using a Compact 1.6 μm DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao; Abo, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial distribution and their variation in time is one of the essential information for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a compact 1.6 μm DIAL system for measuring CO2 concentration profiles in the lower atmosphere. This 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the optical parametric generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube operating at the analog mode and a 25 cm telescope. CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 2.5 km altitude.

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on soil microbial respiration and root/rhizosphere respiration in-forest soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The two main components of soil respiration,i.e.,root/rhizosphere and microbial respiration,respond differently to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations both in mechanism and sensitivity because they have different substrates derived from plant and soil organic matter,respectively.To model the carbon cycle and predict the carbon source/sink of forest ecosystems,we must first understand the relative contributions of root/rhizosphere and microbial respiration to total soil respiration under elevated CO2 concentrations.Root/rhizosphere and soil microbial respiration have been shown to increase,decrease and remain unchanged under elevated CO2 concentrations.A significantly positive relationship between root biomass and root/rhizosphere respiration has been found.Fine roots respond more strongly to elevated CO2 concentrations than coarse roots.Evidence suggests that soil microbial respiration is highly variable and uncertain under elevated CO2 concentrations.Microbial biomass and activity are related or unrelated to rates of microbial respiration.Because substrate availability drives microbial metabolism in soils,it is likely that much of the variability in microbial respiration results from differences in the response of root growth to elevated CO2 concentrations and subsequent changes in substrate production.Biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration were found to affect both root/rhizosphere and microbial respiration.

  1. Stomatal proxy record of CO2 concentrations during the Last Termination demonstrates dynamic climate behaviour and an important role for CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Kylander, Malin E.; Blaauw, Maarten; Reimer, Paula J.

    2013-04-01

    We present a new stomatal proxy-based record of CO2 concentrations spanning Greenland Interstadial 1 (Allerød pollen zone, GI-1a to 1c), Greenland Stadial 1 (Younger Dryas pollen zone, GS-1) and the first part of the Holocene (Preboreal pollen zone). The calibrated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are based on Betula nana (dwarf birch) leaves from a fossil lake sedimentary sequence in south-eastern Sweden. The stomatal proxy method relies on the inverse relationship between stomatal density on plant leaves and atmospheric CO2 concentrations to reconstruct variations in past CO2 concentrations. The record presented here demonstrates that the overall pattern of CO2 evolution during this period was dynamic, with significant abrupt fluctuations in CO2 concentration when the climate moved from interstadial to stadial state and vice versa. The cooling at the GI-1/GS-1 transition was preceded by an abrupt warming, and the warming at the GS-1/Holocene transition was preceded by an abrupt cooling. This scenario is in contrast to CO2 records reconstructed from air bubbles trapped in ice, which indicate a gradual increase in concentrations, but largely in alignment with previously published stomatal proxy-based CO2 records. A new loss-on-ignition chemical record (used here as a proxy for temperature), from the same locality, lends independent support to the CO2 record.

  2. Pressure-induced alteration in effects of high CO2 on marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, N.; Tsukasaki, A.; Tsurushima, N.; Suzumura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key mitigation technology to reduce the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Current CCS research is dominated by improvements of the efficiency of the capturing, transport or storage of CO2. Also, it is important to estimate potential impacts on marine environments related to potential CO2 leakage. It has been demonstrated that seawater acidification effects on marine community structure and food chains. Bacteria are the basis of marine microbial food web and responsible for a significant part of marine biogeochemical cycles in both water column and bottom sediments. We used a high pressure incubation system which is composed of an HPLC pump and stainless-steel pressure vessels. The system could maintain stably the pressure up to 30 MPa. Using the system, we investigated the effects of high CO2 concentration on a deep-sea bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp., isolated from the western North Pacific Ocean. The isolate was incubated in acidified seawaters at various CO2 concentrations under simulated pressure conditions between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa. We determined bacterial growth rate and live/dead cell viability. It was found that both CO2 concentration and pressure influenced substantially the growth rate of the isolate. In order to assess potential effects of leaked CO2 on microbial assemblages in marine environments, it was suggested that hydraulic pressure is one essential variable to be considered.

  3. Elevated CO2 concentration impacts cell wall polysaccharide composition of green microalgae of the genus Chlorella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y-S; Labavitch, J M; VanderGheynst, J S

    2015-01-01

    The effect of CO2 concentration on the relative content of starch, lipid and cell wall carbohydrates in microalgal biomass was investigated for the four following Chlorella strains: C. vulgaris (UTEX 259), C. sorokiniana (UTEX 2805), C. minutissima (UTEX 2341) and C. variabilis (NC64A). Each strain had a different response to CO2 concentration. The starch content was higher in UTEX259 and NC64A cultured with 2% CO2 in the air supply than in cells cultured with ca. 0·04% CO2 (ambient air), while starch content was not affected for UTEX 2805 and UTEX 2341. The lipid content was higher in Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2341 cultured in 2% CO2 than in cells cultured in ambient air, but was unchanged for the other three strains. All four Chlorella strains tended to have a higher percentage of uronic acids and lower percentage of neutral sugars in their cell wall polysaccharide complement when grown with 2% CO2 supply. Although the percentage of neutral sugars in the cell walls varied with CO2 concentration, the relative proportions of different neutral sugar constituents remained constant for both CO2 conditions. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of CO2 on the cell wall carbohydrate composition of microalgae. Microalgae have the potential to produce products that will reduce society's reliance on fossil fuels and address challenges related to food and feed production. An overlooked yet industrially relevant component of microalgae are their cell walls. Cell wall composition affects cell flocculation and the recovery of intracellular products. In this study, we show that increasing CO2 level results in greater cell wall polysaccharide and uronic acid content in the cell walls of three strains of microalgae. The results have implications on the management of systems for the capture of CO2 and production of fuels, chemicals and food from microalgae. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Trace and low concentration co2 removal methods and apparatus utilizing metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-10

    In general, this disclosure describes techniques for removing trace and low concentration CO2 from fluids using SIFSIX-n-M MOFs, wherein n is at least two and M is a metal. In some embodiments, the metal is zinc or copper. Embodiments include devices comprising SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids. In particular, embodiments relate to devices and methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids, wherein CO2 concentration is trace. Methods utilizing SIFSIX-n-M MOFs for removing CO2 from fluids can occur in confined spaces. SIFSIX-n-M MOFs can comprise bidentate organic ligands. In a specific embodiment, SIFSIX-n-M MOFs comprise pyrazine or dipryidilacetylene ligands.

  5. THE EFFECT OF HIGH CO2 CONCENTRATIONS AND UVR ON GROWTH AND PHOTOCHEMICAL EFFICIENCY IN AMPHIROA SP. (RHDOPHYTA) AND CLADOPHORA SP. (CHLOROPHYTA)%高CO2和UVR对叉节藻和刚毛藻生长及光化学效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 苏海虹; 关万春

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviors contribute to global changes of enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) and ocean acidification. Macroalgae plays an important role in global carbon cycle as primary producers;however, the effects of ocean acidification and UVR on macroalgae are uncertain. To investigate the combined effects of ocean acidi-fication and UVR on growth and photochemical efficiency, the calcified Amphiroa sp. and non-calcified Cladophora sp. were utilized in the present study. The results showed that increasing CO2 concentration from 360 ppmv (the current CO2 concentration in the air) to 1000 ppmv inhibited the growth of Amphiroa sp. by 40.01%, but stimulated the growth of Cladophora sp. by 40.08%. We also observed that UVR sensitivity was increased with acidification, and that acidifi-cation amplified the effects of elevated CO2 concentration in regulating the growth of algae. This suggested that ocean acidification may increase the negative effect of UVR to algae. These results indicated species-dependent effects of ocean acidification and UVR.%为研究高 CO2及 UVR 对大型海藻耦合效应的影响,实验选择红藻门可进行钙化的叉节藻(Amphiroa sp.)与绿藻门不具钙化能力的刚毛藻(Cladophora sp.)进行对比,探讨了高 CO2与 UVR 对这两种藻生长及光化学效率的影响,并分析高CO2和UVR的耦合效应。结果表明, CO2浓度由360µmol/mol当前空气中CO2浓度)提高到1000µmol/mol培养73d后,叉节藻的生长下降了40.01%,而刚毛藻却增加了40.08%, UVR对叉节藻的光华学效率造成的抑制率增加了77.76%,对刚毛藻的抑制率增加了17.02%,这说明高CO2引起的海水酸化加剧了UVR对藻体的负面效应,且对具有钙化能力的叉节藻影响更显著。而叉节藻和刚毛藻之间的差异体现了藻体对海水酸化和UVR响应的种间特异性。

  6. Low Temperature Performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3 under a Concentrated CO2 Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Gou; Chunfei Wu; Kai Zhang; Guoyou Xu; Meng Si; Yating Wang; Enyu Wang; Liansheng Liu; Jinxiang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR) has been widely investigated to reduce NOx emissions from combustion processes, which cause environmental challenges. However, most of the current work on NOx reduction has focused on using feed gas without CO2 or containing small amounts of CO2. In the future, oxy-fuel combustion will play an important role for power generation, and this process generates high concentrations of CO2 in flue gas. Therefore, studies on the SCR process unde...

  7. Effect of Fe ion concentration on fatigue life of carbon steel in aqueous CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of steel armours used in the flexible pipes, in aqueous solutions initially containing different concentrations of Fe2+, was investigated by four-point bending testing under saturated 1 bar CO2 condition. Corrosion fatigue results were supported with ex...... of Fe2+ marginally above the solubility limit of FeCO3 compared to the samples tested in highly supersaturated solution of Fe2+. Results revealed that the impact of the alternating stresses on the corrosion behaviour of samples reduces with lowering the applied stresses. At the stress range of 100 MPa...

  8. A framework for comparing remotely sensed and in-situ CO2 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmadov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A framework has been developed that allows validating CO2 column averaged volume mixing ratios (VMRs retrieved from ground-based solar absorption measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTS against measurements made in-situ (such as from aircrafts and tall towers. Since in-situ measurements are done frequently and at high accuracy on the global calibration scale, linking this scale with FTS total column retrievals ultimately provides a calibration scale for remote sensing. FTS, tower and aircraft data were analyzed from measurements during the CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES from May to June 2005 in Biscarrosse, France. Carbon dioxide VMRs from the MetAir Dimona aircraft, the TM3 global transport model and Observations of the Middle Stratosphere (OMS balloon based experiments were combined and integrated to compare with the FTS measurements. The comparison allows for calibrating the retrieved carbon dioxide VMRs from the FTS. The Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT model was then utilized to identify differences in surface influence regions or footprints between the FTS and the aircraft CO2 concentrations. Additionally, the STILT model was used to compare carbon dioxide concentrations from a tall tower situated in close proximity to the FTS station. The STILT model was then modified to produce column concentrations of CO2 to facilitate comparison with the FTS data. These comparisons were additionally verified by using the Weather Research and Forecasting – Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (WRF-VPRM. The differences between the model-tower and the model-FTS were then used to calculate an effective bias of approximately −2.5 ppm between the FTS and the tower. This bias is attributed to the scaling factor used in the FTS CO2 data, which was to a large extent derived from the aircraft measurements made within a 50 km distance from the FTS station: spatial heterogeneity of carbon

  9. Advances in Pulsed Lidar Measurements of CO2 Column Concentrations from Aircraft and for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Riris, H.; Numata, K.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated an improved pulsed, multiple-wavelength integrated path differential absorption lidar for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations. The lidar measures the range resolved shape of the 1572.33 nm CO2 absorption line to scattering surfaces, including the ground and the tops of clouds. Airborne measurements have used both 30 and 15 fixed wavelength samples distributed across the line. Analysis estimates the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength 10 times per second. The retrievals solve for the CO2 absorption line shape and the column average CO2 concentrations by using radiative transfer calculations, the aircraft altitude and range to the scattering surface, and the atmospheric conditions. We compare these to CO2 concentrations from in-situ sensors. In recent campaigns the lidar used a step-locked laser diode source, and a new HgCdTe APD detector in the receiver. During August and September 2014 the ASCENDS campaign flew over the California Central Valley, a coastal redwood forest, desert areas, and above growing crops in Iowa. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, and mixing ratio worked well when measuring over variable topography and through thin clouds and aerosols. The retrievals clearly show the decrease in CO2 concentration over growing cropland. Airborne lidar measurements of horizontal gradients of CO2 concentrations across Nevada, Colorado and Nebraska showed good agreement with those from a model of CO2 flux and transport (PCTM). In several flights the agreement of the lidar with the column average concentration was ppm, with standard deviation of 0.9 ppm. Two additional flights were made in February 2016 using a larger laser spot size and an optimized receiver. These improved the sensitivity x3, and the retrievals show 0.7 ppm precision over the desert in 1 second averaging time. A summary of these results will be presented, along with on-going developments for a space version.

  10. CO2 as an Oxidant for High Temperature Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibudjing eKawi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the developments in catalyst technology for the reactions utilizing CO2 for high temperature applications. These include dehydrogenation of alkanes to olefins, the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and finally CO2 reforming of hydrocarbon feedstock (i.e. methane and alcohols. Aspects on the various reaction pathways are also highlighted. The literature on the role of promoters and catalyst development is critically evaluated. Most of the reactions discussed in this review are exploited in industries and related to on-going processes, thus providing extensive data from literature. However some reactions, such as CO2 reforming of ethanol and glycerol which have not reached industrial scale are also reviewed owing to their great potential in terms of sustainability which are essential as energy for the future. This review further illustrates the building-up of knowledge which shows the role of support and catalysts for each reaction and the underlying linkage between certain catalysts which can be adapted for the multiple CO2-related reactions.

  11. 低浓度 CO2捕集的吸收率测算%Absorption rate measurement and calculation of low-concentration CO2 capture technical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超援

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces low-concentration CO2 absorbinf methods,describes the measurement and calculation methods of low-concentra-tion CO2 capture technical and explores the elements of determininf absorbinf afent,which has certain meaninf for control indoor CO2 concentration.%介绍了常用的低浓度 CO2气体吸收方法,就低浓度 CO2捕集吸收率的测算方法进行了阐述,并探讨了确定吸收剂的要素,对室内 CO2浓度的控制有一定的意义。

  12. Influence of CO2 Concentration on Adsorption Behavior of 99Tc in Clay Under Hypoxic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Zhi-xin; BAO; Liang-jin; JIANG; Tao; CHEN; Xi

    2013-01-01

    Under hypoxic conditions,using the Beishan groundwater the influence of the CO2 concentration on the adsorption behavior of 99Tc in the Longdong clay was studied by batch method.Meanwhile,the buffering effect of clay rocks on the pH value of aqueous solution at different CO2 concentrations was discussed.The adsorption behavior of 99Tc on clay at different initial pH values was also researched.

  13. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Response of Microbial Reactions to High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qusheng; Kirk, Matthew F.

    2016-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses. PMID:27909425

  14. Thermodynamic and kinetic response of microbial reactions to high CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusheng Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  15. Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G; Warner, Mark E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Pettay, D Tye; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm), and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0 °C) within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (-53%) in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.

  16. Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Schoepf

    Full Text Available Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm, and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0 °C within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (-53% in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected.

  17. Sedum-dominated green-roofs in a semi-arid region increase CO2 concentrations during the dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Har'el; Klein, Tamir; Vasl, Amiel; Shalom, Hadar; Kadas, Gyongyver; Blaustein, Leon

    2017-04-15

    Green roofs are expected to absorb and store carbon in plants and soils and thereby reduce the high CO2 concentration levels in big cities. Sedum species, which are succulent perennials, are commonly used in extensive green roofs due to their shallow root system and ability to withstand long water deficiencies. Here we examined CO2 fixation and emission rates for Mediterranean Sedum sediforme on green-roof experimental plots. During late winter to early spring, we monitored CO2 concentrations inside transparent tents placed over 1m(2) plots and followed gas exchange at the leaf level using a portable gas-exchange system. We found high rates of CO2 emission at daytime, which is when CO2 concentration in the city is the highest. Both plot- and leaf-scale measurements showed that these CO2 emissions were not fully compensated by the nighttime uptake. We conclude that although carbon sequestration may only be a secondary benefit of green roofs, for improving this ecosystem service, other plant species than Sedum should also be considered for use in green roofs, especially in Mediterranean and other semi-arid climates.

  18. Effect of urban parks on CO2 concentrations in Toluca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra Gómez, J. A.; González Sosa, E.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Cervantes, M.; Martínez Valdéz, H.

    2013-05-01

    Despite green areas are used for amusement, they have several benefits such as: microclimate regulation, groundwater recharge, noise abatement, oxygen production and CO2 capture. The last one has a notable importance, as CO2 is considered to be one of the most pollutant gases of the greenhouse effect. The city of Toluca, has a considerable urban growth. However, there are few studies aimed to assess the importance of the green areas in urban locations. About this, it is estimated than only 4m2/hab of vegetal coverage is found in big cities, which means a 50% deficit according to the international standards.The aim of this study was to assess the urban parks impact in Toluca, as regulators of CO2 means through measurements in autumn-winter seasonal period, 2012-2013.It was performed 20 measurements in 4 local parks (Urawa, Alameda, Municipal and Metropolitano), in order to evaluate the possible effect of urban parks on CO2 concentrations. Transects were made inside and outside the parks and the CO2 concentrations were registered by a portable quantifier (GMP343).The data analysis allowed the separation of the parks based on CO2 concentrations; however, it was perceived a decreasing of CO2 inside the parks (370ppm), between 10 and 40 ppm less than those areas with traffic and pedestrians (399 ppm).

  19. Highly flexible NiCo2O4/CNTs doped carbon nanofibers for CO2 adsorption and supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nousheen; Wang, Xianfeng; Ahmed Babar, Aijaz; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-08-15

    Controllable synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with hierarchical porosity and high flexibility are extremely desirable for CO2 adsorption and energy storage applications. Herein, we report a nickel cobaltite/carbon nanotubes doped CNFs (NiCo2O4/CNTs CNFs) mesoporous membrane that shows well-developed flexibility, tailored pore structure, hydrophobic character, and high stability. Ascribed to these unique features, NiCo2O4/CNTs CNFs membrane shows high CO2 capture of 1.54mmol/g at 25°C and 1.0bar, and electrochemical measurements for supercapacitors exhibit good performance with specific capacitances of 220F/g (in 1M KOH) at a current density of 1A/g. The successful synthesis of such hybrid membrane provides new insight into development of various multifunctional applications.

  20. Using Subsurface CO2 Concentrations and Isotopologues to Identify CO2 Seepage from CCS/CO2-EOR Projects: A Signal-to-Noise Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, N. R.; Risk, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    In order to fulfill a role in demonstrating containment, surface monitoring for Carbon Capture and Geologic Storage (CCS) sites must be able to clearly discriminate between natural, and leakage-source CO2. The CCS community lacks a clear metric for quantifying the degree of discrimination, for successful inter-comparison of monitoring approaches. This study illustrates the utility of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to compare the relative performance of three commonly used soil gas monitoring approaches, including bulk CO2, δ13CO2, and Δ14CO2. For inter-comparisons, we used a simulated northern temperate landscape similar to that of Weyburn, Saskatchewan (home of the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project), in which realistic spatial and temporal CO2 and isotopic variation is simulated for periods of one year or more. Results indicate, that, for this particular ecosystem, Δ14C signatures have the best overall SNR at all simulated seepage rates, and for all points across the synthetic landscape. We then apply this same SNR based approach to data collected during a 6-month sampling campaign at three locations on the Weyburn oil field. This study emphasizes both the importance of developing clear metrics for monitoring performance, and the benefit of modeling for decision support in CCS monitoring design.

  1. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthetic characteristics of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingqiang Li; Qi Tao; Zhenzhen Di; Fan Lu; Xiaoe Yang

    2015-01-01

    The combined effects of elevated CO2 and cadmi-um (Cd) on photosynthetic rate, chlorophyl fluorescence and Cd accumulation in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredi Hance were investigated to predict plant growth under Cd stress with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Both pot and hydroponic experiments were conducted and the plants were grown under ambient (350 mL L?1) or elevated (800 mL L?1) CO2. Elevated CO2 significantly (P<0.05) increased Pn (105%–149%), Pnmax (38.8%–63.0%) and AQY (20.0%–34.8%) of S. alfredii in al the Cd treatments, but reduced chlorophyl concentra-tion, dark respiration and photorespiration. After 10 days growth in medium with 50 mM Cd under elevated CO2, PSII activities were significantly enhanced (P<0.05) with Pm, Fv/Fm, F(II) and qP increased by 66.1%, 7.5%, 19.5% and 16.4%, respectively, as compared with ambient-grown plants. Total Cd uptake in shoot of S. alfredi grown under elevated CO2 was increased by 44.1%–48.5%, which was positively correlated with the increase in Pn. These results indicate that elevated CO2 promoted the growth of S. alfredi due to increased photosynthetic carbon uptake rate and photosynthetic light-use efficiency, and showed great potential to improve the phytoextraction of Cd by S. alfredi .

  2. The Form in Which Nitrogen Is Supplied Affects the Polyamines, Amino Acids, and Mineral Composition of Sweet Pepper Fruit under an Elevated CO2 Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Maria C; Otálora, Ginés; Porras, Manuel E; Sánchez-Guerrero, Mari C; Lorenzo, Pilar; Medrano, Evangelina; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of supplying nitrogen, as NO3(-) or as NO3(-)/NH4(+), on the composition of fruits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Melchor) plants grown with different CO2 concentrations ([CO2]): ambient or elevated (800 μmol mol(-1)). The results show that the application of NH4(+) and high [CO2] affected the chroma related to the concentrations of chlorophylls. The concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mg, P, and Zn were significantly reduced in the fruits of plants nourished with NH4(+), the loss of Fe being more dramatic at increased [CO2], which was also the case with the protein concentration. The concentration of total phenolics was increased by NH4(+), being unaffected by [CO2]. Globally, the NH4(+) was the main factor that affected fruit free amino acid concentrations. Polyamines were affected differently: putrescine was increased by elevated [CO2], while the response of cadaverine depended on the form of N supplied.

  3. Highly stable CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity in hyper-cross-linked heterocyclic porous polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Lee, Han Myoung; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2014-05-28

    The largest obstacles for landfill/flue gas separation using microporous materials are small adsorption values and low selectivity ratios. This study demonstrates that these adsorption and selectivity challenges can be overcome by utilizing a series of hyper-cross-linked heterocyclic polymer networks. These microporous organic polymers (MOPs) were synthesized in a single step by inexpensive Friedel-Crafts-catalyzed reactions using dimethoxymethane as an external linker. The amorphous networks show moderate Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas up to 1022 m(2) g(-1), a narrow pore size distribution in the range from 6 to 8 Å, and high physicochemical stability. Owing to the presence of the heteroatomic pore surfaces in the networks, they exhibit maximum storage capacities for CO2 of 11.4 wt % at 273 K and 1 atm. Additionally, remarkable selectivity ratios for CO2 adsorption over N2 (100) and CH4 (15) at 273 K were obtained. More importantly, as compared with any other porous materials, much higher selectivity for CO2/N2 (80) and CO2/CH4 (15) was observed at 298 K, showing that these selectivity ratios remain high at elevated temperature. The very high CO2/N2 selectivity values are ascribed to the binding affinity of abundantly available electron-rich basic heteroatoms, high CO2 isoteric heats of adsorption (49-38 kJ mol(-1)), and the predominantly microporous nature of the MOPs. Binding energies calculated using the high level of ab initio theory showed that the selectivity is indeed attributed to the heteroatom-CO2 interactions. By employing an easy and economical synthesis procedure these MOPs with high thermochemical stability are believed to be a promising candidate for selective CO2 capture.

  4. pH determines the energetic efficiency of the cyanobacterial CO2 concentrating mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Niall M; Flamholz, Avi; Hood, Rachel D; Milo, Ron; Savage, David F

    2016-09-06

    Many carbon-fixing bacteria rely on a CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) to elevate the CO2 concentration around the carboxylating enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). The CCM is postulated to simultaneously enhance the rate of carboxylation and minimize oxygenation, a competitive reaction with O2 also catalyzed by RuBisCO. To achieve this effect, the CCM combines two features: active transport of inorganic carbon into the cell and colocalization of carbonic anhydrase and RuBisCO inside proteinaceous microcompartments called carboxysomes. Understanding the significance of the various CCM components requires reconciling biochemical intuition with a quantitative description of the system. To this end, we have developed a mathematical model of the CCM to analyze its energetic costs and the inherent intertwining of physiology and pH. We find that intracellular pH greatly affects the cost of inorganic carbon accumulation. At low pH the inorganic carbon pool contains more of the highly cell-permeable H2CO3, necessitating a substantial expenditure of energy on transport to maintain internal inorganic carbon levels. An intracellular pH ≈8 reduces leakage, making the CCM significantly more energetically efficient. This pH prediction coincides well with our measurement of intracellular pH in a model cyanobacterium. We also demonstrate that CO2 retention in the carboxysome is necessary, whereas selective uptake of HCO3 (-) into the carboxysome would not appreciably enhance energetic efficiency. Altogether, integration of pH produces a model that is quantitatively consistent with cyanobacterial physiology, emphasizing that pH cannot be neglected when describing biological systems interacting with inorganic carbon pools.

  5. Quantification of the advected CO2 concentration due to upstream surface fluxes in aircraft vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, A.; Morguí, J.-A.; Curcoll, R.; Rodó, X.

    2009-04-01

    A model framework which couples the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART (LPDM) with the new global surface flux inversion CarbonTracker from NOAA-ESRL (2007B release) is used to quantify the advected CO2 concentration from outbound surface fluxes to measured vertical profiles carried out during different seasons in 2006 at La Muela site in Spain (LMU; 41.60°N, 1.1°W). The Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART (LPDM) calculates the influence of surface CO2 fluxes upwind of the study area, allowing us to identify those sources or sink areas that strongly modify the CO2 content of air masses that arrives at different altitudes of measured profiles. CarbonTracker is a new assimilation system that informs of global carbon fluxes at 1°x1° at 3 hours resolution. Coupling LPDM results with surface fluxes allows assessing the net CO2 contribution of identified areas to measured concentrations along the profiles above a reference or background concentration. Furthermore, it allows the quantification of the percentage of each component flux (biospheric, anthropogenic and oceanic) to each vertical layer. At LMU, biospheric fluxes account ~70% of total CO2 advection; fossil fuel ~25%; and ~5% is attributed to the oceanic ones. By far, late spring and summer profiles are largely influence by the biospheric component (~90%). Finally, the CO2 concentration above the background value of profiles measured on 22nd February, 13th October and 30th November 2006 are well explained by the advection of upstream surface fluxes. In other profiles examined, the variation of CO2 along the profile is partially explained by the advection of CO2 outbound fluxes.

  6. The effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration on carbon isotope fractionation in C3 land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Jahren, A. Hope

    2012-11-01

    Because atmospheric carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of all land-plant carbon, workers have suggested that pCO2 level may exert control over the amount of 13C incorporated into plant tissues. However, experiments growing plants under elevated pCO2 in both chamber and field settings, as well as meta-analyses of ecological and agricultural data, have yielded a wide range of estimates for the effect of pCO2 on the net isotopic discrimination (Δδ13Cp) between plant tissue (δ13Cp) and atmospheric CO2 (δ13CCO2). Because plant stomata respond sensitively to plant water status and simultaneously alter the concentration of pCO2 inside the plant (ci) relative to outside the plant (ca), any experiment that lacks environmental control over water availability across treatments could result in additional isotopic variation sufficient to mask or cancel the direct influence of pCO2 on Δδ13Cp. We present new data from plant growth chambers featuring enhanced dynamic stabilization of moisture availability and relative humidity, in addition to providing constant light, nutrient, δ13CCO2, and pCO2 level for up to four weeks of plant growth. Within these chambers, we grew a total of 191 C3 plants (128 Raphanus sativus plants and 63 Arabidopsis thaliana) across fifteen levels of pCO2 ranging from 370 to 4200 ppm. Three types of plant tissue were harvested and analyzed for carbon isotope value: above-ground tissues, below-ground tissues, and leaf-extracted nC31-alkanes. We observed strong hyperbolic correlations (R ⩾ 0.94) between the pCO2 level and Δδ13Cp for each type of plant tissue analyzed; furthermore the linear relationships previously suggested by experiments across small (10-350 ppm) changes in pCO2 (e.g., 300-310 ppm or 350-700 ppm) closely agree with the amount of fractionation per ppm increase in pCO2 calculated from our hyperbolic relationship. In this way, our work is consistent with, and provides a unifying relationship for, previous work on carbon isotopes

  7. Modeling atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles and fluxes above sloping terrain at a boreal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aalto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 fluxes and concentrations were simulated in the planetary boundary layer above subarctic hilly terrain using a three dimensional model. The model solves the transport equations in the local scale and includes a vegetation sub-model. A WMO/GAW background concentration measurement site and an ecosystem flux measurement site are located inside the modeled region at a hilltop and above a mixed boreal forest, respectively. According to model results, the concentration measurement at the hill site was representative for continental background. However, this was not the case for the whole model domain. Concentration at few meters above active vegetation represented mainly local variation. Local variation became inseparable from the regional signal at about 60-100 m above ground. Flow over hills changed profiles of environmental variables and height of inversion layer, however CO2 profiles were more affected by upwind land use than topography. The hill site was above boundary layer during night and inside boundary layer during daytime. The CO2 input from model lateral boundaries dominated in both cases. Daily variation in the CO2 assimilation rate was clearly seen in the CO2 profiles. Concentration difference between the hill site and the forest site was about 5ppm during afternoon according to both model and measurements. The average modeled flux to the whole model region was about 40% of measured and modeled local flux at the forest site.

  8. Winners always win: growth of a wide range of plant species from low to future high CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Andries A; Liu, Jin Chun; Cornwell, William K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Aerts, Rien

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary adaptation to variation in resource supply has resulted in plant strategies that are based on trade-offs in functional traits. Here, we investigate, for the first time across multiple species, whether such trade-offs are also apparent in growth and morphology responses to past low, current ambient, and future high CO 2 concentrations. We grew freshly germinated seedlings of up to 28 C3 species (16 forbs, 6 woody, and 6 grasses) in climate chambers at 160 ppm, 450 ppm, and 750 ppm CO 2. We determined biomass, allocation, SLA (specific leaf area), LAR (leaf area ratio), and RGR (relative growth rate), thereby doubling the available data on these plant responses to low CO 2. High CO 2 increased RGR by 8%; low CO 2 decreased RGR by 23%. Fast growers at ambient CO 2 had the greatest reduction in RGR at low CO 2 as they lost the benefits of a fast-growth morphology (decoupling of RGR and LAR [leaf area ratio]). Despite these shifts species ranking on biomass and RGR was unaffected by CO 2, winners continued to win, regardless of CO 2. Unlike for other plant resources we found no trade-offs in morphological and growth responses to CO 2 variation, changes in morphological traits were unrelated to changes in growth at low or high CO 2. Thus, changes in physiology may be more important than morphological changes in response to CO 2 variation.

  9. High Precision 2.0 μm Photoacoustic Spectrometer for Determination of the ^{13}CO_{2}/^{12}CO_{2} Isotope Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Zachary; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a portable photoacoustic spectrometer for high precision measurements of the ^{13}CO_{2}/^{12}CO_{2} isotope ratio and the absolute molar concentration of each isotope. The spectrometer extends on our previous work at 1.57 μm [1], and now employs two separate intensity modulated distributed feedback lasers and a fiber amplifier, operating in the 2.0 μm wavelength region. Each DFB is selected to probe individual spectrally isolated ro-vibrational transitions for ^{12}CO_{2} and ^{13}CO_{2}. The spectrometer is actively temperature controlled, mitigating variations in the two spectral line intensities and the temperature dependent system response. For measurements of ambient concentrations of carbon dioxide at nominally natural abundance in dry air, we demonstrate a measurement precision of 140 ppb for ^{12}CO_{2} with a 1 s averaging time and 10 ppb for ^{13}CO_{2} with a 60 s averaging time. Precision in δ13C of better than 0.1 permil is demonstrated. The analyzer response is calibrated in terms of certified gas mixtures and compared to characterization by cavity ringdown spectroscopy. We also investigate how water vapor affects the photoacoustic signals by promoting collisional relaxation for each isotope. [1] Z.D. Reed, B. Sperling, et al. App. Phys. B. 117, 645-657, 2014

  10. Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-03-01

    A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples.

  11. Different responses of invasive and native species to elevated CO 2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liying; Wu, Jinrong; Li, Changhan; Li, Furong; Peng, Shaolin; Chen, Baoming

    2009-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration is regarded as an important factor facilitating invasion. However, the mechanisms by which invasive plants spread at the expense of existing native plants are poorly understood. In this study, three invasive species ( Mikania micrantha, Wedelia trilobata and Ipomoea cairica) and their indigenous co-occurring species or congeners ( Paederia scandens, Wedelia chinensis and Ipomoea pescaprae) in South China were exposed to elevated CO 2 concentration (700 μmol mol -1). The invasive species showed an average increase of 67.1% in photosynthetic rate, significantly different from the native species (24.8%). On average the increase of total biomass at elevated CO 2 was greater for invasive species (70.3%) than for the natives (30.5%). Elevated CO 2 also resulted in significant changes in biomass allocation and morphology of invasive M. micrantha and W. trilobata. These results indicate a substantial variation in response to elevated CO 2 between these invasive and native plant species, which might be a potential mechanism partially explaining the success of invasion with ongoing increase in atmospheric CO 2.

  12. Intra-seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 concentrations over India during summer monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, K.; Valsala, Vinu; Tiwari, Yogesh K.; Revadekar, J. V.; Pillai, Prasanth; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2016-10-01

    In a study based on a data assimilation product of the terrestrial biospheric fluxes of CO2 over India, the subcontinent was hypothesized to be an anomalous source (sink) of CO2 during the active (break) spells of rain in the summer monsoon from June to September (Valsala et al., 2013). We test this hypothesis here by investigating intraseasonal variability in the atmospheric CO2 concentrations over India by utilizing a combination of ground-based and satellite observations and model outputs. The results show that the atmospheric CO2 concentration also varies in synchrony with the active and break spells of rainfall with amplitude of ±2 ppm which is above the instrumental uncertainty of the present day techniques of atmospheric CO2 measurements. The result is also consistent with the signs of the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) flux anomalies estimated in our earlier work. The study thus offers the first observational affirmation of the above hypothesis although the data gap in the satellite measurements during monsoon season and the limited ground-based stations over India still leaves some uncertainty in the robust assertion of the hypothesis. The study highlights the need to capture these subtle variabilities and their responses to climate variability and change since it has implications for inverse estimates of terrestrial CO2 fluxes.

  13. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  14. CO2-3 concentration and pCO2 thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K. K.; Halley, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    The severity of the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 to coral reef ecosystems depends, in part, on how seawater pCO2 affects the balance between calcification and dissolution of carbonate sediments. Presently, there are insufficient published data that relate concentrations of pCO2 and CO32- to in situ rates of reef calcification in natural settings to accurately predict the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 on calcification and dissolution processes. Rates of net calcification and dissolution, CO32- concentrations, and pCO2 were measured, in situ, on patch reefs, bare sand, and coral rubble on the Molokai reef flat in Hawaii. Rates of calcification ranged from 0.003 to 0.23 g CaCO3 m-2 h-1 and dissolution ranged from -0.005 to -0.33 g CaCO3 m-2 h-1. Calcification and dissolution varied diurnally with net calcification primarily occurring during the day and net dissolution occurring at night. These data were used to calculate threshold values for pCO2 and CO32- at which rates of calcification and dissolution are equivalent. Results indicate that calcification and dissolution are linearly correlated with both CO32- and pCO2. Threshold pCO2 and CO32- values for individual substrate types showed considerable variation. The average pCO2 threshold value for all substrate types was 654±195 µatm and ranged from 467 to 1003 µatm. The average CO3-- threshold value was 152±24 µmol kg-1, ranging from 113 to 184 µmol kg-1. Ambient seawater measurements of pCO2 and CO32- indicate that CO32- and pCO2 threshold values for all substrate types were both exceeded, simultaneously, 13% of the time at present day atmospheric pCO2 concentrations. It is predicted that atmospheric pCO2 will exceed the average pCO2 threshold value for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat by the year 2100.

  15. CO2−3 concentration and pCO2 thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Halley

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 to coral reef ecosystems depends, in part, on how seawater pCO2 affects the balance between calcification and dissolution of carbonate sediments. Presently, there are insufficient published data that relate concentrations of pCO2 and CO32− to in situ rates of reef calcification in natural settings to accurately predict the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 on calcification and dissolution processes. Rates of net calcification and dissolution, CO32− concentrations, and pCO2 were measured, in situ, on patch reefs, bare sand, and coral rubble on the Molokai reef flat in Hawaii. Rates of calcification ranged from 0.003 to 0.23 g CaCO3 m−2 h−1 and dissolution ranged from −0.005 to −0.33 g CaCO3 m−2 h−1. Calcification and dissolution varied diurnally with net calcification primarily occurring during the day and net dissolution occurring at night. These data were used to calculate threshold values for pCO2 and CO32− at which rates of calcification and dissolution are equivalent. Results indicate that calcification and dissolution are linearly correlated with both CO32− and pCO2. Threshold pCO2 and CO32− values for individual substrate types showed considerable variation. The average pCO2 threshold value for all substrate types was 654±195 µatm and ranged from 467 to 1003 µatm. The average CO3−- threshold value was 152±24 µmol kg-1, ranging from 113 to 184 µmol kg−1. Ambient seawater measurements of pCO2 and CO32− indicate that CO32− and pCO2 threshold values for all substrate types were both exceeded, simultaneously, 13% of the time at present day atmospheric pCO2 concentrations. It is predicted that atmospheric pCO2 will exceed the average pCO2 threshold value for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat by the year 2100.

  16. Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles: Design Considerations for Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neises, Ty; Turchi, Craig

    2014-09-01

    A comparison of three supercritical CO2 Brayton cycles: the simple cycle, recompression cycle and partial-cooling cycle indicates the partial-cooling cycle is favored for use in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. Although it displays slightly lower cycle efficiency versus the recompression cycle, the partial-cooling cycle is estimated to have lower total recuperator size, as well as a lower maximum s-CO2 temperature in the high-temperature recuperator. Both of these effects reduce recuperator cost. Furthermore, the partial-cooling cycle provides a larger temperature differential across the turbine, which translates into a smaller, more cost-effective thermal energy storage system. The temperature drop across the turbine (and by extension, across a thermal storage system) for the partial-cooling cycle is estimated to be 23% to 35% larger compared to the recompression cycle of equal recuperator conductance between 5 and 15 MW/K. This reduces the size and cost of the thermal storage system. Simulations by NREL and Abengoa Solar indicate the partial-cooling cycle results in a lower LCOE compared with the recompression cycle, despite the former's slightly lower cycle efficiency. Advantages of the recompression cycle include higher thermal efficiency and potential for a smaller precooler. The overall impact favors the use of a partial-cooling cycle for CSP compared to the more commonly analyzed recompression cycle.

  17. Active measures for reducing the global climatic impacts of escalating CO 2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, S. S.; Schneider, A. M.; Kennedy, E. M.

    The buildup of CO 2 by fossil-fuel burning and associated climatic changes have become the subject of intensive investigations. Although the time scale on which significant climatic changes (e.g. mean temperature changes of several degrees, appreciable changes in global and regional rainfalls and winds, etc.) are expected to occur is long, it has been noted that the magnitude of the energy system is so vast that modifications in the primary resource mix should preferably be initiated within a decade or sooner. The notion that the most economical energy source will be replaced globally in response to longterm climate model predictions is probably false. Before policy matters of this type can be discussed reasonably, careful assessments must be made of alternative global measures that do not require curtailments of fossil-fuel applications. This study on active measures for reducing climate changes caused by escalating CO 2 concentrations deals with potentially important areas of research. We find: (a) reductions in the solar input to the Earth by reflecting sunlight directly are prohibitively costly; (b) desired changes in Earth albedo through judicious introduction of small particles can probably be accomplished at acceptable cost through the use of modified combustors on high-flying aircraft.

  18. Atmospheric CO2 concentration impacts on maize yield performance under dry conditions: do crop model simulate it right ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Louis; Delusca, Kénel; Boote, Ken; Lizaso, Jon; Manderscheid, Remy; Jochaim Weigel, Hans; Ruane, Alex C.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Jones, Jim; Ahuja, Laj; Anapalli, Saseendran; Basso, Bruno; Baron, Christian; Bertuzzi, Patrick; Biernath, Christian; Deryng, Delphine; Ewert, Frank; Gaiser, Thomas; Gayler, Sebastian; Heinlein, Florian; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Müller, Christoph; Nendel, Claas; Olioso, Albert; Priesack, Eckhart; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Ripoche, Dominique; Rötter, Reimund; Seidel, Sabine; Srivastava, Amit; Tao, Fulu; Timlin, Dennis; Twine, Tracy; Wang, Enli; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Shigan

    2017-04-01

    In most regions of the world, maize yields are at risk of be reduced due to rising temperatures and reduced water availability. Rising temperature tends to reduce the length of the growth cycle and the amount of intercepted solar energy. Water deficits reduce the leaf area expansion, photosynthesis and sometimes, with an even more pronounced impact, severely reduce the efficiency of kernel set. In maize, the major consequence of atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is the stomatal closure-induced reduction of leaf transpiration rate, which tends to mitigate those negative impacts. Indeed FACE studies report significant positive responses to CO2 of maize yields (and other C4 crops) under dry conditions only. Given the projections by climatologists (typically doubling of [CO2] by the end of this century) projected impacts must take that climate variable into account. However, several studies show a large incertitude in estimating the impact of increasing [CO2] on maize remains using the main crop models. The aim of this work was to compare the simulations of different models using input data from a FACE experiment conducted in Braunschweig during 2 years under limiting and non-limiting water conditions. Twenty modelling groups using different maize models were given the same instructions and input data. Following calibration of cultivar parameters under non-limiting water conditions and under ambient [CO2] treatments of both years, simulations were undertaken for the other treatments: High [ CO2 ] (550 ppm) 2007 and 2008 in both irrigation regimes, and DRY AMBIENT 2007 and 2008. Only under severe water deficits did models simulate an increase in yield for CO2 enrichment, which was associated with higher harvest index and, for those models which simulated it, higher grain number. However, the CO2 enhancement under water deficit simulated by the 20 models was 20 % at most and 10 % on average only, i.e. twice less than observed in that experiment. As in the experiment

  19. Effect of CO2 Concentration on Nitrogen Metabolism of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEN Zhong-hua; LI Sheng-xiu

    2005-01-01

    Hoagland's solution was used as water culture medium to study the effect of CO2 concentration on nitrate metabolism of wheat under natural light and light-shaded conditions. NO3-N, NH4+-N, nitrate reductase activity, total uptake N by wheat plants during solution cultural period and total N in plants were determined for comprehensive evaluation of the effect.Results showed that under both natural light and light-shaded conditions, addition of CO2 increased NO3-N uptake and its assimilative capabilities by plants. However, there were some difference between shoots and roots. With increase of CO2concentration, the concentration of NO3-N and NH4+-N as well as nitrate reductase activity were all decreased for shoots while the difference was not so distinct in roots, and the nitrate reductase activity was not decreased, but increased. Since NO3-N uptake by plants from the solution and the total N in plants were much higher by CO2 addition, it may be concluded that addition of CO2 has resulted in rise of nitrate absorption, assimilation and metabolism of wheat.

  20. A statistical analysis of three ensembles of crop model responses totemperature and CO2concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowski, D; Asseng, S; Ewert, F.

    2015-01-01

    levels, and can thus be used to calculate temperature and [CO2] thresholds leading to yield loss or yield gain, without re-running the original complex crop models. Our approach is illustrated with three yield datasets simulated by 19 maize models, 26 wheat models, and 13 rice models. Several statistical......Ensembles of process-based crop models are increasingly used to simulate crop growth for scenarios of temperature and/or precipitation changes corresponding to different projections of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This approach generates large datasets with thousands of simulated crop yield data...... in the simulation protocols. Here we demonstrate that statistical models based on random-coefficient regressions are able to emulate ensembles of process-based crop models. An important advantage of the proposed statistical models is that they can interpolate between temperature levels and between CO2 concentration...

  1. Atmospheric CO2 concentration effects on rice water use and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uttam; Quick, William Paul; Barrios, Marilou; Sta Cruz, Pompe C; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have addressed effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on rice biomass production and yield but effects on crop water use are less well understood. Irrigated rice evapotranspiration (ET) is composed of floodwater evaporation and canopy transpiration. Crop coefficient Kc (ET over potential ET, or ETo) is crop specific according to FAO, but may decrease as CO2 concentration rises. A sunlit growth chamber experiment was conducted in the Philippines, exposing 1.44-m2 canopies of IR72 rice to four constant CO2 levels (195, 390, 780 and 1560 ppmv). Crop geometry and management emulated field conditions. In two wet (WS) and two dry (DS) seasons, final aboveground dry weight (agdw) was measured. At 390 ppmv [CO2] (current ambient level), agdw averaged 1744 g m-2, similar to field although solar radiation was only 61% of ambient. Reduction to 195 ppmv [CO2] reduced agdw to 56±5% (SE), increase to 780 ppmv increased agdw to 128±8%, and 1560 ppmv increased agdw to 142±5%. In 2013WS, crop ET was measured by weighing the water extracted daily from the chambers by the air conditioners controlling air humidity. Chamber ETo was calculated according to FAO and empirically corrected via observed pan evaporation in chamber vs. field. For 390 ppmv [CO2], Kc was about 1 during crop establishment but increased to about 3 at flowering. 195 ppmv CO2 reduced Kc, 780 ppmv increased it, but at 1560 ppmv it declined. Whole-season crop water use was 564 mm (195 ppmv), 719 mm (390 ppmv), 928 mm (780 ppmv) and 803 mm (1560 ppmv). With increasing [CO2], crop water use efficiency (WUE) gradually increased from 1.59 g kg-1 (195 ppmv) to 2.88 g kg-1 (1560 ppmv). Transpiration efficiency (TE) measured on flag leaves responded more strongly to [CO2] than WUE. Responses of some morphological traits are also reported. In conclusion, increased CO2 promotes biomass more than water use of irrigated rice, causing increased WUE, but it does not help saving water. Comparability

  2. Atmospheric CO2 concentration effects on rice water use and biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uttam; Quick, William Paul; Barrios, Marilou; Sta Cruz, Pompe C.; Dingkuhn, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have addressed effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on rice biomass production and yield but effects on crop water use are less well understood. Irrigated rice evapotranspiration (ET) is composed of floodwater evaporation and canopy transpiration. Crop coefficient Kc (ET over potential ET, or ETo) is crop specific according to FAO, but may decrease as CO2 concentration rises. A sunlit growth chamber experiment was conducted in the Philippines, exposing 1.44-m2 canopies of IR72 rice to four constant CO2 levels (195, 390, 780 and 1560 ppmv). Crop geometry and management emulated field conditions. In two wet (WS) and two dry (DS) seasons, final aboveground dry weight (agdw) was measured. At 390 ppmv [CO2] (current ambient level), agdw averaged 1744 g m-2, similar to field although solar radiation was only 61% of ambient. Reduction to 195 ppmv [CO2] reduced agdw to 56±5% (SE), increase to 780 ppmv increased agdw to 128±8%, and 1560 ppmv increased agdw to 142±5%. In 2013WS, crop ET was measured by weighing the water extracted daily from the chambers by the air conditioners controlling air humidity. Chamber ETo was calculated according to FAO and empirically corrected via observed pan evaporation in chamber vs. field. For 390 ppmv [CO2], Kc was about 1 during crop establishment but increased to about 3 at flowering. 195 ppmv CO2 reduced Kc, 780 ppmv increased it, but at 1560 ppmv it declined. Whole-season crop water use was 564 mm (195 ppmv), 719 mm (390 ppmv), 928 mm (780 ppmv) and 803 mm (1560 ppmv). With increasing [CO2], crop water use efficiency (WUE) gradually increased from 1.59 g kg-1 (195 ppmv) to 2.88 g kg-1 (1560 ppmv). Transpiration efficiency (TE) measured on flag leaves responded more strongly to [CO2] than WUE. Responses of some morphological traits are also reported. In conclusion, increased CO2 promotes biomass more than water use of irrigated rice, causing increased WUE, but it does not help saving water. Comparability

  3. [Direct Observation on the Temporal and Spatial Patterns of the CO2 Concentration in the Atmospheric of Nanjing Urban Canyon in Summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun-qiu; Liu, Shou-dong; Hu, Ning; Wang, Shu-min; Deng, Li-chen; Yu, Zhou; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Xu-hui

    2015-07-01

    Direct observation of urban atmospheric CO2 concentration is vital for the research in the contribution of anthropogenic activity to the atmospheric abundance since cities are important CO2 sources. The observations of the atmospheric CO2 concentration at multiple sites/heights can help us learn more about the temporal and spatial patterns and influencing mechanisms. In this study, the CO2 concentration was observed at 5 sites (east, west, south, north and middle) in the main city area of Nanjing from July 18 to 25, 2014, and the vertical profile of atmospheric CO2 concentration was measured in the middle site at 3 heights (30 m, 65 m and 110 m). The results indicated that: (1) An obvious vertical CO2 gradient was found, with higher CO2 concentration [molar fraction of 427. 3 x 10(-6) (±18. 2 x 10(-6))] in the lower layer due to the strong influences of anthropogenic emissions, and lower CO2 concentration in the upper layers [411. 8 x 10(-6) (±15. 0 x 10(-6)) and 410. 9 x 10(-6) (±14. 6 x 10(-6)) at 65 and 110 m respectively] for the well-mixed condition. The CO2 concentration was higher and the vertical gradient was larger when the atmosphere was stable. (2) The spatial distribution pattern of CO2 concentration was dominated by wind and atmospheric stability. During the observation, the CO2 concentration in the southwest was higher than that in the northeast region with the CO2 concentration difference of 7. 8 x 10(-6), because the northwest wind was prevalent. And the CO2 concentration difference reduced with increasing wind speed since stronger wind diluted CO2 more efficiently. The more stable the atmosphere was, the higher the CO2 concentration was. (3) An obvious diurnal variation of CO2 concentration was shown in the 5 sites. A peak value occurred during the morning rush hours, the valley value occurred around 17:00 (Local time) and another high value occurred around 19:00 because of evening rush hour sometimes.

  4. Photosynthesis of Populus euphratica and its response to elevated CO2 concentration in an arid environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honghua Zhou; Yaning Chen; Weihong Li; Yapeng Chen; Lixin Fu

    2009-01-01

    The photosynthetic characterization of Populus euphratica and its response to the elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) were analyzed based on its net photosynthetic rate (Pn),stomatal conductance (gs),intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci),transpiration rate (Tr),and water use efficiency (WUE) at different groundwater depths measured by a portable gas exchange system (LI-6400) in the lower reaches of the Tarim River.The results showed that the elevation of [CO2]decreased the gs,and increased the Pn,Ci and WUE of P.euphratica.However,the effects of the elevated [CO2]on gs,Pn,Ci and WUE varied considerably with groundwater depth.The response of photosynthesis to rising [CO2]was stronger at the greater groundwater depth (more than 6 m) than that at the shallower groundwater depth (less than 6 m).The critical groundwater depth required to maintain the normal survival of P.euphratica was less than 6 m.When the groundwater depth increased to more than 6 m,P.euphratica encountered moderate water stress,and the plant suffered severe water stress when the groundwater depth increased to more than 7 m.

  5. Decarbonization and the time-delay between peak CO2 emissions and concentrations

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, Ashwin K

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is the main contributor to anthropogenic global warming, and the timing of its peak concentration in the atmosphere is likely to govern the timing of maximum radiative forcing. While dynamics of atmospheric CO2 is governed by multiple time-constants, we idealize this by a single time-constant to consider some of the factors describing the time-delay between peaks in CO2 emissions and concentrations. This time-delay can be understood as the time required to bring CO2 emissions down from its peak to a small value, and is governed by the rate of decarbonizaton of economic activity. This decarbonization rate affects how rapidly emissions decline after having achieved their peak, and a rapid decline in emissions is essential for limiting peak radiative forcing. Long-term mitigation goals for CO2 should therefore consider not only the timing of peak emissions, but also the rate of decarbonization. We discuss implications for mitigation of the fact that the emissions peak corresponds to small bu...

  6. Preparation of nano CaCO3 from calcium carbide residue by CO2 precipitation with high Ca2+ concentration%高Ca2+浓度CO2沉淀法由电石渣制备纳米CaCO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王百年; 葛礼响; 曹萌; 杨保俊

    2016-01-01

    Nano CaCO3 was prepared from calcium carbide residue using NH4Cl solution as leaching agent,CO2 as carbonation agent,sodium tripolyphosphate(STP) as additive agent. The experimental results show that:When Ca2+ concentration of calcium carbide residue leaching solution is1.0 mol/L and STP dosage is 3.00%,the nano CaCO3 with 30-60 nm of particle size is prepared;STP has good effect on control of particle size and morphology of nano CaCO3;Under the optimum technological conditions,the yield of nano CaCO3 from calcium carbide residue is 80%,and the economic benefits of calcium carbide residue treatment is 2 670 yuan per ton.%以NH4Cl溶液为浸取剂、CO2为碳化剂、多聚磷酸钠(STP)为添加剂,由电石渣制备纳米CaCO3。实验结果表明:电石渣浸取液Ca2+浓度为1.0 mol/L、STP加入量为3.00%时,可制备出粒径为30~60 nm的纳米CaCO3;STP可有效控制纳米CaCO3的粒度和形貌;在最佳工艺条件下,由电石渣制备纳米CaCO3的产率为80%,处理1 t电石渣产生的经济效益约为2670元。

  7. Effects of Temperature Rise and Increase in CO2 Concentration on Simulated Wheat Yields in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine

    1996-01-01

    A crop-growth-simulation model based on SUCROS87 was used to study effects of temperature rise and increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on wheat yields in several regions in Europe. The model simulated potential and water-limited crop production (growth with ample supply of nutrients and in the

  8. Future atmospheric CO2 concentration and environmental consequences for the feed market: a consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Hamelin, Lorie; Hinrichsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    With the rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], crops will assimilate more carbon. This will increase yields in terms of carbohydrates but dilute the content of protein and minerals in crops. This consequential life cycle assessment study modelled the environmental consequences...

  9. Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Environmental Consequences for the Feed Market: a Consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Hamelin, Lorie; Hinrichsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    With the rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], crops will assimilate more carbon. This will increase yields in terms of carbohydrates but dilute the content of protein and minerals in crops. This consequential life cycle assessment study modelled the environmental consequences...

  10. INTERSPECIFIC VARIATION IN THE GROWTH-RESPONSE OF PLANTS TO AN ELEVATED AMBIENT CO2 CONCENTRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POORTER, H

    1993-01-01

    The effect of a doubling in the atmospheric CO2 concentration on the growth of vegetative whole plants was investigated. In a compilation of literature sources, the growth stimulation of 156 plant species was found to be on average 37%. This enhancement is small compared to what could be expected on

  11. The Impact of Atmosferic Concentration CO2 on the Development of the Stomata

    OpenAIRE

    Fiala, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Stomatal density (SD) and stomatal index (SI) are the parameters that are used to reconstruct the paleoclimate. Understanding the environmental factors that affect these values can make the predictive value of the stomata analysis more accurate. In this thesis, I tested the effect of different soil moisture and CO2 concentration in the stomata.

  12. Transcriptome-Wide Changes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Gene Expression Regulated by Carbon Dioxide and the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism Regulator CIA5/CCM1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Si, Yaqing; Douglass, Stephen; Casero, David; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Ladunga, Istvan; Liu, Peng; Spalding, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    We used RNA sequencing to query the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii transcriptome for regulation by CO2 and by the transcription regulator CIA5 (CCM1). Both CO2 and CIA5 are known to play roles in acclimation to low CO2 and in induction of an essential CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), but less is known about their interaction and impact on the whole transcriptome. Our comparison of the transcriptome of a wild type versus a cia5 mutant strain under three different CO2 conditions, high CO2 (5%), low CO2 (0.03 to 0.05%), and very low CO2 (<0.02%), provided an entry into global changes in the gene expression patterns occurring in response to the interaction between CO2 and CIA5. We observed a massive impact of CIA5 and CO2 on the transcriptome, affecting almost 25% of all Chlamydomonas genes, and we discovered an array of gene clusters with distinctive expression patterns that provide insight into the regulatory interaction between CIA5 and CO2. Several individual clusters respond primarily to either CIA5 or CO2, providing access to genes regulated by one factor but decoupled from the other. Three distinct clusters clearly associated with CCM-related genes may represent a rich source of candidates for new CCM components, including a small cluster of genes encoding putative inorganic carbon transporters. PMID:22634760

  13. Transcriptome-Wide Changes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Gene Expression Regulated by Carbon Dioxide and the CO2-Concentrating Mechanism Regulator CIA5/CCM1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, W; Si, YQ; Douglass, S; Casero, D; Merchant, SS; Pellegrini, M; Ladunga, I; Liu, P; Spalding, MH

    2012-06-26

    We used RNA sequencing to query the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii transcriptome for regulation by CO2 and by the transcription regulator CIA5 (CCM1). Both CO2 and CIA5 are known to play roles in acclimation to low CO2 and in induction of an essential CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), but less is known about their interaction and impact on the whole transcriptome. Our comparison of the transcriptome of a wild type versus a cia5 mutant strain under three different CO2 conditions, high CO2 (5%), low CO2 (0.03 to 0.05%), and very low CO2 (< 0.02%), provided an entry into global changes in the gene expression patterns occurring in response to the interaction between CO2 and CIA5. We observed a massive impact of CIA5 and CO2 on the transcriptome, affecting almost 25% of all Chlamydomonas genes, and we discovered an array of gene clusters with distinctive expression patterns that provide insight into the regulatory interaction between CIA5 and CO2. Several individual clusters respond primarily to either CIA5 or CO2, providing access to genes regulated by one factor but decoupled from the other. Three distinct clusters clearly associated with CCM-related genes may represent a rich source of candidates for new CCM components, including a small cluster of genes encoding putative inorganic carbon transporters.

  14. CO2 capture from the atmosphere and simultaneous concentration using zeolites and amine-grafted SBA-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckert, Nicholas R; Yang, Ralph T

    2011-12-01

    CO(2) capture from the atmosphere and concentration by cyclic adsorption-desorption processes are studied for the first time. New high microporosity materials, zeolite types Li-LSX and K-LSX, are compared to zeolite NaX and amine-grafted SBA-15 with low amine content. Breakthrough performance showed low silica type X (LSX) to have the most promise for application in dry conditions and capable of high space velocities of at least 63,000 h(-1), with minimal spreading of the CO(2) breakthrough curve. Amine-grafted silica was the only adsorbent able to operate in wet conditions, but at a lower space velocity of 1500 h(-1), due to slower uptake rates. The results illustrate that the uptake rate is as important as the equilibrium adsorbed amount in determining the cyclic process performance. Li-LSX was found to have double the capacity of zeolite NaX at atmospheric conditions, also higher than all other reported zeolites. It is further demonstrated that by using a combined temperature and vacuum swing cycle, the CO(2) concentration in the desorption product is >90% for all adsorbents in pellet form. This is the first report of such high CO(2) product concentrations from a single cycle, using atmospheric air.

  15. Comparison of CO2 fluxes estimated using atmospheric and oceanic inversions, and role of fluxes and their interannual variability in simulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, P. K.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Ishijima, K.; Maksyutov, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2006-07-01

    We use a time-dependent inverse (TDI) model to estimate regional sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 from 64 and then 22 regions based on atmospheric CO2 observations at 87 stations. The air-sea fluxes from the 64-region atmospheric-CO2 inversion are compared with fluxes from an analogous ocean inversion that uses ocean interior observations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other tracers and an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). We find that, unlike previous atmospheric inversions, our flux estimates in the southern hemisphere are generally in good agreement with the results from the ocean inversion, which gives us added confidence in our flux estimates. In addition, a forward tracer transport model (TTM) is used to simulate the observed CO2 concentrations using (1) estimates of fossil fuel emissions and a priori estimates of the terrestrial and oceanic fluxes of CO2, and (2) two sets of TDI model corrected fluxes. The TTM simulations of TDI model corrected fluxes show improvements in fitting the observed interannual variability in growth rates and seasonal cycles in atmospheric CO2. Our analysis suggests that the use of interannually varying (IAV) meteorology and a larger observational network have helped to capture the regional representation and interannual variabilities in CO2 fluxes realistically.

  16. 1.6 μm DIAL Measurement and Back Trajectory Analysis of CO2 Concentration Profiles in the Lower-Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. In addition to the ground level CO2 network, vertical CO2 concentration profiles also play an important role for the estimation of the carbon budget and global warming in the inversion method. Especially, for the detailed analysis of forest carbon dynamics and CO2 fluxes of urban area, vertical CO2 concentration profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution in the lower atmosphere have been conducted by a differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We have observed several vertical profiles of CO2 concentrations for nighttime and daytime from 0.25 to 2.5 km altitude with range resolution of 300 m and integration time of 1 hour. In order to extract information on the origin of the CO2 masses, one day back trajectories were calculated by using a three dimensional (3-D) atmospheric transport model. In many cases, CO2 low concentration layers of over 1.5km altitude were flown by westerly winds from the forest. In another case, high concentration layers of CO2 were flown from the urban areas. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature in the atmosphere, laser beams of three wavelengths around a CO2 absorption spectrum are transmitted alternately to the atmosphere for simultaneous measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature profiles. Moreover, a few processing algorithms of CO2-DIAL are also performed for improvement of measurement accuracy. For computation of trajectories and drawing their figures, the JRA-25 data provided by the cooperative research project for the JRA-25 long-term reanalysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the NIPR trajectory model (Tomikawa and Sato, 2005; http://firp-nitram.nipr.ac.jp) were used. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and

  17. 青海湖北部土壤CO2浓度变化研究%A study on change of soil CO2 concentration in north Qinghai Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景波; 李岩; 曹军骥; 郁科科

    2011-01-01

    The CO2 concentration at different vegetation and different depth of soil CO2 concentration of day and night at Haergai town is observed by utilizing infrared CO2 monitor. The results show that from 8:00 am to 8:00 am of the next day, the soil CO2 concentration is from low to high then to low at the cold and alpine area whose average temperature is about 1℃. The diurnal variation law of soil CO2 concentration has universality at the area of minimum night temperature above 0℃. The diurnal variation law of CO2 concentration is consistent with the diurnal variation of temperature but lags for about 2 hours. The day soil CO2 concentration was slightly higher than the night. The difference of CO2 concentration between day and night is small at low altitude. The soil CO2 concentrations increase with depth within 100 cm. The CO2 concentration of soil was signiifcantly higher than the air of 100 cm above ground, which shows that the soil released CO2into the atmosphere in high temperature seasons. The soil CO2concentration will release into air as long as the soil temperature close to 0℃ or above 0℃ at cold and arid grassland. The most important affecting factor of soil CO2 concentration is temperature. The average value of Q10 is 2.81, which shows that the temperature affects on grassland soil CO2concentration at high altitude greater than the low altitude.%利用红外CO2监测仪对青海湖地区哈尔盖附近不同植被、不同深度条件下的土壤CO2浓度进行了多次昼夜观测。观测结果表明,在年平均温度1℃左右的高寒青海湖地区,从早8:00到次日早8:00土壤CO2浓度具有从低到高再到低的昼夜变化规律,这种变化特点与昼夜温度变化基本一致。在土壤夜间最低温度为0℃和更高地区,土壤CO2浓度的这种昼夜变化规律具有普遍性。该区白天12小时土壤CO2浓度略高于夜间12小时,但比低海拔地区白天与夜间的浓度差异小。在土壤1 m深度范围内CO

  18. Modelling Plant and Soil Nitrogen Feedbacks Affecting Forest Carbon Gain at High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, R. E.; Norby, R. J.; Franklin, O.; Pepper, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Short-term, direct effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on plant carbon gain are relatively well understood. There is considerable uncertainty, however, about longer-term effects, which are influenced by various plant and ecosystem feedbacks. A key feedback in terrestrial ecosystems occurs through changes in plant carbon (C) allocation patterns. For instance, if high CO2 were to increase C allocation to roots, then plants may experience positive feedback through improved plant nutrition. A second type of feedback, associated with decomposition of soil-organic matter, may reduce soil-nutrient availability at high CO2. This paper will consider mechanistic models of both feedbacks. Effects of high CO2 on plant C allocation will be investigated using a simple model of forest net primary production (NPP) that incorporates the primary mechanisms of plant carbon and nitrogen (N) balance. The model called MATE (Model Any Terrestrial Ecosystem) includes an equation for annual C balance that depends on light- saturated photosynthetic rate and therefore on [CO2], and an equation for N balance incorporating an expression for N uptake as a function of root mass. The C-N model is applied to a Free Air CO2 Exchange (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, USA, where closed-canopy, monoculture stands of the deciduous hardwood sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua) have been growing at [CO2] of 375 and 550 ppm for ten years. Features of this experiment are that the annual NPP response to elevated CO2 has averaged approximately 25% over seven years, but that annual fine-root production has almost doubled on average, with especially large increases in later years of the experiment (Norby et al. 2006). The model provides a simple graphical approach for analysing effects of elevated CO2 and N supply on leaf/root/wood C allocation and productivity. It simulates increases in NPP and fine-root production at the ORNL FACE site that are consistent

  19. Effects of rhizopheric nitric oxide (NO) on N uptake in Fagus sylvatica seedlings depend on soil CO2 concentration, soil N availability and N source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Simon, Judy; Rienks, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Rhizospheric nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are signalling compounds known to affect physiological processes in plants. Their joint influence on tree nitrogen (N) nutrition, however, is still unknown. Therefore, this study investigated, for the first time, the combined effect of rhizospheric NO and CO2 levels on N uptake and N pools in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings depending on N availability. For this purpose, roots of seedlings were exposed to one of the nine combinations (i.e., low, ambient, high NO plus CO2 concentration) at either low or high N availability. Our results indicate a significant effect of rhizospheric NO and/or CO2 concentration on organic and inorganic N uptake. However, this effect depends strongly on NO and CO2 concentration, N availability and N source. Similarly, allocation of N to different N pools in the fine roots of beech seedlings also shifted with varying rhizospheric gas concentrations and N availability.

  20. Impact of oceanic circulation changes on the CO2 concentration during past interglacials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouttes, Nathaelle; Swingedouw, Didier; Crosta, Xavier; Fernanda Sanchez Goñi, Maria; Roche, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Interglacials before the Mid-Bruhnes Event (around 430 kyrs BP) were characterized by colder temperature in Antarctica, lower sea level and lower atmospheric CO2 compared to the more recent interglacials. Recent climate simulations have shown that the climate of the interglacials before and after the MBE can only be reproduced when taking into account changes in orbital parameters and atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Yin and Berger, 2010; Yin and Berger, 2012). Indeed, interglacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations were ~250 ppm and ~280 ppm prior and after the MBE, respectively. Yet, the cause for this change in atmospheric CO2 remains mainly unknown. climate simulations suggest that oceanic circulation was different during the interglacials due to the different climate states (Yin, 2013). The changes of oceanic circulation could have modified the carbon cycle: a more sluggish circulation would lead to greater carbon sequestration in the deep ocean and, subsequently, a decrease of atmospheric CO2. However, the impact of oceanic circulation changes on the carbon cycle during the interglacials of the last 800 kyrs has never been tested in coupled carbon-climate models. Here, we evaluate the role of ocean circulation changes on the carbon cycle during interglacials by using the intermediate complexity model iLOVECLIM (Goosse et al., 2010 ; Bouttes et al., 2015). This model includes a carbon cycle module on land and in the ocean and simulates carbon isotopes. The interglacial simulations are forced with orbital parameters, ice sheets and CO2 concentrations from data reconstructions. The model computes carbon fluxes between the reservoirs and an atmospheric CO2 that is distinct from the one used as a forcing. We will present simulations from this climate model for different interglacial periods of the last 800 000 years and use model-data comparison to analyse and evaluate the changes in the carbon cycle, including CO2. References Bouttes, N. et al. (2015), Geosci. Model

  1. High-Temperature CO2 Sorption on Hydrotalcite Having a High Mg/Al Molar Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suji; Jeon, Sang Goo; Lee, Ki Bong

    2016-03-09

    Hydrotalcites having a Mg/Al molar ratio between 3 and 30 have been synthesized as promising high-temperature CO2 sorbents. The existence of NaNO3 in the hydrotalcite structure, which originates from excess magnesium nitrate in the precursor, markedly increases CO2 sorption uptake by hydrotalcite up to the record high value of 9.27 mol kg(-1) at 240 °C and 1 atm CO2.

  2. Raw Baseline Concentrations and Environmental Controls on Background CO2 and CH4 for Sites Across Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougère, C. R.; Risk, D. A.; Lavoie, M.; Baillie, J.; Atherton, E. E.; Marshall, A. D.; Williams, J. P.; MacKay, K.; O'Connell, E.; Macintyre, C. M.; Spafford, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concentrations of gases in the lower atmosphere are controlled by spatially and temporally heterogeneous factors such as air temperature, biological activity and degree of industrial development. Seeing as how baseline concentrations are often required for studies of environmental change, we need a better understanding of the spatiotemporal controls on baseline atmospheric gas concentrations. In this study we collected >2.5M CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements across Canada over the course of two years and multiple seasons, by driving laser-based spectrometers in excess of 100,000 linear km. Geo-located concentration data were acquired at a frequency of 1 Hz and from an approximate height of 1.5 m. A signal processing algorithm was used to remove short-term plume features that were related to local industrial activity, so as to derive background concentrations that were more generally representative of natural landscape variation. We assessed relationships between background concentrations and environmental factors for each province, as well as areas with and without a high degree of oil and gas production. We also compared concentration signatures between winter and summer for some provinces, and were additionally able to provide a full season-by-season comparison for the province of Saskatchewan. Results suggest that temperature is the primary spatiotemporal control on CO2 and CH4 background concentrations, suggesting that the biosphere is the dominant regulator of concentrations near the ground surface. Local wind speeds and atmospheric pooling were comparatively less useful predictors of landscape CO2 and CH4 variation. These results will facilitate improved CO2 and CH4 baseline data estimates for environmental studies of many types in non-urban environments.

  3. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Concentration in the ASCENDS 2014 Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Chen, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We report progress in demonstrating a pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. The CO2 lidar flies on NASA's DC-8 aircraft and measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line by using 30 wavelength samples distributed across the lube. Our post-flight analysis estimates the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength 10 times per second. The retrievals solve for the optimum CO2 absorption line shape and the column average CO2 concentrations using radiative transfer calculations based on HITRAN, the aircraft altitude, range to the scattering surface, and the atmospheric conditions. We compare these to CO2 concentrations sampled by in-situ sensors on the aircraft. The number of wavelength samples can be reduced in the retrievals. During the ASCENDS airborne campaign in 2013 two flights were made in February over snow in the Rocky Mountains and the Central Plains allowing measurement of snow-covered surface reflectivity. Several improvements were made to the lidar for the 2014 campaign. These included using a new step-locked laser diode source, and incorporating a new HgCdTe APD detector and analog digitizer into the lidar receiver. Testing showed this detector had higher sensitivity, analog response, and a more linear dynamic range than the PMT detector used previously. In 2014 flights were made in late August and early September over the California Central Valley, the redwood forests along the California coast, two desert areas in Nevada and California, and two flights above growing agriculture in Iowa. Two flights were also made under OCO-2 satellite ground tracks. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, and mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, and through thin clouds and aerosol scattering. The lidar measurements clearly

  4. Seasonal and diel variation in xylem CO2 concentration and sap pH in sub-Mediterranean oak stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Roberto; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Teskey, Robert; McGuire, Mary Anne; Aubrey, Doug; González-Doncel, Inés; Gil, Luis; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Since a substantial portion of respired CO2 remains within the stem, diel and seasonal trends in stem CO2 concentration ([CO2]) are of major interest in plant respiration and carbon budget research. However, continuous long-term stem [CO2] studies are scarce, and generally absent in Mediterranean climates. In this study, stem [CO2] was monitored every 15min together with stem and air temperature, sap flow, and soil water storage during a growing season in 16 stems of Quercus pyrenaica to elucidate the main drivers of stem [CO2] at different temporal scales. Fluctuations in sap pH were also assessed during two growing seasons to evaluate potential errors in estimates of the concentration of CO2 dissolved in xylem sap ([CO2*]) calculated using Henry's law. Stem temperature was the best predictor of stem [CO2] and explained more than 90% and 50% of the variability in stem [CO2] at diel and seasonal scales, respectively. Under dry conditions, soil water storage was the main driver of stem [CO2]. Likewise, the first rains after summer drought caused intense stem [CO2] pulses, suggesting enhanced stem and root respiration and increased resistance to radial CO2 diffusion. Sap flow played a secondary role in controlling stem [CO2] variations. We observed night-time sap pH acidification and progressive seasonal alkalinization. Thus, if the annual mean value of sap pH (measured at midday) was assumed to be constant, night-time sap [CO2*] was substantially overestimated (40%), and spring and autumn sap [CO2*] were misestimated by 25%. This work highlights that diel and seasonal variations in temperature, tree water availability, and sap pH substantially affect xylem [CO2] and sap [CO2*].

  5. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2 : an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant–plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may bene

  6. Abiotic formation of O2 and O3 in high-CO2 terrestrial atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Segura, A; Kasting, J F; Crisp, D; Cohen, M

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that high amounts of ozone (O3) and oxygen (O2) may be produced abiotically in atmospheres with high concentrations of CO2. The abiotic production of these two gases, which are also characteristic of photosynthetic life processes, could pose a potential "false-positive" for remote-sensing detection of life on planets around other stars.We show here that such false positives are unlikely on any planet that possesses abundant liquid water, as rainout of oxidized species onto a reduced planetary surface should ensure that atmospheric H2 concentrations remain relatively high, and that O2 and O3 remain low. Our aim is to determine the amount of O3 and O2 formed in a high CO2 atmosphere for a habitable planet without life. We use a photochemical model that considers hydrogen (H2) escape and a detailed hydrogen balance to calculate the O2 and O3 formed on planets with 0.2 of CO2 around the Sun, and 0.02, 0.2 and 2 bars of CO2 around a young Sun-like star with higher UV radiation. The ...

  7. Sensitivity of grapevine phenology to water availability, temperature and CO2 concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Martínez-Lüscher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, mean global temperatures have increased in parallel with a sharp rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 levels, with apparent implications for precipitation patterns. The aim of the present work is to assess the sensitivity of different phenological stages of grapevine to temperature and to study the influence of other factors related to climate change (water availability and CO2 concentration on this relationship. Grapevine phenological records from 9 plantings between 42.75°N and 46.03°N consisting of dates for budburst, flowering and fruit maturity were used. In addition, we used phenological data collected from two years of experiments with grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings with two grapevine varieties under two levels of water availability, two temperature regimes and two levels of CO2. Dormancy breaking and flowering were strongly dependent on spring temperature, while neither variation in temperature during the chilling period nor precipitation significantly affected budburst date. The time needed to reach fruit maturity diminished with increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation. Experiments under semi-controlled conditions revealed great sensitivity of berry development to both temperature and CO2. Water availability had significant interactions with both temperature and CO2; however, in general, water deficit delayed maturity when combined with other factors. Sensitivities to temperature and CO2 varied widely, but higher sensitivities appeared in the coolest year, particularly for the late ripening variety, ‘White Tempranillo’. The knowledge gained in whole plant physiology and multi stress approaches is crucial to predict the effects of climate change and to design mitigation and adaptation strategies allowing viticulture to cope with climate change.

  8. A Cationic MOF with High Uptake and Selectivity for CO2 due to Multiple CO2 -Philic Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Hua; Shi, Wen-Juan; Hou, Lei; Li, Gao-Peng; Zhu, Zhonghua; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2015-11-09

    The reaction of N-rich pyrazinyl triazolyl carboxyl ligand 3-(4-carboxylbenzene)-5-(2-pyrazinyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (H2 cbptz) with MnCl2 afforded 3D cationic metal-organic framework (MOF) [Mn2 (Hcbptz)2 (Cl)(H2 O)]Cl⋅DMF⋅0.5 CH3 CN (1), which has an unusual (3,4)-connected 3,4T1 topology and 1D channels composed of cavities. MOF 1 has a very polar framework that contains exposed metal sites, uncoordinated N atoms, narrow channels, and Cl(-) basic sites, which lead to not only high CO2 uptake, but also remarkably selective adsorption of CO2 over N2 and CH4 at 298-333 K. The multiple CO2 -philic sites were identified by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, 1 shows excellent stability in natural air environment. These advantages make 1 a very promising candidate in post-combustion CO2 capture, natural-gas upgrading, and landfill gas-purification processes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of fossil fuel CO2 emissions of the Paris urban area from the prior estimates established by the Airparif local air quality agency. Five atmospheric monitoring sites are available, including one at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion adjusts prior knowledge about the anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes from the Airparif inventory and an ecosystem model, respectively, with corrections at a temporal resolution of 6 h, while keeping the spatial distribution from the emission inventory. These corrections are based on assumptions regarding the temporal autocorrelation of prior emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle, and from day to day. The comparison of the measurements against the atmospheric transport simulation driven by the a priori CO2 surface fluxes shows significant differences upwind of the Paris urban area, which suggests a large and uncertain contribution from distant sources and sinks to the CO2 concentration variability. This contribution advocates that the inversion should aim at minimising model-data misfits in upwind-downwind gradients rather than misfits in mole fractions at individual sites. Another conclusion of the direct model-measurement comparison is that the CO2 variability at the top of the Eiffel Tower is large and poorly represented by the model for most wind speeds and directions. The model's inability to reproduce the CO2 variability at the heart of the city makes such measurements ill-suited for the inversion. This and the need to constrain the budgets for the whole city suggests the assimilation of upwind-downwind mole fraction gradients between sites at the edge of the urban area only. The inversion significantly improves the agreement

  10. An asymmetric tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane for high temperature CO2 separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xueliang; Ortiz Landeros, José; Lin, Y S

    2013-10-25

    For the first time, a tubular asymmetric ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane was prepared by a centrifugal casting technique and used for high temperature CO2 separation. This membrane shows high CO2 permeation flux and permeance.

  11. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and yield of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) in Lunar Palace 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Dong, Chen; Yu, Juan

    Elevated CO2 concentration is a common phenomenon in spaceflight environment. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration within short- and long-term on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and yield of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) are examined during 90 days in Lunar Palace 1. Elevated CO2 within a short-term induces a large increase in photosynthesis in chufa, long-term expose in elevated CO2 can lead to a smaller increase resulting from the inhibition of photosynthesis. It is indicated that the increased net photosynthesis per unit leaf area at elevated CO2 concentration come from an inhibition of photorespiration and an Increase of photosynthesis substrate. Low stomatal conductance reduced the transpiration. Effects of high CO2 concentration to the growth of whole plants is the main point of this research. The probable CO2 concentration affecting chufa growth is evaluated in Lunar Palace 1, and the mechanisms will be revealed. The proper CO2 concentration for highest production of chufa in spaceflight environment will be figured out, which plays an important role in plant cultivation supporting spaceflight tasks.

  12. Observation of vertcal CO2 concentration profiles in the lower-atmosphere using a compact direct detection 1.6 μm DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.; Abo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial profile and their variation in time is one of the essential informations for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. Moewover, for the detailed analysis of forest carbon dynamics and CO2 fluxes of urban area, the CO2 concentration measurement techniques with high spatial and temporal resolution are required in the lower atmosphere. A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a compact direct detection 1.6 μm DIAL system for measuring CO2 concentration profiles in the lower atmosphere. This DIAL system consists of the optical parametric generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser with high repetition rate and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube operating at the analog mode and the 25 cm telescope. We have succeeded in observing the daytime temporal change of vertical CO2 concentration profiles for the range from 0.25 to 2.5 km with integration time of 30 minutes and range resolution of 300 m. This compact direct detection CO2 DIAL is usefull for the estimation of CO2 flux. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  13. Effects of elevated atmospherical CO2 concentration and nitrogen fertilisation on priming effects in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, H.; Marschner, B.

    2009-04-01

    It is expected that the biomass production and thus the input of organic carbon to the soil will increase in response to elevated CO¬2 concentrations in the atmosphere. It remains unclear whether this will lead to a long term increased carbon pool, because only little is known about the stability of the additional carbon inputs. The soil samples were taken on an agricultural field at the experimental farm of the Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Braunschweig, Germany. A Free-Air Carbon-dioxide Enrichment (FACE) system was installed here in May 2000. It consists of rings with 20 m diameter. Two rings were operated with CO2 enriched air (550 ppm), another two rings received ambient air (370 ppm). One half of each ring received the full amount of nitrogen fertiliser, the remainder received only half of this N-amount. The soil samples were taken after 6 years of operation and were incubated with 14C-labeled fructose and alanine for 21 days. Furthermore, combined additions with the respective substrate and ammonium nitrate or ammonium nitrate alone were conducted. The microbial biomass was determined after 2 and 21 days. In the untreated controls the SOC mineralisation amounted to 0.59 to 0.68%. The addition of fructose, fructose+NH4NO3, alanine and alanine+NH4NO3 to the different soil samples increased SOC mineralization and thus caused priming effects of different extents. For NH4NO3 no priming effects occurred. The addition of fructose induced positive priming effects in all samples. The lowest priming effect was observed in the sample ambient CO2+50% N (+50%), either with fructose alone or in combination with NH4NO3. The addition of alanine caused similar priming effects in the ambient CO2+100% N and the elevated CO2+100% N samples (+92.4 and +95.6%, respectively). Again, the lowest priming effect was observed in the sample ambient CO2+50% N. The microbial biomass showed a clear increase in the substrate treated samples compared to the controls. The

  14. Experimental and numerical results for CO2 concentration and temperature profiles in an occupied room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Aline; Junghans, Lars; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, a recognition of the scope of the negative environmental impact of existing buildings has spurred academic and industrial interest in transforming existing building design practices and disciplinary knowledge. For example, buildings alone consume 72% of the electricity produced annually in the United States; this share is expected to rise to 75% by 2025 (EPA, 2009). Significant reductions in overall building energy consumption can be achieved using green building methods such as natural ventilation. An office was instrumented on campus to acquire CO2 concentrations and temperature profiles at multiple locations while a single occupant was present. Using openFOAM, numerical calculations were performed to allow for comparisons of the CO2 concentration and temperature profiles for different ventilation strategies. Ultimately, these results will be the inputs into a real time feedback control system that can adjust actuators for indoor ventilation and utilize green design strategies. Funded by UM Office of Vice President for Research.

  15. Increasing atmospheric humidity and CO2 concentration alleviate forest hydraulic failure risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Parolari, A.; Kumar, M.; Porporato, A. M.; Katul, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    Climate-induced forest mortality is being observed throughout the globe and has the potential to alter ecosystem services provided by forests. Recent studies suggest that forest mortality is expected to be exacerbated under climate change due to intensified water and heat stress. While few dispute the claim that the compound effect of reduced soil water and increased heat stress increases the probability of forest mortality, impacts of other aspects of climate change have not been explored. Specifically, the impacts of concurrent changes in atmospheric humidity and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which may influence stomatal kinetics in ways that allow plants to operate despite reduced plant hydraulic capacity, remain unaddressed. Here, the risk of hydraulic failure (HFR), one of the key factors contributing to forest mortality is investigated by setting up a dynamic soil-plant-atmospheric model. The coupled and isolated responses of HFR to changes in precipitation amount and seasonality, air temperature, atmospheric humidity, and atmospheric CO2 concentration are analyzed. By incorporating CMIP5 climate projections, the synthetic future responses of HFR for 13 forest biomes across the globe are examined. The results indicate that while HFR is predicted to increase under shifting precipitation patterns and elevated air temperature, the increasing risks may be partly compensated by increases in atmospheric humidity and CO2 concentration. The alleviating effects are likely to be more significant for broadleaf forests than those for needleleaf forests. Our findings suggest that contributions of atmospheric humidity and CO2 concentration on HFR, independently of other effects such as seed production, germination, spread, disease outbreak, and resource competition at the community level, may lead to lower risks of forest mortality than previously thought.

  16. Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration on the Biomasses and Nitrogen Concentrations in the Organs of Sainfoin(Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zheng-chao; SHANGGUAN Zhou-ping

    2009-01-01

    In forage grasses,the nitrogen concentration is directly related to the nutritional value.The studies examined the hypothesis that global elevation of CO2 concentration probably affects the biomass,nitrogen(N)concentration,and allocation and distribution patterns in the organs of forage grasses.While sainfoin(Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.)seedlings grew on a low nutrient soil in closed chambers for 90 days,they were exposed to two CO2 concentrations(ambient or ambient+350μmol mol-1 CO2)without adding nutrients to them.After 90 days exposure to CO2,the biomasses of leaves,stems,and roots,and N concentrations and contents of different parts were measured.Compared with the ambient CO2 concentration,the elevated CO2 concentration increased the total dry matter by 25.07%,mainly due to the root and leaf having positive response to the elevated CO2 concentration.However,the elevated CO2 concentration did not change the proportions of the dry matters in different parts and the total plants compared with the ambient CO2 concentration.The elevated CO2 concentration lowered the N concentrations of the plant parts.Because the dry matter was higher,the elevated CO2 concentration had no effect on the N content in the plants compared to the ambient CO2 concentration.The elevated CO2 concentration promoted N allocations of the different parts significantly and increased N allocation of the underground part.The results have confirmed the previous suggestions that the elevated CO2 concentration stimulates plant biomass production and decreases the N concentrations of the plant parts.

  17. Analysis of influence of atmosphere extinction to Raman lidar monitoring CO2 concentration profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pei-Tao; Zhang Yin-Chao; Wang Lian; Zhao Yue-Feng; Su Jia; Fang Xin; Cao Kai-Fa; Xie Jun; Du Xiao-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Lidar (Light detection and ranging) system monitoring of the atmosphere is a novel and powerful technique tool. The Raman lidar is well established today as a leading research tool in the study of numerous important areas in the atmospheric sciences. In this paper, the principle of Raman lidar technique measurement CO2 concentration profile is presented and the errors caused by molecular and aerosol extinction for CO2 concentration profile measurement with Raman lidar are also presented. The standard atmosphere extinction profile and 'real-time' Hefei area extinction profile are used to conduct correction and the corresponding results are yielded. Simulation results with standard atmosphere mode correction indicate that the errors caused by molecule and aerosol extinction should be counted for the reason that they could reach about 8 ppm and 5 ppm respectively. The relative error caused by Hefei area extinction correction could reach about 6%. The errors caused by the two components extinction influence could produce significant changes for CO2 concentration profile and need to be counted in data processing which could improve the measurement accuracies.

  18. Development of a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, M.; Haszpra, L.; Major, I.; Svingor, É.; Veres, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays one of the most burning questions for the science is the rate and the reasons of the recent climate change. Greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere could affect the climate of our planet. However, the relation between the amount of atmospheric GHG and the climate is complex, full with interactions and feedbacks partly poorly known even by now. The only way to understand the processes, to trace the changes, to develop and validate mathematical models for forecasts is the extensive, high precision, continuous monitoring of the atmosphere. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major component of the European carbon budget. Separation of the fossil fuel signal from the natural biogenic one in the atmosphere is, therefore, a crucial task for quantifying exchange flux of the continental biosphere through atmospheric observations and inverse modelling. An independent method to estimate trace gas emissions is the top-down approach, using atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements combined with simultaneous radiocarbon (14C) observations. As adding fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere, therefore, leads not only to an increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere but also to a decrease in the 14C/12C ratio in atmospheric CO2. The ATOMKI has more than two decade long experience in atmospheric 14CO2 monitoring. As a part of an ongoing research project being carried out in Hungary to investigate the amount and temporal and spatial variations of fossil fuel CO2 in the near surface atmosphere we developed a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station. We describe the layout and the operation of the measuring system which is designed for the continuous, unattended monitoring of CO2 mixing ratio in the near surface atmosphere based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. In the station one atmospheric 14CO2 sampling unit is also installed which is developed and widely used since more than one decade by ATOMKI. Mixing ratio of CO2 is

  19. Laser Sounder for Measuring Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations: Progress Toward Ascends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Sun, X.; Stephen, M. A.; Wilson, E.; Burris, J. F.; Mao, J.

    2008-01-01

    the on and off-line singnals via the DIAL technique. We used pulsed laser signals, photon counting detectors, and time gating to isolate the laser returns from the surface, and to reject photons scattered from thin clouds and aerosols. High signal-to-noise ratios are required and the CO2 estimates can be sensitive to small drifts or other errors in the instrument, so the absorption estimates need to be quite stable for hours. We have constructed a breadboard version of the CO2 sensor that uses a low power fiber laser and a 20 cm diameter telescope. We have used it to make measurements of CO2 absorption in the laboratory and over 200-m to 2-km long open horizontal paths. These have been done in several sessions extending over multiple days, which allows us to assess the measurement stability and to compare absorption variations to readings from an external in situ CO2 sensor. We have also calculated characteristics of the technique for space including its expected measurement performance for different modulation types, and have performed an initial space mission accommodation study. We sill describe these results in the presentation.

  20. Effect of CO2 Concentration on Growth and Biochemical Composition of Newly Isolated Indigenous Microalga Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus BBKLP-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Lakkanagouda; Kaliwal, Basappa

    2016-11-23

    Photosynthetic mitigation of CO2 through microalgae is gaining great importance due to its higher photosynthetic ability compared to plants, and the biomass can be commercially exploited for various applications. CO2 fixation capability of the newly isolated freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus BBKLP-07 was investigated using a 1-l photobioreactor. The cultivation was carried at varying concentration of CO2 ranging from 5 to 25%, and the temperature and light intensities were kept constant. A maximum CO2 fixation rate was observed at 15% CO2 concentration. Characteristic growth parameters such as biomass productivity, specific growth rate, and maximum biomass yield, and biochemical parameters such as carbohydrate, protein, lipid, chlorophyll, and carotenoid were determined and discussed. It was observed that the effect of CO2 concentration on growth and biochemical composition was quite significant. The maximum biomass productivity was 0.061 ± 0.0007 g/l/day, and the rate of CO2 fixation was 0.12 ± 0.002 g/l/day at 15% CO2 concentration. The carbohydrate and lipid content were maximum at 25% CO2 with 26.19 and 25.81% dry cell weight whereas protein, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents were 32.89% dry cell weight, 25.07 μg/ml and 6.15 μg/ml respectively at 15% CO2 concentration.

  1. Interactive Effects of Drought Stresses and Elevated CO2 Concentration on Photochemistry Efficiency of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Ming Li; Bin-Bin Liu; Yang Wu; Zhi-Rong Zou

    2008-01-01

    To reveal and quantify the interactive effects of drought stresses and elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] on photochemistry efficiency of cucumber seedlings, the portable chlorophyll meter was used to measure the chlorophyll content, and the Imaging-PAM was used to image the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and rapid light response curves (RLC) of leaves in two adjacent greenhouses. The results showed that chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced significantly with drought stress aggravated. Minimal fluorescence (Fo) was increased while maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) decreased significantly by severe drought stress. The significant decrease of effective quantum yield of PSll (Y(Ⅱ)) accompanied by the significant increase of quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation (Y(NPQ)) was observed under severe drought stress condition, but there was no change of quantum yield of nonregulated energy dissipation (Y(NO)). We detected that the coefficient of photochemical quenching (Qp) decreased, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased significantly under severe drought stress. Furthermore, we found that maximum apparent electron transport rate (ETRmax) and saturating photosynthetically active radiation (PPFDsat) decreased significantly with drought stress aggravated. However, elevated [CO2] significantly increased FvlFm, Qp and PPFDsat, and decreased NPQ under all water conditions, although there were no significant effects on chlorophyll content, Fo, Y(Ⅱ), Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and ETRmax. Therefore, it is concluded that CO2-fertilized greenhouses or elevated atmospheric [CO2] in the future could be favorable for cucumber growth and development, and beneficial to alleviate the negative effects of drought stresses to a certain extent.

  2. Direct Detection 1.6?m DIAL / Doppler Lidar for Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Wind Profiles (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial distribution and their variation in time is one of the essential information for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. Moreover, wind information is an important parameter for transport simulations and inverse estimation of surface CO2 flux. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the Doppler wind lidar with the range resolution is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 profiles and wind profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a scanning 1.6 μm DIAL and incoherent Doppler lidar system for simultaneously measuring CO2 concentration and wind speed profiles. Our 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd: YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz) and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detect a Doppler shift, and a 25 cm telescope [1] [2]. We had developed an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system for 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL[3]. To achieve continuous tuning of the resonant OPO output without mode hopping, it is necessary to vary the OPO cavity length synchronously with the seed-frequency. On the other hand, the OPG does not require a cavity and instead rely on sufficient conversion efficiency to be obtained with a single pass through the crystal. The single-frequency oscillation of the OPG was achieved by injection seeding. The CO2-DIAL was operated with the range-height indicator (RHI) mode, and the 2-D measurement provided inhomogeneity in the boundary layer. Vertical CO2 concentration profiles and wind profiles were also measured simultaneously. The elevation angle was fixed at 52 deg and CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 1 km altitude with 200 m height resolution. Vertical

  3. Seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) seedlings in a high-CO2 world: from physiology to herbivory

    KAUST Repository

    Hernán, Gema

    2016-12-01

    Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities. In this study we determined the effects of experimental exposure to current and future predicted CO2 concentrations on the physiology, size and defense strategies against herbivory in the earliest life stage of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. The photosynthetic performance of seedlings, assessed by fluorescence, improved under increased pCO2 conditions after 60 days, although these differences disappeared after 90 days. Furthermore, these plants exhibited bigger seeds and higher carbon storage in belowground tissues, having thus more resources to tolerate and recover from stressors. Of the several herbivory resistance traits measured, plants under high pCO2 conditions had a lower leaf N content but higher sucrose. These seedlings were preferred by herbivorous sea urchins in feeding trials, which could potentially counteract some of the positive effects observed.

  4. Seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) seedlings in a high-CO2 world: from physiology to herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán, Gema; Ramajo, Laura; Basso, Lorena; Delgado, Antonio; Terrados, Jorge; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tomas, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities. In this study we determined the effects of experimental exposure to current and future predicted CO2 concentrations on the physiology, size and defense strategies against herbivory in the earliest life stage of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. The photosynthetic performance of seedlings, assessed by fluorescence, improved under increased pCO2 conditions after 60 days, although these differences disappeared after 90 days. Furthermore, these plants exhibited bigger seeds and higher carbon storage in belowground tissues, having thus more resources to tolerate and recover from stressors. Of the several herbivory resistance traits measured, plants under high pCO2 conditions had a lower leaf N content but higher sucrose. These seedlings were preferred by herbivorous sea urchins in feeding trials, which could potentially counteract some of the positive effects observed. PMID:27905514

  5. Modeling The Anthropogenic CO2 Footprint in Europe Using a High Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Gruber, Nicolas; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The localized nature of most fossil fuel emission sources leaves a distinct footprint on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, yet to date, most studies have used relatively coarse atmospheric transport models to simulate this footprint, causing an excess amount of spatial smoothing. In addition, most studies have considered only monthly variations in emissions, neglecting their substantial diurnal and weekly fluctuations. With the fossil fuel emission fluxes dominating the carbon balance in Europe and many other industrialized countries, it is paramount to simulate the fossil fuel footprint in atmospheric CO2 accurately in time and space in order to discern the footprint of the terrestrial biosphere. Furthermore, a good understanding of the fossil fuel footprint also provides the opportunity to monitor and verify any change in fossil fuel emission. We use here a high resolution (7 km) atmospheric model setup for central Europe based on the operational weather forecast model COSMO and simulate the atmospheric CO2 concentrations separately for 5 fossil fuel emission sectors (i.e., power generation, heating, transport, industrial processes, and rest), and for 10 different country-based regions. The emissions were based on high-resolution emission inventory data (EDGAR(10km) and MeteoTest(500m)), to which we have added detailed time functions for each process and country. The total anthropogenic CO2 footprint compares well with observational estimates based on radiocarbon (C14) and CO for a number of sites across Europe, providing confidence in the emission inventory and atmospheric transport. Despite relatively rapid atmospheric mixing, the fossil fuel footprint shows strong annual mean structures reflecting the point-source nature of most emissions. Among all the processes, the emissions from power plants dominates the fossil fuel footprint, followed by industry, while traffic emissions are less distinct, largely owing to their spatially more distributed nature. However

  6. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  7. Contribution of various carbon sources toward isoprene synthesis mediated by altered atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, A. M.; Asensio, D.; Eller, A. S.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Schnitzler, J.; Jackson, R. B.; Monson, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    suggests that trees grown in sub-ambient CO2 also have significantly higher isoprene flux rates (4.678 nmol m-2 s-1) as compared to those grown in ambient (2.563 nmol m-2 s-1 ) and elevated (2.193 nmol m-2 s-1 ) CO2. However, trees from sub-ambient CO2 exhibit the lowest proportion of total isoprene molecules completely labeled (P Photorespiration, in conjunction with a small carbon pool and high turnover rates, may explain why trees grown in sub-ambient CO2 have a large percentage of isoprene incompletely labeled, despite exhibiting the fastest labeled carbon pools. These data offer a possible explanation for the large isoprene emissions observed from trees grown in sub-ambient CO2 and presents in fine detail the rate and sequence of recently assimilated carbon contributing to isoprene production in different CO2 environments.

  8. Effects of high CO2 and warming on a Baltic Sea microzooplankton community

    OpenAIRE

    Henriette G Horn; Boersma, Maarten; Garzke, Jessica; Löder, Martin G. J.; Sommer, Ulrich; Aberle, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Global warming and ocean acidification are among the most important stressors for aquatic ecosystems in the future. To investigate their direct and indirect effects on a near-natural plankton community, a multiple-stressor approach is needed. Hence, we set up mesocosms in a full-factorial design to study the effects of both warming and high CO2 on a Baltic Sea autumn plankton community, concentrating on the impacts on microzooplankton (MZP). MZP abundance, biomass, and species composition wer...

  9. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of CO2 Distribution in the Upper Airways During Nasal High Flow Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, S C; Storey, J; Adams, C; Dey, K; Geoghegan, P H; Kabaliuk, N; Oldfield, S D; Spence, C J T; Jermy, M C; Suresh, V; Cater, J E

    2016-10-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) therapy is used to treat a variety of respiratory disorders to improve patient oxygenation. A CO2 washout mechanism is believed to be responsible for the observed increase in oxygenation. In this study, experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the CO2 concentration within the upper airway during unassisted and NHF assisted breathing were undertaken with the aim of exploring the existence of this washout mechanism. An anatomically accurate nasal cavity model was generated from a CT scan and breathing was reproduced using a Fourier decomposition of a physiologically measured breath waveform. Time dependent CO2 profiles were obtained at the entrance of the trachea in the experimental model, and were used as simulation boundary conditions. Flow recirculation features were observed in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity upon application of the therapy. This causes the CO2 rich gas to vent from the nostrils reducing the CO2 concentration in the dead space and lowering the inspired CO2 volume. Increasing therapy flow rate increases the penetration depth within the nasal cavity of the low CO2 concentration gas. A 65% decrease in inspired CO2 was observed for therapy flow rates ranging from 0 to 60 L min(-1) supporting the washout mechanism theory.

  10. Modeling concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish NEAREX project a three-dimensional Eulerian hemispheric air pollution model is used to study the transport and concentrations of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region. The model domain covers the major part of the Northern Hemisphere and currently the model...... source types. Here the model setup and the used parameterizations will be described. The model is validated by comparing the results with atmospheric measurements from four monitoring stations in or close to the northern part of the North Atlantic. Some preliminary model results will be shown and shortly...... includes simple parameterizations of the main sinks and sources for atmospheric CO2. One of the objectives of the project is to study and maybe quantify the relative importance of the various sinks and source types and areas for this region. In order to do so the model has been run with differentiated...

  11. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Bréon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of CO2 emissions from the AirParif inventory of the Paris agglomeration. We use 5 atmospheric monitoring sites including one at the top of the Eiffel tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion tool adjusts the CO2 fluxes (anthropogenic and biogenic with a temporal resolution of 6 h, assuming temporal correlation of emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle and from day to day, while keeping the a priori spatial distribution from the emission inventory. The inversion significantly improves the agreement between measured and modelled concentrations. However, the amplitude of the atmospheric transport errors is often large compared to the CO2 gradients between the sites that are used to estimate the fluxes, in particular for the Eiffel tower station. In addition, we sometime observe large model-measurement differences upwind from the Paris agglomeration, which confirms the large and poorly constrained contribution from distant sources and sinks included in the prescribed CO2 boundary conditions These results suggest that (i the Eiffel measurements at 300 m above ground cannot be used with the current system and (ii the inversion shall rely on the measured upwind-downwind gradients rather than the raw mole fraction measurements. With such setup, realistic emissions are retrieved for two 30 day periods. Similar inversions over longer periods are necessary for a proper evaluation of the results.

  12. Effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on photosynthesis of the alpine plants in Zoige Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijuan, Zhou; Peixi, Su; Rui, Shi; Tingting, Xie

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperature and carbon dioxide concentration are the important aspects of global climate change. Alpine ecosystem response to global change was more sensitive and rapid than other ecosystems. Increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2concentrations have strong impacts on plant physiology. Photosynthesis is the basis for plant growth and the decisive factor for the level of productivity, and also is a very sensitive physiological process to climate change. In this study, we examined the interactive effects of elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration on the light response of photosynthesis in two alpine plants Elymus nutans and Potentilla anserine, which were widely distributed in alpine meadow in the Zoige Plateau, China. We set up as follows: the control (Ta 20˚ C, CO2 380μmolṡmol-1), elevated temperature (Ta 25˚ C, CO2 380 μmolṡmol-1), elevated CO2 concentration (Ta 20˚ C, CO2 700μmolṡmol-1), elevated temperature and CO2 concentration (Ta 25˚ C, CO2 700μmolṡmol-1). The results showed that compared to P. anserine, E. nutans had a higher maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax), light saturation point (LSP) and apparent quantum yield (AQY) in the control. Elevated temperature increased the Pnmaxand LSP values in P. anserine, while Pnmaxand LSP were decreased in E. nutans. Elevated CO2 increased the Pnmaxand LSP values in E. nutans and P. anserine, while the light compensation point (LCP) decreased; Elevated both temperature and CO2, the Pnmaxand LSP were all increased for E. nutans and P. anserine, but did not significantly affect AQY. We concluded that although elevated temperature had a photoinhibition for E. nutans, the interaction of short-term elevated CO2 concentration and temperature can improve the photosynthetic capacity of alpine plants. Key Words: elevated temperature; CO2 concentration; light response; alpine plants

  13. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. PMID:27652775

  14. Bundle-sheath leakiness in C4 photosynthesis: a careful balancing act between CO2 concentration and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromdijk, Johannes; Ubierna, Nerea; Cousins, Asaph B; Griffiths, Howard

    2014-07-01

    Crop species with the C4 photosynthetic pathway are generally characterized by high productivity, especially in environmental conditions favouring photorespiration. In comparison with the ancestral C3 pathway, the biochemical and anatomical modifications of the C4 pathway allow spatial separation of primary carbon acquisition in mesophyll cells and subsequent assimilation in bundle-sheath cells. The CO2-concentrating C4 cycle has to operate in close coordination with CO2 reduction via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle in order to keep the C4 pathway energetically efficient. The gradient in CO2 concentration between bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells facilitates diffusive leakage of CO2. This rate of bundle-sheath CO2 leakage relative to the rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylation (termed leakiness) has been used to probe the balance between C4 carbon acquisition and subsequent reduction as a result of environmental perturbations. When doing so, the correct choice of equations to derive leakiness from stable carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) during gas exchange is critical to avoid biased results. Leakiness responses to photon flux density, either short-term (during measurements) or long-term (during growth and development), can have important implications for C4 performance in understorey light conditions. However, recent reports show leakiness to be subject to considerable acclimation. Additionally, the recent discovery of two decarboxylating C4 cycles operating in parallel in Zea mays suggests that flexibility in the transported C4 acid and associated decarboxylase could also aid in maintaining C4/CBB balance in a changing environment. In this paper, we review improvements in methodology to estimate leakiness, synthesize reports on bundle-sheath leakiness, discuss different interpretations, and highlight areas where future research is necessary.

  15. Wearable CO2 sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Radu, Tanja; Fay, Cormac; Lau, King-Tong; Waite, Rhys; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    High concentrations of CO2 may develop particularly in the closed spaces during fires and can endanger the health of emergency personnel by causing serious physiological effects. The proposed prototype provides real-time continuous monitoring of CO2 in a wearable configuration sensing platform. A commercially available electrochemical CO2 sensor was selected due to its selectivity, sensitivity and low power demand. This was integrated onto an electronics platform that performed signal capture...

  16. Highly optimized CO2 capture by inexpensive nanoporous covalent organic polymers and their amine composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hasmukh A; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage and utilization requires effective capture strategies that limit energy penalties. Polyethylenimine (PEI)-impregnated covalent organic polymers (COPs) with a high CO2 adsorption capacity are successfully prepared in this study. A low cost COP with a high specific surface area is suitable for PEI loading to achieve high CO2 adsorption, and the optimal PEI loading is 36 wt%. Though the adsorbed amount of CO2 on amine impregnated COPs slightly decreased with increasing adsorption temperature, CO2/N2 selectivity is significantly improved at higher temperatures. The adsorption of CO2 on the sorbent is very fast, and a sorption equilibrium (10% wt) was achieved within 5 min at 313 K under the flow of simulated flue gas streams. The CO2 capture efficiency of this sorbent is not affected under repetitive adsorption-desorption cycles. The highest CO2 capture capacity of 75 mg g(-1) at 0.15 bar is achieved under dry CO2 capture however it is enhanced to 100 mg g(-1) in the mixed gas flow containing humid 15% CO2. Sorbents were found to be thermally stable up to at least 200 °C. TGA and FTIR studies confirmed the loading of PEIs on COPs. This sorbent with high and fast CO2 sorption exhibits a very promising application in direct CO2 capture from flue gas.

  17. Molecular basis for the high CO2 adsorption capacity of chabazite zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trong D; Hudson, Matthew R; Brown, Craig M; Lobo, Raul F

    2014-11-01

    CO2 adsorption in Li-, Na-, K-CHA (Si/Al=6,=12), and silica chabazite zeolites was investigated by powder diffraction. Two CO2 adsorption sites were found in all chabazites with CO2 locating in the 8-membered ring (8MR) pore opening being the dominant site. Electric quadrupole-electric field gradient and dispersion interactions drive CO2 adsorption at the middle of the 8 MRs, while CO2 polarization due to interaction with cation sites controls the secondary CO2 site. In Si-CHA, adsorption is dominated by dispersion interactions with CO2 observed on the pore walls and in 8 MRs. CO2 adsorption complexes on dual cation sites were observed on K-CHA, important for K-CHA-6 samples due to a higher probability of two K(+) cations bridging CO2. Trends in isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption based on cation type and concentration can be correlated with adsorption sites and CO2 quantity. A decrease in the hardness of metal cations results in a decrease in the direct interaction of these cations with CO2.

  18. Dual-Pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Temperature and CO2 Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Robert P.; Velur-Natarajan, Viswanathan; Carter, Campbell D.; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Gord, James R.; Danehy, Paul M.; Fiechtner, G. J.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and CO2 concentration using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, (CARS) are described. The measurements were performed in laboratory flames,in a room-temperature gas cell, and on an engine test stand at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. A modeless dye laser, a single-mode Nd:YAG laser, and an unintensified back-illuminated charge-coupled device digital camera were used for these measurements. The CARS measurements were performed on a single-laser-shot basis. The standard deviations of the temperatures and CO2 mole fractions determined from single-shot dual-pump CARS spectra in steady laminar propane/air flames were approximately 2 and 10% of the mean values of approximately 2000 K and 0.10, respectively. The precision and accuracy of single-shot temperature measurements obtained from the nitrogen part of the dual-pump CARS system were investigated in detail in near-adiabatic hydrogen/air/CO2 flames. The precision of the CARS temperature measurements was found to be comparable to the best results reported in the literature for conventional two-laser, single-pump CARS. The application of dual-pump CARS for single-shot measurements in a swirl-stabilized combustor fueled with JP-8 was also demonstrated.

  19. Stability of a NDIR analyser for CO2 at atmospheric concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Michela; Amico Di Meane, Elena; Plassa, Margherita

    2002-09-01

    Carbon dioxide monitoring is significant in the environmental field since this gas plays an important role in the greenhouse effect. In order to determine CO2 concentration and to develop simulation models, it is necessary to carry out measurements which are accurate and comparable in time and space, i.e. SI-traceable. Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analysers are employed for CO2 measurements, as they are precise and stable. In order to achieve traceability, such instruments have to be characterized and calibrated. At the Istituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti"--CNR, a procedure for calibrating NDIR analysers for CO2 at atmospheric level was developed, which enables to calculate a correction for the analyser output. In addition, a complete uncertainty analysis was carried out and a correct traceability chain was established. The goal of the present work is the study of the stability of a NDIR analyser by repeating calibrations during three years and comparing the correction curves obtained to identify a proper re-calibration interval for such analysers. The investigated instrument has good repeatability and reproducibility, hence satisfactory stability during time, as shown by the short-term and long-term compatibility of calibration curves.

  20. Impact of high CO2 on the geochemistry of the coralline algae Lithothamnion glaciale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzola, F.; Foster, L. C.; Jones, C. J.; Scott, T. B.; Fietzke, J.; Kilburn, M. R.; Schmidt, D. N.

    2016-02-01

    Coralline algae are a significant component of the benthic ecosystem. Their ability to withstand physical stresses in high energy environments relies on their skeletal structure which is composed of high Mg-calcite. High Mg-calcite is, however, the most soluble form of calcium carbonate and therefore potentially vulnerable to the change in carbonate chemistry resulting from the absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean. We examine the geochemistry of the cold water coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale grown under predicted future (year 2050) high pCO2 (589 μatm) using Electron microprobe and NanoSIMS analysis. In the natural and control material, higher Mg calcite forms clear concentric bands around the algal cells. As expected, summer growth has a higher Mg content compared to the winter growth. In contrast, under elevated CO2 no banding of Mg is recognisable and overall Mg concentrations are lower. This reduction in Mg in the carbonate undermines the accuracy of the Mg/Ca ratio as proxy for past temperatures in time intervals with significantly different carbonate chemistry. Fundamentally, the loss of Mg in the calcite may reduce elasticity thereby changing the structural properties, which may affect the ability of L. glaciale to efficiently function as a habitat former in the future ocean.

  1. Impact of high CO2 on the geochemistry of the coralline algae Lithothamnion glaciale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzola, F; Foster, L C; Jones, C J; Scott, T B; Fietzke, J; Kilburn, M R; Schmidt, D N

    2016-01-01

    Coralline algae are a significant component of the benthic ecosystem. Their ability to withstand physical stresses in high energy environments relies on their skeletal structure which is composed of high Mg-calcite. High Mg-calcite is, however, the most soluble form of calcium carbonate and therefore potentially vulnerable to the change in carbonate chemistry resulting from the absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean. We examine the geochemistry of the cold water coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale grown under predicted future (year 2050) high pCO2 (589 μatm) using Electron microprobe and NanoSIMS analysis. In the natural and control material, higher Mg calcite forms clear concentric bands around the algal cells. As expected, summer growth has a higher Mg content compared to the winter growth. In contrast, under elevated CO2 no banding of Mg is recognisable and overall Mg concentrations are lower. This reduction in Mg in the carbonate undermines the accuracy of the Mg/Ca ratio as proxy for past temperatures in time intervals with significantly different carbonate chemistry. Fundamentally, the loss of Mg in the calcite may reduce elasticity thereby changing the structural properties, which may affect the ability of L. glaciale to efficiently function as a habitat former in the future ocean.

  2. Responses of CO2 emission and pore water DOC concentration to soil warming and water table drawdown in Zoige Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Wang, Mei; Chen, Huai; Liu, Liangfeng; Wu, Ning; Zhu, Dan; Tian, Jianqing; Peng, Changhui; Zhu, Qiuan; He, Yixin

    2017-03-01

    Peatlands in Zoige Plateau contains more than half of peatland carbon stock in China. This part of carbon is losing with climate change through dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, both of which are vulnerable to the environmental changes, especially on the Zoige Plateau with a pace of twice the observed rate of global climate warming. This research aimed to understand how climate change including soil warming, rainfall reduction and water table change affect CO2 emissions and whether the trends of changes in CO2 emission are consistent with those of pore water DOC concentration. A mesocosm experiment was designed to investigate the CO2 emission and pore water DOC during the growing seasons of 2009-2010 under scenarios of passive soil warming, 20% rainfall reduction and changes to the water table levels. The results showed a positive relationship between CO2 emission and DOC concentration. For single factor effect, we found no significant relationship between water table and CO2 emission or DOC concentration. However, temperature at 5 cm depth was found to have positive linear relationship with CO2 emission and DOC concentration. The combined effect of soil warming and rainfall reduction increased CO2 emission by 96.8%. It suggested that the drying and warming could stimulate potential emission of CO2. Extending this result to the entire peatland area in Zoige Plateau translates into 0.45 Tg CO2 emission per year over a growing season. These results suggested that the dryer and warmer Zoige Plateau will increase CO2 emission. We also found the contribution rate of DOC concentration to CO2 emission was increased by 12.1% in the surface layer and decreased by 13.8% in the subsurface layer with combined treatment of soil warming and rainfall reduction, which indicated that the warmer and dryer environmental conditions stimulate surface peat decomposition process.

  3. Altered carbon turnover processes and microbiomes in soils under long-term extremely high CO2 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulig, Felix; Urich, Tim; Nowak, Martin; Trumbore, Susan E; Gleixner, Gerd; Gilfillan, Gregor D; Fjelland, Kristine E; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    There is only limited understanding of the impact of high p(CO2) on soil biomes. We have studied a floodplain wetland where long-term emanations of temperate volcanic CO2 (mofettes) are associated with accumulation of carbon from the Earth's mantle. With an integrated approach using isotope geochemistry, soil activity measurements and multi-omics analyses, we demonstrate that high (nearly pure) CO2 concentrations have strongly affected pathways of carbon production and decomposition and therefore carbon turnover. In particular, a promotion of dark CO2 fixation significantly increased the input of geogenic carbon in the mofette when compared to a reference wetland soil exposed to normal levels of CO2. Radiocarbon analysis revealed that high quantities of mofette soil carbon originated from the assimilation of geogenic CO2 (up to 67%) via plant primary production and subsurface CO2 fixation. However, the preservation and accumulation of almost undegraded organic material appeared to be facilitated by the permanent exclusion of meso- to macroscopic eukaryotes and associated physical and/or ecological traits rather than an impaired biochemical potential for soil organic matter decomposition. Our study shows how CO2-induced changes in diversity and functions of the soil community can foster an unusual biogeochemical profile.

  4. Altered Carbon Isotope Discrimination of C3 Plants Under Very High pCO2 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, R. J.; Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.

    2009-12-01

    Various modeling and proxy-based reconstructions of atmospheric pCO2 levels for the last 120 Ma have estimated RCO2 as high as 12x for the Early Cretaceous, generally decreasing into the Cenozoic, and decreasing further into the Quaternary. Multiple ecological studies to assess the effect of elevated CO2 on plant biomass and δ13C value have been spurred on by recent increases in greenhouse gases, however these studies typically grow plants under only slightly elevated CO2 levels (i.e., the twenty foremost studies published since 1990 involved 550 to 750 ppm pCO2, which equals RCO2 = 1.4 to 1.9x). In order to recreate the highest pCO2 environments of the last 120 Ma, we grew radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in growth chambers that maintained controlled environmental conditions and pCO2 levels ranging from ~5 to 11x that of today’s atmosphere (1791 to 4200 ppm); upon harvest we measured total biomass and stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13Cplant) in both above and below ground plant tissue. Unlike the 1:1 relationship between stable isotopes of atmospheric CO2 (δ13Catm) and δ13Cplant observed at lower pCO2 levels (i.e., RCO2 = 1x to 3x; Jahren et al., 2008), the δ13Cplant of biomass grown at more elevated RCO2 was dependent upon δ13Catm according to the linear relationship: δ13Cplant = 1.9(δ13Cplant) - 12.2 ‰ (r2 = 0.71). Concomitantly, we see a highly significant (p sativus L. from -27.0 to -28.0 ‰ at RCO2 = 5x to 11x, respectively. We will discuss possible mechanisms for changing isotope discrimination at very high pCO2 levels that may not be operative at lower concentrations. For example, we noted a striking reduction in the variability of biomass between plants grown at the same (very high) level of pCO2. This variability (calculated as the standard deviation of the log-transformed biomass data after Poorter and Garnier, 1996) decreased by 37 % (above-ground) and 48 % (below-ground) for plants grown at RCO2 > 5x compared to plants grown at RCO2 = 1x to 3x

  5. Concentration of soil CO2 as an indicator of the decalcification rate after liming treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Stanisław; Hałas, Stanisław; Głowacki, Sławomir; Sposób, Joanna; Maciejewska, Ewa; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of decalcification of acid sandy and loamy sand soils by infiltration waters, and potential Ca-leaching after liming treatment. For this purpose, monthly measurements were made of the concentration of CO2 in the soil air, dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil waters, and their ionic composition. The determined dissolved inorganic carbon ranged from 5.9 to 10.6 mg dm-3 and from 9.9 to 16.5 mg dm-3 for the sandy and loamy sand soil, respectively. The Ca concentration in soil waters was determined as 5.9-12.4 mg dm-3 in sandy soil and 14.2-19.8 mg dm-3 in soil loamy sand. The calculated rate of decalcification amounted to 23.0 kg ha-1 year-1 in soil sandy and 19.4 kg ha-1 year-1 in loamy sand soil. The potential Ca-leaching is predicted as 124 kg ha-1 year-1 for S and 87 kg ha-1 year-1 for loamy sand soil. At the treatment level of 3 000 kg ha-1 4 year-1 of CaO, ~20% of the Ca-fertilizer can be leached after the liming treatment. The results of the CO2 concentration in the soil air may be useful in estimation of Ca-leaching from soils developed by slightly clayey sands and clayey sands in zones with a moderate climate.

  6. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Performance Characterisation with CO and CO2 using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, extensive electrochemical impedance measurements have been conducted on a 45 cm2 BASF Celtec P2100 high temperature PEM MEA. The fuel cell performance has been examined subject to some of the poisoning effects experienced when running on a reformate gas. The impedance is measured...... at different temperatures, currents, and different content of CO, CO2 and H2 in the anode gas. The impedance spectrum at each operating point is fitted to an equivalent circuit and an analysis to identify the different mechanisms governing the impedance is performed. The trends observed, when varying...... the operating conditions under pure H2, generally show good agreement with results from the literature. When adding CO and CO2 to the anode gas the entire frequency spectrum is affected, and especially the measurements conducted at low temperatures and high CO concentrations reveal undesirable transient effects....

  7. Modeling and optimization of a concentrated solar supercritical CO2 power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Julian D.

    Renewable energy sources are fundamental alternatives to supply the rising energy demand in the world and to reduce or replace fossil fuel technologies. In order to make renewable-based technologies suitable for commercial and industrial applications, two main challenges need to be solved: the design and manufacture of highly efficient devices and reliable systems to operate under intermittent energy supply conditions. In particular, power generation technologies based on solar energy are one of the most promising alternatives to supply the world energy demand and reduce the dependence on fossil fuel technologies. In this dissertation, the dynamic behavior of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) supercritical CO2 cycle is studied under different seasonal conditions. The system analyzed is composed of a central receiver, hot and cold thermal energy storage units, a heat exchanger, a recuperator, and multi-stage compression-expansion subsystems with intercoolers and reheaters between compressors and turbines respectively. The effects of operating and design parameters on the system performance are analyzed. Some of these parameters are the mass flow rate, intermediate pressures, number of compression-expansion stages, heat exchangers' effectiveness, multi-tank thermal energy storage, overall heat transfer coefficient between the solar receiver and the environment and the effective area of the recuperator. Energy and exergy models for each component of the system are developed to optimize operating parameters in order to lead to maximum efficiency. From the exergy analysis, the components with high contribution to exergy destruction were identified. These components, which represent an important potential of improvement, are the recuperator, the hot thermal energy storage tank and the solar receiver. Two complementary alternatives to improve the efficiency of concentrated solar thermal systems are proposed in this dissertation: the optimization of the system's operating

  8. Effect of CO2 concentration on the release of NO from char combustion in cement precalciner%分解炉内CO2浓度对煤焦燃烧NO释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕刚; 陆继东; 蔡吕清

    2011-01-01

    利用高温气固悬浮实验台对水泥行业中两种典型煤焦在不同CO2浓度下燃烧时NO的释放特性进行了实验研究,考察了不同CO2浓度气氛下,温度变化和添加生料对煤焦炭氮向NO转化的影响.研究结果表明,随着气氛中CO2浓度的升高,煤焦燃烧时NO的释放速率减小,体积浓度的峰值降低,焦炭氮转化为NO的转化率下降.水泥生料对焦炭氮向NO的转化具有正催化作用;温度升高也会促进焦炭氮向NO的转化.但随着气氛中CO2浓度的升高,升高温度和添加生料对焦炭氮向NO转化的促进作用相对减弱.%The release of NO from coal char combustion under the atmosphere of different CO2 concentrations was investigated in a high temperature gas-solid reactor with suspension and spray.The effects of temperature and cement raw meal on the release of NO under different CO2 concentrations were discussed.The results indicate that with the increase of CO2 concentration, the rate of NO release, the peak value of NO concentration and the percent conversion of char-N to NO decrease.The percent conversion of char-N to NO greatly rises due to the catalysis of cement raw meal, while the catalysis of the cement raw meal becomes weakening with the increase of CO2 concentration.It is also found that the conversion of char-N to NO increases with the rise of temperature.However, the effect of temperature on the NO release reduces with the increase of CO2 concentration.

  9. [Effect of CO2 fertilization on residual concentration of cypermethrin in rhizosphere of C3 and C4 plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nan; Diao, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Guang; Wang, Peng-Teng; Li, Pan-Feng

    2012-06-01

    In order to achieve sustainable economic and environmental development in China, CO2-emission reduction and phytoremediation of polluted soil must be resolved. According to the effect of biological carbon sequestration on rhizosphere microenvironment, we propose that phytoremediation of polluted soil can be enhanced by CO2 fertilization, and hope to provide information for resolving dilemma of CO2-emission reduction and phytoremediation technology. In this study, effects of CO2 fertilization on cypermethrin reduction in rhizosphere of C3-plant (bush bean) and C4-plant (maize) were investigated. Results showed that dry weight of shoot and root of bush bean (C3 plant) was increased by CO2 fertilization. Relative to ambient CO2, dry weight of root was increased by 54.3%, 31.9% and 30.0% in soil added with 0, 20 and 40 mg x kg(-1) cypermethrin respectively. Microbial biomass was increased by CO2 fertilization in rhizosphere soil added with 0 mg x kg(-1) cypermethrin, but negative effect was found in rhizosphere soil added with 20 and 40 mg x kg(-1) cypermethrin. CO2 fertilization slightly affected residual concentration of cypermethrin in rhizosphere soil added with 0 mg x kg(-1) cypermethrin, but significantly decreased residual concentration of cypermethrin as 24.0% and 16.9% in soil added with 20 and 40 mg x kg(-1) relative to ambient CO2. In maize plant, however, plant growth, microbial biomass and residual cypermethrin concentration in rhizosphere was slightly affected by CO2 fertilization, and even negative effect was observed. This study indicated that CO2 fertilization decreases the residual concentration of cypermethrin in rhizosphere of C3-plant, and it is possible to enhance phytoremediation of organic-polluted soil by C3-plant through CO2 fertilization. However, further study is needed for C4-plant.

  10. Boundary layer structure and stability classification validated with CO2 concentrations over the Northern Spanish Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Torre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the lower boundary layer is vital to enhance our understanding of dispersion processes. In this paper, Radio Acoustic Sounding System sodar measurements obtained over three years were used to calculate the Brunt-Väisälä frequency and the Monin-Obukhov length. The Brunt-Väisälä frequency enabled investigation of the structure of this layer. At night, several layers were noticeable and the maximum was observed at the first level, 40 m, whereas during the day, it was present at about 320 m. The Monin-Obukhov length was calculated with the four first levels measured, 40–100 m, by an original iterative method and used to establish four stability classes: drainage, extremely stable, stable and unstable. Wind speed and temperature median profiles linked to these classes were also presented. Wind speeds were the lowest, but temperatures were the highest and inversions were intense at night in drainage situations. However, unstable situations were linked to high wind speeds and superadiabatic temperature profiles. Detrended CO2 concentrations were used to determine the goodness of the classification proposed evidencing values which under drainage at night in spring were nearly 28 ppm higher than those corresponding to unstable situations. Finally, atmosphere structure was presented for the proposed stability classes and related with wind speed profiles. Under extremely stable situations, low level jets were coupled to the surface, with median wind speeds below 8 m s−1 and cores occasionally at 120 m. However, jets were uncoupled in stable situations, wind speed medians were higher than 11 m s−1 and their core heights were around 200 m.

  11. Reconstructing CO2 concentrations in basaltic melt inclusions from Cascade cinder cones using Raman analysis of vapor bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aster, E. M.; Wallace, P. J.; Moore, L.; Gazel, E.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Because melt inclusions (MIs) trap melt prior to eruptive degassing, they are useful probes of melt volatile concentrations. However, during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization, the melt in the inclusion contracts more than the mineral host, causing depressurization and nucleation of a vapor bubble. This causes pressure-soluble volatiles, particularly CO2, to exsolve from the melt into the bubble. To explore the extent of CO2 loss, CO2 densities in bubbles were estimated using data from Raman analysis of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from two cinder cones in the southern Cascade Arc (Basalt of Round Valley Butte [BRVB]; Basalt of Old Railroad Grade [BORG]). In BRVB, bubble vol. % (bubble vol./MI vol.) and measured CO2 densities ranged from 0.9 - 6.7 vol. % and 0.05- 0.24 g/cm3, respectively. In BORG, bubble vol. % and CO2 densities ranged from 1.4 - 9.2 vol. % and 0.07 - 0.29 g/cm3, respectively. To eliminate MI containing bubbles that were co-entrapped with the melt, we used a model from Riker (2005) to predict bubble vol. % as a function of the difference between eruption and formation temperatures. This suggested that bubbles larger than ~3.3 vol. % should be eliminated from CO2 reconstructions. Using average values of MI H2O and CO2 measured by FTIR, we added CO2 from the bubbles back into the MIs to obtain estimates of dissolved CO2 at the time of trapping. Analyzed concentrations were 933 ppm CO2 and 2.8 wt. % H2O for BORG (2.7 kbar, or ~9 km depth), with a reconstructed CO2 concentration of 1860 ± 612 (2s) ppm. Analyzed concentrations for BRVB were 426 ppm CO2 and 1.6 wt. % H2O (1.1 kbar, or ~3.7 km depth), with a reconstructed CO2 concentration of 2320 ± 1688 (2s) ppm. Using the reconstructed CO2 concentrations, VolatileCalc estimates place both BORG and BRVB MI entrapment at 4.3 kbar, or ~14 km depth. Thus, adding the CO2 in bubbles back to the CO2 in the glass of MIs is essential for determining accurate depths of magma crystallization.

  12. Variations of anthropogenic CO2 in urban area deduced by radiocarbon concentration in modern tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z; Nakamura, Toshio; Pazdur, Anna

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon concentration in the atmosphere is significantly lower in areas where man-made emissions of carbon dioxide occur. This phenomenon is known as Suess effect, and is caused by the contamination of clean air with non-radioactive carbon from fossil fuel combustion. The effect is more strongly observed in industrial and densely populated urban areas. Measurements of carbon isotope concentrations in a study area can be compared to those from areas of clear air in order to estimate the amount of carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel combustion by using a simple mathematical model. This can be calculated using the simple mathematical model. The result of the mathematical model followed in this study suggests that the use of annual rings of trees to obtain the secular variations of 14C concentration of atmospheric CO2 can be useful and efficient for environmental monitoring and modeling of the carbon distribution in local scale.

  13. Solvation of CO2 in water: effect of RuBP on CO2 concentration in bundle sheath of C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Tumpa; Latif, Iqbal A; Datta, Sambhu N

    2014-07-24

    An understanding of the temperature-dependence of solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in water is important for many industrial processes. Voluminous work has been done by both quantum chemical methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the interaction between CO2 and water, but a quantitative evaluation of solubility remains elusive. In this work, we have approached the problem by considering quantum chemically calculated total energies and thermal energies, and incorporating the effects of mixing, hydrogen bonding, and phonon modes. An overall equation relating the calculated free energy and entropy of mixing with the gas-solution equilibrium constant has been derived. This equation has been iteratively solved to obtain the solubility as functions of temperature and dielectric constant. The calculated solubility versus temperature plot excellently matches the observed plot. Solubility has been shown to increase with dielectric constant, for example, by addition of electrolytes. We have also found that at the experimentally reported concentration of enzyme RuBP in bundle sheath cells of chloroplast in C4 green plants, the concentration of CO2 can effectively increase by as much as a factor of 7.1-38.5. This stands in agreement with the observed effective rise in concentration by as much as 10 times.

  14. Activities of carboxylating enzymes in the CAM species Opuntia ficus-indica grown under current and elevated CO2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, A A; Nobel, P S

    1994-06-01

    Responses of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were determined along with net CO2 uptake rates for the Crassulacean acid metabolism species Opuntia ficus-indica growing in open-top chambers. During the spring 13 months after planting, total daily net CO2 uptake of basal and first-order daughter cladodes was 28% higher at 720 than at 360 μl CO2 l(-1). The enhancement, caused mainly by higher CO2 assimilation during the early part of the night, was also observed during late summer (5 months after planting) and the following winter. The activities of Rubisco and PEPCase measured in vitro were both lower at the elevated CO2 concentration, particularly under the more favorable growth conditions in the spring and late summer. Enzyme activity in second-order daughter cladodes increased with cladode age, becoming maximal at 6 to 10 days. The effect ofelevated CO2 on Rubisco and PEPCase activity declined with decreasing irradiance, especially for Rubisco. Throughout the 13-month observation period, O. ficus-indica thus showed increased CO2 uptake when the atmospheric CO2 concentration was doubled despite lower activities of both carboxylating enzymes.

  15. Impacts of Elevated CO2 Concentration on Biochemical Composition,Carbonic Anhydrase, and Nitrate Reductase Activity of Freshwater Green Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Rong XIA; Kun-Shan GAO

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical response of freshwater green algae to elevated CO2 concentrations,Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dang cells were cultured at different CO2concentrations within the range 3-186 μmol/L and the biochemical composition, carbonic anhydrase (CA),and nitrate reductase activities of the cells were investigated. Chlorophylls (Chl), carotenoids, carbonhydrate,and protein contents were enhanced to varying extents with increasing CO2 concentration from 3-186μmol/L. The CO2 enrichment significantly increased the Chl a/Chl b ratio in Chlorella pyrenoidosa, but not in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The CO2 concentration had significant effects on CA and nitrate reductase activity. Elevating CO2 concentration to 186 μmol/L caused a decline in intracellular and extracellullar CA activity. Nitrate reductase activity, under either light or dark conditions, in C. reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa was also significantly decreased with CO2 enrichment. From this study, it can be concluded that CO2enrichment can affect biochemical composition, CA, and nitrate reductase activity, and that the biochemical response was species dependent.

  16. Effect of atmospheric CO 2 enrichment on rubisco content in herbaceous species from high and low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F.; Schäppi, Bernd; Körner, Christian

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment reduces Rubisco content in many species grown in controlled environments; however, relatively few studies have examined CO 2 effects on Rubisco content of plants grown in their natural habitat. We examined the response of Rubisco content to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment (600-680 μmol mol -1 in place of ppm) in 5 herbaceous species growing in a low altitude grassland (550 m) near Basel, Switzerland, and 3 herbaceous species from Swiss alpine grassland at 2470 m. At low elevation, the dominant grass Bromus erectus and the subdominant dicot Sanquisorba minor exhibited 20% to 25% reduction of Rubisco content following high CO 2 exposure; no CO 2 effect was observed in the subdominants Carex flacca, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens. At the Alpine site, the subdominant grass Poa alpina maintained 27% less Rubisco content when grown at high CO 2 while the co-dominant forb Leontodon helveticus had 19% less Rubisco in high CO 2. Rubisco content was unaffected in the tundra dominant Carex curvula. Because the degree of Rubisco modulation was similar between high and low elevation sites, it does not appear that differences in local partial pressure of CO 2 (altitude) or differences in stress in general induce different patterns of modulation of photosynthetic capacity in response to high CO 2. In addition, the degree of Rubisco reduction (<30%) was less than might be indicated by the low biomass response to CO 2 enrichment previously observed at these sites. Thus, plants in Swiss lowland and alpine grassland appear to maintain greater Rubisco concentration and photosynthetic capacity than whole plants can effectively exploit in terms of harvestable biomass.

  17. Carbon fluxes acclimate more strongly to elevated growth temperatures than to elevated CO2 concentrations in a northern conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Yulia; Way, Danielle A

    2016-08-01

    Increasing temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will affect tree carbon fluxes, generating potential feedbacks between forests and the global climate system. We studied how elevated temperatures and CO2 impacted leaf carbon dynamics in Norway spruce (Picea abies), a dominant northern forest species, to improve predictions of future photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes from high-latitude conifers. Seedlings were grown under ambient (AC, c. 435 μmol mol(-1) ) or elevated (EC, 750 μmol mol(-1) ) CO2 concentrations at ambient, +4 °C, or +8 °C growing temperatures. Photosynthetic rates (Asat ) were high in +4 °C/EC seedlings and lowest in +8 °C spruce, implying that moderate, but not extreme, climate change may stimulate carbon uptake. Asat , dark respiration (Rdark ), and light respiration (Rlight ) rates acclimated to temperature, but not CO2 : the thermal optimum of Asat increased, and Rdark and Rlight were suppressed under warming. In all treatments, the Q10 of Rlight (the relative increase in respiration for a 10 °C increase in leaf temperature) was 35% higher than the Q10 of Rdark , so the ratio of Rlight to Rdark increased with rising leaf temperature. However, across all treatments and a range of 10-40 °C leaf temperatures, a consistent relationship between Rlight and Rdark was found, which could be used to model Rlight in future climates. Acclimation reduced daily modeled respiratory losses from warm-grown seedlings by 22-56%. When Rlight was modeled as a constant fraction of Rdark , modeled daily respiratory losses were 11-65% greater than when using measured values of Rlight . Our findings highlight the impact of acclimation to future climates on predictions of carbon uptake and losses in northern trees, in particular the need to model daytime respiratory losses from direct measurements of Rlight or appropriate relationships with Rdark .

  18. Phase Behavior at High Pressure of the Ternary System: CO2, Ionic Liquid and Disperse Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Mazzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure phase behavior experimental data have been measured for the systems carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] and carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] + 1-amino-2-phenoxy-4-hydroxyanthraquinone (C.I. Disperse Red 60. Measurements were performed in the pressure up to 18 MPa and at the temperature (323 to 353 K. As reported in the literature, at higher concentrations of carbon dioxide the phase transition pressure increased very steeply. The experimental data for the binary and ternary systems were correlated with good agreement using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The amount of water in phase behavior of the systems was evaluated.

  19. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth and leaf litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sangsub; Chae, Hee-Myung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Shim, Jae-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly reduced the nitrogen concentration in leaf litter while increasing lignin concentrations and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) and lignin/N ratios. The microbial biomass associated with decomposing Q. acutissima leaf litter was suppressed in CO2 enrichment chambers, while that of F. rhynchophylla was not. The leaf litter of Q. acutissima from the CO2-enriched chambers, in contrast with F. rhynchophylla, contained much lower nutrient concentrations than that of the litter in the ambient air chambers. Consequently, poorer litter quality suppressed decomposition.

  20. High CO2 in MORB - a link to explosive submarine eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, C.; Longpré, M.; Shimizu, N.; Clague, D. A.; Stix, J.

    2009-12-01

    We analyzed volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, Cl), and other trace elements, using the Cameca IMS 1280 and the Cameca 3F secondary ion mass spectrometer, in carefully selected plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glass from mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) hyaloclastite sequences erupted from Axial caldera, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR). The hyaloclastites were sampled at 1400 m below sea-level, and are inferred to result from a series of small pyroclastic eruptions. The trace elements reveal variations from normal to transitional MORB for Axial caldera (e.g., Nb = 1.1-6.5 ppm, Zr/Nb = 9-39). The CO2 concentrations in the melt inclusions range from 260 to 9160 ppm, with 16 out of 47 analyzed inclusions reaching > 1000 ppm. Surface contamination was ruled out by very low CO2 concentrations measured in adjacent plagioclase hosts (Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 98]. When plotted together, CO2 and H2O define a vertical trend suggesting decompression degassing, with apparent vapour saturation pressures ranging from 57 to > 600 MPa. We recognize two possible scenarios: (1) limited degassing during early stages of magma ascent, culminating in supersaturation and sudden, rapid bubble growth at shallower levels, or (2) open-system degassing accompanied by bubble growth and separation as magma rises. The close spatial occurrence of high- and low-CO2 inclusions (crystals may argue towards the first interpretation. Saturation pressures for low-CO2 inclusions are consistent with pressures expected within the present day magma reservoir beneath Axial (~ 70-160 MPa). The matrix glass is oversaturated with respect to the depth of eruption; CO2 concentrations vary from 87 to 248 ppm, yielding saturation pressures between 14 MPa and 54 MPa. Water concentrations in the inclusions range from 0.05 to 0.39 wt %. Such low concentrations will not be affected significantly by degassing. H2O does not covary with incompatible elements such as Nb, or Zr; we interpret the variability

  1. A Convective Cloud Feedback and Spring Arctic Sea Ice Forecasting at High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, D. S.; Walker, C. C.; Tziperman, E.

    2008-12-01

    Winter and spring sea ice dramatically cool the Arctic climate during the the coldest seasons of the year and may have remote effects on global climate as well. Accurate forecasting of winter and spring sea ice has significant social and economic benefits. Such forecasting requires the identification and understanding of all the feedbacks that can affect sea ice. A novel convective cloud feedback has recently been proposed in the context of explaining equable climates, e.g., the climate of the Eocene, that might be important for determining future winter and spring sea ice. In this feedback CO2 -initiated warming leads to sea ice reduction, which which allows increased heat and moisture fluxes from the ocean surface, which destabilizes the atmosphere and leads to atmospheric convection. This atmospheric convection produces high and optically thick convective clouds and increases high-altitude moisture levels, both of which trap outgoing longwave radiation and therefore result in a further warming and sea ice loss. Here it is shown that this convective cloud feedback is active during winter in the coupled ocean-sea ice-land-atmosphere global climate models used for the 1%/year CO2 increase to quadrupling scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report. It is further shown that the convective cloud feedback plays an essential role in the elimination of maximum seasonal (spring) sea ice in NCAR's CCSM model, one of the IPCC models that nearly completely loses spring sea ice. This is done by performing a sensitivity analysis using the atmospheric component of CCSM, run at a CO2 concentration of 1120 ppm, by selectively disabling the convective cloud feedback and the ocean heat transport feedback. The result is that both feedbacks are necessary for the elimination of spring sea ice at this CO2 concentration.

  2. Visible-light photoconductivity of Zn1-xCoxO and its dependence on Co2+ concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Claire A.; Cohn, Alicia; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Salley, G. Mackay; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2011-09-06

    Many metal oxides investigated for solar photocatalysis or photoelectrochemistry have band gaps that are too wide to absorb a sufficient portion of the solar spectrum. Doping with impurity ions has been extensively explored as a strategy to sensitize such oxides to visible light, but the electronic structures of the resulting materials are frequently complex and poorly understood. Here, we report a detailed photoconductivity investigation of the wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO), which responds to visible light in photoelectrochemical and photoconductivity experiments and thus represents a well-defined model system for understanding dopant-sensitized oxides. Variable-temperature scanning photoconductivity measurements have been performed on high-structural-quality Zn1-xCoxO epitaxial films to examine the relationship between dopant concentration (x) and visible-light photoconductivity, with particular focus on mid-gap d-d photoactivity. Excitation into the intense 4T1(P) d-d band at ~2.0 eV (620 nm) leads to Co2+/3+ ionization with a quantum efficiency that increases with decreasing cobalt concentration and increasing sample temperature. Both spontaneous and thermally assisted ionization from the Co2+ d-d excited state are found to become less effective as x is increased, attributed to an increasing conduction-band-edge potential. These trends counter the increasing light absorption with increasing x, explaining the experimental maximum in external photon-to-current conversion efficiencies at values well below the solid solubility of Co2+ in ZnO.

  3. High-performance Polymer Membranes with Multi-functional Amphiphilic Micelles for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report a high performance polymer membrane with simultaneously large improvements in the CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity. These improvements are obtained by incorporation of a multi-functional amphiphilic comb copolymer micelle, that is, poly(dimethylsiloxane)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PDMS-g-POEM), into a poly(amide-b-ethylene oxide) (Pebax) matrix. Both CO2 and N2 permeabilities continuously increased with PDMS-g-POEM content, whereas the CO2/N2 selectivity increased up to 40 wt % of PDMS-g-POEM, which enabled the maximum performance to approach the upper bound limit (2008). The membranes with PDMS-g-POEM exhibited greater CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity than those with a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8), a well-known expensive inorganic filler, indicating the effectiveness of PDMS-g-POEM micelles for CO2 capture.

  4. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration alters the effect of phosphate supply on growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawara, Satoshi; Norisada, Mariko; Tange, Takeshi; Yagi, Hisayoshi; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (P(i)) requirement for growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.) seedlings is increased by elevated CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and that responses of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch to P(i) supply are also altered. To investigate the growth response of non-mycorrhizal seedlings to P(i) supply in elevated [CO(2)], non-mycorrhizal seedlings were grown for 73 days in ambient or elevated [CO(2)] (350 or 700 micromol mol(-1)) with nutrient solutions containing one of seven phosphate concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20 mM). In ambient [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) was saturated at about 0.1 mM P(i), whereas in elevated [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) supply did not saturate, even at the highest P(i) supply (0.2 mM), indicating that the P(i) requirement is higher in elevated [CO(2)] than in ambient [CO(2)]. The increased requirement was due mainly to an altered shoot growth response to P(i) supply. The enhanced P(i) requirement in elevated [CO(2)] was not associated with a change in photosynthetic response to P(i) or a change in leaf phosphorus (P) status. We investigated the effect of P(i) supply (0.04, 0.08 and 0.20 mM) on the ectomycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius in mycorrhizal seedlings grown in ambient or elevated [CO(2)]. Root ergosterol concentration (an indicator of fungal biomass) decreased with increasing P(i) supply in ambient [CO(2)], but the decrease was far less in elevated [CO(2)]. In ambient [CO(2)] the ratio of extramatrical mycelium to root biomass decreased with increasing P(i) supply but did not change in elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that, because elevated [CO(2)] increased the P(i) requirement for shoot growth, the significance of the ectomycorrhizal association was also increased in elevated [CO(2)].

  5. European source and sink areas of CO2 retrieved from Lagrangian transport model interpretation of combined O2 and CO2 measurements at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The University of Bern monitors carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxygen (O2 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch since the year 2000 by means of flasks sampling and since 2005 using a continuous in situ measurement system. This study investigates the transport of CO2 and O2 towards Jungfraujoch using backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM simulations and utilizes CO2 and O2 signatures to classify air masses. By investigating the simulated transport patterns associated with distinct CO2 concentrations it is possible to decipher different source and sink areas over Europe. The highest CO2 concentrations, for example, were observed in winter during pollution episodes when air was transported from Northeastern Europe towards the Alps, or during south Foehn events with rapid uplift of polluted air from Northern Italy, as demonstrated in two case studies. To study the importance of air-sea exchange for variations in O2 concentrations at Jungfraujoch the correlation between CO2 and APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen deviations from a seasonally varying background was analyzed. Anomalously high APO concentrations were clearly associated with air masses originating from the Atlantic Ocean, whereas low APO concentrations were found in air masses advected either from the east from the Eurasian continent in summer, or from the Eastern Mediterranean in winter. Those air masses with low APO in summer were also strongly depleted in CO2 suggesting a combination of CO2 uptake by vegetation and O2 uptake by dry summer soils. Other subsets of points in the APO-CO2 scatter plot investigated with respect to air mass origin included CO2 and APO background values and points with regular APO but anomalous CO2 concentrations. Background values were associated with free tropospheric air masses with little contact with the boundary layer during the last few days, while high or low CO2 concentrations reflect the various levels of influence of anthropogenic

  6. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  7. Development of a low cost and low power consumption system for monitoring CO_{2} soil concentration in volcanic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah Estévez, Shadia; Moure-García, David; Torres-González, Pedro; Acosta Sánchez, Leopoldo; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    Volatiles dissolved in magma are released as gases when pressure or stress conditions change. H2O, CO2, SO2 and H2S are the most abundant gases involved in volcanic processes. Emission rates are related to changes in the volcanic activity. Therefore, in order to predict possible eruptive events, periodic measurements of CO2 concentrations from the soil should be carried out. In the last years, CO2 monitoring has been widespread for many reasons. A direct relationship between changes in volcanic activity and variations in concentration, diffuse flux and isotope ratios of this gas, have been observed prior to some eruptions or unrest processes. All these factors have pointed out the fact that CO2 emission data are crucial in volcanic monitoring programs. In addition, relevant instrumentation development has also taken place: improved accuracy, cost reduction and portability. Considering this, we propose a low cost and a low power consumption system for measuring CO2 concentration in the soil based on Arduino. Through a perforated pick-axe buried at a certain depth, gas samples are periodically taken with the aid of a piston. These samples are injected through a pneumatic circuit in the spectrometer, which measures the CO2 concentration. Simultaneously, the system records the following meteorological parameters: atmospheric pressure, precipitation, relative humidity and air and soil temperature. These parameters are used to correct their possible influence in the CO2 soil concentration. Data are locally stored (SD card) and transmitted via GPRS or WIFI to a data analysis center.

  8. Spatial variations in daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface of Xianghai National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-hong; OUYANG Hua; WANG Qing-gai; ZHOU Cai-ping; XU Xiao-feng

    2005-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical variations of daily average CO2 concentration above the wetland surface were studied in Xianghai National Nature Reserve of China in August, 2000. The primary purpose was to study spatial distribution characteristics of CO2 concentration on the four levels of height(0. 1 m, 0.6 m, 1.2 m and 2 m) and compare the differences of CO2 concentration under different land covers. Results showed that daily average CO2 concentration above wetland surface in Xianghai National Natural Reserve was lower than that above other wetlands in northeast China as well as the worldwide average, suggesting that Xianghai wetland absorbed CO2 in August and acted as"sink" of CO2. The horizontal variations on the four levels of height along the latitude were distinct, and had the changing tendency of"decreasing after increasing" with the increase of height. The areas with obvious variations were consistent on different levels of height,and those with the highest variations appeared above surface of shore, sloping field, Typha wetland and Phragmites wetland; the vertical variations were greatly different, with the higher variations in Phragmites wetland and Typha wetland, and the lands near the shore and the sloping field with the lower variations. Spatial variations of daily average CO2 concentrations above wetland surface were affected by surface qualities and land covers.

  9. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on dynamics of leaf photosynthesis in Fagus sylvatica is modulated by sky conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Otmar; Klem, Karel; Holišová, Petra; Šigut, Ladislav; Šprtová, Mirka; Teslová-Navrátilová, Petra; Zitová, Martina; Špunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal V; Grace, John

    2014-02-01

    It has been suggested that atmospheric CO2 concentration and frequency of cloud cover will increase in future. It remains unclear, however, how elevated CO2 influences photosynthesis under complex clear versus cloudy sky conditions. Accordingly, diurnal changes in photosynthetic responses among beech trees grown at ambient (AC) and doubled (EC) CO2 concentrations were studied under contrasting sky conditions. EC stimulated the daily sum of fixed CO2 and light use efficiency under clear sky. Meanwhile, both these parameters were reduced under cloudy sky as compared with AC treatment. Reduction in photosynthesis rate under cloudy sky was particularly associated with EC-stimulated, xanthophyll-dependent thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Under clear sky, a pronounced afternoon depression of CO2 assimilation rate was found in sun-adapted leaves under EC compared with AC conditions. This was caused in particular by stomata closure mediated by vapour pressure deficit.

  10. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Newman, Sally; Rao, Preeti; Ahmadov, Ravan; Deng, Aijun; Díaz-Isaac, Liza I.; Duren, Riley M.; Fischer, Marc L.; Gerbig, Christoph; Gurney, Kevin R.; Huang, Jianhua; Jeong, Seongeun; Li, Zhijin; Miller, Charles E.; O'Keeffe, Darragh; Patarasuk, Risa; Sander, Stanley P.; Song, Yang; Wong, Kam W.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-07-01

    Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA) megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as ˜ 1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May-June 2010). Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km) and high-resolution (1.3 km) simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution) and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution) fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of individual measurement sites when a

  11. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  12. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrogen supply on biomass and active carbon of freshwater marsh after two growing seasons in Sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangying; LIU Jingshuang; WANG Yang; DOU Jingxin; DONG Xiaoyong

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with treatments differing in nitrogen supply (0, 5 and 15 g N/m2) and CO2 level (350 and 700 μmol/mol) using OTC (open top chamber) equipment to investigate the biomass of Calamagrostis angustifolia and soil active carbon contents after two years. The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration increased the biomass of C. angustifolia and the magnitude of response varied with each growth period. Elevated CO2 concentration has increased aboveground biomass by 16.7% and 17.6% during the jointing and heading periods and only 3.5% and 9.4% during dough and maturity periods. The increases in belowground biomass due to CO2 elevation was 26.5%, 34.0% and 28.7% during the heading, dough and maturity periods, respectively. The response of biomass to enhanced CO2 concentration differed in N levels. Both the increase of aboveground biomass and belowground biomass were greater under high level of N supply (15 g N/m2). Elevated CO2 concentration also increased the allocation of biomass and carbon in root. Under elevated CO2 concentration, the average values of active carbon tended to increase. The increases of soil active soil contents followed the sequence of Microbial biomass carbon (10.6%) > dissolved organic carbon (7.5%) > oxidable labile carbon (6.6%) > carbohydrate carbon (4.1%). Stepwise regressions indicated there were significant correlations between the soil active carbon contents and plant biomass. Particularly, microbial carbon, oxidable labile carbon and carbohydrate carbon were found to be correlated with belowground biomass, while dissolved organic carbon has correlation with aboveground biomass. Therefore, increased biomass was regarded as the main driving force for the increase in soil active organic carbon under elevated CO2 concentration.

  13. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth and water usage of tomato seedlings under different ammonium/nitrate ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of agricultural C3 vegetable crops,and therefore results in an increase in crop yield.However,little is known about the combined effect of elevated CO2 and N species on plant growth and development.Two growth-chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effects of NH4+/NO3- ratio and elevated CO2 concentration on the physiological development and water use of tomato seedlings.Tomato was grown for 45 d in containers with nutrient solutions varying in NH4+/NO3- ratios and CO2 concentrations in growth chambers.Results showed that plant height,stem thickness,total dry weight,dry weight of the leaves,stems and roots,G value (total plant dry weight/seedling days),chlorophyll content,photosynthetic rate,leaf-level and whole plant-level water use efficiency and cumulative water consumption of tomato seedlings were increased with increasing proportion of NO3- in nutrient solutions in the elevated CO2 treatment.Plant biomass,plant height,stem thickness and photosynthetic rate were 67%,22%,24% and 55% higher at elevated CO2 concentration than at ambient CO2 concentration,depending on the values of NH4+/NO3- ratio.These results indicated that elevating CO2 concentration did not mitigate the adverse effects of 100% NH4+-N (in nutrient solution) on the tomato seedlings.At both CO2 levels,NH4+/NO3- ratios of nutrient solutions strongly influenced almost every measure of plant performance,and nitrate-fed plants attained a greater biomass production,as compared to ammonium-fed plants.These phenomena seem to be related to the coordinated regulation of photosynthetic rate and cumulative water consumption of tomato seedlings.

  14. High pressurized CO2 release CFD calculations from onshore pipeline leakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nicoleta; Gorenz, Paul; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    -phase CFD model is used to analyze the influence of the jet release pressure and leakage dimension on the harmful gaseous CO2 concentration distances. Mazzoldi A., Hill T., Colls J.J.: CO2 transportation for carbon capture and storage: Sublimation of carbon dioxide from a dry ice bank, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 2, 210-218 (2008) M. Molag, C. Dam: Modelling of accidental releases from a high pressure CO2 pipelines, Energy Procedia, 4, 2301-2307, (2011) Kruse H., Tekiela M.: Calculating the consequences of a CO2-pipeline rupture, Energy Conversion and Management, 37(68), 1013-1018 (1996)

  15. Development of a 2-micron Pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurement by Direct Detection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Singh, U. N.; Petros, M.; Bai, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a 2-micron Pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar instrument for ground and airborne measurements via direct detection method. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capbility by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. A key component of the CO2 DIAL system, transceiver, is an existing, airborne ready, robust hardware which can provide 250mJ at 10Hz with double pulse format specifically designed for DIAL instrument. The exact wavelengths of the transceiver are controlled by well defined CW seed laser source to provide the required injection source for generating on-and-off line wavelength pulses sequentially. The compact, rugged, highly reliable transceiver is based on the unique Ho:Tm:YLF high-energy 2-micron pulsed laser technology. All the optical mounts are custom designed and have space heritage. They are designed to be adjustable and lockable and hardened to withstand vibrations that can occur in airborne operation. For the direct detection lidar application, a large primary mirror size is preferred. A 14 inch diameter telescope will be developed for this program. The CO2 DIAL/IPDA system requires many electronic functions to operate. These include diode, RF, seed laser, and PZT drivers; injection seeding detection and control; detector power supplies; and analog inputs to sample various sensors. Under NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP), a control unit Compact Laser Electronics (CLE), is developed for the controlling the coherent wind lidar transceiver. Significant modifications and additions are needed to update it for CO2 lidar controls. The data acquisition system was built for ground CO2 measurement demonstration. The software will be updated for

  16. A model intercomparison of changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, J; Dixon, K; Stouffer, R.; Weaver, A.; E. Driesschaert; Eby, M.; Fichefet, T.; Hasumi, H.; Hu, A.; J. Jungclaus; Kamenkovich, I.; A. Levermann; Montoya, M.; Murakami, S.; Nawrath , S.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, integrations with a common design have been undertaken with eleven different climate models to compare the response of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation ( THC) to time-dependent climate change caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Over 140 years, during which the CO2 concentration quadruples, the circulation strength declines gradually in all models, by between 10 and 50%. No model shows a rapid or complete collapse, desp...

  17. CO2 concentrations and delta13C (CO2) values in monthly sets of air samples from downtown Parma and the Parma and Taro river valleys, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enricomaria

    2006-09-01

    Monthly sets of discrete air samples were collected from September 2004 to June 2005 in the town of Parma, along North-South and East-West runs (8 plus 8 samples), using four-litre Pyrex flasks. The CO2 concentrations and delta13C values were determined on these samples with the aim of evaluating quantitatively the contribution of domestic heating to the winter atmospheric CO2 pollution in downtown Parma by comparing autumn and spring atmospheric values with winter values. After separation of CO2 from the other air gases in the laboratory, the CO2 concentrations were calculated from the intensity of the 12C16O2+ ion beam in the mass spectrometer, after calibration with artificial air samples whose CO2 concentration was very carefully determined by the Monte Cimone Observatory (Sestola, Modena, Italy). The reproducibility of these measurements was of approximately +/-0.4 % and, consequently, the most probable error is not higher than+/-2-3 ppmv and does not affect the magnitude of the gradients between different samples. The standard deviation of delta13C measurements ranges from+/-0.02 to +/-0.04 per thousand (1sigma). The results suggest that the contribution of domestic heating to atmospheric CO2 pollution is almost negligible in the case of ground level atmosphere, where the main CO2 pollution is essentially related to the heavy car traffic. This is probably because of the fact that the gases from the domestic heating systems are discharged tens of metres above ground level at a relatively high temperature so that they rise quickly to the upper atmospheric layers and are then displaced by air masses dynamics. Monthly sets of discrete air samples were also collected from October 2004 to June 2005 along North-South runs from the town of Parma to the Apennine ridge following the Parma and the Taro river valleys (8 samples and 7 samples per set, respectively) and measured using the same technique. The aim of this study was the comparison between the town samples

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and biomass of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Lunar Palace 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Guanghui; Yu, Juan

    Short- and long-term effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and biomass of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are examined during 90 days in Lunar Palace 1. While a short-term exposure to elevated CO2 induces a large increase in photosynthesis in wheat plants, long-term growth in elevated CO2 often results in a smaller increase due to reduced photosynthetic capacity. In this study, it was also shown that, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area was raised at an increased CO2 concentration partly due to a decrease in photorespiration, partly due to an increased substrate supply. Transpiration was reduced due to a lower stomatal conductance. The growth response of whole plants to a high CO2 concentration will be the main subject of this paper. Firstly, an estimation is made to what extent a doubling in CO2 concentration affects wheat plant growth in Lunar Palace 1. Secondly, the mechanisms behind this growth stimulation will be assessed. Finally, in those cases where wheat plants are grown over a range of environmental conditions, we select that condition where control plants are growing fastest. Thus, this study may be a matter of interest for researchers in both space and unban agriculture fields.

  19. Highly efficient CO2 sorbents: development of synthetic, calcium-rich dolomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filitz, Rainer; Kierzkowska, Agnieszka M; Broda, Marcin; Müller, Christoph R

    2012-01-03

    The reaction of CaO with CO(2) is a promising approach for separating CO(2) from hot flue gases. The main issue associated with the use of naturally occurring CaCO(3), that is, limestone, is the rapid decay of its CO(2) capture capacity over repeated cycles of carbonation and calcination. Interestingly, dolomite, a naturally occurring equimolar mixture of CaCO(3) and MgCO(3), possesses a CO(2) uptake that remains almost constant with cycle number. However, owing to the large quantity of MgCO(3) in dolomite, the total CO(2) uptake is comparatively small. Here, we report the development of a synthetic Ca-rich dolomite using a coprecipitation technique, which shows both a very high and a stable CO(2) uptake over repeated cycles of calcination and carbonation. To obtain such an excellent CO(2) uptake characteristic it was found to be crucial to mix the Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on a molecular level, that is, within the crystalline lattice. For sorbents which were composed of mixtures of microscopic crystals of CaCO(3) and MgCO(3), a decay behavior similar to natural limestone was observed. After 15 cycles, the CO(2) uptake of the best sorbent was 0.51 g CO(2)/g sorbent exceeding the CO(2) uptake of limestone by almost 100%.

  20. Warming does not stimulate mitochondrial respiration and it responds to leaf carbohydrates availability in soybean plants grown under elevated CO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Vera, U. M.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.; Ort, D. R.; Siebers, M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding on the mechanism underlying the response of mitochondrial respiration (Rs) to the single and combined effects of increasing CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and warming. We investigated the response of Rs to the single and combined effects of elevated [CO2] and warming in soybean plants over a complete growing season using Temperature by Free Air CO2 enrichment technology under field conditions. The treatments were: control, elevated [CO2] (eC), high temperature (eT), and elevated [CO2]+high temperature (eT+eC). Given that photosynthetic rates in eT+eC grown plants were not higher than in plants grown under eC, we hypothesized that Rs would increase only slightly in plants grown under eT+eC compared to eC plants, due to the increase of temperature. Contrary to our prediction, our preliminary results showed that plants grown under the warming treatments had low Rs, thus eT+eC had lower Rs than eC. The response of Rs to these factors was consistent at two different plant high levels (canopy and five nodes down the canopy). Changes in Rs were explained by variations in the carbohydrate content. Our results indicate that the response of Rs to changes in [CO2] and temperature will depend on the carbohydrate availability of plant tissues and thus on how photosynthesis is affected by this environmental factors.

  1. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander

    2016-02-08

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  2. CO32- concentration and pCO2 thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Halley, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The severity of the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 to coral reef ecosystems depends, in part, on how sea-water pCO2 affects the balance between calcification and dissolution of carbonate sediments. Presently, there are insufficient published data that relate concentrations of pCO 2 and CO32- to in situ rates of reef calcification in natural settings to accurately predict the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 on calcification and dissolution processes. Rates of net calcification and dissolution, CO32- concentrations, and pCO2 were measured, in situ, on patch reefs, bare sand, and coral rubble on the Molokai reef flat in Hawaii. Rates of calcification ranged from 0.03 to 2.30 mmol CaCO3 m-2 h-1 and dissolution ranged from -0.05 to -3.3 mmol CaCO3 m-2 h-1. Calcification and dissolution varied diurnally with net calcification primarily occurring during the day and net dissolution occurring at night. These data were used to calculate threshold values for pCO2 and CO32- at which rates of calcification and dissolution are equivalent. Results indicate that calcification and dissolution are linearly correlated with both CO32- and pCO2. Threshold pCO2 and CO32- values for individual substrate types showed considerable variation. The average pCO2 threshold value for all substrate types was 654??195 ??atm and ranged from 467 to 1003 ??atm. The average CO32- threshold value was 152??24 ??mol kg-1, ranging from 113 to 184 ??mol kg-1. Ambient seawater measurements of pCO2 and CO32- indicate that CO32- and pCO2 threshold values for all substrate types were both exceeded, simultaneously, 13% of the time at present day atmospheric pCO2 concentrations. It is predicted that atmospheric pCO2 will exceed the average pCO2 threshold value for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat by the year 2100.

  3. CO32- concentration and pCO2 thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K. K.; Halley, R. B.

    2006-07-01

    The severity of the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 to coral reef ecosystems depends, in part, on how seawater pCO2 affects the balance between calcification and dissolution of carbonate sediments. Presently, there are insufficient published data that relate concentrations of pCO2 and CO32- to in situ rates of reef calcification in natural settings to accurately predict the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 on calcification and dissolution processes. Rates of net calcification and dissolution, CO32- concentrations, and pCO2 were measured, in situ, on patch reefs, bare sand, and coral rubble on the Molokai reef flat in Hawaii. Rates of calcification ranged from 0.03 to 2.30 mmol CaCO3 m-2 h-1 and dissolution ranged from -0.05 to -3.3 mmol CaCO3 m-2 h-1. Calcification and dissolution varied diurnally with net calcification primarily occurring during the day and net dissolution occurring at night. These data were used to calculate threshold values for pCO2 and CO32- at which rates of calcification and dissolution are equivalent. Results indicate that calcification and dissolution are linearly correlated with both CO32- and pCO2. Threshold pCO2 and CO32- values for individual substrate types showed considerable variation. The average pCO2 threshold value for all substrate types was 654±195 μatm and ranged from 467 to 1003 μatm. The average CO32- threshold value was 152±24 μmol kg-1, ranging from 113 to 184 μmol kg-1. Ambient seawater measurements of pCO2 and CO32- indicate that CO32- and pCO2 threshold values for all substrate types were both exceeded, simultaneously, 13% of the time at present day atmospheric pCO2 concentrations. It is predicted that atmospheric pCO2 will exceed the average pCO2 threshold value for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat by the year 2100.

  4. CO32− concentration and pCO2 thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Yates

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 to coral reef ecosystems depends, in part, on how seawater pCO2 affects the balance between calcification and dissolution of carbonate sediments. Presently, there are insufficient published data that relate concentrations of pCO2 and CO32− to in situ rates of reef calcification in natural settings to accurately predict the impact of elevated atmospheric pCO2 on calcification and dissolution processes. Rates of net calcification and dissolution, CO32− concentrations, and pCO2 were measured, in situ, on patch reefs, bare sand, and coral rubble on the Molokai reef flat in Hawaii. Rates of calcification ranged from 0.03 to 2.30 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 and dissolution ranged from –0.05 to –3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1. Calcification and dissolution varied diurnally with net calcification primarily occurring during the day and net dissolution occurring at night. These data were used to calculate threshold values for pCO2 and CO32− at which rates of calcification and dissolution are equivalent. Results indicate that calcification and dissolution are linearly correlated with both CO32− and pCO2. Threshold pCO2 and CO32− values for individual substrate types showed considerable variation. The average pCO2 threshold value for all substrate types was 654±195 μatm and ranged from 467 to 1003 μatm. The average CO32− threshold value was 152±24 μmol kg−1, ranging from 113 to 184 μmol kg−1. Ambient seawater measurements of pCO2 and CO32− indicate that CO32− and pCO2 threshold values for all substrate types were both exceeded, simultaneously, 13% of the time at present day atmospheric pCO2 concentrations. It is predicted that atmospheric pCO2 will exceed the average pCO2 threshold value for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat by the year 2100.

  5. Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in cave air of Postojnska jama, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Mandic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 and its isotopic composition (δ13CairCO2 were measured in Postojnska jama, Slovenia, at 10 locations inside the cave and outside the cave during a one-year period. At all interior locations the pCO2 was higher and δ13CairCO2 lower than in the outside atmosphere. Strong seasonal fluctuations in both parameters were observed at locations deeper in the cave, which are isolated from the cave air circulation. By using a binary mixing model of two sources of CO2, one of them being the atmospheric CO2, we show that the excess of CO2 in the cave air has a δ13C value of -23.3 ± 0.7 ‰, in reasonable agreement with the previously measured soil-CO2 δ13C values. The stable isotope data suggest that soil CO2 is brought to the cave by drip water.

  6. Study of the thermohydraulics of CO2 discharge from a high pressure reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, M.; Osch, M.B.V.; Buit, L.; Florisson, O.; Hulsbosch-Dam, C.; Spruijt, M.; Davolio, F.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental test set up has been constructed to carry out controlled CO2 release experiments from a high pressure vessel. The test set up is made up of a 500l stainless steel vessel where CO2 can be introduced up to high pressures and where controlled releases can be conducted. The work objectiv

  7. STRUCTURAL EFFECTS ON THE HIGH TEMPERATURE ADSORPTION OF CO2 ON A SYNTHETIC HYDROTALCITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) are solid sorbents that may potentially be used for high temperature separation and capture of CO2. The high-temperature adsorption of CO2 on Mg-Al-CO3 HTlc is affected by structural changes that take place upo...

  8. Effects of different CO2 concentration on growth and photosynthetic of rain tree plants (Albizia saman jacq.Merr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathurrahman, F.; Nizam, M. S.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Doni, Febri; NorLailatul, W. M.; Che Radziah, C. M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to determine the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in rain tree growth under controllable growth chamber. The tolerance towards CO2 absorption in the photosynthesis process for the growth of tree rain is still unknown. In this study, rain tree seedlings were incubated for three months in a growth chamber with three different CO2 concentration treatment: GC1 (300 ppm), GC2 (600 ppm) and GC3 (900 ppm) at similar condition of temperature (28°C), humidity (60%) and lighting (1200 lux). The results showed that increased CO2 significantly increase the growth rate and chlorophyll content in rain tree. The results of this study add to the further understanding of how the improvement of the growth and physiological characteristics of rain tree was affected by CO2 enrichment treatment. This research can for used for global warming mitigation in the future.

  9. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were 6 km.

  10. A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO2 concentration from stomatal and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Wilfried; Katul, Gabriel; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Grein, Michaela

    2017-06-01

    To address questions related to the acceleration or deceleration of the global hydrological cycle or links between the carbon and water cycles over land, reliable data for past climatic conditions based on proxies are required. In particular, the reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric CO2 content (Ca) is needed to assist the separation of natural from anthropogenic Ca variability and to explore phase relations between Ca and air temperature Ta time series. Both Ta and Ca are needed to fingerprint anthropogenic signatures in vapor pressure deficit, a major driver used to explain acceleration or deceleration phases in the global hydrological cycle. Current approaches to Ca reconstruction rely on a robust inverse correlation between measured stomatal density in leaves (ν) of many plant taxa and Ca. There are two methods that exploit this correlation: The first uses calibration curves obtained from extant species assumed to represent the fossil taxa, thereby restricting the suitable taxa to those existing today. The second is a hybrid eco-hydrological/physiological approach that determines Ca with the aid of systems of equations based on quasi-instantaneous leaf-gas exchange theories and fossil stomatal data collected along with other measured leaf anatomical traits and parameters. In this contribution, a reduced order model (ROM) is proposed that derives Ca from a single equation incorporating the aforementioned stomatal data, basic climate (e.g. temperature), estimated biochemical parameters of assimilation and isotope data. The usage of the ROM is then illustrated by applying it to isotopic and anatomical measurements from three extant species. The ROM derivation is based on a balance between the biochemical demand and atmospheric supply of CO2 that leads to an explicit expression linking stomatal conductance to internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and Ca. The resulting expression of stomatal conductance from the carbon economy of the leaf is then equated to another

  11. Controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. através de diferentes concentrações de CO2 e O2 Control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots with different concentrations of CO2 and O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações dos gases: CO2 e O2 balanceado com N, no controle de Sitophilus zeamais. Utilizou-se parcelas subdivididas no tempo com parcela principal distribuída segundo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. A unidade experimental constou de um vidro com volume de cinco litros, onde estavam acondicionados 0,15 kg de milho desinfestado e 200 insetos adultos não sexados. Foram avaliadas oito concentrações de gases (tratamentos: 0,03% de CO2 e 21% de O2 (testemunha, 10% de CO2 e 16% de O2, 15% CO2 e 16% O2, 20% CO2 e 16% O2, 0% CO2 e 5% O2, 0% CO2 e 1% O2, 75% CO2 e 5% O2, e 12% CO2 e 8% O2. Os resultados demonstraram que 20% de CO2 controla totalmente os insetos em cinco dias. Tratamento com 15% de CO2 associado com 5% de O2, controla a totalidade dos insetos após dez dias. Concentração de 1% O2, sem adição de CO2, também controla 100% da população de Sitophilus zeamais. após 15 dias.This experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect of different CO2 and 0(2 concentrations on the contral of Sitophilus zeamais. The experimental design was a split-plot in time, with the main plot distribucted in a completly randomized design, with four replications. The plot was consisted of a 5-liter glass chamber, in which 0.15 kg of desinfected maize with 200 unsexed adults insects. Eight gas concentrations were avaluated: 0.03% of CO2 and 21% of O2 (control, 10% of CO2 and 16% of O2, 15% of CO2 and 16% of O2, 20% of CO2 and 16% of O2, 0% of CO2 and 5% of O2, 0% of CO2 and 1% of O2, 15% of CO2 and 5% of O2 and 12% of CO2 and 8% of O2. Results demonstrated that 20% of CO2 controlled the insects in five days. Treatment with 15% of CO2 and 5% of 0(2 controlled 100% of insects in 10 days and 0% of CO2 and 1% of O2 controlled in 15 days.

  12. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of carbon dioxide clusters up to (CO2)13

    OpenAIRE

    Norooz Oliaee, J.; Dehghany, M.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen specific infrared bands in the 2350 cm−1 region are assigned to carbon dioxide clusters, (CO2)N, with N = 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13. The spectra are observed in direct absorption using a tuneable infrared laser to probe a pulsed supersonic jet expansion of a dilute mixture of CO2 in He carrier gas. Assignments are aided by cluster structure calculations made using two reliable CO2 intermolecular potential functions. For (CO2)6, two highly symmetric isomers are observed, one with S6 ...

  13. High Materials Performance in Supercritical CO2 in Comparison with Atmospheric Pressure CO2 and Supercritical Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Carney, Casey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Dogan, Omer N. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-02-26

    This presentation covers environments (including advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam boiler/turbine and sCO2 indirect power cycle), effects of pressure, exposure tests, oxidation results, and mechanical behavior after exposure.

  14. Root colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP concentration in hypoxic soils in natural CO2 springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Maček

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Changed ratios of soil gases that lead to hypoxia are most often present in waterlogged soils, but can also appear in soils not saturated with water. In natural CO2 springs (mofettes, gases in soil air differ from those in typical soils. In this study, plant roots from the mofette area Stavešinci (Slovenia were sampled in a spatial scale and investigated for AM fungal colonization. AM fungi were found in roots from areas with high geological CO2 concentration, however mycorrhizal intensity was relatively low and no correlation between AM fungal colonization and soil pattern of CO2/O2 concentrations (up to 37% CO2 was found. The relatively high abundance of arbuscules in root cortex indicated existence of functional symbiosis at much higher CO2 concentrations than normally found in soils. In addition, concentration of two different glomalin-related soil protein fractions – EE-GRSP and TG-GRSP – was measured. No significant correlation between any of the fractions and soil gases was found, however the concentration of both fractions was significantly higher in the upper 0–5 cm, compared to the 5–10 cm layer of the soil.

  15. 分解炉内不同CO2体积分数下的煤粉及煤焦还原NO特性%NO Reduction by Coal and Char at Different CO2 Concentrations in Cement Precalciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕刚; 陆继东; 刘智湘; 薛锦添; 谢新华; 曾阔; 胡芝娟

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of NO by two types of coal and one type of char at different CO2 concentrations in a suspension reactor has been investigated in a high temperature gas solid reactor of industry precalciner. The effects of cement raw meal, limestone and the production of raw meal decomposition on the reduction of NO under different CO2 concentrations were also discussed. The results show that, with the increase of CO2 concentration, the rates of NO reduction by coal and char increase, while the valley value of NO concentration decreases. Cement raw meal, limestone and the production of raw meal decomposition have positive effect on the reduction of NO, and the production of raw meal decomposition shows the strongest catalytic activity. However, the catalytic activity of cement raw meal, limestone and the production of raw meal decomposition becomes weaker with the increase of CO2 concentration.%利用高温气固悬浮实验台对水泥行业中两种典型煤粉及一种煤焦在不同CO2体积分数的气氛下对NO的还原特性进行了实验研究,并考察了添加生料、石灰石及生料分解产物对煤焦及煤粉还原NO的影响特性.研究结果表明,气氛中CO2体积分数升高,煤焦及煤粉对NO的还原速率均增大,NO气体体积分数的谷值降低.水泥生料及石灰石对煤粉及煤焦还原NO的反应具有正催化作用;而水泥生料的分解产物对NO还原的正催化作用最强.随着气氛中CO2体积分数的升高,添加生料、石灰石及生料分解产物对煤焦及煤粉还原NO的促进作用相对减弱.

  16. Photosynthetic Performance of the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis During Emersion, With Special Reference to Effects of Solar UV Radiation, Dehydration and Elevated CO2 Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juntian; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-11-01

    Macroalgae distributed in intertidal zones experience a series of environmental changes, such as periodical desiccation associated with tidal cycles, increasing CO2 concentration and solar UVB (280-315 nm) irradiance in the context of climate change. We investigated how the economic red macroalga, Pyropia haitanensis, perform its photosynthesis under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and in the presence of solar UV radiation (280-400 nm) during emersion. Our results showed that the elevated CO2 (800 ppmv) significantly increased the photosynthetic carbon fixation rate of P. haitanensis by about 100% when the alga was dehydrated. Solar UV radiation had insignificant effects on the net photosynthesis without desiccation stress and under low levels of sunlight, but significantly inhibited it with increased levels of desiccation and sunlight intensity, to the highest extent at the highest levels of water loss and solar radiation. Presence of UV radiation and the elevated CO2 acted synergistically to cause higher inhibition of the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which exacerbated at higher levels of desiccation and sunlight. While P. haitanensis can benefit from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during emersion under low and moderate levels of solar radiation, combined effects of elevated CO2 and UV radiation acted synergistically to reduce its photosynthesis under high solar radiation levels during noon periods.

  17. Effect of compressed CO2 on the critical micelle concentration and aggregation number of AOT reverse micelles in isooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jianling; Han, Buxing; Feng, Xiaoying; Hou, Minqiang; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Zhaofu

    2006-10-25

    The effect of compressed CO2 on the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and aggregation number of sodium bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles in isooctane solution was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy methods in the temperature range of 303.2-318.2 K and at different pressures or mole fractions of CO2 (X(CO2)). The capacity of the reverse micelles to solubilize water was also determined by direct observation. The standard Gibbs free energy (DeltaGo(m)), standard enthalpy (DeltaHo(m)), and standard entropy (DeltaSo(m)) for the formation of the reverse micelles were calculated by using the cmc data determined. It was discovered that the cmc versus X(CO2) curve and the DeltaGo(m) versus X(CO2) curve for a fixed temperature have a minimum, and the aggregation number and water-solubilization capacity of the reverse micelles reach a maximum at the X(CO2) value corresponding to that minimum. These results indicate that CO2 at a suitable concentration favors the formation of and can stabilize AOT reverse micelles. A detailed thermodynamic study showed that the driving force for the formation of the reverse micelles is entropy.

  18. Potassium-based sorbents from fly ash for high-temperature CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2016-11-01

    Potassium-fly ash (K-FA) sorbents were investigated for high-temperature CO2 sorption. K-FAs were synthesised using coal fly ash as source of silica and aluminium. The synthesised materials were also mixed with Li2CO3 and Ca(OH)2 to evaluate their effect on CO2 capture. Temperature strongly affected the performance of the K-FA sorbents, resulting in a CO2 uptake of 1.45 mmol CO2/g sorbent for K-FA 1:1 at 700 °C. The CO2 sorption was enhanced by the presence of Li2CO3 (10 wt%), with the K-FA 1:1 capturing 2.38 mmol CO2/g sorbent at 700 °C in 5 min. This sorption was found to be similar to previously developed Li-Na-FA (2.54 mmol/g) and Li-FA (2.4 mmol/g) sorbents. The presence of 10 % Li2CO3 also accelerated sorption and desorption. The results suggest that the increased uptake of CO2 and faster reaction rates in presence of K-FA can be ascribed to the formation of K-Li eutectic phase, which favours the diffusion of potassium and CO2 in the material matrix. The cyclic experiments showed that the K-FA materials maintained stable CO2 uptake and reaction rates over 10 cycles.

  19. High-accuracy C-14 measurements for atmospheric CO2 samples by AMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Pertuisot, M.H.; van der Plicht, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how to achieve high-accuracy radiocarbon measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (ANIS) and present measurement series (performed on archived CO2) of (CO2)-C-14 between 1985 and 1991 for Point Barrow (Alaska) and the South Pole. We report in detail the measurement

  20. A 5 cm single-discharge CO2 laser having high power output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Boer, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    A single-discharge self-sustained CO2 laser has been constructed with a gap distance of 5 cm. The system has a very simple construction; it produces a very uniform discharge with an output power of 50 Joules per liter for a CO2 : N2 : He = 1 : 1 : 3 mixture. The efficiency can be as high as 19%.

  1. The Effect of Shaking, CO2 Concentration and Light Intensity on Biomass Growth of Green Microalgae Desmodesmus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanags

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect microalgae growth. In this research, four different groups of experiments were set up in order to determine the influence of different mixing conditions, CO2 concentration and light intensities on Desmodesmus communis growth. The range of CO2 concentration in the air - CO2 mixture was 0–16 v/v%, light intensities ranged between 100 µmol m-2s-1 and 300 µmol m-2s-1. The best biomass productivity and biomass yield of 0.54 g d-1 and 3.53 g l-1 respectively were achieved when mixing was provided by using shaker as well as gas bubbling with air - CO2 mixture of 96:4 v/v% and light intensity of 300 µmol m-2s-1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.70.4.8437

  2. Effects of CO 2 on a High Performance Hollow-Fiber Membrane for Natural Gas Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Omole, Imona C.

    2010-05-19

    A 6FDA-based, cross-linkable polyimide was characterized in the form of a defect-free asymmetric hollow-fiber membrane. The novel membrane was cross-linked at various temperatures and tested for natural gas purification in the presence of high CO2 partial pressures. The cross-linked membrane material shows high intrinsic separation performance for CO2 and CH4 (selectivity ∼49, CO2 permeability ∼161 barrer, with a feed at 65 psia, 35 °C, and 10% CO2). Cross-linked asymmetric hollow-fiber membranes made from the material show good resistance to CO2-induced plasticization. Carbon dioxide partial pressures as high as ∼400 psia were employed, and the membrane was shown to be promisingly stable under these aggressive conditions. The performance of the membrane was also analyzed using the dual-mode sorption/transport model. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Using a Tree Ring δ13C Annual Series to Reconstruct Atmospheric CO2 Concentration over the Past 300 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xing-Yun; QIAN Jun-Long; WANG Jian; HE Qing-Yan; WANG Zu-Liang; CHEN Cheng-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    The annual series of δ13C were measured in tree rings of three Cryptomeria fortunei disks (CF-1, CF-2, and CF 3) collected from West Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, China, according to cross-dating tree ring ages. There was no obvious decreasing trend of the δ13C annual time series of CF-2 before 1835. However, from 1835 to 1982 the three tree ring δ13C annual series exhibited similar decreasing trends that were significantly (P ≤ 0.001) correlated. The distribution characteristics of a scatter diagram between estimated δ13C series of CF-2 from modeling and the atmospheric CO2 concentration extracted from the Law Dome ice core from 1840 to 1978 were analyzed and a curvilinear regression equation for reconstructing atmospheric CO2 concentration was established with R2 = 0.98.Also, a test of independent samples indicated that between 1685 and 1839 the reconstructed atmospheric CO2 concentration .using the δ13C series of CF-2 had a close relationship with the Law Dome and Siple ice cores, with a standard deviation of 1.98.The general increasing trend of the reconstructed atmospheric CO2 concentration closely reflected the long-term variation of atmospheric CO2 concentration recorded both before and after the Industrial Revolution. Between 1685 and 1840 the evaluated atmospheric CO2 concentration was stable, but after 1840 it exhibited a rapid increase. Given a longer δ13C annual time series of tree rings, it was feasible to rebuild a representative time series to describe the atmospheric CO2 concentration for an earlier period and for years that were not in the ice core record.

  4. Mesozooplankton community development at elevated CO2 concentrations: results from a mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Niehoff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels leads to increasing pCO2 and decreasing pH in the world ocean. These changes may have severe consequences for marine biota, especially in cold-water ecosystems due to higher solubility of CO2. However, studies on the response of mesozooplankton communities to elevated CO2 are still lacking. In order to test whether abundance and taxonomic composition change with pCO2, we have sampled nine mesocosms, which were deployed in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord at Svalbard, and were adjusted to eight CO2 concentrations, initially ranging from 185 μatm to 1420 μatm. Vertical net hauls were taken weekly over about one month with an Apstein net (55 μm mesh size in all mesocosms and the surrounding fjord. In addition, sediment trap samples, taken every second day in the mesocosms, were analysed to account for losses due to vertical migration and mortality. The taxonomic analysis revealed that meroplanktonic larvae (Cirripedia, Polychaeta, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, and Decapoda dominated in the mesocosms while copepods (Calanus spp., Oithona similis, Acartia longiremis and Microsetella norvegica were found in lower abundances. In the fjord copepods prevailed for most of our study. With time, abundance and taxonomic composition developed similarly in all mesocosms and the pCO2 had no significant effect on the overall community structure. Also, we did not find significant relationships between the pCO2 level and the abundance of single taxa. Changes in heterogeneous communities are, however, difficult to detect, and the exposure to elevated pCO2 was relatively short. We therefore suggest that future mesocosm experiments should be run for longer periods.

  5. Bicarbonate concentration and osmolality are key determinants in the inhibition of CHO cell polysialylation under elevated pCO(2) or pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, J A; Schmelzer, A E; Mendoza, T P; Knop, R H; Miller, W M

    1999-10-20

    Accumulation of CO(2) in animal cell cultures can be a significant problem during scale-up and production of recombinant glycoprotein biopharmaceuticals. By examining the cell-surface polysialic acid (PSA) content, we show that elevated CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) can alter protein glycosylation. PSA is a high-molecular-weight polymer attached to several complex N-linked oligosaccharides on the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), so that small changes in either core glycosylation or in polysialylation are amplified and easily measured. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that PSA levels on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells decrease with increasing pCO(2) in a dose-dependent manner, independent of any change in NCAM content. The results are highly pH-dependent, with a greater decrease in PSA at higher pH. By manipulating medium pH and pCO(2), we showed that decreases in PSA correlate well with bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)]). In fact, it was possible to offset a 60% decrease in PSA content at 120 mm Hg pCO(2) by decreasing the pH from 7.3 to 6.9, such that [HCO(3)(-)] was lowered to that of control (38 mm Hg pCO(2)). When the increase in osmolality associated with elevated [HCO(3)(-)] was offset by decreasing the basal medium [NaCl], elevated [HCO(3)(-)] still caused a decrease in PSA, although less extensive than without osmolality control. By increasing [NaCl], we show that hyperosmolality alone decreases PSA content, but to a lesser extent than for the same osmolality increase due to elevated [NaHCO(3)]. In conclusion, we demonstrate the importance of pH and pCO(2) interactions, and show that [HCO(3)(-)] and osmolality can account for the observed changes in PSA content over a wide range of pH and pCO(2) values.

  6. Physiological and genetic control mechanisms for plant adaptation to high temperature and elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, Eduardo

    2001-02-01

    Acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2 were characterized. Stomata from the model plant used, Vicia faba, are very sensitive to ambient CO2 when grown in growth chambers as compared to stomata from green house grown leaves. The different CO2 sensitivities of growth chamber and green house grown guard cells was confirmed by reciprocal transfer experiments. Stomata acclimated to their new environment and acquired the CO2 sensitivity typical of that environment. A mechanism for CO2 sensing was also characterized. Results show that CO2 concentration alters the concentration of zeaxanthin in the guard cell chloroplast, thus modifying the light response of the guard cells. This mechanism accounts for the well characterized interactions of light and CO2 in the stomatal responses. The xanthophyll cycle in the stomata of the facultative CAM plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, was characterized. In the C3 mode, zeaxanthin is formed in the light and stomata open. Upon induction of the CAM mode, zeaxanthin synthesis is blocked and stomata no longer respond to light. These results implicate the regulation of the xanthophyll cycle of guard cells in the CAM adaptation.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of CO2 Column Concentration in China from 2009 to 2010%中国区域近地面CO2时空分布特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 崔伟宏

    2014-01-01

    本文利用2009年6月至2010年5月日本宇宙航空研究开发机构(JAXA)、日本环境署(MOE)与日本环境研究(NIES)所等联合开发的全球首颗专用温室气体观测卫星“呼吸号”(GOSAT)上的被动红外探测器(TANSO)官方反演的近地面975hPa左右的CO2浓度L4B数据产品,采用ArcGIS地统计分析方法,对比瓦里关全球大气本底站地面观测数据进行真实性检验,分析中国区域近地面CO2浓度分布的时空变化特征。结果表明:中国区域近地面CO2浓度空间分布集中,东高西低,差异显著;CO2浓度具有明显的季节变化特征,月平均浓度4月份(春季)升至最高,7月份(夏季)降至最低。结合“中国统计年鉴2012”中的2009年人口密度、能源消费总量(煤)和GDP等辅助数据对比发现:导致中国近地面CO2浓度空间分布规律的原因多种多样,不可轻易定论是人为或自然使然,需进一步深入研究。%Data adopted was the official near the ground surface (975hPa) CO2 concentration L4B retrieval data products of GOSAT-the world’s first Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite“Breathing No.”-with a passive infrared detector (TANSO) from June 2009 to May 2010, which was jointly developed by Japan Aerospace Ex-ploration Agency (JAXA), Japanese Environment Agency (MOE) and the Japan Institute for Environmental Stud-ies (NIES). Based on the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analytical Method, authenticity inspection was processed by comparing the data mentioned above with the ground observation data of the Global Atmospheric Background Station (Waliguan), in order to analyze Chinese CO2 concentration spatial and temporal variations near the ground surface. The results show that:(i) Chinese CO2 concentration near the ground surface is concentrated and has a high value in the East, a low value in the West;(ii) Chinese CO2 concentration has an obviously seasonal variation characteristic that

  8. High-efficiency laser-irradiation spheroidizing of NiCo2O4 nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-sheng; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Hai-bo; Fan, Guang-ming; Liu, Ya-hong

    2016-11-01

    We realized the desired spheroidizing of NiCo2O4 nanomaterials by laser irradiating NiCo2O4 suspensions with different concentrations. The results reveal that the as-prepared samples are desired spheres with the maximal average size of 568 nm and the superior dispersity, which were obtained at the energy density of 0.30 J·pulse-1·cm-2 and NiCo2O4 suspension concentration of 0.2 mg·mL-1. However, the phase segregation, which was induced by large amounts of solid redox of Co3+/Co2+ and Ni3+/Ni2+, also appears in the laser-irradiation process.

  9. The concentration and efflux of tree stem CO2 and the role of xylem sap flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping ZHAO; Dirk H(O)LSCHER

    2009-01-01

    The accurate assessment of actual tree stem respiration and its relation with temperature plays a considerable role in investigating the forest carbon cycle.An increasing number of research reports have indicated that tree stem respiration determined with the commonlyapplied chamber gas exchange measuring system does not follow expectations regarding temperature relationships.theory that the respired CO2 in a tree stem would all diffuse outward into the atmosphere,However,it neglects partial CO2 that is dissolved in the xylem sap and is carried away by the transpirational stream.Scientists have started to realize that the respired CO2 measured with the chamber gas exchange method is only a portion of the total stem respiration (CO2 efflux),while the other portion,which is sometimes very substantial in quantity (thought to occupy maybe 15%-75% of the total stem respiration),is transported to the upper part of the stem and to the canopy by sap flow.This suggests that the CO2 produced by respiration is re-allocated within the stem.Accordingly,the change in CO2 efflux could be reflected in the rates of sap flow in addition to its dependence on temperature.Proper methods and instruments are required to quantify the internal and external CO2 fluxes in the trunk and their interaction with related environmental factors.

  10. Embedding NiCo2O4 nanoparticles into a 3DHPC assisted by CO2-expanded ethanol: a potential lithium-ion battery anode with high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2014-07-09

    A high-performance anode material, NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite, for lithium-ion batteries was developed through direct nanoparticles nucleation on a three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon (3DHPC) matrix and cation substitution of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles. It was synthesized via a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) expanded ethanol solution-assisted deposition method combined with a subsequent heat-treatment process. The NiCo2O4 nanoparticles were uniformly embedded into the porous carbon matrix and efficiently avoided free-growth in solution or aggregation in the pores even at a high content of 55.0 wt %. In particular, the 3DHPC was directly used without pretreatment or surfactant assistance. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the NiCo2O4/3DHPC composite showed high reversible capacity and improved rate capability that outperformed those composites formed with single metal oxides (NiO/3DHPC, Co3O4/3DHPC), their physical mixture, and the composite prepared in pure ethanol (NiCo2O4/3DHPC-E). The superior performance is mainly contributed to the unique advantages of the scCO2-expanded ethanol medium, and the combination of high utilization efficiency and improved electrical conductivity of NiCo2O4 as well as the electronic and ionic transport advantages of 3DHPC.

  11. Decreased pCO(2) accumulation by eliminating bicarbonate addition to high cell-density cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudar, Chetan T; Matanguihan, Ricaredo; Long, Edward; Cruz, Christopher; Zhang, Chun; Piret, James M; Konstantinov, Konstantin B

    2007-04-15

    High-density perfusion cultivation of mammalian cells can result in elevated bioreactor CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)), a condition that can negatively influence growth, metabolism, productivity, and protein glycosylation. For BHK cells in a perfusion culture at 20 x 10(6) cells/mL, the bioreactor pCO(2) exceeded 225 mm Hg with approximate contributions of 25% from cellular respiration, 35% from medium NaHCO(3), and 40% from NaHCO(3) added for pH control. Recognizing the limitations to the practicality of gas sparging for CO(2) removal in perfusion systems, a strategy based on CO(2) reduction at the source was investigated. The NaHCO(3) in the medium was replaced with a MOPS-Histidine buffer, while Na(2)CO(3) replaced NaHCO(3) for pH control. These changes resulted in 63-70% pCO(2) reductions in multiple 15 L perfusion bioreactors, and were reproducible at the manufacturing-scale. Bioreactor pCO(2) values after these modifications were in the 68-85 mm Hg range, pCO(2) reductions consistent with those theoretically expected. Low bioreactor pCO(2) was accompanied by both 68-123% increased growth rates and 58-92% increased specific productivity. Bioreactor pCO(2) reduction and the resulting positive implications for cell growth and productivity were brought about by process changes that were readily implemented and robust. This philosophy of pCO(2) reduction at the source through medium and base modification should be readily applicable to large-scale fed-batch cultivation of mammalian cells.

  12. Rainfall distribution is the main driver of runoff under future CO2-concentration in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger, S.; Körner, C.

    2009-04-01

    Reduced stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 results in increased soil moisture, provided all other factors remain constant. Whether this results in increased runoff critically depends on the interaction of rainfall patterns, soil water storage capacity and plant responses. To test the sensitivity of runoff to these parameters under elevated CO2, we combine transpiration and soil moisture data from the Swiss Canopy Crane (SCC) FACE experiment with 104 years of daily precipitation data from an adjacent weather station to drive a three-layer bucket model (mean yearly precipitation 794 mm). The model adequately predicts the water budget of a temperate deciduous forest and runoff from a nearby gauging station. A simulation run over all 104 years based on sap flow responses resulted in only 5.5 mm (2.9 %) increased ecosystem runoff under elevated CO2. Out of the 37986 days (1.1.1901 to 31.12.2004), only 576 days produce higher runoff under in the elevated CO2 scenario. Only 1 out of 17 years produces a CO2-signal greater than 20 mma-1, which mostly depends on a few single days when runoff under elevated CO2 exceeds runoff under ambient conditions. The maximum signal for a double pre-industrial CO2-concentration under the past century daily rainfall regime is an additional runoff of 46 mm (year 1938). More than half of all years produce a signal of less than 5 mma-1, because trees consume the 'extra' moisture during prolonged dry weather. Increased runoff under elevated CO2 is 9 times more sensitive to variations in rain pattern than to the applied reduction in transpiration under elevated CO2. Thus the key driver of increased runoff under future CO2-concentration is the day by day rainfall pattern. We argue that increased runoff due to a first-order plant physiological CO2-effect will be very small (<3 %) in the landscape dominated by temperate deciduous forests, and will hardly increase flooding risk in forest catchments. It is likely that these results are equally

  13. Determining the high variability of pCO2 and pO2 in the littoral zone of a subtropical coastal lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tonetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic metabolism comprises production and mineralization of organic matter through biological processes, such as primary production and respiration that can be estimated by gases concentration in the water column. AIM: The study aimed to assess the temporal variability of pCO2 and pO2 in the littoral zone of a subtropical coastal lake. Our hypotheses are i high variability in meteorological conditions, such as temperature and light, drive the high variability in pCO2 and pO2, and ii the lake is permanently heterotrophic due to the low phosphorus concentration. METHODS: We estimated pCO2 from pH-alkalinity method, and pO2 from dissolved oxygen concentration and water temperature measured in free-water during 24 hours in the autumn, winter, spring and summer. RESULTS: Our findings showed that limnological variables had low temporal variability, while the meteorological variables and pCO2 presented a high coefficient of variation, which is representative of each climatic season. In autumn and winter, it was recorded that the lake was supersaturated in CO2 relative to the atmosphere, while in spring and summer CO2 concentration was below the concentration found in the atmosphere. Over 24 hours, pCO2 also showed high variability, with autumn presenting higher concentration during the night when compared to daytime. Water temperature and chlorophyll a were negatively correlated with pCO2, while pO2 was positively correlated with wind and light. CONCLUSION: Agreeing with our first hypothesis, pCO2 showed an expressive temporal variation in a subtropical lake associated to the high variability in meteorological conditions. On the other hand, our second hypothesis was not confirmed, since Peri Lake exported CO2 to the atmosphere in some periods and in others, CO2 was removed from the atmosphere.

  14. 高含CO2气井产能计算新方法%A new method of productivity prediction for high CO2-content gas wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严谨; 刘传喜

    2011-01-01

    Productivity of gas wells in Songnan volcanic gas reservoir is difficult to predict as high CO2 content has great influences on PVT of natural gas, resulting in large difference between the measured and predicted productivity. Based on laboratory experiments, this paper studied the effects of temperature, pressure and CO2 content on PVT of gas with high CO2 content and established the relational expressions of gas viscosity and Z-facto to pressure for gas with different CO2 contents. A new prediction model considering PVT variations of gas with high CO2 content was built based on gas percolation theory. The case study results indicate that the productivity reduces with the CO2 content increasing; the effect of Μz factor changes on productivity prediction should be considered when CO2 content is above 20 %; and the impacts of CO2 content on productivity lowers to a level that can be neglect in late production period. The new method is accurate and practical for the high CO2-content gas reservoirs.%松南火山岩气藏高含CO2,这种气体的存在对天然气的高压物性产生很大影响,使得气井产能预测与实际相差较大.在高含CO2气体高压物性分析(PVT)实验的基础上,研究了温度、压力和CO2含量对天然气高压物性参数的影响规律,建立了不同CO2含量下天然气粘度和偏差因子与压力的相关关系,并结合气体渗流理论建立了考虑高含CO2天然气高压物性变化的产能预测新模型.实例计算表明:①气井产能随着CO2含量的增高而降低;②当CO2含量大于20%时,气井产能评价必须考虑μΖ值(天然气粘度与偏差因子的乘积)变化的影响;③开发中后期可以忽略CO2含量对气井产能的影响.新的产能计算方法能反映CO2含量对产能计算的影响,精确度更高,对于高含CO2天然气田的产能评价和生产制度的制定具有重要的指导意义.

  15. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. High efficiency of CO2-activated graphite felt as electrode for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chung; Chen, Jian-Yu; Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Lin, Guan-Yi; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Chou, Yi-Sin; Wei, Hwa-Jou; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-10-01

    A simple method for preparing CO2-activated graphite felt as an electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was employed by the direct treatment in a CO2 atmosphere at a high temperature for a short period. The CO2-activated graphite felt demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity and reversibility. The VRFB using the CO2-activated graphite felts in the electrodes has coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies of 94.52%, 88.97%, and 84.15%, respectively, which is much higher than VRFBs using the electrodes of untreated graphite felt and N2-activated graphite felt. The efficiency enhancement was attributed to the higher number of oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphite felt that are formed during the CO2-activation, leading to improving the electrochemical behaviour of the resultant VRFB.

  17. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine benthic invertebrates and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changkeun; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-08-01

    Concern about leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep-sea storage in geological reservoirs is increasing because of its possible adverse effects on marine organisms locally or at nearby coastal areas both in sediment and water column. In the present study, we examined how elevated CO2 affects various intertidal epibenthic (benthic copepod), intertidal endobenthic (Manila clam and Venus clam), sub-tidal benthic (brittle starfish), and free-living (marine medaka) organisms in areas expected to be impacted by leakage. Acute lethal and sub-lethal effects were detected in the adult stage of all test organisms exposed to varying concentrations of CO2, due to the associated decline in pH (8.3 to 5.2) during 96-h exposure. However, intertidal organisms (such as benthic copepods and clams) showed remarkable resistance to elevated CO2, with the Venus clam being the most tolerant (LpH50 = 5.45). Sub-tidal species (such as brittle starfish [LpH50 = 6.16] and marine medaka [LpH50 = 5.91]) were more sensitive to elevated CO2 compared to intertidal species, possibly because they have fewer defensive capabilities. Of note, the exposure duration might regulate the degree of acute sub-lethal effects, as evidenced by the Venus clam, which showed a time-dependent effect to elevated CO2. Finally, copper was chosen as a model toxic element to find out the synergistic or antagonistic effects between ocean acidification and metal pollution. Combination of CO2 and Cu exposure enhances the adverse effects to organisms, generally supporting a synergistic effect scenario. Overall, the significant variation in the degree to which CO2 adversely affected organisms (viz., working range and strength) was clearly observed, supporting the general concept of species-dependent effects of elevated CO2.

  18. The counteracting effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and drought episodes: Studies of enchytraeid communities in a dry heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Krogh, Paul Henning; Linden, Leon;

    2010-01-01

    The potential impacts of interactions of multiple climate change factors in soil ecosystems have received little attention. Most studies have addressed effects of single factors such as increased temperature or atmospheric CO2 but little is known about how such environmental factors will interact....... In the present study we investigate the effects of in situ exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, increased temperatures and prolonged drought episodes on field communities of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in a dry heathland (Brandbjerg, Denmark). Increased CO2 had a positive effect on enchytraeid...... biomass, whereas drought significantly reduced it. Elevated temperature did not result in any detectable effects. No interactions between the three factors were observed. Interestingly, the positive effect of increased CO2 and the negative effect of drought were cancelled out when applied in combination...

  19. TiO(OH)2 - highly effective catalysts for optimizing CO2 desorption kinetics reducing CO2 capture cost: A new pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongbao; Toan, Sam; Huang, Liang; Fan, Maohong; Wang, Yujun; Russell, Armistead G; Luo, Guangsheng; Fei, Weiyang

    2017-06-07

    The objective is to find a new pathway for significant reduction in CO2 capture energy consumption. Specifically, nanoporous TiO(OH)2 was used to realize the objective, which was desired as a catalyst to significantly accelerate the decomposition of aqueous NaHCO3, essentially CO2 desorption - the key step of Na2CO3/NaHCO3 based CO2 capture technologies from overall CO2 energy consumption perspective. Effects of several important factors on TiO(OH)2-catalyzed NaHCO3 decomposition were investigated. The quantity of CO2 generated from 0.238 mol/L NaHCO3 at 65 °C with catalyst is ~800% of that generated without the presence of catalyst. When a 12 W vacuum pump was used for carrying the generated CO2 out of reactor, the total amount of CO2 released was improved by ~2,500% under the given experimental conditions. No significant decrease in the catalytic effect of TiO(OH)2 was observed after five cyclic CO2 activated tests. In addition, characterizations with in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravity analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller of TiO(OH)2 indicate that TiO(OH)2 is quite stable. The discovery in this research could inspire scientists' interests in starting to focus on a new pathway instead of making huge effort or investment in designing high-capacity but expensive CO2 sorbent for developing practical or cost-effective CO2 technologies.

  20. Elevated CO2 response of photosynthesis depends on ozone concentration in aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Olevi Kull; Anu Sober; Mark E. Kubiske; David F. Karnosky

    2010-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 and O3 on apparent quantum yield (ø), maximum photosynthesis (Pmax), carboxylation efficiency (Vcmax) and electron transport capacity (Jmax) at different canopy locations was studied in two aspen (Populus...

  1. Development and Evaluation of a High Sensitivity DIAL System for Profiling Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady J.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. N.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A ground-based 2-micron Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) CO2 profiling system for atmospheric boundary layer studies and validation of space-based CO2 sensors is being developed and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the NASA Instrument Incubator Program. To capture the variability of CO2 in the lower troposphere a precision of 1-2 ppm of CO2 (less than 0.5%) with 0.5 to 1 km vertical resolution from near surface to free troposphere (4-5 km) is one of the goals of this program. In addition, a 1% (3 ppm) absolute accuracy with a 1 km resolution over 0.5 km to free troposphere (4-5 km) is also a goal of the program. This DIAL system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and other NASA programs to develop new solid-state laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements. This presentation describes the capabilities of this system for atmospheric CO2 and aerosol profiling. Examples of atmospheric measurements in the lidar and DIAL mode will be presented.

  2. Mapping of CO2 at High Spatiotemporal Resolution using Satellite Observations: Global distributions from OCO-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Michalak, Anna M.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of CO2 offer new opportunities to improve our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Using such observations to infer global maps of atmospheric CO2 and their associated uncertainties can provide key information about the distribution and dynamic behavior of CO2, through comparison to atmospheric CO2 distributions predicted from biospheric, oceanic, or fossil fuel flux emissions estimates coupled with atmospheric transport models. Ideally, these maps should be at temporal resolutions that are short enough to represent and capture the synoptic dynamics of atmospheric CO2. This study presents a geostatistical method that accomplishes this goal. The method can extract information about the spatial covariance structure of the CO2 field from the available CO2 retrievals, yields full coverage (Level 3) maps at high spatial resolutions, and provides estimates of the uncertainties associated with these maps. The method does not require information about CO2 fluxes or atmospheric transport, such that the Level 3 maps are informed entirely by available retrievals. The approach is assessed by investigating its performance using synthetic OCO-2 data generated from the PCTM/ GEOS-4/CASA-GFED model, for time periods ranging from 1 to 16 days and a target spatial resolution of 1deg latitude x 1.25deg longitude. Results show that global CO2 fields from OCO-2 observations can be predicted well at surprisingly high temporal resolutions. Even one-day Level 3 maps reproduce the large-scale features of the atmospheric CO2 distribution, and yield realistic uncertainty bounds. Temporal resolutions of two to four days result in the best performance for a wide range of investigated scenarios, providing maps at an order of magnitude higher temporal resolution relative to the monthly or seasonal Level 3 maps typically reported in the literature.

  3. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

  4. Putting an ultrahigh concentration of amine groups into a metal-organic framework for CO2 capture at low pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Qin; Chen, Xun-Wei; Liu, Si-Yang; Li, Xu-Yu; Xu, Yan-Tong; Tang, Minni; Rui, Zebao; Ji, Hongbing; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2016-10-19

    Tremendous efforts have been devoted to increasing the CO2 capture performance of porous materials, especially for low CO2 concentration environments. Here, we report that hydrazine can be used as a diamine short enough to functionalize the small-pore metal-organic framework [Mg2(dobdc)] (H4dobdc = 2,5-dihydroxyl-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid). By virtue of the ultrahigh concentration of free amine groups (6.01 mmol g(-1) or 7.08 mmol cm(-3)) capable of reversible carbamic acid formation, the new material [Mg2(dobdc)(N2H4)1.8] achieves a series of new records for CO2 capture, such as single-component isotherm uptakes of 3.89 mmol g(-1) or 4.58 mmol cm(-3) at the atmospheric CO2 concentration of 0.4 mbar at 298 K and 1.04 mmol g(-1) or 1.22 mmol cm(-3) at 328 K, as well as more than a 4.2 mmol g(-1) or 4.9 mmol cm(-3) adsorption/desorption working capacity under dynamic mixed-gas conditions with CO2 concentrations similar to those in flue gases and ambient air.

  5. Characteristics of variations of climate change and atmospheric CO2 concentration at different time scales over the past 500 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Z.; Huang, S. S. X. E. C.; Tang, X.

    2015-12-01

    It is generally believed that current global warming is due to the persistent rise of atmospheric greenhouse gas CO2. The consensus is based mostly on the observational data of past decades and the polar ice core records. To understand the relationship between climate change and atmospheric CO2, their behaviors over a longer interval at different time scales need to be appreciated. Here, we collect and analyze past 500 Ma records of atmospheric CO2 and temperature in six time periods, namely Phanerozoic, Cenozoic, middle Pleistocene, last deglaciation, past millennium, and recent decades. According to the carriers and time spans, we divide these records into three categories: 1.The millionaire and longer records from model calculation and paleosols/paleobotany proxies. Although the trends of both variables are generally consistent on this time scale, it is difficult to establish a clear causal relationship because of great uncertainties and low resolutions of both sets of data. 2.The orbital scale mainly from the polar ice core. High precise CO2 and temperature reconstructions allow for an examination of the possible role of atmospheric CO2 in the glacial-interglacial transformation. 3.The records at centennial and shorter time scales over the past millennium from ice, snow, and instrumental data. The past millennium records are most abundant and accurate, especially CO2 has been measured directly in recent decades. However, due to the difficulties in distinguishing the effect of CO2 from other factors, there are great uncertainties in the interpretation of climate change versus CO2. Overall, we come to the following conclusions:1.Paleoclimatic reconstructions show that both temperature and atmospheric CO2 have generally decreased over the past 500 Ma. However, there are no consistent sequential orders in the changes between these two variables. 2.The Earth's atmospheric CO2 has a drastic oscillation history. There were many high CO2 periods when the values were

  6. Impact of elevated CO2 concentrations on the growth and ultrastructure of non-calcifying marine diatom (Chaetoceros gracilis F.Schütt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Khairy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of different CO2 concentrations on the growth, physiology and ultrastructure of noncalcifying microalga Chaetoceros gracilis F.Schütt (Diatom were studied. We incubated Ch. gracilis under different CO2 concentrations, preindustrial and current ambient atmospheric concentrations (285 and 385 μatm, respectively or predicted year-2100 CO2 levels (550, 750 and 1050 μatm in continuous culture conditions. The growth of Ch. gracilis measured as cell number was decreased by increasing the pCO2 concentration from nowadays concentration (385 μatm to 1050 μatm. The lowest percentage changes of oxidizable organic matter, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were recorded at a higher pCO2 (1050 μatm, and this is in consistence with the lowest recorded cell number indicating unsuitable conditions for the growth of Ch. gracilis. The minimum cell numbers obtained at higher levels of CO2 clearly demonstrate that, low improvement occurred when the carbon level was raised. This was confirmed by a highly negative correlation between cell number and carbon dioxide partial pressure (r = −0.742, p ⩽ 0.05. On the other hand, highest growth rate at pCO2 = 385 μatm was also confirmed by the maximum uptake of nutrient salts (NO3 = 68.96 μmol.l−1, PO4 = 29.75 μmol.l−1, Si2O3 = 36.99 μmol.l−1. Total protein, carbohydrate and lipid composition showed significant differences (p ⩽ 0.05 at different carbon dioxide concentrations during the exponential growth phase (day 8. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Ch. gracilis showed enlargement of the cell, chloroplast damage, disorganization and disintegration of thylakoid membranes; cell lysis occurs at a higher CO2 concentration (1050 μatm. It is concluded from this regression equation and from the results that the growth of Ch. gracilis is expected to decrease by increasing pCO2 and increasing ocean acidification.

  7. CMAQ simulation of atmospheric CO2 concentration in East Asia: Comparison with GOSAT observations and ground measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Meigen; Chen, Liangfu; Kou, Xingxia; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2017-07-01

    Satellite observations are widely used in global CO2 assimilations, but their quality for use in regional assimilation systems has not yet been thoroughly determined. Validation of satellite observations and model simulations of CO2 is crucial for carbon flux inversions. In this study, we focus on evaluating the uncertainties of model simulations and satellite observations. The atmospheric CO2 distribution in East Asia during 2012 was simulated using a regional chemical transport model (RAMS-CMAQ) and compared with both CO2 column density (XCO2) from the Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and CO2 concentrations from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). The results indicate that simulated XCO2 is generally lower than GOSAT XCO2 by 1.19 ppm on average, and their monthly differences vary from 0.05 to 2.84 ppm, with the corresponding correlation coefficients ranging between 0.1 and 0.67. CMAQ simulations are good to capture the CO2 variation as ground-based observations, and their correlation coefficients are from 0.62 to 0.93, but the average value of CMAQ simulation is 2.4 ppm higher than ground-based observation. Thus, we inferred that the GOSAT retrievals may overestimate XCO2, which is consistent with the validation of GOSAT XCO2 using Total Carbon Column Observing Network measurements. The near-surface CO2 concentration was obviously overestimated in GOSAT XCO2. Compared with the relatively small difference between CMAQ and GOSAT XCO2, the large difference in CO2 near surface or their vertical profiles indicates more improvements are needed to reduce the uncertainties in both satellite observations and model simulations.

  8. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Lin

    2007-06-30

    This project aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from 450-750 C showed very low permeances of those two gases through the dual-phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two particular gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase with temperature. XRD data obtained from used membrane indicated that lithium iron oxides formed on the support surface. This lithium iron oxide layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture; thus limiting the formation of the ionic species required for transport through the membrane. These results indicated that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which could be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Work was extended to synthesize a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. It was found that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) was a suitable candidate for the support

  9. CO2–CH4 permeation in high zeolite 4A loading mixed matrix membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Ryan T.

    2011-02-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with low particle loadings have been shown to improve the properties of pure polymers for many gas separations. Comparatively few reports have been made for high particle loading (≥50vol.%) MMMs. In this work, CO2-CH4 feeds were used to study the potential of 50vol.% zeolite 4A-poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) MMMs for natural gas separations. A low CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance below the plasticization pressure of PVAc and a high CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance at industrially relevant conditions above the plasticization pressure.Under both mixed feed conditions at 35°C, substantial improvements in overall separation performance were observed. At low CO2 partial pressures, CO2 permeability roughly doubled with a nearly 50% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc under the same conditions. For the high CO2 partial pressure feed, CO2 permeability remained effectively unchanged with a 63% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc. Surprisingly, the performance of these PVAc based MMMs approached the properties of current " upper bound" polymers. Overall, this work shows that significantly improved performance MMMs can be made with traditional techniques from a low cost, low performance polymer without costly adhesion promoters. © 2010.

  10. Changes in the activities of starch metabolism enzymes in rice grains in response to elevated CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Yong; Lin, Er-Da; Zhao, Hong-Liang; Feng, Yong-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is currently (2012) 393.1 μmol mol-1, an increase of approximately 42 % over pre-industrial levels. In order to understand the responses of metabolic enzymes to elevated CO2 concentrations, an experiment was conducted using the Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE )system. Two conventional japonica rice varieties ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) grown in North China, Songjing 9 and Daohuaxiang 2, were used in this study. The activities of ADPG pyrophosphorylase, soluble and granule-bound starch synthases, and soluble and granule-bound starch branching enzymes were measured in rice grains, and the effects of elevated CO2 on the amylose and protein contents of the grains were analyzed. The results showed that elevated CO2 levels significantly increased the activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase at day 8, 24, and 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 56.67 % for Songjing 9 and 21.31 % for Daohuaxiang 2. Similarly, the activities of starch synthesis enzymes increased significantly from the day 24 after flower to the day 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 36.81 % for Songjing 9 and 66.67 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in soluble starch synthase (SSS), and 25.00 % for Songjing 9 and 36.44 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), respectively. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the activity of soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE) at day 16, 32, and 40 after flower, and also significantly increased the activity of granule-bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE) at day 8, 32, and 40 after flower. The elevated CO2 concentration increased the peak values of enzyme activity, and the timing of the activity peaks for SSS and GBSBE were earlier in Songjing 9 than in Daohuaxiang 2. There were obvious differences in developmental stages between the two varieties of rice, which indicated that the elevated CO2 concentration increased enzyme activity expression and starch synthesis, affecting the final contents

  11. Biomimetic CO2 capture using a highly thermostable bacterial α-carbonic anhydrase immobilized on a polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliardini, Fortunato; De Luca, Viviana; Carginale, Vincenzo; Rossi, Mosè; Corbo, Pasquale; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    The biomimetic approach represents an interesting strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, offering advantages over other methods, due to its specificity for CO2 and its eco-compatibility, as it allows concentration of CO2 from other gases, and its conversion to water soluble ions. This approach uses microorganisms capable of fixing CO2 through metabolic pathways or via the use of an enzyme, such as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Recently, our group cloned and purified a novel bacterial α-CA, named SspCA, from the thermophilic bacteria, Sulfurihydrogenibium yellowstonense YO3AOP1 living in hot springs at temperatures of up to 110 °C. This enzyme showed an exceptional thermal stability, retaining its high catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction even after being heated at 70 °C for several hours. In the present paper, the SspCA was immobilized within a polyurethane (PU) foam. The immobilized enzyme was found to be catalytically active and showed a long-term stability. A bioreactor containing the "PU-immobilized enzyme" (PU-SspCA) as shredded foam was used for experimental tests aimed to verify the CO2 capture capability in conditions close to those of a power plant application. In this bioreactor, a gas phase, containing CO2, was put into contact with a liquid phase under conditions, where CO2 contained in the gas phase was absorbed and efficiently converted into bicarbonate by the extremo-α-CA.

  12. High-resolution estimates of net community production and air-sea CO2 flux in the northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Deirdre; Quay, Paul D.; Kavanaugh, Maria T.; Juranek, Lauren W.; Feely, Richard A.

    2012-12-01

    Rates of net community production (NCP) and air-sea CO2 flux in the Northeast Pacific subarctic, transition zone and subtropical regions (22°N-50°N, 145°W-152°W) were determined on a cruise in August-September 2008 by continuous measurement of surface values of the ratio of dissolved oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). These estimates were compared with simultaneous measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (chl-a), flow cytometry, and discrete surface nutrient concentrations. NCP and CO2 influx were greatest in the subarctic (45°N-50°N, 25.8 ± 4.6 and 4.1 ± 0.9 mmol C m-2 d-1) and northern transition zone (40°N-45°N, 17.1 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 0.5 mmol C m-2 d-1), with mean NCP ˜6-8× greater than mean CO2 invasion (error estimates reflect 1 σ confidence intervals). Contrastingly, the southern transition zone (32°N-40°N) and subtropics (22°N-32°N) had lower mean NCP (5.4 ± 1.8 and 8.1 ± 2.1 mmol C m-2 d-1, respectively) and mean CO2 efflux (3.0 ± 0.5 and 0.1 ± 0.0 mmol C m-2 d-1, respectively). In the subarctic and transition zone, NCP was highly correlated with surface chl-a and CO2 influx, indicating strong coupling between the biological pump and CO2 uptake. Meridional trends in our NCP estimates in the transition zone and subtropics were similar to those for integrated summertime NCP along the cruise track determined using an upper ocean climatological carbon budget.

  13. Elevated CO2 concentration increase the mobility of Cd and Zn in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Liang, Chengfeng; Yang, Xiaoe

    2014-05-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on metal species and mobility in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator are not well understood. We report an experiment designed to compare the effects of elevated CO2 on Cd/Zn speciation and mobility in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and a non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii grown under ambient (350 μl l(-1)) or elevated (800 μl l(-1)) CO2 conditions. No difference in solution pH of NHE was observed between ambient and elevated CO2 treatments. For HE, however, elevated CO2 reduced soil solution pH by 0.22 unit, as compared to ambient CO2 conditions. Elevated CO2 increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic acid levels in soil solution of both ecotypes, but the increase in HE solution was much greater than in NHE solution. After the growth of HE, the concentrations of Cd and Zn in soil solution decreased significantly regardless of CO2 level. The visual MINTEQ speciation model predicted that Cd/Zn-DOM complexes were the dominant species in soil solutions, followed by free Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) species for both ecotypes. However, Cd/Zn-DOM complexes fraction in soil solution of HE was increased by the elevated CO2 treatment (by 8.01 % for Cd and 8.47 % for Zn, respectively). Resin equilibration experiment results indicated that DOM derived from the rhizosphere of HE under elevated CO2 (HE-DOM-E) (90 % for Cd and 73 % for Zn, respectively) showed greater ability to form complexes with Cd and Zn than those under ambient CO2 (HE-DOM-A) (82 % for Cd and 61 % for Zn, respectively) in the undiluted sample. HE-DOM-E showed greater ability to extract Cd and Zn from soil than HE-DOM-A. It was concluded that elevated CO2 could increase the mobility of Cd and Zn due to the enhanced formation of DOM-metal complexes in the rhizosphere of HE S. alfredii.

  14. CO2, CH4, and DOC Flux During Long Term Thaw of High Arctic Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, B. T.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Layton, A.; Bennett, P.; Mykytczuk, N.; Lau, C. M.; Whyte, L.; Onstott, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic regions are expected to experience temperature increases of >4° C by the end of this century. This warming is projected to cause a drastic reduction in the extent of permafrost at high northern latitudes, affecting an estimated 1000 Pg of SOC in the top 3 m. Determining the effects of this temperature change on CO2 and CH4 emissions is critical for defining source constraints to global climate models. To investigate this problem, 18 cores of 1 m length were collected in late spring 2011 before the thawing of the seasonal active layer from an ice-wedge polygon near the McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS) on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada (N79°24, W90°45). Cores were collected from acidic soil (pH 5.5) with low SOC (~1%), summertime active layer depth between 40-70 cm (2010-2013), and sparse vegetation consisting primarily of small shrubs and sedges. Cores were progressively thawed from the surface over the course of 14 weeks to a final temperature of 4.5° C and held at that temperature for 15 months under the following conditions: in situ water saturation conditions versus fully water saturated conditions using artificial rain fall, surface light versus no surface light, cores from the polygon edge, and control cores with a permafrost table maintained at 70 cm depth. Core headspaces were measured weekly for CO2, CH4, H2, CO, and O2 flux during the 18 month thaw experiment. After ~20 weeks of thawing maximum, CO2 flux for the polygon edge and dark treatment cores were 3.0×0.7 and 1.7×0.4 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively. The CO2 flux for the control, saturated, and in situ saturation cores reached maximums of 0.6×0.2, 0.9×0.5, and 0.9×0.1 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1, respectively. Field measurements of CO2 flux from an adjacent polygon during the mid-summer of 2011 to 2013 ranged from 0.3 to 3.7 mmol CO2 m-2 hr-1. Cores from all treatments except water saturated were found to consistently oxidize CH4 at ~atmospheric concentrations (2 ppmv) with a maximum

  15. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and irrigation on photosynthetic parameters and yield of maize in Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanchao Meng

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2] and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 µmol·mol(-1, and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5-9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs and transpiration rate (Tr decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax and light saturation points (LSP were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China.

  16. The impact of elevated CO2 concentration on the quality of algal starch as a potential biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanadul, Orn-U-Ma; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Beckles, Diane M; Powell, Ann L T; Labavitch, John M

    2014-07-01

    Cultured microalgae are viewed as important producers of lipids and polysaccharides, both of which are precursor molecules for the production of biofuels. This study addressed the impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on Chlorella sorokiniana production of starch and on several properties of the starch produced. The production of C. sorokiniana biomass, lipid and starch were enhanced when cultures were supplied with 2% CO2. Starch granules from algae grown in ambient air and 2% CO2 were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The granules from algae grown in 2% CO2 were disk-shaped and contained mainly stromal starch; granules from cultures grown in ambient air were cup-shaped with primarily pyrenoid starch. The granules from cells grown in 2% CO2 had a higher proportion of the accumulated starch as the highly branched, amylopectin glucan than did granules from cells grown in air. The rate of hydrolysis of starch from 2% CO2-grown cells was 1.25 times greater than that from air-grown cells and 2-11 times higher than the rates of hydrolysis of starches from cereal grains. These data indicate that culturing C. sorokiniana in elevated CO2 not only increases biomass yield but also improves the structure and composition of starch granules for use in biofuel generation. These modifications in culture conditions increase the hydrolysis efficiency of the starch hydrolysis, thus providing potentially important gains for biofuel production.

  17. Painted Goby Larvae under High-CO2 Fail to Recognize Reef Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joana M.; Amorim, M. Clara P.; Oliveira, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.; Munday, Philip L.; Simpson, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 levels have been increasing at an unprecedented rate due to anthropogenic activity. Consequently, ocean pCO2 is increasing and pH decreasing, affecting marine life, including fish. For many coastal marine fishes, selection of the adult habitat occurs at the end of the pelagic larval phase. Fish larvae use a range of sensory cues, including sound, for locating settlement habitat. This study tested the effect of elevated CO2 on the ability of settlement-stage temperate fish to use auditory cues from adult coastal reef habitats. Wild late larval stages of painted goby (Pomatoschistus pictus) were exposed to control pCO2 (532 μatm, pH 8.06) and high pCO2 (1503 μatm, pH 7.66) conditions, likely to occur in nearshore regions subjected to upwelling events by the end of the century, and tested in an auditory choice chamber for their preference or avoidance to nighttime reef recordings. Fish reared in control pCO2 conditions discriminated reef soundscapes and were attracted by reef recordings. This behaviour changed in fish reared in the high CO2 conditions, with settlement-stage larvae strongly avoiding reef recordings. This study provides evidence that ocean acidification might affect the auditory responses of larval stages of temperate reef fish species, with potentially significant impacts on their survival. PMID:28125690

  18. Response of CO2 Concentration in Andisol to Rainfall Events by Using Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshifumi; Tokida, Takeshi; Imoto, Hiromi; Nishimura, Taku; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi

    For the purpose of continuous soil CO2 gas monitoring, gas permeable resins were evaluated. Among polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE), polyfluoroethylene propylene (PFEP) and silicone, the silicone rubber tube had highest permeability for oxygen gas. Buried Tubing Gas Monitoring System (BT-GMS) consisting of silicone rubber tube connected to a Non-diffuse infrared (NDIR) -CO2 gas and galvanic cell O2 gas sensors were constructed, and buried into an Andisol upland field at a depth of 20cm. Thermo-couples and EC-5 soil moisture sensors were inserted into 10 and 20cm deep layers. Soil CO2 gas concentration, temperature and moisture were continuously monitored for 5 months. Soil CO2 concentration was sensitive to rainfall events and soil moisture change. Responses were keen during summer until early autumn when soil temperature was higher than 20°C. Then, when soil temperature got lower the response tended to be dull. This suggested quick CO2 gas concentration change following a rainfall event was mostly due to enhancement in soil respiration with soil moisture rise.

  19. Why are Nitrogen Concentrations in Plant Tissues Lower under Elevated CO2? A Critical Examination of the Hypotheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel R. Taub; Xianzhong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Plants grown under elevated atmospheric [CO2] typically have decreased tissue concentrations of N compared with plants grown under current ambient [CO2]. The physiological mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon have not been definitely established, although a considerable number of hypotheses have been advanced to account for it. In this review we discuss and critically evaluate these hypotheses. One contributing factor to the decreases in tissue N concentrations clearly is dilution of N by increased photosynthetic assimilation of C. In addition, studies on intact plants show strong evidence for a general decrease in the specific uptake rates (uptake per unit mass or length of root) of N by roots under elevated CO2. This decreased root uptake appears likely to be the result both of decreased N demand by shoots and of decreased ability of the soil-root system to supply N. The best-supported mechanism for decreased N supply is a decrease in transpiration-driven mass flow of N in soils due to decreased stomatal conductance at elevated CO2, although some evidence suggests that altered root system architecture may also play a role. There is also limited evidence suggesting that under elevated CO2, plants may exhibit increased rates of N loss through volatilization and/or root exudation, further contributing to lowering tissue N concentrations.

  20. Can rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere mitigate the impact of drought years on tree growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Alexis; Plumpton, Heather; Auty, David; Ogee, Jerome; MacCarthy, Heather; Bert, Didier; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Oren, Ram; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nitrogen deposition rates have increased substantially over the last century and are expected to continue unabated. As a result, terrestrial ecosystems will experience warmer temperatures and some may even experience droughts of a more intense and frequent nature that could lead to widespread forest mortality. Thus there is mounting pressure to understand and predict how forest growth will be affected by such environmental interactions in the future. In this study we used annual tree growth data from the Duke Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment to determine the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (+200 ppm) and Nitrogen fertilisation (11.2 g of N m-2 yr-1) on the stem biomass increments of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from 1996 to 2010. A non-linear mixed-effects model was developed to provide estimates of annual ring specific gravity in all trees using cambial age and annual ring width as explanatory variables. Elevated CO2 did not have a significant effect on annual ring specific gravity, but N fertilisation caused a slight decrease of approximately 2% compared to the non-fertilised in both the ambient and CO2-elevated plots. When basal area increments were multiplied by wood specific gravity predictions to provide estimates of stem biomass, there was a 40% increase in the CO2-elevated plots compared to those in ambient conditions. This difference remained relatively stable until the application of the fertilisation treatment, which caused a further increase in biomass increments that peaked after three years. Unexpectedly the magnitude of this second response was similar in the CO2-elevated and ambient plots (about 25% in each after 3 years), suggesting that there was no interaction between the concentration of CO2 and the availability of soil N on biomass increments. Importantly, during drier years when annual precipitation was less than 1000 mm we observed a significant decrease in annual

  1. The effects of inorganic nitrogen form and CO2 concentration on wheat yield and nutrient accumulation and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli eCarlisle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth and primary productivity. Inorganic N is available to plants from the soil as ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3–. We studied how wheat grown hydroponically to senescence in controlled environmental chambers is affected by N form (NH4+ vs. NO3– and CO2 concentration (‘subambient’, ‘ambient’, and ‘elevated’ in terms of biomass, yield, and nutrient accumulation and partitioning. NH4+-grown wheat had the strongest response to CO2 concentration. Plants exposed to subambient and ambient CO2 concentrations typically had the greatest biomass and nutrient accumulation under both N forms. In general NH4+ plants had higher concentrations of total N, P, K, S, Ca, Zn, Fe, and Cu, while NO3– plants had higher concentrations of Mg, B, Mn, and NO3–-N. NH4+ plants contained amounts of phytate similar to NO3– plants but had higher bioavailable Zn, which could have ramifications for human health. NH4+ plants allocated more nutrients and biomass to aboveground tissues whereas NO3– plants allocated more nutrients to the roots. The two inorganic nitrogen forms influenced plant growth and nutrient status so distinctly that they should be treated separately. Moreover, plant growth and nutrient status varied in a non-linear manner with atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  2. Phtotsynthetic physiological Response of Larrea tridentata due to the increase of CO2 concentration and drought%拉瑞尔Larrea tridentata光合特性对CO2摩尔分数和干旱的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张香凝; 乔杰; 孙向阳; 王保平; 崔令军

    2011-01-01

    Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system was used to measure the photosynthetic physiological responses of larrea tridentara to the increase of CO2 concentration and drought. The results showed that: Water stress had little influence on the leaf's actinic process. Photosynthetic apparatus were not harmed by drought when the soil water potential was above-0.884 5 MPa. The light saturation point, the photosynthetic rate and the apparent photon utilization efficiency increased as the CO2 concentration increased. The positive effect of CO2 concentration increased is bigger than the negative effect from the drought, so the drought resistance ability of L. tridentata was raised to a certain extent by the CO2 concentration increase. The CO2 concentration saturation point(CSP) increased with the PARs and CO2 concentration increase. This indicated that the CO2 utilization efficiency increased. The stomatal conductance and transpiration decreased while WUE increased with the increase in CO2 concentration. The CO2 concentration which saturated leaf RubisCO while cause stoma closed was 700-800 μmol·mo1-1. The current CO2 concentration has not saturated the RubisCO of L. tridentata. The CO2 concentration increased in the future will promote the photosynthesis of L. tridentata, and may increase the drought resistance ability of L.tridentata.%利用Li-6400光合测定系统测定拉瑞尔L.tridentata 的光合生理特性及其对CO2摩尔分数升高和干旱的响应.结果表明:土壤水势在-0.8845 MPa以上,L.tridentata的光合器没有任何损害,抵御干旱的能力很强;适当的增加CO2摩尔分数有利于提高光饱和点、光量子利用效率和最大净光合速率,且CO2摩尔分数升高的正效应要大于土壤水分胁迫的负效应,因而在一定程度上CO2摩尔分数的增加,提高了L.tridentata的抗旱能力;随着光合有效辐射的增强和CO2摩尔分数的升高,叶片净光合速率、CO2饱和点和羧化速率都有增大趋势,叶片对高摩尔分数CO

  3. Key knowledge and data gaps in modelling the influence of CO2 concentration on the terrestrial carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T A M; Müller, C; Arneth, A; Haverd, V; Smith, B

    2016-09-20

    Primary productivity of terrestrial vegetation is expected to increase under the influence of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]). Depending on the fate of such additionally fixed carbon, this could lead to an increase in terrestrial carbon storage, and thus a net terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon. Such a mechanism is generally believed to be the primary global driver behind the observed large net uptake of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by the biosphere. Mechanisms driving CO2 uptake in the Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs) used to attribute and project terrestrial carbon sinks, including that from increased [CO2], remain in large parts unchanged since those models were conceived two decades ago. However, there exists a large body of new data and understanding providing an opportunity to update these models, and directing towards important topics for further research. In this review we highlight recent developments in understanding of the effects of elevated [CO2] on photosynthesis, and in particular on the fate of additionally fixed carbon within the plant with its implications for carbon turnover rates, on the regulation of photosynthesis in response to environmental limitations on in-plant carbon sinks, and on emergent ecosystem responses. We recommend possible avenues for model improvement and identify requirements for better data on core processes relevant to the understanding and modelling of the effect of increasing [CO2] on the global terrestrial carbon sink. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, I.

    2015-03-01

    Half-metallic Co2MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co2MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  5. Gravity waves and high-altitude CO$_2$ ice cloud formation in the Martian atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Yiğit, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO$_2$ condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the interactively implemented spectral parameterization. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO$_2$ ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO$_2$ cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date.

  6. Characteristics of PM10 and CO2 concentrations on 100 underground subway station platforms in 2014 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Wha Me; Park, Jae Bum; Nam, Taegyun

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the concentrations of particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter (PM10) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured in 100 underground subway stations, and the potential health risks of PM10, and environmental factors affecting these concentrations were analyzed. The concentrations were measured from May 2014 to September 2015 in stations along Seoul Metro lines 1-4. There were significantly different PM10 concentrations among the underground subway stations along lines 1, 2, 3, and 4. The PM10 concentrations were associated with the CO2 concentrations, construction years, station depths, and numbers of passengers. The underground PM10 concentrations were significantly higher than the outdoor PM10 concentrations. In addition, the PM10 concentrations were higher in the stations that were constructed in the 1970s than in those constructed after the 1970s. The PM10 and CO2 concentrations varied significantly, depending on the construction year and number of passengers. The hazard quotient is higher than the acceptable level of 1.0 μg kg-1 day for children, indicating that they are at risk of exposure to unsafe PM10 levels when travelling by the metro. Therefore, stricter management may be necessary for the stations constructed in the 1970s as well as those with higher numbers of passengers.

  7. Experimental study of CO2 dissolution a convection phenomenon at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Imen; Chevalier, Sylvie; Faisal, Titly Farhana; Abderrahmane, Hamid; Sassi, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    The density driven convection phenomenon has a significant role in enhancing the CO2 geological storage capacity. Deep saline aquifers are targeted for large scale geological sequestration. Once the CO2 is injected in saline aquifer, the supercritical CO2 rises up, forms a thin layer of free phase CO2, and the dissolution and molecular diffusion of the dissolved CO2 in brine begins. The CO2 saturated brine is denser than the original brine leading to gravitational convection of CO2 saturated brine. Convection accelerates the dissolution process and thus improves the safety and the efficiency of the sequestration. Laboratory experiments have been previously performed with experimental set-ups allowing the visualization of the phenomenon (1) eventually combined to the measurements of the dissolved CO2 mass transfer (2) as a function of the permeability of the medium. The visualization of the process was possible as Hele-Shaw cells at atmospheric pressure were used. Pressurized cylindrical vessel containing porous media allows measuring mass transfer of CO2 using the pressure decay concept (3) but visualization of the convection/dissolution was not possible for these setups. In this work, we performed experiments in a pressurized transparent cell similar to a Hele-Shaw cell but with bigger aperture. Permeability was varied by changing the size of the glass beads filling the cell. Bromocrysol green was used as a dye to track the pH change due to the presence of dissolved CO2 (1). The phenomenon is captured by a high resolution camera. We studied the effect of the pressure and of the permeability on the fingering pattern, the onset and the timescale of the phenomenon and the quantitative mass transfer of dissolved CO2. Experiments were validated on numerical simulations performed using STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) developed by the PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) Hydrology group of the Department of Energy, USA. (1) Kneafsey, T

  8. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Abshire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5–6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2–3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were <1.4 ppm for flight measurement altitudes >6

  9. Engineering the Cyanobacterial Carbon Concentrating Mechanism for Enhanced CO2 Capture and Fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandh, Gustaf; Cai, Fei; Shih, Patrick; Kinney, James; Axen, Seth; Salmeen, Annette; Zarzycki, Jan; Sutter, Markus; Kerfeld, Cheryl

    2011-06-02

    In cyanobacteria CO2 fixation is localized in a special proteinaceous organelle, the carboxysome. The CO2 fixation enzymes are encapsulated by a selectively permeable protein shell. By structurally and functionally characterizing subunits of the carboxysome shell and the encapsulated proteins, we hope to understand what regulates the shape, assembly and permeability of the shell, as well as the targeting mechanism and organization of the encapsulated proteins. This knowledge will be used to enhance CO2 fixation in both cyanobacteria and plants through synthetic biology. The same strategy can also serve as a template for the production of modular synthetic bacterial organelles. Our research is conducted using a variety of techniques such as genomic sequencing and analysis, transcriptional regulation, DNA synthesis, synthetic biology, protein crystallization, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), protein-protein interaction assays and phenotypic characterization using various types of cellular imaging, e.g. fluorescence microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Soft X-ray Tomography (SXT).

  10. Effect of polymer concentration on the structure and performance of PEI hollow fiber membrane contactor for CO2 stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, R; Ismail, A F

    2013-04-15

    A series of polyetherimide (PEI) hollow fiber membranes with various polymer concentrations (13-16 wt.%) for CO2 stripping process in membrane contactor application was fabricated via wet phase inversion method. The PEI membranes were characterized in terms of liquid entry pressure, contact angle, gas permeation and morphology analysis. CO2 stripping performance was investigated via membrane contactor system in a stainless steel module with aqueous diethanolamine as liquid absorbent. The hollow fiber membranes showed decreasing patterns in gas permeation, contact angle, mean pore size and effective surface porosity with increasing polymer concentration. On the contrary, wetting pressure of PEI membranes has enhanced significantly with polymer concentration. Various polymer concentrations have different effects on the CO2 stripping flux in which membrane with 14 wt.% polymer concentration showed the highest stripping flux of 2.7 × 10(-2)mol/m(2)s. From the performance comparison with other commercial membrane, it is anticipated that the PEI membrane has a good prospect in CO2 stripping via membrane contactor.

  11. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  12. Responses to atmospheric CO2 concentrations in crop simulation models: a review of current simple and semicomplex representations and options for model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytrecht, Eline; Thorburn, Peter J

    2017-01-30

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) cause direct changes in crop physiological processes (e.g. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance). To represent these CO2 responses, commonly used crop simulation models have been amended, using simple and semicomplex representations of the processes involved. Yet, there is no standard approach to and often poor documentation of these developments. This study used a bottom-up approach (starting with the APSIM framework as case study) to evaluate modelled responses in a consortium of commonly used crop models and illuminate whether variation in responses reflects true uncertainty in our understanding compared to arbitrary choices of model developers. Diversity in simulated CO2 responses and limited validation were common among models, both within the APSIM framework and more generally. Whereas production responses show some consistency up to moderately high [CO2 ] (around 700 ppm), transpiration and stomatal responses vary more widely in nature and magnitude (e.g. a decrease in stomatal conductance varying between 35% and 90% among models was found for [CO2 ] doubling to 700 ppm). Most notably, nitrogen responses were found to be included in few crop models despite being commonly observed and critical for the simulation of photosynthetic acclimation, crop nutritional quality and carbon allocation. We suggest harmonization and consideration of more mechanistic concepts in particular subroutines, for example, for the simulation of N dynamics, as a way to improve our predictive understanding of CO2 responses and capture secondary processes. Intercomparison studies could assist in this aim, provided that they go beyond simple output comparison and explicitly identify the representations and assumptions that are causal for intermodel differences. Additionally, validation and proper documentation of the representation of CO2 responses within models should be prioritized.

  13. 石灰石和白云石高温循环脱除CO2过程分析%Process analysis of cyclic CO2 capture using limestone and dolomite at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英杰; 孙荣岳; 刘红玲; 赵建立; 韩奎华; 路春美

    2011-01-01

    The main system parameters, including long-term cyclic carbonation conversion, average carbonation conversion, CO2 capture efficiency and energy requirement for a calciner in the two kinds of typical calcination atmospheres, including pure N2 and high concentration CO2 were investigated by experiment and calculation during the cyclic calcination/carbonation process for CO2 capture using limestone and dolomite. The results showed that fresh sorbent flow ratio and recycled sorbent flow ratio had direct effect on average carbonation conversion, CO2 capture efficiency and energy requirement for the calciner. For the same fresh sorbent and recycled sorbent flow ratios, dolomite exhibited greater average carbonation conversion and CO2 capture efficiency than limestone. At CO2 capture efficiency of 95 % and in the same calcination atmosphere, at least 82 kJ · (mol CO2)-1 was saved in the minimum energy requirement for the calciner using dolomite than that using limestone. Compared with the results in pure N2 calcination atmosphere, the two sorbents both showed a decrease in average carbonation conversion and CO2 capture efficiency for the sorbents and exhibited an increase in minimum energy requirement for the calciner in high concentration CO2 atmosphere, however, the changes of these main system parameters for dolomite were less than those for limestone.%在N2气氛和高浓度CO2气氛两种典型锻烧气氛下,对石灰石和白云石在循环煅烧/碳酸化捕集CO2过程中的主要系统参数包括长周期循环碳酸化转化率、平均碳酸化转化率、CO2捕集效率和煅烧炉能量需求进行了实验研究和计算分析.结果表明,吸收剂补充流率和吸收剂循环流率对平均碳酸化转化率、CO2捕集效率和煅烧炉所需能量具有直接影响.在相同吸收剂补充流率和循环流率条件下,采用白云石时的平均碳酸化转化率、CO2捕集效率均高于采用石灰石时;在CO2捕集效率为95%和相同煅

  14. High resolution modeling of CO2 over Europe: implications for representation errors of satellite retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite retrievals for column CO2 with better spatial and temporal sampling are expected to improve the current surface flux estimates of CO2 via inverse techniques. However, the spatial scale mismatch between remotely sensed CO2 and current generation inverse models can induce representation errors, which can cause systematic biases in flux estimates. This study is focused on estimating these representation errors associated with utilization of satellite measurements in global models with a horizontal resolution of about 1 degree or less. For this we used simulated CO2 from the high resolution modeling framework WRF-VPRM, which links CO2 fluxes from a diagnostic biosphere model to a weather forecasting model at 10×10 km2 horizontal resolution. Sub-grid variability of column averaged CO2, i.e. the variability not resolved by global models, reached up to 1.2 ppm with a median value of 0.4 ppm. Statistical analysis of the simulation results indicate that orography plays an important role. Using sub-grid variability of orography and CO2 fluxes as well as resolved mixing ratio of CO2, a linear model can be formulated that could explain about 50% of the spatial patterns in the systematic (bias or correlated error component of representation error in column and near-surface CO2 during day- and night-times. These findings give hints for a parameterization of representation error which would allow for the representation error to taken into account in inverse models or data assimilation systems.

  15. Spatial variability and temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O concentrations and fluxes along the Zambezi River mainstem and major tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Teodoru

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spanning over 3000 km in length and with a catchment of approximately 1.4 million km2, the Zambezi River is the fourth largest river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from the African continent. As part of a~broader study on the riverine biogeochemistry in the Zambezi River basin, we present data on greenhouse gas (GHG, carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O concentrations and fluxes collected along the Zambezi River, reservoirs and several of its tributaries during 2012 and 2013 and over two climatic seasons (dry and wet to constrain the interannual variability, seasonality and spatial heterogeneity along the aquatic continuum. All GHGs concentrations showed high spatial variability (coefficient of variation: 1.01 for CO2, 2.65 for CH4 and 0.21 for N2O. Overall, there was no unidirectional pattern along the river stretch (i.e. decrease or increase towards the ocean, as the spatial heterogeneity of GHGs appeared to be determined mainly by the connectivity with floodplains and wetlands, and the presence of man-made structures (reservoirs and natural barriers (waterfalls, rapids. Highest CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the mainstream river were found downstream of extensive floodplains/wetlands. Undersaturated CO2 conditions, in contrast, were characteristic for the surface waters of the two large reservoirs along the Zambezi mainstem. N2O concentrations showed the opposite pattern, being lowest downstream of floodplains and highest in reservoirs. Among tributaries, highest concentrations of both CO2 and CH4 were measured in the Shire River whereas low values were characteristic for more turbid systems such as the Luangwa and Mazoe rivers. The interannual variability in the Zambezi River was relatively large for both CO2 and CH4, and significantly higher concentrations (up to two fold were measured during wet seasons compared to the dry season. Interannual variability of N2O was less pronounced but generally

  16. CO2浓度升高对作物生理影响研究进展%The Effects of CO2 Concentration Enrichment on Crops Physiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜帅; 居辉; 刘勤

    2013-01-01

      农业是对气候变化反应最为敏感部门,CO2浓度升高又是气候变化的主要特征之一,同时CO2作为作物的光合底物,对作物的生长发育以及生理生化过程具有重要影响。气候变化对农业影响关系到国家粮食安全,明确CO2浓度升高对作物的生理影响是客观评价气候变化对作物生产影响的重要组成部分,对正确认识粮食供给能力具有重要意义。综述了高浓度CO2对作物光合作用的影响,包括作物光合作用对短期和长期高CO2浓度的响应;归纳了高浓度CO2对蒸腾作用的影响;总结了高浓度CO2对水分利用率的影响;分析了高浓度CO2对作物呼吸的影响。分析认为,短期CO2浓度升高提高了作物光合作用,但持续性的高CO2浓度对光合的促进作用由于光合适应而有所减弱,CO2浓度升高使气孔开张度减小或关闭,气孔导度下降,作物蒸腾作用降低,水分利用效率提高,最后提出了目前研究中的一些不足和今后需要深入研究方向。%Agriculture is a particularly sensitive part to changes in climate variability. The elevated CO2 is one of main features of climate change. As the raw materials of photosynthesis, CO2 has essential effects on the growth and development of crops and some physiological and biochemical process. Because the effects of climate change on the agriculture are important to national food security, so to clearly find out effects of the elevated CO2 on the physiological process of crops is a major part of evaluating the effects of climate change on the production of crops. This is very important for us to know the food supply capacity. In this review, we summarized the photosynthesis of crops responded on the elevated CO2 included a transient and long-term respond to it, generalized the impacts of the elevated CO2 on the transpiration rate of crops, summed up water use efficiency of crops responded on the elevated CO2

  17. Skeletal mineralogy of coral recruits under high temperature and pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foster

    2016-03-01

    Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone is unlikely to drive changes in the skeletal mineralogy of young corals. Not having an ability to switch from aragonite to calcite precipitation may leave corals and ultimately coral reef ecosystems more susceptible to predicted ocean acidification. An important area for prospective research would be the investigation of the combined impact of high pCO2 and reduced Mg ∕ Ca ratio on coral skeletal mineralogy.

  18. High temporal resolution tracing of xylem CO2 transport in oak trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Ingrisch, Johannes; Bahn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation defines the flows of C between plant organs and their storage pools and metabolic processes and is therefore considered as an important determinant of forest C budgets and their responses to climate change. In trees, assimilates derived from leaf photosynthesis are transported via the phloem to above- and belowground sink tissues, where partitioning between growth, storage, and respiration occurs. At the same time, root- and aboveground respired CO2 can be dissolved in water and transported in the xylem tissue, thereby representing a C flux of large magnitude whose role in C allocation yet is unresolved. In this study, we infused 13C labeled water into the stem base of five year old potted oak (Quercus rubra) trees as a surrogate for respired CO2 to investigate the role of respired CO2 transport in trees in C allocation. We used high-resolution laser-based measurements of the isotopic composition of stem and soil CO2 efflux combined with stem gas probes to monitor the transport of 13C label. The high enrichment of the gas probes in the stem at the bottom of the canopy showed that the label was transported upwards from the base of the tree toward the top. During its ascent, the 13C label was removed from the transpiration stream and lost to the atmosphere at stem level, as was observed using the stem CO2 efflux laser-based measurements. This study is the first to show results from tracing xylem CO2 transport in trees at high temporal resolution using a 13C labeling approach. Moreover, they extend results from previous studies on internal CO2 transport in species with high transpiration rates like poplar to species with lower transpiration rates like oak. Internal transport of CO2 indicates that the current concepts of the tree C allocation need to be revisited, as they show that current gas exchange approach to estimating above- and belowground autotrophic respiration is inadequate.

  19. Imagining CO2: development and assessment of interactive visualizations for high resolution greenhouse gas observations collected by BEACO2N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheja, G.; Shusterman, A.; Martin, S.; Shahar, E.; Laughner, J.; Turner, A. J.; Miller, M. K.; Cohen, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N) is a high-density network of 28 carbon dioxide sensors distributed around the San Francisco Bay Area that serve to enhance understanding of intra-city variations in CO2 concentrations that are not necessarily captured by sparser networks maintained by local and national air quality management agencies. We partner with designers at the San Francisco Exploratorium to create a suite of interactive exhibits and hands-on activities that creatively visualize data from BEACO2N for general audiences. Museum goers can manipulate a light-up "bar graph" of live CO2 concentrations by exhaling on an in-room sensor, query the current readings of rooftop sensors using a scale model of the Wired Pier observation system, scroll through the data from other BEACO2N sites projected on a 3-D "topographic table" of the Bay Area, and view interpolated CO2 fields driven by research-grade weather models on a nine-screen LCD display. We present lessons learned from these initial installations, from layperson audience feedback to details of the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model coupled to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) weather fields used to generate intuitive concentration maps. We propose that compelling visual demonstrations of elevated CO2 concentrations due to routine small-scale high-emission anthropogenic activities (e.g. rush hour) and/or special events (such as fireworks or factory fires) generate deeper engagement in local environmental issues and interest in undertaking personal actions that can become part of the broader climate solution. While global means and other large-scale aggregate climate metrics can lead to feelings of disconnect and subsequent ambivalence, via such exhibitions, distributed network instruments like BEACO2N can provide the local sensitivity needed to "personalize" greenhouse gas concentrations to a given individual or community and incite the drive toward

  20. Dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere, climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration during interglacials: a comparison between Eemian and Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schurgers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex earth system model (atmosphere and ocean general circulation models, ocean biogeochemistry and terrestrial biosphere was used to perform transient simulations of two interglacial sections (Eemian, 128–113 ky B.P., and Holocene, 9 ky B.P.–present. The changes in terrestrial carbon storage during these interglacials were studied with respect to changes in the earth's orbit. The effects of different climate factors on changes in carbon storage were studied in offline experiments in which the vegetation model was forced only with temperature, hydrological parameters, radiation, or CO2 concentration from the transient runs. The largest anomalies in terrestrial carbon storage were caused by temperature changes. However, the increase in storage due to forest expansion and increased photosynthesis in the high latitudes was nearly balanced by the decrease due to increased respiration. Large positive effects on carbon storage were caused by an enhanced monsoon circulation in the subtropics between 128 and 121 ky B.P. and between 9 and 6 ky B.P., and by increases in incoming radiation during summer for 45° to 70° N compared to a control simulation with present-day insolation. Compared to this control simulation, the net effect of these changes was a positive carbon storage anomaly in the terrestrial biosphere of about 200 Pg C for 125 ky B.P. and 7 ky B.P., and a negative anomaly around 150 Pg C for 116 ky B.P. Although the net increases for Eemian and Holocene were rather similar, the magnitudes of the processes causing these effects were different. The decrease in terrestrial carbon storage during the experiments was the main driver of an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration during both the Eemian and the Holocene.

  1. Limitations and high pressure behavior of MOF-5 for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo Young; Karadas, Ferdi; Zulfiqar, Sonia; Deniz, Erhan; Aparicio, Santiago; Atilhan, Mert; Yavuz, Cafer T; Han, Seung Min

    2013-09-14

    Porous network structures (e.g. metal-organic frameworks, MOFs) show considerable potential in dethroning monoethanol amine (MEA) from being the dominant scrubber for CO2 at the fossil-fuel-burning power generators. In contrast to their promise, structural stability and high-pressure behavior of MOFs are not well documented. We herein report moisture stability, mechanical properties and high-pressure compression on a model MOF structure, MOF-5. Our results show that MOF-5 can endure all tested pressures (0-225 bar) without losing its structural integrity, however, its moist air stability points at a 3.5 hour safety window (at 21.6 °C and 49% humidity) for an efficient CO2 capture. Isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption at high pressures show moderate interaction energy between CO2 molecules and the MOF-5 sorbent, which combined with the large sorption ability of MOF-5 in the studied pressure-temperature ranges show the viability of this sorbent for CO2 capturing purposes. The combination of the physicochemical methods we used suggests a generalized analytical standard for measuring viability in CO2 capture operations.

  2. Facile synthesis of hybrid CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Gong, Youning; Pan, Chunxu

    2016-07-11

    In this work, a novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/NiCo2S4 composite for high performance supercapacitors was prepared via a simple chemical bath deposition combined with a post-anion exchange reaction. The morphologies and phase structures of the composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low-temperature sorption of nitrogen (BET). The electro-chemical tests revealed that the CNT/NiCo2S4 composite exhibited high electrochemical performance, because the CNTs were used as a conductive network for the NiCo2S4 hexagonal nanoplates. Compared with pure NiCo2S4 and the mechanically mixed CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite, the CNTs/NiCo2S4 composite electrode material exhibited excellent supercapacitive performance, such as a high specific capacitance up to 1537 F/g (discharge current density of 1 A/g) and an outstanding rate capability of 78.1% retention as the discharge current density increased to 100 A/g. It is therefore expected to be a promising alternative material in the area of energy storage.

  3. Effects of temperature, CO 2/O 2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Azuma, H.; Kiyota, M.

    Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO 2 to O 2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. gracilis was cultured under conditions with five levels of temperatures (25-33 °C), three levels of CO 2 concentrations (2-6%), five levels of O 2 concentrations (10-30%), and six levels of photosynthetic photon flux (20-200 μmol m -2 s -1). The number of Euglena cells in a certain volume of solution was monitored with a microscope under each environmental condition. The multiplication rate of the cells was highest at temperatures of 27-31 °C, CO 2 concentration of 4%, O 2 concentration of 20% and photosynthetic photon flux of about 100 μmol m -2 s -1. The results demonstrate that E. gracilis could efficiently produce biomass and convert CO 2 to O 2 under relatively low light intensities in aquatic food production modules.

  4. Responses of Irrigated Winter Wheat Yield in North China to Increased Temperature and Elevated CO2 Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    North China is one of the main regions of irrigated winter wheat production in China. Climate warming is apparent in this region, especially during the growing season of winter wheat. To understand how the yield of irrigated winter wheat in North China might be aff ected by climate warming and CO2 concentration enrichment in future, a set of manipulative fi eld experiments was conducted in a site in the North China Plain under increased temperature and elevated CO2 concentration by using open top chambers and infrared radiator heaters. The results indicated that an average temperature increase of 1.7℃in the growing season with CO2 concentration of 560 µmol mol−1 did not reduce the yield of irrigated winter wheat. The thousand-kernel weight of winter wheat did not change signifi cantly despite improvement in the fi lling rate, because the increased temperature shortened the duration of grain fi lling. The number of eff ective panicles and the grain number per ear of winter wheat did not show signifi cant changes. There was a large increase in the shoot biomass because of the increase in stem number and plant height. Consequently, under the prescribed scenario of asymmetric temperature increases and elevated CO2 concentration, the yield of irrigated winter wheat in North China is not likely to change signifi cantly, but the harvest index of winter wheat is likely to be greatly reduced.

  5. Effects of temperature, CO2/O2 concentrations and light intensity on cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Azuma, H.; Kiyota, M.

    2005-01-01

    Microalgae culture is likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO2 to O2 and remedying water quality as well as aquatic higher plants. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the cellular multiplication of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, was investigated as a fundamental study to determine the optimum culture conditions for microalgae production in aquatic food production modules including both microalgae culture and fish culture systems. E. gracilis was cultured under conditions with five levels of temperatures (25-33 degrees C), three levels of CO2 concentrations (2-6%), five levels of O2 concentrations (10-30%), and six levels of photosynthetic photon flux (20-200 micromoles m-2 s-1). The number of Euglena cells in a certain volume of solution was monitored with a microscope under each environmental condition. The multiplication rate of the cells was highest at temperatures of 27-31 degrees C, CO2 concentration of 4%, O2 concentration of 20% and photosynthetic photon flux of about 100 micromoles m-2 s-1. The results demonstrate that E. gracilis could efficiently produce biomass and convert CO2 to O2 under relatively low light intensities in aquatic food production modules. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  6. Assessment of aversion to different concentrations of CO2 gas by weaned pigs using an approach-avoidance paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the aversiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2) to weaned pigs using approach-avoidance and condition place avoidance paradigms. A preference-testing device was custom designed with two connected chambers maintained at static gas concentrations. The control chambe...

  7. Reduction of transpiration and altered nutrient allocation contribute to nutrient decline of crops grown in elevated CO(2) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Justin M; Lobell, David B

    2013-03-01

    Plants grown in elevated [CO(2) ] have lower protein and mineral concentrations compared with plants grown in ambient [CO(2) ]. Dilution by enhanced production of carbohydrates is a likely cause, but it cannot explain all of the reductions. Two proposed, but untested, hypotheses are that (1) reduced canopy transpiration reduces mass flow of nutrients to the roots thus reducing nutrient uptake and (2) changes in metabolite or enzyme concentrations caused by physiological changes alter requirements for minerals as protein cofactors or in other organic complexes, shifting allocation between tissues and possibly altering uptake. Here, we use the meta-analysis of previous studies in crops to test these hypotheses. Nutrients acquired mostly by mass flow were decreased significantly more by elevated [CO(2) ] than nutrients acquired by diffusion to the roots through the soil, supporting the first hypothesis. Similarly, Mg showed large concentration declines in leaves and wheat stems, but smaller decreases in other tissues. Because chlorophyll requires a large fraction of total plant Mg, and chlorophyll concentration is reduced by growth in elevated [CO(2) ], this supports the second hypothesis. Understanding these mechanisms may guide efforts to improve nutrient content, and allow modeling of nutrient changes and health impacts under future climate change scenarios.

  8. The influence of irradiance and external CO2 concentration on photosynthesis of different tomato genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilwik, H.J.M.; Gosiewski, W.; Bierhuizen, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    With 4 genotypes of tomato, irradiance and CO2-response curves of net photosynthesis were analysed by means of curve fitting. Estimated values of the light compensation point Ic showed small but significant differences between the genotypes, the overall value being in the order of 8 W m−2. The photo

  9. Activation of the Carbon Concentrating Mechanism by CO2 Deprivation Coincides with Massive Transcriptional Restructuring in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, Andrew J.; Gangadharaiah, Dayananda S.; Cserhati, Matyas F.; Casero, David; Weeks, Donald P.; Ladunga, Istvan

    2012-01-01

    A CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) is essential for the growth of most eukaryotic algae under ambient (392 ppm) and very low (<100 ppm) CO2 concentrations. In this study, we used replicated deep mRNA sequencing and regulatory network reconstruction to capture a remarkable scope of changes in gene expression that occurs when Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells are shifted from high to very low levels of CO2 (≤100 ppm). CCM induction 30 to 180 min post-CO2 deprivation coincides with statistically significant changes in the expression of an astonishing 38% (5884) of the 15,501 nonoverlapping C. reinhardtii genes. Of these genes, 1088 genes were induced and 3828 genes were downregulated by a log2 factor of 2. The latter indicate a global reduction in photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and energy-related biochemical pathways. The magnitude of transcriptional rearrangement and its major patterns are robust as analyzed by three different statistical methods. De novo DNA motif discovery revealed new putative binding sites for Myeloid oncogene family transcription factors potentially involved in activating low CO2–induced genes. The (CA)n repeat (9 ≤ n ≤ 25) is present in 29% of upregulated genes but almost absent from promoters of downregulated genes. These discoveries open many avenues for new research. PMID:22634764

  10. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse operating at high repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhui; Uno, Kazuyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-11-01

    A short-pulse longitudinally excited CO2 laser operating at a high repetition rate was developed. The discharge tube was made of a 45 cm-long or 60 cm-long dielectric tube with an inner diameter of 16 mm and two metallic electrodes at the ends of the tube. The optical cavity was formed by a ZnSe output coupler with a reflectivity of 85% and a high-reflection mirror. Mixed gas (CO2:N2:He = 1:1:2) was flowed into the discharge tube. A high voltage of about 33 kV with a rise time of about 200 ns was applied to the discharge tube. At a repetition rate of 300 Hz and a gas pressure of 3.4 kPa, the 45 cm-long discharge tube produced a short laser pulse with a laser pulse energy of 17.5 mJ, a spike pulse energy of 0.2 mJ, a spike width of 153 ns, and a pulse tail length of 90 μs. The output power was 5.3 W. The laser pulse waveform did not depend on the repetition rate, but the laser beam profile did. At a low repetition rate of less than 50 Hz, the laser beam had a doughnut-like shape. However, at a high repetition rate of more than 150 Hz, the discharge concentrated at the center of the discharge tube, and the intensity at the center of the laser beam was higher. The laser beam profile depended on the distribution of the discharge. An output power of 7.0 W was achieved by using the 60 cm-long tube.

  11. Sun leaves up-regulate the photorespiratory pathway to maintain a high rate of CO2 assimilation in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Hu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The greater rate of CO2 assimilation (A n) in sun-grown tobacco leaves leads to lower intercellular and chloroplast CO2 concentrations and, thus, a higher rate of oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) than in shade-grown leaves. Impairment of the photorespiratory pathway suppresses photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Here, we hypothesized that sun leaves can up-regulate photorespiratory pathway to enhance the A n in tobacco. To test this hypothesis, we examined the responses of photosynthetic electron flow (J T) and CO2 assimilation to incident light intensity and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i) in leaves of 'k326' tobacco plants grown at 95% sunlight (sun plants) or 28% sunlight (shade plants). The sun leaves had higher photosynthetic capacity and electron flow devoted to RuBP carboxylation (J C) than the shade leaves. When exposed to high light, the higher Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) content and lower C i in the sun leaves led to greater electron flow devoted to RuBP oxygenation (J O). The J O/J C ratio was significantly higher in the sun leaves than in the shade leaves under strong illumination. As estimated from CO2-response curves, the maximum J O was linearly correlated with the estimated Rubisco content. Based on light-response curves, the light-saturated J O was linearly correlated with light-saturated J T and light-saturated photosynthesis. These findings indicate that enhancement of the photorespiratory pathway is an important strategy by which sun plants maintain a high A n.

  12. Satellite observations reveal high variability and a decreasing trend in CO2 fluxes on the Scotian Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Salisbury

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We develop an algorithm to compute pCO2 in the Scotian Shelf region (NW Atlantic from satellite-based estimates of chlorophyll-a concentration, sea-surface temperature, and observed wind speed. This algorithm is based on a high-resolution time-series of pCO2 observations from an autonomous mooring. At the mooring location (44.3° N and 63.3° W, the surface waters act as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the annual scale, with an outgassing of −1.1 mol C m−2 yr−1 in 2007/2008. A hindcast of air-sea CO2 fluxes from 1999 to 2008 reveals significant variability both spatially and from year to year. Over the decade, the shelf-wide annual air-sea fluxes range from an outgassing of −1.7 mol C m−2 yr−1 in 2002, to −0.02 mol C m−2 yr−1 in 2006. There is a gradient in the air-sea CO2 flux between the northeastern Cabot Strait region which acts as a net sink of CO2 with an annual uptake of 0.5 to 1.0 mol C m−2 yr−1, and the southwestern Gulf of Maine region which acts as a source ranging from −0.8 to −2.5 mol C m−2 yr−1. There is a decline, or a negative trend, in the air-sea pCO2 gradient of 23 μatm over the decade, which can be explained by a cooling of 1.3 °C over the same period. Regional conditions govern spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability on the Scotian Shelf, while multi-annual trends appear linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  13. Boron-Functionalized Graphene Oxide-Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Enamul; Islam, Md Monirul; Pourazadi, Ehsan; Sarkar, Shuranjan; Harris, Andrew T; Minett, Andrew I; Yanmaz, Ekrem; Alshehri, Saad M; Ide, Yusuke; Wu, Kevin C-W; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Hossain, Md Shahriar A

    2017-02-01

    The capture and storage of CO2 have been suggested as an effective strategy to reduce the global emissions of greenhouse gases. Hence, in recent years, many studies have been carried out to develop highly efficient materials for capturing CO2 . Until today, different types of porous materials, such as zeolites, porous carbons, N/B-doped porous carbons or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), have been studied for CO2 capture. Herein, the CO2 capture performance of new hybrid materials, graphene-organic frameworks (GOFs) is described. The GOFs were synthesized under mild conditions through a solvothermal process using graphene oxide (GO) as a starting material and benzene 1,4-diboronic acid as an organic linker. Interestingly, the obtained GOF shows a high surface area (506 m(2)  g(-1) ) which is around 11 times higher than that of GO (46 m(2)  g(-1) ), indicating that the organic modification on the GO surface is an effective way of preparing a porous structure using GO. Our synthetic approach is quite simple, facile, and fast, compared with many other approaches reported previously. The synthesized GOF exhibits a very large CO2 capacity of 4.95 mmol g(-1) at 298 K (1 bar), which is higher those of other porous materials or carbon-based materials, along with an excellent CO2 /N2 selectivity of 48.8.

  14. High CO2 levels impair alveolar epithelial function independently of pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Briva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with acute respiratory failure, gas exchange is impaired due to the accumulation of fluid in the lung airspaces. This life-threatening syndrome is treated with mechanical ventilation, which is adjusted to maintain gas exchange, but can be associated with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the lung. Carbon dioxide (CO2 is a by-product of cellular energy utilization and its elimination is affected via alveolar epithelial cells. Signaling pathways sensitive to changes in CO2 levels were described in plants and neuronal mammalian cells. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether non-neuronal cells sense and respond to CO2. The Na,K-ATPase consumes approximately 40% of the cellular metabolism to maintain cell homeostasis. Our study examines the effects of increased pCO2 on the epithelial Na,K-ATPase a major contributor to alveolar fluid reabsorption which is a marker of alveolar epithelial function. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that short-term increases in pCO2 impaired alveolar fluid reabsorption in rats. Also, we provide evidence that non-excitable, alveolar epithelial cells sense and respond to high levels of CO2, independently of extracellular and intracellular pH, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function, via activation of PKCzeta which phosphorylates the Na,K-ATPase, causing it to endocytose from the plasma membrane into intracellular pools. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells, through which CO2 is eliminated in mammals, are highly sensitive to hypercapnia. Elevated CO2 levels impair alveolar epithelial function, independently of pH, which is relevant in patients with lung diseases and altered alveolar gas exchange.

  15. High CO2-capture ability of a porous organic polymer bifunctionalized with carboxy and triazole groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin-Hua; Suh, Myunghyun Paik

    2013-08-26

    A new porous organic polymer, SNU-C1, incorporating two different CO2 -attracting groups, namely, carboxy and triazole groups, has been synthesized. By activating SNU-C1 with two different methods, vacuum drying and supercritical-CO2 treatment, the guest-free phases, SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca, respectively, were obtained. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca are 595 and 830 m(2) g(-1), respectively, as estimated by the N2-adsorption isotherms at 77 K. At 298 K and 1 atm, SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca show high CO2 uptakes, 2.31 mmol  g(-1) and 3.14 mmol  g(-1), respectively, the high level being due to the presence of abundant polar groups (carboxy and triazole) exposed on the pore surfaces. Five separation parameters for flue gas and landfill gas in vacuum-swing adsorption were calculated from single-component gas-sorption isotherms by using the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). The data reveal excellent CO2-separation abilities of SNU-C1-va and SNU-C1-sca, namely high CO2-uptake capacity, high selectivity, and high regenerability. The gas-cycling experiments for the materials and the water-treated samples, experiments that involved treating the samples with a CO2-N2 gas mixture (15:85, v/v) followed by a pure N2 purge, further verified the high regenerability and water stability. The results suggest that these materials have great potential applications in CO2 separation.

  16. Highly CO2-supersaturated melts in the Pannonian lithospheric mantle - A transient carbon reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créon, Laura; Rouchon, Virgile; Youssef, Souhail; Rosenberg, Elisabeth; Delpech, Guillaume; Szabó, Csaba; Remusat, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Smail; Asimow, Paul D.; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Boller, Elodie; Guyot, François

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of carbonated crust is widely believed to generate a flux of carbon into the base of the continental lithospheric mantle, which in turn is the likely source of widespread volcanic and non-volcanic CO2 degassing in active tectonic intracontinental settings such as rifts, continental margin arcs and back-arc domains. However, the magnitude of the carbon flux through the lithosphere and the budget of stored carbon held within the lithospheric reservoir are both poorly known. We provide new constraints on the CO2 budget of the lithospheric mantle below the Pannonian Basin (Central Europe) through the study of a suite of xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Trails of secondary fluid inclusions, silicate melt inclusions, networks of melt veins, and melt pockets with large and abundant vesicles provide numerous lines of evidence that mantle metasomatism affected the lithosphere beneath this region. We obtain a quantitative estimate of the CO2 budget of the mantle below the Pannonian Basin using a combination of innovative analytical and modeling approaches: (1) synchrotron X-ray microtomography, (2) NanoSIMS, Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry, and (3) thermodynamic models (Rhyolite-MELTS). The three-dimensional volumes reconstructed from synchrotron X-ray microtomography allow us to quantify the proportions of all petrographic phases in the samples and to visualize their textural relationships. The concentration of CO2 in glass veins and pockets ranges from 0.27 to 0.96 wt.%, higher than in typical arc magmas (0-0.25 wt.% CO2), whereas the H2O concentration ranges from 0.54 to 4.25 wt.%, on the low end for estimated primitive arc magmas (1.9-6.3 wt.% H2O). Trapping pressures for vesicles were determined by comparing CO2 concentrations in glass to CO2 saturation as a function of pressure in silicate melts, suggesting pressures between 0.69 to 1.78 GPa. These values are generally higher than trapping pressures for fluid inclusions

  17. Effect of Fe ion concentration on corrosion of carbon steel in CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion behaviour of steel wires in solutions containing different concentrations of Fe2+ was investigated by the linear polarisation resistance method, while the evolution of pH was monitored in situ and changes of the Fe2+ concentration were monitored ex situ. Characterisation...... of the corrosion scales was performed using microscopic and diffraction techniques. Scale analysis revealed that the passivation of samples, exposed to initially highly Fe2+ supersaturated solution, occurred when a formation of a double layer took place, resulting in 30 times lower corrosion rate compared...

  18. Supercritical CO2 extraction of oil and omega-3 concentrate from Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. from Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Triana-Maldonado

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L. seeds were employed for oil extraction with supercritical CO2 at laboratory scale. The supercritical extraction was carried out at a temperature of 60 °C, pressure range of 400–500 bars and CO2 flow of 40–80 g/min. The maximum recovery was 58% in 180 min, favored by increasing the residence time of CO2 in the extraction tank. Subsequently, the process was evaluated at pilot scale reaching a maximum recovery of 60% in 105 min, with a temperature of 60 °C, pressure of 450 bars and CO2 flow of 1270 g/min. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected for an extraction period of 30–120 min. The Sacha inchi oil was fractionated with supercritical CO2 to obtain an omega-3 concentrate oil without finding a considerable increase in the proportion of this compound, due to the narrow range in the carbon number of fatty acids present in the oil (16–18 carbons, making it difficult for selective separation.

  19. Removal of Low-Molecular Weight Aldehydes by Selected Houseplants under Different Light Intensities and CO2 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of five low-molecular weight aldehydes by two houseplants (Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans were investigated in a laboratory simulation environment with short-term exposure to different low light intensities and CO2 concentrations. Under normal circumstances, the C1–C5 aldehyde removal rates of Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans (Lour. Harms ranged from 0.311 μmol/m2/h for valeraldehyde to 0.677 μmol/m2/h for formaldehyde, and 0.526 μmol/m2/h for propionaldehyde to 1.440 μmol/m2/h for formaldehyde, respectively. However, when the light intensities varied from 0 to 600 lx, a significant correlation between the aldehyde removal rate and the light intensity was found. Moreover, the CO2 experiments showed that the total aldehyde removal rates of Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans (Lour. Harms decreased 32.0% and 43.2%, respectively, with increasing CO2 concentrations from 350 ppmv to 1400 ppmv. This might be explained by the fact that the excessive CO2 concentration decreased the stomatal conductance which limited the carbonyl uptake from the stomata.

  20. Fragile Reefs of the Eastern Pacific: Does low Cementation Provide a Model for Reefs in a High CO2 World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, D.; Kleypas, J.; Eakin, M.; Budd, D.

    2007-05-01

    Around the world, reefs will experience high pCO2, low pH, low carbonate concentrations, and low aragonite saturation state as atmospheric CO2 rises. Ocean carbon chemistry measurements show that eastern Pacific waters already exist at high pCO2 and low carbonate concentrations due to natural upwelling in the region. Because of the upwelling, this region may serve as a model for coral reef development under enhanced atmospheric CO2 and oceanic pCO2; that is, low coral growth, low secondary cementation, and high physical, chemical, and biological erosion. Reefs in the eastern Pacific Ocean are characterized by low biological diversity and relatively small size. Both past coring and recent analysis reveal that, while many reefs in the eastern Pacific are several thousand years old, they are fragile and lack significant cementation, even in the innermost, oldest structures. They are also extremely porous with high water throughflow. Without secondary cementation, branching coral frameworks are held together only by organically produced calcium carbonate (e.g. coralline algae), sponges, and other reef infauna, and contain a high proportion of loose sediments. The result is reef frameworks that are more susceptible to destruction from mechanical or biological erosion. The poorly cemented nature of eastern Pacific reefs is thus hypothesized to have been a factor in the severe bioerosion that occurred on these reefs after past bleaching events (1982-3, 1997-8). We will present data that indicate low rates of cementation and high rates of erosion on eastern Pacific coral reefs and will compare current carbonate chemistry in the eastern Pacific to model predictions of what reefs around the globe may experience in coming decades.

  1. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus metabolism, and parathyroid-calcitonin function during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations on submarines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, A A; Heyder, E; Braithwaite, W R; McCluggage, C; Peck, A; Schaefer, K E

    1979-01-01

    Studies of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and acid-base balance were carried out on three Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) submarines during prolonged exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2. The average CO2 concentration in the submarine atmosphere during patrols ranged from 0.85% to 1% CO2. In the three studies, in which 9--15 subjects participated, the urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate fell during the first three weeks to a level commensurate with a decrease in plasma calcium and increase in phosphorus. In the fourth week of one patrol, a marked increase was found in urinary calcium excretion, associated with a rise in blood PCO2 and bicarbonate. Urinary calcium excretion decreased again during the 5th to 8th week, with a secondary decrease in blood pH and plasma calcium. During the third patrol, the time course of acid-base changes corresponded well with that found during the second patrol. There was a trend toward an increase in plasma calcium between the fourth and fifth week commensurate with the transient rise in pH and bicarbonate. Plasma parathyroid and calcitonin hormone activities were measured in two patrols and no significant changes were found. Hydroxyproline excretion decreased in the three-week study and remained unchanged in the second patrol, which lasted 57 days. It is suggested that during prolonged exposure to low levels of CO2 (up to 1% CO2), calcium metabolism is controlled by the uptake and release of CO2 in the bones. The resulting phases in bone buffering, rather than renal regulation, determine acid-base balance.

  2. Soil and Root Respiration Under Elevated CO2 Concentrations During Seedling Growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of higher CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol mol-1) in atmosphere on total soil respiration and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration during seedling growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis. During the four growing seasons (May-October) from 1999 to 2003, the seedlings were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 in open-top chambers. The total soil respiration and contribution of root respiration were measured using an LI-6400-09 soil CO2 flux chamber on June 15 and October 8, 2003. To separate root respiration from total soil respiration, three PVC cylinders were inserted approximately 30 cm deep into the soil in each chamber. There were marked diurnal changes in air and soil temperatures on June 15. Both the total soil respiration and the soil respiration without roots showed a strong diurnal pattern, increasing from before sunrise to about 14:00in the afternoon and then decreasing before the next sunrise. No increase in the mean total soil respiration and mean soil respiration with roots severed was observed under the elevated CO2 treatments on June 15, 2003, as compared to the open field and control chamber with ambient CO2. However, on October 8, 2003, the total soil respiration and soil respiration with roots severed in the open field were lower than those in the control and elevated CO2 chambers. The mean contribution of root respiration measured on June 15, 2003, ranged from 8.3% to 30.5% and on October 8, 2003,from 20.6% to 48.6%.

  3. Facilely synthesized porous NiCo2O4 flowerlike nanostructure for high-rate supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Qi, Tong; Xia, Dandan; Wan, Houzhao

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a facile and scalable method to grow porous NiCo2O4 nanostructure. The conductivity is measured by a linear sweep voltammetry, which indicates that the conductivity of the NiCo2O4 sample is at least two orders of magnitude higher than those of NiO and Co3O4 samples. The conductive NiCo2O4 hybrid electrode delivers an enhanced specific capacitance of 658 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 compared to NiO and Co3O4. Excellent rate capability, 78% specific capacitance retention for a 20-time current density increase and 77% specific capacitance retention for a 50-time scan rate rise, is achieved. The NiCo2O4 sample demonstrates ultralong cycling lifespan, no observable degradation is found for the total cycle numbers as high as 10000 cycles. Furthermore, the excellent capacitive performance of porous NiCo2O4 electrode is also evaluated by a two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor device. The asymmetric supercapacitor device delivers a 64% rate property for the current density increase 20 times. Remarkably, the asymmetric supercapacitor device also shows ultrahigh long-term stability, 93.5% of specific capacitance can still be retained after 10,000 cycles cycling. These excellent capacitive performances indicate the as-fabricated porous NiCo2O4 flowerlike nanostructure a promising electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  4. Finely tuning MOFs towards high-performance post-combustion CO2 capture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Bai, Junfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Pan, Yi; You, Xiaozeng

    2016-01-11

    CO2 capture science and technology, particularly for the post-combustion CO2 capture, has become one of very important research fields, due to great concern of global warming. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with a unique feature of structural fine-tunability, unlike the traditional porous solid materials, can provide many and powerful platforms to explore high-performance adsorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture. Until now, several strategies for finely tuning MOF structures have been developed, in which either the larger quadrupole moment and polarizability of CO2 are considered: metal ion change (I), functional groups attachment (II) and functional group insertion (III), vary the electronic nature of the pore surface; or targeting the smaller kinetic diameter of CO2 over N2 is focused on: framework interpenetration (IV), ligand shortening (V) and coordination site shifting (VI) contract the pore size of frameworks to improve their CO2 capture properties. In this review, from the viewpoint of synthetic materials scientists/chemists, we would like to introduce and summarize these strategies based upon recent work published by other groups and ourselves.

  5. Highly porous organic polymers bearing tertiary amine group and their exceptionally high CO2 uptake capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ruth; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-02-01

    We report a very simple and unique strategy for synthesis of a tertiary amine functionalized high surface area porous organic polymer (POP) PDVTA-1 through the co-polymerization of monomers divinylbenzene (DVB) and triallylamine (TAA) under solvothermal reaction conditions. Two different PDVTA-1 samples have been synthesized by varying the molar ratio of the monomers. The porous polymeric materials have been thoroughly characterized by solid state 13C CP MAS-NMR, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, N2 sorption, HR TEM and FE SEM to understand its chemical environment, nanostructure, bonding, morphology and related surface properties. PDVTA-1 with higher amine content (DVB/TAA=4.0) showed exceptionally high CO2 uptake capacity of 85.8 wt% (19.5 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 43.69 wt% (9.93 mmol g-1) at 298 K under 3 bar pressure, whereas relatively low amine loaded material (DVB/TAA=7.0) shows uptake capacity of 59.2 wt% (13.45 mmol g-1) at 273 K and 34.36 wt% (7.81 mmol g-1) at 298 K. Highly porous nanostructure together with very high surface area and basicity at the surface due to the presence of abundant basic tertiary amine N-sites in the framework of PDVTA-1 could be responsible for very high CO2 adsorption.

  6. Highly conductive NiCo2S4 urchin-like nanostructures for high-rate pseudocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Wan, Houzhao; Qi, Tong; Xia, Dandan

    2013-09-01

    A 3D highly conductive urchin-like NiCo2S4 nanostructure has been successfully prepared using a facile precursor transformation method. Remarkably, the NiCo2S4 electroactive material demonstrates superior electrochemical performance with ultrahigh high-rate capacitance, very high specific capacitance, and excellent cycling stability.A 3D highly conductive urchin-like NiCo2S4 nanostructure has been successfully prepared using a facile precursor transformation method. Remarkably, the NiCo2S4 electroactive material demonstrates superior electrochemical performance with ultrahigh high-rate capacitance, very high specific capacitance, and excellent cycling stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, and the electrochemical performances of NiCo2O4, Co9S8 and NiS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02958a

  7. A new set-up for simultaneous high-precision measurements of CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 on small ice core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenk, Theo Manuel; Rubino, Mauro; Etheridge, David; Ciobanu, Viorela Gabriela; Blunier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Palaeoatmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods. Additional analytical resources with high analytical precision and throughput are thus desirable to extend the existing datasets. Moreover, consistent measurements derived by independent laboratories and a variety of analytical systems help to further increase confidence in the global CO2 palaeo-reconstructions. Here, we describe our new set-up for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and atmospheric δ13C and δ18O-CO2 in air extracted from ice core samples. The centrepiece of the system is a newly designed needle cracker for the mechanical release of air entrapped in ice core samples of 8-13 g operated at -45 °C. The small sample size allows for high resolution and replicate sampling schemes. In our method, CO2 is cryogenically and chromatographically separated from the bulk air and its isotopic composition subsequently determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In combination with thermal conductivity measurement of the bulk air, the CO2 mixing ratio is calculated. The analytical precision determined from standard air sample measurements over ice is ±1.9 ppm for CO2 and ±0.09 ‰ for δ13C. In a laboratory intercomparison study with CSIRO (Aspendale, Australia), good agreement between CO2 and δ13C results is found for Law Dome ice core samples. Replicate analysis of these samples resulted in a pooled standard deviation of 2.0 ppm for CO2 and 0.11 ‰ for δ13C. These numbers are good, though they are rather conservative estimates of the overall analytical precision achieved for single ice sample measurements. Facilitated by the small sample requirement

  8. High CO2 enhances the competitive strength of seaweeds over corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Gouezo, Marine; Tilbrook, Bronte; Dove, Sophie; Anthony, Kenneth R N

    2011-01-01

    Space competition between corals and seaweeds is an important ecological process underlying coral-reef dynamics. Processes promoting seaweed growth and survival, such as herbivore overfishing and eutrophication, can lead to local reef degradation. Here, we present the case that increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may be an additional process driving a shift from corals to seaweeds on reefs. Coral (Acropora intermedia) mortality in contact with a common coral-reef seaweed (Lobophora papenfussii) increased two- to threefold between background CO2 (400 ppm) and highest level projected for late 21st century (1140 ppm). The strong interaction between CO2 and seaweeds on coral mortality was most likely attributable to a chemical competitive mechanism, as control corals with algal mimics showed no mortality. Our results suggest that coral (Acropora) reefs may become increasingly susceptible to seaweed proliferation under ocean acidification, and processes regulating algal abundance (e.g. herbivory) will play an increasingly important role in maintaining coral abundance. PMID:21155961

  9. 土壤CO2浓度的动态观测、模拟和应用%Dynamic observation, simulation and application of soil CO2 concentration: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛浩; 罗莎; 周萍; 李腾毅; 王娟; 李洁

    2012-01-01

    Soil CO2 concentration is the consequences of biological activities in above- and below-ground , and its fluctuation may significantly affect the future atmospheric CO2 concentration and the projected climate change. This paper reviewed the methodologies for measuring the soil CO2 concentration in situ as well as their advantages and disadvantages, analyzed the variation patterns and controlling factors of soil CO2 concentration across the temporal ( diurnal, several days, seasonal and inter-annual) and spatial ( soil profile, site and landscape) scales, introduced the primary empirical and mechanical models for estimating and predicting soil CO2 concentration, and summarized the applications and constraints of soil CO2 concentration gradient in determining soil respiration. Four research priorities were proposed, i. e. , to develop new techniques for collecting and determining the soil CO2 in severe soil conditions (e. g. , flooding, lithoso and others) , to approach the responses of soil CO2 concentration to weather change and related regulation mechanisms, to strengthen the researches on the spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 concentration, and to expand the applications of soil CO2 concentration gradient in the measurement of tropical-subtropical soil respiration.%土壤CO2浓度不仅是地上、地下生物活动的反映,其变化对未来大气CO2浓度和气候变化也有重要影响.本文综述了国内外土壤CO2浓度的原位测定方法及其优缺点,分析了不同时(昼夜、几天、季节、年际)空(剖面、立地、景观)尺度上土壤CO2浓度的变化规律和影响因素,概括了现有土壤CO2浓度的模拟模型和发展态势,并总结了土壤CO2浓度梯度法在土壤呼吸研究中的应用和限制因素.最后展望了未来有待研究的4个领域:1)研发适于恶劣土壤环境(如淹水、石质土)的土壤CO2气体采集、测定技术;2)探讨土壤CO2浓度对天气变化的响应及其调控机理;3)加强土壤CO

  10. Cross-Linking Amine-Rich Compounds into High Performing Selective CO2 Absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Enrico; Dillon, Eoghan P.; Cullum, Laurie; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Barron, Andrew R.

    2014-12-01

    Amine-based absorbents play a central role in CO2 sequestration and utilization. Amines react selectively with CO2, but a drawback is the unproductive weight of solvent or support in the absorbent. Efforts have focused on metal organic frameworks (MOFs) reaching extremely high CO2 capacity, but limited selectivity to N2 and CH4, and decreased uptake at higher temperatures. A desirable system would have selectivity (cf. amine) and high capacity (cf. MOF), but also increased adsorption at higher temperatures. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept where polyethyleneimine (PEI) is converted to a high capacity and highly selective CO2 absorbent using buckminsterfullerene (C60) as a cross-linker. PEI-C60 (CO2 absorption of 0.14 g/g at 0.1 bar/90°C) is compared to one of the best MOFs, Mg-MOF-74 (0.06 g/g at 0.1 bar/90°C), and does not absorb any measurable amount of CH4 at 50 bar. Thus, PEI-C60 can perform better than MOFs in the sweetening of natural gas.

  11. Study on Recycling CO2 with Li4 SiO4 at High Temperatures%掺杂Li4SiO4材料的CO2吸附研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕国强; 阳书文; 马文会; 王华; 于洁

    2009-01-01

    Recycling and utilizing CO2 is very important significance to realizing energy saving and emission reduction. Lithium silicate (Li4SiO4) absorbents for CO2 were prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction. Thermodynamic equilibrium of Li4SiO4 absorp-tion CO2was discussed using the HSC5.0 code. The capability of Li4SiO4 for absorption CO2 was investigated using the thermobalance instrument. The crystal structure and surface morphologies of the Li4SiO4were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction, SEM. The results showed: the absorption reaction is fast in the temperature range 600~720 ℃, the maximum absorption rate (w) was 29.16% ; and the desorption reaction began in 750 ℃, then Li4SiO4 is regenerated. The concentrations of CO2 obviously affect on the absorption speed and the maximum absorption rate; but the flow rate of CO2 little influences the absorption capability.

  12. Production of Chlorella vulgaris as a source of essential fatty acids in a tubular photobioreactor continuously fed with air enriched with CO2 at different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Montoya, Erika Y; Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce CO2 emissions and simultaneously produce biomass rich in essential fatty acids, Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211 was continuously grown in a tubular photobioreactor using air alone or air enriched with CO2 as the sole carbon source. While on one hand, nitrogen-limited conditions strongly affected biomass growth, conversely, they almost doubled its lipid fraction. Under these conditions using air enriched with 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16% (v/v) CO2 , the maximum biomass concentration was 1.4, 5.8, 6.6, 6.8, and 6.4 gDB L(-1) on a dry basis, the CO2 consumption rate 62, 380, 391, 433, and 430 mgCO2 L(-1) day(-1) , and the lipid productivity 3.7, 23.7, 24.8, 29.5, and 24.4 mg L(-1) day(-1) , respectively. C. vulgaris was able to grow effectively using CO2 -enriched air, but its chlorophyll a (3.0-3.5 g 100gDB (-1) ), chlorophyll b (2.6-3.0 g 100gDB (-1) ), and lipid contents (10.7-12.0 g 100gDB (-1) ) were not significantly influenced by the presence of CO2 in the air. Most of the fatty acids in C. vulgaris biomass were of the saturated series, mainly myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids, but a portion of no less than 45% consisted of unsaturated fatty acids, and about 80% of these were high added-value essential fatty acids belonging to the ω3 and ω6 series. These results highlight that C. vulgaris biomass could be of great importance for human health when used as food additive or for functional food production.

  13. Effects of CO2 Concentration on Leaf Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance of Potatoes Grown Under Different Irradiance Levels and Photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Russet Burbank, Denali, and Norland, were grown in environmental rooms controlled at approx 350 micro mol/mol (ambient during years 1987/1988) and 1000 micro mol/mol (enriched) CO2 concentrations. Plants and electric lamps were arranged to provide two irradiance zones, 400 and 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and studies were repeated using two photoperiods (12-h light / 12-h dark and continuous light). Leaf photosynthetic rates and leaf stomatal conductance were measured using fully expanded, upper canopy leaves at weekly intervals throughout growth (21 through 84 days after transplanting). Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod increased leaf photosynthetic rates by 39% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 27% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under continuous light decreased leaf photosynthetic rates by 7% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 13% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod plants decreased stomatal conductance by an average of 26% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 42% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Under continuous light, CO2 enrichment resulted in a small increase (2%) of stomatal conductance at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF, and a small decrease (3%) at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Results indicate that CO2 enrichment under the 12-h photoperiod showed the expected increase in photosynthesis and decrease in stomatal conductance for a C3 species like potato, but the decreases in leaf photosynthetic rates and minimal effect on conductance from CO2 enrichment under continuous light were not expected. The plant leaves under continuous light showed more chlorosis and some rusty flecking versus plants under the 12-h photoperiod, suggesting the continuous light was more stressful on the plants. The increased

  14. Spatial and seasonal variabilities of the stable carbon isotope composition of soil CO2 concentration and flux in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liyin L.; Riveros-Iregui, Diego A.; Risk, David A.

    2016-09-01

    Biogeochemical processes driving the spatial variability of soil CO2 production and flux are well studied, but little is known about the variability in the spatial distribution of the stable carbon isotopes that make up soil CO2, particularly in complex terrain. Spatial differences in stable isotopes of soil CO2 could indicate fundamental differences in isotopic fractionation at the landscape level and may be useful to inform modeling of carbon cycling over large areas. We measured the spatial and seasonal variabilities of the δ13C of soil CO2 (δS) and the δ13C of soil CO2 flux (δP) in a subalpine forest ecosystem located in the Rocky Mountains of Montana. We found consistently more isotopically depleted values of δS and δP in low and wet areas of the landscape relative to steep and dry areas. Our results suggest that the spatial patterns of δS and δP are strongly mediated by soil water and soil respiration rate. More interestingly, our analysis revealed different temporal trends in δP across the landscape; in high landscape positions δP became more positive, whereas in low landscape positions δP became more negative with time. These trends might be the result of differential dynamics in the seasonality of soil moisture and its effects on soil CO2 production and flux. Our results suggest concomitant yet independent effects of water on physical (soil gas diffusivity) and biological (photosynthetic discrimination) processes that mediate δS and δP and are important when evaluating the δ13C of CO2 exchanged between soils and the atmosphere in complex terrain.

  15. Effect of Saturated CO2 on Corrosion Behavior of 13Cr Pipe Steel in High Chloride Environment%高氯环境中饱和CO2对13Cr油管钢腐蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷冰; 马元泰; 李瑛; 王福会; 常泽亮; 谢俊峰; 宋文文; 周理志

    2013-01-01

    The effect of saturated CO2 on corrosion behavior of 13Cr pipe steel in high concentration chloride environment was studied by EIS, polarization test, EN test and SEM. The results indicated that the corrosion rate and corrosion probability of 13Cr pipe steel were accelerated in high chloride environment with the presence of saturated CO2. The 13Cr pipe steel suffered from pitting corrosion in high chloride concentration environment, whilst, from uniform corrosion by the synergistic effect of Cl and CO2. The stability of the passive film of 13Cr pipe steel decreased in high concentration chloride environment with saturated CO2, which can be explained by the dehydroxylation of the outer part of the passive film by carbonic acid and the increase of ionic conductivity of the passive film in aqueous electrolytes.%采用电化学阻抗(EIS)、极化曲线、电化学噪声(EN)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)研究了高氯环境中饱和CO2对13Cr油管钢腐蚀行为的影响.结果表明:饱和CO2加速材料的腐蚀,增大了腐蚀的发生频率,使材料的腐蚀由点蚀转变为均匀腐蚀.碳酸对钝化膜的去羟基化作用和增大钝化膜的导通率,是材料腐蚀行为变化的原因.

  16. Phenotypic plasticity of coralline algae in a High CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzola, Federica; Foster, Laura C; Form, Armin U; Büscher, Janina; Hansteen, Thor H; Fietzke, Jan

    2013-09-01

    It is important to understand how marine calcifying organisms may acclimatize to ocean acidification to assess their survival over the coming century. We cultured the cold water coralline algae, Lithothamnion glaciale, under elevated pCO2 (408, 566, 770, and 1024 μatm) for 10 months. The results show that the cell (inter and intra) wall thickness is maintained, but there is a reduction in growth rate (linear extension) at all elevated pCO2. Furthermore a decrease in Mg content at the two highest CO2 treatments was observed. Comparison between our data and that at 3 months from the same long-term experiment shows that the acclimation differs over time since at 3 months, the samples cultured under high pCO2 showed a reduction in the cell (inter and intra) wall thickness but a maintained growth rate. This suggests a reallocation of the energy budget between 3 and 10 months and highlights the high degree plasticity that is present. This might provide a selective advantage in future high CO2 world.

  17. Changing Amazon biomass and the role of atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Castanho, Andrea D.; Galbraith, David; Zhang, Ke; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Moorcroft, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon tropical evergreen forest is an important component of the global carbon budget. Its forest floristic composition, structure, and function are sensitive to changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and land use. In this study biomass and productivity simulated by three dynamic global vegetation models (Integrated Biosphere Simulator, Ecosystem Demography Biosphere Model, and Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) for the period 1970-2008 are compared with observations from forest plots (Rede Amazónica de Inventarios Forestales). The spatial variability in biomass and productivity simulated by the DGVMs is low in comparison to the field observations in part because of poor representation of the heterogeneity of vegetation traits within the models. We find that over the last four decades the CO2 fertilization effect dominates a long-term increase in simulated biomass in undisturbed Amazonian forests, while land use change in the south and southeastern Amazonia dominates a reduction in Amazon aboveground biomass, of similar magnitude to the CO2 biomass gain. Climate extremes exert a strong effect on the observed biomass on short time scales, but the models are incapable of reproducing the observed impacts of extreme drought on forest biomass. We find that future improvements in the accuracy of DGVM predictions will require improved representation of four key elements: (1) spatially variable plant traits, (2) soil and nutrients mediated processes, (3) extreme event mortality, and (4) sensitivity to climatic variability. Finally, continued long-term observations and ecosystem-scale experiments (e.g. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiments) are essential for a better understanding of the changing dynamics of tropical forests.

  18. Changing Amazon biomass and the role of atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Castanho, Andrea D.; Galbraith, David; Zhang, Ke; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Moorcroft, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon tropical evergreen forest is an important component of the global carbon budget. Its forest floristic composition, structure, and function are sensitive to changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and land use. In this study biomass and productivity simulated by three dynamic global vegetation models (Integrated Biosphere Simulator, Ecosystem Demography Biosphere Model, and Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) for the period 1970-2008 are compared with observations from forest plots (Rede Amazónica de Inventarios Forestales). The spatial variability in biomass and productivity simulated by the DGVMs is low in comparison to the field observations in part because of poor representation of the heterogeneity of vegetation traits within the models. We find that over the last four decades the CO2 fertilization effect dominates a long-term increase in simulated biomass in undisturbed Amazonian forests, while land use change in the south and southeastern Amazonia dominates a reduction in Amazon aboveground biomass, of similar magnitude to the CO2 biomass gain. Climate extremes exert a strong effect on the observed biomass on short time scales, but the models are incapable of reproducing the observed impacts of extreme drought on forest biomass. We find that future improvements in the accuracy of DGVM predictions will require improved representation of four key elements: (1) spatially variable plant traits, (2) soil and nutrients mediated processes, (3) extreme event mortality, and (4) sensitivity to climatic variability. Finally, continued long-term observations and ecosystem-scale experiments (e.g. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiments) are essential for a better understanding of the changing dynamics of tropical forests.

  19. Large-scale European source and flow patterns retrieved from back-trajectory interpretations of CO2 at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The University of Bern monitors carbon dioxide (CO2 and oxygen (O2 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch since the year 2000 by means of flasks sampling and since 2005 using a continuous in situ measurement system. This study investigates the transport of CO2 and O2 towards Jungfraujoch using backward trajectories to classify the air masses with respect to their CO2 and O2 signatures. By investigating trajectories associated with distinct CO2 concentrations it is possible to decipher different source and sink areas over Europe. The highest CO2 concentrations, for example, were observed in winter during pollution episodes when air was transported from Northeastern Europe towards the Alps, or during south Foehn events with rapid uplift of polluted air from Northern Italy, as demonstrated in two case studies. To study the importance of air-sea exchange for variations in O2 concentrations at Jungfraujoch the correlation between CO2 and APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen deviations from a seasonally varying background was analyzed. Anomalously high APO concentrations were clearly associated with air masses originating from the Atlantic Ocean, whereas low APO concentrations were found in air masses advected either from the east from the Eurasian continent in summer, or from the Eastern Mediterranean in winter. Those air masses with low APO in summer were also strongly depleted in CO2 suggesting a combination of CO2 uptake by vegetation and O2 uptake by dry summer soils. Other clusters of points in the APO–CO2 scatter plot investigated with respect to air mass origin included CO2 and APO background values and points with regular APO but anomalous CO2 concentrations. Background values were associated with free tropospheric air masses with little contact with the boundary layer during the last few days, while high or low CO2 concentrations reflect the various levels of influence of anthropogenic emissions and the biosphere. The pronounced

  20. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  1. Silicate minerals for CO2 scavenging from biogas in Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E F; Ferrer, Ivet; Weijma, Jan; van Lier, Jules B

    2013-07-01

    Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) is a novel concept that integrates gas upgrading with anaerobic digestion by selective dissolution of CO2 at elevated biogas pressure. However, accumulation of CO2 and fatty acids after anaerobic digestion of glucose resulted in pH 3-5, which is incompatible with the commonly applied high-rate methanogenic processes. Therefore, we studied the use of wollastonite, olivine and anorthosite, with measured composition of CaSi1.05O3.4, Mg2Fe0.2Ni0.01Si1.2O5.3 and Na0.7Ca1K0.1Mg0.1Fe0.15Al3.1Si4O24, respectively, to scavenge CO2 during batch AHPD of glucose. Depending on the glucose to mineral ratio the pH increased to 6.0-7.5. Experiments with wollastonite showed that Ca(2+)-leaching was caused by volatile fatty acid (VFA) production during glucose digestion. At 1, 3 and 9 bar, the CH4 content reached 74%, 86% and 88%, respectively, indicating CO2 scavenging. Fixation of produced CO2 by CaCO3 precipitation in the sludge was confirmed by Fourier Transferred-InfraRed, Combined Field emission Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis-Mass Spectroscopy.

  2. An Innovative Configuration for CO2 Capture by