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Sample records for high chunk-strength negatively

  1. Large area negative ion source for high voltage neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    A source of negative deuterium ions in the multi-ampere range is described that is readily extrapolated to reactor size, 10 amp or more of neutral beam, that is of interest in future experiments and reactors. The negative ion source is based upon the double charge exchange process. A beam of positive ions is created and accelerated to an energy at which the attachment process D + M → D - + M + proceeds efficiently. The positive ions are atomically neutralized either in D 2 or in the charge exchange medium M. Atomic species make a second charge exchange collision in the charge target to form D - . For a sufficiently thick target, the beam reaches an equilibrium fraction of negative ions. For reasons of efficiency, the target is typically alkali metal vapor; this experiment uses sodium. The beam of negative ions can be accelerated to high (>200 keV) energy, the electrons stripped from the ions, and a high energy neutral beam formed

  2. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  3. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  4. Spray-coatable negative photoresist for high topography MEMS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Markus; Haas, Sven; Schwenzer, Falk; Schwenzer, Gunther; Reuter, Danny; Geßner, Thomas; Voigt, Anja; Gruetzner, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    In microsystem technology, the lithographical processing of substrates with a topography is very important. Interconnecting lines, which are routed over sloped topography sidewalls from the top of the protecting wafer to the contact pads of the device wafer, are one example of patterning over a topography. For structuring such circuit paths, a photolithography process, and therefore a process for homogeneous photoresist coating, is required. The most flexible and advantageous way of depositing a homogeneous photoresist film over structures with high topography steps is spray-coating. As a pattern transfer process for circuit paths in cavities, the lift-off process is widely used. A negative resist, like ma-N (MRT) or AZnLOF (AZ) is favoured for lift-off processes due to the existing negative angle of the sidewalls. Only a few sprayable negative photoresists are commercially available. In this paper, the development of a novel negative resist spray-coating based on a commercially available single-layer lift-off resist for spin-coating, especially for the patterning of structures inside the cavity and on the cavity wall, is presented. A variety of parameters influences the spray-coating process, and therefore the patterning results. Besides the spray-coating tool and the parameters, the composition of the resist solution itself also influences the coating results. For homogeneous resist coverage over the topography of the substrate, different solvent combinations for diluting the resist solution, different chuck temperatures during the coating process, and also the softbake conditions, are all investigated. The solvent formulations and the process conditions are optimized with respect to the homogeneity of the resist coverage on the top edge of the cavities. Finally, the developed spray-coating process, the resist material and the process stability are demonstrated by the following applications: (i) lift-off, (ii) electroplating, (iii) the wet and (iv) the dry

  5. Empathy costs: Negative emotional bias in high empathisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikovani, George; Babuadze, Lasha; Iashvili, Nino; Gvalia, Tamar; Surguladze, Simon

    2015-09-30

    Excessive empathy has been associated with compassion fatigue in health professionals and caregivers. We investigated an effect of empathy on emotion processing in 137 healthy individuals of both sexes. We tested a hypothesis that high empathy may underlie increased sensitivity to negative emotion recognition which may interact with gender. Facial emotion stimuli comprised happy, angry, fearful, and sad faces presented at different intensities (mild and prototypical) and different durations (500ms and 2000ms). The parameters of emotion processing were represented by discrimination accuracy, response bias and reaction time. We found that higher empathy was associated with better recognition of all emotions. We also demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with response bias towards sad and fearful faces. The reaction time analysis revealed that higher empathy in females was associated with faster (compared with males) recognition of mildly sad faces of brief duration. We conclude that although empathic abilities were providing for advantages in recognition of all facial emotional expressions, the bias towards emotional negativity may potentially carry a risk for empathic distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  7. High-brightness negative-hydrogen linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.; Farrell, J.A.; Dogliani, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed a linear accelerator to accelerate negative hydrogen ions to 50 MeV with an instantaneous output current of 100 mA and a normalized rms emittance in both transverse planes of 0.02 π cm mrad. The design and results obtained to date with a 2-MeV prototype are presented

  8. High intensity negative proton beams from a SNICS ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.R.; Hollander, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    For the past year we have been involved in a project to develop an intense (> 100μA) negative proton beam from a SNICS (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) ion source. This report will cover how we accomplished and exceeded this goal by more than 40%. Included in these observations will be the following: A description of an effective method for making titanium hydride cathodes. How to overcome the limitations of the titanium hydride cathode. The modification of the SNICS source to improve output; including the installation of the conical ionizer and the gas cathode. A discussion of problems including: poisoning the proton beam with oxygen, alternative gas cathode materials, the clogging of the gas inlet, long burn-in times, and limited cathode life times. Finally, how to optimize source performance when using a gas cathode, and what is the mechanism by which a gas cathode operates; facts, fantasies, or myth

  9. Long-wavelength negative mass instabilities in high current betatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.; Hughes, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Growth rates of negative mass instabilities in conventional and modified betatrons are calculated by analytic methods and by performing three-dimensional particle simulations. In contrast to earlier work, toroidal corrections to the field equations are included in the analytic model. As a result, good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained. The simulations show that the nonlinear development of the instabilities can seriously disrupt the beam

  10. High and low dimensions in the black hole negative mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asnin, Vadim; Gorbonos, Dan; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak; Levi, Michele; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2007-01-01

    The negative mode of the Schwarzschild black hole is central to Euclidean quantum gravity around hot flat space and for the Gregory-Laflamme black string instability. We analyze the eigenvalue as a function of spacetime dimension λ = λ(d) by constructing two perturbative expansions: one for large d and the other for small d - 3, and determining as many coefficients as we are able to compute analytically. By joining the two expansions, we obtain an interpolating rational function accurate to better than 2% through the whole range of dimensions including d = 4

  11. High current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H., E-mail: Hrh-Etoh@shi.co.jp; Aoki, Y.; Mitsubori, H.; Arakawa, Y.; Sakuraba, J.; Kato, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Hiasa, T.; Yajima, S. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Onai, M.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okumura, Y. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In Cs-free operation, continuous H{sup −} beam of 10 mA and D{sup −} beam of 3.3 mA were obtained stably at an arc-discharge power of 3 kW and 2.4 kW, respectively. In Cs-seeded operation, H{sup −} beam current reached 22 mA at a lower arc power of 2.6 kW with less co-extracted electron current. The optimum gas flow rate, which gives the highest H{sup −} current, was 15 sccm in the Cs-free operation, while it decreased to 4 sccm in the Cs-seeded operation. The relationship between H{sup −} production and the design/operating parameters has been also investigated by a numerical study with KEIO-MARC code, which gives a reasonable explanation to the experimental results of the H{sup −} current dependence on the arc power.

  12. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  13. The role of high Rydberg states in the generation of negative ions in negative-ion discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of substantial yields of H - ions in a laser excited H 2 gas has been reported by Pinnaduwage and Christoforu. These H - yields have been attributed to (2 + 1) REMP photoexcitation processes leading to dissociative attachment of doubly-excited or superexcited states (SES), or dissociative attachment of high Rydberg product states. The new feature of these experiments is the implied large dissociative attachment rates, of order 10 -6 cm 3 sec -1 , values that are orders-of-magnitude larger than the dissociative attachment of the vibrationally excited levels of the ground electronic state. While these laser excitations are not directly applicable to a hydrogen negative-ion discharge, the implication of large dissociative attachment rates to the high Rydberg states may affect both the total negative-ion density and the interpretation of discharge performance. Within the discharge energetic electrons will collisionally excite the higher Rydberg states, and the relative contribution of the dissociative attachment of these states when compared with the dissociative attachment to the ground state vibrational levels, is the topic of this paper

  14. Producing high-quality negatives from ERTS black-and-white transparancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Myhre

    1973-01-01

    A method has been devised for producing high-quality black-and-white negatives quickly and efficiently from dense transparencies orgininating from Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery. Transparencies are evaluated on a standard light source to determine exposure and processing information needed for making negatives. A “System ASA Rating” was developed by...

  15. Auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia: topographic evaluation with a high-density recording montage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayasu, Y; Potts, G F; O'Donnell, B F; Kwon, J S; Arakaki, H; Akdag, S J; Levitt, J J; Shenton, M E; McCarley, R W

    1998-09-01

    The mismatch negativity, a negative component in the auditory event-related potential, is thought to index automatic processes involved in sensory or echoic memory. The authors' goal in this study was to examine the topography of auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia with a high-density, 64-channel recording montage. Mismatch negativity topography was evaluated in 23 right-handed male patients with schizophrenia who were receiving medication and in 23 nonschizophrenic comparison subjects who were matched in age, handedness, and parental socioeconomic status. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to measure psychiatric symptoms. Mismatch negativity amplitude was reduced in the patients with schizophrenia. They showed a greater left-less-than-right asymmetry than comparison subjects at homotopic electrode pairs near the parietotemporal junction. There were correlations between mismatch negativity amplitude and hallucinations at left frontal electrodes and between mismatch negativity amplitude and passive-apathetic social withdrawal at left and right frontal electrodes. Mismatch negativity was reduced in schizophrenia, especially in the left hemisphere. This finding is consistent with abnormalities of primary or adjacent auditory cortex involved in auditory sensory or echoic memory.

  16. Development of the negative ion source at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Akira [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    On formation of direct high frequency chopped negative hydrogen ion beam from surface forming type negative hydrogen ion source, incident acceleration due to proton synchrotron was tried for a forming experiment and its application. By overlapping a high frequency pulse onto a bias DC voltage of convertor electrode, control of formation of negative hydrogen ion with high speed RF pulse of 2 MHz could be realized. And, incidence into 12 GeV proton accelerator to catch RF particles with waiting bucket system due to booster synchrotron, was effective for control of longitudinal emittance in the booster synchrotron. As a result, controls of the beam width and shape emitted from the booster synchrotron were possible. On application of high speed chopped negative hydrogen ion beam to accelerator, improvement of beam capture efficiency to the accelerated RF bucket, control of longitudinal emittance of accelerated beam, beam measurement at incidence into the accelerator and so forth were conducted. In this paper, results of the high speed chopped beam formation experiment using surface plasma forming type negative ion source and application of high speed beam chopping method synchronized with high frequency pulse at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics are described. (G.K.)

  17. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  18. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1997-01-01

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H - current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm 2 . The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H - current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  19. A high-efficiency positive (negative) surface ionization source for radioactive ion beam (abstract)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ≡5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ≡1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing considerably the efficiency for negative surface ionization of atoms and molecules with intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the Holifield radioactive beam facility. The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Measurement of the dechanneling length for high-energy negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandale, W.; Losito, R.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Della Mea, G.; Vallazza, E.; Afonin, A.G.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Denisov, A.S.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the dechanneling length of 150 GeV/cπ − interacting with a short bent silicon crystal. Dechanneling length measures the rate and the strength of incoherent interactions of channeled particles in a crystal. The mechanism of dechanneling of negatively charged particles has been elucidated through simulation and experiment. It was found that the dechanneling length for negative particles is comparable to the nuclear dechanneling length for positive charges. Indeed, dechanneling of negative particles occurs as a result of incoherent interactions with the nuclei because the trajectories of such particles always intersect atomic planes, explaining the lower channeling efficiency for such particles. Obtained results can be useful for the design of crystals for manipulating high-energy negative particle beams through channeling

  1. High false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian patients on regular hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Assem; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Aboelfotoh, Atef; Abdelkarim, Magdy; Saied Mohammad, Abdel-Gawad; Abdallah, Abdallah Mahmoud; Mostafa, Sadek; Elmestikawy, Amr; Elwassief, Ahmed; Salah, Mohamed; Abdelbaseer, Mohamed Ali; Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin

    2012-07-01

    Routine serological testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among hemodialysis (HD) patients is currently recommended. A dilemma existed on the value of serology because some investigators reported a high rate of false-negative serologic testing. In this study, we aimed to detect the false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian HD patients. Seventy-eight HD patients, negative for anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and hepatitis B surface antigen, were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the next step, the viral load was quantified by real-time PCR in RT-PCR-positive patients. Risk factors for HCV infection, as well as clinical and biochemical indicators of liver disease, were compared between false-negative and true-negative anti-HCV HD patients. The frequency of false-negative anti-HCV was 17.9%. Frequency of blood transfusion, duration of HD, dialysis at multiple centers, and diabetes mellitus were not identified as risk factors for HCV infection. The frequency of false-negative results had a linear relation to the prevalence of HCV infection in the HD units. Timely identification of HCV within dialysis units is needed in order to lower the risk of HCV spread within the HD units. The high false-negative rate of anti-HCV among HD patients in our study justifies testing of a large scale of patients for precious assessment of effectiveness of nucleic acid amplification technology testing in screening HD patient. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. The Coordination of calculation and experimental procedures in the determination of high-negative reactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinegin, A.A.; Tsyganov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Usually three sources of information about the value of inserted negative reactivity (ρ) are used: dynamical experiment with reactimeters, solution of conventionally critical problems, and dynamical calculation of the process of reactivity insertion with the reactimer model. Each of them gives they own estimation of ρ. The discrepancy between these estimation could be significant, particularly noticeable in dissymmetric insertion of perturbation. The paper discusses origin of problems of estimation high negative reactivity with reactivity meter. Authors believe that correct method of high negative reactivity estimation have to include three dimensional dynamic core model for taking to account spatial effect. Moreover, some special process, such a removal of delayed neutron emitters, change in the fraction of delayed neutrons, inner source etc. (Authors)

  3. The coordination of calculation and experimental procedures in the determination of high-negative reactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinegin, A.A.; Tsyganov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Usually three sources of information about the value of inserted negative reactivity (ρ) are used: dynamical experiment with reactimeters, solution of conventionally critical problems, and dynamical calculation of the process of reactivity insertion with the reactimeter model. Each of them gives they own estimation of ρ. The discrepancy between these estimations could be significant, particularly noticeable in dissymmetric insertion of perturbation. Origin of problems of estimation high negative reactivity is discussed using the reactivity meter. A correct method of high negative reactivity estimation have to include three dimensional dinamic core model for taking to account spatial effect. Moreover, some special processes, such as removal of delayed neutron emitters, change in the fraction of delayed neutrons, inner sources are considered etc. (author)

  4. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and results. In this prospective observational study, patients were classied into categories of infection, namely denite, probable and possible. Of 76 neonates, 1 had denite infection, 5 probable infection, 30 possible infection, and 32 no infection. .e neutrophil CD64 index at a cut-o. value of 1.8 had a high negative ...

  5. Risk score predicts high-grade prostate cancer in DNA-methylation positive, histopathologically negative biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Partin, Alan W; Stewart, Grant D; Epstein, Jonathan I; Harrison, David J; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is challenging because efforts for effective, timely treatment of men with significant cancer typically result in over-diagnosis and repeat biopsies. The presence or absence of epigenetic aberrations, more specifically DNA-methylation of GSTP1, RASSF1, and APC in histopathologically negative prostate core biopsies has resulted in an increased negative predictive value (NPV) of ∼90% and thus could lead to a reduction of unnecessary repeat biopsies. Here, it is investigated whether, in methylation-positive men, DNA-methylation intensities could help to identify those men harboring high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) PCa, resulting in an improved positive predictive value. Two cohorts, consisting of men with histopathologically negative index biopsies, followed by a positive or negative repeat biopsy, were combined. EpiScore, a methylation intensity algorithm was developed in methylation-positive men, using area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic as metric for performance. Next, a risk score was developed combining EpiScore with traditional clinical risk factors to further improve the identification of high-grade (Gleason Score ≥7) cancer. Compared to other risk factors, detection of DNA-methylation in histopathologically negative biopsies was the most significant and important predictor of high-grade cancer, resulting in a NPV of 96%. In methylation-positive men, EpiScore was significantly higher for those with high-grade cancer detected upon repeat biopsy, compared to those with either no or low-grade cancer. The risk score resulted in further improvement of patient risk stratification and was a significantly better predictor compared to currently used metrics as PSA and the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) risk calculator (RC). A decision curve analysis indicated strong clinical utility for the risk score as decision-making tool for repeat biopsy. Low DNA-methylation levels in PCa-negative biopsies led

  6. Management of High-Voltage Burns of the Hand and Wrist with Negative Pressure Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Gümüş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Negative pressure dressing stimulates wound healing by promoting cellular proliferation and regeneration. It also removes interstitial edema and increases local blood flow, resulting in rapid growth of the granulation tissue. We used the dressing method in deep hand and wrist burns caused by high-voltage electrical current, which leads to progressive tissue necrosis, elevated compartment pressure, and deep tissue edema, to reveal if subatmospheric pressure could limit the zone of injury or ongoing tissue necrosis after electrical burn. Material and Methods: Six hands of five patients, who came in contact with high-voltage electrical wire carrying more than 1000 volts, are presented in this study. Hands and wrists were seriously injured and contracted. After the initial treatment involving fluid resuscitation, fasciotomy, carpal tunnel release, and debridement, a negative pressure dressing was applied to the wounds of hand, wrist, and forearm with 125 mm Hg continuous pressure, and maintained for 20 days. Results: When negative pressure dressing was stopped on the 20th day, significant granulation tissue developed over the hand and forearm wounds. However, wrist wounds needed more debridement and repeated dressings because of the presence of necrosis. Edema of the hands subsided significantly during the use of negative pressure dressing. Time to closure for hand and forearm wounds decreased considerably. Moreover, in one wrist, spontaneous closure was achieved at about one month. All hands except one treated with negative pressure dressing could be saved from amputation; however, significant tissue loss developed, needing complex reconstruction procedures. One hand was amputated because of the permanent loss of blood perfusion. Conclusion: The management of high-voltage burns of hand and wrist with subatmospheric pressure appears to be capable of reducing hand edema and accelerating closure of the wounds. It seems that negative

  7. Time-resolved measurements of highly-polymerised negative ions in rf silane plasma deposition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howling, A.A.; Sansonnens, L.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.

    1993-07-01

    The time-resolved fluxes of negative polysilicon hydride ions from a power-modulated rf silane plasma have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry and modeled using a simple polymerisation scheme. Experiments were performed with plasma parameters suitable for high-quality amorphous silicon deposition. Polysilicon hydride anions diffuse from the plasma with low energy (approximately 0.5 eV) during the afterglow after the electron density has decayed and the sheath fields have collapsed. The mass-dependence of the temporal behavior of the anion loss flux demonstrates that the plasma composition is influenced by the modulation frequency. The negative species attain much higher masses than the positive or neutral species, and anions containing as many as sixteen silicon atoms have been observed, corresponding to the 500 amu limit of the mass spectrometer. This suggests that negative ions could be the precursors to particle formation. Ion-molecule and ion-ion reactions are discussed and a simple negative ion polymerisation scheme is proposed which qualitatively reproduces the experimental results. The model shows that the densities of high mass negative ions in the plasma are strongly reduced by modulation frequencies near 1 kHz. Each plasma period is then too short for the polymerisation chain to propagate to high masses before the elementary anions are lost in each subsequent afterglow period. This explains why modulation of the rf power can reduce particle contamination. We conclude that, for the case of silane rf plasmas, the initiation steps which ultimately lead to particle contamination proceed by negative ion polymerisation. (author) 15 figs., 72 refs

  8. A Langmuir probe system for high power RF-driven negative ion sources on high potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, P; Christ-Koch, S; Fantz, U; Dudin, S V

    2009-01-01

    A fully automated Langmuir probe system capable of operating simultaneously with beam extraction has been developed and commissioned for the negative hydrogen ion source testbeds at IPP Garching. It allows the measurement of temporal and spatial distributions of the plasma parameters within a single plasma pulse ( 10 18 m -3 ) and hot (T e > 10 eV) plasma with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures. The plasma found near the plasma grid is very different being of low density (≤10 17 m -3 ) and very cold (T e < 2 eV). This plasma is also strongly influenced by the presence of caesium, the potential of the plasma grid, and if an ion beam is extracted from the source. Caesium strongly reduces the plasma potential of the source and enhances the negative ion density near the plasma grid. Extracting an ion beam is observed to reduce the electron density and increase the potential near the plasma grid. Applying a potential greater than the plasma potential to the plasma grid is found to significantly decrease the electron density near the plasma grid.

  9. Investigations of a new, highly negative liposome with improved biodistribution for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Clancy, B.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive feature of liposomes is the wide range of lipid composition that can lead to liposome formation, coupled with the observation that liposome biodistribution may be altered by varying lipid composition. For instance, adding charged lipids to neutral lecithin will alter the biodistribution of the resulting charged liposomes. We have prepared highly negative liposomes by replacing lecithin with negatively charged cardiolipin. The liposomes have been labeled in the lipid phase with Ga-67 and Tc-99m oxine and their properties evaluated. The expected high negative charge of the resulting liposomes was confirmed by an ion-exchange chromatographic technique. Using paper chromatography, the stability of the label was determined during incubation in saline and serum. Finally, biodistributions were determined at 2 h in mice, and the results compared with those for negative lecithin liposomes. Accumulated activities in liver and spleen were reduced by factors of five and 20, respectively, over lecithin liposomes. Since preferential accumulation of activity in these organs constitutes the biggest limitation to the use of lecithin liposomes, cardiolipin liposomes may prove to be more useful carriers of radioactivity in imaging applications. More importantly, however, these results illustrate the value of studying novel liposome types as potential radiopharmaceuticals

  10. Negative-feedback control system of the high voltage power supply for ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Tonghai; Liu Baohua; Jiang Shufang

    2001-01-01

    A kind of high accuracy negative high voltage power supply (HVPS) was introduced. The serial feedback was regulated according to the character of the high power tetrode and a new kind of integrator with preset value, which solved the key technological problem of the HVPS that the ECRH system required a voltage of -80 kV, a pulse width of 10 - 100 ms and a precision of 99.7%. The result using a PSPICE code simulation has shown that the method is practical

  11. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  12. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High-negative effective refractive index of silver nanoparticles system in nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, Konstantin K.; Gadomsky, Oleg N.

    2012-03-01

    We have proved on the basis of the experimental optical reflection and transmission spectra of the nanocomposite film of poly(methyl methacrylate) with silver nanoparticles that (PMMA + Ag) nanocomposite films have quasi-zero refractive indices in the optical wavelength range. We show that to achieve quasi-zero values of the complex index of refraction of composite materials is necessary to achieve high-negative effective refractive index in the system of spherical silver nanoparticles.

  14. Current Sharing inside a High Power IGBT Module at the Negative Temperature Coefficient Operating Region

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084596; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Bongiorno, M; Thiringer, T

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the current sharing effect of a high power Soft Punch Through IGBT module in the Negative Temperature Coefficient region. The unbalanced current sharing between two of the substrates is demonstrated for different current and temperature levels and its impact on the thermal stressing of the device is evaluated. The results indicate that the current asymmetry does not lead to a significant thermal stressing unbalance between the substrates.

  15. Negative binomial multiplicity distributions, a new empirical law for high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hove, L.; Giovannini, A.

    1987-01-01

    For a variety of high energy hadron production reactions, recent experiments have confirmed the findings of the UA5 Collaboration that charged particle multiplicities in central (pseudo) rapidity intervals and in full phase space obey negative binomial (NB) distributions. The authors discuss the meaning of this new empirical law on the basis of new data and they show that they support the interpretation of the NB distributions in terms of a cascading mechanism of hardron production

  16. A digital controlled negative high voltage power source for LINAC of HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Chen Jun; Hong Jun; Wang Weibing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the working principle of a 10-80 kV negative high voltage power source for the electronic gun of the 200 MeV LINAC of NSRL, especially how to realize the switch power, voltage/current sampling, feedback control and microcontroller module. The firmware design for the SOC microcontroller of ADuC8xx and the application software design for PC are also presented. (authors)

  17. Introducing Bayesian thinking to high-throughput screening for false-negative rate estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Qian, Hong; Rowan, Karen; Mark, David; Peng, Zhengwei; Huang, Kuo-Sen

    2013-10-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has been widely used to identify active compounds (hits) that bind to biological targets. Because of cost concerns, the comprehensive screening of millions of compounds is typically conducted without replication. Real hits that fail to exhibit measurable activity in the primary screen due to random experimental errors will be lost as false-negatives. Conceivably, the projected false-negative rate is a parameter that reflects screening quality. Furthermore, it can be used to guide the selection of optimal numbers of compounds for hit confirmation. Therefore, a method that predicts false-negative rates from the primary screening data is extremely valuable. In this article, we describe the implementation of a pilot screen on a representative fraction (1%) of the screening library in order to obtain information about assay variability as well as a preliminary hit activity distribution profile. Using this training data set, we then developed an algorithm based on Bayesian logic and Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the number of true active compounds and potential missed hits from the full library screen. We have applied this strategy to five screening projects. The results demonstrate that this method produces useful predictions on the numbers of false negatives.

  18. A comprehensive iterative approach is highly effective in diagnosing individuals who are exome negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashi, Vandana; Schoch, Kelly; Spillmann, Rebecca; Cope, Heidi; Tan, Queenie K-G; Walley, Nicole; Pena, Loren; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Stong, Nicholas; Need, Anna C; Goldstein, David B

    2018-06-15

    Sixty to seventy-five percent of individuals with rare and undiagnosed phenotypes remain undiagnosed after exome sequencing (ES). With standard ES reanalysis resolving 10-15% of the ES negatives, further approaches are necessary to maximize diagnoses in these individuals. In 38 ES negative patients an individualized genomic-phenotypic approach was employed utilizing (1) phenotyping; (2) reanalyses of FASTQ files, with innovative bioinformatics; (3) targeted molecular testing; (4) genome sequencing (GS); and (5) conferring of clinical diagnoses when pathognomonic clinical findings occurred. Certain and highly likely diagnoses were made in 18/38 (47%) individuals, including identifying two new developmental disorders. The majority of diagnoses (>70%) were due to our bioinformatics, phenotyping, and targeted testing identifying variants that were undetected or not prioritized on prior ES. GS diagnosed 3/18 individuals with structural variants not amenable to ES. Additionally, tentative diagnoses were made in 3 (8%), and in 5 individuals (13%) candidate genes were identified. Overall, diagnoses/potential leads were identified in 26/38 (68%). Our comprehensive approach to ES negatives maximizes the ES and clinical data for both diagnoses and candidate gene identification, without GS in the majority. This iterative approach is cost-effective and is pertinent to the current conundrum of ES negatives.

  19. Prototype high current, high duty factor negative hydrogen ion source for LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Hayward, T.D.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Present plans for the high current proton storage ring at LAMPF incorporate charge changing (stripping) injection of H - ions in all modes of operation. Achievable stored current levels in this device will be strongly dependent on the maximum H - beam intensity which can be accelerated by the linac, consistent with acceptable beam spill. This requirement has stimulated a program to develop an H - ion source capable of providing a suitably high peak current (up to 25 mA) at high duty factor (up to 12 percent), with a normalized x,x' or y,y' emittance acceptable to the accelerating system. There are presently two main approaches which could lead to H - ion sources providing this kind of performance. These are (a) the charge exchange method, in which an intense proton beam is fractionally converted to H - beam in a suitable charge adding medium, and (b) the direct extraction method, in which H - ions are obtained by a surface emission process associated with a gas discharge plasma. While both approaches may eventually find optimum application in different situations, it is not obvious, at present, which scheme will turn out to be the most satisfactory for LAMPF. A prototype charge exchange H - ion source has been constructed as a first step in the development program and is presently being evaluated. Work on surface emission direct extraction techniques is in the planning stages. (U.S.)

  20. Review on α-Fe2O3 based negative electrode for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, V. D.; Arul, N. Sabari

    2016-09-01

    Supercapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device which has drawn attention of the researchers in recent years due to its high power density and long cycle life. Recently, an enormous effort has been imposed to improve the energy density of supercapacitor and might be attained through asymmetric cell configuration that offer wider potential window. Until now, a significant advancement has been achieved in the fabrication of positive electrodes for asymmetric cell. Nevertheless, the electrochemical performance of negative electrode materials is less explored, especially Hematite (α-Fe2O3). The α-Fe2O3 has been proved to be a promising negative electrode in supercapacitor application due to its wide operating potential, high redox activity, low cost, abundant availability and eco-friendliness. In this review, we have chosen α-Fe2O3 as the negative electrode and discussed its latest research progress with emphasis on various surface engineering synthesis strategies such as, carbon, polymer, metal-metal oxide, and ternary based α-Fe2O3 composites for supercapacitor. Besides, the importance of their synergistic effects over the supercapacitive performance in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, cycling life and rate capability are highlighted. Also, an extensive analysis of the literature about its symmetric/asymmetric cell performance is explored.

  1. Latent negative self-schema and high emotionality in well adolescents at risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, R G; Goodyer, I M; Teasdale, J D; Brechin, D

    1999-09-01

    Teasdale's (1988) differential activation hypothesis proposes that a tendency for negative mood to activate latent negative self-schemas characterises people at risk for depression. The current study tested predictions from this hypothesis in a community sample of 102 adolescents who were free from history of psychiatric illness, and who were subdivided according to level of emotionality, a temperamental style as assessed by parental questionnaire. A musical mood induction task was used to induce temporary mild dysphoria, and the effect of mood induction on self-schemas was assessed. There was no difference between high and low emotionality groups in the liability to sad mood induction. However, adolescents with high emotionality endorsed significantly more negative self-descriptors after dysphoric, but not after neutral, mood induction. This was not accounted for by level of self-reported depressive symptoms over the previous week. This suggests that a " dysphoric mood induction challenge" may provide important information about vulnerability to depression that is not identified by routine self-report of mood or cognitions.

  2. A single high dose of escitalopram increases mismatch negativity without affecting processing negativity or P300 amplitude in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienberg, M; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jensen, K S

    2009-01-01

    processing. The present study was designed to replicate and further extent the results of our initial study on the effects of a low dose of escitalopram (10 mg) on MMN, PN and P300 amplitude. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 20 healthy male volunteers received either a single, orally...... administered dose of 15 mg escitalopram (a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) or placebo, after which their PN, MMN and P300 amplitude were assessed. Similar to our initial study with 10 mg escitalopram, 15 mg escitalopram significantly increased MMN, while it did not affect P300 amplitude....... In contrast to our initial study, however, the currently higher dose of escitalopram did not increase PN. Results support the view that a broad range of increased serotonergic activity enhances MMN, while the relationship between serotonin and PN seems more complex. The current study does not support...

  3. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  4. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based NBI in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar- and/or Ne-gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in the LHD plasmas heated with the high-energy negative-ion-based NBI. Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is much enhanced effectively in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionisation) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive Ne- and/or Ar-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with the wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density, and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with an addition of the centrally focused ECRH to the low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with the high-energy NBI heating indicate that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to the ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature would be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planed in near future in LHD. (author)

  5. High-Level Synthesis of DSP Applications Using Adaptive Negative Cycle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Chandrachoodan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of detecting negative weight cycles in a graph is examined in the context of the dynamic graph structures that arise in the process of high level synthesis (HLS. The concept of adaptive negative cycle detection is introduced, in which a graph changes over time and negative cycle detection needs to be done periodically, but not necessarily after every individual change. We present an algorithm for this problem, based on a novel extension of the well-known Bellman-Ford algorithm that allows us to adapt existing cycle information to the modified graph, and show by experiments that our algorithm significantly outperforms previous incremental approaches for dynamic graphs. In terms of applications, the adaptive technique leads to a very fast implementation of Lawlers algorithm for the computation of the maximum cycle mean (MCM of a graph, especially for a certain form of sparse graph. Such sparseness often occurs in practical circuits and systems, as demonstrated, for example, by the ISCAS 89/93 benchmarks. The application of the adaptive technique to design-space exploration (synthesis is also demonstrated by developing automated search techniques for scheduling iterative data-flow graphs.

  6. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clinical impact on patients' stratification and outcome. Methods: Specimens were obtained from RMS patients and cell lines, and ALK expression was analysed by quantitative RT–PCR, western blotting, IHC, and copy number analysis. Results: High ALK mRNA expression was detected in the vast majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours, whereas PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS displayed considerably lower amounts of both mRNA and protein. Notably, ALK mRNA distinguished unfavourable PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours from PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS (Ptumour size (PALK mRNA levels were of prognostic relevance by Cox univariate regression analysis and correlated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.001) and survival (P=0.01), whereas by multivariate analysis elevated ALK mRNA expression resulted a negative prognostic marker when clinical stage was not included. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of ALK mRNA expression helps to improve risk stratification of RMS patients and identifies tumours with adverse biological characteristics and aggressive behaviour. PMID:24149177

  7. Petunia × hybrida floral scent production is negatively affected by high-temperature growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cna'ani, Alon; Mühlemann, Joelle K; Ravid, Jasmin; Masci, Tania; Klempien, Antje; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Dudareva, Natalia; Pichersky, Eran; Vainstein, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing temperatures due to changing global climate are interfering with plant-pollinator mutualism, an interaction facilitated mainly by floral colour and scent. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that increasing ambient temperature leads to a decrease in phenylpropanoid-based floral scent production in two Petunia × hybrida varieties, P720 and Blue Spark, acclimated at 22/16 or 28/22 °C (day/night). This decrease could be attributed to down-regulation of scent-related structural gene expression from both phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways, and up-regulation of a negative regulator of scent production, emission of benzenoids V (EOBV). To test whether the negative effect of increased temperature on scent production can be reduced in flowers with enhanced metabolic flow in the phenylpropanoid pathway, we analysed floral volatile production by transgenic 'Blue Spark' plants overexpressing CaMV 35S-driven Arabidopsis thaliana production of anthocyanin pigments 1 (PAP1) under elevated versus standard temperature conditions. Flowers of 35S:PAP1 transgenic plants produced the same or even higher levels of volatiles when exposed to a long-term high-temperature regime. This phenotype was also evident when analysing relevant gene expression as inferred from sequencing the transcriptome of 35S:PAP1 transgenic flowers under the two temperature regimes. Thus, up-regulation of transcription might negate the adverse effects of temperature on scent production. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The negative influence of high-glucose ambience on neurogenesis in developing quail embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is defined as glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it is presented as high blood glucose levels during the onset pregnancy. This condition has an adverse impact on fetal development but the mechanism involved is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on the developing quail embryo, especially its impact on the development of the nervous system. We established that high glucose altered the central nervous system mophologically, such that neural tube defects (NTDs developed. In addition, we found that high glucose impaired nerve differentiation at dorsal root ganglia and in the developing limb buds, as revealed by neurofilament (NF immunofluorescent staining. The dorsal root ganglia are normally derived from neural crest cells (NCCs, so we examine the delamination of NCCs from dorsal side of the neural tube. We established that high glucose was detrimental to the NCCs, in vivo and in vitro. High glucose also negatively affected neural differentiation by reducing the number and length of neurites emanating from neurons in culture. We established that high glucose exposure caused an increase in reactive oxidative species (ROS generation by primary cultured neurons. We hypothesized that excess ROS was the factor responsible for impairing neuron development and differentiation. We provided evidence for our hypothesis by showing that the addition of vitamin C (a powerful antioxidant could rescue the damaging effects of high glucose on cultured neurons.

  9. Demonstration of high performance negative central magnetic shear discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Burrell, K.H.; Lao, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reliable operation of discharges with negative central magnetic shear has led to significant increases in plasma performance and reactivity in both low confinement, L-mode, and high confinement, H-mode, regimes in the DIII-D tokamak. Using neutral beam injection early in the initial current ramp, a large range of negative shear discharges have been produced with durations lasting up to 3.2 s. The total non- inductive current (beam plus bootstrap) ranges from 50% to 80% in these discharges. In the region of shear reversal, significant peaking of the toroidal rotation [f φ ∼ 30-60 kHz] and ion temperature [T i (0) ∼ 15-22 keV] profiles are observed. In high power discharges with an L-mode edge, peaked density profiles are also observed. Confinement enhancement factors up to H ≡ τ E /τ ITER-89P ∼ 2.5 with an L-mode edge, and H ∼ 3.3 in an Edge Localized Mode (ELM)-free H-mode, are obtained. Transport analysis shows both ion thermal diffusivity and particle diffusivity to be near or below standard neoclassical values in the core. Large pressure peaking in L- mode leads to high disruptivity with Β N ≡ Β T /(I/aB) ≤ 2.3, while broader pressure profiles in H- mode gives low disruptivity with Β N ≤ 4.2

  10. Adaptive control strategy for ECRH negative high-voltage power supply based on CMAC neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaoping; Du Pengying; Du Shaowu

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the negative high-voltage power supply in an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system can not satisfy the requirements because of the nonlinearity and sensitivity, the direct inverse model control strategy was proposed by using cerebellar model articulation controller(CMAC) for better control, and experiments were carried out to study the system performances with CMAC tracing dynamic signals. The results show that this strategy is strong in self-learning and self-adaptation and easy to be realized. (authors)

  11. Mobile natural gas leak surveys indicate that two utilities have high false negative rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischer, J. C.; Brewer, P. E.; Chamberlain, S.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the distribution systems that carry natural gas to consumers, leaks need to be discovered for safety reasons and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, few utilities have adopted newer laser-based technologies that have greater sensitivity and precision, and instead rely on "industry standard" equipment that is far less sensitive. In partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund and Google, we mapped natural gas leaks in the domains of two anonymous utilities (Utility "A" and "B") using high sensitivity Picarro methane analyzers in Google Street View Cars. Surprisingly, when we shared these results with utilities, their survey crews were unable to find most of the leaks that our survey indicated (84% in A and 80% in B). To investigate this phenomenon, our team visited a subset of the leaks in each utility domain (n=32 in A and n=30 in B), and worked alongside utility surveyors to search the leak indication area, using a Los Gatos Research ultraportable methane analyzer to pinpoint leak locations. We found evidence of natural gas leaks at 69% and 68% of the locations in Utilities A and B respectively where survey crews had found nothing. We describe this as a "false negative" rate for the utility because the utility survey falsely indicated that there was no leak at these locations. Of these false negatives, 7% (n=2 of 32 in A, n=2 of 30 in B) were determined to be Grade 1 leaks requiring immediate repair due to high safety risk. Instrument sensitivity appears to explain some of the false negative rates. In particular, use of some industry standard equipment appears to have created a false sense of confidence among utility surveyors that leaks were not present. However, there was also evidence of communication failures and that surveyors did not use optimal approaches in their search. Based on these findings, we suggest that: 1) mobile deployment of high-precision methane analyzers can help find more natural gas leaks, and 2) use of some hand-held survey

  12. Disordered carbon negative electrode for electrochemical capacitors and high-rate batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yoshiyuki; Kamakura, Ayumu; Naoi, Katsuhiko; Kusachi, Yuki; Utsugi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the properties of high-rate capability and cycleability for a disordered carbon negative electrode in LiPF 6 /PC based electrolyte solution, the cell performance tests with various rates and depth of discharges (DODs) has been studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. From the charge-discharge measurements, a surface carbon-edge redox reaction occurring between a carbonyl (C edge =O) and a lithium alkoxide (C edge -OLi) that delivers a large capacity was found fast and high cycleability at only shallow DOD (2.0-0.4 V). The limited or shallow charge-discharge cycling utilizing such facile and reversible action of the C edge =O/C edge -OLi of the disordered carbon is suited to an application for an negative electrode of asymmetric hybrid capacitors. A deep DOD discharge (2.0-0.0 V) revealed the existence of some complex processes involving a lithium cluster deposition at pores or microvoids as well as a lithium ion intercalation at graphene layers. The cluster deposition at pores was found to be relatively fast and reproducible. The lithium ion intercalation at graphenes and the subsequent cluster deposition at microvoids were found to be slow and degrade the cycleability after 100 cycles because of the accumulation of a thick and low-ion-conductive solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on surface

  13. A High-Intensity, RF Plasma-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Lohwasser, R.; Reed, C.A.; Zhang, T.

    1999-01-01

    A high-intensity, plasma-sputter negative-ion source based on the use of RF power for plasma generation has been developed that can be operated in either pulsed or dc modes. The source utilizes a high-Q, self-igniting, inductively coupled antenna system, operating at 80 MHz that has been optimized to generate Cs-seeded plasmas at low pressures (typically, - (610 microA); F - (100 microA); Si - (500 microA); S - (500 microA); P - (125 microA); Cl - (200 microA); Ni - (150 microA); Cu - (230 microA); Ge - (125 microA); As - (100 microA); Se - (200 microA); Ag - (70 microA); Pt - (125 microA); Au - (250 microA). The normalized emittance var e psilon n of the source at the 80% contour is: var e psilon n = 7.5 mm.mrad.(MeV) 1/2 . The design principles of the source, operational parameters, ion optics, emittance and intensities for a number of negative-ion species will be presented in this report

  14. Recent progress of high-power negative ion beam development for fusion plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Aoyagi, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; and others

    1997-03-01

    A negative-ion-based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) has been constructed for JT-60U. The N-NBI is designed to inject 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beams using two ion sources, each producing a 500 keV, 22 A D{sup -} ion beam. Beam acceleration test started in July, 1995 using one ion source. In the preliminary experiment, D{sup -} ion beam of 13.5 A has been successfully accelerated with an energy of 400 keV (5.4 MW) for 0.12 s at an operating pressure of 0.22 Pa. This is the highest D{sup -} beam current and power in the world. Co-extracted electron current was effectively suppressed to the ratio of Ie/I{sub D}- <1. The highest energy beam of 460 keV, 2.4 A, 0.44 s has also been obtained. Neutral beam injection starts in March, 1996 using two ion sources. To realize 1 MeV class NBI system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), demonstration of ampere class negative ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV is an important mile stone. To achieve the mile stone, a high energy test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF) was constructed. The system consists of a 1 MV, 1 A acceleration power supply and a 100 kW power supply system for negative ion production. Up to now, an H{sup -} ion beam was accelerated up to the energy of 805 keV with an acceleration drain current of 150 mA for 1 s in a five stage electrostatic multi-aperture accelerator. (author)

  15. Radiation propagation in random media: From positive to negative correlations in high-frequency fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    We survey research on radiation propagation or ballistic particle motion through media with randomly variable material density, and we investigate the topic with an emphasis on very high spatial frequencies. Our new results are based on a specific variability model consisting of a zero-mean Gaussian scaling noise riding on a constant value that is large enough with respect to the amplitude of the noise to yield overwhelmingly non-negative density. We first generalize known results about sub-exponential transmission from regular functions, which are almost everywhere continuous, to merely 'measurable' ones, which are almost everywhere discontinuous (akin to statistically stationary noises), with positively correlated fluctuations. We then use the generalized measure-theoretic formulation to address negatively correlated stochastic media without leaving the framework of conventional (continuum-limit) transport theory. We thus resolve a controversy about recent claims that only discrete-point process approaches can accommodate negative correlations, i.e., anti-clustering of the material particles. We obtain in this case the predicted super-exponential behavior, but it is rather weak. Physically, and much like the alternative discrete-point process approach, the new model applies most naturally to scales commensurate with the inter-particle distance in the material, i.e., when the notion of particle density breaks down due to Poissonian-or maybe not-so-Poissonian-number-count fluctuations occur in the sample volume. At the same time, the noisy structure must prevail up to scales commensurate with the mean-free-path to be of practical significance. Possible applications are discussed.

  16. False-negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin in molar pregnancy: " The high-dose hook effect" !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Narendra Datti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency situations can have important consequences. These include missing of ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of first-trimester pregnancy-related maternal death, administration of medications contraindicated in pregnancy, fetal radiation exposure, and medico legal problems. This in turn has led to the dictum to check for pregnancy in all women of child-bearing age group. Urine pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] test is the commonly used test to rule out pregnancy and has been reported by Griffey et al. in their study to achieve 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity in a clinical setting, resulting in a positive predictive value of 98.3% and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. However, the sensitivity is influenced not only by the quantity of β hCG but on its variants that vary with different weeks of pregnancy. β hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. In spite of its high sensitivity, in the presence of molar pregnancy that is associated with very high levels of β hCG it fails to detect the antigen (β hCG. This is explained by the phenomenon known as "high-dose hook effect" which further leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This can be overcome by dilution of the sample. In such cases, diagnosis will be made by serum β hCG and ultrasound (USG. Here, we present a case of gravida 2 para 1 living 1 with 2΍ months amenorrhea with bleeding p/v and pain abdomen of 20 days duration whose urine β hCG was repeatedly negative and diagnosis was made by serum β hCG and USG.

  17. MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy: role for diffusion tensor imaging in high field MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Lui, Su; Li, Chun-Xiao; Jiang, Li-Jun; Ou-Yang, Luo; Tang, He-Han; Shang, Hui-Fang; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Gong, Qi-Yong; Zhou, Dong

    2008-07-01

    Our aim is to use the high field MR scanner (3T) to verify whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could help in locating the epileptogenic zone in patients with MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy. Fifteen patients with refractory partial epilepsy who had normal conventional MRI, and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. DTI was performed on a 3T MR scanner, individual maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated, and Voxel-Based Analysis (VBA) was performed for individual comparison between patients and controls. Voxel-based analysis revealed significant MD increase in variant regions in 13 patients. The electroclinical seizure localization was concurred to seven patients. No patient exhibited regions of significant decreased MD. Regions of significant reduced FA were observed in five patients, with two of these concurring with electroclinical seizure localization. Two patients had regions of significant increase in FA, which were distinct from electroclinical seizure localization. Our study's results revealed that DTI is a responsive neuroradiologic technique that provides information about the epileptogenic areas in patients with MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy. This technique may also helpful in pre-surgical evaluation.

  18. High mobility group protein DSP1 negatively regulates HSP70 transcription in Crassostrea hongkongensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zongyu; Xu, Delin; Cui, Miao; Zhang, Qizhong, E-mail: zhangqzdr@126.com

    2016-06-10

    HSP70 acts mostly as a molecular chaperone and plays important roles in facilitating the folding of nascent peptides as well as the refolding or degradation of the denatured proteins. Under stressed conditions, the expression level of HSP70 is upregulated significantly and rapidly, as is known to be achieved by various regulatory factors controlling the transcriptional level. In this study, a high mobility group protein DSP1 was identified by DNA-affinity purification from the nuclear extracts of Crassostrea hongkongensis using the ChHSP70 promoter as a bait. The specific interaction between the prokaryotically expressed ChDSP1 and the FITC-labeled ChHSP70 promoter was confirmed by EMSA analysis. ChDSP1 was shown to negatively regulate ChHSP70 promoter expression by Luciferase Reporter Assay in the heterologous HEK293T cells. Both ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were induced by either thermal or CdCl{sub 2} stress, while the accumulated expression peaks of ChDSP1 were always slightly delayed when compared with that of ChHSP70. This indicates that ChDSP1 is involved, very likely to exert its suppressive role, in the recovery of the ChHSP70 expression from the induced level to its original state. This study is the first to report negative regulator of HSP70 gene transcription, and provides novel insights into the mechanisms controlling heat shock protein expression. -- Highlights: •HMG protein ChDSP1 shows affinity to ChHSP70 promoter in Crassostrea hongkongensis. •ChDSP1 negatively regulates ChHSP70 transcription. •ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were coordinately induced by thermal/Cd stress. •ChDSP1 may contribute to the recovery of the induced ChHSP70 to its original state. •This is the first report regarding negative regulator of HSP70 transcription.

  19. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Panniculectomy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Complications Wounds; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy; Wound Healing Delayed; Incisional; Panniculectomy; Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy; Incisional Vac; Wound Vac; Obese; Renal Failure; Kidney Transplant; Complications; Wound Healing Complication

  20. Sarcopenia Is Negatively Related to High Gravitational Impacts Achieved From Day-to-day Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, April; Gregson, Celia L; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Clark, Emma M; Tobias, Jon H

    2018-04-17

    Sarcopenia has been associated with reduced physical activity (PA). We aimed to determine if sarcopenia, and specific components of muscle size, function, and physical performance, are associated with high impacts achieved during habitual PA, as these are related to bone strength in community-dwelling older women. Participants were older women from the Cohort of Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon. We defined sarcopenia using the EWGSOP criteria. Lower limb peak muscle power and force were assessed using Jumping Mechanography (JM). High vertical impacts were assessed by tri-axial accelerometry (at least 1.5g above gravity). Cross-sectional associations were analyzed by linear regression, adjusting for age, height and weight (or fat mass for models including appendicular lean mass index), comorbidities, smoking, alcohol, and Index of Multiple Deprivation. Our analyses included 380 participants, with mean age 76.7 (SD 3.0) years; 242 (64%) also completed JM. In age-adjusted analysis, a negative relationship was observed between severity of sarcopenia and high, but not medium or low, impacts (p = .03 for trend). Regarding components of sarcopenia underlying this relationship, multivariable analyses revealed that gait speed (β 1.47 [95% CI 1.14, 1.89], [β-1] reflects the proportionate increase in high impacts per SD increase in exposure) and peak force (1.40 [1.07, 1.84]) were independently associated with high impacts. Older women with sarcopenia experienced fewer bone-strengthening high impacts than those with presarcopenia or without sarcopenia. To increase bone strengthening activity in older women, interventions need to improve both lower limb muscle force and walking speed.

  1. High heat flux (HHF) elements for negative ion systems on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, J.; Chuilon, B.; Xue, Y.; Martin, D.; Waldon, C.

    2007-01-01

    Negative Ion Neutral Beam systems on ITER will require actively cooled scrapers and dumps to process and shape the beam before injection into the tokamak. The scale of the systems is much larger than any presently operating, bringing challenges for designers in terms of available sub cooling, total pressure drop, deflection and mandatory remote maintenance. High heat fluxes (∼15-20 MW/m 2 ), pulse lengths in excess of 3000 s and high number of cycles pose new challenges in terms of stress and fatigue life. The designs outlined in the Design Description Document for the ITER Neutral Beam System [N53 DDD 29 01-07-03 R 0.1. ITER Design Description Document, DDD 5.3, Neutral Beam H and CD system (including Appendices).], based on swirl tubes, have been reviewed as part of the design process and recommendations made. Additionally, alternative designs have been proposed based on the Hypervapotron high heat flux elements with modified geometry and drawing upon a vast background knowledge of large scale equipment procurement and integration. A full thermo-mechanical analysis of all HHF components has also been undertaken based on ITER design criteria and the limited material data available. The advantages and disadvantages of all designs are presented and recommendations for improvements discussed

  2. Highly adaptable triple-negative breast cancer cells as a functional model for testing anticancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance.

  3. The positive bystander effect: passive bystanders increase helping in situations with high expected negative consequences for the helper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the interplay between the presence of a passive bystander (not present versus present) in a simulated bike theft and expected negative consequences (low versus high) in predicting intervention behavior when no physical victim is present. It was found that an additional bystander increases individual intervention in situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper in case of intervention were high (i.e., when the bike thief looks fierce) compared to situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper were low (i.e., when the bike thief does not look fierce). In contrast, no such effect for high vs. low expected negative consequences was observed when no additional bystander observed the critical situation. The results are discussed in light of previous laboratory findings on expected negative consequences and bystander intervention.

  4. The blues broaden, but the nasty narrows: attentional consequences of negative affects low and high in motivational intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-02-01

    Positive and negative affects high in motivational intensity cause a narrowing of attentional focus. In contrast, positive affects low in motivational intensity cause a broadening of attentional focus. The attentional consequences of negative affects low in motivational intensity have not been experimentally investigated. Experiment 1 compared the attentional consequences of negative affect low in motivational intensity (sadness) relative to a neutral affective state. Results indicated that low-motivation negative affect caused attentional broadening. Experiment 2 found that disgust, a high-motivation negative affect not previously investigated in attentional studies, narrowed attentional focus. These experiments support the conceptual model linking high-motivation affective states to narrowed attention and low-motivation affective states to broadened attention.

  5. A study on negative and depressive symptom prevalence in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Marleine; Pruessner, Marita; Baer, Lawrence H; Iyer, Srividya; Malla, Ashok K; Lepage, Martin

    2016-09-21

    Negative symptoms are known to be present in the prodromal stage of psychotic disorders, yet little is known about their prevalence. Studies examining the presence of negative symptoms in ultra-high risk (UHR) populations have shown some limitations, notably failing to control depression. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of negative symptoms in the presence of significant levels of depression and in the absence of such symptoms (primary negative symptoms) over 1 year and to examine differences in negative symptoms in psychosis converters and non-converters. Participants were 123 individuals at UHR for the development of psychosis receiving follow-up for a period of 2 years. Negative symptoms and depression were measured using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale at baseline, 6 and 12 months post-admission. At baseline, the prevalence of negative symptoms and primary negative symptoms was 76.4% and 32.7%, respectively. Whereas the prevalence of negative symptoms was significantly decreased at 6 months, the prevalence of primary negative symptoms was similar at all time points. Negative symptoms at baseline were not different between later converters and non-converters to psychosis. Our findings confirm the presence of secondary and primary negative symptoms in individuals at UHR, but suggest a differential trajectory of both measures over time. Future studies should include larger UHR groups and focus on the investigation of intra-individual changes in primary negative symptoms over time and further explore their potential role for psychosis conversion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. The influence of organizational culture on negative work-home interference among highly educated employees in the hospitality industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Sok, J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    An issue which has recently come to the fore in studies conducted among hospitality industry employees is the effect of negative work-home interference on the turnover of highly educated employees. This article examines the role of organizational culture with regard to negative work-home

  7. Nuclear Kaiso expression is associated with high grade and triple-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available Kaiso is a BTB/POZ transcription factor that is ubiquitously expressed in multiple cell types and functions as a transcriptional repressor and activator. Little is known about Kaiso expression and localization in breast cancer. Here, we have related pathological features and molecular subtypes to Kaiso expression in 477 cases of human invasive breast cancer. Nuclear Kaiso was predominantly found in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC (p = 0.007, while cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was linked to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC (p = 0.006. Although cytoplasmic Kaiso did not correlate to clinicopathological features, we found a significant correlation between nuclear Kaiso, high histological grade (p = 0.023, ERα negativity (p = 0.001, and the HER2-driven and basal/triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.018. Interestingly, nuclear Kaiso was also abundant in BRCA1-associated breast cancer (p<0.001 and invasive breast cancer overexpressing EGFR (p = 0.019. We observed a correlation between nuclear Kaiso and membrane-localized E-cadherin and p120-catenin (p120 (p<0.01. In contrast, cytoplasmic p120 strongly correlated with loss of E-cadherin and low nuclear Kaiso (p = 0.005. We could confirm these findings in human ILC cells and cell lines derived from conditional mouse models of ILC. Moreover, we present functional data that substantiate a mechanism whereby E-cadherin controls p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent gene repression. In conclusion, our data indicate that nuclear Kaiso is common in clinically aggressive ductal breast cancer, while cytoplasmic Kaiso and a p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent transcriptional repression characterize ILC.

  8. Highly efficient bioinspired molecular Ru water oxidation catalysts with negatively charged backbone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Li, Fusheng; Li, Fei; Sun, Licheng

    2015-07-21

    The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the natural photosynthesis system II (PSII) oxidizes water to produce oxygen and reducing equivalents (protons and electrons). The oxygen released from PSII provides the oxygen source of our atmosphere; the reducing equivalents are used to reduce carbon dioxide to organic products, which support almost all organisms on the Earth planet. The first photosynthetic organisms able to split water were proposed to be cyanobacteria-like ones appearing ca. 2.5 billion years ago. Since then, nature has chosen a sustainable way by using solar energy to develop itself. Inspired by nature, human beings started to mimic the functions of the natural photosynthesis system and proposed the concept of artificial photosynthesis (AP) with the view to creating energy-sustainable societies and reducing the impact on the Earth environments. Water oxidation is a highly energy demanding reaction and essential to produce reducing equivalents for fuel production, and thereby effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) are required to catalyze water oxidation and reduce the energy loss. X-ray crystallographic studies on PSII have revealed that the OEC consists of a Mn4CaO5 cluster surrounded by oxygen rich ligands, such as oxyl, oxo, and carboxylate ligands. These negatively charged, oxygen rich ligands strongly stabilize the high valent states of the Mn cluster and play vital roles in effective water oxidation catalysis with low overpotential. This Account describes our endeavors to design effective Ru WOCs with low overpotential, large turnover number, and high turnover frequency by introducing negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate. Negatively charged ligands stabilized the high valent states of Ru catalysts, as evidenced by the low oxidation potentials. Meanwhile, the oxygen production rates of our Ru catalysts were improved dramatically as well. Thanks to the strong electron donation ability of carboxylate containing ligands, a seven

  9. A high-intensity plasma-sputter heavy negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mori, Y.; Takagi, A.; Ueno, A.; Fukumoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    A multicusp magnetic field plasma surface ion source, normally used for H/sup /minus//ion beam formation, has been modified for the generation of high-intensity, pulsed, heavy negative ion beams suitable for a variety of uses. To date, the source has been utilized to produce mA intensity pulsed beams of more than 24 species. A brief description of the source, and basic pulsed-mode operational data, (e.g., intensity versus cesium oven temperature, sputter probe voltage, and discharge pressure), are given. In addition, illustrative examples of intensity versus time and the mass distributions of ion beams extracted from a number of samples along with emittance data, are also presented. Preliminary results obtained during dc operation of the source under low discharge power conditions suggest that sources of this type may also be used to produce high-intensity (mA) dc beams. The results of these investigations are given, as well, and the technical issues that must be addressed for this mode of operation are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Confinement improvement in high-ion temperature plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Ikeda, K.

    2006-10-01

    The increase in the ion temperature due to transport improvement has been observed in plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI, in which electrons are dominantly heated, in Large Helical Device (LHD). When the centrally focused ECRH is superposed on the NBI plasma, the ion temperature is observed to rise, accompanied by formation of the electron-ITB. This is ascribed to the ion transport improvement with the transition to the neoclassical electron root with a positive radial electric field. In high-Z plasmas, the ion temperature is increased with an increase in the ion heating power, and reaches 13.5keV. The central ion temperature increases with an increase in a gradient of the electron temperature in an outer plasma region of ρ=0.8, suggesting the ion transport improvement in the outer plasma region induced by the neoclassical electron root. These results indicate the effectiveness of the electron-root scenario for obtaining high-ion temperature plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  11. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariko Fukushima

    Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  12. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  14. High-performance Negative Database for Massive Data Management System of The Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Congming; Wang, Feng; Deng, Hui; Liu, Yingbo; Liu, Cuiyin; Wei, Shoulin

    2017-08-01

    As a dedicated synthetic aperture radio interferometer in China, the MingantU SpEctral Radioheliograph (MUSER), initially known as the Chinese Spectral RadioHeliograph (CSRH), has entered the stage of routine observation. More than 23 million data records per day need to be effectively managed to provide high-performance data query and retrieval for scientific data reduction. In light of these massive amounts of data generated by the MUSER, in this paper, a novel data management technique called the negative database (ND) is proposed and used to implement a data management system for the MUSER. Based on the key-value database, the ND technique makes complete utilization of the complement set of observational data to derive the requisite information. Experimental results showed that the proposed ND can significantly reduce storage volume in comparison with a relational database management system (RDBMS). Even when considering the time needed to derive records that were absent, its overall performance, including querying and deriving the data of the ND, is comparable with that of a relational database management system (RDBMS). The ND technique effectively solves the problem of massive data storage for the MUSER and is a valuable reference for the massive data management required in next-generation telescopes.

  15. Stability of DIII-D high-performance, negative central shear discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. M.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J.; Clement, M.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Holcomb, C. T.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Luce, T. C.; Navratil, G. A.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Strait, E. J.; Turco, F.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Tokamak plasma experiments on the DIII-D device (Luxon et al 2005 Fusion Sci. Tech. 48 807) demonstrate high-performance, negative central shear (NCS) equilibria with enhanced stability when the minimum safety factor {{q}\\text{min}} exceeds 2, qualitatively confirming theoretical predictions of favorable stability in the NCS regime. The discharges exhibit good confinement with an L-mode enhancement factor H 89  =  2.5, and are ultimately limited by the ideal-wall external kink stability boundary as predicted by ideal MHD theory, as long as tearing mode (TM) locking events, resistive wall modes (RWMs), and internal kink modes are properly avoided or controlled. Although the discharges exhibit rotating TMs, locking events are avoided as long as a threshold minimum safety factor value {{q}\\text{min}}>2 is maintained. Fast timescale magnetic feedback control ameliorates RWM activity, expanding the stable operating space and allowing access to {β\\text{N}} values approaching the ideal-wall limit. Quickly growing and rotating instabilities consistent with internal kink mode dynamics are encountered when the ideal-wall limit is reached. The RWM events largely occur between the no- and ideal-wall pressure limits predicted by ideal MHD. However, evaluating kinetic contributions to the RWM dispersion relation results in a prediction of passive stability in this regime due to high plasma rotation. In addition, the ideal MHD stability analysis predicts that the ideal-wall limit can be further increased to {β\\text{N}}>4 by broadening the current profile. This path toward improved stability has the potential advantage of being compatible with the bootstrap-dominated equilibria envisioned for advanced tokamak (AT) fusion reactors.

  16. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, M.

    2012-01-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 x 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used...... to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field...... in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O-2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  17. High-capacity FeTiO3/C negative electrode for sodium-ion batteries with ultralong cycle life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changsheng; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika

    2018-06-01

    The development of electrode materials which improve both the energy density and cycle life is one of the most challenging issues facing the practical application of sodium-ion batteries today. In this work, FeTiO3/C nanoparticles are synthesized as negative electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance and charge-discharge mechanism of the FeTiO3/C negative electrode are investigated in an ionic liquid electrolyte at 90 °C. The FeTiO3/C negative electrode delivers a high reversible capacity of 403 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 10 mA g-1, and exhibits high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for up to 2000 cycles. The results indicate that FeTiO3/C is a promising negative electrode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  18. High resistance rate against 15 different antibiotics in aerobic gram-negative bacteria isolates of cardiology intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küçükates E

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic gram negative bacteria were isolated and examined microbiologically from various clinical samples of 602 patients hospitalized between January 1997 and December 2000 in surgical and coronary intensive care units (ICUs. A total of 827 isolates were obtained from 602 patients. The majority of microorganisms were isolated from the respiratory tract (50.3% and blood (39.9%. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated gram negative species (32.7%, followed by Acinetobacter spp. (24.0% and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.4%. High resistance rates to all antibiotics studied were observed. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics against gram negatives.

  19. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  20. High Heat flux (HHF) elements for Negative Ion Systems on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, J.; Chuilon, B.; Martin, D.; Waldon, Ch.; Yong Xue

    2006-01-01

    Negative Ion Neutral Beam systems on ITER will require actively cooled scrapers and dumps to process and shape the beam before injection into the tokamak. The scale of the systems is much larger than any presently operating, bringing challenges for designers in terms of available sub cooling, total pressure drop, deflection and mandatory remote maintenance. In common with Positive Ion systems, flux densities in the order of 15-20 MW/m 2 are commonplace but with much longer pulses. A pulse length in excess of 3000 seconds and the anticipated beam breakdown rate pose new challenges in terms of stress and fatigue life. The cooling system specification (up to 26 bar, 80 o C) adds further constraints impacting the material choice and operating temperature. The DDD designs, based on swirl tubes, have been reviewed as part of the design process and recommendations made. Additionally, alternative designs have been proposed based on the Hypervapotron high heat flux elements with modified geometry and drawing upon a vast background knowledge of large scale equipment procurement and integration. Existing operational and design experience has been applied to give a simple, robust and low maintenance alternative. A full thermomechanical analysis of all HHF components has been undertaken based on ITER design criteria and the limited material data available. The results of this analysis will be presented, highlighting areas where further R(and)D is necessary to reach the operating limits set out in the functional specification. Extensive comparison of these analyses is made with the large operational database of existing JET beamline components for benchmarking purposes. A particular feature of the thermo-mechanical analyses is a fully self-consistent description in which ageing characteristics are related to the local temperature, and the components' power loading takes into account the thermal distortion. The advantages and disadvantages of all designs will be presented and

  1. Female college students' negative feelings toward their fathers : Comparison of present feelings with recollections of their junior high school days

    OpenAIRE

    石丸, 綾子; Ishimaru, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    An adolescent daughter’s relationship with her father is strained owing to her negative feelings, such as opposition, defiant attitude, and hatred, toward father. However, further details regarding these feelings and how they evolve during a daughter’s growing years have not been examined yet. In this study, a questionnaire survey was administered to female college students, asking about their negative feelings toward their fathers in the present and during their junior high school days. The ...

  2. Preliminary psychometric properties of the brief Negative Symptom Scale in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Chapman, Hannah C

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) are reported in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants included 29 CHR youth who met criteria for a prodromal syndrome on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). The adapted BNSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, suggesting that the BNSS has utility for assessing negative symptoms in a CHR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes…

  4. High symmetry versus optical isotropy of a negative-index metamaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lliew, Rumen

    2010-01-01

    condition since it is usually assumed that light does not resolve the spatial details of MM but experiences the properties of an effective medium, which is then optically isotropic. In this work we challenge this assumption by analyzing the isofrequency surfaces of the dispersion relation of the split cube...... in carcass negative index MM. We show that this MM is basically optically isotropic but not in the spectral domain where it exhibits negative refraction. The primary goal of this contribution is to introduce a tool that allows to probe a MM against optical isotropy....

  5. The relationship of social function to depressive and negative symptoms in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, C M; Kimhy, D; Parrilla-Escobar, M A; Cressman, V L; Stanford, A D; Thompson, J; David, S Ben; Crumbley, A; Schobel, S; Moore, H; Malaspina, D

    2011-02-01

    Social dysfunction is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia which commonly precedes the onset of psychosis. It is unclear if social symptoms in clinical high-risk patients reflect depressive symptoms or are a manifestation of negative symptoms. We compared social function scores on the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report between 56 young people (aged 13-27 years) at clinical high risk for psychosis and 22 healthy controls. The cases were also assessed for depressive and 'prodromal' symptoms (subthreshold positive, negative, disorganized and general symptoms). Poor social function was related to both depressive and negative symptoms, as well as to disorganized and general symptoms. The symptoms were highly intercorrelated but linear regression analysis demonstrated that poor social function was primarily explained by negative symptoms within this cohort, particularly in ethnic minority patients. Although this study demonstrated a relationship between social dysfunction and depressive symptoms in clinical high-risk cases, this association was primarily explained by the relationship of each of these to negative symptoms. In individuals at heightened risk for psychosis, affective changes may be related to a progressive decrease in social interaction and loss of reinforcement of social behaviors. These findings have relevance for potential treatment strategies for social dysfunction in schizophrenia and its risk states and predict that antidepressant drugs, cognitive behavioral therapy and/or social skills training may be effective.

  6. Relaxation effects in ionic mobility and cluster formation: negative ions in SF6 at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez, A M; De Urquijo, J; Hinojosa, G; Hernandez-Avila, J L; Basurto, E

    2010-01-01

    The relaxation effects of the ionic mobility and the formation of negative-ion clusters in SF 6 are studied in this work. For this purpose, we have measured the mobility of negative ions in SF 6 over the pressure range 100-800 Torr at a fixed value of density-normalized electric field, E/N, of 20 Td (1 Townsend = 10 -17 V cm 2 ). The data obtained show a clear dependence of the negative-ion drift velocity on drift distance. It is observed that the drift velocity (mobility) reaches a steady-state value only for drift distances above 2 cm, over the studied pressure range. In addition to this, we have observed that the ionic mobility depends strongly on the gas pressure. An explanation of this dependence of the ionic mobility on gas pressure is given in terms of a negative-ion clustering formation process. It was found that the assumption of a linear dependence of the cluster ion mass on pressure provides a satisfactory explanation for the observed mobilities.

  7. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillin, I.V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bandiera, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders. (orig.)

  8. High energy particles with negative and positive energies in the vicinity of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that the energy in the centre of mass frame of two colliding particles in free fall at any point of the ergosphere of the rotating black hole can grow without limit for fixed energy values of particles on infinity. The effect takes place for large negative values of the angular momentum of one of the particles. It occurs that the geodesics with negative energy in equatorial plane of rotating black holes cannot originate or terminate inside the ergosphere. Their length is always finite and this leads to conclusion that they must originate and terminate inside the gravitational radius of the ergosphere. The energy in the centre of mass frame of one particle falling into the gravitational radius and the other arriving from the area inside it is growing without limit on the horizon.

  9. Rapid, highly sensitive detection of Gram-negative bacteria with lipopolysaccharide based disposable aptasensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Oueslati, Rania; Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang; Almeida, Raul; Wu, Jayne

    2018-07-30

    Gram-negative bacteria are one of the most common microorganisms in the environment. Their differential detection and recognition from Gram-positive bacteria has been attracting much attention over the years. Using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model, we demonstrated on-site detection of Gram-negative bacteria by an AC electrokinetics-based capacitive sensing method using commercial microelectrodes functionalized with an aptamer specific to lipopolysaccharides. Dielectrophoresis effect was utilized to enrich viable bacteria to the microelectrodes rapidly, achieving a detection limit of 10 2 cells/mL within a 30 s' response time. The sensor showed a negligible response to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a Gram-positive species. The developed sensor showed significant advantages in sensitivity, selectivity, cost, operation simplicity, and response time. Therefore, this sensing method has shown great application potential for environmental monitoring, food safety, and real-time diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of high energy electrons on H⁻ production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, M; Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Shibata, T; Mattei, S; Fujita, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H(-) production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H(-) extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  11. Therapeutic rationale to target highly expressed CDK7 conferring poor outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Chonghaile, Triona Ni; Fan, Yue; Madden, Stephen F.; Klinger, Rut; O'Connor, Aisling E.; Walsh, Louise; O'Hurley, Gillian; Udupi, Girish Mallya; Joseph, Jesuchristopher; Tarrant, Finbarr; Conroy, Emer; Gaber, Alexander; Chin, Suet-Feung; Bardwell, Helen A; Provenzano, Elena; Crown, John; Dubois, Thierry; Linn, Sabine; Jirstrom, Karin; Caldas, Carlos; O'Connor, Darran P; Gallagher, William M

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients commonly exhibit poor prognosis and high relapse after treatment, but there remains a lack of biomarkers and effective targeted therapies for this disease. Here, we report evidence highlighting the cell-cycle–related kinase CDK7 as a driver and candidate

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect in Children at High and Low Familial Risk for Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Gentzler, Amy L.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although low positive affect (PA) and high negative affect (NA) have been posited to predispose to depressive disorders, little is known about the developmental trajectories of these affects in children at familial risk for mood disorders. Methods: We examined 202 offspring of mothers who had a history of juvenile-onset unipolar…

  13. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  14. High Performance Negative Feedback Near Infrared Single Photon Counting Detectors & Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Amplification Technologies Inc ("ATI") proposes to develop the enabling material and device technology for the design of ultra low noise, high gain and high speed...

  15. Experimental study of high current negative ion sources D- / H-. Analysis based on the simulation of the negative ion transport in the plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riz, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a neutral beam injection system able to work the ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), two negative ion sources, Dragon and Kamaboko, have been installed on the MANTIS test bed in Cadarache, and studies in order to extract 20 mA/cm 2 of D - . The two production modes of negative ions have been investigated: volume production; surface production after cesium injection in the discharge. Experiments have shown that cesium seeding is necessary in order to reach the requested performances for ITER. 20 mA/cm 2 have been extracted from the Kamaboko source for an arc power density of 2.5 kW/liter. Simultaneously, a code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ions transport in the source plasma, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collisions H - /H + and of charge exchange H - /H 0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. The code allows to obtain the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at a given location. The calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain several phenomena observed on negative ion sources, such as the isotopic effect H - /D - and the influence of the polarisation of the plasma grid and of the magnetic filter on the negative ions current. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, working with large arc power densities (> 1 kW/liter), only negative ions produced in volume at a distance lower that 2 cm from the plasma grid and those produced at the grid surface have a chance of being extracted. (author)

  16. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative Colonization in Hospitalized Cambodian Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul; Pol, Sreymom; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Neou, Leakhena; Chea, Phal; Day, Nicholas Pj; Cooper, Ben S; Turner, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections are a significant cause of mortality in young infants. We aimed to determine characteristics of, and risk factors for, colonization and invasive infection caused by 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) or carbapenem-resistant organisms in outborn infants admitted to a neonatal unit (NU) in Cambodia. During the first year of operation, patients admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children NU, Siem Reap, Cambodia, underwent rectal swabbing on admission and twice weekly until discharge. Swabs were taken also from 7 environmental sites. Swabs were cultured to identify 3GC or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study included 333 infants with a median age at NU admission of 10 days (range, 0-43). Colonization by ≥1 3GC-resistant organism was detected in 85.9% (286/333). Admission swabs were collected in 289 infants: 61.9% were colonized by a 3GC-resistant organism at the time of admission, and a further 23.2% were colonized during hospitalization, at a median of 4 days [95% confidence interval: 3-5]. Probiotic treatment (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.98) was associated with delayed colonization. Colonization by a carbapenem-resistant organism occurred in 25 (7.5%) infants. Six infants had NU-associated K. pneumoniae bacteremia; phenotypically identical colonizing strains were found in 3 infants. Environmental colonization occurred early. Colonization by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative organisms occurred early in hospitalized Cambodian infants and was associated with subsequent invasive infection. Trials of potential interventions such as probiotics are needed.

  17. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K

    2017-07-17

    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  18. Mothering, fathering, and the regulation of negative and positive emotions in high-functioning preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Golan, Ofer; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Feldman, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties in regulating emotions and authors have called to study the specific processes underpinning emotion regulation (ER) in ASD. Yet, little observational research examined the strategies preschoolers with ASD use to regulate negative and positive emotions in the presence of their mothers and fathers. Forty preschoolers with ASD and 40 matched typically developing children and their mothers and fathers participated. Families were visited twice for identical battery of paradigms with mother or father. Parent-child interactions were coded for parent and child behaviors and children engaged in ER paradigms eliciting negative (fear) and positive (joy) emotions with each parent. ER paradigms were microcoded for negative and positive emotionality, ER strategies, and parent regulation facilitation. During free play, mothers' and fathers' sensitivity and warm discipline were comparable across groups; however, children with ASD displayed lower positive engagement and higher withdrawal. During ER paradigms, children with ASD expressed less positive emotionality overall and more negative emotionality during fear with father. Children with ASD used more simple self-regulatory strategies, particularly during fear, but expressed comparable levels of assistance seeking behavior toward mother and father in negative and positive contexts. Parents of children with ASD used less complex regulation facilitation strategies, including cognitive reappraisal and emotional reframing, and employed simple tactics, such as physical comforting to manage fear and social gaze to maintain joy. Findings describe general and parent- and emotion-specific processes of child ER and parent regulation facilitation in preschoolers with ASD. Results underscore the ability of such children to seek parental assistance during moments of high arousal and the parents' sensitive adaptation to their children's needs. Reduced positive emotionality

  19. A Highly Sensitive Telomerase Activity Assay that Eliminates False-Negative Results Caused by PCR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Yaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR on magnetic beads (MBs and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGGn-3' of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  20. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  1. Design considerations for a negative ion source for dc operation of high-power, multi-megaelectron-volt neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    A dc negative hydrogen and/or deuterium ion source is needed to prouce high-power, high-energy neutral beams for alpha diagnostics and current drive applicatiosn in fusion devices. The favorable beam particle energy for such applications extends to 1.5 MeV/amu. Continuous-wave (cw) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have been proposed to accelerate negative ions effeciently to this energy range. In this paper, the desired beam properties for ion beams injected into cw RFQ accelerators are summariezed. A number of candidate ion sources being developed at Culham, JAERI, LBL, and ORNL may prove useful for these applications. The properties of the Volume Ionization with Transverse Extraction (VITEX) ion sources being developed at ORNL are presented. Scaling such a dc ion source to produce ampere beams is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Design considerations for a negative ion source for dc operation of high-power, multi-megaelectron-volt neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A dc negative hydrogen and/or deuterium ion source is needed to produce high-power, high-energy neutral beams for alpha diagnostics and current drive applications in fusion devices. The favorable beam particle energy for such applications extends to 1.5 MeV/amu. Continuous-wave (cw) radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have been proposed to accelerate negative ions efficiently to this energy range. In this paper, the desired beam properties for ion beams injected into cw RFQ accelerators are summarized. A number of candidate ion sources being developed at Culham, JAERI, LBL, and ORNL may prove useful for these applications. The properties of the Volume Ionization with Transverse Extraction (VITEX) ion sources being developed at ORNL are presented. Scaling such a dc ion source to produce ampere beams is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Counting to ten milliseconds: low-anger, but not high-anger, individuals pause following negative evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Meier, Brian P; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2012-01-01

    Low-anger individuals are less reactive, both emotionally and behaviourally, to a large variety of situational primes to anger and aggression. Why this is so, from an affective processing perspective, has been largely conjectural. Four studies (total N=270) sought to link individual differences in anger to tendencies exhibited in basic affective processing tasks. On the basis of motivational factors and considerations, it was hypothesised that negative evaluations would differentially activate a psychological alarm system at low levels of anger, resulting in a pause that should be evident in the speed of making subsequent evaluations. Just such a pattern was evident in all studies. By contrast, high-anger individuals did not pause following their negative evaluations. In relation to this affective processing tendency, at least, dramatically different effects were observed among low- versus high-anger individuals. Implications for the personality-processing literature, theories of trait anger, and fast-acting regulatory processes are discussed.

  4. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Annamaria; Comeglio, Paolo; Sarchielli, Erica; Cellai, Ilaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Vannelli, Gabriella B.; Maggi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose...

  5. High-current negative-ion sources for pulsed spallation neutron sources: LBNL workshop, October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    The neutron scattering community has endorsed the need for a high-power (1 to 5 MW) accelerator-driven source of neutrons for materials research. Properly configured, the accelerator could produce very short (sub-microsecond) bursts of cold neutrons, said time structure offering advantages over the continuous flux from a reactor. The recent cancellation of the ANS reactor project has increased the urgency to develop a comprehensive strategy based on the best technological scenarios. Studies to date have built on the experience from ISIS (the 160 kW source in the UK), and call for a high-current (approx. 100 mA peak) H- source-linac combination injecting into one or more accumulator rings in which beam may be further accelerated. The I to 5 GeV proton beam is extracted in a single turn and brought to the target-moderator stations. The high current, high duty-factor, high brightness and high reliability required of the ion source present a very large challenge to the ion source community. The Workshop reported on here, held in Berkeley in October 1994, analyzed in detail the source requirements for proposed accelerator scenarios, the present performance capabilities of different H- source technologies, and identified necessary R ampersand D efforts to bridge the gap

  6. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Masanori; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Yukio; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Itoh, Harumi; Ishizaki, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  7. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  8. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Masanori [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: mnakanishi@nifty.ne.jp; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kosaka, Nobuyuki [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Chiba, Yukio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Nishikawa, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takeshi [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  9. Negative impact of high cumulative glucocorticoid dose on bone metabolism of patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Nayara Felicidade Tomaz; Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Malheiro, Olívio Brito; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2017-08-01

    This current study aimed to evaluate the frequency of low bone mass, osteopenia, and osteoporosis in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and to investigate the possible association between bone mineral density (BMD) and plasma levels of bone metabolism markers. Eighty patients with MG and 62 controls BMD were measured in the right femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, dickkopf (DKK-1), sclerostin, insulin, leptin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-23) were analyzed by Luminex®. The mean age of patients was 41.9 years, with 13.5 years of length of illness, and a mean cumulative dose of glucocorticoids 38,123 mg. Patients had significant reduction in BMD of the lumbar, the femoral neck, and in the whole body when compared with controls. Fourteen percent MG patients had osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and 2.5% at the femoral neck. In comparison with controls, patients with MG presented lower levels of osteocalcin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, parathyroid hormone, sclerostin, TNF-α, and DKK-1 and higher levels of FGF-23, leptin, and IL-6. There was a significant negative correlation between cumulative glucocorticoid dose and serum calcium, lumbar spine T-score, femoral neck BMD, T-score, and Z-score. After multivariate analysis, higher TNF-α levels increased the likelihood of presenting low bone mass by 2.62. MG patients under corticotherapy presented low BMD and altered levels of bone markers.

  10. Influence of negative energy balance on cyclicity and fertility in the high producing dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Fenwick, M; Cheng, Z; Bourne, N; Llewellyn, S; Morris, D G; Kenny, D; Murphy, J; Fitzpatrick, R

    2007-09-01

    The peripartum period is of critical importance to subsequent health and fertility. Most cows enter a state of negative energy balance (NEB) associated with many metabolic changes which have carry over effects on the resumption and normality of estrous cyclicity and the success of subsequent inseminations. A dataset on 500 lactations explored the relationships between metabolic traits measured before and after calving with fertility. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that longer calving to conception intervals were associated with altered profiles of IGF-I, urea and body condition score. These relationships between metabolic profiles and fertility differed between first lactation cows (which are still growing but produce less milk) and mature animals. Early postpartum the liver undergoes extensive biochemical and morphological modifications to adapt to NEB, the uterus is extensively remodeled and must clear bacterial infections, and the ovary must resume ovulatory cycles. RNA isolated from liver and uterine tissues harvested 2 weeks postpartum from cows in mild (MNEB) and severe (SNEB) energy balance was used to screen the Affymetrix 23K bovine microarray. In liver, SNEB resulted in differential expression of key genes involved in lipid catabolism, gluconeogenesis, and the synthesis and stability of IGF-I. This was accompanied by reduced systemic concentrations of IGF-I which is likely to impact on ovarian function and early embryo development. Within endometrium, cows in SNEB showed histological evidence for higher levels of inflammation and the microarray analysis identified groups of differentially expressed genes involved in tissue remodeling and immune response. This may delay uterine repair after calving, likely contributing to the observed reduction in fertility.

  11. Negative effects of transthyretin in high myopic vitreous on diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between vitreous transthyretin (TTR levels, high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR. METHODS: We selected 6722 individuals from the southern Jiangsu Province for diabetes and ophthalmic examinations. The TTR concentration in the vitreous of 50 patients with high myopia and diabetes, 50 patients with only DR, and 20 healthy controls were determined by ELISA. Key factors in Tie2 pathway in DR development including vascular endothecial growth factor (VEGF, Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 1 and VEGFR2 were also detected by ELISA. RESULTS: The prevalence of DR in patients with diabetes and myopia [6.00 D, and diabetes without myopia were 11.1%, 2.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. The vitreous TTR concentration of patients with diabetes and high myopia was approximately 6.5- and 4.2-times higher than those of patients with DR and healthy controls, respectively (P<0.05. Following the vitreous TTR concentration, the levels of VEGF, Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in vitreous of diabetes and high myopia patients, DR patients and healthy controls were detected as dramatically fluctuated. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that TTR can affect the vitreous contents of key factors in Tie2 pathway for neovascularization, and there should be a protective association between abundant TTR levels in the vitreous of highly myopic patients and a decreased risk of DR.

  12. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Morelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose effects in the human GnRH-secreting FNC-B4 cells. Gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR, confirmed that FNC-B4 cells express GnRH and several genes relevant for GnRH neuron function (KISS1R, KISS1, sex steroid and leptin receptors, FGFR1, neuropilin 2, and semaphorins, along with glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. High glucose exposure (22 mM; 40 mM significantly reduced gene and protein expression of GnRH, KISS1R, KISS1, and leptin receptor, as compared to normal glucose (5 mM. Consistent with previous studies, leptin treatment significantly induced GnRH mRNA expression at 5 mM glucose, but not in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a deleterious direct contribution of high glucose on human GnRH neurons, thus providing new insights into pathogenic mechanisms linking metabolic disorders to reproductive dysfunctions.

  13. A modified Janus cassette (Sweet Janus to improve allelic replacement efficiency by high-stringency negative selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available The Janus cassette permits marker-free allelic replacement or knockout in streptomycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus through sequential positive and negative selection. Spontaneous revertants of Janus can lead to high level of false-positives during negative selection, which necessitate a time-consuming post-selection screening process. We hypothesized that an additional counter-selectable marker in Janus would decrease the revertant frequency and reduce false-positives, since simultaneous reversion of both counter-selectable makers is much less likely. Here we report a modified cassette, Sweet Janus (SJ, in which the sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis conferring sucrose sensitivity is added to Janus. By using streptomycin and sucrose simultaneously as selective agents, the frequency of SJ double revertants was about 105-fold lower than the frequency of Janus revertants. Accordingly, the frequency of false-positives in the SJ-mediated negative selection was about 100-fold lower than what was seen for Janus. Thus, SJ enhances negative selection stringency and can accelerate allelic replacement in pneumococcus, especially when transformation frequency is low due to strain background or suboptimal transformation conditions. Results also suggested the sacB gene alone can function as a counter-selectable marker in the Gram-positive pneumococcus, which will have the advantage of not requiring a streptomycin-resistant strain for allelic replacement.

  14. Negative emotional primes and attentional bias towards alcohol in high anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samelink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term,

  15. Efficacy of high-dose alkylating chemotherapy in HER2/neu-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, S.; Bontenbal, M.; Hoesel, Q.G.C.M. van; Smit, W.M.; Nooij, M.A.; Voest, E.E.; Wall, E. van der; Hupperets, P.; Tinteren, H. van; Peterse, J.L.; Vijver, M.J. van de; Vries, E.G.E. de

    2006-01-01

    Background: High-dose chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has been abandoned by many. Patients and methods: 885 patients with stage III primary breast cancer and four or more axillary lymph node metastases were randomised to receive either five courses of FEC (fluorouracil,

  16. Efficacy of high-dose alkylating chemotherapy in HER2/neu-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, S; Bontenbal, M; van Hoesel, QGCM; Smit, WM; Nooij, MA; Voest, EE; van der Wall, E; Hupperets, P; van Tinteren, H; Peterse, JL; van de Vijver, MJ; de Vries, EGE

    Background: High-dose chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has been abandoned by many. Patients and methods: 885 patients with stage III primary breast cancer and four or more axillary lymph node metastases were randomised to receive either five courses of FEC (fluorouracil,

  17. Are children's views of the "enemy" shaped by a highly-publicized negative event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh,

  18. Are Children's Views of the "Enemy" Shaped by a Highly-Publicized Negative Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh, bomb attacks in Bali and Madrid and other acts of…

  19. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [13] Multiple studies agree that neutrophil CD64 has high diagnostic speci city and sensitivity.[13,18-20] In the light of the above information, we prospectively evaluated the usefulness of neutrophil CD64 expression in diagnosing neonatal infection. e main objective of the study was quantitation of neutrophil. CD64 by ow ...

  20. Women's Ways of Drinking: College Women, High-Risk Alcohol Use, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…

  1. The Negative Impact of Community Stressors on Learning Time: Examining Inequalities between California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, Nicole; Rogers, John

    2015-01-01

    Allocated classroom time is not the same as time available for learning--a host of economic and social stressors undermine learning time in schools serving low-income students. When time is limited, it is hard to meet rigorous learning standards. The challenge is compounded in high-poverty schools where community stressors place additional demands…

  2. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fabio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Hélio A; Caperuto, Erico C; Carnevali, Luiz C; Seelaender, Marília; Damaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila M; de Mello, Marco T; Santos, Ronaldo V

    2010-08-04

    A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7) were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (approximately 12 h). The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.002). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between endotoxin and PAI-1 (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), endotoxin and total cholesterol (r = 0.65; p < 0.01), endotoxin and LDL-c (r = 0.55; p < 0.049) and endotoxin and TG levels (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). The plasma levels of MCP-1, ICAM/CD54 and VCAM/CD106 did not differ. These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  4. Striking Distance Determined From High-Speed Videos and Measured Currents in Negative Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visacro, Silverio; Guimaraes, Miguel; Murta Vale, Maria Helena

    2017-12-01

    First and subsequent return strokes' striking distances (SDs) were determined for negative cloud-to-ground flashes from high-speed videos exhibiting the development of positive and negative leaders and the pre-return stroke phase of currents measured along a short tower. In order to improve the results, a new criterion was used for the initiation and propagation of the sustained upward connecting leader, consisting of a 4 A continuous current threshold. An advanced approach developed from the combined use of this criterion and a reverse propagation procedure, which considers the calculated propagation speeds of the leaders, was applied and revealed that SDs determined solely from the first video frame showing the upward leader can be significantly underestimated. An original approach was proposed for a rough estimate of first strokes' SD using solely records of current. This approach combines the 4 A criterion and a representative composite three-dimensional propagation speed of 0.34 × 106 m/s for the leaders in the last 300 m propagated distance. SDs determined under this approach showed to be consistent with those of the advanced procedure. This approach was applied to determine the SD of 17 first return strokes of negative flashes measured at MCS, covering a wide peak-current range, from 18 to 153 kA. The estimated SDs exhibit very high dispersion and reveal great differences in relation to the SDs estimated for subsequent return strokes and strokes in triggered lightning.

  5. High Densities of Tumor-Associated Plasma Cells Predict Improved Prognosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Yeong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women, but the heterogeneity of the condition is a significant obstacle to effective treatment. Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs do not express HER2 or the receptors for estrogen or progesterone, and so often have a poor prognosis. Tumor-infiltrating T cells have been well-characterized in TNBC, and increased numbers are associated with better outcomes; however, the potential roles of B cells and plasma cells have been large. Here, we conducted a retrospective correlative study on the expression of B cell/plasma cell-related genes, and the abundance and localization of B cells and plasma cells within TNBCs, and clinical outcome. We analyzed 269 TNBC samples and used immunohistochemistry to quantify tumor-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells, coupled with NanoString measurement of expression of immunoglobulin metagenes. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients bearing TNBCs with above-median densities of CD38+ plasma cells had significantly better disease-free survival (DFS (HR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.26–0.77; p = 0.004 but not overall survival (OS, after adjusting for the effects of known prognostic factors. In contrast, TNBCs with higher immunoglobulin gene expression exhibited improved prognosis (OS p = 0.029 and DFS p = 0.005. The presence of B cells and plasma cells was positively correlated (p < 0.0001, R = 0.558, while immunoglobulin gene IGKC, IGHM, and IGHG1 mRNA expression correlated specifically with the density of CD38+ plasma cells (IGKC p < 0.0001, R = 0.647; IGHM p < 0.0001, R = 0.580; IGHG1 p < 0.0001, R = 0.655. Interestingly, after adjusting the multivariate analysis for the effect of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell density, the expression levels of all three genes lost significant prognostic value, suggesting a biologically important role of plasma cells. Last but not least, the addition of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell

  6. Corrosion behaviour of high manganese austenitic stainless steels: positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    Stainless steel 304 has found use as a most versatile engineering material in many industrial applications. Recently, the Indian industries have developed high Mn stainless steels with low C and Ni contents and simultaneously introduced N and Cu in the system. Composition of some of the alloys which are prevalent in the market are given. Individually, the effect of Ni, C, Mn, N and Cu on various forms of corrosion is reasonably understood. However, it will be worthwhile to review the response of these alloys, containing all these elements, towards various forms of corrosion. The objective of this paper is preciously to do this

  7. Trustworthy Tricksters: Violating a Negative Social Expectation Affects Source Memory and Person Perception When Fear of Exploitation Is High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Mario; Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel; Bell, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    People who are high in victim-sensitivity-a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others-are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target's trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the "trustworthy trickster"). These findings are in line with recent theorizing on schema inconsistency and expectancy violation effects in social cognition and with research on the different facets of justice sensitivity in personality psychology.

  8. High plasma folate is negatively associated with leukocyte telomere length in Framingham Offspring cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi; Jacques, Paul F; Aviv, Abraham; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Levy, Daniel; Selhub, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Shortening of telomeres, the protective structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, is associated with age-related pathologies. Telomere length is influenced by DNA integrity and DNA and histone methylation. Folate plays a role in providing precursors for nucleotides and methyl groups for methylation reactions and has the potential to influence telomere length. We determined the association between leukocyte telomere length and long-term plasma folate status (mean of 4 years) in Framingham Offspring Study (n = 1,044, females = 52.1 %, mean age 59 years) using data from samples collected before and after folic acid fortification. Leukocyte telomere length was determined by Southern analysis and fasting plasma folate concentration using microbiological assay. There was no significant positive association between long-term plasma folate and leukocyte telomere length among the Framingham Offspring Study participants perhaps due to their adequate folate status. While the leukocyte telomere length in the second quintile of plasma folate was longer than that in the first quintile, the difference was not statistically significant. The leukocyte telomere length of the individuals in the fifth quintile of plasma folate was shorter than that of those in the second quintile by 180 bp (P folate concentrations in the upper four quintiles of plasma folate (P for trend = 0.001). Multivitamin use was associated with shorter telomeres in this cohort (P = 0.015). High plasma folate status possibly resulting from high folic acid intake may interfere with the role of folate in maintaining telomere integrity.

  9. A modified high-intensity Cs sputter negative-ion source with multi-target mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Houzhi; Zhang Weizhong; Zhu Jinhau; Du Guangtian; Zhang Tiaorong; Gao Xiang

    1993-01-01

    The source is based on Middleton's high-intensity mode, but modified to a multi-target version. It is equipped with a spherical molybdenum ionizer, a 20-position target wheel and a vacuum lock for loading and unloading sample batches. A metal-ceramic bonded section protected by a specially designed labyrinth shielding system results in reliable insulation of the cathode and convenient control of cesium vapor. The latter is particularly important when an oversupply of cesium occurs. The source was developed for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications. Recently, three versions based on the prototype of the source have been successfully tested to meet different requirements: (a) Single target version, (b) multi-target version with manual sample change, and (c) multi-target version with remote control sample change. Some details of the technical and operational characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  10. Ultra-long-pulse microwave negative high voltage power supply with fast protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihua; Wu Junshuan; Zheng Guanghua; Huang Qiaolin; Yang Chunsheng; Zhou Yuanwei; Chen Yonghao

    1998-01-01

    Two 1.4 MW high voltage power supply (HVPS) modules with 3-5 s pulse duration have been developed for LHCD experiment in the HT-7 tokamak. The power source consists of a pulsed generator and the electric circuit. Duration of the ultra-long-pulse is controlled by switching-on dc relay immediately and switching-off ac contactor after a given time, and the fast protection is executed by a crowbar. Due to the soft starting of the power source, the problem of overvoltage induced by dc relay switching-on has been solved. Each power supply module outputs a rated power (-35 kV, 40 A) on the dummy load. With the klystrons connected as the load of the power supply modules, LHCD experiments have been conducted successfully in the HT-7 tokamak

  11. High nymphal host density and mortality negatively impact parasitoid complex during an insect herbivore outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Aidan A G; Johnson, Scott N; Cook, James M; Riegler, Markus

    2017-08-26

    Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitization, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitization patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged. Then, we assessed host-parasitoid density relationships across three spatial scales (leaf, tree and site) over one year. We detected four endoparasitoid species of the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera); two primary parasitoid and one heteronomous hyperparasitoid Psyllaephagus species (the latter with female development as a primary parasitoid and male development as a hyperparasitoid), and the hyperparasitoid Coccidoctonus psyllae. Parasitoid development was host-synchronized, although synchrony between sites appeared constrained during winter (due to temperature differences). Parasitization was predominantly driven by one primary parasitoid species and was mostly inversely host-density dependent across the spatial scales. Hyperparasitization by C. psyllae was psyllid-density dependent at the site scale, however, this only impacted the rarer primary parasitoid. High larval parasitoid mortality due to density-dependent nymphal psyllid mortality (a consequence of resource limitation) compounded by a summer heat wave was incorporated in the assessment and resulted in density independence of host-parasitoid relationships. As such, high larval parasitoid mortality during insect herbivore outbreaks may contribute to the absence of host density-dependent parasitization during outbreak events. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  13. Neuropilin-1highCD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Primary Negative Immunoregulation in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs appear to be involved in sepsis-induced immune dysfunction; neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1 was identified as a surface marker for CD4+CD25+Tregs. In the current study, we investigated the negative immunoregulation of Nrp-1highCD4+CD25+Tregs and the potential therapeutic value of Nrp-1 in sepsis. Splenic CD4+CD25+Tregs from cecal ligation and puncture (CLP mouse models were further segregated into Nrp-1highTregs and Nrp-1lowTregs; they were cocultured with CD4+CD25−  T cells. The expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor-3 (Foxp-3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, membrane associated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-βm+, apoptotic rate, and secretive ability [including TGF-β and interleukin-10 (IL-10] for various types of Tregs, as well as the immunosuppressive ability of Tregs on CD4+CD25−  T cells, were determined. Meanwhile, the impact of recombinant Nrp-1 polyclonal antibody on the demethylation of Foxp-3-TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region was measured in in vitro study. Sepsis per se markedly promoted the expression of Nrp-1 of CD4+CD25+Tregs. Foxp-3/CTLA-4/TGF-βm+ of Nrp-1highTregs were upregulated by septic challenge. Nrp-1highTregs showed strong resilience to apoptosis and secretive ability and the strongest immunosuppressive ability on CD4+CD25−  T cells. In the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the recombinant Nrp-1 polyclonal antibody reduced the demethylation of Foxp-3-TSDR. Nrp-1highTregs might reveal primary negative immunoregulation in sepsis; Nrp-1 could represent a new potential therapeutic target for the study of immune regulation in sepsis.

  14. Development of high performance negative ion sources and accelerators for MeV class neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Hanada, M.; Iga, T.

    2003-01-01

    Operation of accelerator at low pressure is an essential requirement to reduce stripping loss of the negative ions, which in turn results in high efficiency of the NB systems. For this purpose, a vacuum insulated beam source (VIBS) has been developed at JAERI, which reduces the gas pressure in the accelerator by enhanced gas conductance through the accelerator. The VIBS achieves the high voltage insulation of 1 MV by immersing the whole structure of accelerator in vacuum with long (∼ 1.8 m) insulation distance. Results of the voltage holding test using a long vacuum gap of 1.8 m indicate that a transition from vacuum discharge to gas discharge occurs at around 0.2 Pa m in the long vacuum gap. So far, the VIBS succeeded in acceleration of 20 mA (H - ) beam up to 970 keV for 1 s. The high voltage holding capability of the VIBS was drastically improved by installing a new large stress ring, which reduces electric field concentration at the triple junction of the accelerator column. At present the VIBS sustains 1 MV stably for more than 1200 s. Acceleration of ampere class H- beams at high current density is to be started soon to demonstrate ITER relevant beam optics. Operation of negative ion source at low pressure is also essential to reduce the stripping loss. However, it was not so easy to attain high current density H - ions at low pressure, since destruction cross section of the negative ions becomes large if the electron temperature is > 1 eV, in low pressure discharge. Using strong magnetic filter to lower the electron temperature, and putting higher arc discharge power to compensate reduction of plasma density through the filter, an H - ion beam of 310 A/m 2 was extracted at very low pressure of 0.1Pa. This satisfies the ITER requirement of current density at 1/3 of the ITER design pressure (0.3 Pa). (author)

  15. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  16. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Gupta, V.; Chand, S. [Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. > Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowires through lead hydroxination. > The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. > Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. > The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd{sup 2+} with Pb{sup 2+} ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  18. Measurement of negative ion mobility in O2 at high pressures using a point plate gap as an ion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Y; Kimura, T; Suzuki, S; Itoh, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for negative ion mobility in O 2 at 0.5-2.0 atm. The ion mobility is observed using a high-pressure ion drift tube with a positive corona gap (Geiger counter), which is constructed from a point plate gap and acts as a negative ion detector. The variation of waveforms in the burst pulse is observed by varying the voltage applied to the ion detector to find the optimum voltage that must be applied across the ion detector in O 2 . This is investigated carefully to ensure the precise determination of mobility. The distortion of the electric field near the mesh electrode, which operates as the cathode of the ion detector and as the anode of the ion drift gap, is then examined to determine the optimum applied voltage to suppress its effect on the measurement of mobility. The mobility is subsequently measured at a reduced electric field intensity of 2.83 × 10 -3 to 2.83. The observed mobility of 2.31 ± 0.03 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in O 2 is concluded to be that of O 2 - . This value is also obtained in experiments over a wide range of gas pressures (0.5-2.0 atm) and drift lengths (1.00-9.00 cm). The mobilities of O 3 - and O - are also obtained experimentally. (paper)

  19. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankapal, B.R.; Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K.; Gupta, V.; Chand, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. → Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH) 2 nanowires through lead hydroxination. → The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. → Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. → The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd 2+ with Pb 2+ ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  20. Marijuana usage in relation to harmfulness ratings, perceived likelihood of negative consequences, and defense mechanisms in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como-Lesko, N; Primavera, L H; Szeszko, P R

    1994-08-01

    This study investigated high school students' marijuana usage patterns in relation to their harmfulness ratings of 15 licit and illicit drugs, perceived negative consequences from using marijuana, and types of defense mechanisms employed. Subjects were classified into one of five pattern-of-use groups based on marijuana usage: principled nonusers, nonusers, light users, moderate users, and heavy users. Principled nonusers (individuals who have never used marijuana and would not do so if it was legalized) rated marijuana, hashish, cocaine, and alcohol as significantly more harmful than heavy users. A cluster analysis of the drugs' harmfulness ratings best fit a three cluster solution and were named medicinal drugs, recreational drugs, and hard drugs. In general, principled nonusers rated negative consequences from using marijuana as significantly more likely to occur than other groups. Principled nonusers and heavy users utilized reversal from the Defense Mechanism Inventory, which includes repression and denial, significantly more than nonusers, indicating some trait common to the two extreme pattern-of-use groups.

  1. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  2. Cervical cancer screening by high risk HPV testing in routine practice: results at one year recall of high risk HPV-positive and cytology-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Frayle, Helena; Ferro, Antonio; Callegaro, Susanna; Del Sole, Annamaria; Stomeo, Anna; Cirillo, Emanuela; Fedato, Chiara; Pagni, Silvana; Barzon, Luisa; Zorzi, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing requires the use of additional triage and follow-up analyses. We evaluated women's compliance with and the performance of this strategy in a routine setting. Five cervical service screening programmes in North-East Italy. Eligible women aged 25-64 invited for a new screening episode underwent HPV testing for high risk types (hrHPV by Hybrid Capture 2) and cytology triage. Women with positive HPV and cytology results were referred for colposcopy; women with positive HPV but negative cytology results were referred to 1-year repeat hrHPV testing. Of 46,694 women screened by HPV testing up to December 2011, 3,211 (6.9%) tested hrHPV positive; 45% of these had a positive triage cytology. Those with negative cytology were invited for 1-yr repeat testing. Compliance with invitation was 61.6% at baseline and 85.3% at 1-yr repeat. Rate of persistent hrHPV positivity was 58% (830/1,435). Colposcopy performed in women with a positive hrHPV test at 1-yr repeat accounted for 36% of all colposcopies performed within the screening programmes. Cumulatively, a histological high-grade lesion was detected in 276 women (5.9‰ detection rate), 234 at baseline (85%), and 42 (15%) at 1-yr repeat. Compliance with hrHPV-based screening programmes was high both at baseline and at 1-yr repeat. Compared with the randomized trials, a higher proportion of triage cytology was read as positive, and only a small number of high-grade lesions were detected among the group of hrHPV positive cytology negative women who repeated testing 1-yr after baseline.

  3. Affective processing within 1/10th of a second: High arousal is necessary for early facilitative processing of negative but not positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Markus J; Kuchinke, Lars; Tamm, Sascha; Võ, Melissa L-H; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2009-12-01

    Lexical decisions to high- and low-arousal negative words and to low-arousal neutral and positive words were examined in an event-related potentials (ERP) study. Reaction times to positive and high-arousal negative words were shorter than those to neutral (low-arousal) words, whereas those to low-arousal negative words were longer. A similar pattern was observed in an early time window of the ERP response: Both positive and high-arousal negative words elicited greater negative potentials in a time frame of 80 to 120 msec after stimulus onset. This result suggests that arousal has a differential impact on early lexical processing of positive and negative words. Source localization in the relevant time frame revealed that the arousal effect in negative words is likely to be localized in a left occipito-temporal region including the middle temporal and fusiform gyri. The ERP arousal effect appears to result from early lexico-semantic processing in high-arousal negative words.

  4. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan L.; Garvican‐Lewis, Laura A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A.; Forbes, Sara G.; Mirtschin, Joanne G.; Cato, Louise E.; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P.; Hawley, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support.Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole‐body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities.The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real‐life race performance in elite race walkers.In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. Abstract We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world‐class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg−1 day−1: 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (diets providing chronic or periodised high‐CHO availability, and despite a significant improvement in V˙O2 peak , adaptation to the topical LCHF diet negated performance benefits in elite endurance athletes, in part due to reduced exercise economy. PMID:28012184

  5. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockton, Nigel; Dort, Joseph; Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree; Brar, Sony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman; Doll, Corinne; Magliocco, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  6. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocco, Robert M; Facelli, José M; Watling, Jennifer R

    2016-03-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites' effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ(13)C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Photoinduced Field-Effect Passivation from Negative Carrier Accumulation for High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaolang; Yang, Zhenhai; Wu, Sudong; Zhu, Juye; Guo, Wei; Sheng, Jiang; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2017-12-26

    Carrier recombination and light management of the dopant-free silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are the critical factors in developing high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the traditional passivation technologies can hardly provide efficient surface passivation on the front surface of Si. In this study, a photoinduced electric field was induced in a bilayer antireflective coating (ARC) of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) films, due to formation of an accumulation layer of negative carriers (O 2 - species) under UV (sunlight) illumination. This photoinduced field not only suppressed the silicon surface recombination but also enhanced the built-in potential of HSCs with 84 mV increment. In addition, this photoactive ARC also displayed the outstanding light-trapping capability. The front PEDOT:PSS/Si HSC with the saturated O 2 - received a champion PCE of 15.51% under AM 1.5 simulated sunlight illumination. It was clearly demonstrated that the photoinduced electric field was a simple, efficient, and low-cost method for the surface passivation and contributed to achieve a high efficiency when applied in the Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs.

  8. Cantilever-type electrode array-based high-throughput microparticle sorting platform driven by gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngho; Kim, Byungkyu; Lee, Junghun; Kim, Younggeun; Shin, Sang-Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cantilever-type electrode (CE) array-based high-throughput sorting platform, which is a tool used to separate microparticles using gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) force. This platform consists of meso-size channels and a CE array, which is designed to separate a large number of target particles by differences in their dielectric material properties (DMP) and the weight of the particles. We employ a two-step separation process, with sedimentation as the first step and n-DEP as the second step. In order to differentiate the weight and the DMP of each particle, we employ the sedimentation phenomena in a vertical channel and the CE-based n-DEP in an inclined channel. By using three kinds of polystyrene beads with diameters of 10, 25 and 50 µm, the optimal population (10 7 beads ml −1 ) of particles and the appropriate length (25 mm) of the vertical channel for high performance were determined experimentally. Conclusively, by combining sedimentation and n-DEP schemes, we achieve 74.5, 94.7 and 100% separation efficiency for sorting microparticles with a diameter of 10, 25 and 50 µm, respectively.

  9. A high efficiency gene disruption strategy using a positive-negative split selection marker and electroporation for Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liqin; Li, Jianqiang; Cheng, Lin; Ling, Jian; Luo, Zhongqin; Bai, Miao; Xie, Bingyan

    2014-11-01

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex consists of fungal pathogens that cause serial vascular wilt disease on more than 100 cultivated species throughout the world. Gene function analysis is rapidly becoming more and more important as the whole-genome sequences of various F. oxysporum strains are being completed. Gene-disruption techniques are a common molecular tool for studying gene function, yet are often a limiting step in gene function identification. In this study we have developed a F. oxysporum high-efficiency gene-disruption strategy based on split-marker homologous recombination cassettes with dual selection and electroporation transformation. The method was efficiently used to delete three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes. The gene-disruption cassettes of three genes can be constructed simultaneously within a short time using this technique. The optimal condition for electroporation is 10μF capacitance, 300Ω resistance, 4kV/cm field strength, with 1μg of DNA (gene-disruption cassettes). Under these optimal conditions, we were able to obtain 95 transformants per μg DNA. And after positive-negative selection, the transformants were efficiently screened by PCR, screening efficiency averaged 85%: 90% (RdRP1), 85% (RdRP2) and 77% (RdRP3). This gene-disruption strategy should pave the way for high throughout genetic analysis in F. oxysporum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. All in Its Proper Time: Monitoring the Emergence of a Memory Bias for Novel, Arousing-Negative Words in Individuals with High and Low Trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Eden, Annuschka Salima; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Keuper, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus; Laeger, Inga; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arou...

  11. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  12. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened negative dispersion over S + C + L + U bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Khandker, Emran

    2015-01-01

    We present a new cladding design for photonic crystal fiber (PCF) on a decagonal structure to simultaneously achieve ultra-flattened large negative dispersion and ultrahigh birefringence. Numerical results confirm that the proposed PCFexhibits ultra-flattened large negative dispersion over the S ...

  13. Characteristics of the scrape-off layer in DIII-D high-performance negative central magnetic shear discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Allen, S.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Buchenauer, D.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Burrell, K.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Casper, T.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cuthbertson, J.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hill, D.N. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jong, R.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lao, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazarus, E.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Moyer, R.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Porter, G.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Rice, B.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Stallard, B.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Taylor, T.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Watkins, J.G. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this paper we present measurements of the global power and particle balance in the high-performance phase of negative central magnetic shear (NCS) discharges and compare with reference VH-mode discharges. The principal differences observed are that NCS has a much lower fraction of the total input power flowing into the boundary, less core radiation, and larger rate of stored energy increase as a fraction of total power. Scrape-off layer (SOL) temperature and divertor heat flux profiles, and radiation profiles at the midplane, are similar to VH-mode. Due to the good core particle confinement and efficient fueling by neutral beam injection (NBI), with little gas puffing, the gas load on the walls and the recycling are very low during the NCS discharges. This results in a rate of density rise relative to beam fueling at the L to H transition time which is 1/3 of the value for VH transitions, which is in turn 1/2 that for L-to-ELMing-H-mode transitions. (orig.).

  14. A highly-sensitive label-free biosensor based on two dimensional photonic crystals with negative refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Narges; Fasihi, Kiazand

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a novel high-sensitive optical label-free biosensor based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC). The suggested structure is composed of a negative refraction structure in a hexagonal lattice PC, along with a positive refraction structure which is arranged in a square lattice PC. The frequency shift of the transmission peak is measured respect to the changes of refractive indices of the studied materials (the blood plasma, water, dry air and normal air). The studied materials are filled into a W1 line-defect waveguide which is located in the PC structure with positive refraction (the microfluidic nanochannel). Our numerical simulations, which are based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, show that in the proposed structure, a sensitivity about 1100 nm/RIU and a transmission efficiency more than 75% can be achieved. With this design, to the best of our knowledge, the obtained sensitivity and the transmission efficiency are one of the highest values in the reported PC label-free biosensors.

  15. A Stewart isolator with high-static-low-dynamic stiffness struts based on negative stiffness magnetic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yisheng; Li, Qingpin; Yan, Bo; Luo, Yajun; Zhang, Xinong

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the isolation performance of passive Stewart platforms, the negative stiffness magnetic spring (NSMS) is employed to construct high static low dynamic stiffness (HSLDS) struts. With the NSMS, the resonance frequencies of the platform can be reduced effectively without deteriorating its load bearing capacity. The model of the Stewart isolation platform with HSLDS struts is presented and the stiffness characteristic of its struts is studied firstly. Then the nonlinear dynamic model of the platform including both geometry nonlinearity and stiffness nonlinearity is established; and its simplified dynamic model is derived under the condition of small vibration. The effect of nonlinearity on the isolation performance is also evaluated. Finally, a prototype is built and the isolation performance is tested. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate that, by using the NSMS, the resonance frequencies of the Stewart isolator are reduced and the isolation performance in all six directions is improved: the isolation frequency band is increased and extended to a lower-frequency level.

  16. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from a university environment in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Rathanin; Leungtongkam, Udomluk; Thummeepak, Rapee; Chatdumrong, Wassana; Sitthisak, Sutthirat

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the general university environment, where all five locations; the library, restrooms, canteens, computer rooms and outdoor surfaces, are in common use by a large population of students. We used Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin to screen the methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The species level was identified by PCR of rdr (Staphylococcus epidermidis), groESL (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) and nuc (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus warneri) genes and DNA sequencing of tuf and dnaJ genes. The susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined using the disk diffusion method. Antibiotic and disinfectant resistance genes, together with SCCmec types, were detected by the PCR method. The methicillin resistant-staphylococci were isolated from 41 of 200 samples (20.5%), and all of them were found to be methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). The library had the highest percentage of contamination, with 43.3% of the samples found to be contaminated. All isolates belonged to 6 different species including S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, S. warneri, S. cohnii, S. saprophyticus and S. hominis. The antimicrobial resistance rates were highest against penicillin (100%), then cefoxitin (73.1%), erythromycin (73.1%) and oxacillin (68.3%). Altogether, the isolates were approximately 61.0% multidrug resistant (MDR), with the S. epidermidis isolates being the most multidrug resistant. The prevalence of the qacA/B gene was detected in 63.4% of the isolates, and SCCmec could be typed in 43.9% (18/41) of the isolates. The type range was: II (n = 1), IVd (n = 1), I (n = 2), V (n = 6), IVa (n = 8) and untypeable (n = 23). This result indicates that these university environments are contaminated with methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci that carry various SCCmec types and

  17. Negative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  18. Negative liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  19. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  20. RESTING SYMPATHETIC BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY IN SUBJECTS WITH LOW AND HIGH TOLERANCE TO CENTRAL HYPOVOLEMIA INDUCED BY LOWER BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eHinojosa-Laborde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central hypovolemia elicited by orthostasis or hemorrhage triggers sympathetically-mediated baroreflex responses to maintain organ perfusion; these reflexes are less sensitive in patients with orthostatic intolerance, and during conditions of severe blood loss, may result in cardiovascular collapse (decompensatory or circulatory shock. The ability to tolerate central hypovolemia is variable and physiological factors contributing to tolerance are emerging. We tested the hypothesis that resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS are attenuated in male and female subjects who have low tolerance (LT to central hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP. MSNA and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP were recorded in 47 human subjects who subsequently underwent LBNP to tolerance (onset of presyncopal symptoms. LT subjects experienced presyncopal symptoms prior to completing LBNP of -60 mm Hg, and subjects with high tolerance (HT experienced presyncopal symptoms after completing LBNP after -60 mmHg. Contrary to our hypothesis, resting MSNA burst incidence was not different between LT and HT subjects, and was not related to time to presyncope. BRS was assessed as the slope of the relationship between spontaneous fluctuations in DAP and MSNA during 5 min of supine rest. MSNA burst incidence/DAP correlations were greater than or equal to 0.5 in 37 subjects (LT: n= 9; HT: n=28, and BRS was not different between LT and HT (-1.8 ± 0.3 vs. -2.2 ± 0.2 bursts•(100 beats-1•mmHg-1, p=0.29. We conclude that tolerance to central hypovolemia is not related to either resting MSNA or sympathetic BRS.

  1. High-resolution melt analysis for species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci derived from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Barkema, Herman W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Morck, Douglas W; van der Meer, Frank J U M; De Buck, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens isolated from bovine milk. In this study, we report a rapid assay for species identification of CNS using high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of 16S rDNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment, spanning the variable region V1 and V2, was performed with a resulting amplicon of 215 bp. A library of distinct melt curves of reference strains of 13 common CNS species was created using HRMA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and, when needed, tuf gene, of 100 CNS isolates obtained from Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network was done to determine their species identity, allowing for subsequent evaluation of the performance of HRMA for field isolates of bovine CNS. A combination of HRMA and sequencing revealed that Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. xylosus, S. simulans, and S. sciuri had multiple genotypes, complicating their resolution by HRMA. As the 3 genotypes of S. chromogenes had distinct melt curves, the 3 distinct genotypes were employed as reference strains in a blinded trial of 156 CNS isolates to identify S. chromogenes. HRMA correctly identified all S. chromogenes isolates which were later confirmed by sequencing. Staphylococcus chromogenes (68%) was most frequently found among the CNS isolates, followed by S. haemolyticus (10%) and S. xylosus (6%). The present study revealed that HRMA of 16S rRNA gene (V1-V2) could be used as a rapid, efficient, low-cost, and minimally cumbersome technique for S. chromogenes identification, the most common CNS derived from bovine milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    OpenAIRE

    Annuschka Salima Eden; Annuschka Salima Eden; Vera eDehmelt; Vera eDehmelt; Matthias eBischoff; Pienie eZwitserlood; Harald eKugel; Kati eKeuper; Peter eZwanzger; Christian eDobel; Christian eDobel; Christian eDobel

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which n...

  3. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: an fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    OpenAIRE

    Eden, Annuschka S.; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which n...

  4. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su; Shikhovtsev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5–1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  5. Oxygen-deficient hematite nanorods as high-performance and novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Yinxiang; Yu, Minghao; Zhai, Teng; Liang, Chaolun; Xie, Shilei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Tong, Yexiang

    2014-05-21

    Oxygen-deficient α-Fe2 O3 nanorods with outstanding capacitive performance are developed and demonstrated as novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors. The asymmetric-supercapacitor device based on the oxygen-deficient α-Fe2 O3 nanorod negative electrode and a MnO2 positive electrode achieves a maximum energy density of 0.41 mW·h/cm(3) ; it is also capable of charging a mobile phone and powering a light-emitting diode indicator. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    RNA and protein levels of the StAR and 3β-HSD in group HFPD+CS were both higher than those of in group ND+CS. These results indicated that Kunming male mice with high-fat, high-protein diet and casein injection for 8weeks can be used to establish a diet-induced obesity and chronic systemic inflammation. The sperm parameters in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI decreased accompanied by pathological changes of testicular tissue. This resultant effect of reduced serum testosterone levels was associated with the overproduction of TNF-α and IL-10 and down-regulation of StAR and CYP11A1. Under the same casein-induced chronic inflammation condition, the mice with high-fat, high-protein diet had better testicular steroidogenesis activity and sperm parameters compared with the mice in normal diet, indicating that the mice with casein-induced inflammatory injury consuming a high-fat, high-protein diet gained weight normally, reduced serum adiponectin level and increased testosterone production by an upregulation of 3β-HSD expression. High-fat, high-protein diet attenuated the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Peer Social Experiences on Positive and Negative Indicators of Mental Health among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Gelley, Cheryl D.; Roth, Rachel A.; Bateman, Lisa P.

    2015-01-01

    Modern definitions of complete mental health include both positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning. We examined the associations between peer relationships (victimization and receipt of prosocial acts) and multiple indicators of mental health that represent subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative…

  8. Dustborne and airborne gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in high versus low ERMI homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study aimed at investigating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in moldy and non-moldy homes, as defined by the home's Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value. The ERMI values were determined from floor dust samples in 2010 and 2011 and homes were classified...

  9. All in its proper time: monitoring the emergence of a memory bias for novel, arousing-negative words in individuals with high and low trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Annuschka Salima; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Keuper, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus; Laeger, Inga; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arousing-negative associated words, which was not present at the end of training. Cued recall and valence ratings revealed a memory bias for pseudowords that had been paired with arousing-negative pictures, immediately after learning and two weeks later. This held even for items that were not explicitly remembered. High anxious individuals evidenced a stronger memory bias in the cued-recall test, and their ratings were also more negative overall compared to low anxious persons. Both effects were evident, even when explicit recall was controlled for. Regarding the memory bias in anxiety prone persons, explicit memory seems to play a more crucial role than implicit memory. The study stresses the need for several time points of bias measurement during the course of learning and retrieval, as well as the employment of different measures for learning success.

  10. All in its proper time: monitoring the emergence of a memory bias for novel, arousing-negative words in individuals with high and low trait anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    Full Text Available The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arousing-negative associated words, which was not present at the end of training. Cued recall and valence ratings revealed a memory bias for pseudowords that had been paired with arousing-negative pictures, immediately after learning and two weeks later. This held even for items that were not explicitly remembered. High anxious individuals evidenced a stronger memory bias in the cued-recall test, and their ratings were also more negative overall compared to low anxious persons. Both effects were evident, even when explicit recall was controlled for. Regarding the memory bias in anxiety prone persons, explicit memory seems to play a more crucial role than implicit memory. The study stresses the need for several time points of bias measurement during the course of learning and retrieval, as well as the employment of different measures for learning success.

  11. Negative CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  12. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  13. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Anderson

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN improves peripheral insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated mRNA expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose (HF/HFr diet to induce insulin resistance, with or without CN, for 12 weeks. There was a decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with the HF/HFr diet that was reversed by CN. The CN fed rats were more active in a Y maze test than rats fed the control and HF/HFr diets. The HF/HFr diet fed rats showed greater anxiety in an elevated plus maze test that was lessened by feeding CN. The HF/HFr diet also led to a down regulation of the mRNA coding for GLUT1 and GLUT3 that was reversed by CN in the hippocampus and cortex. There were increases in Insr, Irs1 and Irs2 mRNA in the hippocampus and cortex due to the HF/HFr diet that were not reversed by CN. Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity was also associated with increased glycogen synthase in both hippocampus and cortex in the control and HF/HFr diet animals fed CN. The HF/HFr diet induced increases in mRNA associated with Alzheimers including PTEN, Tau and amyloid precursor protein (App were also alleviated by CN. In conclusion, these data suggest that the negative effects of a HF/HFr diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes were alleviated by CN suggesting that neuroprotective effects of CN are associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity and related changes in the brain.

  14. A Novel Differentiation Therapy Approach to Reduce the Metastatic Potential of Basal, Highly Metastatic, Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    metastatic process (Condeelis and Pollard 2006), we quantitated macrophage recruitment in the lungs of mice injected with 231-Empty or 231-GATA3 cells by...image quantitation of Ki-67 expression and H&E staining of metastatic lung lesions using Apirio Image Analysis software (Figure 9) which demonstrated...expression in MD A-MB-231 and in another triple negative breast cancer cell line, Hs578T Transient knock down of GATA3 in the lum inal GATA3 positiv

  15. The value of repeat scintigraphy in patients with a high clinical suspicion for Meckel diverticulum after a negative or equivocal first Meckel scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vali, Reza; Daneman, Alan; McQuattie, Susan; Shammas, Amer [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Technetium {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate is the most common and accurate noninvasive method of preoperative investigation for Meckel diverticulum. Despite introducing various methods to increase the sensitivity of the study, there are many case reports of false-negative Meckel scans. A repeat scan is sometimes requested in patients with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum and negative or equivocal first Meckel scan. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the value of repeat scintigraphy for these patients. Seven hundred fifty-three Meckel scans were recorded retrospectively. In 33 cases (22 male and 11 female; mean age: 6.8 years), the Meckel scintigraphy was repeated either due to a high clinical suspicion of Meckel diverticulum and a negative study (n = 21) or due to equivocal findings in the first scan (n = 12). The study was interpreted as positive if an abnormal focal activity was identified in the abdomen and pelvis during the procedure. The results were correlated with pathology and clinical symptoms. Seven out of 12 (58%) equivocal studies were positive on the second study. Six of them were proven to be positive at operation (confirmed by pathology) while one of them was negative on laparoscopy. From 21 negative first scans with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum, three (14%) were positive on the second study. All three were proven to be Meckel diverticulum on pathology. Repeat Meckel scans in patients with equivocal findings on the first study or a negative result with a high clinical suspicion for a Meckel diverticulum are useful especially in cases in which the first study had been done without appropriate preparation. (orig.)

  16. Early stage cost-effectiveness analysis of a BRCA1-like test to detect triple negative breast cancers responsive to high dose alkylating chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Retel, Valesca P.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with a BRCA1-like profile may benefit from high dose alkylating chemotherapy (HDAC). This study examines whether BRCA1-like testing to target effective HDAC in TNBC patients can be more cost-effective than treating all patients with standard

  17. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: an fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Annuschka S; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at 4-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit) memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  18. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  19. Self-imagery in individuals with high body dissatisfaction: the effect of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Stephanie; Stopa, Lusia; Turner, Hannah

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of eating disorders highlight low self-esteem as a maintaining factor. This study explored the impact of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the working self (implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-concept clarity) in individuals with high body dissatisfaction (an important aspect of eating disorders). The impact of these images on state body satisfaction and affect was also explored. A group of participants with high body dissatisfaction completed measures of explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity, state body satisfaction and affect prior to completing a negative (n = 33) or positive (n = 33) self-imagery retrieval task. Following this they completed the baseline measures and a measure of implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative self-image in mind had a negative effect on explicit self-esteem, whilst holding a positive self-image had a beneficial effect. There were no effects of imagery on implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative image in mind led to a significant reduction in self-concept clarity; however, positive self-imagery did not affect self-concept clarity. Holding a negative self-image in mind led to a decrease in body satisfaction and state affect. The opposite was found for the positive self-imagery group. Implicit self-esteem was not measured at baseline. Imagery techniques which promote positive self-images may help improve aspects of the working self, body satisfaction and affect in individuals with high levels of body dissatisfaction. As such, these imagery techniques warrant further investigation in a clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  1. Anomalous thermal expansion, negative linear compressibility, and high-pressure phase transition in ZnAu2(CN) 4 : Neutron inelastic scattering and lattice dynamics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mayanak K.; Singh, Baltej; Mittal, Ranjan; Zbiri, Mohamed; Cairns, Andrew B.; Goodwin, Andrew L.; Schober, Helmut; Chaplot, Samrath L.

    2017-12-01

    We present temperature-dependent inelastic-neutron-scattering measurements, accompanied by ab initio calculations of the phonon spectra and elastic properties as a function of pressure to quantitatively explain an unusual combination of negative thermal expansion and negative linear compressibility behavior of ZnAu2(CN) 4 . The mechanism of the negative thermal expansion is identified in terms of specific anharmonic phonon modes that involve bending of the -Zn-NC-Au-CN-Zn- linkage. The soft phonon at the L point at the Brillouin zone boundary quantitatively relates to the high-pressure phase transition at about 2 GPa. The ambient pressure structure is also found to be close to an elastic instability that leads to a weakly first-order transition.

  2. Using high-level construal and perceptions of changeability to promote self-change over self-protection motives in response to negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belding, Jennifer N; Naufel, Karen Z; Fujita, Kentaro

    2015-06-01

    Diagnostic negative information presents people with a motivational dilemma. Although negative feedback can provide useful information with which to guide future self-improvement efforts, it also presents short-term affective costs. We propose that construal level, jointly with the perceived changeability of the feedback domain, determines whether people choose to accept or dismiss such information. Whereas low-level construal promotes short-term self-protection motivation (promoting dismissal), high-level construal promotes long-term self-change motivation (promoting acceptance)--to the extent that change is perceived as possible. Four studies support this hypothesis and examine underlying cognitive and motivational mechanisms. The present work may provide an integrative theoretical framework for understanding when people will be open to and accept negative diagnostic information, and has important practical implications for promoting self-change efforts. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Two-miRNA classifiers differentiate mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular thyroid adenomas in fine needle aspirations with high specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtas, Bartosz; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of thyroid by fine needle aspiration is challenging for the "indeterminate" category and can be supported by molecular testing. We set out to identify miRNA markers that could be used in a diagnostic setting to improve the discrimination of mutation-negative indeterminate fine needle...... aspirations. miRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed for freshly frozen tissue samples of 19 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 23 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular adenomas. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative polymerase...... chain reaction in a set of 44 fine needle aspiration samples representing 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 20 follicular adenomas. Twenty-six miRNAs characterized by a significant differential expression between follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas were identified. Nevertheless...

  4. Inclusive negative-hadron production from high-energy nu-bar-nucleus charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.; Endorf, R.; Hanft, R.; Malko, J.A.; Moffatt, G.; Nezrick, F.A.; Scott, W.; Smart, W.; Wolfson, J.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amrakhov, A.H.; Denisov, A.G.; Ermolov, P.F.; Gapienko, V.A.; Klukhin, V.I.; Koreshev, V.I.; Pitukhin, P.V.; Rjabov, V.G.; Slobodyuk, E.A.; Sirotenko, V.I.; Efremenko, V.I.; Gorichev, P.A.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Khovansky, V.D.; Kliger, G.K.; Kolganov, V.Z.; Krutchinin, S.P.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Rosanov, A.N.; Savitsky, M.M.; Shevchenko, V.G.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Ross, R.T.; Seidl, A.A.; Sinclair, D.

    1978-01-01

    We present data on inclusive negative-hadron production from charged-current antineutrino interactions in a 21% Ne--H mixture. Inclusive single-particle distributions are presented and are shown to be insensitive to the momentum transferred to the hadron vertex. Comparisons made to inclusive data from π - p and π - n interactions indicate a close similarity between the hadrons resulting from π-nucleon and nu-bar-nucleus interactions. The general features of the nu-bar-nucleus data are found to be similar to those seen in nu-barp interactions. This last observation implies that nu-barp and nu-barn interactions are similar and that nuclear effects are small

  5. Partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OLIMOV, K.; LUTPULLAEV, S.L.; PETROV, V.I.; OLIMOV, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    New experimental data on the partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in "1"6Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/s, pC-interactions at 4.2 and 9.9 GeV/s, and d,α,C(C)-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/s are presented. It is established that the behavior of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions at intermediate energies (<10 GeV) in hadron-nucleus collisions has a transitional character, reaching the limiting value at ultrahigh energies. It is shown that the mean values of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions decrease with an increase in mass number of the projectile nucleus. (authors)

  6. Coherent Interlayer Tunneling and Negative Differential Resistance with High Current Density in Double Bilayer Graphene-WSe2 Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, G William; Prasad, Nitin; Fallahazad, Babak; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Kim, Kyounghwan; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J; Register, Leonard F; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2017-06-14

    We demonstrate gate-tunable resonant tunneling and negative differential resistance between two rotationally aligned bilayer graphene sheets separated by bilayer WSe 2 . We observe large interlayer current densities of 2 and 2.5 μA/μm 2 and peak-to-valley ratios approaching 4 and 6 at room temperature and 1.5 K, respectively, values that are comparable to epitaxially grown resonant tunneling heterostructures. An excellent agreement between theoretical calculations using a Lorentzian spectral function for the two-dimensional (2D) quasiparticle states, and the experimental data indicates that the interlayer current stems primarily from energy and in-plane momentum conserving 2D-2D tunneling, with minimal contributions from inelastic or non-momentum-conserving tunneling. We demonstrate narrow tunneling resonances with intrinsic half-widths of 4 and 6 meV at 1.5 and 300 K, respectively.

  7. Direct growth of vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as novel negative electrodes for high-energy-density wearable fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiabin; Zhang, Qichong; Sun, Juan; Li, Chaowei; Zhao, Jingxin; Zhou, Zhenyu; He, Bing; Wang, Xiaona; Man, Ping; Li, Qiulong; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Liyan; Li, Mingxing; Yao, Yagang

    2018-04-01

    Significant efforts have been recently devoted to constructing high-performance fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors. However, it is still a paramount challenge to develop high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors for practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. This work reports a simple and efficient method to directly grow vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as advanced negative electrodes with a high specific capacitance of 188 F/cm3 (564 mF/cm2). Taking advantage of their attractive structure, we successfully fabricated a fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum operating voltage of 1.6 V by assembling the vanadium nitride/carbon nanotube fiber negative electrode with the Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt ternary oxides nanowire arrays positive electrode. Due to the excellent synergistic effects between positive and negative electrodes, a remarkable specific capacitance of 50 F/cm3 (150 mF/cm2) and an outstanding energy density of 17.78 mWh/cm3 (53.33 μWh/cm2) for our fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor can be achieved. Furthermore, the as-assembled fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device has excellent mechanical flexibility in that 91% of the capacitance retained after bending 90° for 3000 times. Thus, this work exploits a pathway to construct high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor for next-generation portable and wearable electronics.

  8. A first insight into high prevalence of undiagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Northern Ethiopian prisons: implications for greater investment and quality control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantahun Biadglegne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB transmission in prisons poses significant risks to inmates as well as the general population. Currently, there are no data on smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in prisons and by extension no data on the impact such cases have on TB incidence. This study was designed to obtain initial data on the prevalence of smear-negative cases of TB in prisons as well as preliminary risk factor analysis for such TB cases. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2013 at eight main prisons located in the state of Amhara, Ethiopia. Interviews using a structured and pretested questionnaire were done first to identify symptomatic prisoners. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected and examined using acid fast bacilli (AFB microscopy at the point of care. All smear-negative sputum samples were taken for culture and Xpert testing. Descriptive and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. RESULTS: Overall the prevalence of smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in the study prisons was 8% (16/200. Using multivariate analysis, a contact history to TB patients in prison, educational level, cough and night sweating were found to be predictors of TB positivity among smear-negative pulmonary TB cases (p ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied prisons, high prevalence of undiagnosed TB cases using AFB microscopy was documented, which is an important public health concern that urgently needs to be addressed. Furthermore, patients with night sweating, non-productive cough, a contact history with TB patients and who are illiterate merit special attention, larger studies are warranted in the future to assess the associations more precisely. Further studies are also needed to examine TB transmission dynamics by patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB in a prison setting.

  9. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soon

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  11. High mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative can be predicted using a simple test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2009-01-01

    1007 aTBneg individuals who were enrolled from 2004 to 2006; 4983 age-matched controls were followed for comparison. Plasma suPAR levels were measured using the suPARnostic ELISA. Survival was analysed using Cox regression, ROC curves and Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: After 3 months of follow......-up, mortality was 21 per 100 person-year-observation (PYO) among aTBneg individuals and three per 100 PYO among the control population [mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 6.92 (95% CI 4.48-10.7)]. SuPAR values ranged between 0.9 and 45 ng/ml in aTBneg individuals. A log-linear relationship was found between su......PAR levels linear range, a 1 ng/ml increase was associated with a 46% increase in the mortality rate: MRR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.34-1.59). The area under the ROC curves was 0.88 for HIV-positive individuals and 0.79 for HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed...

  12. Right hemispheric contributions to fine auditory temporal discriminations: high-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfilippo De Sanctis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available That language processing is primarily a function of the left hemisphere has led to the supposition that auditory temporal discrimination is particularly well-tuned in the left hemisphere, since speech discrimination is thought to rely heavily on the registration of temporal transitions. However, physiological data have not consistently supported this view. Rather, functional imaging studies often show equally strong, if not stronger, contributions from the right hemisphere during temporal processing tasks, suggesting a more complex underlying neural substrate. The mismatch negativity (MMN component of the human auditory evoked-potential (AEP provides a sensitive metric of duration processing in human auditory cortex and lateralization of MMN can be readily assayed when sufficiently dense electrode arrays are employed. Here, the sensitivity of the left and right auditory cortex for temporal processing was measured by recording the MMN to small duration deviants presented to either the left or right ear. We found that duration deviants differing by just 15% (i.e. rare 115 ms tones presented in a stream of 100 ms tones elicited a significant MMN for tones presented to the left ear (biasing the right hemisphere. However, deviants presented to the right ear elicited no detectable MMN for this separation. Further, participants detected significantly more duration deviants and committed fewer false alarms for tones presented to the left ear during a subsequent psychophysical testing session. In contrast to the prevalent model, these results point to equivalent if not greater right hemisphere contributions to temporal processing of small duration changes.

  13. Fluorescence-guided surgery of a highly-metastatic variant of human triple-negative breast cancer targeted with a cancer-specific GFP adenovirus prevents recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Miwa, Shinji; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously developed a genetically-engineered GFP-expressing telomerase-dependent adenovirus, OBP-401, which can selectively illuminate cancer cells. In the present report, we demonstrate that targeting a triple-negative high-invasive human breast cancer, orthotopically-growing in nude mice, with OBP-401 enables curative fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS). OBP-401 enabled complete resection and prevented local recurrence and greatly inhibited lymph-node metastasis due to the ability of the virus to selectively label and subsequently kill cancer cells. In contrast, residual breast cancer cells become more aggressive after bright (white)-light surgery (BLS). OBP-401-based FGS also improved the overall survival compared with conventional BLS. Thus, metastasis from a highly-aggressive triple-negative breast cancer can be prevented by FGS in a clinically-relevant mouse model. PMID:27689331

  14. A mechanical model of stereocilia that demonstrates a shift in the high-sensitivity region due to the interplay of a negative stiffness and an adaptation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changwon; Park, Sukyung

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia are the basic sensory units of nature's inertial sensors and are highly sensitive over broad dynamic ranges, which is a major challenge in the design of conventional engineering sensors. The high sensitivity that is maintained by stereocilia was hypothesized to exist due to a combination of adaptation and negative stiffness mechanisms, which shift the region of highest sensitivity toward the active operation range of the stereocilia bundle. To examine the adaptation hypothesis in terms of its potential applicability to future applications regarding the design of inertial sensors, we developed a mechanical mimicry of the interplay between negative stiffness and the adaptation of the stereocilia that produces spontaneous oscillation of the hair bundle. The mechanical model consists of an inverted pendulum and a fixed T-bar that mimic the interaction of two adjacent stereocilia. To focus on the interaction of one gating spring and the corresponding adaptation motor without the effect of coupling from the other gating springs attached to the neighboring stereocilia, we fixed one bar that contains the adaptation motor. To emulate the negative resistance of the tip-link due to the transient stiffness softening by the gating ion channel, a magnet pair was attached to the top of the inverted pendulum and the fixed T-bar. Readjustment of the tip-link tension by the ‘slipping down and climbing up’ motion of the adaptation molecular motors was demonstrated by the side-to-side movement of the magnet by a step motor. The negative stiffness region was observed near the equilibrium position and shifted with the activation of the adaptation motor. The temporal demonstration of the stiffness shift was measured as a spontaneous oscillation. The results showed that the interplay between the negative stiffness and the adaptation mechanism was mechanically produced by the combination of a repulsive force and its continuous readjustment and is better understood through a

  15. Effect of high energy electrons on H{sup −} production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onai, M., E-mail: onai@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Fujita, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Etoh, H.; Aoki, Y. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [CERN Rte de Meyrin, 1200 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H{sup −} production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H{sup −} extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  16. Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aar, Fleur; Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2013-01-01

    Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM. Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study. MSM aged 18 years or older were

  17. Seroepidemiology of high-risk HPV in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM: the H2M study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Schepp, Rutger M.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; de Melker, Hester E.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), in particular HIV-infected MSM, are at increased risk for diseases related to human papilloma virus (HPV). Our goal was to assess the effect of HIV status on the presence of type-specific antibodies against seven high-risk HPV types in HPV-unvaccinated MSM. Moreover,

  18. The use of isoprene as a novel dopant in negative ion atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousty, Faezeh; O'Brien, Rob

    2015-06-15

    As in the case with positive ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (PI-APPI), the addition of dopants significantly improves the sensitivity of negative ion APPI (NI-APPI). However, the research on dopant-assisted-NI-APPI has been quite limited compared to the studies on dopant-assisted PI-APPI. This work presents the potential of isoprene as a novel dopant for NI-APPI. Thirteen compounds, possessing suitable gas-phase ion energetic properties in order to make stable negative ions, were selected. Dopants were continuously introduced into a tee junction prior to the ion source through a fused-silica capillary, while analytes were directly injected into the same tee. Then both were mixed with the continuous solvent from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nebulized, and entered the source. The nebulized stream was analyzed by APPI tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. The results obtained using isoprene were compared with those obtained by using toluene as a dopant and dopant-free NI-APPI. Isoprene enhanced the ionization intensities of the studied compounds, which were found to be comparable and, in some cases, more effective than toluene. The mechanisms leading to the observed set of negative analyte ions were also discussed. Because in NI-APPI, thermal electrons, which are produced during the photoionization of a dopant, are considered the main reagent ions, both isoprene and toluene promoted the ionization of analytes through the same mechanisms, as expected. Isoprene was shown to perform well as a novel dopant for NI-APPI. Isoprene has a high photoabsorption cross section in the VUV region; therefore, its photoionization leads to a highly effective production of thermal electrons, which further promotes the ionization of analytes. In addition, isoprene is environmentally benign and less toxic compared to currently used dopants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. On the use of distributions of stopping pions as an indicator of the spatial distribution of the high-LET dose in negative pion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A semi-empirical across the treatment volume of a therapeutic negative pion beam. Such beams deliver dose partially at high LET (through alphas and heavier particles produced both directly in pion stars and via intermediate star-produced neutrons), and partially at low LET (through scattering of pions, electrons and muons, as well as protons produced directly from pion stars and via intermediate neutrons). The problem is how to understand the spatial distribution of the high-LET dose, which is responsible for the potentially improved biological response in the treatment volume

  20. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre...... had much higher starch content, and caused less modified B-type starch granule size indicators than the CH plants. Our results indicated that, compared with the non-acclimated plants, the pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation effectively enhanced carbohydrate remobilization from stems to grains...

  1. Saturation and negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity in liquid iron-sulfur alloys at high densities from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Fabian; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; de Koker, Nico

    2018-03-01

    We report results on electronic transport properties of liquid Fe-S alloys at conditions of planetary cores, computed using first-principle techniques in the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. We describe a combined effect of resistivity saturation due to temperature, compression, and chemistry by comparing the electron mean free path from the Drude response of optical conductivity to the mean interatomic distance. At high compression and high sulfur concentration the Ioffe-Regel condition is satisfied, and the temperature coefficient of resistivity changes sign from positive to negative. We show that this happens due to a decrease in the d density of states at the Fermi level in response to thermal broadening.

  2. When do ego threats lead to self-regulation failure? Negative consequences of defensive high self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambird, Kathleen Hoffman; Mann, Traci

    2006-09-01

    High self-esteem (HSE) is increasingly recognized as heterogeneous. By measuring subtypes of HSE, the present research reevaluates the finding that HSE individuals show poor self-regulation following ego threat (Baumeister, Heatherton, & Tice, 1993). In Experiment 1, participants with HSE showed poor self-regulation after ego threat only if they also were defensive (high in self-presentation bias). In Experiment 2, two measures--self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem--were used to subtype HSE individuals as defensive. Both operationalizations of defensive HSE predicted poor self-regulation after ego threat. The results indicate that (a) only defensive HSE individuals are prone to self-regulation failure following ego threat and (b) measures of self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem can both be used to detect defensiveness.

  3. A prospective study to evaluate the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in sputum smear negative patients with high suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL by flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB in sputum smear negative patients with clinical and radiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 30 sputum smear negative patients of age group 20 to 70 years, who were highly suspicious for PTB by clinical and radiographic criteria. All patients were subjected to sputum culture, BAL stains and cultures, and cytopathology. Patients with moderate to massive pleural effusion, obvious accessible lymph node, history of antitubercular therapy (ATT, and contraindication to FOB were excluded. Results: Sputum culture for acid fast bacilli (AFB was positive in four (12% patients, BAL fluid was positive for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN stain in nine (27% patients, including four sputum culture patients, while BAL culture for AFB on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ medium was positive in 18 (60%, including 9 BAL fluid ZN stain positive patients. Six (20% patients had growth on pyogenic culture, while two (7% patients had malignant cell on cytological examination of BAL fluid. Remaining four (13% patients were empirically started on ATT. They had complete response to ATT at 2 months and were retrospectively diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. All the bacteriologically confirmed PTB patients were given ATT for 6 months and all patients had complete response. Conclusion: We concluded that FOB guided BAL is extremely useful for establishing diagnosis of PTB or other pulmonary diseases in sputum smear negative patients, who have high suspicion for PTB by clinical and radiographic criteria.

  4. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Krug

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of

  5. Eta Production at High Transverse Momentum by Negative 520 GeV/c Pions Incident on Beryllium and Copper Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, Robert Martin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the production of high transverse momentum 17 mesons by a 520 GeV /c $\\sqrt{s}$ = 31.2) $\\pi^-$ beam using data collected during the 1990 fixed target run of Fermilab experiment E706. E706 is a second generation fixed target experiment designed to measure direct-photon production in hadron-nucleus collisions. These data provide a clean test of perturbative QCD and serve as a valuable tool for probing hadronic structure. The $\\gamma\\gamma$ decay mode of the $\\eta$ meson was studied using data from a highly segmented electromagnetic lead liquid argon sampling calorimeter. Results are presented for inclusive $\\eta$ production by $\\pi^-$ beams on both beryllium and copper targets. The $\\eta$ to $\\pi^0$ production ratio and the nuclear dependence of the $\\eta$ production cross section are also reported. These results are for $\\eta$'s in the transverse momentum range 3.5 to 9 Ge V / c and the center of mass rapidity range -0.75 to 0.75, and are the highest energy results ever obtained for inclusive $\\eta$ production using a $\\pi^-$ beam.

  6. Significant relaxation of residual negative carrier in polar Alq3 film directly detected by high-sensitivity photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hiroumi; Lim, Hyunsoo; Sato, Tomoya; Noguchi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Yasuo; Ishii, Hisao

    2016-02-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) has been widely applied as a good electron-injecting layer (EIL) in organic light-emitting diodes. High-sensitivity photoemission measurement revealed a clear photoemission by visible light, although its ionization energy is 5.7 eV. This unusual photoemission is ascribed to Alq3 anions captured by positive polarization charges. The observed electron detachment energy of the anion was about 1 eV larger than the electron affinity reported by inverse photoemission. This difference suggests that the injected electron in the Alq3 layer is energetically relaxed, leading to the reduction in injection barrier. This nature is one of the reasons why Alq3 worked well as the EIL.

  7. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wen, Ting [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Yang, Wenge, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-01-14

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, respectively. The cubic Na{sub 3}OBr structure and tetragonal Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} with intergrowth K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.

  8. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na3OBr and Na4OI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng; Yang, Wenge

    2016-01-01

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na 3 OBr and Na 4 OI 2 , two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na 3 OBr and Na 4 OI 2 , respectively. The cubic Na 3 OBr structure and tetragonal Na 4 OI 2 with intergrowth K 2 NiF 4 structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na 4 OI 2 exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications

  9. A thymidine kinase-negative bovine herpesvirus 5 is highly attenuated for rabbits, but is neuroinvasive and establishes latent infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Campos da Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutant viral strains deleted in non-essential genes represent useful tools to study the function of specific gene products in the biology of the virus. We herein describe an investigation on the phenotype of a bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 recombinant deleted in the gene encoding the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK in rabbits, with special emphasis to neuroinvasiveness and the ability to establish and reactivate latent infection. Rabbits inoculated with the parental virus (SV-507/99 (n=18 at a low titer (10(5.5TCID50 shed virus in nasal secretions in titers up to 10(4.5TCID50 for up to 12 days (average: 9.8 days [5-12] and 5/ 16 developed neurological disease and were euthanized in extremis. Rabbits inoculated with the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ at a high dose (10(7.1TCID50 also shed virus in nasal secretions, yet to lower titers (maximum: 10(2.3TCID50 and for a shorter period (average: 6.6 days [2-11] and remained healthy. PCR examination of brain sections of inoculated rabbits at day 6 post-infection (pi revealed a widespread distribution of the parental virus, whereas DNA of the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ-was detected only in the trigeminal ganglia [TG] and olfactory bulbs [OB]. Nevertheless, during latent infection (52pi, DNA of the recombinant virus was detected in the TGs, OBs and also in other areas of the brain, demonstrating the ability of the virus to invade the brain. Dexamethasone (Dx administration at day 65 pi was followed by virus reactivation and shedding by 5/8 rabbits inoculated with the parental strain (mean duration of 4.2 days [1 - 9] and by none of seven rabbits inoculated with the recombinant virus. Again, PCR examination at day 30 post-Dx treatment revealed the presence of latent DNA in the TGs, OBs and in other areas of the brain of both groups. Taken together, these results confirm that the recombinant BoHV-5TKΔ is highly attenuated for rabbits. It shows a reduced ability to replicate in the nose but retains the ability to invade

  10. The negative effect of Zr addition on the high temperature strength in alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joonoh; Jang, Min-Ho; Kang, Jun-Yun; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a Zr addition on the precipitation behavior and mechanical properties in Nb-containing alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels was investigated using tensile tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis. The TEM observation showed that a Zr addition led to the formation of a (Nb,Zr)(C,N) complex particle, which coarsened the Nb-rich carbonitride. Tensile tests were performed at an elevated temperature (700 °C), and both the tensile and yield strengths decreased with a Zr addition. This unexpected result of a Zr addition was due to the reduction of the precipitation strengthening by particle coarsening. - Highlights: • The effect of Zr on high temperature strength in AFA steel containing Nb was studied. • Both the tensile and yield strengths of an AFA steel decreased with Zr-addition. • This is due to the reduction of precipitation strengthening by particle coarsening. • Nb(C,N) and (Nb,Zr)(C,N) particles were precipitated in an AFA and Zr-added AFA steel. • The size of (Nb,Zr)(C,N) particle is much bigger than that of Nb(C,N) particle

  11. Optimal classifier selection and negative bias in error rate estimation: an empirical study on high-dimensional prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulesteix Anne-Laure

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In biometric practice, researchers often apply a large number of different methods in a "trial-and-error" strategy to get as much as possible out of their data and, due to publication pressure or pressure from the consulting customer, present only the most favorable results. This strategy may induce a substantial optimistic bias in prediction error estimation, which is quantitatively assessed in the present manuscript. The focus of our work is on class prediction based on high-dimensional data (e.g. microarray data, since such analyses are particularly exposed to this kind of bias. Methods In our study we consider a total of 124 variants of classifiers (possibly including variable selection or tuning steps within a cross-validation evaluation scheme. The classifiers are applied to original and modified real microarray data sets, some of which are obtained by randomly permuting the class labels to mimic non-informative predictors while preserving their correlation structure. Results We assess the minimal misclassification rate over the different variants of classifiers in order to quantify the bias arising when the optimal classifier is selected a posteriori in a data-driven manner. The bias resulting from the parameter tuning (including gene selection parameters as a special case and the bias resulting from the choice of the classification method are examined both separately and jointly. Conclusions The median minimal error rate over the investigated classifiers was as low as 31% and 41% based on permuted uninformative predictors from studies on colon cancer and prostate cancer, respectively. We conclude that the strategy to present only the optimal result is not acceptable because it yields a substantial bias in error rate estimation, and suggest alternative approaches for properly reporting classification accuracy.

  12. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Martin P; Hogg, Edward H; Bernier, Pierre Y; Kurz, Werner A; Guo, Xiao Jing; Cyr, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography, and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2 ], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60°N for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially explicit simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modeling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce interannual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Interannual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on interannual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree-ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Reproduced with

  13. Impaired Social and Role Function in Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis and First-Episode Schizophrenia: Its Relations with Negative Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Jung; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Su Young; An, Suk Kyoon

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial dysfunction was a nettlesome problem of schizophrenia even in their prodromal phase as well as in their first-episode. In addition, its relations with psychopathology were not determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the social and role function impairment was found in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals as well as first-episode schizophrenia patients and to explore its relations with psychopathology. Thirty-seven normal controls, 63 UHR participants and 28 young, first-episode schizophrenia patients were recruited. Psychosocial functioning was examined by using Global function: Social and Role scale. Psychopathologies of positive, negative and depressive symptom were also measured. Social and role functioning in UHR were compromised at the equivalent level of those of first-episode schizophrenia patients. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that social and role dysfunction was associated with negative symptoms in each UHR and first-episode schizophrenia group. These findings suggest that the significant impairment of social and role function may be appeared before the active psychosis onset at the level of extent to those of first-episode schizophrenia patients. The psychosocial intervention strategy especially targeting the negative symptoms should be developed and provided to individuals from their prepsychotic stage of schizophrenia.

  14. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Performance of visual inspection with acetic acid and human papillomavirus testing for detection of high-grade cervical lesions in HIV positive and HIV negative Tanzanian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Iftner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV positive and HIV negative women who underwent cervical cancer screening, and to examine the ability of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), the standard detection method in Tanzania......, and HPV-testing to detect cytologically diagnosed high grade lesions or cancer (HSIL+). Women from different areas in Tanzania were invited by public announcement to cervical cancer screening organized by Ocean Road Cancer Institute (Dar-es-Salaam). A total of 3,767 women were enrolled. Women underwent...

  16. Hemicelluloses negatively affect lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility under NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments in Miscanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ning

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulose is the most abundant biomass on earth. However, biomass recalcitrance has become a major factor affecting biofuel production. Although cellulose crystallinity significantly influences biomass saccharification, little is known about the impact of three major wall polymers on cellulose crystallization. In this study, we selected six typical pairs of Miscanthus samples that presented different cell wall compositions, and then compared their cellulose crystallinity and biomass digestibility after various chemical pretreatments. Results A Miscanthus sample with a high hemicelluloses level was determined to have a relatively low cellulose crystallinity index (CrI and enhanced biomass digestibility at similar rates after pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. By contrast, a Miscanthus sample with a high cellulose or lignin level showed increased CrI and low biomass saccharification, particularly after H2SO4 pretreatment. Correlation analysis revealed that the cellulose CrI negatively affected biomass digestion. Increased hemicelluloses level by 25% or decreased cellulose and lignin contents by 31% and 37% were also found to result in increased hexose yields by 1.3-times to 2.2-times released from enzymatic hydrolysis after NaOH or H2SO4 pretreatments. The findings indicated that hemicelluloses were the dominant and positive factor, whereas cellulose and lignin had synergistic and negative effects on biomass digestibility. Conclusions Using six pairs of Miscanthus samples with different cell wall compositions, hemicelluloses were revealed to be the dominant factor that positively determined biomass digestibility after pretreatments with NaOH or H2SO4 by negatively affecting cellulose crystallinity. The results suggested potential approaches to the genetic modifications of bioenergy crops.

  17. Retrospective study of the influence of HPV persistence on outcomes among women with high-risk HPV infections and negative cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Taverna, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudia; Borghi, Chiara; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Ditto, Antonino; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of women diagnosed with high-risk HPV without cytology evidence of cervical dysplasia. The present retrospective observational study enrolled consecutive women aged at least 18 years diagnosed with high-risk HPV types with negative cytology results at the National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2015. The development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was assessed. There were 212 patients with high-risk HPV infections with negative cytology included in the analysis. After a mean ± SD follow-up period of 48 ± 33 months, 65 (30.7%) and 26 (12.3%) patients had developed cytologic or histologic cervical dysplasia (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL]/CIN1+) and high-grade cervical dysplasia (CIN2+), respectively. No patients had invasive cancer. No correlations were observed between type-specific HPV infections and LSIL/CIN1+ and CIN2+. HPV persistence correlated with both LSIL/CIN1+ (P<0.001) and CIN2+ (P<0.001) in univariate analyses; a 6-month increase in HPV persistence was associated with increased risk of developing LSIL/CIN1+ (P=0.010) and CIN2+ (P=0.012) in multivariate analyses. Regardless of cytology findings, patients diagnosed with high-risk HPV types should receive strict colposcopy follow-up, particularly with persistent HPV infections. Further prospective studies are needed to defined optimal surveillance strategies for these patients. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  18. Mining of high utility itemsets of size-2 with pruning strategies and negative item values for B2C companies based on experiential marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gahlot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Business to customer (B2C marketing for the retail organisations is the most rapid adoption made by the developed countries, while it has the pitfalls in the developing nations. B2C companies have been continually putting some or the other lucrative offers and schemes on their manufactured products. There happens to be no logical demand of clubbing the sale of two products. The only need of such clubbing is the financial crisis which the company wants to overcome. Information technology can renew and make the competitive advantage for B2C companies. In this paper, a novel way for finding the itemset clubs is proposed, hence extending Apriori algorithm. The proposed methodology aims at finding the combinations of the products which can be sold together with the high levels of utility. This allows for making good profits for the company. Unlike contemporary way of items bearing positive values, negative item values have been looked into. The MHUIS-2wPS algorithm utilises the transactional experiences of the retail stores and outputs the size-2 clubs. The MHUI-NIV algorithm caters for the items with negative item values. The dissertation applies various pruning strategies for the discovery of high utility itemsets. These prunings will help remove the unnecessary formation of the low utility extensions. Later, various datasets have been used to show the essence of the algorithms.

  19. Does High-Quality Financial Reporting Mitigate the Negative Impact of Global Financial Crises on Firm Performance? Evidence from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior literature has claimed that accounting plays a negative role in a financial crisis. The current study sought to determine whether this effect is dependent on the quality of financial reporting. Specifically, this study examined the impact of the quality of financial reporting (as measured via earnings quality on liquidity (measured by the bid-ask spread in the equity market during the 2008–2009 global financial crisis in the United Kingdom. We found, as expected, that market liquidity was much lower during the crisis than prior to the crisis; however, firms with high-quality financial reporting suffered fewer negative effects as a result of the financial crisis. The results were robust after controlling for other influences, such as return volatility, loss making, market value of equity, and other potential endogeneity problems. In addition, adopting alternative models for earnings quality did not alter our inferences. Our results support the notion that high-quality accounting information can reduce information asymmetry and hence enhance investor confidence during a financial crisis. The results suggest that a stable financial reporting system is an important part of that overall economic fabric. Our findings will help build a framework on which an overall financial crisis risk-management strategy can be developed to avoid future crises.

  20. Dual-wavelength photo-Hall effect spectroscopy of deep levels in high resistive CdZnTe with negative differential photoconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiienko, A.; Grill, R.; Moravec, P.; Korcsmáros, G.; Rejhon, M.; Pekárek, J.; Elhadidy, H.; Šedivý, L.; Vasylchenko, I.

    2018-04-01

    Photo-Hall effect spectroscopy was used in the study of deep levels in high resistive CdZnTe. The monochromator excitation in the photon energy range 0.65-1.77 eV was complemented by a laser diode high-intensity excitation at selected photon energies. A single sample characterized by multiple unusual features like negative differential photoconductivity and anomalous depression of electron mobility was chosen for the detailed study involving measurements at both the steady and dynamic regimes. We revealed that the Hall mobility and photoconductivity can be both enhanced and suppressed by an additional illumination at certain photon energies. The anomalous mobility decrease was explained by an excitation of the inhomogeneously distributed deep level at the energy Ev + 1.0 eV, thus enhancing potential non-uniformities. The appearance of negative differential photoconductivity was interpreted by an intensified electron occupancy of that level by a direct valence band-to-level excitation. Modified Shockley-Read-Hall theory was used for fitting experimental results by a model comprising five deep levels. Properties of the deep levels and their impact on the device performance were deduced.

  1. Negative thermal expansion up to 1000 C of ZrTiO4-Al2TiO5 ceramics for high-temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.J.; Kim, H.C.; Han, I.S.; Aneziris, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    High temperature structural ceramics based on Al 2 TiO 5 -ZrTiO 4 (ZAT) having excellent thermal-shock-resistance were synthesized by a reaction sintering. The ZAT ceramics sintered at 1600 C had a negative thermal expansions up to 1000 C and a much lower thermal expansion coefficient (0.3 ∝ 1.3 x 10 -6 /K) than that of polycrystalline Al 2 TiO 5 (1.5 x 10 -6 /K). These low thermal expansion are apparently due to a combination of microcracking caused by the large thermal expansion anisotropy of the crystal axes of the Al 2 TiO 5 phase. The microstructural degradation of the composites after various thermal treatment for high temperature applications were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultrasonic and dilatometer. (orig.)

  2. Inulin supplementation reduces the negative effect of a high-fat diet rich in SFA on bone health of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz

    2018-05-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet, rich in SFA, causes deterioration of bone properties. Some studies suggest that feeding inulin to animals may increase mineral absorption and positively affect bone quality; however, these studies have been carried out only on rodents fed a standard diet. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of inulin on bone health of pigs (using it as an animal model for humans) fed a high-fat diet rich in SFA, having an unbalanced ratio of lysine:metabolisable energy. It was hypothesised that inulin reduces the negative effects of such a diet on bone health. At 50 d of age, twenty-one pigs were randomly allotted to three groups: the control (C) group fed a standard diet, and two experimental (T and TI) groups fed a high-fat diet rich in SFA. Moreover, TI pigs consumed an extra inulin supply (7 % of daily feed intake). After 10 weeks, whole-body bone mineral content (P=0·0054) and bone mineral density (P=0·0322) were higher in pigs of groups TI and C compared with those of group T. Femur bone mineral density was highest in pigs in group C, lower in group TI and lowest in group T (P=0·001). Femurs of pigs in groups TI and C had similar, but higher, maximum strength compared with femurs of pigs in group T (P=0·0082). In conclusion, consumption of a high-fat diet rich in SFA adversely affected bone health, but inulin supplementation in such a diet diminishes this negative effect.

  3. Overexpression of nuclear AR-V7 protein in primary prostate cancer is an independent negative prognostic marker in men with high-risk disease receiving adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Bernemann, Christof; Tolkach, Yuri; Heller, Martina; Nientiedt, Cathleen; Falkenstein, Michael; Herpel, Esther; Jenzer, Maximilian; Grüllich, Carsten; Jäger, Dirk; Sültmann, Holger; Duensing, Anette; Perner, Sven; Cronauer, Marcus V; Stephan, Carsten; Debus, Jürgen; Schrader, Andres Jan; Kristiansen, Glen; Hohenfellner, Markus; Duensing, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) has recently been reported to be associated with resistance to antihormonal therapy. Herein, we address the question whether tumor cells with AR-V7 expression can be detected at the time of radical prostatectomy, that is, before long-term hormonal manipulation and castration resistance, and what the potential prognostic impact on the biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival may be. An anti-AR-V7 antibody was first validated in a training set of prostate cancer specimens by a comparison of AR-V7 protein to AR-V7 mRNA expression. We then analyzed nuclear AR-V7 protein expression in the primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 163 predominantly high-risk patients (cohort I) as well as the primary tumors from patients of a second, consecutive patient cohort (n = 238, cohort II) not selected for any clinicopathological features. Staining results were correlated to patient characteristics and BCR-free patient survival. High nuclear AR-V7 protein expression was detected in approximately 30%-40% of patients in cohort I and II at the time of radical prostatectomy. High baseline expression of nuclear AR-V7 protein was associated with an unfavorable BCR-free survival in the high-risk patient cohort I but not in the unselected consecutive cohort II. Remarkably, AR-V7 was an independent negative prognostic factor in high-risk prostate cancer patients of cohort I who were selected to receive adjuvant treatment. Prostate cancer cells with high nuclear AR-V7 protein expression can be detected in a substantial proportion of tumors at the time of radical prostatectomy. The presence of AR-V7-positive tumor cells is associated with an unfavorable prognosis for BCR-free survival in a high-risk patient cohort including a subgroup of patients selected to receive adjuvant therapy, in which AR-V7 was an independent negative prognosticator. Overexpression of nuclear AR-V7 protein hence identifies a subset of tumors

  4. Persistent Low-Risk and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections of the Uterine Cervix in HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence, persistence, and multiplicity of human papillomavirus (HPV infection appears different comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative women. In this study, we examined prevalent, persistent, and multiple low- and high-risk cervical HPV infections in HIV-negative and HIV-positive women.MethodsWe studied 1,020 women involved in a study of HPV infection using SPF25/LiPA10. Two study visits were scheduled, at enrollment and 6 months afterward. At each study visit, research nurses used a cervical brush to collect samples of exfoliated cervical cells from the cervical os, from all the study participants. Exact logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between HIV and HPV infections.ResultsThe mean (SD age of the study participants was 38 (8 years, 56% were HIV-negative and 44% were HIV-positive. Among HIV-negative women at baseline, single low-risk HPV (lrHPV infections occurred in 12%; multiple lrHPV in 2%; single high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infections in 9%, and multiple hrHPV infections in 2%. Single lrHPV infections were persistent in 6%, but there was no persistent multiple lrHPV infections. Single hrHPV infections were persistent in 4% while multiple hrHPV infections were persistent in 0.3%. Among HIV-positive women at baseline, single lrHPV infections occurred in 19%, multiple lrHPV in 6%, single hrHPV infections in 17%, and multiple hrHPV infections occurred in 12%. Single lrHPV infections were persistent in 9%, multiple lrHPV infections in 0.6%, single hrHPV infections in 13%, while multiple hrHPV were persistent in 3%. Prevalent, persistent, and multiple infections were more common in HIV-positive women, compared to HIV-negative women. In multivariate models adjusted for age, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at sexual initiation, and douching, the odds ratios comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative women, were 2.09 (95% CI 1.47–2.97, p < 0.001 for prevalent lrHPV, 1.26 (95% CI

  5. Multiple negative differential resistance devices with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio for practical multi-valued logic and memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) device with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with a conventional MOSFET, which suppresses the valley current with transistor off-leakage level. Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in tunnel junction provides the first peak, and the second peak and valley are generated from the suppression of diffusion current in tunnel diode by the off-state MOSFET. The multiple NDR curves can be controlled by doping concentration of tunnel junction and the threshold voltage of MOSFET. By using complementary multiple NDR devices, five-state memory is demonstrated only with six transistors.

  6. High-Field Quasiparticle Tunneling in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ : Negative Magnetoresistance in the Superconducting State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, N.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Shibauchi, T.; Bulaevskii, L. N.; Maley, M. P.; Latyshev, Yu. I.; Yamashita, T.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the c -axis resistivity ρ c (H) in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ that peaks in quasistatic magnetic fields up to 60 T. By suppressing the Josephson part of the two-channel (Cooper pair/quasiparticle) conductivity σ c (H) , we find that the negative slope of ρ c (H) above the peak is due to quasiparticle tunneling conductivity σ q (H) across the CuO 2 layers below H c2 . At high fields (a) σ q (H) grows linearly with H , and (b) ρ c (T) tends to saturate (σ c ≠0 ) as T→0 , consistent with the scattering at the nodes of the d -wave gap. A superlinear σ q (H) marks the normal state above T c . (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. High infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3* Rong-Zhen Luo,1,2,4,* Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Cong Xue1–3 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 3Departments of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 4Departments of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is associated with poor prognosis and high probability of distant metastases. Tumor microenvironments play a pivotal role in tumor metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are one of the main cell components, and they are correlated with increasing metastatic risk. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic significance of the infiltration of TAMs in patients with TNBC. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation (CD68 (a marker for macrophages was performed on tissue microarrays of operable breast cancer among 287 patients with TNBC, and the number of infiltrating TAMs was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Results: We found that TNBC with a large number of infiltrating TAMs had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis, as well as lower rates of disease-free survival and overall survival than those with a smaller number of infiltrating TAMs. Multivariate analysis indicated that the number of infiltrating TAMs was a significant independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival (P=0.001 in all patients. Conclusion: Our results suggested that high infiltrating TAMs are a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with TNBC, and they could become a potentially useful prognostic marker for TNBC. Keywords: breast carcinoma, triple-negative, tumor-associated macrophages, prognosis

  8. High Chromosome Number in hematological cancer cell lines is a Negative Predictor of Response to the inhibition of Aurora B and C by GSK1070916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardwicke Mary

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora kinases play critical roles in mitosis and are being evaluated as therapeutic targets in cancer. GSK1070916 is a potent, selective, ATP competitive inhibitor of Aurora kinase B and C. Translation of predictive biomarkers to the clinic can benefit patients by identifying the tumors that are more likely to respond to therapies, especially novel inhibitors such as GSK1070916. Methods 59 Hematological cancer-derived cell lines were used as models for response where in vitro sensitivity to GSK1070916 was based on both time and degree of cell death. The response data was analyzed along with karyotype, transcriptomics and somatic mutation profiles to determine predictors of response. Results 20 cell lines were sensitive and 39 were resistant to treatment with GSK1070916. High chromosome number was more prevalent in resistant cell lines (p-value = 0.0098, Fisher Exact Test. Greater resistance was also found in cell lines harboring polyploid subpopulations (p-value = 0.00014, Unpaired t-test. A review of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL cell lines showed an association between NOTCH1 mutation status and chromosome number (p-value = 0.0066, Fisher Exact Test. Conclusions High chromosome number associated with resistance to the inhibition of Aurora B and C suggests cells with a mechanism to bypass the high ploidy checkpoint are resistant to GSK1070916. High chromosome number, a hallmark trait of many late stage hematological malignancies, varies in prevalence among hematological malignancy subtypes. The high frequency and relative ease of measurement make high chromosome number a viable negative predictive marker for GSK1070916.

  9. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives...

  10. Comprehensive analysis of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high, -low, and -negative colorectal cancers based on protein marker expression and molecular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobec, Inti; Bihl, Michel; Foerster, Anja; Rufle, Alex; Lugli, Alessandro

    2011-11-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is being investigated for its role in the molecular and prognostic classification of colorectal cancer patients but is also emerging as a factor with the potential to influence clinical decision-making. We report a comprehensive analysis of clinico-pathological and molecular features (KRAS, BRAF and microsatellite instability, MSI) as well as of selected tumour- and host-related protein markers characterizing CIMP-high (CIMP-H), -low, and -negative colorectal cancers. Immunohistochemical analysis for 48 protein markers and molecular analysis of CIMP (CIMP-H: ≥ 4/5 methylated genes), MSI (MSI-H: ≥ 2 instable genes), KRAS, and BRAF were performed on 337 colorectal cancers. Simple and multiple regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed. CIMP-H was found in 24 cases (7.1%) and linked (p CIMP-low or -negative cases. Of the 48 protein markers, decreased levels of RKIP (p = 0.0056), EphB2 (p = 0.0045), CK20 (p = 0.002), and Cdx2 (p CIMP-H, independently of MSI status. In addition to the expected clinico-pathological and molecular associations, CIMP-H colorectal cancers are characterized by a loss of protein markers associated with differentiation, and metastasis suppression, and have increased CD8+ T-lymphocytes regardless of MSI status. In particular, Cdx2 loss seems to strongly predict CIMP-H in both microsatellite-stable (MSS) and MSI-H colorectal cancers. Cdx2 is proposed as a surrogate marker for CIMP-H. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Consistency between studies. In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two 'natural experiments' found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female-male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the targeted diseases. With herd immunity to whooping cough, DTP is associated with higher mortality for girls

  12. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E; Hasper, Thomas B; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-05-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species with those of exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) at different temperatures (20-40°C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. The highly efficient photocatalytic and light harvesting property of Ag-TiO2 with negative nano-holes structure inspired from cicada wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Imran; Zhang, Wang; Zheng, Wangshu; Zhu, Yuying; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jianzhong; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Abbas, Waseem; Zhang, Di

    2017-12-08

    The negative replica of biomorphic TiO 2 with nano-holes structure has been effectively fabricated directly from nano-nipple arrays structure of cicada wings by using a simple, low-cost and highly effective sol-gel ultrasonic method. The nano-holes array structure was well maintained after calcination in air at 500 °C. The Ag nanoparticles (10 nm-25 nm) were homogeneously decorated on the surface and to the side wall of nano-holes structure. It was observed that the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 showed remarkable photocatalytic activity by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under UV-vis light irradiation. The biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 with nano-holes structure showed superior photocatalytic activity compared to the biomorphic TiO 2 and commercial Degussa P25. This high-performance photocatalytic activity of the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 may be attributed to the nano-holes structure, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of the Ag nanoparticles, and enhanced electron-hole separation. Moreover, the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 showed more absorption capability in the visible wavelength range. This work provides a new insight to design such a structure which may lead to a range of novel applications.

  14. The effect of partial reinforcement on instrumental successive negative contrast in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low- (RLA-I) Avoidance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenya, L; Sabariego, M; Donaire, R; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Gómez, M J; Mustaca, A; Torres, C

    2012-03-20

    Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Severe negative energy balance during 21 d at high altitude decreases fat-free mass regardless of dietary protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Young, Andrew J; Karl, J Philip; Kenefick, Robert W; Margolis, Lee M; Cole, Renee E; Carbone, John W; Lieberman, Harris R; Kim, Il-Young; Ferrando, Arny A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2018-02-01

    In this 2-phase randomized controlled study, we examined whether consuming a higher-protein (HP) diet would attenuate fat-free mass (FFM) loss during energy deficit (ED) at high altitude (HA) in 17 healthy males (mean ± sd: 23 ± 6 yr; 82 ± 14 kg). During phase 1 at sea level (SL, 55 m), participants consumed a eucaloric diet providing standard protein (SP; 1.0 g protein/kg,) for 21 d. During phase 2, participants resided at HA (4300 m) for 22 d and were randomly assigned to either an SP or HP (2.0 g protein/kg) diet designed to elicit a 40% ED. Body composition, substrate oxidation, and postabsorptive whole-body protein kinetics were measured. Participants were weight stable during SL and lost 7.9 ± 1.9 kg ( P Berryman, C. E., Young, A. J., Karl, J. P., Kenefick, R. W., Margolis, L. M., Cole, R. E., Carbone, J. W., Lieberman, H. R., Kim, I.-Y., Ferrando, A. A., Pasiakos, S. M. Severe negative energy balance during 21 d at high altitude decreases fat-free mass regardless of dietary protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

  16. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M.; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Hasper, Thomas B.; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species to exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to CO2 at different temperatures (20 - 40 C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. (Reference: New Phytologist, in press)

  17. High negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain for managing debilitating subcutaneous emphysema secondary to tube thoracostomy for an iatrogenic post computed tomography guided transthoracic needle biopsy pneumothorax: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Debilitating subcutaneous emphysema which causes distress, anxiety, palpebral closure, dyspnoea or dysphagia requires intervention. High negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain provides immediate and sustained relief in extensive and debilitating SE.

  18. Divertor ‘death-ray’ explained: An artifact of a Langmuir probe operating at negative bias in a high-recycling divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, D.; Umansky, M.V.; LaBombard, B.; Rognlien, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    The divertor ‘death-ray’, enhanced plasma pressure near the outer strike-point relative to ‘upstream’ values, was thought to correspond to axisymmetric increased divertor heat flux. Recent measurements on Alcator C-Mod show that the ‘death-ray’ is localized to biased Langmuir probes. Heat fluxes deduced from plasma-sheath theory and surface thermocouples agree in sheath-limited and moderate-recycling regimes. They diverge in high-recycling and detached regimes; surface thermocouples measure reduced heat flux while a ‘death-ray’ appears on Langmuir probes. The ‘death-ray’ is caused by the probe’s negative bias affecting the local flux tube. With the bias, electron heat flux to the probe surface is reduced. Thus, the local electron temperature is raised, enhancing neutral ionization and increasing the ion flux to the probe. The plasma fluid code UEDGE is used to simulate and reproduce many of the features of this integrated biased probe/divertor system

  19. High defect stage, contralateral defects, and poor flexibility are negative predictive factors of bone union in pediatric and adolescent athletes with spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazufumi; Kota, Shintaro; Oikawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    2018-01-01

    To identify predisposition to spondylolysis and physical characteristics associated with "bone union" following conservative spondylolysis treatment among pediatric and adolescent athletes. We retrospectively analyzed pediatric and adolescent athletes with spondylolysis who underwent conservative treatment and rehabilitation for three or more consecutive months following sports activity cessation. Patients with terminal spondylolysis or who did not discontinue sports activities were excluded. We compared physical fitness factors in the union and nonunion groups and examined the association between bone union and spondylolysis severity by logistic regression analysis. Of 183 patients with spondylolysis who underwent rehabilitation over a four-year period, 127 patients with 227 defects were included in the final analysis. Bone union was achieved in 66.5% (151/227) of the pars interarticularis defects and 70.1% (89/127) of the patients. On multivariate analysis, stage of pars interarticularis defect (odds ratio [OR], 0.26;p = 0.0027), stage of contralateral pars interarticularis defect (OR, 0.51;p = 0.00026), and straight leg-raising test (OR, 1.06;p = 0.028) were significantly associated with bone union. High defect stage, stage of the contralateral pars interarticularis defect, and poor flexibility were negative prognostic factors of bone healing in athletes with spondylolysis. J. Med. Invest. 65:126-130, February, 2018.

  20. Effect of oxyfluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotube additives on positive temperature coefficient/negative temperature coefficient behavior in high-density polyethylene polymeric switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Byong Chol; Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Se Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: → Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. → Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. → A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of a Colistin Loading Dose, High-Dose Maintenance Regimen in Critically Ill Patients With Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefritz, Jessica L; Bauer, Karri A; Jones, Christian; Mangino, Julie E; Porter, Kyle; Murphy, Claire V

    2017-09-01

    Emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative (GN) pathogens and lack of novel antibiotics have increased the use of colistin, despite unknown optimal dosing. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a colistin loading dose, high-dose (LDHD) maintenance regimen in patients with MDR-GN pneumonia. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed comparing critically ill patients with MDR-GN pneumonia pre- and postimplementation of a colistin LDHD guideline with a primary outcome of clinical cure. Safety was assessed using incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) based on RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage renal disease) criteria. Seventy-two patients met the inclusion criteria (42 preimplementation and 30 postimplementation). Clinical cure was achieved in 23 (55%) patients in the preimplementation group and 20 (67%) patients in the postimplementation group ( P = .31). AKI occurred in 50% of the patients during the preimplementation period and 58% during the postimplementation period ( P = .59) with no difference in initiation rates of renal replacement therapy. The increased clinical cure rate after implementation of the colistin LDHD guideline did not reach statistical significance. The LDHD guideline, however, was not associated with an increased incidence of AKI, despite higher intravenous colistin doses. Opportunity exists to optimize colistin dosage while balancing toxicity, but larger studies are warranted.

  2. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien M. Rotteveel-de Groot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Thyroglobulin (Tg measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman–Coulter. Design and methods: Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Results: Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04–500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. Conclusions: In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence. Keywords: Thyroglobulin, Roche Elecsys Tg II assay, validation, reporting limit

  3. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteveel-de Groot, Dorien M; Ross, H Alec; Janssen, Marcel J R; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Oosting, Janine D; Sweep, Fred C G J; van Herwaarden, Antonius E

    2016-08-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman-Coulter). Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL) for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04-500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence.

  4. Seeing voices: High-density electrical mapping and source-analysis of the multisensory mismatch negativity evoked during the McGurk illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Amour, Dave; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Molholm, Sophie; Ritter, Walter; Foxe, John J

    2007-02-01

    Seeing a speaker's facial articulatory gestures powerfully affects speech perception, helping us overcome noisy acoustical environments. One particularly dramatic illustration of visual influences on speech perception is the "McGurk illusion", where dubbing an auditory phoneme onto video of an incongruent articulatory movement can often lead to illusory auditory percepts. This illusion is so strong that even in the absence of any real change in auditory stimulation, it activates the automatic auditory change-detection system, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP). We investigated the putative left hemispheric dominance of McGurk-MMN using high-density ERPs in an oddball paradigm. Topographic mapping of the initial McGurk-MMN response showed a highly lateralized left hemisphere distribution, beginning at 175 ms. Subsequently, scalp activity was also observed over bilateral fronto-central scalp with a maximal amplitude at approximately 290 ms, suggesting later recruitment of right temporal cortices. Strong left hemisphere dominance was again observed during the last phase of the McGurk-MMN waveform (350-400 ms). Source analysis indicated bilateral sources in the temporal lobe just posterior to primary auditory cortex. While a single source in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) accounted for the right hemisphere activity, two separate sources were required, one in the left transverse gyrus and the other in STG, to account for left hemisphere activity. These findings support the notion that visually driven multisensory illusory phonetic percepts produce an auditory-MMN cortical response and that left hemisphere temporal cortex plays a crucial role in this process.

  5. Amplification and high-level expression of heat shock protein 90 marks aggressive phenotypes of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qing; Chang, Jeffrey T; Geradts, Joseph; Neckers, Leonard M; Haystead, Timothy; Spector, Neil L; Lyerly, H Kim

    2012-04-17

    Although human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive or estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers are treated with clinically validated anti-HER2 or anti-estrogen therapies, intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapies appears in a substantial proportion of breast cancer patients and new therapies are needed. Identification of additional molecular factors, especially those characterized by aggressive behavior and poor prognosis, could prioritize interventional opportunities to improve the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. We compiled a collection of 4,010 breast tumor gene expression data derived from 23 datasets that have been posted on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We performed a genome-scale survival analysis using Cox-regression survival analyses, and validated using Kaplan-Meier Estimates survival and Cox Proportional-Hazards Regression survival analyses. We conducted a genome-scale analysis of chromosome alteration using 481 breast cancer samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), from which combined expression and copy number data were available. We assessed the correlation between somatic copy number alterations and gene expression using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Increased expression of each of the heat shock protein (HSP) 90 isoforms, as well as HSP transcriptional factor 1 (HSF1), was correlated with poor prognosis in different subtypes of breast cancer. High-level expression of HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1, two cytoplasmic HSP90 isoforms, was driven by chromosome coding region amplifications and were independent factors that led to death from breast cancer among patients with triple-negative (TNBC) and HER2-/ER+ subtypes, respectively. Furthermore, amplification of HSF1 was correlated with higher HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 mRNA expression among the breast cancer cells without amplifications of these two genes. A collection of HSP90AA1, HSP90AB1 and HSF

  6. High somatic cell counts and changes in milk fat and protein contents around insemination are negatively associated with conception in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaaj, Ahmad; Foucras, Gilles; Raboisson, Didier

    2017-01-15

    The fertility of dairy cows has decreased dramatically worldwide over the last few decades, and several causes of this trend have been reported. Several studies have associated compromised udder health with deteriorating reproduction performance. Subclinical ketosis (SCK) has also been reported to be a risk factor for decreased conception. The objective of the present study was to describe how SCK might interact with the reported association between udder health and conception in dairy cows. Data from the French Milk Control Program and data on 8,549,667 instances of artificial insemination (AI) and their corresponding preceding and subsequent test-days from 5,979,701 Holstein cows were examined over a 5-year period (2008-2012). The effect of udder health was evaluated through a low (L) or high (H) somatic cell count (SCC) before and after AI using a threshold of 200,000 cells/mL, and transformed into four groups (LL, LH, HL, and HH). Three proxies for defining SCK were proposed based on the milk fat and protein content (or their ratio) before AI. Statistical analysis first included a generalized additive model to help define the optimal threshold values. Next, a logistic regression with a Poisson correction was performed. On average, the risk of conception at first AI was reduced by 14% for LH or HH cows (relative risk [and 95% CI] = 0.86 [0.85-0.87]) when the SCC increased or remained high within 40 days before and after AI, relative to LL group. The reduction of conception success associated with SCK (fat and protein contents changes) varied from 3% to 17% depending on the used SCK proxy. Including the interaction term SCC ∗ SCK clearly showed that the association of increased SCC around AI with conception success was modified by the presence of SCK. A cow that already has SCK and experiences an increase in SCC around or after AI exhibits up to 2 times further decrease in conception success compared with a cow with a high SCC and no SCK. In conclusion

  7. Structure, High Affinity, and Negative Cooperativity of the Escherichia coli Holo-(Acyl Carrier Protein):Holo-(Acyl Carrier Protein) Synthase Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcella, Aaron M.; Culbertson, Sannie J.; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A.; Barb, Adam W.

    2017-11-01

    The Escherichia coli holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase (ACPS) catalyzes the coenzyme A-dependent activation of apo-ACPP to generate holo-(acyl carrier protein) (holo-ACPP) in an early step of fatty acid biosynthesis. E. coli ACPS is sufficiently different from the human fatty acid synthase to justify the development of novel ACPS-targeting antibiotics. Models of E. coli ACPS in unliganded and holo-ACPP-bound forms solved by X-ray crystallography to 2.05 and 4.10 Å, respectively, revealed that ACPS bound three product holo-ACPP molecules to form a 3:3 hexamer. Solution NMR spectroscopy experiments validated the ACPS binding interface on holo-ACPP using chemical shift perturbations and by determining the relative orientation of holo-ACPP to ACPS by fitting residual dipolar couplings. The binding interface is organized to arrange contacts between positively charged ACPS residues and the holo-ACPP phosphopantetheine moiety, indicating product contains more stabilizing interactions than expected in the enzyme:substrate complex. Indeed, holo-ACPP bound the enzyme with greater affinity than the substrate, apo-ACPP, and with negative cooperativity. The first equivalent of holo-ACPP bound with a KD = 62 ± 13 nM, followed by the binding of two more equivalents of holo-ACPP with KD = 1.2 ± 0.2 μM. Cooperativity was not observed for apo-ACPP which bound with KD = 2.4 ± 0.1 μM. Strong product binding and high levels of holo-ACPP in the cell identify a potential regulatory role of ACPS in fatty acid biosynthesis.

  8. Structure, High Affinity, and Negative Cooperativity of the Escherichia coli Holo-(Acyl Carrier Protein):Holo-(Acyl Carrier Protein) Synthase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcella, Aaron M; Culbertson, Sannie J; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A; Barb, Adam W

    2017-11-24

    The Escherichia coli holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase (ACPS) catalyzes the coenzyme A-dependent activation of apo-ACPP to generate holo-(acyl carrier protein) (holo-ACPP) in an early step of fatty acid biosynthesis. E. coli ACPS is sufficiently different from the human fatty acid synthase to justify the development of novel ACPS-targeting antibiotics. Models of E. coli ACPS in unliganded and holo-ACPP-bound forms solved by X-ray crystallography to 2.05and 4.10Å, respectively, revealed that ACPS bound three product holo-ACPP molecules to form a 3:3 hexamer. Solution NMR spectroscopy experiments validated the ACPS binding interface on holo-ACPP using chemical shift perturbations and by determining the relative orientation of holo-ACPP to ACPS by fitting residual dipolar couplings. The binding interface is organized to arrange contacts between positively charged ACPS residues and the holo-ACPP phosphopantetheine moiety, indicating product contains more stabilizing interactions than expected in the enzyme:substrate complex. Indeed, holo-ACPP bound the enzyme with greater affinity than the substrate, apo-ACPP, and with negative cooperativity. The first equivalent of holo-ACPP bound with a K D =62±13nM, followed by the binding of two more equivalents of holo-ACPP with K D =1.2±0.2μM. Cooperativity was not observed for apo-ACPP which bound with K D =2.4±0.1μM. Strong product binding and high levels of holo-ACPP in the cell identify a potential regulatory role of ACPS in fatty acid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative response of photosynthesis to natural and projected high seawater temperatures estimated by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry in a temperate coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroselli, Erik; Falini, Giuseppe; Goffredo, Stefano; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Balanophyllia europaea is a shallow water solitary zooxanthellate coral, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive field studies across a latitudinal temperature gradient highlight detrimental effects of rising temperatures on its growth, demography, and skeletal characteristics, suggesting that depression of photosynthesis at high temperatures might cause these negative effects. Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing, by means of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry, the photosynthetic efficiency of B. europaea specimens exposed in aquaria to the annual range of temperatures experienced in the field (13, 18, and 28°C), and two extreme temperatures expected for 2100 as a consequence of global warming (29 and 32°C). The indicators of photosynthetic performance analyzed (maximum and effective quantum yield) showed that maximum efficiency was reached at 20.0-21.6°C, slightly higher than the annual mean temperature in the field (18°C). Photosynthetic efficiency decreased from 20.0 to 13°C and even more strongly from 21.6 to 32°C. An unusual form of bleaching was observed, with a maximum zooxanthellae density at 18°C that strongly decreased from 18 to 32°C. Chlorophyll a concentration per zooxanthellae cell showed an opposite trend as it was minimal at 18°C and increased from 18 to 32°C. Since the areal chlorophyll concentration is the product of the zooxanthellae density and its cellular content, these trends resulted in a homogeneous chlorophyll concentration per coral surface across temperature treatments. This confirms that B. europaea photosynthesis is progressively depressed at temperatures >21.6°C, supporting previous hypotheses raised by the studies on growth and demography of this species. This study also confirms the threats posed to this species by the ongoing seawater warming.

  10. Negative response of photosynthesis to natural and projected high seawater temperatures estimated by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry in a temperate coral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eCaroselli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Balanophyllia europaea is a shallow water solitary zooxanthellate coral, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive field studies across a latitudinal temperature gradient highlight detrimental effects of rising temperatures on its growth, demography and skeletal characteristics, suggesting that depression of photosynthesis at high temperatures might cause these negative effects. Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing, by means of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry, the photosynthetic efficiency of B. europaea specimens exposed in aquaria to the annual range of temperatures experienced in the field (13°C, 18°C, and 28°C, and two extreme temperatures expected for 2100 as a consequence of global warming (29°C and 32°C. The indicators of photosynthetic performance analyzed (maximum and effective quantum yield showed that maximum efficiency was reached at 20.0-21.6°C, slightly higher than the annual mean temperature in the field (18°C. Photosynthetic efficiency decreased from 20.0°C to 13°C and even more strongly from 21.6°C to 32°C. An unusual form of bleaching was observed, with a maximum zooxanthellae density at 18°C that strongly decreased from 18°C to 32°C. Chlorophyll a concentration per zooxanthellae cell showed an opposite trend as it was minimal at 18°C and increased from 18°C to 32°C. Since the areal chlorophyll concentration is the product of the zooxanthellae density and its cellular content, these trends resulted in a homogeneous chlorophyll concentration per coral surface across temperature treatments. This confirms that B. europaea photosynthesis is progressively depressed at temperatures >21.6°C, supporting previous hypotheses raised by the studies on growth and demography of this species. This study also confirms the threats posed to this species by the ongoing seawater warming.

  11. High self-assessment of disability and the surgeon's recommendation against surgical intervention may negatively impact satisfaction scores in patients with spinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Marcus D; McEvoy, Sara; Schmidt, Meic H; Bisson, Erica F

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Patient satisfaction scores have become a common metric for health care quality. Because satisfaction scores are right-skewed, even small differences in mean scores can have a large impact. Little information, however, is available on the specific factors that play a role in satisfaction in patients with spinal disorders. The authors investigated whether disability severity and the surgeon's recommendation for or against surgical intervention were associated with patient satisfaction scores. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study involving adult patients who were referred to a spine surgeon for an outpatient evaluation of back pain. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before their clinic appointment and a Press Ganey patient satisfaction survey after their visit. Patients were grouped by self-assessed disability severity: mild to moderate (ODI Satisfaction scores were graded from 0 (very poor) to 100 (very good). Nonparametric tests were used to evaluate the association between patient satisfaction and current disability self-assessment. The authors also investigated whether the surgeon's recommendation against surgery negatively affected patient satisfaction. RESULTS One hundred thirty patients completed the ODI questionnaire before and satisfaction surveys after seeing a spine surgeon for a new outpatient back pain consultation. Of these, 68 patients had severe disability, 62 had mild to moderate disability, 67 received a recommendation for surgery, and 63 received a recommendation against surgery. Composite satisfaction scores were lower among patients who had severe disability than among those with mild to moderate disability (median [interquartile range]: 91.7 [83.7-96.4] vs 95.8 [91.0-99.3], respectively; p = 0.0040). Patients who received a recommendation against surgery reported lower satisfaction scores than those who received a recommendation for surgery (91.7 [83.5-95.8] vs 95.8 [88.5-99.8]; p = 0

  12. Inactivation of gram-negative bacteria in milk and banana juice by hen egg white and lambda lysozyme under high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Masschalck, Barbara; Anim, Grace; Michiels, Chris W

    2006-10-15

    The effect of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and bacteriophage lambda lysozyme (LaL) in combination with high pressure (HP) treatment on the inactivation of four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella typhimurium), was studied in skim milk (pH 6.8; a(w) 0.997) and in banana juice (pH 3.8; a(w) 0.971). In the absence of lysozymes, S. flexneri was more sensitive to HP in milk than in banana juice, while the opposite was observed for the other three bacteria. In combination with HP treatment, LaL was more effective than HEWL on all bacteria in both milk and banana juice. Depending on the bacteria, inactivation levels in banana juice were increased from 0.4-2.7 log units by HP treatment alone to 3.6-6.5 log units in the presence of 224 U/ml LaL. Bacterial inactivation in milk was also enhanced by LaL but only by 0.5-2.1 log units. Under the experimental conditions used, LaL was more effective in banana juice than in milk, while the effectiveness of HEWL under the same conditions was not significantly affected by the food matrix. This effect could be ascribed to the low pH of the banana juice since LaL was also more effective on E. coli in buffer at pH 3.8 than at pH 6.8. Since neither LaL nor HEWL are enzymatically active at pH 3.8, we analysed bacterial lysis after HP treatment in the presence of these enzymes, and found that inactivation proceeds through a non-lytic mechanism at pH 3.8 and a lytic mechanism at pH 6.8. Based on these results, LaL may offer interesting perspectives for use as an extra hurdle in high pressure food preservation.

  13. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  14. Obesity and type 2 diabetes, not a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol, negatively impacts bone outcomes in the hyperphagic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Linden, Melissa A; Dirkes, Rebecca; Rector, R Scott; Hinton, Pamela S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase fracture risk; however, the association between obesity/T2D may be confounded by consumption of a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol (HFSC). The study objective was to determine the main and interactive effects of obesity/T2D and a HFSC diet on bone outcomes using hyperphagic Otuska Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and normophagic Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) controls. At 8weeks of age, male OLETF and LETO rats were randomized to either a control (CON, 10 en% from fat as soybean oil) or HFSC (45 en% from fat as soybean oil/lard, 17 en% sucrose, and 1wt%) diet, resulting in four treatment groups. At 32weeks, total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, followed by euthanasia and collection of blood and tibiae. Bone turnover markers and sclerostin were measured using ELISA. Trabecular microarchitecture of the proximal tibia and geometry of the tibia mid-diaphysis were measured using microcomputed tomography; whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties were evaluated using torsional loading of the tibia. Two-factor ANOVA was used to determine main and interactive effects of diet (CON vs. HFSC) and obesity/T2D (OLETF vs. LETO) on bone outcomes. Hyperphagic OLEFT rats had greater final body mass, body fat, and fasting glucose than normophagic LETO, with no effect of diet. Total body BMC and serum markers of bone formation were decreased, and bone resorption and sclerostin were increased in obese/T2D OLETF rats. Trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture were adversely affected by obesity/T2D, but not diet. Whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties of the tibia were not affected by obesity/T2D; the HFSC diet improved biomechanical properties only in LETO rats. Obesity/T2D, regardless of diet, negatively impacted the balance between bone formation and resorption and trabecular bone volume and

  15. A new photonic crystal fiber design on the high negative ultra-flattened dispersion for both X and Y polarization modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Russel Reza; Razzak, S. M Abdur; Hasan, Md Imran

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of numerical design and properties of a new silica based photonic crystal fiber (PCF) are proposed in this manuscript. The design performs ultra-flattened negative chromatic dispersion (UNCD) in the optical windows 2nd and 3rd involving O to U bands in the infrared (IF) portion. The guid...

  16. Is negative self-referent bias an endophenotype for depression? An fMRI study of emotional self-referent words in twins at high vs. low risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Larsen, J E; Harmer, C J

    2018-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 40 ± 11) were well-balanced for demographic variables, mood, coping and neuroticism. High-risk twins showed lower accuracy during self-referent categorisation of emotional words independent of valence and more false recollections of negative words than low-risk twins during free recall...... is consistent with the hypothesis that self-referent negative memory bias is an endophenotype for depression. High-risk twins' lower categorisation accuracy adds to the evidence for valence-independent cognitive deficits in individuals at familial risk for depression....

  17. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    , the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  18. Is negative self-referent bias an endophenotype for depression? An fMRI study of emotional self-referent words in twins at high vs. low risk of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Larsen, J E; Harmer, C J; Siebner, H R; Kessing, L V; Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M

    2018-01-15

    Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of self-referent emotional words seem to be trait-marks of depression. However, it is unclear whether these neurocognitive changes are present in unaffected first-degree relatives and constitute an illness endophenotype. Fifty-three healthy, never-depressed monozygotic or dizygotic twins with a co-twin history of depression (high-risk group: n = 26) or no first-degree family history of depression (low-risk group: n = 27) underwent neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) as part of a follow-up cohort study. Participants performed a self-referent emotional word categorisation task and free word recall task followed by a recognition task during fMRI. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping strategies. High-risk and low-risk twins (age, mean ± SD: 40 ± 11) were well-balanced for demographic variables, mood, coping and neuroticism. High-risk twins showed lower accuracy during self-referent categorisation of emotional words independent of valence and more false recollections of negative words than low-risk twins during free recall. Functional MRI yielded no differences between high-risk and low-risk twins in retrieval-specific neural activity for positive or negative words or during the recognition of negative versus positive words within the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. The subtle display of negative recall bias is consistent with the hypothesis that self-referent negative memory bias is an endophenotype for depression. High-risk twins' lower categorisation accuracy adds to the evidence for valence-independent cognitive deficits in individuals at familial risk for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  20. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  1. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  2. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  3. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. [Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolutimi gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Loimeng; Gao, Yuan; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yichi; Chen, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity (R2>0. 99) between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The limits of detection (S/N ≥3) and the limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 4. 2 and 12 µg, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL) for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m3 (n = 7). The recoveries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  5. Comprehensive RNA Analysis of the NF1 Gene in Classically Affected NF1 Affected Individuals Meeting NIH Criteria has High Sensitivity and Mutation Negative Testing is Reassuring in Isolated Cases With Pigmentary Features Only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Evans

    2016-05-01

    Interpretation: RNA analysis in individuals with presumed NF1 has high sensitivity and includes a small subset with DNET without an NF1 variant. Furthermore negative analysis for NF1/SPRED1 provides strong reassurance to children with ≥6 CAL that they are unlikely to have NF1.

  6. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  7. Highs and lows: patterns of use, positive and negative effects of benzylpiperazine-containing party pills (BZP-party pills) amongst young people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rachael A; Sheridan, Janie L

    2007-11-19

    This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products. A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and group discussions. The sample included 58 young people aged 17-23 years who had used BZP-party pills in the previous 12 months. Young people were using these substances in a range of settings--primarily during weekend social occasions--particularly as part of the dance party culture. They were mostly used for their stimulant properties and to enhance socialisation, and were often taken in combination with other legal and illicit drugs. Young people had suffered a range of physical and emotional negative effects, although none of these was reported as being life-threatening or long-term. Many participants had reduced the frequency with which they used BZP-party pills due to adverse effects. Potentially risky behaviours identified included taking large doses, mixing BZP-party pills with alcohol and other substances, and driving whilst under the influence of BZP-party pills. Findings suggest that young people in this study were not suffering excessive or dangerous adverse effects. However, potentially risky use of these products raises the issue of the need for developing harm reduction interventions.

  8. Immunohistochemical subtypes predict the clinical outcome in high-risk node-negative breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant FEC regimen: results of a single-center retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, S.; Boher, J M; Extra, J M; Tarpin, C.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Lambaudie, E.; Sabatier, R.; Thomassin-Piana, J.; Tallet, A.; Resbeut, M.; Houvenaeghel, G.; Laborde, L.; Bertucci, F.; Viens, P.; Gonçalves, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with high-risk node-negative breast cancer (BC). In this setting, prognostic factors predicting for treatment failure might help selecting among the different available cytotoxic combinations. Between 1998 and 2008, 757 consecutive patients with node-negative BC treated in our institution with adjuvant FEC (5FU, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy were identified. Data collection included demographic, clinico-pathological characteristics and treatment information. Molecular subtypes were derived from estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade. Disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier Method, and prognostic factors were examined by multivariate Cox analysis. After a median follow-up of 70 months, the 5-year DFS, DDFS and OS were 90.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 88.2–93.1), 92.8 % (95 % CI: 90.7–95) and 95.1 % (95 % CI, 93.3–96.9), respectively. In the multivariate analysis including classical clinico-pathological parameters, only grade 3 maintained a significant and independent adverse prognostic impact. In an alternative multivariate model where ER, PR and grade were replaced by molecular subtypes, only luminal B/HER2-negative and triple-negative subtypes were associated with reduced DFS and DDFS. Node-negative BC patients receiving adjuvant FEC regimen have a favorable outcome. Luminal B/HER2-negative and triple-negative subtypes identify patients with a higher risk of treatment failure, which might warrant more aggressive systemic treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1746-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  9. The relationship of neurocognition and negative symptoms to social and role functioning over time in individuals at clinical high risk in the first phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Carrión, Ricardo E; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Heinssen, Robert; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-11-01

    Impaired social, role, and neurocognitive functioning are preillness characteristics of people who later develop psychosis. In people with schizophrenia, neurocognition and negative symptoms are associated with functional impairment. We examined the relative contributions of neurocognition and symptoms to social and role functioning over time in clinically high-risk (CHR) individuals and determined if negative symptoms mediated the influence of cognition on functioning. Social, role, and neurocognitive functioning and positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms were assessed in 167 individuals at CHR for psychosis in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study Phase 1 (NAPLS-1), of whom 96 were reassessed at 12 months. Regression analyses indicated that negative symptoms accounted for unique variance in social and role functioning at baseline and follow-up. Composite neurocognition accounted for unique, but modest, variance in social and role functioning at baseline and in role functioning at follow-up. Negative symptoms mediated the relationship between composite neurocognition and social and role functioning across time points. In exploratory analyses, individual tests (IQ estimate, Digit Symbol/Coding, verbal memory) selectively accounted for social and role functioning at baseline and follow-up after accounting for symptoms. When negative symptom items with content overlapping with social and role functioning measures were removed, the relationship between neurocognition and social and role functioning was strengthened. The modest overlap among neurocognition, negative symptoms, and social and role functioning indicates that these domains make substantially separate contributions to CHR individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  11. Highly repeatable room temperature negative differential resistance in AlN/GaN resonant tunneling diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growden, Tyler A.; Fakhimi, Parastou; Berger, Paul R.; Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R.

    2016-01-01

    AlN/GaN resonant tunneling diodes grown on low dislocation density semi-insulating bulk GaN substrates via plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy are reported. The devices were fabricated using a six mask level, fully isolated process. Stable room temperature negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed across the entire sample. The NDR exhibited no hysteresis, background light sensitivity, or degradation of any kind after more than 1000 continuous up-and-down voltage sweeps. The sample exhibited a ∼90% yield of operational devices which routinely displayed an average peak current density of 2.7 kA/cm 2 and a peak-to-valley current ratio of ≈1.15 across different sizes.

  12. Highly repeatable room temperature negative differential resistance in AlN/GaN resonant tunneling diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growden, Tyler A.; Fakhimi, Parastou; Berger, Paul R., E-mail: pberger@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R. [Departments of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    AlN/GaN resonant tunneling diodes grown on low dislocation density semi-insulating bulk GaN substrates via plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy are reported. The devices were fabricated using a six mask level, fully isolated process. Stable room temperature negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed across the entire sample. The NDR exhibited no hysteresis, background light sensitivity, or degradation of any kind after more than 1000 continuous up-and-down voltage sweeps. The sample exhibited a ∼90% yield of operational devices which routinely displayed an average peak current density of 2.7 kA/cm{sup 2} and a peak-to-valley current ratio of ≈1.15 across different sizes.

  13. A Modality Called 'Negation'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, F.

    2015-01-01

    I propose a comprehensive account of negation as a modal operator, vindicating a moderate logical pluralism. Negation is taken as a quantifier on worlds, restricted by an accessibility relation encoding the basic concept of compatibility. This latter captures the core meaning of the operator. While

  14. Negative energy solutions and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)

  15. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  16. Need for High Radiation Dose (≥70 Gy) in Early Postoperative Irradiation After Radical Prostatectomy: A Single-Institution Analysis of 334 High-Risk, Node-Negative Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzarini, Cesare; Montorsi, Francesco; Fiorino, Claudio; Alongi, Filippo; Bolognesi, Angelo; Da Pozzo, Luigi Filippo; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Freschi, Massimo; Roscigno, Marco; Scattoni, Vincenzo; Rigatti, Patrizio; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the clinical benefit of high-dose early adjuvant radiotherapy (EART) in high-risk prostate cancer (hrCaP) patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients and Methods: The clinical outcome of 334 hrCaP (pT3-4 and/or positive resection margins) node-negative patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy before 2004 was analyzed according to the EART dose delivered to the prostatic bed, <70.2 Gy (lower dose, median 66.6 Gy, n = 153) or ≥70.2 Gy (median 70.2 Gy, n = 181). Results: The two groups were comparable except for a significant difference in terms of median follow-up (10 vs. 7 years, respectively) owing to the gradual increase of EART doses over time. Nevertheless, median time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure was almost identical, 38 and 36 months, respectively. At univariate analysis, both 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly higher (83% vs. 71% [p = 0.001] and 94% vs. 88% [p = 0.005], respectively) in the HD group. Multivariate analysis confirmed EART dose ≥70 Gy to be independently related to both bRFS (hazard ratio 2.5, p = 0.04) and DFS (hazard ratio 3.6, p = 0.004). Similar results were obtained after the exclusion of patients receiving any androgen deprivation. After grouping the hormone-naive patients by postoperative PSA level the statistically significant impact of high-dose EART on both 5-year bRFS and DFS was maintained only for those with undetectable values, possibly owing to micrometastatic disease outside the irradiated area in case of detectable postoperative PSA values. Conclusion: This series provides strong support for the use of EART doses ≥70 Gy after radical retropubic prostatectomy in hrCaP patients with undetectable postoperative PSA levels.

  17. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  18. Negative legacy of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsuke Shirakawa

    Full Text Available Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood. High-fat diet (HFD-fed obese mice were subjected to weight reduction through a switch to a control diet. They lost body weight and visceral fat mass, reaching the same levels as lean mice fed a control diet. However, the VAT of weight reduction mice exhibited denser infiltration of macrophages, which formed more crown-like structures compared to the VAT of obese mice kept on the HFD. Mechanistically, CD153+ PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are long-lived and not easily eliminated, even after weight reduction. Their continued presence maintains a self-sustaining chronic inflammatory loop via production of large amounts of osteopontin. Thus, we concluded that T-cell senescence is essentially a negative legacy effect of obesity.

  19. C4d-negative antibody-mediated rejection with high anti-angiotensin II type I receptor antibodies in absence of donor-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Alexander; Hope, Christopher M; Deayton, Susan; Bennett, Greg Donald; Holdsworth, Rhonda; Carroll, Robert P; Coates, P Toby H

    2015-07-01

    Acute antibody-mediated rejection can occur in absence of circulating donor-specific antibodies. Agonistic antibodies targeting the anti-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (anti-AT1 R) are emerging as important non-human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Elevated levels of anti-angiotensin II receptor antibodies were first observed in kidney transplant recipients with malignant hypertension and allograft rejection. They have now been studied in three separate kidney transplant populations and associate to frequency of rejection, severity of rejection and graft failure. We report 11 cases of biopsy-proven, Complement 4 fragment d (C4d)-negative, acute rejection occurring without circulating donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies. In eight cases, anti-angiotensin receptor antibodies were retrospectively examined. The remaining three subjects were identified from our centre's newly instituted routine anti-angiotensin receptor antibody screening. All subjects fulfilled Banff 2013 criteria for antibody-mediated rejection and all responded to anti-rejection therapy, which included plasma exchange and angiotensin receptor blocker therapy. These cases support the routine assessment of anti-AT1 R antibodies in kidney transplant recipients to identify subjects at risk. Further studies will need to determine optimal assessment protocol and the effectiveness of pre-emptive treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  20. Low-frequency brain stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the negative impact of social exclusion among those high in personal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette Mary; Kirkovski, Melissa; Bailey, Neil Wayne; Thomson, Richard Hilton; Eisenberger, Naomi; Enticott, Peter Gregory; Fitzgerald, Paul Bernard

    2017-06-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to play a key role in the cognitive control of emotion and has therefore, unsurprisingly, been implicated in the regulation of physical pain perception. This brain region may also influence the experience of social pain, which has been shown to activate similar neural networks as seen in response to physical pain. Here, we applied sham or active low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC, previously shown to exert bilateral effects in pain perception, in healthy participants. Following stimulation, participants played the "Cyberball Task"; an online ball-tossing game in which the subject participant is included or excluded. Compared to sham, rTMS did not modulate behavioural response to social exclusion. However, within the active rTMS group only, greater trait personal distress was related to enhanced negative outcomes to social exclusion. These results add further support to the notion that the effect of brain stimulation is not homogenous across individuals, and indicates the need to consider baseline individual differences when assessing response to brain stimulation. This seems particularly relevant in social neuroscience investigations, where trait factors may have a meaningful effect.

  1. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  2. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part II. Effect of carbon additives on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    Lead-acid batteries operated in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duty rapidly lose capacity on cycling, because of sulfation of the negative plates. As the battery operates from a partially discharged state, the small PbSO{sub 4} crystals dissolve and precipitate onto the bigger crystals. The latter have low solubility and hence PbSO{sub 4} accumulates progressively in the negative plates causing capacity loss. In order to suppress this process, the rate of the charge process should be increased. In a previous publication of ours we have established that reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb may proceed on the surface of both Pb and carbon black particles. Hence, the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes improves, which leads to improved cycle life performance of the batteries in the HRPSoC mode. However, not all carbon forms accelerate the charge processes. The present paper discusses the electrochemical properties of two groups of carbon blacks: Printex and active carbons. The influence of Vaniseprse A and BaSO{sub 4} (the other two components of the expander added to the negative plates) on the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes on the negative plates is also considered. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and retard charging of the battery. BaSO{sub 4} has the opposite effect, which improves the reversibility of the processes on cycling and hence prolongs battery life in the HRPSoC duty. It has been established that the cycle life of lead-acid cells depends on the type of carbon black or active carbon added to the negative plates. When the carbon particles are of nano-sizes (<180 nm), the HRPSoC cycle life is between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. Lignosulfonates suppress this beneficial effect of carbon black and activated carbon additives to about 10,000 cycles. Cells with active carbons have the longest cycle life when they contain also BaSO{sub 4} but no lignosulfonate. A summary of

  3. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part I: Effect of lignosulfonates and BaSO{sub 4} on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    This study investigates the influence of the organic expander component (Vanisperse A) and of BaSO{sub 4} on the performance of negative lead-acid battery plates on high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Batteries operating in the HRPSoC mode should be classified as a separate type of lead-acid batteries. Hence, the additives to the negative plates should differ from the conventional expander composition. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and thus impede the charge processes, which results in impaired reversibility of the charge-discharge processes and hence shorter cycle life on HRPSoC operation, limited by sulfation of the negative plates. BaSO{sub 4} exerts the opposite effect: it improves the reversibility of the processes in the HRPSoC mode and hence prolongs the cycle life of the cells. The most pronounced effect of BaSO{sub 4} has been registered when it is added in concentration of 1.0 wt.% versus the leady oxide (LO) used for paste preparation. It has also been established that BaSO{sub 4} lowers the overpotential of PbSO{sub 4} nucleation. The results of the present investigation indicate that BaSO{sub 4} affects also the crystallization process of Pb during cell charging. Thus, BaSO{sub 4} eventually improves the performance characteristics of lead-acid cells on HRPSoC cycling. (author)

  4. Teachers' Autonomy Support, Autonomy Suppression and Conditional Negative Regard as Predictors of Optimal Learning Experience among High-Achieving Bedouin Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Haya

    2018-01-01

    The study is based on self-determination theory and focuses on the motivation of high-achieving Bedouin students who belong to a hierarchical-collectivist society. The study focuses on the question: What are the relations between teachers' autonomy support and control and an optimal learning experience among students? The study is unique in its…

  5. High awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) but limited knowledge of HCV complications among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers, Femke A. E.; Prins, Maria; Davidovich, Udi; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. Little is reported about HCV awareness among MSM, although this is essential for developing targeted prevention strategies. We, therefore, studied HCV

  6. Atomic negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given

  7. Room temperature deposition of high figure of merit Al-doped zinc oxide by pulsed-direct current magnetron sputtering: Influence of energetic negative ion bombardment on film's optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, F., E-mail: francesco.fumagalli@iit.it; Martí-Rujas, J., E-mail: javier.rujas@iit.it; Di Fonzo, F., E-mail: fabio.difonzo@iit.it

    2014-10-31

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide is regarded as a promising indium-free transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic and transparent electronics. In this study high transmittance (up to 90,6%) and low resistivity (down to 8,4°1{sup −4} Ω cm) AZO films were fabricated at room temperature on thermoplastic and soda-lime glass substrates by means of pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering in argon gas. Morphological, optical and electrical film properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis–nIR photo-spectrometer, X-ray spectroscopy and four probes method. Optimal deposition conditions were found to be strongly related to substrate position. The dependence of functional properties on substrate off-axis position was investigated and correlated to the angular distributions of negative ions fluxes emerging from the plasma discharge. Figure of merit as high as 2,15 ± 0,14 Ω{sup −1} were obtained outside the negative oxygen ions confinement region. Combination of high quality AZO films deposited on flexible polymers substrates by means of a solid and scalable fabrication technique is of interest for application in cost-effective optoelectrical devices, organic photovoltaics and polymer based electronics. - Highlights: • High figure of merit transparent conductive oxide's deposited at room temperature. • High transmittance and low resistivity obtained on thermoplastic substrates. • Competitive optoelectrical properties compared to high temperature deposition. • Negative ion fluxes confinement influence structural and optoelectrical properties. • Easily adaptable for scaled-up low temperature AZO film deposition installations.

  8. High pressure studies of A2Mo3O12 negative thermal expansion materials (A2=Al2, Fe2, FeAl, AlGa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Lindsay; Gadient, Jennifer; Gao, Xiaodong; Lind, Cora

    2016-01-01

    High pressure powder X-ray diffraction studies of several A 2 Mo 3 O 12 materials (A 2 =Al 2 , Fe 2 , FeAl, and AlGa) were conducted up to 6–7 GPa. All materials adopted a monoclinic structure under ambient conditions, and displayed similar phase transition behavior upon compression. The initial isotropic compressibility first became anisotropic, followed by a small but distinct drop in cell volume. These patterns could be described by a distorted variant of the ambient pressure polymorph. At higher pressures, a distinct high pressure phase formed. Indexing results confirmed that all materials adopted the same high pressure phase. All changes were reversible on decompression, although some hysteresis was observed. The similarity of the high pressure cells to previously reported Ga 2 Mo 3 O 12 suggested that this material undergoes the same sequence of transitions as all materials investigated in this paper. It was found that the transition pressures for all phase changes increased with decreasing radius of the A-site cations. - Graphical abstract: Overlay of variable pressure X-ray diffraction data of Al 2 Mo 3 O 12 collected in a diamond anvil cell. Both subtle and discontinuous phase transitions are clearly observed. - Highlights: • The high pressure behavior of A 2 Mo 3 O 12 (A=Al, Fe, (AlGa), (AlFe)) was studied. • All compounds undergo the same sequence of pressure-induced phase transitions. • The phase transition pressures correlate with the average size of the A-site cation. • All transitions were reversible with hysteresis. • Previously studied Ga 2 Mo 3 O 12 undergoes the same sequence of transitions.

  9. A High Fat Diet during Adolescence in Male Rats Negatively Programs Reproductive and Metabolic Function Which Is Partially Ameliorated by Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ibáñez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An interaction between obesity, impaired glucose metabolism and sperm function in adults has been observed but it is not known whether exposure to a diet high in fat during the peri-pubertal period can have longstanding programmed effects on reproductive function and gonadal structure. This study examined metabolic and reproductive function in obese rats programmed by exposure to a high fat (HF diet during adolescence. The effect of physical training (Ex in ameliorating this phenotype was also assessed. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a HF diet (35% lard w/w for 30 days then subsequently fed a normal fat diet (NF for a 40-day recovery period. Control animals were fed a NF diet throughout life. At 70 days of life, animals started a low frequency moderate exercise training that lasted 30 days. Control animals remained sedentary (Se. At 100 days of life, biometric, metabolic and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Animals exposed to HF diet showed greater body weight, glucose intolerance, increased fat tissue deposition, reduced VO2max and reduced energy expenditure. Consumption of the HF diet led to an increase in the number of abnormal seminiferous tubule and a reduction in seminiferous epithelium height and seminiferous tubular diameter, which was reversed by moderate exercise. Compared with the NF-Se group, a high fat diet decreased the number of seminiferous tubules in stages VII-VIII and the NF-Ex group showed an increase in stages XI-XIII. HF-Se and NF-Ex animals showed a decreased number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis compared with animals from the NF-Se group. Animals exposed to both treatments (HF and Ex were similar to all the other groups, thus these alterations induced by HF or Ex alone were partially prevented. Physical training reduced fat pad deposition and restored altered reproductive parameters. HF diet consumption during the peri-pubertal period induces long-term changes on metabolism and the reproductive

  10. Negative effect of DNA hypermethylation on the outcome of intensive chemotherapy in older patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia following myelodysplastic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grövdal, Michael; Khan, Rasheed; Aggerholm, Anni

    2007-01-01

    was designed to assess the effect of methylation status on the outcome of conventional induction chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Sixty patients with high-risk MDS or acute myeloid leukemia following MDS were treated with standard doses of daunorubicin and 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Standard.......008), and CDH methylation retained its prognostic value also in the multivariate analysis. Hypermethylation was associated with increased CD34 expression, but not with other known predictive factors for response, such as cytogenetic profile. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time a significant effect...

  11. High throughput production of nanocomposite SiO x powders by plasma spray physical vapor deposition for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Homma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite Si/SiO x powders were produced by plasma spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD at a material throughput of 480 g h−1. The powders are fundamentally an aggregate of primary ~20 nm particles, which are composed of a crystalline Si core and SiO x shell structure. This is made possible by complete evaporation of raw SiO powders and subsequent rapid condensation of high temperature SiO x vapors, followed by disproportionation reaction of nucleated SiO x nanoparticles. When CH4 was additionally introduced to the PS-PVD, the volume of the core Si increases while reducing potentially the SiO x shell thickness as a result of the enhanced SiO reduction, although an unfavorable SiC phase emerges when the C/Si molar ratio is greater than 1. As a result of the increased amount of Si active material and reduced source for irreversible capacity, half-cell batteries made of PS-PVD powders with C/Si = 0.25 have exhibited improved initial efficiency and maintenance of capacity as high as 1000 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at the same time.

  12. HIV-1-negative female sex workers sustain high cervical IFNɛ, low immune activation, and low expression of HIV-1-required host genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhaqq, S A; Zorrilla, C; Kang, G; Yin, X; Tamayo, V; Seaton, K E; Joseph, J; Garced, S; Tomaras, G D; Linn, K A; Foulkes, A S; Azzoni, L; VerMilyea, M; Coutifaris, C; Kossenkov, A V; Showe, L; Kraiselburd, E N; Li, Q; Montaner, L J

    2016-07-01

    Sex workers practicing in high HIV endemic areas have been extensively targeted to test anti-HIV prophylactic strategies. We hypothesize that in women with high levels of genital exposure to semen changes in cervico-vaginal mucosal and/or systemic immune activation will contribute to a decreased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To address this question, we assessed sexual activity and immune activation status (in peripheral blood), as well as cellular infiltrates and gene expression in ectocervical mucosa biopsies in female sex workers (FSWs; n=50), as compared with control women (CG; n=32). FSWs had low-to-absent HIV-1-specific immune responses with significantly lower CD38 expression on circulating CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells (both: PHIV-1 integration and replication. A correlative relationship between semen exposure and elevated type-1 IFN expression in FSWs was also established. Overall, our data suggest that long-term condomless sex work can result in multiple changes within the cervico-vaginal compartment that would contribute to sustaining a lower susceptibility for HIV-1 infection in the absence of HIV-specific responses.

  13. High throughput production of nanocomposite SiO x powders by plasma spray physical vapor deposition for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Keiichiro; Kambara, Makoto; Yoshida, Toyonobu

    2014-04-01

    Nanocomposite Si/SiO x powders were produced by plasma spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) at a material throughput of 480 g h -1 . The powders are fundamentally an aggregate of primary ∼20 nm particles, which are composed of a crystalline Si core and SiO x shell structure. This is made possible by complete evaporation of raw SiO powders and subsequent rapid condensation of high temperature SiO x vapors, followed by disproportionation reaction of nucleated SiO x nanoparticles. When CH 4 was additionally introduced to the PS-PVD, the volume of the core Si increases while reducing potentially the SiO x shell thickness as a result of the enhanced SiO reduction, although an unfavorable SiC phase emerges when the C/Si molar ratio is greater than 1. As a result of the increased amount of Si active material and reduced source for irreversible capacity, half-cell batteries made of PS-PVD powders with C/Si = 0.25 have exhibited improved initial efficiency and maintenance of capacity as high as 1000 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles at the same time.

  14. High Beck Depression Inventory 21 scores in adolescents without depression are associated with negative self-image and immature defense style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma M; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-05-01

    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Negative phototropism in Vaucheria terrestris regulated by calcium, 3: The role of calcium characterized by use of a high-power argon-ion laser as the source of unilateral blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, H.; Watanabe, M.

    1993-01-01

    A tip-growing Xanthophycean algal coenocyte, Vaucheria terrestris sensu Gotz, is able to change the sign of its phototropic response from positive to negative as a result of its ability to sense the fluence rate (= intensity) of unilateral blue light (BL). The mechanism that determines the sign of phototropism was investigated using a high-power argon-ion laser (457.9 nm) as a source of very strong unilateral BL. The fluence-response relationship was determined by changing both the fluence rate and the duration of irradiation. Positive phototropic bending was induced when the fluence rate of BL from the laser was below 60 W m-2. The positive bending obeyed the reciprocity law and was not affected by the concentrations of external Ca2+ ions between 0.4 mM and 4.4 mM. The positive curvature decreased when the alga was exposed to aunilateral pulse of BL with a duration of 10-300 s at fluence rates higher than 60 W m-2. The alga finally showed a deep negative curvature when either the fluence rate or the duration of irradiation was further increased. The inversion of the phototropic response and development of the negative phototropic response was greatly enhanced in the presence of 4.4 mM Ca2+ ions. However, the mechanism that determine the sign of phototropism seemed to require a BL pulse of longer than several seconds, even when the fluence rate was sufficiently high. The role of cytoplasmic Ca2+ ions in positive and negative phototropic responses is discussed

  16. High negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain for managing debilitating subcutaneous emphysema secondary to tube thoracostomy for an iatrogenic post computed tomography guided transthoracic needle biopsy pneumothorax: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Patel, Pinakin; Singh, Suresh; Sharma, Raj Govind; Somani, Pankaj; Gouri, Abdul Rauf; Singh, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema is a common complication of tube thoracostomy. Though self-limiting, it should be treated when it causes palpebral closure, dyspnea, dysphagia or undue disfigurement resulting in anxiety and distress to the patient. A 72year old man who was a known case of COPD on bronchodilators developed a large pneumothorax and respiratory distress after a CT guided transthoracic lung biopsy done for a lung opacity (approx. 3×3cm) at the right hilar region on Chest X-ray. Within 24h of an urgent tube thoracostomy, patient developed intractable subcutaneous emphysema with closure of palpebral fissure and dyspnea unresponsive to increasing suction on chest tube. A subcutaneous fenestrated drain was placed mid-way between the nipple and clavicle in the mid-clavicular line bilaterally. Continuous negative suction (-150mmHg) resulted in immediate, sustained relief and complete resolution within 5days. Extensive and debilitating SE (subcutaneous emphysema) has to be treated promptly to relieve patient discomfort, dysphagia or imminent respiratory compromise. A variety of treatment have been tried including infraclavicular blow-hole incisions, subcutaneous drains +/- negative pressure suction, fenestrated angiocatheters, Vacuum assisted dressings and increasing suction on a pre-existing chest tube. We describe a high negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain which provides immediate and sustained relief in debilitating SE. Debilitating subcutaneous emphysema which causes distress, anxiety, palpebral closure, dyspnoea or dysphagia requires intervention. High negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain provides immediate and sustained relief in extensive and debilitating SE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  18. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative, determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Methods: Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR, we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487 and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with ≥ 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with ≥ 3 informative markers and no LOH. Results: CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002 than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138, while CIMP-low/high (1/8–8/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common (56% in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%. These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry, or KRAS/BRAF mutation. Conclusion: 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in

  19. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0) and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; Kawasaki, Takako; Kirkner, Gregory J; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Fuchs, Charles S

    2007-05-02

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high) and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN) is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation) in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation) and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative), determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR), we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487) and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with > or = 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with > or = 3 informative markers and no LOH). CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters) was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002) than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138), while CIMP-low/high (1/8-8/8 methylated promoters) was significantly more common (56%) in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%). These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry), or KRAS/BRAF mutation. 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in colorectal cancer.

  20. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    the rate of surgical wound infection and wound exudate post-caesarean and that wound infection had a negative impact on quality of life one month after surgery. Alongside the clinical trial, a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that the treatment is cost-effective in a high......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...... a randomised controlled trial in two tertiary and three teaching hospitals in three regions of Denmark, the Happy Belly Study, investigating the effectiveness of iNPWT in a population of obese women after caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study has demonstrated that prophylactic iNPWT significantly reduced...

  1. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  2. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  3. Negative effects of a high tumour necrosis factor-α concentration on human gingival mesenchymal stem cell trophism: the use of natural compounds as modulatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Chiara; Natali, Letizia; Nisi, Marco; De Leo, Marinella; Daniele, Simona; Costa, Barbara; Graziani, Filippo; Gabriele, Mario; Braca, Alessandra; Trincavelli, M Letizia; Martini, Claudia

    2018-05-11

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in regenerative processes. Among the different MSC types, the gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) have arisen as a promising tool to promote the repair of damaged tissues secreting trophic mediators that affect different types of cells involved in regenerative processes. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is one of the key mediators of inflammation that could affect tissue regenerative processes and modify the MSC properties in in-vitro applications. To date, no data have been reported on the effects of TNF-α on GMSC trophic activities and how its modulation with anti-inflammatory agents from natural sources could modulate the GMSC properties. GMSCs were isolated and characterized from healthy subjects. The effects of TNF-α were evaluated on GMSCs and on the well-being of endothelial cells. The secretion of cytokines was measured and related to the modification of GMSC-endothelial cell communication using a conditioned-medium method. The ability to modify the inflammatory response was evaluated in the presence of Ribes nigrum bud extract (RBE). TNF-α differently affected GMSC proliferation and the expression of inflammatory-related proteins (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2) dependent on its concentration. A high TNF-α concentration decreased the GMSC viability and impaired the positive cross-talk between GMSCs and endothelial cells, probably by enhancing the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GMSC secretome. RBE restored the beneficial effects of GMSCs on endothelial viability and motility under inflammatory conditions. A high TNF-α concentration decreased the well-being of GMSCs, modifying their trophic activities and decreasing endothelial cell healing. These data highlight the importance of controlling TNF-α concentrations to maintain the trophic activity of GMSCs. Furthermore, the

  4. Persistent negative temperature response of mesophyll conductance in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves under both high and low vapour pressure deficits: a role for abscisic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Changpeng; Ethier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André

    2017-09-01

    The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (g m ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (T leaf ) rise from 20 to 35 °C. Contrary to the great majority of g m temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of g m with increasing T leaf irrespective of leaf chamber O 2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0.75 to 1.5 kPa) and high (0.75 to 3.5 kPa) diurnal VPDL regimes, unlike stomatal conductance (g s ), which decreased in the afternoon. Consequently, the leaf water status remained largely isohydric throughout the day, and therefore cannot be evoked to explain the diurnal decrease of g m . However, the concerted diurnal reductions of g m and g s were well correlated with increases in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) content, thus suggesting that ABA can induce a significant depression of g m under favourable leaf water status. Our results challenge the view that the temperature dependence of g m can be explained solely from dynamic leaf anatomical adjustments and/or from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions and lipid membranes.​. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evolutionary engineering of a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-negative, acetate-reducing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain enables anaerobic growth at high glucose concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe-Medina, Víctor; Metz, Benjamin; Oud, Bart; van Der Graaf, Charlotte M; Mans, Robert; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is required for redox-cofactor balancing in anaerobic cultures, causes yield reduction in industrial bioethanol production. Recently, glycerol formation in anaerobic S. cerevisiae cultures was eliminated by expressing Escherichia coli (acetylating) acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by mhpF) and simultaneously deleting the GPD1 and GPD2 genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, thus coupling NADH reoxidation to reduction of acetate to ethanol. Gpd– strains are, however, sensitive to high sugar concentrations, which complicates industrial implementation of this metabolic engineering concept. In this study, laboratory evolution was used to improve osmotolerance of a Gpd– mhpF-expressing S. cerevisiae strain. Serial batch cultivation at increasing osmotic pressure enabled isolation of an evolved strain that grew anaerobically at 1 M glucose, at a specific growth rate of 0.12 h−1. The evolved strain produced glycerol at low concentrations (0.64 ± 0.33 g l−1). However, these glycerol concentrations were below 10% of those observed with a Gpd+ reference strain. Consequently, the ethanol yield on sugar increased from 79% of the theoretical maximum in the reference strain to 92% for the evolved strains. Genetic analysis indicated that osmotolerance under aerobic conditions required a single dominant chromosomal mutation, and one further mutation in the plasmid-borne mhpF gene for anaerobic growth. PMID:24004455

  6. PALBOCICLIB IN COMBINATION WITH HORMONE THERAPY FOR LUMINAL HER2-NEGATIVE METASTATIC BREAST CANCER: NEW HIGHLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY OF DRUG TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Artamonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review considers a new oral targeted drug palbociclib and its place in treatment of luminal (estrogen receptor-positive HER2– metastatic breast cancer. The results of randomized clinical trials have shown that inclusion of palbociclib in various hormone therapy regimens for treatment of HER2– metastatic breast cancer with expression of estrogen receptors allows to significantly improve clinical outcomes and increase survival, objective response rate and its duration, as well as clinical benefit rate (CBR. Addition of palbociclib to letrozole in the 1st line hormone therapy or to fulvestrant in patients with progression at/after previous endocrine therapy increased progression-free survival in all groups irrespective of clinical characteristics, tumor progression, or expression of molecular markers mediating development of hormone resistance. The main adverse events associated with palbociclib were neutropenia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, but overall hematological toxicity was manageable, and the therapy itself was safe. This strategy received a “breakthrough therapy designation” from the experts and combines proven effectiveness and satisfactory tolerability, allows to maintain high quality of life, and should be prescribed to patients with luminal HER2– metastatic breast cancer.

  7. Coherent Behavior and the Bound State of Water and K(+) Imply Another Model of Bioenergetics: Negative Entropy Instead of High-energy Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeken, Laurent; Vasilievich Matveev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Observations of coherent cellular behavior cannot be integrated into widely accepted membrane (pump) theory (MT) and its steady state energetics because of the thermal noise of assumed ordinary cell water and freely soluble cytoplasmic K(+). However, Ling disproved MT and proposed an alternative based on coherence, showing that rest (R) and action (A) are two different phases of protoplasm with different energy levels. The R-state is a coherent metastable low-entropy state as water and K(+) are bound to unfolded proteins. The A-state is the higher-entropy state because water and K(+) are free. The R-to-A phase transition is regarded as a mechanism to release energy for biological work, replacing the classical concept of high-energy bonds. Subsequent inactivation during the endergonic A-to-R phase transition needs an input of metabolic energy to restore the low entropy R-state. Matveev's native aggregation hypothesis allows to integrate the energetic details of globular proteins into this view.

  8. Galvanic high temperature cell with solid negative electrode and an electrolyte melt. Galvanische Hochtemperaturzelle mit fester negativer Elektrode und einem Schmelzelektrolyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, W; Borger, W

    1987-01-08

    The purpose of the invention is to make an electrolyte melt available for high temperature cells (e.g. LiFeS cells), which guarantees ion transport and also acts as a separator. The invention starts from the fact that binary melts of the LiCl/KCl type are only liquid (i.e. without solid components) at a certain temperature at certain concentrations. With suitable mixing conditions, which apart from a eutectic composition, are mainly on the side of one of the two components, one can ensure that this component is present in the solid phase. In this way, a solid framework of LiCl, for example, is formed between the electrode plates in situ as a separator, in the pores of which the excess melt (e.g. LiCl/KCl) can carry out ion conduction. The volumetric ratio of the electrolyte melt in which liquid and solid phases are present at the working temperature of the cell should preferably be in the range of 2:1 to 1:2.

  9. Omega Meson Production at High Transverse momentum by negative 515-GeV/c pions incident on beryllium and copper targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Barbaro, Lucyna [Rochester U.

    1995-01-01

    The inclusive cross section for !(783) meson production by 515 GeV/c $\\pi^{-}$ beam incident on Be and Cu targets has been measured as a function of transverse momentum (pT ). The data were collected during the 1990 run of experiment E706 at Fermilab. The E706 trigger selected events containing high pT electromagnetic showers detected in a nely segmented lead liquid argon calorimeter. The ! mesons were reconstructed in the neutral decay mode $\\omega \\to \\pi^{0}\\gamma$. Results are reported averaged over the center of mass rapidity interval -0.5 < y < 0.75, and in the transverse momentum range from 3.5 to 8 GeV/c. The $\\gamma$ to $\\pi^0$ production ratio was measured and used to obtain the ratio of vector to pseudoscalar mesons directly produced in the fragmentation process. Measurements are compared with HERWIG 5.7 Monte Carlo results, and with data from other experiments. The nuclear dependence of ! meson production is also discussed

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C for anal carcinoma: Are there differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunholz, Ingeborg; Rabeneck, Daniela; Gerstein, Johanna; Jaeck, Katharina; Haberl, Annette; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report treatment compliance, toxicity and clinical outcome of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal carcinoma in HIV-negative vs. HIV-positive patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Material and methods: Between 1997 and 2008, 25 HIV-positive and 45 HIV-negative patients received CRT (50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction plus 5.4-10.8 Gy boost; 5-fluorouracil, 1000 mg/m 2 , Days 1-4 and 29-32, mitomycin C, 10 mg/m 2 , Days 1 and 29). Median follow-up was 51 (range, 3-235) months. Results: HIV-positive patients were significantly younger (mean age, 47 vs. 57 years, p < 0.001) and predominantly male (92% vs. 29%, p < 0.001). CRT could be completed in all patients with a reduction of chemotherapy and/or RT-interruption in 28% and 8%, respectively, in HIV-positive patients, and in 9% and 11%, respectively, in HIV-negative patients. Acute Grade 3/4-toxicity occurred in 44% vs. 49% (p = 0.79). Initial complete response (84% vs. 93%, p = 0.41), 5-year rates of local control (65% vs. 78%, p = 0.44), cancer-specific (78% vs. 90%, p = 0.17) and overall survival (71% vs. 77%, p = 0.76) were not significantly different. Conclusion: HIV-positive patients with anal cancer can be treated with standard CRT, with the same tolerability and toxicity as HIV-negative patients. Long-term local control and survival rates are not significantly different between these groups.

  11. Expansion of highly stable bla OXA-10 β-lactamase family within diverse host range among nosocomial isolates of Gram-negative bacilli within a tertiary referral hospital of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Anand Prakash; Dhar, Debadatta; Basumatary, Mridul Kumar; Paul, Deepjyoti; Ingti, Birson; Choudhury, Debarati; Talukdar, Anupam Das; Chakravarty, Atanu; Mishra, Shweta; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2017-04-04

    The current study reports dissemination of highly stable bla OXA-10 family of beta lactamases among diverse group of nosocomial isolates of Gram-negative bacilli within a tertiary referral hospital of the northern part of India. In the current study, a total number of 590 Gram negative isolates were selected for a period of 1 year (i.e. 1st November 2011-31st October 2012). Members of Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram negative rods were obtained from Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, India. Screening and molecular characterization of β-lactamase genes was done. Integrase gene PCR was performed for detection and characterization of integrons and cassette PCR was performed for study of the variable regions of integron gene cassettes carrying bla OXA-10 . Gene transferability, stability and replicon typing was also carried out. Isolates were typed by ERIC as well as REP PCR. Twenty-four isolates of Gram-negative bacilli that were harboring bla OXA-10 family (OXA-14, and OXA16) with fact that resistance was to the extended cephalosporins. The resistance determinant was located within class I integron in five diverse genetic contexts and horizontally transferable in Enterobacteriaceae, was carried through IncY type plasmid. MIC values were above break point for all the tested cephalosporins. Furthermore, co-carriage of bla CMY-2 was also observed. Multiple genetic environment of bla OXA-10 in this geographical region must be investigated to prevent dissemination of these gene cassettes within bacterial population within hospital settings.

  12. Dualising Intuitionictic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa's motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic Cw was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to CWo Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature 'Brouwerian logic' or 'closed-set logic'.

  13. Dualising Intuitionistic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa’s motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic C! was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to C!. Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature ‘Brouwerian logic’ or ‘closed-set logic’.

  14. Potential for negative emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) through coastal peatland re-establishment: Novel insights from high frequency flux data at meter and kilometer scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Bergamaschi, Brian; Anderson, Frank; Knox, Sara; Miller, Robin; Fujii, Roger

    2018-04-01

    High productivity temperate wetlands that accrete peat via belowground biomass (peatlands) may be managed for climate mitigation benefits due to their global distribution and notably negative emissions of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through rapid storage of carbon (C) in anoxic soils. Net emissions of additional greenhouse gases (GHG)—methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)—are more difficult to predict and monitor due to fine-scale temporal and spatial variability, but can potentially reverse the climate mitigation benefits resulting from CO2 uptake. To support management decisions and modeling, we collected continuous 96 hour high frequency GHG flux data for CO2, CH4 and N2O at multiple scales—static chambers (1 Hz) and eddy covariance (10 Hz)—during peak productivity in a well-studied, impounded coastal peatland in California’s Sacramento Delta with high annual rates of C fluxes, sequestering 2065 ± 150 g CO2 m‑2 y‑1 and emitting 64.5 ± 2.4 g CH4 m‑2 y‑1. Chambers (n = 6) showed strong spatial variability along a hydrologic gradient from inlet to interior plots. Daily (24 hour) net CO2 uptake (NEE) was highest near inlet locations and fell dramatically along the flowpath (‑25 to ‑3.8 to +2.64 g CO2 m‑2 d‑1). In contrast, daily net CH4 flux increased along the flowpath (0.39 to 0.62 to 0.88 g CH4 m‑2 d‑1), such that sites of high daily CO2 uptake were sites of low CH4 emission. Distributed, continuous chamber data exposed five novel insights, and at least two important datagaps for wetland GHG management, including: (1) increasing dominance of CH4 ebullition fluxes (15%–32% of total) along the flowpath and (2) net negative N2O flux across all sites as measured during a 4 day period of peak biomass (‑1.7 mg N2O m‑2 d‑1 0.51 g CO2 eq m‑2 d‑1). The net negative emissions of re-established peat-accreting wetlands are notably high, but may be poorly estimated by

  15. 18F-FDG PET and high-resolution MRI co-registration for pre-surgical evaluation of patients with conventional MRI-negative refractory extra-temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao; Zhu, Yuankai; Jiang, Biao; Zhou, Yongji; Jin, Bo; Hou, Haifeng; Wu, Shuang; Zhu, Junming; Wang, Zhong Irene; Wong, Chong H; Ding, Meiping; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Shuang; Tian, Mei

    2018-04-18

    Epilepsy that originates outside of the temporal lobe can present some of the most challenging problems for surgical therapy, especially for patients with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative refractory extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of pre-surgical 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET) and high-resolution MRI (HR-MRI) co-registration in patients with conventional MRI-negative refractory ETLE, and compare their surgical outcomes. Sixty-seven patients with conventional MRI-negative refractory ETLE were prospectively included for pre-surgical 18 F-FDG PET and HR-MRI examinations. Under the guidance of 18 F-FDG PET and HR-MRI co-registration, HR-MRI images were re-read. Based on the image result changes from first reading to re-reading, patients were divided into three groups: Change-1 (lesions of subtle abnormality could be identified in re-read), Change-2 (non-specific abnormalities reported in the first reading were considered as lesions on HR-MRI re-read) and No-change. Post-surgical follow-ups were conducted for up to 59 months. Visual analysis of 18 F-FDG PET showed focal or regional abnormality in 46 patients (68.6%), while the abnormal rate increased to 94.0% (P evaluation by co-registration of 18 F-FDG PET and HR-MRI could improve the identification of the epileptogenic onset zone (EOZ), and may further guide the surgical decision-making and improve the outcome of the refractory ETLE with normal conventional MRI; therefore, it should be recommended as a standard procedure for pre-surgical evaluation of these patients.

  16. "One-for-All" Strategy in Fast Energy Storage: Production of Pillared MOF Nanorod-Templated Positive/Negative Electrodes for the Application of High-Performance Hybrid Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chong; Liang, Zibin; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Bote; Zhu, Bingjun; Dang, Dai; Dai, Shuge; Chen, Yu; Zou, Ruqiang; Liu, Meilin

    2018-05-02

    Currently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are intensively studied as active materials for electrochemical energy storage applications due to their tunable structure and exceptional porosities. Among them, water stable pillared MOFs with dual ligands have been reported to exhibit high supercapacitor (SC) performance. Herein, the "One-for-All" strategy is applied to synthesize both positive and negative electrodes of a hybrid SC (HSC) from a single pillared MOF. Specifically, Ni-DMOF-TM ([Ni(TMBDC)(DABCO) 0.5 ], TMBDC: 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, DABCO: 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]-octane) nanorods are directly grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) (denoted as CFP@TM-nanorods) with the help of triethylamine and function as the positive electrode of HSC under alkaline electrolyte. Meanwhile, calcinated N-doped hierarchical porous carbon nanorods (CFP@TM-NPCs) are produced and utilized as the negative counter-electrode from a one-step heat treatment of CFP@TM-nanorods. After assembling these two electrodes together to make a hybrid device, the TM-nanorods//TM-NPCs exhibit a wide voltage window of 1.5 V with a high sloping discharge plateau between 1-1.2 V, indicating its great potential for practical applications. This as-described "One-for-All" strategy is widely applicable and highly reproducible in producing MOF-based electrode materials for HSC applications, which shortens the gap between experimental synthesis and practical application of MOFs in fast energy storage. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  18. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  19. The effect of high charging rates activation on the specific discharge capacity and efficiency of a negative electrode based on a LaMgAlMnCoNi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.A.; Zarpelon, L.M.C.; Casini, J.C.S.; Takiishi, H.; Faria, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    A nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable battery has been prepared using a La 0.7 Mg 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy as the negative electrode. The maximum discharge capacity of the La 0.7 Mg 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy has been determined (350 mAh/g). Using a high starting charging rate (2857 mAg -1 ) an efficiency of 49% has been achieved in the 4 th cycle. The alloy and powders have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  20. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  1. High-resolution microbiome profiling uncovers Fusobacterium nucleatum, Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii, and Lactobacillus vaginalis associated to oral and oropharyngeal cancer in saliva from HPV positive and HPV negative patients treated with surgery and chemo-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; White, James Robert; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Rodríguez-Hilario, Arnold; Navarro, Kelvin; González, Herminio; Michailidi, Christina; Jedlicka, Anne; Canapp, Sierra; Bondy, Jessica; Dziedzic, Amanda; Mora-Lagos, Barbara; Rivera-Alvarez, Gustavo; Ili-Gangas, Carmen; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Westra, William; Koch, Wayne; Kang, Hyunseok; Marchionni, Luigi; Kim, Young; Sidransky, David

    2017-12-19

    Microbiome studies show altered microbiota in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), both in terms of taxonomic composition and metabolic capacity. These studies utilized a traditional bioinformatics methodology, which allows for accurate taxonomic assignment down to the genus level, but cannot accurately resolve species level membership. We applied Resphera Insight, a high-resolution methodology for 16S rRNA taxonomic assignment that is able to provide species-level context in its assignments of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing (NGS) data. Resphera Insight applied to saliva samples from HNSCC patients and healthy controls led to the discovery that a subset of HNSCC saliva samples is significantly enriched with commensal species from the vaginal flora, including Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (710x higher in saliva) and Lactobacillus vaginalis (52x higher in saliva). These species were not observed in normal saliva from Johns Hopkins patients, nor in 16S rRNA NGS saliva samples from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Interestingly, both species were only observed in saliva from Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive and HPV negative oropharyngeal cancer patients. We confirmed the representation of both species in HMP data obtained from mid-vagina (n=128) and vaginal introitus (n=121) samples. Resphera Insight also led to the discovery that Fusobacterium nucleatum , an oral cavity flora commensal bacterium linked to colon cancer, is enriched (600x higher) in saliva from a subset of HNSCC patients with advanced tumors stages. Together, these high-resolution analyses on 583 samples suggest a possible role for bacterial species in the therapeutic outcome of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC patients.

  2. Optimization of negative ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have started to study negative ion extraction and acceleration systems in view of designing a 1 MeV D - accelerator. This study is being made with a two-Dimensional code that has been specifically developed in our laboratory and validated by comparison to three sets of experimental data. We believe that the criteria for negative ion accelerator design optimization should be: (i) to provide the best optics; (ii) to reduce the power load on the extraction grid; (iii) to allow operation with low electric fields in order to reduce the problem of breakdowns. We show some results of optics calculations performed for two systems that will be operational in the next months: the CEA-JAERI collaboration at Cadarache and the european DRAGON experiment at Culham. Extrapolations to higher energies of 500 to 1100 keV have also been conducted. All results indicate that the overall accelerator length, whatever be the number of gaps, is constrained by space charge effects (Child-Langmuir). We have combined this constraint with high-voltage hold-off empirical laws. As a result, it appears that accelerating 10 mA/cm 2 of D - at 1 MeV with good optics, as required for NET or ITER, is close to the expected limit of high-voltage hold-off

  3. New insight in the structural features of haloadaptation in α-amylases from halophilic Archaea following homology modeling strategy: folded and stable conformation maintained through low hydrophobicity and highly negative charged surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Patron, Kevin; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2014-07-01

    Proteins from halophilic archaea, which live in extreme saline conditions, have evolved to remain folded, active and stable at very high ionic strengths. Understanding the mechanism of haloadaptation is the first step toward engineering of halostable biomolecules. Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Yet, no three-dimensional structure has been experimentally resolved for α-amylases from halophilic archaea. In this study, homology structure modeling of α-amylases from the halophilic archaea Haloarcula marismortui, Haloarcula hispanica, and Halalkalicoccus jeotgali were performed. The resulting models were subjected to energy minimization, evaluation, and structural analysis. Calculations of the amino acid composition, salt bridges and hydrophobic interactions were also performed and compared to a set of non-halophilic counterparts. It clearly appeared that haloarchaeal α-amylases exhibited lower propensities for helix formation and higher propensities for coil-forming regions. Furthermore, they could maintain a folded and stable conformation in high salt concentration through highly negative charged surface with over representation of acidic residues, especially Asp, and low hydrophobicity with increase of salt bridges and decrease in hydrophobic interactions on the protein surface. This study sheds some light on the stability of α-amylases from halophilic archaea and provides strong basis not only to understand haloadaptation mechanisms of proteins in microorganisms from hypersalines environments but also for biotechnological applications.

  4. High risk exposure to HIV among sexually active individuals who tested negative on rapid HIV Tests in the Tshwane District of South Africa-The importance of behavioural prevention measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simnikiwe H Mayaphi

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of HIV risk behaviour among sexually active HIV sero-negative individuals in the Tshwane district of South Africa (SA.Demographic and HIV risk behaviour data were collected on a questionnaire from participants of a cross-sectional study that screened for early HIV infection using pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT. The study enrolled individuals who tested negative on rapid HIV tests performed at five HIV counseling and testing (HCT clinics, which included four antenatal clinics and one general HCT clinic.The study enrolled 9547 predominantly black participants (96.6% with a median age of 27 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 23-31. There were 1661 non-pregnant and 7886 pregnant participants largely enrolled from the general and antenatal HCT clinics, respectively. NAAT detected HIV infection in 61 participants (0.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8 in the whole study. A high proportion of study participants, 62.8% and 63.0%, were unaware of their partner's HIV status; and also had high prevalence, 88.5% and 99.5%, of recent unprotected sex in the general and pregnant population, respectively. Consistent use of condoms was associated with protection against HIV infection in the general population. Trends of higher odds for HIV infection were observed with most demographic and HIV risk factors at univariate analysis, however, multivariate analysis did not show statistical significance for almost all these factors. A significantly lower risk of HIV infection was observed in circumcised men (p <0.001.These data show that a large segment of sexually active people in the Tshwane district of SA have high risk exposure to HIV. The detection of newly diagnosed HIV infections in all study clinics reflects a wide distribution of individuals who are capable of sustaining HIV transmission in the setting where HIV risk behaviour is highly prevalent. A questionnaire that captures HIV risk behaviour would be useful

  5. [Stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Eiji

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescents. Adolescent students (N=1500) completed a questionnaire that measured attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping. Analysis of date yielded, two factors of the attitudes toward negative emotions: "Negative feelings about negative emotions" and "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions". In order to examine the theoretical relationships among attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping, a hypothetical model was tested by covariance structure analysis. This model predicted that students who have a high level of attitudes toward negative emotions would report enhanced problem solving which promoted stress coping. The results indicated that "Negative feelings about negative emotions" enhanced avoidable coping, and avoidable coping enhanced stress reactions. "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions" was related to a decrease of avoidable coping. Based on the results from covariance structure analysis and a multiple population analysis, the clinical significance and developmental characteristics were discussed.

  6. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  7. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  8. High prevalence of sensitization to gibberellin-regulated protein (peamaclein) in fruit allergies with negative immunoglobulin E reactivity to Bet v 1 homologs and profilin: Clinical pattern, causative fruits and cofactor effect of gibberellin-regulated protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Naoko; Miyakawa, Mami; Aihara, Michiko

    2017-07-01

    Gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP) is a new allergen in peach allergy, with an amino acid sequence very well conserved through several botanical species. We investigated the allergenicity of GRP in fruit allergies other than peaches and identified the clinical characteristics of fruit allergy patients with GRP sensitization. One hundred consecutive Japanese patients with fruit allergies were enrolled in the present study. To identify the features of GRP sensitization, we selected patients with negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin, which are marker allergens for pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS), or lipid transfer protein. These patients underwent specific immunoglobulin E measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and skin prick tests (SPT) using purified nPru p 7. Twenty of 100 consecutive patients with fruit allergies had negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin. Thirteen (65.0%) of the 20 patients had positive ELISA and/or SPT results using nPru p 7, whereas one of the 20 patients had positive ImmunoCAP results for Pru p 3. In 13 nPru p 7-sensitized patients, the causative foods were peaches (92.3%), apricots (61.5%), oranges (46.2%) and apples (30.8%). Ten patients (76.9%) had multiple causative fruits. Frequent symptoms included facial edema (92.3%) and laryngeal tightness (66.7%). In eight patients (61.5%), exercise or aspirin intake enhanced the allergic reaction onset as cofactors. The prevalence of GRP sensitization was high in Japanese fruit allergy patients except for PFAS patients. In conclusion, GRP-sensitized patients may have allergies to multiple fruits and may show peculiar characteristics such as facial swelling and cofactor dependence. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-negative aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia with high P-glycoprotein activity and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Perkovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive natural killer-cell leukaemia (ANKL is a rare type of disease with fulminant course and poor outcome. The disease is more prevalent among Asians than in other ethnic groups and shows strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and P-glycoprotein (P-gp expression associated with multidrug resistance. Here we present a case of a 47 year old Caucasian female with a prior medical history of azathioprine treated ulcerative colitis who developed EBV-negative form of ANKL. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly, fever and nausea with peripheral blood and bone marrow infiltration with up to 70% of atypical lymphoid cells positive for cCD3, CD2, CD7, CD56, CD38, CD45, TIA1 and granzyme B, and negative for sCD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD34 and CD123 indicative of ANKL. Neoplastic CD56+ NK-cells showed high level of P-glycoprotein expression and activity, but also strong expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 MAP kinase. The patient was treated with an intensive polychemotherapy regimen designed for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, but one month after admission developed sepsis, coma and died of cardiorespiratory arrest. We present additional evidence that, except for the immunophenotype, leukaemic NK-cells resemble normal NK-cells in terms of P-gp functional capacity and expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 signalling molecule. In that sense drugs that block P-glycoprotein activity and activated signalling pathways might represent new means for targeted therapy.

  10. High-throughput and simultaneous analysis of eight central-acting muscle relaxants in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the positive and negative ionization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tadashi; Hattori, Hideki; Kaneko, Rina; Ito, Kenjiro; Iwai, Masae; Mizutani, Yoko; Arinobu, Tetsuya; Ishii, Akira; Seno, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    In this report, a high-throughput and sensitive method for analysis of eight central-acting muscle relaxants in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in the positive and negative ionization modes using tolbutamide as internal standard is presented. After pretreatment of a plasma sample by solid-phase extraction with an Oasis HLB cartridge, muscle relaxants were analyzed by UPLC with Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column and Acquity TQD tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization interface. The calibration curves for muscle relaxants spiked into human plasma equally showed good linearities in the nanogram per milliliter order range. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was as low as 0.1-2 ng/mL. The method gave satisfactory recovery rates, accuracy, and precision for quality control samples spiked with muscle relaxants. To further validate the present method, 250 mg of chlorphenesin carbamate was orally administered to a healthy male volunteer, and the concentrations of chlorphenesin carbamate in plasma were measured 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after dosing; their concentrations in human plasma were between 0.62 and 2.44 μg/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing simultaneous analysis of over more than two central-acting muscle relaxants by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This has been realized by the capability of our instrument for simultaneous multiple reaction monitoring of the target compounds in both positive and negative ionization modes. Therefore, the present method seems very useful in forensic and clinical toxicology and pharmacokinetic studies.

  11. How does negative emotion cause false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Stein, L M; Silveira, R A; Rohenkohl, G; Reyna, V F

    2008-09-01

    Remembering negative events can stimulate high levels of false memory, relative to remembering neutral events. In experiments in which the emotional valence of encoded materials was manipulated with their arousal levels controlled, valence produced a continuum of memory falsification. Falsification was highest for negative materials, intermediate for neutral materials, and lowest for positive materials. Conjoint-recognition analysis produced a simple process-level explanation: As one progresses from positive to neutral to negative valence, false memory increases because (a) the perceived meaning resemblance between false and true items increases and (b) subjects are less able to use verbatim memories of true items to suppress errors.

  12. Negative ion based neutral beams for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.

    1978-01-01

    Neutral beam systems based on negative ions have been considered because of a high expected power efficiency. Methods for the production, acceleration and neutralization of negative ions will be reviewed and possibilities for an application in neutral beam lines explored

  13. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  14. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  15. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  16. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  17. Experimental study of high current negative ion sources D{sup -} / H{sup -}. Analysis based on the simulation of the negative ion transport in the plasma source; Etude experimentale de sources a fort courant d`ions negatifs D{sup -} / H{sup -}. Analyse fondee sur la simulation du transport des ions dans le plasma de la source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riz, D.

    1996-10-30

    In the frame of the development of a neutral beam injection system able to work the ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), two negative ion sources, Dragon and Kamaboko, have been installed on the MANTIS test bed in Cadarache, and studies in order to extract 20 mA/cm{sup 2} of D{sup -}. The two production modes of negative ions have been investigated: volume production; surface production after cesium injection in the discharge. Experiments have shown that cesium seeding is necessary in order to reach the requested performances for ITER. 20 mA/cm{sup 2} have been extracted from the Kamaboko source for an arc power density of 2.5 kW/liter. Simultaneously, a code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ions transport in the source plasma, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collisions H{sup -}/H{sup +} and of charge exchange H{sup -}/H{sup 0} are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. The code allows to obtain the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at a given location. The calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain several phenomena observed on negative ion sources, such as the isotopic effect H{sup -}/D{sup -} and the influence of the polarisation of the plasma grid and of the magnetic filter on the negative ions current. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, working with large arc power densities (> 1 kW/liter), only negative ions produced in volume at a distance lower that 2 cm from the plasma grid and those produced at the grid surface have a chance of being extracted. (author). 122 refs.

  18. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  19. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  20. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  1. Dose-Response Associations Between Number and Frequency of Substance Use and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among HIV-Negative Substance-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men (SUMSM) in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Glenn-Milo; Coffin, Phillip O.; Das, Moupali; Matheson, Tim; DeMicco, Erin; Raiford, Jerris L.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dilley, James W.; Colfax, Grant; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between frequency and number of substances used and HIV risk [ie, serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI)] among 3173 HIV-negative substance-using MSM. Compared with nonusers, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for SDUAI among episodic and at least weekly users, respectively, was 3.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.55 to 4.28] and 5.46 (95% CI, 3.80 to 7.84) for methamphetamine, 1.86 (95% CI, 1.51 to 2.29) and 3.13 (95% CI, 2.12 to 4.63) for cocaine, and 2.08 (95% CI, 1.68 to 2.56) and 2.54 (95% CI, 1.85 to 3.48) for poppers. Heavy alcohol drinkers reported more SDUAI than moderate drinkers [AOR, 1.90 (95% CI, 1.43 to 2.51)]. Compared with nonusers, AORs for using 1, 2, and ≥3 substances were 16.81 (95% CI, 12.25 to 23.08), 27.31 (95% CI, 18.93 to 39.39), and 46.38 (95% CI, 30.65 to 70.19), respectively. High-risk sexual behaviors were strongly associated with frequency and number of substances used. PMID:23572012

  2. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R D; Alper, B; Edwards, A W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  4. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  5. High-throughput hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the optimized quantification of the anti-Gram-negatives antibiotic colistin A/B and its pro-drug colistimethate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Thomas; Tissot, Fréderic; Gardiol, Céline; Corti, Natascia; Wehrli, Stéphane; Guidi, Monia; Csajka, Chantal; Buclin, Thierry; Couet, William; Marchetti, Oscar; Decosterd, Laurent A

    2014-11-21

    Colistin is a last resort's antibacterial treatment in critically ill patients with multi-drug resistant Gram-negative infections. As appropriate colistin exposure is the key for maximizing efficacy while minimizing toxicity, individualized dosing optimization guided by therapeutic drug monitoring is a top clinical priority. Objective of the present work was to develop a rapid and robust HPLC-MS/MS assay for quantification of colistin plasma concentrations. This novel methodology validated according to international standards simultaneously quantifies the microbiologically active compounds colistin A and B, plus the pro-drug colistin methanesulfonate (colistimethate, CMS). 96-well micro-Elution SPE on Oasis Hydrophilic-Lipophilic-Balanced (HLB) followed by direct analysis by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC) with Ethylene Bridged Hybrid--BEH--Amide phase column coupled to tandem mass spectrometry allows a high-throughput with no significant matrix effect. The technique is highly sensitive (limit of quantification 0.014 and 0.006 μg/mL for colistin A and B), precise (intra-/inter-assay CV 0.6-8.4%) and accurate (intra-/inter-assay deviation from nominal concentrations -4.4 to +6.3%) over the clinically relevant analytical range 0.05-20 μg/mL. Colistin A and B in plasma and whole blood samples are reliably quantified over 48 h at room temperature and at +4°C (<6% deviation from nominal values) and after three freeze-thaw cycles. Colistimethate acidic hydrolysis (1M H2SO4) to colistin A and B in plasma was completed in vitro after 15 min of sonication while the pro-drug hydrolyzed spontaneously in plasma ex vivo after 4 h at room temperature: this information is of utmost importance for interpretation of analytical results. Quantification is precise and accurate when using serum, citrated or EDTA plasma as biological matrix, while use of heparin plasma is not appropriate. This new analytical technique providing optimized quantification in real

  6. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  7. Choosing the negative: A behavioral demonstration of morbid curiosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images

  8. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees......’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards...

  9. Mucosal serpin A1 and A3 levels in HIV highly exposed sero-negative women are affected by the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives but are independent of epidemiological confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syeda; Rabbani, Rasheda; Wachihi, Charles; Kimani, Joshua; Plummer, Francis A; Ball, Terry B; Burgener, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Serpins (serine protease inhibitors) are associated with protection against HIV infection. Here, we characterized mucosal serpin expression in the genital tract of HIV highly exposed sero-negative (HESN) women meeting our epidemiological definition of HIV resistance in relation to epidemiological variables. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid and plasma were collected from 84 HIV-resistant, 54 HIV-uninfected, and 66 HIV-infected female commercial sex workers. Serpin A1 and A3 concentrations were measured by ELISA and compared with clinical information. Mucosal serpin A1 was elevated during proliferative phase over secretory phase (P = 0.017*), while A3 remained similar (P = 0.25). Plasma and mucosal serpin A1/A3 levels were not associated with each other and appeared compartment specific (r = 0.21, r = 0.056). Serpin A1/A3 expression did not associate with age (r = 0.009, r = -0.06), duration of sex work (r = 0.13, r = -0.10), clients per day (r = -0.11, r = -0.02), concurrent STIs (P = 0.36, P = 0.15), but was lower in women using hormonal contraceptives (P = 0.034, P = 0.008). Mucosal serpin A1/A3 levels in HIV-infected individuals were not significantly different with disease status as determined by plasma CD4(+) T-cell counts (P = 0.94, P = 0.30). This study shows the relationship of serpins to the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives, as well as their independence to epidemiological sexual confounders. This information provides a broader understanding of innate components of the mucosal immune system in women. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  11. Optimized cleanup method for the determination of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in sediments by high resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Zhang Haijun; Chen Jiping; Zhang Qing; Tian Yuzeng; Qi Peipei; Yu Zhengkun

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sediment sample could be purified by the optimized cleanup method, and satisfying cleanup efficiency was obtained. Highlights: → The elution characters of sPCAs and interfering substances were evaluated on three adsorbents. → An optimized cleanup method was developed for sPCAs with satisfying cleanup efficiency. → The cleanup method combined with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS was applied for sPCAs analysis. → The sPCAs levels range from 53.6 ng g -1 to 289.3 ng g -1 in tested sediment samples. - Abstract: The performances of three adsorbents, i.e. silica gel, neutral and basic alumina, in the separation of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs) from potential interfering substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were evaluated. To increase the cleanup efficiency, a two-step cleanup method using silica gel column and subsequent basic alumina column was developed. All the PCB and organochlorine pesticides could be removed by this cleanup method. The very satisfying cleanup efficiency of sPCAs has been achieved and the recovery in the cleanup method reached 92.7%. The method detection limit (MDL) for sPCAs in sediments was determined to be 14 ng g -1 . Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.3% was obtained for the mass fraction of sPCAs by analyzing four replicates of a spiked sediment sample. High resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was used for sPCAs quantification by monitoring [M-HCl]· - ions. When applied to the sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River, the optimized cleanup method in conjunction with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS allowed for highly selective identifications for sPCAs. The sPCAs levels in sediment samples are reported to range from 53.6 ng g -1 to 289.3 ng g -1 . C 10 - and C 11 -PCAs are the dominant residue in most of investigated sediment samples.

  12. Exclusion of identification by negative superposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Šandor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the first report of negative superposition in our country. Photo of randomly selected young, living woman was superimposed on the previously discovered female skull. Computer program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 was used in work. Digitilized photographs of the skull and face, after uploaded to computer, were superimposed on each other and displayed on the monitor in order to assess their possible similarities or differences. Special attention was payed to matching the same anthropometrical points of the skull and face, as well as following their contours. The process of fitting the skull and the photograph is usually started by setting eyes in correct position relative to the orbits. In this case, lower jaw gonions go beyond the face contour and gnathion is highly placed. By positioning the chin, mouth and nose their correct anatomical position cannot be achieved. All the difficulties associated with the superposition were recorded, with special emphasis on critical evaluation of work results in a negative superposition. Negative superposition has greater probative value (exclusion of identification than positive (possible identification. 100% negative superposition is easily achieved, but 100% positive - almost never. 'Each skull is unique and viewed from different perspectives is always a new challenge'. From this point of view, identification can be negative or of high probability.

  13. Implementation of the Thin Layer Agar Method for Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Setting with a High Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Homa Bay, Kenya▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anandi; Munga Waweru, Peter; Babu Okatch, Fred; Amondi Ouma, Naureen; Bonte, Laurence; Varaine, Francis; Portaels, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a low-cost method, the thin layer agar (TLA) method, for the diagnosis of smear-negative patients. This prospective study was performed in Homa Bay District Hospital in Kenya. Out of 1,584 smear-negative sputum samples, 212 (13.5%) were positive by culture in Löwenstein-Jensen medium (LJ) and 220 (14%) were positive by the TLA method. The sensitivities of LJ and TLA were 71% and 74%, respectively. TLA could become an affordable method for the diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis in resource-limited settings, with results available within 2 weeks. PMID:19494065

  14. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  15. Recent negative ion source developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes recent results obtained from studies associated with the development of negative ion sources which utilize sputtering in a diffuse cesium plasma as a means of ion beam generation. Data are presented which relate negative ion yield and important operational parameters such as cesium oven temperature and sputter probe voltage from each of the following sources: (1) A source based in principle according to the University of Aarhus design and (2) an axial geometry source. The important design aspects of the sources are given--along with a list of the negative ion intensities observed to date. Also a qualitative description and interpretation of the negative ion generation mechanism in sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of cesium is given

  16. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  17. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  18. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  19. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  20. Relativistic shifts of bound negative-muon precession frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J.H.; Froese, A. M.; Fryer, B.A.; Ghandi, K.

    2005-01-01

    High-field negative-muon spin precession experiments have been performed using a backward-muon beam with substantial transverse spin polarization, facilitating high-precision measurements of the magnetogyric ratio of negative muons bound to nuclei in the ground states of muonic atoms. These results may provide a testing ground for quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields

  1. Perceived social pressure not to experience negative emotion is linked to selective attention for negative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Pe, Madeline Lee; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Social norms and values may be important predictors of how people engage with and regulate their negative emotional experiences. Previous research has shown that social expectancies (the perceived social pressure not to feel negative emotion (NE)) exacerbate feelings of sadness. In the current research, we examined whether social expectancies may be linked to how people process emotional information. Using a modified classical flanker task involving emotional rather than non-emotional stimuli, we found that, for those who experienced low levels of NE, social expectancies were linked to the selective avoidance of negative emotional information. Those who experienced high levels of NE did not show a selective avoidance of negative emotional information. The findings suggest that, for people who experience many NEs, social expectancies may lead to discrepancies between how they think they ought to feel and the kind of emotional information they pay attention to.

  2. Formation of hydrogen negative ions by surface and volume processes with application to negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the last few decades interest in negative-hydrogen ion sources has been directed mainly toward synchrotron and other particle accelerator applications, with emphasis on high current densities delivered for short pulses. But within the last several years there has been an awareness in the magnetic fusion program of the future need for negative ions as a means for generating high energy neutral beams, beams with energies above a few hundred keV. Negative ions seem to be the only effective intermediary for efficiently producing such beams. Although methods for generating negative ion beams have relied upon synchrotron concepts, the requirements for fusion are very different: here one is interested in more moderate current densities, up to 100 m A cm -2 , but with continuous operation. Proposed source modules would accelerate of the order of 10 A of beam current and deliver several megawatts of beam power. Both H - and D - beams are being considered for application in different reactor systems. The conceptualization of negative ion sources is now in a very volatile stage. But of the great variety of proposals that have been offered to date, three general areas appear ready for development. These are: first, the double charge exchange method for converting a positive ion beam into a negative ion beam; second, electron-volume processes wherein low energy electrons interacting with molecular species lead to negative ion products via dissociative attachment or recombination; and third, generation of negative ions in surface interactions, principally via desorption and backscattering. Both our qualitative and our quantitative understanding of these processes diminishes as one proceeds from the first through the third. The physics of these three methods is considered in detail

  3. Thunderstorm Charge Structures Producing Negative Gigantic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, L.; Liu, N.; Riousset, J. A.; Shi, F.; Rassoul, H.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present observational and modeling results that provide insight into thunderstorm charge structures that produce gigantic jet discharges. The observational results include data from four different thunderstorms producing 9 negative gigantic jets from 2010 to 2014. We used radar, very high frequency (VHF) and low frequency (LF) lightning data to analyze the storm characteristics, charge structures, and lightning activity when the gigantic jets emerged from the parent thunderstorms. A detailed investigation of the evolution of one of the charge structures by analyzing the VHF data is also presented. The newly found charge structure obtained from the observations was analyzed with fractal modeling and compared with previous fractal modeling studies [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] of gigantic jet discharges. Our work finds that for normal polarity thunderstorms, gigantic jet charge structures feature a narrow upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region. There also likely exists a `ring' of negative screening charge located around the perimeter of the upper positive charge. This is different from previously thought charge structures of the storms producing gigantic jets, which had a very wide upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region, with a very small negative screening layer covering the cloud top. The newly found charge structure results in leader discharge trees in the fractal simulations that closely match the parent flashes of gigantic jets inside and outside the thundercloud. The previously used charge structures, while vital to the understanding of gigantic jet initiation and the role of charge imbalances inside the cloud, do not produce leader discharge trees that agree with observed gigantic jet discharges.Finally, the newly discovered gigantic jet charge structures are formed near the end of a convective pulse [Meyer et al., JGR, 118

  4. Fundamental properties of secondary negative ion emission by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Toshiki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    1989-01-01

    The report describes some results obtained from preliminary experiments on secondary negative ion emission from a cesiated surface by Xe-ion beam sputtering, which give the production probability. A measuring system is constructed for secondary negative ion emission. The system consists of a microwave ion source with a lens, a sputtering target holder with a heater, a cesium oven, a limiting aperture with a substrate for deposition, a negative-ion extractor and lens, and a ExB type mass separator. Observations are made on the dependence of negative ion current on cesium supply, dependence of negative ion current on target temperature, and negative ion production probability. The cesium supply and the target temperature are found to strongly influence the negative ion emission. By controlling these factors, the optimum condition for secondary negative ion emission is achieved with a minimum surface work function. The production probability of the negative ion is found to be very high, about 20% for carbon. Therefore, the secondary negative ion emission is considered a useful and highly efficient method to obtain high current ion beams. The constant in the Rasser's theoretical equation is experimentally determined to be 4.1 x 10 -4 eV sec/m. (N.K.)

  5. Quantum entanglement at negative temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G B; Meerovich, V M; Sokolovsky, V L

    2013-01-01

    An isolated spin system that is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium and that has an upper limit to its allowed energy states can possess a negative temperature. We calculate the thermodynamic characteristics and the concurrence in this system over the entire range of positive and negative temperatures. Our calculation was performed for different real structures, which can be used in experiments. It is found that the temperature dependence of the concurrence is substantially asymmetrical similarly to other thermodynamic characteristics. At a negative temperature the maximum concurrence and the absolute temperature of the entanglement appearance are significantly larger than those at a positive temperature. The concurrence can be characterized by two dimensionless parameters: the ratio between the Zeeman and dipolar energies and the ratio of the thermal and dipolar energies. It was shown that for all considered structures the dimensionless temperatures of the transition between entanglement and separability of the first and second spins are independent of spin structure and the number of spins. (paper)

  6. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  7. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Gourab; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren; Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10 12 cm −3 is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm 2 as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10 11 cm −3 has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated

  8. Schizophrenia and smoking: impact on negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Saliba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: it has been hypothesized that individuals with schizophrenia use nicotine to reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive function. There is an inconsistency in the literature suggesting that nicotine could help decrease negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Objective: to investigate the effects of nicotine on the expression of the negative symptoms in smokers and non-smokers with schizophrenia. Methods: a cross sectional study, conducted between April and August 2016, 100 inpatients with schizophrenia (54 smokers and 46 non-smokers diagnosed according to DSM-V, at Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross Lebanon, were compared to changes in clinical parameters using CDSS, PANSS, and nicotine dependence using FTND. The Student’s t-test was used to compare between 2 groups, while the ANOVA test was used to compare between 3 or more groups. For categorical variables, the chi-2 test was used. Results: the mean age was 47.16 years (SD = 7.14 for smokers compared to 47.02 years (SD = 7.92 for non-smokers. 64.8% of smokers were males versus 45.7% of non-smokers. Smoking (high nicotine dependence significantly decreases the PANSS negative symptoms score between the 2 groups (p .05 for both variables. Discussion and conclusion: this study is the first to investigate the relationship between the expression of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia and smoking in Lebanon. Cigarette smoking rates remain remarkably high in patients with schizophrenia. Smoking is a complex process which involves psychopathological, biochemical and neuropharmacological aspects among schizophrenic patients. Further studies are needed to acknowledge these findings and the reasons behind it.

  9. On the contrast between Germanic and Romance negated quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cirillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal quantifiers can be stranded in the manner described by Sportiche (1988, Giusti (1990 and Shlonsky (1991 in both the Romance and Germanic languages, but a negated universal quantifier can only be stranded in the Germanic languages. The goal of this paper is to show that this contrast between the Romance and the Germanic languages can be explained if one adapts the theory of sentential negation in Zeijlstra (2004 to constituent (quantifier negation. According to Zeijlstra’s theory, a negation marker in the Romance languages is the head of a NegP that dominates vP, whereas in the Germanic languages a negation marker is a maximal projection that occupies the specifier position of a verbal phrase. I will show that the non-occurrence of stranded negated quantifiers in the Romance languages follows from the fact that negation markers in the Romance languages are highly positioned syntactic heads.

  10. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  11. Optimization studies of carbon additives to negative active material for the purpose of extending the life of VRLA batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, D.P.; Loosemore, D.V.; Spence, M.A.; Wojcinski, T.D. [Hammond Expanders Division, Hammond Group, Inc., 6544 Osborn Avenue, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The negative plates of lead-acid batteries subjected to partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) operation fail because of the development of an electrically inert film of lead sulfate on their surfaces. It has been found that carbon additives to the negative active material can significantly increase their cycle life in this type of operation. In this paper we show that various types of carbon, including graphite, carbon black eliminate the surface development of lead sulfate and that, in their presence, the lead sulfate becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the active material. Examination of active material by energy dispersive spectroscopy after extensive cycling shows that lead formed during charge of lead sulfate preferentially deposits on the carbon particles that have been embedded in the active material. Electrochemical studies have been carried out on a number of types of carbon additives having a wide range of properties. These included flake, expanded and synthetic graphite, isotropically graphitized carbon, carbon black and activated carbon. We have investigated their effect on the resistivity and surface areas of the negative active material and also on such electrochemical properties as active material utilization and cycle life. Most of the carbon additives increase the utilization of the active material and impressive increases in cycle life have been obtained with over 6000 capacity turnovers having been achieved. However, at this time, we have not been able to correlate either the type or the properties of the carbon with capacity or cycle life. Further work is needed in this area. The increases that have been achieved in cycle life provide evidence that the lead-acid battery is a viable low cost option for hybrid-electric vehicle use. (author)

  12. Advanced damper with negative structural stiffness elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liang; Lakes, Roderic S

    2012-01-01

    Negative stiffness is understood as the occurrence of a force in the same direction as the imposed deformation. Structures and composites with negative stiffness elements enable a large amplification in damping. It is shown in this work, using an experimental approach, that when a flexible flat-ends column is aligned in a post-buckled condition, a negative structural stiffness and large hysteresis (i.e., high damping) can be achieved provided the ends of the column undergo tilting from flat to edge contact. Stable axial dampers with initial modulus equivalent to that of the parent material and with enhanced damping were designed and built using constrained negative stiffness effects entailed by post-buckled press-fit flat-ends columns. Effective damping of approximately 1 and an effective stiffness–damping product of approximately 1.3 GPa were achieved in such stable axial dampers consisting of PMMA columns. This is a considerable improvement for this figure of merit (i.e., the stiffness–damping product), which generally cannot exceed 0.6 GPa for currently used damping layers. (paper)

  13. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  14. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  15. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  16. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of triple-negativity in node-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-You; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Jee Hyun; Im, Seock-Ah; Han, Wonshik; Ae Park, In; Noh, Dong-Young; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behaviour. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2000 and Jun. 2003. Clinicopathologic variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (< 35 y, p = 0.003), and higher histologic and nuclear grade (p < 0.001). It also correlated with a molecular profile associated with biological aggressiveness: negative for bcl-2 expression (p < 0.001), positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor (p = 0.003), and a high level of p53 (p < 0.001) and Ki67 expression (p < 0.00). The relapse rates during the follow-up period (median, 56.8 months) were 14.7% for TN breast cancer and 6.6% for non-TN breast cancer (p = 0.004). Relapse free survival (RFS) was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer (4-year RFS rate 85.5% vs. 94.2%, respectively; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple-negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. TN breast cancer had higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics than non-TN in node-negative breast cancer. Thus, TN breast cancer should be integrated into the risk factor analysis for node-negative breast cancer

  17. Molecular genetic tests for JAK2V617F, Exon12_JAK2 and MPLW515K/L are highly informative in the evaluation of patients suspected to have BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcos Tadeu; Mitne-Neto, Miguel; Miyashiro, Kozue; Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes L Ferrari; Rizzatti, Edgar Gil

    2014-02-01

    Polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and idiopathic myelofibrosis (MF), are the most common myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) in patients without the BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangement. They are caused by clonal expansion of haematopoietic stem cells and share, as a diagnostic criterion, the identification of JAK2V617F mutation. Classically, when other clinical criteria are present, a JAK2V617F negative case requires the analysis of Exon12_JAK2 for the diagnosis of PV, and of MPL515K/L mutations for the diagnosis of ET and MF. Here, we evaluated 78 samples from Brazilian patients suspected to have MPN, without stratification for PV, ET or MF. We found that 28 (35.9%) are JAK2V617F carriers; from the 50 remaining samples, one (2%) showed an Exon12_JAK2 mutation, and another (2%) was positive for MPLW515L mutation. In summary, the investigation of JAK2V617F, Exon12_JAK2 and MPLW515K/L was relevant for the diagnosis of 38.4% of patients suspected to have BCR-ABL1-negative MPN, suggesting that molecular genetic tests are useful for a quick and unequivocal diagnosis of MPN.

  18. Negative spiral CT in acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, T.; Olausson, A. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Thoracic Radiology; Johnsson, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Nyman, U. [County Hospital, Trelleborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Aspelin, P. [Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of non-anticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and no symptoms or signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following a negative contrast medium-enhanced spiral CT of the pulmonary arteries (s-CTPA). Material and Methods: During a 24-month period, 739 of 751 patients underwent s-CTPA with acceptable diagnostic quality for clinically suspected acute PE. All patients who had a CT study not positive for PE were followed up with a questionnaire, a telephone interview and review of all medical reports, including autopsies and death certificates for any episodes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during a 3-month period. Results: PE was diagnosed in 158 patients. Of the remaining 581 patients with a negative s-CTPA, 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 88 patients were excluded because of anticoagulation treatment (cardiac disorder n=32, chronic VTE or acute symptomatic DVT n=31, PE diagnosed at pulmonary angiography n=1, thrombus prophylaxis during diagnostic work-up or other reasons than VTE n=24) and 7 patients undergoing lower extremity venous studies because of symptoms of DVT (all negative). Thus, 441 patients with a negative s-CTPA and no DVT symptoms, venous studies or anticoagulant treatment constituted the follow-up cohort. Four of these patients had proven VTE (all PE) during the 3-month follow-up period. Two of the PE episodes contributed to the patient's death. Conclusion: Patients with clinically suspected acute PE, no symptoms or signs of DVT and a negative single slice s-CTPA using 3-5 mm collimation, may safely be left without anticoagulation treatment unless they are critically ill, have a limited cardiopulmonary reserve and/or if a high clinical suspicion remains.

  19. Training for assessment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia across languages and cultures: comparison of the NSA-16 with the PANSS Negative Subscale and Negative Symptom factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, David G; Alphs, Larry; Cazorla, Pilar; Bartko, John J; Panagides, John

    2011-07-01

    The 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16) has been validated in English-speaking raters. We analyzed the level of agreement achieved among raters of different nationalities using the NSA-16 and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale and Marder negative factor. Raters participating in two international trials were trained in the use of each instrument through lectures and feedback on their ratings of at least one videotaped interview of a schizophrenic patient. Overall and regional (North America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, South/Central America, and Australia and South Africa combined) kappa values were calculated and mean total scores were compared (1-way analysis of variance) by region for each instrument. In addition, within-scales variance was calculated by item to help identify negative symptoms that were particularly challenging to obtain agreement on across cultures. In the combined group of international raters, the kappa values for ratings of the NSA-16, PANSS negative subscale, and Marder negative factors were 0.89, 0.84, and 0.82, respectively. Kappa values calculated by geographic region ranged from 0.87 to 0.94 for the NSA-16 compared with 0.82 to 0.86 for the PANSS negative subscale and 0.79 to 0.87 for the PANSS Marder negative factor. Despite cultural and linguistic differences among raters, standardizing measurement of negative symptoms in international clinical trials is possible using available rating scales: NSA-16, PANSS negative subscale, and Marder negative subscale. Agreement among raters was at least as high using the NSA-16 as using the PANSS instruments.

  20. Clinical pulmonary infection score and a spot serum procalcitonin level to guide discontinuation of antibiotics in ventilator-associated pneumonia: a study in a single institution with high prevalence of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsurakiat, Phunsup; Tulatamakit, Sirapat

    2018-01-01

    Background We wanted to determine the impact of combined Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) and a spot serum procalcitonin (PCT)-guided protocol to shorten the duration of antibiotic treatment in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), mainly caused by nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB). Methods Patients with VAP who received appropriate antibiotics for 7 days, temperature ⩽ 37.8°C, without shock, and CPIS ⩽ 6 were allocated to the PCT group or conventional group according to the treating physicians' decisions. In the PCT group, antibiotics were stopped if the PCT level on day 8 level appeared effective and safe to guide discontinuation of antibiotic treatment in patients with VAP caused by NF-GNB. TCTR20160726002.

  1. Radiation quality of beams of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.; Brenner, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    As a negative pion stops in tissue, it attaches itself to an adjacent atom to form a mesonic atom. Subsequently, the wave function of the pion interacts with that of the nucleus and the pion is absorbed. Because the energy associated with the rest mass of the pion is greater than the separation energy of the nuclear particles, the nucleus disintegrates (pion star). In tissue, approximately 40 MeV goes into overcoming the binding energies; 20 MeV goes into kinetic energy of charged particles; 80 MeV goes into kinetic energy of neutrons. In cases where biological studies are performed with beams of negative pions, as much as 20% of the total absorbed dose in the treatment volume and about 50% of the high-LET dose (> 100 keV/μm) can result from neutrons. The degree of biological response and the variation of that response throughout the treatment volume can be altered by the neutron dose

  2. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  3. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  4. Perfect antireflection via negative refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzon, Juan J.; Barriuso, Alberto G.; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a geometrical framework to discuss the action of slabs of negatively refracting materials. We show that these slabs generate the same orbits as normal materials, but traced out in opposite directions. This property allows us to confirm that the action of any lossless multilayer can be optically canceled by putting it together with the multilayer constructed as the inverted mirror image, with ε and μ reversed in sign

  5. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  6. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  7. Negative Affectivity, Role Stress, and Work-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Albena Z.; Chiu, Randy K.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2002-01-01

    Measures of job and family stress and negative affectivity were completed by 148 (of 400) Hong Kong civil service employees. Persons with high negative affectivity experience more work and family stress. Job stress was associated with extensive interference of work with family, and family stress with extensive interference of family with work.…

  8. Family Caregivers' Patterns of Positive and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Suzanne M.; Zarit, Steven H.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Rovine, Michael J.; Femia, Elia E.

    2007-01-01

    Stressful and positive family caregiving experiences were examined as predictors of caregivers' patterns of positive and negative affect in a sample of families providing care for a relative with dementia (N = 234). Four affect pattern groups were identified: (a) Well Adjusted (i.e., high positive affect, low negative affect); (b) Ambiguous (i.e.,…

  9. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sub-kT/q subthreshold slope p-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with single-grained Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 featuring a highly reliable negative capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-03-01

    A reliable on/off switching with an sub-kT/q subthreshold slope (38 mV/dec at room temperature) is experimentally demonstrated with using selectively nucleated laterally crystallized single-grain Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric and ZrTiO4 paraelectric thin-film. The combination of ferroelectric and paraelectric thin-film is enabled to form a negative capacitance (NC) at the weak inversion region. However, the PZT grain-boundary easily degrades the NC properties after switching the on/off more than 108 times. It is found that the polarization of PZT is diminished from the path of grain-boundary. Here, we effectively suppress the degradation of NC MOS-FET which did not showed any fatigue even after 108 on/off switching. At the request of the authors this article is retracted due to duplication of figures and significant overlap with other publications by the authors and because of concerns about the accuracy of the description of the devices and materials from which the reported results were obtained. The authors recognize that these represent serious errors and sincerely apologize for any inconvenience they may have caused. The article is retracted from the scientific record with effect from 17 February 2017.

  11. Negative Knudsen force on heated microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan

    2011-11-18

    Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam adjacent to a cold substrate in a rarefied gas is a mechanical force created by unbalanced thermal gradients. The measured force has its direction pointing towards the side with a lower thermal gradient and its magnitude vanishes in both continuum and free-molecule limits. In our previous study, negative Knudsen forces were discovered at the high Knudsen regime before diminishing in the free-molecule limit. Such a phenomenon was, however, neither observed in experiment [A. Passian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124503 (2003)], nor captured in the latest numerical study [J. Nabeth et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 066306 (2011)]. In this paper, the existence of such a negative Knudsen force is further confirmed using both numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The asymptotic order of the Knudsen force near the collisionless limit is analyzed and the analytical expression of its leading term is provided, from which approaches for the enhancement of negative Knudsen forces are proposed. The discovered phenomenon could find its applications in novel mechanisms for pressure sensing and actuation.

  12. On the negative resistance of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    It is known that large amplitudes oscillations can occur in the current flowing through a plasma diode, typically when a constant potential is applied across the device. Burger (1965) suggested via a computer simulation that the oscillation characteristics was a function of the quantities T sub (e) and T sub (i), namely the respective time for an electron and an ion to cross the electric field region inside the diode. On the rapid time scale T sub (e) the self consistent equilibrium configuration, was unstable. Norris (1964) had previously arrived at the same conclusion using analytical arguments. In that work, it was concluded that the instability occurred since the diode acted as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. A positive feedback effect forced the system away from equilibrium. Silevitch (1981) used the Burger mechanism to suggest an explanation for the flickering aurora phenomenon. He extended the Norris argument and showed by a variational method that a plausible analytic model for a double layer (DL) behaved as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. In this present work we re-examine the negative resistance calculation by taking a more detailed account of the constraints which are imposed on the electron distributions that exist in the DL region. Specifically, we shall focus at the high potential side of the DL. (Authors)

  13. Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshiya Tabasum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs are the pathological hallmark of Graves’ disease, present in nearly all patients with the disease. Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy (EGO is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its occurrence in patients with negative TRAbs is a potential source of diagnostic confusion. A 66-year-old female presented to our endocrinology clinic with right eye pain and diplopia in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. TRAbs were negative, as measured with a highly sensitive third-generation thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII ELISA assay. CT and MRI scans of the orbit showed asymmetrical thickening of the inferior rectus muscles but no other inflammatory or malignant orbital pathology. Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological features, and she underwent surgical recession of the inferior rectus muscle with complete resolution of the diplopia and orbital pain. She remained euthyroid over the course of follow-up but ultimately developed overt clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, 24 months after the initial presentation. By this time, she had developed positive TRAb as well as thyroid peroxidase antibodies. She responded to treatment with thionamides and remains euthyroid. This case highlights the potential for negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies in the presentation of EGO and underscores the variable temporal relationship between the clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction and orbital disease in the natural evolution of Graves’ disease.

  14. Negative-ion current density dependence of the surface potential of insulated electrode during negative-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Okayama, Yoshio; Toyota, Yoshitaka; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki; Tanjyo, Masayasu; Matsuda, Kouji.

    1994-01-01

    Positive ion implantation has been utilized as the method of impurity injection in ultra-LSI production, but the problem of substrate charging cannot be resolved by conventional charge compensation method. It was forecast that by negative ion implantation, this charging problem can be resolved. Recently the experiment on the negative ion implantation into insulated electrodes was carried out, and the effect of negative ion implantation to this problem was proved. However, the dependence of charged potential on the increase of negative ion current at the time of negative ion implantation is a serious problem in large current negative ion implantation hereafter. The charged potential of insulated conductor substrates was measured by the negative ion implantation using the current up to several mA/cm 2 . The experimental method is explained. Medium current density and high current density negative ion implantation and charged potential are reported. Accordingly in negative ion implantation, if current density is optimized, the negative ion implantation without charging can be realized. (K.I.)

  15. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...

  16. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional (2D) integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing may also find applications outside of optics, in acoustics, fluid mechanics or quantum physics, wherever waves obey the 2D Helmholtz equation.

  17. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.

  18. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z p spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics

  19. Improved UV-B screening capacity does not prevent negative effects of ambient UV irradiance on PSII performance in High Arctic plants. Results from a six year UV exclusion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term responses of ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum in a High Arctic heath ecosystem in Zackenberg, northeast Greenland. Over a period of six years, UV exclusion was conducted in the growing season by means of filters: 60% UV......, exposing the vegetation to high spring UV-B, and to be present in the future to the degree the ozone layer is not fully recovered....

  20. Negative pion capture in chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butsev, V.S.; Chultem, D.; Gavrilov, Yu.K.; Ganzorig, Dz.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Presperin, V.

    1976-01-01

    The results are reported of an experiment of determination of the probability of capture of resting negative pions by iodine nuclei in alkali metal iodides (LiI, NaI, KI, RbI, CsI). The yield of an isomer sup(116m)(Sb/8 - ) with a high spin number, formed in the reaction 127 I(π - , lp 10n) allows to determine the relative probability of the nuclear capture of pions in the above compounds. The results obrained are compared with the predictions of the Fermi-Teller Z-law

  1. Comment on ''Negative temperature of vortex motion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, K.; Campbell, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent Brief Report and subsequently [Phys. Rev. A 43, 2050 (1991); 44, 8439 (1991)], Berdichevsky, Kunin, and Hussain claim that the ''Boltzmann temperature'' of a bounded point vortex system is always positive, and that the spatial inhomogeneities that evolve at high energies in such a system are incompatible with ergodicity of the dynamics. The argument given to support these claims neglected the presence of the fluid boundary. We prove that the Boltzmann temperature is in fact always negative, and present evidence that the vortex clumping that has been observed in simulations is consistent with ergodic dynamics

  2. Negative pion irradiation of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dertinger, H.; Luecke-Huhle, C.; Schlag, H.; Weibezahn, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    Monolayers and spheroids of Chinese hamster cells (V79) were subjected to negative pion irradiation under aerobic conditions. R.b.e. values in the pion peak of 1.8 and 1.5 were obtained for monolayers and spheroids, respectively, whereas the r.b.e. for the plateau was found to be slightly higher than 1. In addition, it was observed that the higher resistance of the V79 spheroid cells than the monolayers to γ-irradiation is not diminished in the pion peak, suggesting that the underlying phenomenon of intercellular communication influences cell survival even after high-LET irradiation. (author)

  3. Negative symptoms and social cognition: identifying targets for psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Rief, Winfried

    2011-09-01

    How to improve treatment for negative symptoms is a continuing topic of debate. Suggestions have been made to advance psychological understanding of negative symptoms by focusing on the social cognitive processes involved in symptom formation and maintenance. Following the recommendations by the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on social cognition in schizophrenia, this study investigated associations between negative symptoms and various aspects of social cognition including Theory of Mind (ToM), attribution, empathy, self-esteem, and interpersonal self-concepts in 75 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 75 healthy controls. Negative symptoms were significantly associated with difficulties in ToM, less readiness to be empathic, lower self-esteem, less self-serving bias, negative self-concepts related to interpersonal abilities, and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Different aspects of social cognition were mildly to moderately correlated and interacted in their impact on negative symptoms: Difficulties in ToM were associated with negative symptoms in persons with low but not in persons with medium or high levels of self-esteem. Taken together, the social cognition variables and their hypothesized interaction explained 39% of the variance in negative symptoms after controlling for neurocognition and depression. The results highlight the relevance of self-concepts related to social abilities, dysfunctional beliefs, and global self-worth alone and in interaction with ToM deficits for negative symptoms and thereby provide a helpful basis for advancing psychosocial interventions.

  4. An aCGH classifier derived from BRCA1-mutated breast cancer and benefit of high-dose platinum-based chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebergh, M. A.; Lips, E. H.; Nederlof, P. M.; Wessels, L. F. A.; Schmidt, M. K.; van Beers, E. H.; Cornelissen, S.; Holtkamp, M.; Froklage, F. E.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Schrama, J. G.; Wesseling, J.; van de Vijver, M. J.; van Tinteren, H.; de Bruin, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Rodenhuis, S.; Linn, S. C.

    Patients and methods: We evaluated this classifier in stage III breast cancer patients, who had been randomly assigned between adjuvant high-dose platinum-based (HD-PB) chemotherapy, a DSB-inducing regimen, and conventional anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Additionally, we assessed BRCA1 loss

  5. Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…

  6. Coinductive Logic Programming with Negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Richard; Gupta, Gopal

    We introduce negation into coinductive logic programming (co-LP) via what we term Coinductive SLDNF (co-SLDNF) resolution. We present declarative and operational semantics of co-SLDNF resolution and present their equivalence under the restriction of rationality. Co-LP with co-SLDNF resolution provides a powerful, practical and efficient operational semantics for Fitting's Kripke-Kleene three-valued logic with restriction of rationality. Further, applications of co-SLDNF resolution are also discussed and illustrated where Co-SLDNF resolution allows one to develop elegant implementations of modal logics. Moreover it provides the capability of non-monotonic inference (e.g., predicate Answer Set Programming) that can be used to develop novel and effective first-order modal non-monotonic inference engines.

  7. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  8. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  9. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse

  10. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  11. Negative meson capture in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The processes of deexcitation and capture of negative mesons and hadrons in atomic hydrogen are investigated. Only slow collisions in which the projectile-atom relative velocity is less than one atomic unit are considered, and the motion of the incident particle is treated classically. For each classical trajectory the probability of ionizing the hydrogen atom is determined, together with the energy spectrum of the emitted electron. Ionization probabilities are calculated using the time-dependent formulation of the perturbed stationary state method. Exact two-center electronic wave functions are used for both bound and continuum states. The total ionization cross section and electron energy spectrum have been calculated for negative muons, kaons and antiprotons at incident relative velocities between 0.04 and 1.0 atomic units. The electron energy spectrum has a sharp peak for electron kinetic energies on the order of 10 -3 Rydbergs. The ionization process thus favors the emission of very slow electrons. The cross section for ionization with capture of the incident particle was calculated for relative kinetic energies greater than 1.0 Rydberg. Since ionization was found to occur with the emission of electrons of nearly zero kinetic energy, the fraction of ionizing collisions which result in capture decreases very rapidly with projectile kinetic energy. The energy distributions of slowed down muons and hadrons were also computed. These distributions were used together with the capture cross section to determine the distribution of kinetic energies at which capture takes place. It was found that most captures occur for kinetic energies slightly less than 1.0 Rydbergs with relatively little capture at thermal energies. The captured particles therefore tend to go into very large and loosely found orbits with binding energies less than 0.1 Rydbergs

  12. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: a systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Stephanie; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S.; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:\\ud To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures.\\ud Design/methodology/approach:\\ud A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, adve...

  13. Improvement in low-temperature and instantaneous high-rate output performance of Al-free AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy for negative electrode in Ni/MH battery: Effect of thermodynamic and kinetic regulation via partial Mn substituting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanhai; Zhu, Ding; Tang, Zhengyao; Wu, Chaoling; Huang, Liwu; Ma, Zhewen; Chen, Yungui

    2017-03-01

    A series of Al-free Mn-modified AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys have been designed and the effects of thermodynamic stability and electrochemical kinetics on electrochemical performance via Mn substituting have been investigated. Compared with high-Al alloys, the Al-free alloys in this study have better low-temperature performance and instantaneous high-rate output because of the higher surface catalytic ability. After partial substitution of Ni by Mn, both the hydrogen desorption capacity and plateau pressure decrease, and correspondingly results in an improved thermodynamic stability which is adverse to low-temperature delivery. Additionally, with the improvement of charge acceptance ability and anti-corrosion property via Mn substitution, the room-temperature discharge capacity and cycling stability increase slightly. However, Mn adversely affects the electrochemical kinetics and deteriorates both the surface catalytic ability and the bulk hydrogen diffusion ability, leading to the drop of low-temperature dischargeability, high-rate dischargeability and peak power (Ppeak). Based on the thermodynamic and kinetic regulation and overall electrochemical properties, the optimal composition is obtained when x = 0.2, the discharge capacity is 243.6 mAh g-1 at -40 °C with 60 mA g-1, and the Ppeak attains to 969.6 W kg-1 at -40 °C.

  14. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  15. Discrepant HPV/cytology cotesting results: Are there differences between cytology-negative versus HPV-negative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracht, Jessica M; Davis, Antoinette D; Fasciano, Danielle N; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013. After a review of surgical specimens and cytology, discrepancies were classified as sampling or interpretation error. Clinical and pathologic findings were compared. In total, 15,173 women (age range, 25-95 years; 7.1% were aged ASCUS-positive/HPV-positive, 11 that tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-positive, 10 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative, 3 that tested NILM/HPV-negative, and 5 tests that were unsatisfactory. There was no significant difference between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3 in terms of size, time to occurrence, the presence of a cytopathic effect, screening history, race, or age. Six of 11 NILM/HPV-positive cases were reclassified as ASCUS, indicating an interpreting error of 55% and a sampling error of 45%. No ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative cases were reclassified. Seven cases of CIN-3 with positive cytology were HPV-negative. There are no significant clinical or pathologic differences between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3-positive specimens. Cytologic sampling or interpretation remains the main reason for discrepancies. However, HPV-negative CIN-3 with positive cytology exists and may be missed by primary HPV screening. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:795-805. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Highly efficient gene targeting in Aspergillus oryzae industrial strains under ligD mutation introduced by genome editing: Strain-specific differences in the effects of deleting EcdR, the negative regulator of sclerotia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Katayama, Takuya; Okabe, Tomoya; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Wataru; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi

    2017-07-11

    Numerous strains of Aspergillus oryzae are industrially used for Japanese traditional fermentation and for the production of enzymes and heterologous proteins. In A. oryzae, deletion of the ku70 or ligD genes involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) has allowed high gene targeting efficiency. However, this strategy has been mainly applied under the genetic background of the A. oryzae wild strain RIB40, and it would be laborious to delete the NHEJ genes in many A. oryzae industrial strains, probably due to their low gene targeting efficiency. In the present study, we generated ligD mutants from the A. oryzae industrial strains by employing the CRISPR/Cas9 system, which we previously developed as a genome editing method. Uridine/uracil auxotrophic strains were generated by deletion of the pyrG gene, which was subsequently used as a selective marker. We examined the gene targeting efficiency with the ecdR gene, of which deletion was reported to induce sclerotia formation under the genetic background of the strain RIB40. As expected, the deletion efficiencies were high, around 60~80%, in the ligD mutants of industrial strains. Intriguingly, the effects of the ecdR deletion on sclerotia formation varied depending on the strains, and we found sclerotia-like structures under the background of the industrial strains, which have never been reported to form sclerotia. The present study demonstrates that introducing ligD mutation by genome editing is an effective method allowing high gene targeting efficiency in A. oryzae industrial strains.

  17. Effect of electrode materials on a negative ion production in a cesium seeded negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Morishita, Takutoshi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Iga, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Effects of plasma grid materials on the negative ion production efficiency in a cesium seeded ion source have been experimentally studied. Grid materials of Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Mo were examined. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was utilized in the experiment to avoid contamination of tungsten from filament cathode. Relations between the negative ion currents and work functions of the grid were measured for these materials. Influence of the contamination by tungsten on the grid was also investigated. If was clarified that the negative ion production efficiency was determined only by the work function of the grid. The efficiency did not depend on the material itself. The lowest work function of 1.42 eV was obtained for Au grid with Cs, and a high H{sup -} production efficiency of 20.7 mA/kW was measured. This efficiency is about 1.3 times larger than that of Cs/Mo and Cs/Cu. Further improvement of the production efficiency was observed by covering the plasma grid with tungsten and cesium simultaneously. Such co-deposition of W and Cs on the plasma grid produced the negative ion production efficiency of 1.7 times higher than that from the tungsten grid simply covered with Cs. (author)

  18. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Numerical renormalization group method for entanglement negativity at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jeongmin; Sim, H.-S.; Lee, Seung-Sup B.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a numerical method to compute the negativity, an entanglement measure for mixed states, between the impurity and the bath in quantum impurity systems at finite temperature. We construct a thermal density matrix by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG), and evaluate the negativity by implementing the NRG approximation that reduces computational cost exponentially. We apply the method to the single-impurity Kondo model and the single-impurity Anderson model. In the Kondo model, the negativity exhibits a power-law scaling at temperature much lower than the Kondo temperature and a sudden death at high temperature. In the Anderson model, the charge fluctuation of the impurity contributes to the negativity even at zero temperature when the on-site Coulomb repulsion of the impurity is finite, while at low temperature the negativity between the impurity spin and the bath exhibits the same power-law scaling behavior as in the Kondo model.

  20. Autobiographical memories for negative and positive events in war contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Manzanero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the phenomenological qualities of self-reported negative and positive memories. The study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, and a total of 134 autobiographical memories about negative and positive events were analyzed using a version of the Phenomenological Questionnaire for Autobiographical Memory (Manzanero & López, 2007. Participants were university students, 80 percent were women and 20 percent were men. Results showed that negative memories are more confused, more complex, and decay more over time than positive ones. In contrast, no differences were found between positive and negative memories on sensory information, spatial location, vividness, definition, accessibility, fragmentation, recall perspective, doubts about the accuracy of the memory, and how much participants recovered and talked about the event. High Dimensional Visualization (HDV graph revealed that there were individual differences between negative and positive memories but no consistent differences across participants.

  1. Negative numbers and antimatter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2012-01-01

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter

  2. Positive and Negative Affect More Concurrent among Blacks than Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    While positive and negative affect are inversely linked, people may experience and report both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. However, it is unknown if race alters the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect. The current study compared Black and White Americans for the association between positive and negative affect. We used data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans with an age range of 25 to 75. A total number of 7108 individuals were followed for 10 years from 1995 to 2004. Positive and negative affect was measured at baseline (1995) and follow-up (2004). Demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and income) as well as health (self-rated health, chronic medical conditions, and body mass index) factors measured at baseline were covariates. A series of linear regressions were used to test the moderating effect of race on the reciprocal association between positive and negative affect at baseline and over time, net of covariates. In the pooled sample, positive and negative affect showed inverse correlation at baseline and over time, net of covariates. Blacks and Whites differed in the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect, with weaker inverse associations among Blacks compared to Whites, beyond all covariates. Weaker reciprocal association between positive and negative affect in Blacks compared to Whites has implications for cross-racial measurement of affect and mood, including depression. Depression screening programs should be aware that race alters the concordance between positive and negative affect domains and that Blacks endorse higher levels of positive affect compared to Whites in the presence of high negative affect.

  3. Identification of Methyl Halide-Utilizing Genes in the Methyl Bromide-Utilizing Bacterial Strain IMB-1 Suggests a High Degree of Conservation of Methyl Halide-Specific Genes in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, C.A.; Warner, K.L.; Oremland, R.S.; Murrell, J.C.; McDonald, I.R.

    2001-01-01

    Strain IMB-1, an aerobic methylotrophic member of the alpha subgroup of the Proteobacteria, can grow with methyl bromide as a sole carbon and energy source. A single cmu gene cluster was identified in IMB-1 that contained six open reading frames: cmuC, cmuA, orf146, paaE, hutI, and partial metF. CmuA from IMB-1 has high sequence homology to the methyltransferase CmuA from Methylobacterium chloromethanicum and Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum and contains a C-terminal corrinoid-binding motif and an N-terminal methyl-transferase motif. However, cmuB, identified in M. chloromethanicum and H. chloromethanicum, was not detected in IMB-1.

  4. High Ki-67 score is indicative of a greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy when added to endocrine therapy in luminal B HER2 negative and node-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Carmen; Disalvatore, Davide; De Laurentiis, Michele; Gelao, Lucia; Fumagalli, Luca; Locatelli, Marzia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Rotmensz, Nicole; Esposito, Angela; Minchella, Ida; De Placido, Sabino; Santangelo, Michele; Viale, Giuseppe; Goldhirsch, Aron; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    The indication of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with highly proliferative estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer is controversial. We analyzed the predictive value of Ki67 for the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, node-positive breast cancer. We identified 1241 patients with Luminal B early stage breast cancer with 1-3 axillary positive nodes who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2005 at the European Institute of Oncology and received adjuvant hormonotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Differences in the distribution of characteristics according to treatment were evaluated by the Chi-square test. To evaluate the effect of adding chemotherapy to hormonotherapy, the propensity score method was used to match patients' characteristics minimizing bias related to the non-random assignment of treatment. The probability of receiving chemotherapy was significantly associated with age, tumor grade, degree of hormone responsiveness, tumor size and peripheral vascular invasion. The propensity score distribution was statistically different between the two treatment groups (p chemotherapy group (log-rank test p-value 0.663). The 5-year DFS percentages were 84.6% (95% CI, 81.0-87.6%) in the hormonotherapy group and 84.2% (95% CI, 81.3-86.7%) in the hormonotherapy/chemotherapy group (log-rank test p-value 0.388). However, when analyzing the 5-year DFS by Ki-67 distribution, Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis showed a beneficial effect of chemotherapy in patients with highly proliferative tumor (Ki-67 ≥ 32%). The interaction between Ki-67 and treatment was statistically significant (p = 0.027). Ki67 expression identifies a subset of patients with Luminal B and node-positive breast cancer who could benefit from addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to hormonotherapy. Dichotomy was observed for Ki67 at 32% level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disclosure of negative intrusions : the relationship with thought-action fusion, shame, guilt and fear.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells-Britton, Kaighley; Simonds, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Background: Given their highly unacceptable nature, negative intrusions are likely to promote the experience of negative affect such as fear, shame and guilt. Moreover, moral thought-action fusion (believing that negative thinking is the equivalent of acting immorally) is likely to inflate the occurrence of negative affect when intrusions are experienced. In turn, negative affect is likely related to disclosure. The current study investigated whether thought-action fusion beliefs predict anti...

  6. Choosing the negative: A behavioral demonstration of morbid curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images displayed social scenes that involved death, violence or harm (e.g., war scene), or decontextualized, close-ups of physical harm (e.g., mutilated face) or natural threat (e.g., attacking shark). The results demonstrated that social negative images were chosen significantly more often than other negative categories. Furthermore, participants preferred social negative images over neutral images. Physical harm images and natural threat images were not preferred over neutral images, but were chosen in about thirty-five percent of the trials. These results were replicated across three different studies, including a study that presented verbal descriptions of images as pre-choice cues. Together, these results show that people deliberately subject themselves to negative images. With this, the present paper demonstrates a dynamic relationship between negative information and behavior and advances new insights into the phenomenon of morbid curiosity. PMID:28683147

  7. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    1980-08-01

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  8. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: A systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie A; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-06-01

    To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date. Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures. Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of the Nuclear Dependence of Direct Photon and Neutral Meson Production at High Transverse Momentum by Negative 515-GeV/c Pions Incident on Beryllium and Copper Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, Lee Ronald [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear dependence of inclusive direct photon production and inclusive neutral meson production by a 515 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam has been measured using data collected by the E706 experiment during the 19.90 fixed, target run at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment utilized a finely segmented liquid argon calorimeter and a high precision charged particle spectrometer to make precision measurements of inclusive direct photon, neutral pion, and $\\eta$ production in the rapidity interval from -0.75 < $y$ < 0.75. The $\\pi^0$ data is reported for the $P_T$ range from 0.6 GeV /c to 12 GeV /c, while the $\\eta$ data is reported for the range from 3.5 GeV /c to 7.0 GeV /c. The direct photon nuclear dependence results are reported for the range from approxlmately 4.0 GeV/c to 8.5 GeV/c. The data from the beryllium and copper targets have been fit using the parameterization $\\sigma_A$ = $\\sigma_0$ x $A^{\\alpha}$. The neutral meson results are in good agreement with previous charged meson results. The direct photon results are consistent with no anomalous enhancement.

  10. Validity of the negative binomial distribution in particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugnon, J.; Harouna, O.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of the clan picture for particle production in nuclear and in high-energy processes are examined. In particular, it is shown that the requirement of having logarithmic distribution for the number of particles within a clan in order to generate a negative binomial should not be taken strictly. Large departures are allowed without distorting too much the negative binomial. The question of the undetected particles is also studied. It is shown that, under reasonable circumstances, the latter do not affect the negative binomial character of the multiplicity distribution

  11. Design of a negative ion neutral beam system for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easoz, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    A conceptual design of a neutral beam line based on the neutralization of negative deuterium ions is presented. This work is a detailed design of a complete neutral beam line based on using negative ions from a direct extraction source. Anticipating major technological advancements, beam line components have been scaled including the negative ion sources and components for the direct energy recovery of charged beams and high speed cryogenic pumping. With application to the next step in experimental fusion reactors (TNS), the neutral beam injector system that has been designed provides 10 MW of 200 keV neutral deuterium atoms. Several arms are required for plasma ignition

  12. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness. A systematic review of 73 studies of contextual cuing, a popular implicit learning paradigm, involving 181 statistical analyses of awareness tests, reveals how underpowered studies can lead to failure to reject a false null hypothesis. Among the studies that reported sufficient information, the meta-analytic effect size across awareness tests was d z = 0.31 (95 % CI 0.24-0.37), showing that participants' learning in these experiments was conscious. The unusually large number of positive results in this literature cannot be explained by selective publication. Instead, our analyses demonstrate that these tests are typically insensitive and underpowered to detect medium to small, but true, effects in awareness tests. These findings challenge a widespread and theoretically important claim about the extent of unconscious human cognition.

  13. Negative secondary ion emission from oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of negative secondary ions from 23 elements was studied for 10 keV O 2 + and 10 keV In + impact at an angle of incidence of 45 0 . Partial oxidation of the sample surfaces was achieved by oxygen bombardment and/or by working at a high oxygen partial pressure. It was found that the emission of oxide ions shows an element-characteristic pattern. For the majority of the elements investigated these features are largely invariant against changes of the surface concentration of oxygen. For the others admission of oxygen strongly changes the relative intensities of oxide ions: a strong increase of MO 3 - signals (M stands for the respective element) is accompanied by a decrease of MO - and M - intensities. Different primary species frequently induce changes of both the relative and the absolute negative ion intensities. Carbon - in contrast to all other elements - does not show any detectable oxide ion emission but rather intense cluster ions Csub(n) - (detected up to n=12) whose intensities oscillate in dependence on n. (orig./RK)

  14. Inflation and Growth: Positive or Negative Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Inamlik, Ali; Olgun, Hasan

    This study has been motivated by two developments. Firstly, by the vast literature on the relationship between inflation and growth which is abundantly endowed with diverse theoretical explanations and contradictory evidence and by the unique experience of the Turkish economy with inflation and growth. A preliminary examination of the Turkish data pointed to a negative relation between inflation and growth. Moreover, there is a unanimous agreement among the students of the Turkish economy that many factors have contributed to inflation in this country. In view of these facts this paper employs a VAR model which will enable us to identify the sources of the shocks and control for external factors. In addition VAR models have a high predictive power and enable the researcher to observe the impulse response functions. The study employs Generalised Impulse Response analysis. In the empirical experiments oil prices, money supply, government spending and taxes have been taken as the most likely determinants of inflation. The study shows that there is a negative relationship between inflation and output growth in Turkey and that the underlying explanatory factor is the real exchange rate. This result is robust.

  15. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M. [INFN-LNL, v.le dell' Universita n 2, I-35020, Legnaro (PD) Italy (Italy); Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so S. Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at −60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  16. Simulations of negative hydrogen ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdjiev, A.; Goutev, N.; Tonev, D.

    2018-05-01

    The development and the optimisation of negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources goes hand in hand with modelling. In this paper a brief introduction on the physics and types of different sources, and on the Kinetic and Fluid theories for plasma description is made. Examples of some recent models are considered whereas the main emphasis is on the model behind the concept and design of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. At the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences a new cyclotron center is under construction which opens new opportunities for research. One of them is the development of plasma sources for additional proton beam acceleration. We have applied the modelling technique implemented in the aforementioned model of the matrix source to a microwave plasma source exemplifying a plasma filled array of cavities made of a dielectric material with high permittivity. Preliminary results for the distribution of the plasma parameters and the φ component of the electric field in the plasma are obtained.

  17. Negative binomial properties and clan structure in multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, A.; Van Hove, L.

    1988-01-01

    We review the negative binomial properties measured recently for many multiplicity distributions of high energy hadronic, semi-leptonic reactions in selected rapidity intervals. We analyse them in terms of the ''clan'' structure which can be defined for any negative binomial distribution. By comparing reactions we exhibit a number of regularities for the average number N-bar of clans and the average charged multiplicity (n-bar) c per clan. 22 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  18. Design of a negative ion neutral beam system for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easoz, J.R.; Sink, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    A design is presented that suggests that a negative ion neutral beam based on direct extraction is applicable to TNS, assuming technological advancements in several areas. Improvements in negative ion sources, direct energy conversion of charged beams, and high speed cryogenic pumping are needed. The increase in efficiency over a positive ion system and the encouraging results of the first attempt at a total design justify increased effort in the development of the above mentioned areas

  19. A CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease with no definitive prognostic markers. As a major component of tight junctions, claudins (CLDNs presumably play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the expression of CLDNs and the clinical outcomes of TNBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical specimens of primary breast tumors from a consecutive cohort of 173 TNBC patients were retrospectively collected. The membranous expression of CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. Then, the associations between CLDN expression, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Positive CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 membrane expression was detected in 44.5%, 54.9%, 76.9%, and 73.4% of the cohort specimens, respectively. A lack of CLDN1 expression was related to only lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014. The rate of CLDN4-positive tumors was significantly increased in tumors of a higher grade (P = 0.003. Importantly, negative CLDN1 expression was associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS in both lymph node positive (LN+ and negative (LN- cases (both P<0.001. Similarly it was also associated with shorter overall survival (OS(P = 0.003 in LN+ cases; P = 0.018 in LN- cases. In the LN+ subgroup, CLDN2-negative cases had a significantly higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.008. Multivariate analysis revealed that negative CLDN1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for high risk of both recurrence and death (HR 5.529, 95% CI 2.664-11.475, P<0.001; HR 3.459, 95% CI 1.555-7.696, P = 0.002. However, neither CLDN4 nor CLDN7 expression was associated with survival. CONCLUSION: In TNBC, the CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts a high risk of recurrence and death. The absence of CLDN1 expression is strongly suggested to be an independent adverse prognostic factor

  20. Reversing a Negative Measurement in Process with Negative Events: A Haunted Negative Measurement and the Bifurcation of Time

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D M

    2003-01-01

    Reversing an ordinary measurement in process (a haunted measurement) is noted and the steps involved in reversing a negative measurement in process (a haunted negative measurement) are described. In order to discuss in a thorough manner reversing an ordinary measurement in process, one has to account for how reversing a negative measurement in process would work for the same experimental setup. The reason it is necessary to know how a negative measurement in process is reversed is because for a given experimental setup there is no physical distinction between reversing a negative measurement in process and reversing an ordinary measurement in process. In the absence of the reversal of a negative measurement in process in the same experimental setup that supports the reversal of an ordinary measurement in process, the possibility exists of which-way information concerning the negative measurement that would render theoretically implausible reversing an ordinary measuremnt in process. The steps in reversing a n...

  1. Negative absorption in an anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, R.V.

    1976-02-01

    We consider the absorption of electromagnetic waves in a plasma with electron drift for an arbitrary relation between the electron thermal and drift velocities and also for an arbitrary angle between the polarization vector of the wave and the direction of drift. Using a kinetic equation describing the influence of an external field on the collision of plasma particles, we find an expression for the work done on the plasma by a high-frequency electromagnetic field of arbitrary intensity. We show that in the weak-field limit under certain conditions the sign of the work becomes negative; i.e., a plasma with electron drift can amplify electromagnetic waves propagating through it. An expression is obtained for the amplification coefficient and a numerical estimate is given. (AIP)

  2. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  3. Negative concord and the scope of universals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, I propose an analysis of Greek negative concord (NC) in terms of quantifier scope. It is shown that there is no evidence that Greek NC n-words are indefinites or negative quantifiers, NC n-words are analysed as universal quantifiers, which are sensitive to negative polarity, and which

  4. Negative Ions in low pressure discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Stoffels, W.W.; Vender, D.; Haverlag, M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hoog, de F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Several aspects of negative ions in low pressure discharges are treated. The elementary processes, in which negative ions are produced and destroyed, are summarized. The influence of negative ions on plasma operation is analyzed in terms of transport equations. It is shown that diffusion, electric

  5. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  6. Negative Experiences on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ∼ = 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ ∼ = 1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of Cs to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for RIB applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the HRIBF The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report

  8. Reward learning and negative emotion during rapid attentional competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemasa eYokoyama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Learned stimulus-reward associations influence how attention is allocated, such that stimuli rewarded in the past are favored in situations involving limited resources and competition. At the same time, task-irrelevant, high-arousal negative stimuli capture attention and divert resources away from tasks resulting in poor behavioral performance. Yet, investigations of how reward learning and negative stimuli affect perceptual and attentional processing have been conducted in a largely independent fashion. We have recently reported that performance-based monetary rewards reduce negative stimuli interference during perception. The goal of the present study was to investigate how stimuli associated with past monetary rewards compete with negative stimuli during a subsequent attentional task when, critically, no performance-based rewards were at stake. Across two experiments, we found that target stimuli that were associated with high reward reduced the interference effect of potent, negative distractors. Similar to our recent findings with performance-based rewards, our results demonstrate that reward-associated stimuli reduce the deleterious impact of negative stimuli on behavior.

  9. High performance lithium insertion negative electrode materials for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channu, V.S. Reddy, E-mail: chinares02@gmail.com [SMC Corporation, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Rambabu, B. [Solid State Ionics and Surface Sciences Lab, Department of Physics, Southern University and A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States); Kumari, Kusum [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Warangal (India); Kalluru, Rajmohan R. [The University of Southern Mississippi, College of Science and Technology, 730 E Beach Blvd, Long Beach, MS 39560 (United States); Holze, Rudolf [Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • LiCrTiO{sub 4} nanostructures were synthesized for electrochemical applications by soft chemical synthesis followed by annealing. • The presence of Cr and Ti elements are confirmed from the EDS spectrum. • Oxalic acid assisted LiCrTiO{sub 4} electrode shows higher specific capacity (mAh/g). - Abstract: Spinel LiCrTiO{sub 4} oxides to be used as electrode materials for a lithium ion battery and an asymmetric supercapacitor were synthesized using a soft-chemical method with and without chelating agents followed by calcination at 700 °C for 10 h. Structural and morphological properties were studied with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Particles of 50–10 nm in size are observed in the microscopic images. The presence of Cr and Ti is confirmed from the EDS spectrum. Electrochemical properties of LiCrTiO{sub 4} electrode were examined in a lithium ion battery. The electrode prepared with oxalic acid-assisted LiCrTiO{sub 4} shows higher specific capacity.This LiCrTiO{sub 4} is also used as anode material for an asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor. The cell exhibits a specific capacity of 65 mAh/g at 1 mA/cm{sup 2}. The specific capacity decreases with increasing current densities.

  10. Effect of nicotine on negative affect among more impulsive smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Spring, Bonnie; VanderVeen, Joe; Cook, Jessica Werth; Richmond, Malia

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N=70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression yielded a significant Impulsivity x Condition (nicotinized vs. de-nicotinized) x Time interaction. Simple effects analyses showed that heightened impulsivity predicted greater negative affect relief after smoking a nicotinized cigarette but not after smoking a de-nicotinized cigarette. These data suggest that nicotine may be a disproportionately powerful negative reinforcer for highly impulsive smokers, promoting higher levels of nicotine dependence and inhibiting smoking cessation.

  11. Sheath structure in negative ion sources for fusion (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdams, R.; King, D. B.; Surrey, E.; Holmes, A. J. T.

    2012-01-01

    In fusion negative ion sources, the negative ions are formed on the caesiated plasma grid predominantly by hydrogen atoms from the plasma. The space charge of the negative ions leaving the wall is not fully compensated by incoming positive ions and at high enough emission a virtual cathode is formed. This virtual cathode limits the flux of negative ions transported across the sheath to the plasma. A 1D collisionless model of the sheath is presented taking into account the virtual cathode. The model will be applied to examples of the ion source operation. Extension of the model to the bulk plasma shows good agreement with experimental data. A possible role for fast ions is discussed.

  12. Negative-mass lagging cores of the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.D.

    1976-01-01

    Examples are given of spherically symmetric cosmological models containing space-sections with the following properties: at large values of the geometrically defined coordinate R, the mass is positive, while at small values of R, the mass is negative. The negative-mass region of spacetime has local properties similar to those of the negative-mass Schwarzschild solution. The big bang in these models is partially spacelike and partially timelike, so the spacetimes do not obey the strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The timelike, negative-mass segments of the big bang are unlimited sources of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation, and as such may be attractive as ''lagging core'' models of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  13. Negative thermal expansion near two structural quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhialini, Connor A.; Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Said, Ayman; Trivedi, Sudhir; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.; Hancock, Jason N.

    2017-12-01

    Recent experimental work has revealed that the unusually strong, isotropic structural negative thermal expansion in cubic perovskite ionic insulator ScF3 occurs in excited states above a ground state tuned very near a structural quantum phase transition, posing a question of fundamental interest as to whether this special circumstance is related to the anomalous behavior. To test this hypothesis, we report an elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering study of a second system Hg2I2 also tuned near a structural quantum phase transition while retaining stoichiometric composition and high crystallinity. We find similar behavior and significant negative thermal expansion below 100 K for dimensions along the body-centered-tetragonal c axis, bolstering the connection between negative thermal expansion and zero-temperature structural transitions.We identify the common traits between these systems and propose a set of materials design principles that can guide discovery of newmaterials exhibiting negative thermal expansion

  14. Negative-mass lagging cores of the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.D.

    1976-09-01

    Examples are given of spherically symmetric cosmological models containing space-sections with the following properties: at large values of the geometrically defined coordinate R, the mass is positive, while at small values of R, the mass is negative. The negative-mass region of spacetime has local properties similar to those of the negative-mass Schwarzschild solution. The big bang in these models is partially spacelike and partially timelike, so the spacetimes do not obey the strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis. The timelike, negative-mass segments of the big bang are unlimited sources of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation, and as such may be attractive as ''lagging core'' models of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena. (AIP)

  15. Impact of negation salience and cognitive resources on negation during attitude formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Kathryn L; Rydell, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    Because of the increased cognitive resources required to process negations, past research has shown that explicit attitude measures are more sensitive to negations than implicit attitude measures. The current work demonstrated that the differential impact of negations on implicit and explicit attitude measures was moderated by (a) the extent to which the negation was made salient and (b) the amount of cognitive resources available during attitude formation. When negations were less visually salient, explicit but not implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations. When negations were more visually salient, both explicit and implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations, but only when perceivers had ample cognitive resources during encoding. Competing models of negation processing, schema-plus-tag and fusion, were examined to determine how negation salience impacts the processing of negations.

  16. Preliminary study on the modelling of negative leader discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo, L; Cooray, V

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there is considerable interest in understanding the physics underlying positive and negative discharges because of the importance of improving lightning protection systems and of coordinating the insulation for high voltages. Numerical simulations of positive switching impulses made in long spark gaps in a laboratory are achievable because the physics of the process is reasonably well understood and because of the availability of powerful computational methods. However, the existing work on the simulation of negative switching discharges has been held up by a lack of experimental data and the absence of a full understanding of the physics involved. In the scientific community, it is well known that most of the lightning discharges that occur in nature are of negative polarity, and because of their complexity, the only way to understand them is to generate the discharges in laboratories under controlled conditions. The voltage impulse waveshape used in laboratories is a negative switching impulse. With the aim of applying the available information to a self-consistent physical method, an electrostatic approximation of the negative leader discharge process is presented here. The simulation procedure takes into consideration the physics of positive and negative discharges, considering that the negative leader propagates towards a grounded electrode and the positive leader towards a rod electrode. The simulation considers the leader channel to be thermodynamic, and assumes that the conditions required to generate a thermal channel are the same for positive and negative leaders. However, the magnitude of the electrical charge necessary to reproduce their propagation and thermalization is different, and both values are based on experimental data. The positive and negative streamer development is based on the constant electric field characteristics of these discharges, as found during experimental measurements made by different authors. As a computational tool

  17. Negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.

  18. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  19. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    simpler than the corresponding normal flash algorithm. Unlike normal flash, multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions can diverge if the feasible domain for phase amounts is not closed. This can be judged readily during the iteration process. The algorithm can also be extended to the partial negative......There is a recent interest to solve multiphase negative flash problems where the phase amounts can be negative for normal positive feed composition. Solving such a negative flash problem using successive substitution needs an inner loop for phase distribution calculation at constant fugacity...... coefficients. It is shown that this inner loop, named here as multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions, can be solved either by Michelsen's algorithm for multiphase normal flash, or by its variation which uses F−1 phase amounts as independent variables. In either case, the resulting algorithm is actually...

  20. Zero-truncated negative binomial - Erlang distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhisuwan, Winai; Pudprommarat, Chookait; Bodhisuwan, Rujira; Saothayanun, Luckhana

    2017-11-01

    The zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution is introduced. It is developed from negative binomial-Erlang distribution. In this work, the probability mass function is derived and some properties are included. The parameters of the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution are estimated by using the maximum likelihood estimation. Finally, the proposed distribution is applied to real data, the number of methamphetamine in the Bangkok, Thailand. Based on the results, it shows that the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution provided a better fit than the zero-truncated Poisson, zero-truncated negative binomial, zero-truncated generalized negative-binomial and zero-truncated Poisson-Lindley distributions for this data.

  1. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Maxillofacial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Mellott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.

  2. Stop Negative Thinking Effects for Drug Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Windiarti, Sri Endang; Indriati, Indriati; Surachmi, Fajar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of therapy stop thinking negatively against drug addiction in Rehabilitation Orphanage Rumah Damai Gunung Pati Semarang. This research is quasy experiment with pretest - posttes without the control group design. Thirty respondents were taken to the reseach sujects. Stop thinking negative therapy before and after thebehavior of drug addiction there are differences (t = 0.00), so it can be stated that the therapy stop thinking negatively inf...

  3. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  4. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  5. Detection of negative energy: 4-dimensional examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.C.W.; Ottewill, Adrian C.

    2002-01-01

    We study the response of switched particle detectors to static negative energy densities and negative energy fluxes. It is demonstrated how the switching leads to excitation even in the vacuum and how negative energy can lead to a suppression of this excitation. We obtain quantum inequalities on the detection similar to those obtained for the energy density by Ford and co-workers and in an 'operational' context by Helfer. We reexamine the question 'Is there a quantum equivalence principle?' in terms of our model. Finally, we briefly address the issue of negative energy and the second law of thermodynamics

  6. Use of human papillomavirus DNA, E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry to detect and predict anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittaya Phanuphak

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of having anal cancer. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL is the precursor of anal cancer. We explored the use of different biomarkers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV infection and HPV-mediated cell transformation to detect and predict HSIL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.A total of 123 HIV-positive and 123 HIV-negative MSM were enrolled and followed for 12 months. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA with biopsies were performed at every visit along with anal sample collection for cytology, high-risk HPV DNA genotyping, HPV E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry. Performance characteristics and area under the receiver operator characteristics curve were calculated for these biomarkers at baseline, and Cox regression compared the usefulness of these biomarkers in predicting incident HSIL. High-risk HPV DNA, E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry each identified 43-46% of MSM whose baseline test positivity would trigger HRA referral. E6/E7 mRNA had the highest sensitivity (64.7% and correctly classified the highest number of prevalent HSIL cases. With the exception of p16 immunochemistry, most tests showed significant increases in sensitivity but decreases specificity versus anal cytology, while the overall number of correctly classified cases was not significantly different. Baseline or persistent type 16 and/or 18 HPV DNA was the only test significantly predicting incident histologic HSIL within 12 months in models adjusted for HIV status and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at baseline.Countries with a high HIV prevalence among MSM and limited HRA resources may consider using biomarkers to identify individuals at high risk of HSIL. E6/E7 mRNA had the highest sensitivity for prevalent HSIL detection regardless of HIV status, whereas type 16 and/or 18 HPV DNA performed best in predicting development of incident HSIL within 12 months.

  7. Negative pressure characteristics of an evaporating meniscus at nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroo Shalabh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims at understanding the characteristics of negative liquid pressures at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics simulation. A nano-meniscus is formed by placing liquid argon on a platinum wall between two nano-channels filled with the same liquid. Evaporation is simulated in the meniscus by increasing the temperature of the platinum wall for two different cases. Non-evaporating films are obtained at the center of the meniscus. The liquid film in the non-evaporating and adjacent regions is found to be under high absolute negative pressures. Cavitation cannot occur in these regions as the capillary height is smaller than the critical cavitation radius. Factors which determine the critical film thickness for rupture are discussed. Thus, high negative liquid pressures can be stable at the nanoscale, and utilized to create passive pumping devices as well as significantly enhance heat transfer rates.

  8. Physics of negative refractive index materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, new developments in structured electromagnetic materials have given rise to negative refractive index materials which have both negative dielectric permittivity and negative magnetic permeability in some frequency ranges. The idea of a negative refractive index opens up new conceptual frontiers in photonics. One much-debated example is the concept of a perfect lens that enables imaging with sub-wavelength image resolution. Here we review the fundamental concepts and ideas of negative refractive index materials. First we present the ideas of structured materials or meta-materials that enable the design of new materials with a negative dielectric permittivity, negative magnetic permeability and negative refractive index. We discuss how a variety of resonance phenomena can be utilized to obtain these materials in various frequency ranges over the electromagnetic spectrum. The choice of the wave-vector in negative refractive index materials and the issues of dispersion, causality and energy transport are analysed. Various issues of wave propagation including nonlinear effects and surface modes in negative refractive materials (NRMs) are discussed. In the latter part of the review, we discuss the concept of a perfect lens consisting of a slab of a NRM. This perfect lens can image the far-field radiative components as well as the near-field evanescent components, and is not subject to the traditional diffraction limit. Different aspects of this lens such as the surface modes acting as the mechanism for the imaging of the evanescent waves, the limitations imposed by dissipation and dispersion in the negative refractive media, the generalization of this lens to optically complementary media and the possibility of magnification of the near-field images are discussed. Recent experimental developments verifying these ideas are briefly covered

  9. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  10. Positive and negative dimensions of weight control motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, S; Larocque, M; Sadikaj, G

    2012-01-01

    This study examined weight control motivation among patients (N=5460 females and 547 males) who sought weight loss treatment with family physicians. An eight-item measure assessed the frequency of thoughts and feelings related to weight control "outcome" (e.g. expected physical and psychological benefits) and "process" (e.g. resentment and doubt). Factor analysis supported the existence of two factors, labeled Positive and Negative motivation. Positive motivation was high (average frequency of thoughts about benefits was 'every day') and stable throughout treatment, while Negative motivation declined rapidly and then stabilized. The determinants of changes in the Positive and Negative dimensions during treatment were examined within 3 time frames: first month, months 2-6, and 6-12. Maintenance of high scores on Positive motivation was associated with higher BMI and more disturbed eating habits. Early reductions in Negative motivation were greater for those starting treatment with higher weight and more disturbed eating habits, but less depression and stress, while later reductions in Negative motivation were predicted by improvements in eating habits, weight, stress and perfectionism. Clinicians treating obesity should be sensitive to fluctuations in both motivational dimensions, as they are likely to play a central role in determining long-term behavior and weight change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug-resistant gram-negative uropathogens: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Saeed; Heidary, Mohsen; Mirnejad, Reza; Bahramian, Aghil; Sedighi, Mansour; Mirzaei, Habibollah

    2017-10-01

    Urinary tract infection(UTI) caused by Gram-negative bacteria is the second most common infectious presentation in community medical practice. Approximately 150 million people are diagnosed with UTI each year worldwide. Drug resistance in Gram-negative uropathogens is a major global concern which can lead to poor clinical outcomes including treatment failure, development of bacteremia, requirement for intravenous therapy, hospitalization, and extended length of hospital stay. The mechanisms of drug resistance in these bacteria are important due to they are often not identified by routine susceptibility tests and have an exceptional potential for outbreaks. Treatment of UTIs depends on the access to effective drugs, which is now threatened by antibiotic resistant Gram-negative uropathogens. Although several effective antibiotics with activity against highly resistant Gram-negatives are available, there is not a unique antibiotic with activity against the high variety of resistance. Therefore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, correlation between clinicians and laboratories, development of more rapid diagnostic methods, and continuous monitoring of drug resistance are urgent priorities. In this review, we will discuss about the current global status of drug-resistant Gram-negative uropathogens and their mechanisms of drug resistance to provide new insights into their treatment options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Prelec, K.; Sluyters, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    A design for admitting cesium vapor into a hollow hydrogen plasma discharge in a duoplasmatron ion source for the purpose of increasing the negative hydrogen ion output current is described. 60 mA beam currents for negative hydrogen ions are reported

  13. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    of Euclidean spaces. We prove that, if the distance matrix is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points. In connection with an open problem raised...

  14. Negating the Infinitive in Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    1999-01-01

    The article examines the negating of the infinitive in biblical and post-biblical Hebrew. The combination of the negation ayin with infinitive is widely claimed to belong to the linguistic layer commonly referred to as late biblical Hebrew and scholars use it to late-date texts. The article showa...

  15. Stochastic background of negative binomial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, N.; Biyajima, M.; Wilk, G.

    1991-01-01

    A branching equations of the birth process with immigration is taken as a model for the particle production process. Using it we investigate cases in which its solution becomes the negative binomial distribution. Furthermore, we compare our approach with the modified negative binomial distribution proposed recently by Chliapnikov and Tchikilev and use it to analyse the observed multiplicity distributions. (orig.)

  16. Atomic capture of negative mesons in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1979-01-01

    After a brief description of the present state of theoretical understanding of atomic capture of negative mesons, a very simple model calculation of negative muon capture by the simplest atoms, hydrogen is described. Also the possibility of generalizing these results to more complicated atoms and even molecules is noted. 15 references

  17. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  18. Social negative bootstrapping for visual categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    To learn classifiers for many visual categories, obtaining labeled training examples in an efficient way is crucial. Since a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive examples, inclusion of such informative negatives should be stressed in the learning

  19. Scope of negation detection in sentiment analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvar, M.; Hauff, C.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2011-01-01

    An important part of information-gathering behaviour has always been to find out what other people think and whether they have favourable (positive) or unfavourable (negative) opinions about the subject. This survey studies the role of negation in an opinion-oriented information-seeking system. We

  20. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  1. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  2. Brilliant but Cruel: Perceptions of Negative Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that negative evaluators will be perceived as more intelligent than positive evalutors. Two types of stimuli were used: excerpts from actual negative and positive book reviews, and versions of those excerpts that were edited so that the balance of the reviews varied but the content did not. The results strongly…

  3. Appendicitis: A Study of Negative Appendicectomies | Kpolugbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operative complications were noted in 3% of the negative appendicectomy group but in the positive appendicectomy group complications were much more common particularly when the appendix was ruptured. (Key Words: Negative appendicectomy, perforated appendix and postoperative complications.) Sahel Med.

  4. Increasing Shareholders Value through NPV-Negative Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mielcarz

    2010-10-01

    of their higher expected rate of return. In the same circumstances, an undiversified shareholder may have a different perception of the investment. It is highly possible that he would be ready to accept a lower rate of return in exchange for more safety for his capital. The authors conclude that negative fundamental value (based on the market situation may be of importance for such shareholder as he prefers projects with lower risk and a lower rate of return. Temporary inefficiencies of the markets may produce a risk of bankruptcy or liquidity problems. The authors argue that NPV-negative projects may be a way to free additional cashflows, which will allow the financial restructuring of the company.  

  5. Emittance growth due to negative-mass instability above transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, King-Yuen.

    1994-08-01

    Due to space-charge effect, there is a growth of bunch emittance across transition as a result of negative-mass instability. The models of growth at cutoff frequency and growth from high-frequency Schottky noise are reviewed. The difficulties of performing reliable simulations are discussed. An intuitive self-bunching model for estimating emittance growth is presented

  6. Negative pressure dressing combined with a traditional approach for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Deep burns of the calvarium due to high-voltage electrical current present serious therapeutic challenges in the healing. In this study, as an alternative approach to the treatment of burned skull, negative pressure dressing is used to facilitate separation of the necrotic bones from healthy margins of the ...

  7. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation.

  8. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  9. Surface negative ion production in ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchenko, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Negative ion sources and the mechanisms for negative ion production are reviewed. Several classes of sources with surface origin of negative ions are examined in detail: surface-plasma sources where ion production occurs on the electrode in contact with the plasma, and ''pure surface'' sources where ion production occurs due to conversion or desorption processes. Negative ion production by backscattering, impact desorption, and electron- and photo-stimulated desorption are discussed. The experimental efficiencies of intense surface negative ion production realized on electrodes contacted with hydrogen-cesium or pure hydrogen gas-discharge plasma are compared. Recent modifications of surface-plasma sources developed for accelerator and fusion applications are reviewed in detail

  10. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Negative pressure wound therapy and nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Amy

    2017-08-10

    there can be serious consequences for patients if negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is performed incorrectly and patient safety must be paramount. The existing literature was found to mainly concentrate on the use of the technology from the patient perspective. This article examines the opinions of nurses who apply the therapy. five staff nurses from different areas with differing experience levels were interviewed in a semi-structured manner. The transcribed interviews were coded, sorted into themes and analysed. the themes were: enhancing knowledge and understanding, managing problematic pumps, formalised and interactive training, and efficacy and healing. There was a lack of standardised training provided for the nurses interviewed. Overall the nurses were aware of the basic evidence behind the treatment but would have liked additional support in this area as well as some practical, less pressured training. This complements the existing literature. nurses are expected to learn difficult and highly specialised skills quickly within a busy ward environment, often with no prior training or preparation. As things can go wrong, with the potential for patient harm, it is vital that nurses get these skills right first time, but it is difficult to do this in a practical, fast and cost-effective way. There is scope for future research in the area and perhaps the development of an online training tool to assist nurses in understanding and undertaking a new procedure.

  12. Prevalência e fatores associados a indicadores negativos de saúde mental em adolescentes estudantes do ensino médio em Pernambuco, Brasil The prevalence of and factors associated with negative mental health indicators in adolescents attending high school in the Brazilian State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Diniz de Carvalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a prevalência e fatores associados a indicadores negativos de saúde mental em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se um questionário previamente validado para coletar dados de 4.207 adolescentes (14-19 anos estudantes do ensino médio, selecionados através de amostragem por conglomerados em dois estágios. RESULTADOS: as prevalências de tristeza, sentimento de solidão, pensamento de suicídio, dificuldade para dormir devido à preocupação e planos de suicídio foram, respectivamente, 29,7%, 15,8%, 11,2%, 10,0% e 7,8%. A prevalência de todos os indicadores foi superior entre as moças, sendo a tristeza o indicador mais prevalente. Identificou-se que a cor da pele não foi um fator associado à ocorrência dos indicadores negativos de saúde mental, enquanto não morar com os pais apresentou associação significativa com sentimento de solidão e pensamento em suicídio. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência de sentimento de solidão e de tristeza é alta e as moças representam um subgrupo de maior risco em relação a todos os indicadores negativos de saúde mental.OBJECTIVES: to identify the prevalence of and factors associated with negative mental health indicators among adolescents. METHODS: a previously validated questionnaire was used to gather data on 4,207 adolescents (aged between 14 and 19 years attending high school, selected by way of conglomerate sampling in two stages. RESULTS: the prevalence of sadness, feelings of loneliness, thoughts of suicide, difficulty sleeping because of anxiety, and plans to commit suicide was 29.7%, 15.8%, 11.2%, 10.0% and 7.8% respectively. The prevalence for all indicators was higher among girls, with sadness being the most prevalent indicator. It was identified that skin-color was not a factor associated with the occurrence of negative mental health indicators, while not living with parents showed a significant degree of association with feeling of loneliness and thoughts of suicide

  13. Negative stiffness honeycombs as tunable elastic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Benjamin M.; Haberman, Michael R.

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic and elastic metamaterials are media with a subwavelength structure that behave as effective materials displaying atypical effective dynamic properties. These material systems are of interest because the design of their sub-wavelength structure allows for direct control of macroscopic wave dispersion. One major design limitation of most metamaterial structures is that the dynamic response cannot be altered once the microstructure is manufactured. However, the ability to modify wave propagation in the metamaterial with an external stimulus is highly desirable for numerous applications and therefore remains a significant challenge in elastic metamaterials research. In this work, a honeycomb structure composed of a doubly periodic array of curved beams, known as a negative stiffness honeycomb (NSH), is analyzed as a tunable elastic metamaterial. The nonlinear static elastic response that results from large deformations of the NSH unit cell leads to a large variation in linear elastic wave dispersion associated with infinitesimal motion superposed on the externally imposed pre-strain. A finite element model is utilized to model the static deformation and subsequent linear wave motion at the pre-strained state. Analysis of the slowness surface and group velocity demonstrates that the NSH exhibits significant tunability and a high degree of anisotropy which can be used to guide wave energy depending on static pre-strain levels. In addition, it is shown that partial band gaps exist where only longitudinal waves propagate. The NSH therefore behaves as a meta-fluid, or pentamode metamaterial, which may be of use for applications of transformation elastodynamics such as cloaking and gradient index lens devices.

  14. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST), and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event extraction systems. The

  15. Interpretations and implications of negative binomial distributions of multiparticle productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The number of particles produced in high energy experiments is approximated by a negative binomial distribution. Deriving a representation of the distribution from a stochastic equation, conditions for the process to satisfy the distribution are clarified. Based on them, it is proposed that multiparticle production consists of spontaneous and induced production. The rate of the induced production is proportional to the number of existing particles. The ratio of the two production rates remains constant during the process. The ''NBD space'' is also defined where the number of particles produced in its subspaces follows negative binomial distributions with different parameters

  16. Ice nucleation triggered by negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolli, Claudia

    2017-11-30

    Homogeneous ice nucleation needs supercooling of more than 35 K to become effective. When pressure is applied to water, the melting and the freezing points both decrease. Conversely, melting and freezing temperatures increase under negative pressure, i.e. when water is stretched. This study presents an extrapolation of homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures from positive to negative pressures as a basis for further exploration of ice nucleation under negative pressure. It predicts that increasing negative pressure at temperatures below about 262 K eventually results in homogeneous ice nucleation while at warmer temperature homogeneous cavitation, i. e. bubble nucleation, dominates. Negative pressure occurs locally and briefly when water is stretched due to mechanical shock, sonic waves, or fragmentation. The occurrence of such transient negative pressure should suffice to trigger homogeneous ice nucleation at large supercooling in the absence of ice-nucleating surfaces. In addition, negative pressure can act together with ice-inducing surfaces to enhance their intrinsic ice nucleation efficiency. Dynamic ice nucleation can be used to improve properties and uniformity of frozen products by applying ultrasonic fields and might also be relevant for the freezing of large drops in rainclouds.

  17. Distinguishing Entailment and Presupposition Under Negation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatri Asti Putri Indarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing entailment from presupposition is quite difficult because their semantic relation seems to be similar. Both entailment and presupposition have an automatic relationship based on the context. However, those semantic relations can still be differentiated by using negation test to show whether a pair is entailment or presupposition. This research focuses on sentences and utterances. Thus, this research aims to analyze and test pairs of entailment and pairs of presupposition by using negation in utterances. The data were twelve comic strips from the Internet and they were analysed by using a negation test. The analysis shows that negation test is useful to test entailment and presupposition in the comic strips. It can be concluded that the difficulty of distinguishing pair of entailment and presupposition in the comic strip using negation test has been successfully solved. In this case, negation test is suitable to test entailment and presupposition. This research can be developed further by other researchers to distinguish entailment and presupposition by using another test if the negation test cannot be used to any further extent.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180104

  18. Lateralization of cortical negative motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Catarino, Claudia B; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Winkler, Peter A; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-10-01

    The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients. Results of electrical stimulation of the cortex were evaluated in a total of 128 patients in whom invasive electrodes were implanted for planning resective epilepsy surgery. Twenty patients, in whom negative motor responses were obtained, were included in the study. Bilateral upper limb negative motor responses were more often elicited from stimulation of the mesial frontal cortex whereas stimulation of the lateral central cortex leads to contralateral upper limb negative motor responses (pfrontal gyrus whereas contralateral negative motor responses localized predominantly in the anterior part of the precentral gyrus (pgyrus and the mesial fronto-central cortex showing functional differences with regard to unilateral and bilateral upper limb representation. The lateral fronto-central negative motor area serves predominantly contralateral upper limb motor control whereas the mesial frontal negative motor area represents bilateral upper limb movement control. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Negative affect varying in motivational intensity influences scope of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadgill, A Hunter; Gable, Philip A

    2018-04-06

    Emotions influence cognitive processes involved in memory. While some research has suggested that cognitive scope is determined by affective valence, recent models of emotion-cognition interactions suggest that motivational intensity, rather than valence, influences these processes. The present research was designed to clarify how negative affects differing in motivational intensity impact memory for centrally or peripherally presented information. Experiments 1 & 2 found that, relative to a neutral condition, high intensity negative affect (anger) enhances memory for centrally presented information. Experiment 3 replicated this effect using another high intensity negative affect (threat). Experiment 4 extended this by finding that, relative to a neutral condition, low intensity negative affect (sadness) enhanced memory for peripherally presented information. Finally, in Experiment 5, the effects of sadness and threat on scope of memory were directly compared, finding that threat narrowed scope of memory, while sadness broadened scope of memory. Together, these results provide additional support for the motivational dimensional model of cognitive scope, in that high intensity emotions narrow cognitive scope, while low intensity emotions broaden cognitive scope.

  20. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.