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Sample records for high chronic job

  1. Chronic job burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold B. Bakker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the individual employee's role in the development of his/her job burnout. We review the antecedents and consequences of burnout, and propose a model with chronic burnout as a moderator of daily functioning in the workplace. Specifically, we argue that chronic burnout strengthens the loss cycle of daily job demands, daily exhaustion, and daily self-undermining. Additionally, we argue that chronic burnout weakens the gain cycle of daily job resources, daily work engagement, and daily job crafting. We conclude that employees with high levels of burnout need help in structurally changing their working conditions and health status.

  2. Effect of acute and chronic job demands on effective individual teamwork behaviour in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.

  3. Employment and Satisfaction Outcomes From a Job Retention Intervention Delivered to Persons with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Saralynn H.; Niu, Jingbo; LaValley, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Job retention services are recommended for people with chronic diseases based on their high risk for work disability. This randomized trial tested the effectiveness of a job retention intervention in a sample of employed persons with rheumatic diseases at risk for work disability. One hundred and twenty-two experimental participants received the…

  4. Effect of Job Strain on Job Burnout, Mental Fatigue and Chronic Diseases among Civil Servants in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Suzhen; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Ning, Li; Lian, Yulong; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2017-01-01

    Job strain is a major concern in view of its effects among civil servants associated with job burnout, mental fatigue and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain level among civil servants and examine the effect of job strain on job burnout, mental fatigue and the resulting chronic diseases. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 5000 civil servants was conducted from March to August 2014. Using a structured questionnaire, the job strain level, job burnout and mental fatigue were measured by using the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), respectively. Overall, 33.8% of the civil servants were found to be afflicted with high and moderate job strain. The characteristics of most of the civil servants with a higher-job strain level were as follows: female, Uygur, lower educational level and job title rank, shorter working experience, married marital status, and lower income level. Civil servants suffering from chronic disease mainly had hypertension and coronary heart disease, which accounted for 18.5% of the diseases. Civil servants with a high-job strain level exhibited higher rates of burnout, mental fatigue scores and incidence of chronic diseases. There was a multiple linear regression model composed of three predictor variables in job burnout, which accounted for 45.0% of its occurrence: female gender, lower-income level, higher-job strain in civil servants, the greater the rate of job burnout was. Four factors—male gender, lower-job title rank, higher-job strain, shorter-job tenure of civil servants—explained 25.0% of the mental fatigue model. Binary logistic regression showed that intermediate-rank employees (OR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.028–0.634; p job tenure of 10–20 years (OR = 0.632, 95% CI: 0.359–0.989; p job strain (OR = 0.657, 95% CI: 0.052–0.698; p job burnout scores and mental fatigue scores compared with

  5. Chronic Conditions, Workplace Safety, And Job Demands Contribute To Absenteeism And Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnett, Kimberly; Schwatka, Natalie; Tenney, Liliana; Brockbank, Claire V S; Newman, Lee S

    2017-02-01

    An aging workforce, increased prevalence of chronic health conditions, and the potential for longer working lives have both societal and economic implications. We analyzed the combined impact of workplace safety, employee health, and job demands (work task difficulty) on worker absence and job performance. The study sample consisted of 16,926 employees who participated in a worksite wellness program offered by a workers' compensation insurer to their employers-314 large, midsize, and small businesses in Colorado across multiple industries. We found that both workplace safety and employees' chronic health conditions contributed to absenteeism and job performance, but their impact was influenced by the physical and cognitive difficulty of the job. If employers want to reduce health-related productivity losses, they should take an integrated approach to mitigate job-related injuries, promote employee health, and improve the fit between a worker's duties and abilities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Chronic job burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); P.L. Costa (Patrícia Lopes)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we discuss the individual employee's role in the development of his/her job burnout. We review the antecedents and consequences of burnout, and propose a model with chronic burnout as a moderator of daily functioning in the workplace. Specifically, we argue that chronic

  7. The effects of working conditions and financial state as job stressors : A comparison of the chronic job stressors and job event stressors of two companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kosugi, Shoutaro; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of working conditions and the financial state as chronic job stressors and job event stressors. In study 1, the Job Stress Scale was applied to a total of 6,312 employees in an industrial research institute and a construction company to measure chronic job stressors. In study 2, 1,423 employees of these companies filled out the Job Events Checklist to measure job event stressors. Result: Employees in the industrial research institute had more chronic job stress...

  8. Effect of Job Strain on Job Burnout, Mental Fatigue and Chronic Diseases among Civil Servants in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Suzhen; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Ning, Li; Lian, Yulong; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2017-08-03

    Job strain is a major concern in view of its effects among civil servants associated with job burnout, mental fatigue and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain level among civil servants and examine the effect of job strain on job burnout, mental fatigue and the resulting chronic diseases. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 5000 civil servants was conducted from March to August 2014. Using a structured questionnaire, the job strain level, job burnout and mental fatigue were measured by using the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), respectively. Overall, 33.8% of the civil servants were found to be afflicted with high and moderate job strain. The characteristics of most of the civil servants with a higher-job strain level were as follows: female, Uygur, lower educational level and job title rank, shorter working experience, married marital status, and lower income level. Civil servants suffering from chronic disease mainly had hypertension and coronary heart disease, which accounted for 18.5% of the diseases. Civil servants with a high-job strain level exhibited higher rates of burnout, mental fatigue scores and incidence of chronic diseases. There was a multiple linear regression model composed of three predictor variables in job burnout, which accounted for 45.0% of its occurrence: female gender, lower-income level, higher-job strain in civil servants, the greater the rate of job burnout was. Four factors-male gender, lower-job title rank, higher-job strain, shorter-job tenure of civil servants-explained 25.0% of the mental fatigue model. Binary logistic regression showed that intermediate-rank employees (OR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.028-0.634; p civil servants with high-job burnout scores and mental fatigue scores compared with civil servants with lower scores (OR = 1.139, 95% CI: 1.012-3.198; OR = 1.697, 95% CI: 1

  9. Job Satisfaction of High School Journalism Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jack; Phillips, Kay D.

    Four research questions are posed to explore the job satisfaction of high school journalism educators. A national random sample of 669 respondents shows that journalism educators are generally satisfied with their jobs--more so than teachers in other disciplines. Multiple regression analysis using Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory as a…

  10. A narrative literature review regarding job retention strategies for people with chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lynn C; Rumrill, Phillip D; Conyers, Liza; Wohlford, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Job retention is a major concern for individuals with chronic illnesses, who represent a rapidly growing vocational rehabilitation (VR) consumer population. The purpose of this article is to examine selected job retention considerations for consumers with chronic illnesses. The authors (a) describe distinguishing characteristics of chronic illnesses in terms of populations affected and psychosocial implications, (b) discuss the vocational implications of chronic illnesses, (c) provide general considerations for the provision of job retention services, and (d) examine job retention strategies aimed at improving employment outcomes for individuals with chronic illnesses.

  11. Empowering employees with chronic diseases: process evaluation of an intervention aimed at job retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Inge; Krol, Boudien; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2011-01-01

    Employees with a chronic disease may experience work-related problems that contribute to the risk of job loss. We developed a group-based intervention programme aimed at clarifying problems, making these a subject of discussion at work, and realizing solutions. This process evaluation investigates the intervention's feasibility and the satisfaction of 64 participants in eight groups. Data were collected through process evaluation forms and self-report questionnaires. The recruitment of participants was time-consuming. Highly educated women working in the service sector were overrepresented. The programme was administered as planned, although components were sometimes only discussed briefly, due to lack of time. Satisfaction with the overall programme among participants was high; it was perceived as effective and there were only three dropouts. In particular, the focus on feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease was highly valued, as were the exchange of experiences and role-playing directed at more assertive communication. A vocational rehabilitation programme aimed at job retention is feasible and is perceived to be effective. Such a programme should address psychosocial aspects of working with a chronic disease beside practical problems. The recruitment of participants is time-consuming. Cooperation with outpatient clinics is necessary in order to reach all groups of employees with a chronic disease that might benefit from job retention programmes. ISRCTN77240155.

  12. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)

  13. Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haafkens, J.A.; Kopnina, H.; Meerman, M.G.M.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the

  14. Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haafkens, Joke A.; Kopnina, Helen; Meerman, Martha G. M.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by

  15. Exposure control during high maintenance jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinson, C.S.; Wigginton, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Occupational radiation doses at US light-water-cooled reactors (LWRs) have been decreasing every year since 1983. In 1989, the LWR average dose per reactor reached its lowest point since 1973. Historically, maintenance-related activities have accounted for between 70 and 75% of the total occupational doses at US LWRs, and most of this maintenance-related dose is accrued during plant outages. This paper will focus on high dose maintenance jobs such as steam generator replacement, recirculation pipe replacement/crack repair, induction heating stress improvement, and steam generator tube plugging/sleeving and will discuss how the doses associated with these jobs have declined over the past several years through the implementation of various ALARA techniques

  16. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly demanding work situations. The aim of this study was to use the job demands-resources (JD-R model) to investigate whether job crafting buffers the negative impacts of four types of job demands (workload, emotional dissonance, work contents, and physical demands) on burnout and work engagement. A questionnaire study was designed to examine the buffering role of job crafting among 470 Finnish dentists. All in all, 11 out of 16 possible interaction effects of job demands and job crafting on employee well-being were significant. Job crafting particularly buffered the negative effects of job demands on burnout (7/8 significant interactions) and to a somewhat lesser extent also on work engagement (4/8 significant interactions). Applying job crafting techniques appeared to be particularly effective in mitigating the negative effects of quantitative workload (4/4 significant interactions). By demonstrating that job crafting can also buffer the negative impacts of high job demands on employee well-being, this study contributed to the JD-R model as it suggests that job crafting may even be possible under high work demands, and not only in resourceful jobs, as most previous studies have indicated. In addition to the top-down initiatives for improving employee well-being, bottom-up approaches such as job crafting may also be efficient in preventing burnout and enhancing work engagement.

  17. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  18. An evaluation of high-dose jobs for ALARA improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, J. H.; Kim, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that about 70 percent of occupational dose have incurred from maintenance jobs at outage period. To reduce occupational dose, first, the high-dose jobs at the outage period should be identified and evaluated. For this, the database program is used, which contains the ORE data of reference plants, Kori Units 3 and 4. As a result, it is found that the jobs related to steam generator are the highest dose jobs in terms of collective ORE dose. From the analysis of the job procedures of those jobs, the ALARA improvements are also derived

  19. Highly Accurate Prediction of Jobs Runtime Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner-Benaim, Anat; Grabarnick, Anna; Shmueli, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Separating the short jobs from the long is a known technique to improve scheduling performance. In this paper we describe a method we developed for accurately predicting the runtimes classes of the jobs to enable this separation. Our method uses the fact that the runtimes can be represented as a mixture of overlapping Gaussian distributions, in order to train a CART classifier to provide the prediction. The threshold that separates the short jobs from the long jobs is determined during the ev...

  20. I. Do chronic pain patients' perceptions about their preinjury jobs determine their intent to return to the same type of job post-pain facility treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, D A; Rosomoff, H L; Cutler, R B; Steele-Rosomoff, R

    1995-12-01

    To demonstrate that chronic pain patients' (CPPs') perceptions about their preinjury jobs determine their intent to return to the same type of job post pain facility treatment. A total of 225 CPPs completed a series of rating scales and yes/no questions relating to their preinjury job perceptions and a question relating to intent to return to the same type of preinjury job post-pain facility treatment. The CPPs were broken down into subgroups (males, females, college males, noncollege males, college females, noncollege females), and within each subgroup those not intending to return to the same type of pre-injury job were compared to those intending to return on the preinjury job perception questions. In addition for the whole group, stepwise discriminant analysis was used to predict who planned to return to the preinjury job utilizing the job perceptions questions. Multidisciplinary Pain Center. Consecutive chronic pain patients. For the whole group, CPPs not intending to return were more likely to complain of job excessive physical demands, job satisfaction, and job dislike. Job perception complaints that were significantly different between the intending and not intending to return groups differed between the subgroups. For example, noncollege males not intending to return were more likely to complain of excessive physical demands only versus satisfaction and liking as significant items for college males who did not intend to return. Within the discriminant analysis, the combination of job satisfaction, excessive physical demands, employee conflicts, job liking, job dangerousness, supervisory conflicts, job stress, and age classified 73.46% of the CPPs correctly as to intent to return to the same type of preinjury job. There appears to be a relationship between preinjury job perceptions and intent to return to the same type of job post pain treatment. However, subgroups of CPPs will differ by which job perceptions are important towards making that decision.

  1. Establishing and maintaining job skills and professional behaviors in chronically unemployed drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Conrad J; Silverman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic workplace intervention is an employment-based drug user intervention that integrates abstinence reinforcement contingencies into an employment setting, intended for individuals manifesting chronic unemployment and drug addiction. Research on the therapeutic workplace intervention has provided a unique and rare opportunity to collect data and conduct fine-grained analyses of the training and work performance of participants. Results from a series of studies document that chronically unemployed drug users display behaviors that likely limit their success in conventional businesses. This article reviews a systematic line of research showing that targeted and intensive contingency management interventions and training programs have been effective in promoting consistent attendance and high rates of productivity and establishing job skills for employment.

  2. Greenness and job-related chronic stress in young adults: a prospective cohort study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ronald; Markevych, Iana; Berger, Ursula; Genuneit, Jon; Gerlich, Jessica; Nowak, Dennis; Schlotz, Wolff; Vogelberg, Christian; von Mutius, Erika; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Windstetter, Doris; Weigl, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Radon, Katja

    2018-06-04

    We aimed to prospectively study the association between normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of greenness around homes and occupational stress. A population-based cohort in Munich and Dresden cities was followed from age 16-18 years to age 20-23 years (n=1632). At baseline, all participants attended high-school while at follow-up some had started working and others studying at university. At baseline and in each follow-up, we assigned NDVI based on participants' residential geocoded addresses and categorised it by quartiles. School-related, university-related or job-related self-reported chronic stress was assessed at the two follow-ups by the Trier Scale for Assessment of Chronic Stress using work discontent and work overload as outcomes. We modelled the association employing ordinal generalised estimating equations model accounting for changes in sociodemographics, non-job-related stress, job history and environmental covariates. Stratified analysis by each city was performed. NVDI at baseline was higher for participants from Dresden (median=0.36; IQR 0.31-0.41) than Munich (0.31; 0.26-0.34). At follow-up, it decreased only for participants in Dresden (0.34; 0.30-0.40). Higher greenness (quartile 4 vs quartile 1) was associated with less work discontent (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.99) and less work overload (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.96). In stratified analyses, results were more consistent for Munich than for Dresden. Our results suggest that residential green spaces, using the vegetation index as a proxy for exposure, are inversely associated with two types of job-related chronic stress in German young adults transitioning from school to university or working life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The risk ogf high-risk jobs : psychological health consequences in forensic physicians and ambulance workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, E. van der

    2003-01-01

    The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers This thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress. A

  4. Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerman Martha GM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs and human resource managers (HRM. Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. Methods Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. Results Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. Conclusions There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health

  5. Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haafkens, Joke A; Kopnina, Helen; Meerman, Martha G M; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2011-05-17

    Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs) and human resource managers (HRM). Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas) from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM) sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health researchers and planners should address in developing job retention

  6. Effect of job maintenance training program for employees with chronic disease - a randomized controlled trial on self-efficacy, job satisfaction, and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; Verbeek, Jos H.; de Boer, Angela; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Employees with a chronic physical condition may be hampered in job performance due to physical or cognitive limitations, pain, fatigue, psychosocial barriers, or because medical treatment interferes with work. This study investigates the effect of a group-training program aimed at job maintenance.

  7. Randomized comparison of a multidisciplinary job-retention vocational rehabilitation program with usual outpatient care in patients with chronic arthritis at risk for job loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Buck, Petronella D M; le Cessie, Saskia; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Peeters, Andreas J; Ronday, Herman K; Westedt, Marie-Louise; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M

    2005-10-15

    Work disability is a major consequence of inflammatory rheumatic conditions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions aimed at the prevention or reduction of work disability in rheumatic diseases is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary job-retention vocational rehabilitation (VR) program in patients with a rheumatic condition who were at risk for job loss. A total of 140 patients with a chronic rheumatic condition were randomly assigned to either a multidisciplinary job-retention VR program (n = 74) or usual outpatient care (UC) (n = 66). Patients in the VR group were assessed and guided by a multidisciplinary team, whereas patients in the UC group received care as initiated by their rheumatologist, supplemented with written information. The main outcome measure was the occurrence of job loss (complete work disability or unemployment); additional outcome measures included job satisfaction, pain, functional status, emotional status, and quality of life. There was no difference between the 2 groups regarding the proportion of patients having lost their job at any time point, with 24% and 23% of the patients in the VR and UC groups, respectively, having lost their job after 24 months. Over the total period of 24 months, patients in the VR group had a significantly greater improvement of the fatigue visual analog scale and of emotional status (all P values job-retention VR program did not reduce the risk of job loss but improved fatigue and mental health in patients with chronic rheumatic diseases at risk for job loss.

  8. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  9. Sick leave as a predictor of job loss in patients with chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Buck, Petronella D. M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Dijk, Frank; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.; Vlieland, Theodora P. M. Vliet

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study the occurrence and duration of sick leave as potential risk factors for permanent job loss after 24 months among 112 individuals with chronic arthritis and a disease related problem at work. Methods: Data collection was embedded in a multicentre randomised controlled trial in

  10. Sick leave as a predictor of job loss in patients with chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Buck, Petronella D. M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Dijk, Frank; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P. M.

    2006-01-01

    To study the occurrence and duration of sick leave as potential risk factors for permanent job loss after 24 months among 112 individuals with chronic arthritis and a disease related problem at work. Data collection was embedded in a multicentre randomised controlled trial in which the

  11. Empowering employees with chronic diseases: process evaluation of an intervention aimed at job retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; Krol, Boudien; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Employees with a chronic disease may experience work-related problems that contribute to the risk of job loss. We developed a group-based intervention programme aimed at clarifying problems, making these a subject of discussion at work, and realizing solutions. This process evaluation

  12. Empowering employees with chronic diseases : process evaluation of an intervention aimed at job retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; Krol, Boudien; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    Purpose Employees with a chronic disease may experience work-related problems that contribute to the risk of job loss. We developed a group-based intervention programme aimed at clarifying problems, making these a subject of discussion at work, and realizing solutions. This process evaluation

  13. Sick leave as a predictor of job loss in patients with chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Buck, Petronella D. M.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Dijk, Frank; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.; Vlieland, Theodora P. M. Vliet

    Objectives: To study the occurrence and duration of sick leave as potential risk factors for permanent job loss after 24 months among 112 individuals with chronic arthritis and a disease related problem at work. Methods: Data collection was embedded in a multicentre randomised controlled trial in

  14. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakanen, Jari J.; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly

  15. An Examination of the Job Training and Job Experiences of High School Students as They Exit School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Wilbur Drew

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was (a) to determine the level of satisfaction that exiting high school students felt regarding the job preparation and training they received in high school, (b) gather data on work experiences during high school, (c) gather data on job training experiences during high school, and (d) gather data on students…

  16. Effect of job maintenance training program for employees with chronic disease - a randomized controlled trial on self-efficacy, job satisfaction, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Inge; Verbeek, Jos H; de Boer, Angela; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2011-07-01

    Employees with a chronic physical condition may be hampered in job performance due to physical or cognitive limitations, pain, fatigue, psychosocial barriers, or because medical treatment interferes with work. This study investigates the effect of a group-training program aimed at job maintenance. Essential elements of the program are exploration of work-related problems, communication at the workplace, and the development and implementation of solutions. Participants with chronic physical diseases were randomly assigned to the intervention (N=64) or the control group (N=58). Participants were eligible for the study if they had a chronic physical disease, paid employment, experienced work-related problems, and were not on long-term 100% sick leave. Primary outcome measures were self-efficacy in solving work- and disease-related problems (14-70), job dissatisfaction (0-100), fatigue (20-140) and job maintenance measured at 4-, 8-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. We used GLM repeated measures for the analysis. After 24 months, loss to follow-up was 5.7% (7/122). Self-efficacy increased and fatigue decreased significantly more in the experimental than the control group [10 versus 4 points (P=0.000) and 19 versus 8 points (P=0.032), respectively]. Job satisfaction increased more in the experimental group but not significantly [6 versus 0 points (P=0.698)]. Job maintenance was 87% in the experimental and 91% in the control group, which was not a significant difference. Many participants in the control group also undertook actions to solve work-related problems. Empowerment training increases self-efficacy and helps to reduce fatigue complaints, which in the long term could lead to more job maintenance. Better understanding of ways to deal with work-related problems is needed to develop more efficient support for employees with a chronic disease.

  17. High job control enhances vagal recovery in media work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Jahkola, Antti; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Savolainen, Aslak

    2009-12-01

    Job strain has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In modern media work, time pressures, rapidly changing situations, computer work and irregular working hours are common. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to monitor sympathovagal balance. Autonomic imbalance may play an additive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To study the effects of work demands and job control on the autonomic nervous system recovery among the media personnel. From the cross-sectional postal survey of the employees in Finnish Broadcasting Company (n = 874), three age cohorts (n = 132) were randomly selected for an analysis of HRV in 24 h electrocardiography recordings. In the middle-aged group, those who experienced high job control had significantly better vagal recovery than those with low or moderate control (P work rather than low demands seemed to enhance autonomic recovery in middle-aged media workers. This was independent of poor health habits such as smoking, physical inactivity or alcohol consumption.

  18. Job Satisfaction, Stress and Coping Strategies among Moroccan High School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, Naima

    1998-01-01

    Studied job stress, job satisfaction, and coping strategies through self-report measures from 153 Moroccan high school teachers. Results show that 45% of the teachers were satisfied with their jobs, but over half reported high levels of stress, negatively correlated with job satisfaction. Factor analysis of 16 coping strategies produced four…

  19. Say 'trouble's gone': chronic illness and employability in job training programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Emma K

    2013-01-01

    The concept of biographical disruption has unique relevance for socioeconomically disadvantaged groups who participate in entry-level job training programmes. In these programmes trainees often suffer from various forms of chronic illness and must arrange these illnesses into a picture of employability. In this article I use ethnographic data and narrative analysis to examine closely two trainees' illness-related experiences, expressions and talk, and find that their ability to present their illnesses in ways that are consistent with programmatic goals is strongly influenced by family support, responsibilities and roles, as well as particular aspects of illness, like the interpretability of symptoms. I also find that the concept of biographical disruption has a curious traction in the world of job training, particularly among job training programme staff who would like to see trainees mobilise a variety of resources to help manage their illness. However, for trainees, many of whom have lived with chronic illness for years, the concept of biographical disruption may be more limited as a tool for understanding the experiences of illness. A more meaningful disruptive force in the lives of trainees appears to be the programme itself and the strategies for dealing with illness that programme staff may extend. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Using a Mixed Model to Evaluate Job Satisfaction in High-Tech Industries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Bing Tsai

    Full Text Available R&D professionals are the impetus behind technological innovation, and their competitiveness and capability drive the growth of a company. However, high-tech industries have a chronic shortage of such indispensable professionals. Accordingly, reducing R&D personnel turnover has become a major human resource management challenge facing innovative companies. This study combined importance-performance analysis (IPA with the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method to propose an IPA-DEMATEL model. Establishing this model involved three steps. First, an IPA was conducted to measure the importance of and satisfaction gained from job satisfaction criteria. Second, the DEMATEL method was used to determine the causal relationships of and interactive influence among the criteria. Third, a criteria model was constructed to evaluate job satisfaction of high-tech R&D personnel. On the basis of the findings, managerial suggestions are proposed.

  1. Using a Mixed Model to Evaluate Job Satisfaction in High-Tech Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Huang, Chih-Yao; Wang, Cheng-Kuang; Chen, Quan; Pan, Jingzhou; Wang, Ge; Wang, Jingan; Chin, Ta-Chia; Chang, Li-Chung

    2016-01-01

    R&D professionals are the impetus behind technological innovation, and their competitiveness and capability drive the growth of a company. However, high-tech industries have a chronic shortage of such indispensable professionals. Accordingly, reducing R&D personnel turnover has become a major human resource management challenge facing innovative companies. This study combined importance-performance analysis (IPA) with the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method to propose an IPA-DEMATEL model. Establishing this model involved three steps. First, an IPA was conducted to measure the importance of and satisfaction gained from job satisfaction criteria. Second, the DEMATEL method was used to determine the causal relationships of and interactive influence among the criteria. Third, a criteria model was constructed to evaluate job satisfaction of high-tech R&D personnel. On the basis of the findings, managerial suggestions are proposed.

  2. Employees facing high job demands: How to keep them fit, satisfied, and intrinsically motivated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Nagao, DH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine why some employees faced with high job demands feel fatigued, dissatisfied, and unmotivated, whereas others feel fatigued but satisfied and intrinsically motivated. It is argued and demonstrated that two job conditions, namely job control and job

  3. Pengaruh High Performance Work Practice (Hpwp) Terhadap Job Performance Pada Frontliner Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ihdaryanti, Monica Amani; Panggabean, Mutiara S

    2014-01-01

    Generally High Performance Work Practice (HPWP) is a part of management human resources. The objectives of this research are getting and analyzing the effect of HPWPs with Job Satisfaction; HPWPs with Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction with Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction with Job Performance; and Organizational Commitment with Job Performance. The total of sample in this research is 100 respondents which are as Front liner BNI and Mandiri. The result of th...

  4. Research on Job Satisfaction of Elementary and High School Teachers and Strategies to Increase Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuming, Xu; Jiliang, Shen

    2007-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important topic in teacher education research. Exploring the issue of teacher job satisfaction helps us gain a deeper understanding of teachers' mental state, such as their occupational attitudes, zeal for teaching, and work enthusiasm, which affects the quality of teaching and education. From an examination of teachers' job…

  5. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; de Vries, Gabe; Heutink, Annelies; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present

  6. State investments in high-technology job growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Kevin T; Jenkins, J Craig

    2017-07-01

    Since the early 1970's state and local governments have launched an array of economic development programs designed to promote high-technology development. The question our analysis addresses is whether these programs promote long-term high-technology employment growth net of state location and agglomeration advantages. Proponents talk about an infrastructure strategy that promotes investment in public research and specialized infrastructure to attract and grow new high technology industries in specific locations, and a more decentralized entrepreneurial strategy that reinforces local agglomeration capacities by investing in new enterprises and products, promoting the development of local networks and partnerships. Our results support the entrepreneurial strategy, suggesting that state governments can accelerate high technology development by adopting market-supportive programs that complement private sector initiatives. In addition to positive direct benefits of technology deployment/transfer programs and SBIR programs, entrepreneurial programs affect change in high-technology employment in concert with existing locational and agglomeration advantages. Rural (i.e. low population density) states tend to benefit by technology development programs. Infrastructure strategy programs also facilitate high technology job growth in places where local advantages already exist. Our results suggest that critics of industrial policy are correct that high technology growth is organic and endogenous, yet state governments are able to "pick winners and losers" in ways that grow their local economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Job mobility among parents of children with chronic health conditions: Early effects of the 2010 Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Brandon, Peter; Markowitz, Sara

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effects of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (ACA) prohibition of preexisting conditions exclusions for children on job mobility among parents. We use a difference-in-difference approach, comparing pre-post policy changes in job mobility among privately-insured parents of children with chronic health conditions vs. privately-insured parents of healthy children. Data come from the 2004 and 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Among married fathers, the policy change is associated with about a 0.7 percentage point, or 35 percent increase, in the likelihood of leaving an employer voluntarily. We find no evidence that the policy change affected job mobility among married and unmarried mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High serum enalaprilat in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T; Heisterberg, J; Kamper, A L

    2001-01-01

    renal failure. METHODS: Fifty nine out-patients with plasma creatinine >150 micromol/L and chronic antihypertensive treatment with enalapril were investigated, in a cross-sectional design. RESULTS: Median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 23(range 6-60) ml/minute/1.73 m2. The daily dose of enalapril......-68) ml/minute and correlated linearly with GFR (r=0.86, p=0.003). Intra-subject day-to-day variation in trough concentrations was 19.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic renal failure given small or moderately high doses of enalapril may thus have markedly elevated levels of serum enalaprilat. Whether...

  9. Role Conflict and Ambiguity as Predictors of Job Satisfaction in High School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, Annemarie; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role conflict and role ambiguity, and percentage of time spent on ASCA recommended duties (counseling, coordination, consultation, and large group guidance); and job satisfaction of high school counselors. The Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scale and the Job Descriptive Index were…

  10. Career Technical Education: Keeping Adult Learners Competitive for High-Demand Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In today's turbulent economy, how can adult workers best position themselves to secure jobs in high-demand fields where they are more likely to remain competitive and earn more? Further, how can employers up-skill current employees so that they meet increasingly complex job demands? Research indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) aligned…

  11. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, Judith K.

    2006-01-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in

  12. Running Batch Jobs on Peregrine | High-Performance Computing | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    and run your application. Users typically create or edit job scripts using a text editor such as vi Using Resource Feature to Request Different Node Types Peregrine has several types of compute nodes , which differ in the amount of memory and number of processor cores. The majority of the nodes have 24

  13. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heutink Annelies

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Development and description of intervention A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group training, tested in a pilot study. The evaluation resulted in the development of a seven-session group training combined with three individual counselling sessions. The training is based on an empowerment perspective that aims to help individuals enhance knowledge, skills and self-awareness. These advances are deemed necessary for problem solving in three stages: exploration and clarification of work related problems, communication at the workplace, and development and implementation of solutions. Seven themes are discussed and practised in the group sessions: 1 Consequences of a chronic disease in the workplace, 2 Insight into feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease, 3 Communication in daily work situations, 4 Facilities for disabled employees and work disability legislation, 5 How to stand up for oneself, 6 A plan to solve problems, 7 Follow-up. Methods Participants are recruited via occupational health services, patient organisations, employers, and a yearly national conference on chronic diseases. They are eligible when they have a chronic physical medical condition, have a paid job, and experience problems at work. Workers on long-term, 100% sick leave that is expected to continue during the training are excluded. After filling in the baseline questionnaire, the participants are randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive no care or care as usual. Post-test mail questionnaires will be sent after 4, 8

  14. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Inge; de Vries, Gabe; Heutink, Annelies; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2008-11-04

    Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. DEVELOPMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF INTERVENTION: A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group training, tested in a pilot study. The evaluation resulted in the development of a seven-session group training combined with three individual counselling sessions. The training is based on an empowerment perspective that aims to help individuals enhance knowledge, skills and self-awareness. These advances are deemed necessary for problem solving in three stages: exploration and clarification of work related problems, communication at the workplace, and development and implementation of solutions. Seven themes are discussed and practised in the group sessions: 1) Consequences of a chronic disease in the workplace, 2) Insight into feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease, 3) Communication in daily work situations, 4) Facilities for disabled employees and work disability legislation, 5) How to stand up for oneself, 6) A plan to solve problems, 7) Follow-up. Participants are recruited via occupational health services, patient organisations, employers, and a yearly national conference on chronic diseases. They are eligible when they have a chronic physical medical condition, have a paid job, and experience problems at work. Workers on long-term, 100% sick leave that is expected to continue during the training are excluded. After filling in the baseline questionnaire, the participants are randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive no care or care as usual. Post-test mail questionnaires will be sent after 4, 8, 12 and 24 months. Primary outcome

  15. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  16. ALARA review of the maintenance and repair jobs of repetitive high radiation dose at Kori Unit 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Moon, J.H.; Kang, C.S.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    The policy of maintaining occupational radiation dose (ORD) as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) requires the effective reduction of ORD in the phases of design as well as operation of nuclear power plants. It has been identified that a predominant portion of ORD arises during maintenance and repair operations at nuclear power plants. The cost-effective reduction of ORD cannot be achieved without a comprehensive analysis of accumulated ORD data of existing nuclear power plants. To identify the jobs of repetitive high ORD, the ORD data of Kori Units 3 and 4 over 10-year period from 1986 to 1995 were compiled into the PC-based ORD database program. As the radiation job classification structure, 26 main jobs are considered, most of which are further subdivided into detailed jobs. According to the order of the collective dose values for 26 main jobs, 10 jobs of high collective dose are identified. As an ALARA review, then, top 10 jobs of high collective dose are statistically analyzed with regard to 1) dose rate, 2) crew number and 3) job frequency that are the factors determining the collective dose for the radiation job of interest. Through the ALARA review, main reasons causing to high collective dose values are identified as follows. The high collective dose of RCP maintenance job is mainly due to the large crew number and the high job frequency. The characteristics of refueling job are similar to those of RCP maintenance job. However, the high collective doses of SG-related jobs such as S/G nozzle dam job, S/G man-way job and S/G tube maintenance job are mainly due to high radiation dose rate. (author)

  17. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Peral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting. Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored. Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251. Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers. Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context. Contribution/value-add: This

  18. The influence of job stress, social support and health status on intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance: an 8-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, John A; Batterham, Philip J; Glozier, Nick; Christensen, Helen

    2014-08-01

    To determine the role of health status and social support in the relationship between job stress and sleep disturbance, for both intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance. A total of 1946 mid-life adults completed three questionnaires spanning an 8-year time frame. Sleep disturbance was assessed at each time point, and participants were classified as experiencing intermittent, chronic or no sleep disturbance across this 8-year period. Independent variables included a range of job stress measures, social support, physical and mental health, and demographic characteristics. After controlling for physical and mental health, perceived lack of job marketability increased risk of intermittent sleep disturbance (odds ratio (OR)=1.33, p=0.012). No other job stress measures were associated with either intermittent or chronic sleep disturbance after adjusting for years of education, social support, and employment status. Poorer mental and physical health status, although significantly increasing odds for intermittent sleep disturbance, represented a significantly greater increase in the odds for chronic sleep disturbance over and above intermittent disturbance (OR=0.96, pjob stress had an independent effect on chronic or intermittent sleep disturbance independent of health, social support, and education. Risk profiles for intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance did not differ with regard to job stress; however, various demographic and social support factors were distinguishing factors. Health status, both physical and mental, also showed a significantly greater impact on chronic sleep disturbance than intermittent sleep disturbance. Karasek's model of job strain had little value in predicting sleep disturbance outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistent high job demands and reactivity to mental stress predict future ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M

    2000-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that work stress (persistent high job demands over 1 year) in combination with high reactivity to mental stress predict ambulatory blood pressure. Assessment of cardiovascular responses to standardized behavioural tasks, job demands, and ambulatory blood pressure over a working day and evening after 12 months. We studied 81 school teachers (26 men, 55 women), 36 of whom experienced persistent high job demands over 1 year, while 45 reported lower job demands. Participants were divided on the basis of high and low job demands, and high and low systolic pressure reactions to an uncontrollable stress task. Blood pressure and concurrent physical activity were monitored using ambulatory apparatus from 0900 to 2230 h on a working day. Cardiovascular stress reactivity was associated with waist/hip ratio. Systolic and diastolic pressure during the working day were greater in high job demand participants who were stress reactive than in other groups, after adjustment for age, baseline blood pressure, body mass index and negative affectivity. The difference was not accounted for by variations in physical activity. Cardiovascular stress reactivity and sustained psychosocial stress may act in concert to increase cardiovascular risk in susceptible individuals.

  20. Use of rank sum method in identifying high occupational dose jobs for ALARA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong Ho; Kang, Chang Sun

    1998-01-01

    The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) dose at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORE dose data of existing plants. It is necessary to identify what are high ORE jobs for ALARA implementation. In this study, the Rank Sum Method (RSM) is used in identifying high ORE jobs. As a case study, the database of ORE-related maintenance and repair jobs for Kori Units 3 and 4 is used for assessment, and top twenty high ORE jobs are identified. The results are also verified and validated using the Friedman test, and RSM is found to be a very efficient way of analyzing the data. (author)

  1. Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions? A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Catarina; Choi, BongKyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Staland-Nyman, Carin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, and health-related variables. Disability pension information was obtained through record linkage from the National Health Insurance Register. Nearly 20 % of the women and 15 % of the men were granted a disability pension during the follow-up period. The highest quartile of psychological job demands and the lowest quartile of decision latitude were associated with disability pensions when controlling for age, socioeconomic position, and health risk behaviours. In the final model, with adjustment also for health indicators and stress from outside the workplace, the hazard ratios for high strain jobs (i.e. high psychological demands in combination with low decision latitude) were 1.5 in men (95 % CI, 1.04-2.0) and 1.7 in women (95 % CI, 1.3-2.2). Stratifying for health at baseline showed that high strain tended to affect healthy but not unhealthy men, while this pattern was reversed in women. High psychological demands, low decision latitude, and job strain were all confirmed as independent risk factors for subsequent disability pensions. In order to increase chances of individuals remaining in the work force, interventions against these adverse psychosocial factors appear worthwhile.

  2. Tentative job analysis for a high-level, fixed-site, nuclear security officer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, K.G.; Trujillo, A.A.

    1977-10-01

    A tentative job analysis for a high-level, fixed-site, nuclear security officer is presented. The primary objective of the report is to provide a framework for evaluating the functions of a security officer in physical protection systems. Several job requirements related to duties, basic skills, personal contacts, supervision, working conditions, and decision making are presented. Individual character traits desirable in security officers are described

  3. Still Motivated to Teach? A Study of School Context Variables, Stress and Job Satisfaction among Teachers in Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how teachers' working conditions or school context variables (job demands and job resources) were related to their teaching self-concept, teacher burnout, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession among teachers in Norwegian senior high school. Participants were 546 teachers in three counties in central…

  4. How can we help employees with chronic diseases to stay at work? A review of interventions aimed at job retention and based on an empowerment perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A growing number of persons aged 16-65 is hampered by a chronic condition in performing job activities. Some of them quit the labour market prematurely. Vocational rehabilitation used to focus on (re)entering the labour market. Recently more attention is paid to interventions aimed at

  5. Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among Female High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Mahmmood Reza; Karimi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job satisfaction among female high school teachers in Isfahan. It was a descriptive-correlation research. Population included all female high school teachers of Isfahan (2015) in academic year 2013-2014. Sample size calculated was 320 teachers by Krejcie and…

  6. The Effect of Vocational High School Administrators' Leadership Behaviors on Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Said

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of vocational high school administrators' leadership behaviors on teacher job satisfaction. The study group of the research consists of 21 technical teachers who work at vocational high schools in the city of Isparta. The data obtained have been analyzed by calculating the frequency,…

  7. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J; Bradley, S; Nguyen, A N

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  8. Job satisfaction and cortisol awakening response in teachers scoring high and low on burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Albiol, Luis; Serrano, Miguel Angel; Salvador, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is an important psychosocial risk in the job context, especially in professions with a strong social interaction, as in the case of teaching. High levels of burnout have been related to negative psychological indicators and hormonal alterations. This study compares job satisfaction and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in teachers scoring high (HB) and low (LB) on burnout. HB teachers showed lower job satisfaction and no significant differences in the CAR when compared with the LB group. The results of the study suggest a general dissatisfaction with work along with a different functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in HB teachers. Although non significantly, they showed a lower magnitude of the CAR than LB teachers. When considering the whole sample, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization correlated negatively and personal accomplishment positively with each subscale of the job satisfaction questionnaire whereas cortisol levels or CAR did not correlate significantly with both burnout subscales and job satisfaction. These results should be taken into account when working to prevent burnout in teachers, as the modified parameters could be considered indicators of the onset or development of the syndrome.

  9. Chinese Anesthesiologists Have High Burnout and Low Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hange; Zuo, Mingzhang; Gelb, Adrian W; Zhang, Biao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Dongdong; Xia, Di; Huang, Yuguang

    2018-03-01

    The Chinese health care system must meet the needs of 19% of the world's population. Despite recent economic growth, health care resources are unevenly distributed. This creates the potential for job stress and burnout. We therefore conducted a survey among anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region focusing on job satisfaction and burnout to determine the incidence and associated factors. A large cross-sectional study was performed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect and analyze the following information: (1) demographic characteristics and employer information; (2) job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire; (3) burnout assessed by Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey; and (4) sleep pattern and physician-patient communication. Surveys were completed and returned from 211 hospitals (response rate 74%) and 2873 anesthesiologists (response rate 70%) during the period of June to August 2015. The overall job satisfaction score of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was 65.3 ± 11.5. Among the participants, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-71%) met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment was 57% (95% CI, 55%-59%), 49% (95% CI, 47%-51%), and 57% (95% CI, 55%-58%), respectively. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that age, hospital category, working hours per week, caseload per day, frequency of perceived challenging cases, income, and sleep quality were independent variables associated with burnout. Anesthesiologists with a high level of depersonalization tended to engage in shorter preoperative conversations with patients, provide less information about pain or the procedure, and to have less empathy with them. The anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China expressed a below-average level of job satisfaction, and suffered a

  10. Students Do Not Need High-Level Skills in Today's Job Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "high-skills hoax"--the notion that everyone must have high skills to be employable. While he recognizes the civil rights issue in the debate--everyone should have the opportunity to develop the skills to land a high-paying job--the law of supply and demand dictates that more high-skilled workers would…

  11. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  12. The Contribution of Extracurricular Coaching on High School Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Meredith; Camiré, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the contribution of extracurricular coaching on high school teachers' job satisfaction. Specifically, the study looked at how perceptions of the coaching environment (athlete relationships, colleague relationships and opportunities through coaching) influenced teachers' perceptions of stressors…

  13. The Influence of Competence, Motivation, and Organisational Culture to High School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, H. Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to find out and analyze the influence of competence, motivation, and organizational competence to high school teacher job satisfaction and performance in Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia. The study was conducted on 117 respondents of 346 teachers by means of questionnaire. Data is analyzed by SEM analysis method in AMOS program.…

  14. The Relationship of High School Teachers' Job Satisfaction to Principal Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between high school teacher job satisfaction, using an instrument that measures Herzberg's Two Factor Theory and principal support, using an adapted instrument from House's theory of administrative support. Data were collected by a team of researchers from 34 self-selected public Virginia…

  15. Avoidant Attachment Style Indicates Job Adaptation of People with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the avoidant attachment style indicates job adaptation of people with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). HFASD are groups of developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social interaction and normal level of intelligence. Twenty-two people with HFASD…

  16. Examination of Job Satisfaction of the Medical Vocational High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Güney, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the job satisfaction level of Medical Vocational High School teachers and whether it differs according to different variables. The research was organized in accordance with the screening model. The population of the research was composed of vocational course teachers who worked in Medical Vocational High…

  17. Evaluations of Sexy Women in Low-And High-Status Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Larsen, Sadie; Johnson, Cathryn Branstiter, Heather

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that women who dress in a sexy versus business-like manner evoke negative emotions and perceptions of lesser competence if employed in high-(but not low-) status jobs. Male and female undergraduates evaluated a videotaped female target whose physical attractiveness was held constant, but who was (a) dressed in sexy or business-like…

  18. Relationship between Job Stress and Hypo-high-density Lipoproteinemia of Chinese Workers in Shanghai: The Rosai Karoshi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratsubaki, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tomomi; Li, Jue; Fukudo, Shin; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-10-20

    Karoshi, or death due to overwork, has now become a serious social problem in China. Worsening of cardiovascular risks by stress might initiate karoshi. Many studies have examined the relationship between job stress and obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but less evidence exists for dyslipidemia like hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia (hypo-HDL). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between job stress and hypo-HDL of Chinese workers in Shanghai. We studied 2219 Chinese workers in Shanghai, who participated in the Japan-China cooperative study for the prevention of karoshi. A questionnaire was administered to examine the lifestyle characteristics, job category, weekly working hours, and job stress. Job demand and job control were quantified using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health questionnaire. Modified job strain measure was defined by the combination of low job control and high demand. Hypo-HDL was defined as plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of <1.04 mmol/L (40 mg/dl). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for hypo-HDL as a dependent variable. Modified job strain was not related to hypo-HDL either in men or women. In men, multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having hypo-HDL was significantly higher in the lowest job control tertile compared with the highest job control tertile (OR = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.87, P = 0.034). In the same model, a similar trend was observed for women, but it did not reach a statistically significant level (OR = 1.51, 95% CI, 0.88-2.56, P = 0.132). A low level of job control but not modified job strain was significantly related to higher prevalence of hypo-HDL of Chinese workers in Shanghai.

  19. Effects of job-related stress and burnout on asthenopia among high-tech workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Anat; Ribak, Joseph; Pereg, Avihu; Gaton, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Eye- and vision-related symptoms are the most frequent health problems among computer users. The findings of eye strain, tired eyes, eye irritation, burning sensation, redness, blurred vision and double vision, when appearing together, have recently been termed 'computer vision syndrome', or asthenopia. To examine the frequency and intensity of asthenopia among individuals employed in research and development departments of high-tech firms and the effects of job stress and burnout on ocular complaints, this study included 106 subjects, 42 high-tech workers (study group) and 64 bank employees (control group). All participants completed self-report questionnaires covering demographics, asthenopia, satisfaction with work environmental conditions, job-related stress and burnout. There was a significant between-group difference in the intensity of asthenopia, but not in its frequency. Burnout appeared to be a significant contributing factor to the intensity and frequency of asthenopia. This study shows that burnout is a significant factor in asthenopic complaints in high-tech workers. This manuscript analyses the effects of psychological environmental factors, such as job stress and burnout, on ocular complaints at the workplace of computer users. The findings may have an ergonomic impact on how to improve health, safety and comfort of the working environment among computer users, for better perception of the job environment, efficacy and production.

  20. Modeling of Structural Equation Teachers’ Job satisfaction in Agricultural High School, Mazandaran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alikhani Dadoukolaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a positive or pleasant emotional state resulting from a person’s appreciation of his/her own job or experience. The study purpose was to model job satisfaction for teachers working in Agricultural institutes within Mazandaran province of Iran. The study used a descriptive-correlative design . The statistical population (including all instructors working for agricultural Institutes within Mazandaran Province of Iran was es 127 teachers. Using Cochran’s formula, the sample size was estimated at 85 teachers. To increase the viability of the study, the planned sample size was determined att 110 teachers from which 108 teachers completed the questionnaires. The study was conducted using questionnaire. The content validity of the questionnaire was assessed by a group of extension specialists. In order to measure the reliability of research questionnaires, 29 teachers who were randomly selected. completed some questionnaires. Cronbach's alpha, ordinal theta and combination reliability were calculated by 0.95, 0.92 and 0.87 respectively. The results indicate that the magnitude of job satisfaction for %85.2 of instructors working in Agricultural institutes within Mazandaran province was moderate and relatively high. Based on the estimated Structural equation model, the highest effect on the job satisfaction was related to the environmental factor with the path coefficient of 0.64. Motivational factor with the path coefficient of 0.26 had a significant effect on job satisfaction. In addition, the environmental factor with the path coefficient of 0.55 had a significant effect on the Motivational factor.

  1. Overcoming job demands to deliver high quality care in a hospital setting across Europe: The role of teamwork and positivity

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery Anthony; Panagopoulou Efharis; Costa Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals deal on a daily basis with several job demands – emotional, cognitive, organizational and physical. They must also ensure high quality care to their patients. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of job demands on quality of care and to investigate team (backup behaviors) and individual (positivity ratio) processes that help to shield that impact. Data was collected from 2,890 doctors and nurses in 9 European countries by means of questionnaires. Job demand...

  2. Initiating an ergonomic analysis. A process for jobs with highly variable tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, K M; Lavender, S A; Reichelt, P A; Meyer, F T

    2000-09-01

    Occupational health nurses play a vital role in addressing ergonomic problems in the workplace. Describing and documenting exposure to ergonomic risk factors is a relatively straightforward process in jobs in which the work is repetitive. In other types of work, the analysis becomes much more challenging because tasks may be repeated infrequently, or at irregular time intervals, or under different environmental and temporal conditions, thereby making it difficult to observe a "representative" sample of the work performed. This article describes a process used to identify highly variable job tasks for ergonomic analyses. The identification of tasks for ergonomic analysis was a two step process involving interviews and a survey of firefighters and paramedics from a consortium of 14 suburban fire departments. The interviews were used to generate a list of frequently performed, physically strenuous job tasks and to capture clear descriptions of those tasks and associated roles. The goals of the survey were to confirm the interview findings across the entire target population and to quantify the frequency and degree of strenuousness of each task. In turn, the quantitative results from the survey were used to prioritize job tasks for simulation. Although this process was used to study firefighters and paramedics, the approach is likely to be suitable for many other types of occupations in which the tasks are highly variable in content and irregular in frequency.

  3. Performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) : European collaborative analyses on occupational risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with job exposure matrices (ECOJEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Moual, N; Bakke, P; Orlowski, E; Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Kennedy, SM; Rijcken, B; Kauffmann, F

    Objectives-To compare the performance of population specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) sand self reported occupational exposure with data on exposure and lung function from three European general populations. Methods-Self reported occupational exposure (yes or no) and present occupation were

  4. [High prevalence of job dissatisfaction among female physicians: work-family conflict as a potential stressor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám, Szilvia; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; László, Krisztina

    2009-08-02

    Due to the family-centric nature of Hungarian society and to the high proportion of women in the medical profession, more female than male physicians may experience work-family conflict. The authors hypothesized that work-family conflict may reduce job satisfaction among female physicians. However, there is limited information about the prevalence of work-family conflict and job dissatisfaction as well as their associations among female physicians. To explore the prevalence of work-family conflict and its relations to job dissatisfaction among Hungarian physicians. Cross-sectional study with 219 female and 201 male physicians using self-report questionnaires. As hypothesized, female physicians reported significantly higher level of work-family conflict compared to male physicians (3.0 (SD 0.9) vs. 2.6 (SD 0.9); t (df): -3.8 (418); p conflict often or extremely often [56% vs. 41%, respectively; chi 2 (df) = 9.3 (1); p conflict predicts job dissatisfaction among female and all physicians (beta = -0.17, 95% CI -0.31 - -0.04 and beta = -0.14, 95% CI -0.22 - -0.04, respectively). These results show that the level and prevalence of work-family conflict experienced by female physicians in Hungary is significantly higher than that among male physicians. Furthermore, these findings suggest that work-family conflict as a stressor may contribute to the development of job dissatisfaction and hence may adversely impact the well-being of female and male physicians and consequently the quality of patient care.

  5. Gender differences in the association of a high quality job and self-esteem over time: A multiwave study

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Anita C.; Meier, Laurenz L.; Gross, Sven; Semmer, Norbert K.

    2015-01-01

    High self-esteem often predicts job-related outcomes, such as high job satisfaction or high status. Theoretically, high quality jobs (HQJs) should be important for self-esteem, as they enable people to use a variety of skills and attribute accomplishments to themselves, but research findings are mixed. We expected reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and HQJ. However, as work often is more important for the status of men, we expected HQJ to have a stronger influence on self-esteem for...

  6. Do Danes enjoy a high performing chronic care system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Quevedo, Christina; Olejaz, Maria; Juul, Annegrete

    2012-01-01

    The trends in population health in Denmark are similar to those in most Western European countries. Major health issues include, among others, the high prevalence of chronic illnesses and lifestyle related risk factors such as obesity, tobacco, physical inactivity and alcohol. This has pressed...... the health system towards a model of provision of care based on the management of chronic care conditions. While the Chronic Care Model was introduced in 2005, the Danish health system does not fulfil the ten key preconditions that would characterise a high-performing chronic care system. As revealed...... in a recent report, the fragmented structure of the Danish health system poses challenges in providing effectively coordinated care to patients with chronic diseases....

  7. Chronic diseases are not being managed effectively in either high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic diseases are not being managed effectively in either high-risk or low-risk populations in South Africa. M Brand, AJ Woodiwiss, F Michel, HL Booysen, OHI Majane, MJ Maseko, MG Veller, GR Norton ...

  8. Solar energy and job creation benefits of photovoltaics in times of high unemployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.H.

    1994-01-01

    Solar energy is normally discussed under the aspects of its medium to long term contribution to the global energy supply and its present cost. The situation is characterized by the benefits of an abundant renewable energy supply option o the one side and comparatively high internal energy production costs of solar energy on the other. Besides the environmental and health benefits of renewables not taken into account in cost comparisons, solar energy has a significantly higher job creation potential as conventional energy supply options. The paper gives an introduction into the basic methodological aspects of comparing job creation effects of different energy technologies and reports on the latest results of ongoing research on the specific effects of photovoltaics as compared to conventional electricity generation

  9. High Job Performance Through Co-Developing Performance Measures With Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Bianca A.C.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Wouters, Marc

    2017-01-01

    According to various studies, employee participation in the development of performance measures can increase job performance. This study focuses on how this job performance elevation occurs. We hypothesize that when employees have participated in the development of performance measures, they

  10. Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions? A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Canivet, Catarina; Choi, Bongkyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Staland-Nyman, Carin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. METHODS: We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, a...

  11. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  12. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-03-01

    To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen's κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19-0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. [Professional practices and perceptions about job retention systems for the chronically ill: a qualitative study in south-eastern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, M-L; Arnaud, S; Souville, M; Viau, A; François, G; Verger, P

    2013-04-01

    Continued employment of people with health problems that reduce their ability to work is a major social issue. The French measures to optimize job retention are characterized by a multiplicity of participants, and their efficacy depends largely on the capacity of these different participants to work together. The objective of this study was to document the perceived role, attitudes and practices of participants involved in these job retention measures and of general practitioners, as well as their difficulties in this domain. In 2009, 15 semi-directive interviews were conducted in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA) of occupational physicians, general practitioners, and other participants involved in the occupational reclassification of workers no longer completely fit for their job. The data collected were analyzed from a thematic perspective. The different groups of professionals questioned agreed on the primacy of the role of the occupational physician, on the importance of early consideration of each worker's case, and on the need to work together as partners to optimize the prospects of job retention. This study nonetheless showed numerous communication difficulties between the various professionals: although informal exchanges have developed over time, the efficacy of the system seems to be limited by a lack of clarity about the role of each institution, divergences of opinions on some key points including the role of the physicians caring for the patient, and, more largely, lack of information about the tools for job retention. The distribution of homogeneous knowledge, the development of multidisciplinary collaborative practices and the pooling of the lessons of experience between the different groups of participants are essential for the success of job retention procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. How can we help employees with chronic diseases to stay at work? A review of interventions aimed at job retention and based on an empowerment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Inge; Verbeek, Jos H A M; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2006-11-01

    A growing number of persons aged 16-65 is hampered by a chronic condition in performing job activities. Some of them quit the labour market prematurely. Vocational rehabilitation used to focus on (re)entering the labour market. Recently more attention is paid to interventions aimed at job retention. Some of these use an empowerment perspective. The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics, feasibility and effectiveness of such vocational rehabilitation interventions in order to decide which approaches are fruitful. The Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Psycinfo databases were systematically researched for studies published between 1988 and March 2004. Studies were included if they were experimental, included an intervention that aimed at job retention by means of solving work-related problems, used an empowerment perspective and concerned employees with one of the following chronic illnesses: diabetes mellitus, rheumatic diseases, hearing disorders, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, epilepsy, chronic kidney failure, COPD and asthma. Nine studies were detected. The aims of the intervention programs were to improve psychosocial skills or implement work accommodations. They were structured as individual (6x) or group programmes (3x). They used methods like education (9x), assessment (7x), counselling (5x), training or role playing (5x). The most important outcome measures were employment status (5x), actions to arrange work accommodations (3x), and psychosocial measures like self-efficacy and social competence (3x). Employment status was claimed to be positively influenced in four out of five studies, obtaining work accommodations was successful in all three studies and psychological outcome measures improved in two out of three studies. There is some evidence that vocational rehabilitation interventions that pay attention to training in requesting work accommodations and feelings of self-confidence or self-efficacy in dealing with work

  15. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M.; Sebire, Neil J.; Jaffe, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  16. On-the-Job Orientation of Unemployed Negro Skill Center Trainees and Their Supervisors. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Hjalmar

    The problems inherent in employing hard-core unemployed Negroes and the optimal locus of on-the-job orientation to integrate such employees into thework force were subjects of this study. It focused on young Negro females who, because of their inability to meet selections minimums for job entry, had a high potential for chronic unemployment. Among…

  17. A Tale of Sea Turtles: Job-Seeking Experiences of "Hai Gui" (High-Skilled Returnees) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Welch, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A key feature of contemporary globalization is the increasing mobility of high-skilled talent. While for many countries in the developing world the loss of such individuals represents a longstanding concern, countries such as China have now developed key policies to harness their overseas talent. The article examines the job-seeking experiences of…

  18. Job/task analysis for I ampersand C [Instrumentation and Controls] instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs

  19. Factors associated with high job satisfaction among care workers in Swiss nursing homes - a cross sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, René; Dhaini, Suzanne; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Engberg, Sandra; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    While the relationship between nurses' job satisfaction and their work in hospital environments is well known, it remains unclear, which factors are most influential in the nursing home setting. The purpose of this study was to describe job satisfaction among care workers in Swiss nursing homes and to examine its associations with work environment factors, work stressors, and health issues. This cross-sectional study used data from a representative national sample of 162 Swiss nursing homes including 4,145 care workers from all educational levels (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants and aides). Care worker-reported job satisfaction was measured with a single item. Explanatory variables were assessed with established scales, as e.g. the Practice Environment Scale - Nursing Work Index. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models were used to examine factors related to job satisfaction. Overall, 36.2 % of respondents reported high satisfaction with their workplace, while another 50.4 % were rather satisfied. Factors significantly associated with high job satisfaction were supportive leadership (OR = 3.76), better teamwork and resident safety climate (OR = 2.60), a resonant nursing home administrator (OR = 2.30), adequate staffing resources (OR = 1.40), fewer workplace conflicts (OR = .61), less sense of depletion after work (OR = .88), and fewer physical health problems (OR = .91). The quality of nursing home leadership-at both the unit supervisor and the executive administrator level-was strongly associated with care workers' job satisfaction. Therefore, recruitment strategies addressing specific profiles for nursing home leaders are needed, followed by ongoing leadership training. Future studies should examine the effects of interventions designed to improve nursing home leadership and work environments on outcomes both for care staff and for residents.

  20. A Globally Distributed System for Job, Data, and Information Handling for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzoglio, Gabriele [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-01-13

    The computing infrastructures of the modern high energy physics experiments need to address an unprecedented set of requirements. The collaborations consist of hundreds of members from dozens of institutions around the world and the computing power necessary to analyze the data produced surpasses already the capabilities of any single computing center. A software infrastructure capable of seamlessly integrating dozens of computing centers around the world, enabling computing for a large and dynamical group of users, is of fundamental importance for the production of scientific results. Such a computing infrastructure is called a computational grid. The SAM-Grid offers a solution to these problems for CDF and DZero, two of the largest high energy physics experiments in the world, running at Fermilab. The SAM-Grid integrates standard grid middleware, such as Condor-G and the Globus Toolkit, with software developed at Fermilab, organizing the system in three major components: data handling, job handling, and information management. This dissertation presents the challenges and the solutions provided in such a computing infrastructure.

  1. Use of percentile rank sum method in identifying repetitive high occupational radiation dose jobs in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Ko, H.S.; Kim, S.H.; Kang, C.S.; Moon, J.H.; Kim, K.D.

    2004-01-01

    The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation dose (ORD) at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORD data of existing plants. Through the data analysis, it is required to identify what are the jobs of repetitive high ORD at the nuclear power plant. In general the point value method commonly used, over-estimates the role of mean and median values to identify the high ORD jobs which can lead to misjudgment. In this study, Percentile Rank Sum Method (PRSM) is proposed to identify repetitive high ORD jobs, which is based on non-parametric statistical theory. As a case study, the method is applied to ORD data of maintenance and repair jobs at Kori units 3 and 4 that are pressurized water reactors with 950 MWe capacity and have been operated since 1986 and 1987, respectively in Korea. The results were verified and validated, and PRSM has been demonstrated to be an efficient method of analyzing the data. (authors)

  2. High workload and job stress are associated with lower practice performance in general practice: an observational study in 239 general practices in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hombergh, P. van den; Kunzi, B.; Elwyn, G.; Doremalen, J.H.M. van; Akkermans, R.P.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of high physician workload and job stress on quality and outcomes of healthcare delivery is not clear. Our study explored whether high workload and job stress were associated with lower performance in general practices in the Netherlands. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data

  3. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  4. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Shweta; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  5. Job burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  6. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pressure pain threshold (PPT), determined by pressure algometry, can be used as an objective measure of perceived stress and job strain. METHODS: We used cross-sectional base line data collected during 1994 to 1995 within the Project on Research and Intervention...... in Monotonous work (PRIM), which included 3123 employees from a variety of Danish companies. Questionnaire data included 18 items on stress symptoms, 23 items from the Karasek scale on job strain, and information on discomfort in specified anatomical regions was also collected. Clinical examinations included...... pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest...

  7. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    ) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. METHODS/DESIGN: A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work......BACKGROUND: A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job...... groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers...

  8. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups versus established firms by considering the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define education-specific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these measures to construct a meas...

  9. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct a mea...

  10. Identification of dose-reduction techniques for BWR and PWR repetitive high-dose jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of concern about the apparent increase in collective radiation dose to workers at nuclear power plants, this project will provide information to industry in preplanning for radiation protection during maintenance operations. This study identifies Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) repetitive jobs, and respective collective dose trends and dose reduction techniques. 3 references, 2 tables

  11. The Relation between the Level of Job Satisfaction and Types of Personality in High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayan, Sezer; Kocacik, Faruk

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are loaded important responsibilities in educational process. The productivity and effectiveness of them are influenced by promotion, charging, job security, technological level, course load and working schedule which all are determined mostly by their institutions and influenced by noncognitive characteristics such as age, gender, family…

  12. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation” defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002-7, which identify the start-ups and which cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than previous studies. Our findings show that while start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than a third of net job creation within...

  13. Financial management and job social skills training components in a summer business institute: a controlled evaluation in high achieving predominantly ethnic minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Conway, Debbie; Beisecker, Monica; Murphy, Heather; Farley, Alisha; Waite, Melissa; Gugino, Kristin; Knatz, Danielle; Lopez-Frank, Carolina; Burns, Jack; Madison, Suzanne; Shorty, Carrie

    2005-07-01

    Ninety-two adolescents, predominantly ethnic minority high school students, participated in a structured Summer Business Institute (SBI). Participating youth were randomly assigned to receive either job social skills or financial management skills training components. Students who additionally received the job social skills training component were more likely to recommend their employment agency to others than were youth who received the financial management component, rated their overall on-the-job work experience more favorably, and demonstrated higher scores in areas that were relevant to the skills that were taught in the job social skills workshops. The financial management component also appeared to be relatively effective, as youth who received this intervention improved their knowledge of financial management issues more than youth who received job social skills, and rated their workshops as more helpful in financial management, as well as insurance management. Future directions are discussed in light of these results.

  14. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2017-01-01

    pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest...... to the point of pressure algometry using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: We found significant inverse associations between perceived stress and PPT in both genders in models adjusting for age and body mass index: the higher level of perceived stress, the lower the threshold. For job strain...... associations between perceived stress and PPT, the discriminative capability of PPT to distinguish individuals with and without stress is low. PPT measured by pressure algometry seems not applicable as a diagnostic tool of a state of mental stress....

  15. [Application of job demands-resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p job resources and job demands [F(1.474) = 4.004; F(1.474) = 4.166; p job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474) = 2.748; p job demands and personal resources [F(3.474) = 3.021; p job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1) in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001) or low (p = 0.0157); 2) when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001). The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees.

  16. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  17. Job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    PODROUŽKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...

  18. Job Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bravená, Helena

    2009-01-01

    This bacherlor thesis deals with the importance of job analysis for personnel activities in the company. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable method of job analysis in a particular enterprise, and continues creating descriptions and specifications of each job.

  19. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  20. Community Resources and Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jim

    1977-01-01

    In cooperation with the chamber of commerce, various businesses, associations, and other community agencies, the Sarasota schools (Florida) supplement their own job placement and follow-up efforts with community job development strategies for placing high school graduates. (JT)

  1. High workload and job stress are associated with lower practice performance in general practice: an observational study in 239 general practices in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grol Richard

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of high physician workload and job stress on quality and outcomes of healthcare delivery is not clear. Our study explored whether high workload and job stress were associated with lower performance in general practices in the Netherlands. Methods Secondary analysis of data from 239 general practices, collected in practice visits between 2003 to 2006 in the Netherlands using a comprehensive set of measures of practice management. Data were collected by a practice visitor, a trained non-physician observer using patients questionnaires, doctors and staff. For this study we selected five measures of practice performance as outcomes and six measures of GP workload and job stress as predictors. A total of 79 indicators were used out of the 303 available indicators. Random coefficient regression models were applied to examine associations. Results and discussion Workload and job stress are associated with practice performance. Workload: Working more hours as a GP was associated with more positive patient experiences of accessibility and availability (b = 0.16. After list size adjustment, practices with more GP-time per patient scored higher on GP care (b = 0.45. When GPs provided more than 20 hours per week per 1000 patients, patients scored over 80% on the Europep questionnaire for quality of GP care. Job stress: High GP job stress was associated with lower accessibility and availability (b = 0.21 and insufficient practice management (b = 0.25. Higher GP commitment and more satisfaction with the job was associated with more prevention and disease management (b = 0.35. Conclusion Providing more time in the practice, and more time per patient and experiencing less job stress are all associated with perceptions by patients of better care and better practice performance. Workload and job stress should be assessed by using list size adjusted data in order to realise better quality of care. Organisational development using

  2. High workload and job stress are associated with lower practice performance in general practice: an observational study in 239 general practices in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hombergh, Pieter; Künzi, Beat; Elwyn, Glyn; van Doremalen, Jan; Akkermans, Reinier; Grol, Richard; Wensing, Michel

    2009-07-15

    The impact of high physician workload and job stress on quality and outcomes of healthcare delivery is not clear. Our study explored whether high workload and job stress were associated with lower performance in general practices in the Netherlands. Secondary analysis of data from 239 general practices, collected in practice visits between 2003 to 2006 in the Netherlands using a comprehensive set of measures of practice management. Data were collected by a practice visitor, a trained non-physician observer using patients questionnaires, doctors and staff. For this study we selected five measures of practice performance as outcomes and six measures of GP workload and job stress as predictors. A total of 79 indicators were used out of the 303 available indicators. Random coefficient regression models were applied to examine associations. Workload and job stress are associated with practice performance.Workload: Working more hours as a GP was associated with more positive patient experiences of accessibility and availability (b = 0.16). After list size adjustment, practices with more GP-time per patient scored higher on GP care (b = 0.45). When GPs provided more than 20 hours per week per 1000 patients, patients scored over 80% on the Europep questionnaire for quality of GP care.Job stress: High GP job stress was associated with lower accessibility and availability (b = 0.21) and insufficient practice management (b = 0.25). Higher GP commitment and more satisfaction with the job was associated with more prevention and disease management (b = 0.35). Providing more time in the practice, and more time per patient and experiencing less job stress are all associated with perceptions by patients of better care and better practice performance. Workload and job stress should be assessed by using list size adjusted data in order to realise better quality of care. Organisational development using this kind of data feedback could benefit both patients and GP.

  3. Employed and unemployed job search methods: Australian evidence on search duration, wages and job stability

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Green

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the use and impact of job search methods of both unemployed and employed job seekers. Informal job search methods are associated with relativel high level of job exit and shorter search duration. Job exists through the public employment agency (PEA) display positive duration dependence for the unemployed. This may suggest that the PEA is used as a job search method of last resort. Informal job search methods have lower associated duration in search and higher wages than th...

  4. Retaining your high performers: moderators of the performance-job satisfaction-voluntary turnover relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    Two divergent ideas explain the relationship between performance and voluntary turnover. One suggests that higher performing employees, who are rewarded for their superior work product, will desire to remain with an organization that values their performance and will, consequently, be less likely than lower performing employees to voluntarily leave. An alternative idea suggests that higher performing employees, who are more desirable to external companies as a result of their superior work product, will have more external job opportunities and will, consequently, be more likely than their lower performing colleagues to voluntarily leave. The current study evaluated the behaviors and attitudes of 12,545 insurance employees over a 3-year period to examine how these 2 divergent expectations influence the performance-voluntary turnover relationship. Results show that both pay growth and the relevant unemployment rate interact with performance to influence the performance-voluntary turnover relationship and that they work independently of employee job satisfaction influences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. High prevalence of autoimmune urticaria in children with chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Luigia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Miniello, Vito L

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) in childhood often remains unrecognized. Recently, in adults it has been shown that approximately 40% of patients with CU have autoimmune urticaria (AU); however, no data are available in children.......The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) in childhood often remains unrecognized. Recently, in adults it has been shown that approximately 40% of patients with CU have autoimmune urticaria (AU); however, no data are available in children....

  6. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... employees, feels a tension of anxiety caused by their jobs.[4] ... [13] High job stress creates negative psychological effects ... where product quality is largely dependent ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.

  7. Mental health, job satisfaction, and job stress among general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C. L.; Rout, U.; Faragher, B.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify sources of job stress associated with high levels of job dissatisfaction and negative mental wellbeing among general practitioners in England. DESIGN--Multivariate analysis of large database of general practitioners compiled from results of confidential questionnaire survey. Data obtained on independent variables of job stress, demographic factors, and personality. Dependent variables were mental health, job satisfaction, alcohol consumption, and smoking. SETTING--Natio...

  8. High quantitative job demands and low coworker support as risk factors for neck pain: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Wal, G. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2001-01-01

    Study Design. A 3-year prospective cohort study among 1334 workers was conducted. Objective. To determine whether the work-related psychosocial factors of quantitative job demands, conflicting job demands, skill discretion, decision authority, supervisor support, coworker support, and job security

  9. Perseverative Cognition as an Explanatory Mechanism in the Relation Between Job Demands and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Geurts, Sabine A E; Garefelt, Johanna; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Leineweber, Constanze

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal three-wave study was to examine (i) reciprocal associations among job demands, work-related perseverative cognition (PC), and sleep quality; (ii) PC as a mediator in-between job demands and sleep quality; and (iii) continuous high job demands in relation to sleep quality and work-related PC over time. A representative sample of the Swedish working population was approached in 2010, 2012, and 2014, and 2316 respondents were included in this longitudinal full-panel survey study. Structural equation modelling was performed to analyse the temporal relations between job demands, work-related PC, and sleep quality. Additionally, a subsample (N = 1149) consisting of individuals who reported the same level of exposure to job demands during all three waves (i.e. stable high, stable moderate, or stable low job demands) was examined in relation to PC and sleep quality over time. Analyses showed that job demands, PC, and poor sleep quality were positively and reciprocally related. Work-related PC mediated the normal and reversed, direct across-wave relations between job demands and sleep quality. Individuals with continuous high job demands reported significantly lower sleep quality and higher work-related PC, compared to individuals with continuous moderate/low job demands. This study substantiated reciprocal relations between job demands, work-related PC, and sleep quality and supported work-related PC as an underlying mechanism of the reciprocal job demands-sleep relationship. Moreover, this study showed that chronically high job demands are a risk factor for low sleep quality.

  10. Relationship between job stress, occupational position and job satisfaction using a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with higher occupational position are speculated to have higher ability to handle with stress, and they were less affected by job stress. This study focused on the relationship between job satisfaction and three sub-scales of a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ) related to workload. This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 371 employees of a company, and all the workers sent back their responses. Among the 57 items graded on a 4-point Likert-type scale to measure job stressors, psycho-physical complaints, and support for workers, the authors studied the influence of quantitative and qualitative job overload (six items), job control (three items), and support port (six items). The job satisfaction score estimated on a 4-point Likert-type scale was also used in relation to job stress determined using a 15-item scale from the BJSQ based on demand-control-support model. Occupational positions were classified into directors, managers, and general workers, and the content of job was classified into clerical workers, skilled technicians, and unskilled manual workers. All the scales on job stress presented acceptable alpha coefficients reflecting high internal consistency (job demand: 0.855, job control: 0.644, and support: 0.878, respectively). Principal axis factor analysis was conducted, and three factors were extracted; support, job demand and job control. There was a significant difference in the mean score among four groups divided by the job satisfaction level as evaluated by Dunnett's multiple comparison, and members who were dissatisfied with their job showed a high job demand, limited job control, and poor support. The mean score of support for managers were significantly higher (lower support) than that for general workers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that job control and support contributed significantly to job satisfaction. In addition, unskilled manual workers showed significantly higher job dissatisfaction compared

  11. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  12. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  13. High-intensity lower limb endurance training in chronic respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takako; Arizono, Shinichi; Hanada, Masatoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity endurance training is mainly undertaken during pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic respiratory disease. High-intensity endurance training is recommended in many clinical management guidelines. High-intensity endurance training involves training generally at an intensity of at 60-80% of the patient’s peak work capacity or higher. The effects of high-intensity lower limb endurance training have mostly been investigated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD...

  14. The implications of high-quality staff break areas for nurses' health, performance, job satisfaction and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Adeleh; Rodiek, Susan; Shepley, Mardelle

    2016-05-01

    The main study objective was to explore policy and design factors contributing to nurses' perception of how well-designed staff break areas can play an important beneficial role in relation to their overall job satisfaction, retention, performance and job-related health concerns. Nurses are extremely valuable to the healthcare industry; however, today's nursing profession is challenged by nurses' fatigue and its negative consequences on nurses' health and the quality of patient care they provide. Preliminary interviews were conducted with 10 nurses who worked as consultants in the healthcare design and construction industry. Based on findings, an online survey was developed and distributed to over 10 000 members of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses in the United States. The majority of nurses viewed high-quality break spaces as 'fairly' or 'very' important in terms of their potential to positively influence staff, patient and facility outcomes. Stress, rest breaks and the quality of break areas were some of the significant factors contributing to their perception. The results of this empirical study support the conclusion that improvements in healthcare facility policies regarding staff breaks, as well as the creation of better-designed break areas, can be of significant benefit for nurses and the patients that they serve. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Job Satisfaction of People With Intellectual Disability: Associations With Job Characteristics and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.

  16. Railing for safety: job demands, job control, and safety citizenship role definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Walls, Melanie

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated job demands and job control as predictors of safety citizenship role definition, that is, employees' role orientation toward improving workplace safety. Data from a survey of 334 trackside workers were framed in the context of R. A. Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model. High job demands were negatively related to safety citizenship role definition, whereas high job control was positively related to this construct. Safety citizenship role definition of employees with high job control was buffered from the influence of high job demands, unlike that of employees with low job control, for whom high job demands were related to lower levels of the construct. Employees facing both high job demands and low job control were less likely than other employees to view improving safety as part of their role orientation. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of Chronic Refractory Neuropathic Pelvic Pain with High-Frequency 10-kilohertz Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Thomas; Yong, Robert J; Gill, Jatinder S

    2017-11-06

    Chronic neuropathic pelvic pain remains a recalcitrant problem in the field of pain management. Case series on application of 10 kHz spinal cord stimulation is presented. High frequency stimulation can improve chronic neuropathic pain states that are known to be mediated at the conus medullaris and offers another avenue for the treatment of these patients. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  18. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  19. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers-findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Koga, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17-11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97-8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18-14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace.

  20. A Survey of the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Social Happiness among High-schools Teachers of Giroft City

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Zareshahabadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Human resources are among the most valuable sources of getting to the targets of any organization or system and are deemed as among the most prominent assets of any organization. Thus the better quality this asset has, the more probable success, prosperity and promotion the organization will enjoy (Tazhibi et al, 1389: 650). Job satisfaction is a combination of sensations and beliefs which people hold about their current job. Job satisfaction is one of the most important factor...

  1. Learning about Job Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Jäger, Simon

    strategies and the consequences of unemployment, and motivated them to actively look for new employment. We study the causal impact of the brochure by comparing labor market outcomes of treated and untreated job seekers in administrative data containing comprehensive information on individuals’ employment...... findings indicate that targeted information provision can be a highly effective policy tool in the labor market.......We conduct a large-scale field experiment in the German labor market to investigate how information provision affects job seekers’ employment prospects and labor market outcomes. Individuals assigned to the treatment group of our experiment received a brochure that informed them about job search...

  2. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  3. Job strain and time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Kold Jensen, T; Bonde, Jens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The association between fertility and job strain defined as high job demands and low job control has not previously been studied. A follow-up study was conducted with prospective collection of information on job strain among women, achievement of pregnancy, and potential confounding variables....

  4. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high......A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  5. The Magic of the New: How Job Changes Affect Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hetschko, Clemens; Chadi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a crucial event for job satisfaction: changing the workplace. For representative German panel data, we show that the reason why the previous employment ended is strongly linked to the satisfaction with the new job. When workers initiate a change of employer, they experience relatively high job satisfaction, though only in the short-term. To test causality, we exploit plant closure as exogenous trigger of job switching and find no causal effect of job changes on job satisfaction...

  6. Endometriosis: a high-risk population for major chronic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaskoff, Marina; Mu, Fan; Terry, Kathryn L.; Harris, Holly R.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Farland, Leslie; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite an estimated prevalence of 10% in women, the etiology of endometriosis remains poorly understood. Over recent decades, endometriosis has been associated with risk of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, asthma/atopic diseases and cardiovascular diseases. A deeper understanding of these associations is needed as they may provide new leads into the causes or consequences of endometriosis. This review summarizes the available epidemiological findings on the associations between endometriosis and other chronic diseases and discusses hypotheses for underlying mechanisms, potential sources of bias and methodological complexities. METHODS We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed/Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for all studies reporting on the associations between endometriosis and other diseases published in English through to May 2014, using numerous search terms. We additionally examined the reference lists of all identified papers to capture any additional articles that were not identified through computer searches. RESULTS We identified 21 studies on the associations between endometriosis and ovarian cancer, 14 for breast cancer, 8 for endometrial cancer, 4 for cervical cancer, 12 for cutaneous melanoma and 3 for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as 9 on the links between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases, 6 on the links with asthma and atopic diseases, and 4 on the links with cardiovascular diseases. Endometriosis patients were reported to be at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancers, cutaneous melanoma, asthma, and some autoimmune, cardiovascular and atopic diseases, and at decreased risk of cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS Increasing evidence suggests that endometriosis patients are at higher risk of several chronic diseases. Although the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood, the available data to date suggest that endometriosis is not harmless with respects to women's long-term health. If

  7. Effect of Female Principal's Management Styles on Teacher's Job Satisfaction in Isfahan-Iran, Girls High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Rajaeepour; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Zahra, Amiri; Abdolghayoum, Nematiniya; Zaman, Ajdai; Peyman, Yarmohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Assuring job satisfaction, over a long-term, requires managers' styles, careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. Job satisfaction is influenced by the employee's personal characteristics, the manager's personal characteristics and management style, and the nature of the work itself. The aim of this study was to determine the…

  8. Job crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Peeters, M.; Jonge, de J.; Taris, T.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing popularity of self-managing teams, re-engineering and other organizational innovations, coupled with the increased flexibility in work arrangements made possible by advances in information technology, has considerably expanded the complexity of professional jobs. Consequently, each

  9. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....

  10. High resolution computed tomography of chronic otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahata, Yuichi; Tachibana, Toshiro; Fukami, Masaya; Onishi, Toshiro; Doi, Osamu

    1986-01-01

    Seventy six patients with chronic otitis media were examined by CT. Using 3 dried skulls, the epitympanum was impacted with a piece of paraffin containing of 2 % iodine, and studied with CT-scan (Toshiba 60A-30) to clarify whether or not the paraffin could produce a soft tissue density on CT which was similar to that of cholesteatoma in the middle ear. The results showed that computed tomography was excellent in demonstrating a soft tissue mass in the middle ear with inflammatory disease. When the middle ear infection with granulation tissue or cholesteatoma existed, the resulting soft tissue mass was indistinguishable. CT scanning was useful for accurate determination of location of bone destruction in the middle ear as well as of the ossicles. (author)

  11. Caffeine prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic psychosocial stress and/or high fat-high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-15

    Caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a variety of health conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine treatment on chronic stress- and/or high fat-high carbohydrate Western diet (WD)-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Chronic psychosocial stress, WD and caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water) were simultaneously administered for 3 months to adult male Wistar rats. At the conclusion of the 3 months, and while the previous treatments continued, rats were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for learning, short-term and long-term memory. This procedure was applied on a daily basis to all animals for 5 consecutive days or until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Chronic stress and/or WD groups caused impaired learning, which was prevented by chronic caffeine administration. In the memory tests, chronic caffeine administration also prevented memory impairment during chronic stress conditions and/or WD. Furthermore, DTC value for caffeine treated stress, WD, and stress/WD groups indicated that caffeine normalizes memory impairment in these groups. These results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented stress and/or WD-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Potocka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p < 0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that job resources and job demands [F(1.474 = 4.004; F(1.474 = 4.166; p < 0.05] were statistically significant sources of variation in job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474 = 2.748; p < 0.05], as well as between job demands and personal resources [F(3.474 = 3.021; p < 0.05] had a significant impact on job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1 in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001 or low (p = 0.0157; 2 when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees. Med Pr 2013;64(2:217–225

  13. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn; Theorell, T

    1998-01-01

    The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material...

  14. A Better Leveled Playing Field for Assessing Satisfactory Job Performance of Superintendents on the Basis of High-Stakes Testing Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Cox, Edward P.; Buckman, David G.

    2014-01-01

    To assess satisfactory job performance of superintendents on the basis of school districts' high-stakes testing outcomes, existing teacher models were reviewed and critiqued as potential options for retrofit. For these models, specific problems were identified relative to the choice of referent groups. An alternate referent group (statewide…

  15. Recruiting highly educated graduates: a study on the relationship between recruitment information sources, the theory of planned behavior, and actual job pursuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaidi, Y.; van Hooft, E.A.J.; Arends, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Using the theory of planned behavior, we examined the effects of different recruitment-related information sources on the job pursuit of highly educated graduates. The study was conducted using a real-life longitudinal design. Participants reported on potential employers they were interested in. We

  16. [Management of high blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease : Summary of recent guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougardy, J M; Leeman, M

    Chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure are two common diseases that mutually maintain during their evolution. In the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, most pat ients are hypertensive and show signs of vascular disease (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular or peripheral). Almost one third of the patients with advanced chronic kidney disease exhibit resistant hypertension that requires complex therapeutic management. In chronic kidney disease, antihypertensive treatment is conditioned by comorbidities, but also by proteinuria, which is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in addition to the rate of glomerular filtration rate. The treatment of high blood pressure is a cornerstone of the management of the chronic kidney disease. It limits the risk of cardiovascular events (eg. myocardial infarction, stroke), but also slows the progression of chronic kidney disease. Various recommendations have been recently published on the subject in order to offer assistance to the therapeutic management of hypertension in the patient suffering from chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this article is to highlight these main key elements.

  17. Factors that affect the job satisfaction of Saudi Arabian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Jazi; Paliadelis, Penny Susan; Valenzuela, Fredy-Roberto

    2016-04-01

    To determine factors that influence the job satisfaction of Saudi nurses. Saudi Arabia has a chronic shortage of Saudi national nurses. This research contributes to a greater understanding of how job satisfaction influences the recruitment and retention of Saudi nationals within the nursing profession. Qualitative data were gathered from Saudi nurses and content analysis was used to identify themes in the written responses. Four main themes emerged from the data: lack of educational opportunities and support and the poor image of the nursing profession, perceptions of favouritism, high workloads and stressful work environment and the effect of religion on job satisfaction. Saudi nurses would be more satisfied with their jobs if they had greater access to educational opportunities and if there was a reduction in workload and the perceived favouritism in the workplace was addressed. Religion was also found to play a significant role in supporting job satisfaction. These findings suggest the development of educational scholarships, as well as policies that better support equity in the workplace, to address Saudi nurses' level of job satisfaction. The generally positive impact of cultural and religious beliefs is also highlighted in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. INFLUENCING FACTORS TOWARDS JOB SATISFACTION OF THE BANK EMPLOYEES

    OpenAIRE

    J. Gayathri; Dr. R. Rajkumar

    2017-01-01

    Job satisfaction can defined as extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their jobs. When a person says that he has high job satisfaction, it means that he really likes his job, feels good about it and values his job dignity. Job satisfaction is important technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. This paper in investigates the level of job satisfaction of bank employees and the various factors influencing satisfaction of employees and to study the ...

  19. Group Mentoring: a Way to Retain ´High-Risk´Teachers on the Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde

    2015-01-01

    The present article concerns group mentoring combined with action learning as a way to counteract work related sickness and early retirement for´ high risk´ teachers. Focus has been on reflection and vitalization. The data shows that this way of working has many possibilities in supporting...

  20. Gender Differences in the Vocational Interests of Youth Considering High Job Growth and Green Energy Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Becky S.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 100 years, vocational psychologists and educational researchers have sought to identify the significant influences shaping occupational interests. This descriptive study used a series of vocational card sort exercises with 139 rural high school youth to identify gender differences in occupational interests toward working in 60 of the…

  1. Rural Dilemmas in School-to-Work Transition: Low Skill Jobs, High Social Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Arnold

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-three employers in rural Arizona were interviewed concerning employer expectations, workplace opportunities, authority patterns, rewards, and social interaction at work regarding entry level workers directly out of high school. Available work was low skill with few rewards, yet demanded strong social skills and work ethic. Discusses…

  2. Chronic kidney disease and bleeding risk in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, G; Rookmaaker, M B; Algra, A; de Borst, G J; Doevendans, P A; Kappelle, L J; Verhaar, M C; Visseren, F L

    2018-01-01

    Essentials The association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding is unknown. We followed 10 347 subjects at high cardiovascular risk for bleeding events. Chronic kidney disease was associated with a 1.5-fold increased bleeding risk. Especially albuminuria rather than decreased kidney function was associated with bleeding events. Background There are indications that patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased bleeding risk. Objectives To investigate the association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 10 347 subjects referred to the University Medical Center Utrecht (the Netherlands) from September 1996 to February 2015 for an outpatient visit with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease (Second Manifestation of Arterial disease [SMART] cohort). Patients were staged according to the KDIGO guidelines, on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria, and were followed for the occurrence of major hemorrhagic events until March 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for bleeding were calculated with Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results The incidence rate for bleeding in subjects with chronic kidney disease was 8.0 per 1000 person-years and that for subjects without chronic kidney disease was 3.5 per 1000 person-years. Patients with chronic kidney disease (n = 2443) had a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.2-1.9) increased risk of bleeding as compared with subjects without chronic kidney disease (n = 7904) after adjustment. Subjects with an eGFR of Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for bleeding in patients with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease, especially in the presence of albuminuria. © 2017 University Medical Center Utrecht. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Upward Mobility Through Job Restructuring. Personnel Management Series No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC.

    The May, 1974, bulletin issued by the Civil Service Commission deals with job restructuring, the process of realigning job duties to develop technician-type or "bridge" jobs in Federal agencies, as a means to provide upward mobility for employees. Besides being highly beneficial to employees in dead end jobs at low grade levels, job restructuring…

  4. Coping Strategies in the Workplace: Relationships with Attributional Style and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Jennifer L.; Eggerth, Donald; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Sanchez, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    This paper examined the relationships between workplace coping strategies, occupational attributional style, and job satisfaction among a sample of 190 nurses employed with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. As an occupational group, nurses experience high levels of chronic workplace stressors. Participants completed a questionnaire packet…

  5. High-Density Stretchable Electrode Grids for Chronic Neural Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Khodagholy, Dion; Dielacher, Bernd; Stauffer, Flurin; Renz, Aline F; Buzsáki, György; Vörös, János

    2018-04-01

    Electrical interfacing with neural tissue is key to advancing diagnosis and therapies for neurological disorders, as well as providing detailed information about neural signals. A challenge for creating long-term stable interfaces between electronics and neural tissue is the huge mechanical mismatch between the systems. So far, materials and fabrication processes have restricted the development of soft electrode grids able to combine high performance, long-term stability, and high electrode density, aspects all essential for neural interfacing. Here, this challenge is addressed by developing a soft, high-density, stretchable electrode grid based on an inert, high-performance composite material comprising gold-coated titanium dioxide nanowires embedded in a silicone matrix. The developed grid can resolve high spatiotemporal neural signals from the surface of the cortex in freely moving rats with stable neural recording quality and preserved electrode signal coherence during 3 months of implantation. Due to its flexible and stretchable nature, it is possible to minimize the size of the craniotomy required for placement, further reducing the level of invasiveness. The material and device technology presented herein have potential for a wide range of emerging biomedical applications. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Job Satisfaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Job Satisfaction: Rural Versus Urban Primary Health Care Workers'. Perception in ... doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. Several ... community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. ..... study found important differences about attractors to ... their work, work-life balance, bureaucracy.

  7. The Impact of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Workforce Productivity in an Iranian Petrochemical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoboubi, Naser; Choobineh, Alireza; Kamari Ghanavati, Fatemeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Akbar Hosseini, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemical company participated. The data were collected using the demographic questionnaire, Osipow occupational stress questionnaire to investigate the level of job stress, Job Descriptive Index to examine job satisfaction, and Hersey and Goldsmith questionnaire to investigate productivity in the study population. The levels of employees' perceived job stress and job satisfaction were moderate-high and moderate, respectively. Also, their productivity was evaluated as moderate. Although the relationship between job stress and productivity indices was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between job satisfaction and productivity indices was statistically significant. The regression modeling demonstrated that productivity was significantly associated with shift schedule, the second and the third dimensions of job stress (role insufficiency and role ambiguity), and the second dimension of job satisfaction (supervision). Corrective measures are necessary to improve the shift work system. "Role insufficiency" and "role ambiguity" should be improved and supervisor support must be increased to reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction and productivity.

  8. Declining Job Security Level and Workers' Perfomance In Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tween job security level and job performance among employees of the banks. The study ..... My financial income is likely to be unstable and uncertain due ..... when job satisfaction and motivation were sufficiently high, the negative influence of.

  9. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  10. High-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, John P

    2008-03-01

    High-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy. The results of high-energy shock wave therapy for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy have not been determined. Shock wave therapy is an effective treatment for noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-four patients with chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy were treated with a single dose of high-energy shock wave therapy (shock wave therapy group; 3000 shocks; 0.21 mJ/mm(2); total energy flux density, 604 mJ/mm(2)). Thirty-four patients with chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy were treated not with shock wave therapy but with additional forms of nonoperative therapy (control group). All shock wave therapy procedures were performed using regional anesthesia. Evaluation was by change in visual analog score and by Roles and Maudsley score. One month, 3 months, and 12 months after treatment, the mean visual analog scores for the control and shock wave therapy groups were 8.4 and 4.4 (P wave therapy and control groups were 12 and 0 (P wave therapy group than in the control group (P wave therapy is an effective treatment for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy.

  11. Job insecurity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, P

    2000-01-01

    As employers respond to new competitive pressures of global capitalism through layoffs and the casualization of labor, job insecurity affects a growing number of workers. It appears to harm mental health, but less is known about its effects on physical health and health behaviors and the mechanisms through which it may act. The prevailing individual-centered conceptualization of job insecurity as the perception of a threat to job continuity precludes systematic investigation of the social patterning of its health effects. Analysis of data from a 1994 Canadian national probability sample of adults determined that high levels of job insecurity lowered self-rated health and increased distress and the use of medications, but had no impact on heavy drinking. The findings support one possible mechanism of action whereby job insecurity reduces feelings of control over one's environment and opportunities for positive self-evaluation; these psychological experiences, in turn, have deleterious health consequences. There is little evidence of social patterning of this relationship by gender, education, household income, age, marital status, and social support at work.

  12. Canadian nurse practitioner job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMarche, Kimberley; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan

    2009-01-01

    To examine the level of job satisfaction and its association with extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction characteristics among Canadian primary healthcare nurse practitioners (NPs). A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data on NPs' job satisfaction and on the factors that influence their job satisfaction. A convenience sample of licensed Canadian NPs was recruited from established provincial associations and special-interest groups. Data about job satisfaction were collected using two valid and reliable instruments, the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Survey and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to describe the results. The overall job satisfaction for this sample ranged from satisfied to highly satisfied. The elements that had the most influence on overall job satisfaction were the extrinsic category of partnership/collegiality and the intrinsic category of challenge/autonomy. These findings were consistent with Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction. The outcomes of this study will serve as a foundation for designing effective human health resource retention and recruitment strategies that will assist in enhancing the implementation and the successful preservation of the NP's role.

  13. Exercise responses in patients with chronically high creatine kinase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Neufeld, Eric V; Shieh, Perry; Jenner, John R; Riley, Marshall

    2017-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Review series: Examples of chronic care model: the home-based chronic care model: redesigning home health for high quality care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Paula; Hennessey, Beth; Florez, Donna; Newton Suter, W

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) face significant challenges due to frequent distressing dyspnea and deficits related to activities of daily living. Individuals with COPD are often hospitalized frequently for disease exacerbations, negatively impacting quality of life and healthcare expenditure burden. The home-based chronic care model (HBCCM) was designed to address the needs of patients with chronic diseases. This model facilitates the re-design of chronic care delivery within the home health sector by ensuring patient-centered evidence-based care. This HBCCM foundation is Dr. Edward Wagner s chronic care model and has four additional areas of focus: high touch delivery, theory-based self management, specialist oversight and the use of technology. This article will describe this model in detail and outline how model use for patients with COPD can bring value to stakeholders across the health care continuum.

  15. Steve Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Julie Sophie; Nielsen, Jonas; Mørk, Maj Keum Ji Helweg; Mammen, Diana; Kristiansen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Welch, Nadia Guldbæk

    2013-01-01

    Apple is perhaps today one of the most successful technological brands on the market. This company has introduced various products to the consumers, which in a relatively short time has managed to establish a world wide trend based on a functional and aesthetic design. In this project, the primary interest lies in how Apple has achieved this kind of success revolved around the late founder Steve Jobs, who undoubtedly appears as one of the central figures in creating the status that Apple has ...

  16. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  17. Women's Representation in 60 Occupations from 1972 to 2010: More Women in High-Status Jobs, Few Women in Things-Oriented Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Lippa, Richard A.; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-orien...

  18. Fairness perceptions as a moderator in the curvilinear relationships between job demands, and job performance and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O

    2001-01-01

    Activation theory suggests that intermediate rather than low or high levels of quantitative job demands benefit job performance and job satisfaction among managers. Using an equity theory framework, I hypothesize that perceptions of effort-reward fairness moderate these inverted U-shaped

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  20. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Lippa

    Full Text Available To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  1. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades) remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  2. Job satisfaction at Company Teija Jousi Viikarit

    OpenAIRE

    Grönlund, Mirka

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find out the level of job satisfaction in Company Teija Jousi Viikarit. One intention is to find out what the factors affecting employees’ job satisfaction are and how to increase the job satisfaction within these fields. Another intention is to provide for the case company a complete job satisfaction survey package, which they can use continuously to keep their employee satisfaction as high as possible. The theoretical framework was based on the factors of j...

  3. Work-family conflict and safety participation of high-speed railway drivers: Job satisfaction as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Guo, Ming; Ye, Long; Liao, Ganli; Yang, Zhehan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the large body of work on the work-family interface, hardly any literature has addressed the work-family interface in safety-critical settings. This study draws from social exchange theory to examine the effect of employees' strain-based work-to-family conflict on their supervisors' rating of their safety participation through job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 494 drivers from a major railway company in China. The results of a structural equation model revealed that drivers' strain-based work-to-family conflict negatively influences safety participation, and the relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of reducing employees' work-to-family conflict in safety-critical organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning of the lung plain radiography and high resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Nho, Joon Young; Ahn, Bum Gyu; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Kim, Heung Cheol; Lee, Myoung Koo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Authors analyzed the findings of chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) of the chronic mercury vapor poisoning in 12 patients who were diagnosed by previous working history for mercury-thermometer and high level of mercury in blood and urine. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HRCT findings of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. Duration of mercury exposure was ranged from 10 to 41 months(mean, 21.8 months). Estimated value of serum mercury was ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 {mu} g/dl(mean, 5.3 {mu} g/dl: normal value is less than 0.5 {mu} g/dl). Estimated value of mercury in urine was ranged from 104 to 482 {mu} g/l(mean, 291.4 {mu} g/l; normal value is less than 20 {mu} g/l). Chest radiographs showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities and peribronchial cuffings in only 2 out of 12 patients, but HRCT showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities in 8 patients, peribronchial cuffings in 7 patients, centrilobular abnormalities in 5 patients, interface sign in 4 patients, interlobular septal thickening with intralobular lines in 2 patients and lobular consolidation in one patient. In conclusion, chest HRCT is superior to chest radiograph to show the pulmonary manifestation of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. In patients with chronic mercury vapor poisoning. HRCT findings of centrilobular distributed ground glass opacities and peribroncjial cuffinges are characteristic.

  5. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning of the lung plain radiography and high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Nho, Joon Young; Ahn, Bum Gyu; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Kim, Heung Cheol; Lee, Myoung Koo

    1993-01-01

    Authors analyzed the findings of chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) of the chronic mercury vapor poisoning in 12 patients who were diagnosed by previous working history for mercury-thermometer and high level of mercury in blood and urine. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HRCT findings of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. Duration of mercury exposure was ranged from 10 to 41 months(mean, 21.8 months). Estimated value of serum mercury was ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 μ g/dl(mean, 5.3 μ g/dl: normal value is less than 0.5 μ g/dl). Estimated value of mercury in urine was ranged from 104 to 482 μ g/l(mean, 291.4 μ g/l; normal value is less than 20 μ g/l). Chest radiographs showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities and peribronchial cuffings in only 2 out of 12 patients, but HRCT showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities in 8 patients, peribronchial cuffings in 7 patients, centrilobular abnormalities in 5 patients, interface sign in 4 patients, interlobular septal thickening with intralobular lines in 2 patients and lobular consolidation in one patient. In conclusion, chest HRCT is superior to chest radiograph to show the pulmonary manifestation of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. In patients with chronic mercury vapor poisoning. HRCT findings of centrilobular distributed ground glass opacities and peribroncjial cuffinges are characteristic

  6. Experience with Remote Job Execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Vickie E.; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L.; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D.; Ren, Shelly; Smith, Bradford C.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Science Portal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory submits jobs to the TeraGrid for remote job execution. The TeraGrid is a network of high performance computers supported by the US National Science Foundation. There are eleven partner facilities with over a petaflop of peak computing performance and sixty petabytes of long-term storage. Globus is installed on a local machine and used for job submission. The graphical user interface is produced by java coding that reads an XML file. After submission, the status of the job is displayed in a Job Information Service window which queries globus for the status. The output folder produced in the scratch directory of the TeraGrid machine is returned to the portal with globus-url-copy command that uses the gridftp servers on the TeraGrid machines. This folder is copied from the stage-in directory of the community account to the user's results directory where the output can be plotted using the portal's visualization services. The primary problem with remote job execution is diagnosing execution problems. We have daily tests of submitting multiple remote jobs from the portal. When these jobs fail on a computer, it is difficult to diagnose the problem from the globus output. Successes and problems will be presented

  7. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  8. International Outsourcing and Individual Job Separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland

    This paper studies the effects of international outsourcing on individual transitions out of jobs in the Danish manufacturing sector for the period 1992-2001. Estimation of a single risk duration model, where no distinction is made between different types of transitions out of the job, shows...... that outsourcing has a clear significant positive effect on the job separation rate, but the effect corresponds to a limited number of lost jobs. A competing risks duration model that distinguishes between job-to-job and job-to-unemployment transitions is also estimated. Outsourcing is found to increase...... the unemployment risk of workers and in particular low-skilled workers, but again the quantitative impact is not dramatic. Outsourcing also increases the job change hazard rate and mostly so for high-skilled workers...

  9. Zambia Jobs Diagnostic : Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Merotto, Dino

    2017-01-01

    One of the world’s most youthful countries, Zambia’s economy has been booming since the early 2000s on the back of record high copper prices and private sector investment response to the better business environment. But poverty rose from 2010 to 2015 and remains very high in rural areas. Economic transformation is underway with workers moving to off-farm jobs, but these are heavily skewed ...

  10. Asthma history, job type and job changes among US nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Zock, Jan Paul; Henneberger, Paul K; Speizer, Frank E; Wiley, Aleta S; Le Moual, Nicole; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-07-01

    Nurses are at increased risk of occupational asthma, an observation that may be related to disinfectants exposure. Whether asthma history influences job type or job changes among nurses is unknown. We investigated this issue in a large cohort of nurses. The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective study of US female nurses enrolled in 1989 (ages 24-44 years). Job status and asthma were assessed in biennial (1989-2011) and asthma-specific questionnaires (1998, 2003). Associations between asthma history at baseline (diagnosis before 1989, n=5311) and job type at baseline were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression. The relations of asthma history and severity during follow-up to subsequent job changes were evaluated by Cox models. The analytic cohort included 98 048 nurses. Compared with nurses in education/administration (likely low disinfectant exposure jobs), women with asthma history at baseline were less often employed in jobs with likely high disinfectant exposure, such as operating rooms (odds ratio 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.86)) and emergency room/inpatient units (0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)). During a 22-year follow-up, nurses with a baseline history of asthma were more likely to move to jobs with lower exposure to disinfectants (HR 1.13 (1.07 to 1.18)), especially among those with more severe asthma (HR for mild persistent: 1.13; moderate persistent 1.26; severe persistent: 1.50, compared with intermittent asthma, p trend: 0.004). Asthma history was associated with baseline job type and subsequent job changes among nurses. This may partly reflect avoidance of tasks involving disinfectant use, and may introduce bias in cross-sectional studies on disinfectant exposure and asthma in nurses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Investigation of Bias in Job Evaluation Ratings of Comparable Worth Study Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Michael K.; Ellis, Rebecca A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the effects of knowledge of current pay levels and perceived job gender on subsequent job evaluations. Confirmed the hypothesis that jobs with high pay levels would receive higher evaluations than jobs with low pay levels. Found evidence of a pro-female bias in the job evaluation ratings of 53 job evaluators. (Author/ABB)

  12. Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two empirical studies examined need for recovery (i.e., a person's desire to be temporarily relieved from demands in order to restore his or her resources) as a mediator in the relationship between poor job characteristics (high job demands, low job control) and high off-job demands, on the one hand, and fatigue and poor individual well-being, on…

  13. Reflections of Employers' Gender Preferences in Job Ads in India : An Analysis of Online Job Portal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Afra R.; Areias, Ana C.; Imaizumi, Saori; Nomura, Shinsaku; Yamauchi, Futoshi

    2018-01-01

    Using online job portal data and probabilistic regression estimations, the paper investigates the explicit gender bias and salary gap in the Indian job market, reflected in more than 800,000 job recruitment advertisements. Exploring formal and informal sector occupations, the study finds high existence of employers' gender bias in hiring. Explicit gender preferences are highly job specific...

  14. Emergence of depression following job loss prospectively predicts lower rates of reemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolove, Catherine A; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bonanno, George A

    2017-07-01

    Job loss has been associated with the emergence of depression and subsequent long-term diminished labor market participation. In a sample of 500 adults who lost their jobs, trajectories of depression severity from four years before to four years after job loss were identified using Latent Growth Mixture Modeling. Rates of unemployment by trajectory were compared at two and four years following job loss. Four trajectories demonstrated optimal model fit including resilience (72%), chronic pre-to-post job loss depression (9%), emergent depression (10%), and remitting depression (9%). Logistic regression comparing reemployment status by class while controlling for age, gender, and education at two-years post job loss revealed no significant differences by class. An identical logistic regression on four-year reemployment revealed significant differences by class with post-hoc analyses revealing emergent depression resulting in a 33.3% reemployment rate compared to resilient individuals (60.4%) together indicating that depression affects reemployment rather than lack of reemployment causing the emergence of depression. The emergence of depression following job loss significantly increases the risk of continued unemployment. However, observed high rates of resilience with resulting downstream benefits in reemployment mitigates significant concern about the effects of wide spread unemployment on ongoing global economic recovery following the Great Recession. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to `transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  16. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to 'transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  17. Job prioritization in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, G

    2007-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four high-energy experiments running in the near future at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. LHCb will try to answer some fundamental questions about the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter. The experiment is expected to produce about 2PB of data per year. Those will be distributed to several laboratories all over Europe and then analyzed by the Physics community. To achieve this target LHCb fully uses the Grid to reprocess, replicate and analyze data. The access to the Grid happens through LHCb's own distributed production and analysis system, DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control). Dirac implements the ‘pull’ job scheduling paradigm, where all the jobs are stored in a central task queues and then pulled via generic grid jobs called Pilot Agents. The whole LHCb community (about 600 people) is divided in sets of physicists, developers, production and software managers that have different needs about their jobs on the Grid. While a Monte Carlo simulation...

  18. [Mediator effect analysis of the trait coping style on job stress and fatigue of the military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Jia, J M; Tao, N; Song, Z X; Ge, H; Jiang, Y; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Tang, J H; Liu, J W

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the fatigue status of military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region, and to analyze the mediator effect of trait coping style on job stress and fatigue. Methods: In October 2010, with the method of cluster random sampling survey, 531 military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region were chosen as subject. The fatigue status were evaluated by the Chinese version multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) , job stress were evaluated by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) , and trait coping style were evaluated by the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) . Results: According to the information of different population characteristics, mean rank of physical fatigue about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group ( Z =-2.200, P fatigue scores about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group ( Z =-3.026, P fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-4.045, P fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-2.879, P fatigue scores about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group ( Z =-3.647, P fatigue scores were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group ( F =14.711, P fatigue ( r (s)=0.129) , reduced activity ( r (s)=0.123) , reduced motivation ( r (s)=0.149) and general fatigue ( r (s)=0.174) respectively, the score of organizational support lack strength were positively correlated with the score of physical fatigue ( r (s)=0.090) , reduced activity ( r (s)=0.098) , reduced motivation ( r (s)=0.099) and general fatigue ( r (s)=0.130) respectively. The mediator effect of negative coping style on the job stress and fatigue was 0.013 ( P fatigue statuses of the urban (town) group and the up or equal 20-years old age group are poor, and the negative coping style

  19. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING IN PATIENTS WITH NON-SPECIFIC CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: A CLINICAL PILOT TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Agten, Anouk; Verbrugghe, Jonas; Eijnde, Bert O.; Timmermans, Annick; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nonspecific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP), is the most common musculoskeletal cause of disability and has a major socio-economic impact on today’s western society1. The rehabilitation of chronic low back pain requires a multidisciplinary approach with both education and exercise therapy. Since physical deconditioning is often observed in patients with chronic low back pain, physical reconditioning is an important component of the exercise therapy during rehabilitation2. High ...

  20. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...

  1. Physicians' Job Satisfaction.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AmL

    doctors and retention of the existing doctors, in addition to the ... an employee's well-being Examples of job resources are job ..... increase physician job satisfaction for ensuring the .... both pay and benefits physicians at private hospitals.

  2. Second Job Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenert, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    Data from the Current Population Survey reveal characteristics of second-job entrepreneurs, occupations in which these workers hold their second jobs, and the occupational and earnings relationships between their second and primary jobs. (Author)

  3. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/lo...

  4. Job and Work Design

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF JOB STRESS AND COMPENSATION TO JOB SATISFACTION AT PT. TRI MEGAH MAKMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut R Sudiarditha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research are: 1 To know description and how picture level job stress, compensation and job satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. 2 To know the influence of job stress tojob satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. 3 To know the influence of compensation to job satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. 4 To know empirically the influence of job stress and compensation tojob satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. 5 To know how far the contribution of job stress and compensation to job satisfaction at PT Tri Megah Makmur. This research is using descriptive and explanatory survey analysis. This research is taken to 70 sales employees at PT Tri Megah Makmur, While the data collection technique was carried out by spreading kuisioner, which are then processed using SPSS versi 21.00.The analysis shows that: 1 level of compensation and job satisfaction are on a lower level, while the job stress are high. 2Job stress have negative effects and significantly on job satisfaction. 3 compensation have positive effect and significantly on job satisfaction. 4 job stress and compensation significantly influence on job satisfaction.

  6. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Right ventricular morphology and function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients living at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Erer, Hatice Betül; Kul, Seref; Perinçek, Gökhan; Ilhan, Sami; Sayar, Nurten; Yıldırım, Binnaz Zeynep; Doğan, Coşkun; Karabağ, Yavuz; Balcı, Bahattin; Eren, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary vasculature is affected in patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). As a result of increased pulmonary resistance, right ventricular morphology and function are altered in COPD patients. High altitude and related hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction, thereby affecting the right ventricle. We aimed to investigate the combined effects of COPD and altitude-related chronic hypoxia on right ventricular morphology and function. Forty COPD patients living at high altitude (1768 m) and 41 COPD patients living at sea level were enrolled in the study. All participants were diagnosed as COPD by a pulmonary diseases specialist depending on symptoms, radiologic findings and pulmonary function test results. Detailed two-dimensional echocardiography was performed by a cardiologist at both study locations. Oxygen saturation and mean pulmonary artery pressure were higher in the high altitude group. Right ventricular end diastolic diameter, end systolic diameter, height and end systolic area were significantly higher in the high altitude group compared to the sea level group. Parameters of systolic function, including tricuspid annular systolic excursion, systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus and right ventricular isovolumic acceleration were similar between groups, while fractional area change was significantly higher in the sea level groups compared to the high altitude group. Indices of diastolic function and myocardial performance index were similar between groups. An increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular dimensions are observed in COPD patients living at high altitude. Despite this increase, systolic and diastolic functions of the right ventricle, as well as global right ventricular performance are similar in COPD patients living at high altitude and sea level. Altitude-related adaptation to chronic hypoxia could explain these findings. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic

  8. Imaging Frontostriatal Function in Ultra-High-Risk, Early, and Chronic Schizophrenia During Executive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Rajendra A.; Inan, Seniha; Mitchell, Teresa V.; Perkins, Diana O.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Belger, Aysenil

    2009-01-01

    Context Individuals experiencing prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia (ultra-high-risk group) demonstrate impaired performance on tasks of executive function, attention, and working memory. The neurobiological underpinnings of such executive deficits in ultra-high-risk individuals remains unclear. Objective We assessed frontal and striatal functions during a visual oddball continuous performance task, in ultra-high-risk, early, and chronic schizophrenic patients with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Design Cross-sectional case-control design. Setting Community; outpatient clinic. Patients Fifty-two individuals (control, n = 16; ultra-high risk, n = 10; early, n = 15; chronic, n = 11) from a referred clinical sample and age- and sex-matched control volunteers underwent scanning. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of active voxels and percentage signal change calculated for the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), basal ganglia, and thalamus. Performance on the visual oddball task was measured with percentage of hits and d′ (a measure based on the hit rate and the false-alarm rate). Results The ultra-high-risk group showed significantly smaller differential activation between task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli in the frontal regions (ACG, IFG, MFG) than the control group. Frontostriatal activation associated with target stimuli in the early and chronic groups was significantly lower than the control group, while the ultra-high-risk group showed a trend toward the early group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that prefrontal function begins to decline before the onset of syndromally defined illness and hence may represent a vulnerability marker in assessing the risk of developing psychotic disorders among ultra-high-risk individuals. PMID:15753238

  9. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, N.; Kumari, Minal; Kalra, Nitish; Arjun, P.; Naik, Savitha B.; Pradeep, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of progranulin (PGRN) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis. PMID:24191130

  10. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  11. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and

  12. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi; Christensen, Jeanette R; Faber, Anne; Overgaard, Kristian; Ektor-Andersen, John; Mortensen, Ole S; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-03-09

    A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr). Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and cognitive and behavioral skills) and physical work demands

  13. Perceived job stress and health complaints at a bank call center: comparison between inbound and outbound services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yong; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Chao

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived job stress and health status differ, as well as the relationships to inbound (incoming calls) versus outbound (outgoing calls) calling activities, for call center workers in a bank in Taiwan. The sample bank employed 289 call center workers at the time of the survey, ranging in age from 19 to 54 yr old. Data were obtained on individual factors, health complaints, perceived level job stress, and major job stressors. Overall, 33.5% of outbound operators and 27.1% of inbound operators reported frequently or always experiencing high stress at work, however, the differences between inbound and outbound operators were insignificant. "Having to deal with difficult customers" was the most frequent job stressor for all workers. Musculoskeletal discomfort, eye strain, and hoarse or sore throat were the most prevalent complaints among call center workers. The relationship between perceived job stress and health complaints indicated that workers who perceived higher job stress had significantly increased risk of multiple health problems, including eye strain, tinnitus, hoarse or sore throat, chronic cough with phlegm, chest tightness, irritable stomach or peptic ulcers, and musculoskeletal discomfort (with odds ratios ranging from 2.13 to 8.24). These analytical results suggest that perceived job stress in the call center profoundly affected worker health. This study identified main types of job stressors requiring further investigation.

  14. Relation Between Job Stress Dimensions and Job Satisfaction in Workers of a Refinery Control Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behjati Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress can result from an imbalance between job demands and the abilities to cope them. Stress can affect individuals and lead to job dissatisfaction. This study was conducted to assess the influence of different job stress dimensions on job satisfaction in workers of a refinery control room located at the south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study all 100 workers of an oil refinery control room were studied. Job stress and job satisfaction was measured using standard questionnaires provided by national institute of mental health (NIMH and Robbins respectively. After collecting, data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. A general linear model was used to estimate the effect of different job stress dimensions on the job satisfaction. Results: In this study 62.08 percent of workers were categorized as having high level of stress. In job satisfaction case, 9.2, 27.6, 28.7, 16.1 and 18.4 of workers were classified as totally dissatisfied, dissatisfied, not satisfied nor dissatisfied, satisfied and totally satisfied, respectively. A Pearson correlation test revealed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and all studied dimensions of job stress (p= 0.01. In the general regression model, partial Eta squared was 0.03, 0.3 and 0.23 for respectively interpersonal relationships, physical conditions of work and job interest. Conclusion: This study showed that job satisfaction is mostly influenced by physical conditions and job interest dimensions of job stress. Therefore, for improvement of job satisfaction in workers, different parameters of these two dimensions of job stress should be considered.

  15. Neuronal changes after chronic high blood pressure in animal models and its implication for vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Flores-Gómez, Gabriel D; de Jesús Gomez-Villalobos, Ma

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dementia is a devastating disorder not only for the patient, but also for the family because this neurocognitive disorder breaks the patient's independence, and leads to family care of the patient with a high cost for the family. This complex disorder alters memory, learning, judgment, emotional control and social behavior and affects 4% of the elderly world population. The high blood pressure or arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, which in most cases leads to vascular dementia. Interestingly, this neurocognitive disorder starts after long lasting hypertension, which is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow or hypoperfusion, and complete or incomplete ischemia with cortical thickness. Animal models have been generated to elucidate the pathophysiology of this disorder. It is known that dendritic complexity determines the receptive synaptic contacts, and the loss of dendritic spine and arbor stability are strongly associated with dementia in humans. This review evaluates relevant data of human and animal models that have investigated the link between long-lasting arterial hypertension and neural morphological changes in the context of vascular dementia. We examined the effect of chronic arterial hypertension and aged in vascular dementia. Neural dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens after chronic hypertension was diskussed in the animal models of hypertension. Chronic hypertension reduced the dendritic length and spine density in aged rats. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Safety study of high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomarev, M P; Kim, D Y; Richardson, S Pirio; Voller, B; Hallett, M

    2007-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a potential therapeutic tool to rehabilitate chronic stroke patients. In this study, the safety of high-frequency rTMS in stroke was investigated (Phase I). The safety of 20 and 25 Hz rTMS over the motor cortex (MC) of the affected hemisphere, with intensities of 110-130% of the motor threshold (MT), was evaluated using surface electromyography (EMG) of hand and arm muscles. Brief EMG bursts, possibly representing peripheral manifestations of after discharges, and spread of excitation to proximal muscles are considered to be associated with a high risk of seizure occurrence. These events were recorded after the rTMS trains. Neither increased MC excitability nor improved pinch force dynamometry was found after rTMS. Stimulation parameters for rTMS, which are safe for healthy volunteers, may lead to a higher risk for seizure occurrence in chronic stroke patients. rTMS at rates of 20 and 25 Hz using above threshold stimulation potentially increases the risk of seizures in patients with chronic stroke.

  17. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD.

  18. High-intensity laser therapy during chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Gazzotti, Valeria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The aims of this study was the safety and the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on chronic degenerative tenosynovitis. We have effectuated the histological evaluation and seroassay (C reactive protein) on 18 chickens affect by chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced. We have been employed a Nd:YAG laser pulsed wave; all irradiated subjects received the same total energy (270 Joule) with a fluence of 7,7 J/cm2 and intensity of 10,7 W/cm2. The histological findings revealed a distinct reduction of the mineralization of the choral matrix, the anti-inflammatory effect of the laser, the hyperplasia of the synoviocytes and ectasia of the lymphatic vessels.

  19. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  20. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of Job Demands and Job Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Feij, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high

  1. The nonlinear effects of job complexity and autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yan, Greg A

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the interactive relationship between job complexity and job autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and psychological well-being. It was hypothesized that the positive or motivating effects of job complexity are only realized when workers are given enough autonomy to effectively meet the challenges of complex jobs. Results show that not only do job complexity and job autonomy interact, but that the relationships to the outcome variables are curvilinear in form. Job complexity is shown to be both a motivator and a stressor when job autonomy is low. However, the most beneficial effects of job complexity occur when it is matched by a high level of job autonomy. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  2. Job Growth and the Quality of Jobs in the U.S. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Susan N. Houseman

    1995-01-01

    During the 1980's employment grew rapidly in the United States, prompting many analysts to label the U.S. economy the great American job machine. But while aggregate employment increased rapidly during the 1980's, many did not benefit from the expansion. Among less educated prime-age males, unemployment rates rose and labor force participation rates declined sharply. Moreover, although job growth was high, many argued that the quality of American jobs as measured by wages, benefits, and job s...

  3. Job-to-Job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    in the quality of the worker-firm match rather than transitions to better firms. Also, 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match quality growth is higher for higher-skilled occupations and high-educated workers.......In this paper, we measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. Using the Danish matched employer-employee data, we reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixedeffects wage regression. To estimate firm fixed effects, we...... exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected. Then we decompose the mean and the variance of wage growth of jobto-job movers. We find that most of the wage growth experienced by job movers is attributable to an improvement...

  4. On-the-job-training, job search and job mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Zweimüller; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of formal training on worker mobility. Using data from the Swiss Labor Force Survey, we find that both general and specific training significantly affects on-the-job search activities. The effect of training on actual job mobility differs between searchers and non-searchers. In line with human capital theory, we find that specific (general) training has a negative (positive) impact on job mobility for previous non-searchers. For individuals who have been looking...

  5. [Predicting individual risk of high healthcare cost to identify complex chronic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Ibern, Pere; Carreras, Marc; Pérez-Berruezo, Xavier; Inoriza, José M

    2014-01-01

    To develop a predictive model for the risk of high consumption of healthcare resources, and assess the ability of the model to identify complex chronic patients. A cross-sectional study was performed within a healthcare management organization by using individual data from 2 consecutive years (88,795 people). The dependent variable consisted of healthcare costs above the 95th percentile (P95), including all services provided by the organization and pharmaceutical consumption outside of the institution. The predictive variables were age, sex, morbidity-based on clinical risk groups (CRG)-and selected data from previous utilization (use of hospitalization, use of high-cost drugs in ambulatory care, pharmaceutical expenditure). A univariate descriptive analysis was performed. We constructed a logistic regression model with a 95% confidence level and analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Individuals incurring costs >P95 accumulated 44% of total healthcare costs and were concentrated in ACRG3 (aggregated CRG level 3) categories related to multiple chronic diseases. All variables were statistically significant except for sex. The model had a sensitivity of 48.4% (CI: 46.9%-49.8%), specificity of 97.2% (CI: 97.0%-97.3%), PPV of 46.5% (CI: 45.0%-47.9%), and an AUC of 0.897 (CI: 0.892 to 0.902). High consumption of healthcare resources is associated with complex chronic morbidity. A model based on age, morbidity, and prior utilization is able to predict high-cost risk and identify a target population requiring proactive care. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Job satisfaction among multiple sclerosis certified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Elsie E; Halper, June; Costello, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    Several studies document high levels of job satisfaction among certified nurses, but no study has examined job satisfaction and factors influencing job satisfaction of certified multiple sclerosis (MS) nurses. This study tested a theoretical model proposing that two organizational factors, colleague relationships and benefits, will predict job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was represented by four factors: autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency. Participants included MS nurses certified for 6 months or more practicing mostly in three countries (Canada, Great Britain, and the United States) who anonymously completed the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale, an overall job satisfaction rating, and demographic information. Findings indicate that colleague relationships and benefits significantly estimated organization structure and that autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency significantly estimated job satisfaction; furthermore, organization factors such as colleague relationships and benefits significantly predict job satisfaction. Among the countries, several statistically significant differences were observed between job satisfaction factors as well as items in both organization and job satisfaction subscales. Average factor scores among the countries were mostly rated satisfactory. The International Organization of Multiple Sclerosis Nurses Executive Board plans to use the study findings to see how it needs to focus efforts as an organization toward enhancing and standardizing MS care and develop MS nurse professionalism worldwide.

  7. Longbow: A Lightweight Remote Job Submission Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gebbie-Rayet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present Longbow, a lightweight console-based remote job submission tool and library. Longbow allows the user to quickly and simply run jobs on high performance computing facilities without leaving their familiar desktop environment. Not only does Longbow greatly simplify the management of compute- intensive jobs for experienced researchers, it also lowers the technical barriers surrounding high perfor-mance computation for the next generation of scientists and engineers. Longbow has already been used to remotely submit jobs in a number of projects and has the potential to redefine the manner in which high performance computers are used.

  8. Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter N; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Johansson, Gun; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Aborg, Carl; Hallsten, Lennart; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  9. Hypoalgesia after exercise and the cold pressor test is reduced in chronic musculuskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In chronic pain patients, impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) have been reported. No studies have compared CPM and EIH in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity (HPS) and low pain sensitivity (LPS). MATERIALS.......005). Pain tolerance increased after the cold pressor test and exercise in both groups (PCPM and EIH were partly impaired in chronic pain patients with high versus less pain sensitivity, suggesting that the CPM and EIH responses depend on the degree of pain sensitivity. This has clinical...

  10. Language Modelling for Collaborative Filtering: Application to Job Applicant Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt , Thomas; Gonard , François; Caillou , Philippe; Sebag , Michèle

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses a collaborative retrieval problem , the recommendation of job ads to applicants. Specifically, two proprietary databases are considered. The first one focuses on the context of unskilled low-paid jobs/applicants; the second one focuses on highly qualified jobs/applicants. Each database includes the job ads and applicant resumes together with the collaborative filtering data recording the applicant clicks on job ads. The proposed approach, called LA...

  11. Revisiting Symbiotic Job Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Eyerman , Stijn; Michaud , Pierre; Rogiest , Wouter

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —Symbiotic job scheduling exploits the fact that in a system with shared resources, the performance of jobs is impacted by the behavior of other co-running jobs. By coscheduling combinations of jobs that have low interference, the performance of a system can be increased. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using symbiotic job scheduling for increasing throughput. We find that even for a theoretically optimal scheduler, this impact is very low, despite the subs...

  12. Relationship Of Core Job Characteristics To Job Satisfaction And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify the conceptual and empirical distinction between job satisfaction and job involvement constructs, this study investigates the relationship between construction workers core job characteristics, job satisfaction and job involvement. It also investigates the mediating role of job satisfaction between core job ...

  13. Determinants of job effectiveness of extension personnel in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of job effectiveness of extension personnel in Oyo state ADP and ... such ass age, gender, educational qualification, income and year of experience. ... Incentives to job effectiveness was taken on Very High Satisfaction, High ...

  14. Association of Porphyromonas gingivalis with high levels of stress-induced hormone cortisol in chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Guzmán, Isabel C

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the occurrence of periodontopathogens with cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients. Seventy-five chronic periodontitis patients were invited to participate in the present study. Cortisol levels in serum were measured using an immunoassay method. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed to target the respective 16S rRNA gene sequences. Severe chronic periodontitis patients showed higher mean levels of cortisol (P chronic periodontitis (P chronic periodontitis patients. These results suggest that high levels of cortisol could increase the occurrence of P. gingivalis in the biofilm. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Job Satisfaction and Job Performance at the Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Berghe, Jae Hyung

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is job satisfaction and job performance at the work place. The aim is to define the determinants for job satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance and the influence of job satisfaction on job performance. First we look into the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to account for the relationship between attitudes and behaviour. Job satisfaction is then explained as a function of job feature...

  16. Competences required for the delivery of high and low-intensity cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome/ME and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimes, Katharine A; Wingrove, Janet; Moss-Morris, Rona; Chalder, Trudie

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive behavioural interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome (sometimes known as ME or CFS/ME) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Such interventions are increasingly being provided not only in specialist settings but in primary care settings such as Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. There are no existing competences for the delivery of "low-intensity" or "high-intensity" cognitive behavioural interventions for these conditions. To develop "high-intensity" and "low-intensity" competences for cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The initial draft drew on a variety of sources including treatment manuals and other information from randomized controlled trials. Therapists with experience in providing cognitive behavioural interventions for CF, CFS/ME and IBS in research and clinical settings were consulted on the initial draft competences and their suggestions for minor amendments were incorporated into the final versions. Feedback from experienced therapists was positive. Therapists providing low intensity interventions reported that the competences were also helpful in highlighting training needs. These sets of competences should facilitate the training and supervision of therapists providing cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic fatigue, CFS/ME and IBS. The competences are available online (see table of contents for this issue: http://journals.cambridge.org/jid_BCP) or on request from the first author.

  17. Job Authority and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.

  18. How are changes in exposure to job demands and job resources related to burnout and engagement? A longitudinal study among Chinese nurses and police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiao; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Taris, Toon W

    2017-12-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine the across-time relationships between job demands and job resources on the one hand and employee well-being (burnout and work engagement) on the other. On the basis of the job demands-resources model and conservation of resources (COR) theory, increases in demands and decreases in resources across time were expected to result in unfavorable changes in well-being across time. The results of a 2-wave study among 172 nurses and 273 police officers showed several common patterns across both samples: (a) participants who experienced an increase of demands showed a significant increase in burnout, whereas participants who reported having low resources at both measurement times also showed a significant increase in burnout; (b) participants who experienced decreasing resources reported a significant increase in burnout and a significant decrease in engagement; (c) participants who were exposed to chronic low job resources in a highly demanding environment showed a significant increase in burnout; and (d) participants who were exposed to decreased job resources in a highly demanding environment showed a significant increase in burnout. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    -to-job transition without changing workplace location. However, workers making a job-to-job transition which makes the workplace location closer to the residence experiences a wage drop. Furthermore, low wage workers and workers with high transportation costs are more likely to make job-to-job transitions, but also......I develop a stylized partial on-the-job equilibrium search model which incorporate a spatial dimension. Workers reside on a circle and can move at a cost. Each point on the circle has a wage distribution. Implications about wages and job mobility are drawn from the model and tested on Danish...... matched employer-employee data. The model predictions hold true. I find that workers working farther away from their residence earn higher wages. When a worker is making a job-to-job transition where he changes workplace location he experiences a higher wage change than a worker making a job...

  20. Education, underemployment and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujaat Farooq

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is an effective vehicle for producing the required skills to maintain economic growth. The benefits of education range from human to economic, social and cultural. In Pakistan, there is significant rise in the average level of education, but over time, more and more workers incapable to use their educational background on the job. Supply of labor may have outstripped the demand of labor in some professions, and high qualified peoples taking job on low positions. Such underemployment/overeducation has not been fully explored in Pakistan. The theme of paper is “underemployment symbolizes an inefficient usage of human resources and lost output for society”.The research is based on case study on clerical workers of SNGPL. By comparing their educational backgrounds with their nature of job, this paper examines the impact of overeducation on job satisfaction. Our results show that underemployment/overeducation is correlated with higher level of job dissatisfaction, reduced job involvement, impaired co-worker relationship, and more emphasis on future aspirations.

  1. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  2. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  3. Comparison between Epidural Block vs. High Intensity Laser Therapy for Controlling Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiozaman Radpay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic low back pain is among a wide spread musculoskeletal conditions that is related to disability with high economy cost. There are several treatment modalities for controlling chronic low back pain (CLBP, among them high intensity laser therapy (HILT and epidural blocks (EB use more commonly. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and hazards of each of these two methods.Materials and Methods: We designed a randomized controlled double blind study during 24 months.101 patients divided in 2 groups (52 in EB and 49 in HILT group. Pain intensity was assessed by using faces pain scales (FPS and LINKERT questionaries' before procedure and during one, four, 12, and 24 weeks after beginning the procedures.Results: There were no differences between two groups in FPS lumber tenderness, straight leg rising test (SLRT, paresthesia, deep tendon reflex (DTR, and imaging changes. Motor problems seem was less in HILT group comparing EB.Conclusion: This study showed both EB and HILT approaches can control the pain intensity and motor activities in CLBP patients. Future studies will clarify the precise importance of each these methods.

  4. Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Human Capital in the Labour Market in Bosnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ilgün

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effect of job performance, job satisfaction and humancapital. It shows that together with monetary factors, such factors as theperception of the social importance of the job, the ability to meet good friendsin the team, and the atmosphere within which the respondents work, may alsohave a high level of impact on labour supply through human capital. The paperdemonstrates the power of non-monetary factors in achieving improvementsin the context of the ‘job performance-job satisfaction-human capital’ chain,thus bringing about positive changes in labour market supply in Bosnia.

  5. The basal kinetic parameters of glycogen synthase in human myotube cultures are not affected by chronic high insulin exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Schrøder, H D; Handberg, A

    2001-01-01

    results show that chronic exposure of human myotubes to high insulin with or without high glucose did not affect the basal kinetic parameters but abolished the reactivity of GS to acute insulin stimulation. We suggest that insulin induced insulin resistance of GS is caused by a failure of acute insulin......There is no consensus regarding the results from in vivo and in vitro studies on the impact of chronic high insulin and/or high glucose exposure on acute insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase (GS) kinetic parameters in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic...... parameters of glycogen synthase activity in human myotube cultures at conditions of chronic high insulin combined or not with high glucose exposure, before and after a subsequent acute insulin stimulation. Acute insulin stimulation significantly increased the fractional activity (FV(0.1)) of GS, increased...

  6. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of job demands and job control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Toon W; Feij, Jan A

    2004-11-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high demand and high job control would lead to high levels of learning; low demand and low job control should lead to low levels of learning; high demand and low job control should lead to high levels of strain; and low demand and high job control should lead to low levels of strain. The relation between strain and learning was also examined. The authors tested the hypotheses using ANCOVA and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that high levels of strain have an adverse effect on learning; the reverse effect was not confirmed. It appears that Karasek and Theorell's model is very relevant when examining work socialization processes.

  7. How is new technology changing job design?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The information technology revolution has had dramatic effects on jobs and the labor market. Many routine and manual tasks have been automated, replacing workers. By contrast, new technologies complement non-routine, cognitive, and social tasks, making work in such tasks more productive. These effects have polarized labor markets: While low-skill jobs have stagnated, there are fewer and lower paid jobs for middle-skill workers, and higher pay for high-skill workers, increasing wage inequality...

  8. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L

    2010-11-22

    Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  9. The effects of chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion and interval training in highly trained rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew W; Gregory, John R; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-02-01

    Recent research has reported performance improvements after chronic NaHCO3 ingestion in conjunction with high-intensity interval training (HIT) in moderately trained athletes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of altering plasma H+ concentration during HIT through NaHCO3 ingestion over 4 wk (2 HIT sessions/wk) in 12 Australian representative rowers (M ± SD; age 22 ± 3 yr, mass 76.4 ± 4.2 kg, VO(2peak) 65.50 ± 2.74 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). Baseline testing included a 2,000-m time trial and an incremental exercise test. After baseline testing, rowers were allocated to either a chronic NaHCO3 (ALK) or placebo (PLA) group. Starting 90 min before each HIT session, subjects ingested a 0.3-g/kg body mass dose of NaHCO3 or a placebo substance. Fingertip blood samples were taken throughout the study to analyze bicarbonate and pH levels. The ALK group did not produce any additional improvements in 2,000-m rowing performance time compared with PLA (p > .05). Magnitude-based inferential analysis indicated an unclear or trivial effect on 2,000-m power, 2,000-m time, peak power output, and power at 4 mmol/L lactate threshold in the ALK group compared with the PLA group. Although there was no difference between groups, during the study there was a significant mean (± SD) 2,000-m power improvement in both the ALK and PLA groups of 17.8 ± 14.5 and 15.2 ± 18.3 W, respectively. In conclusion, despite overall improvements in rowing performance after 4 wk of HIT, the addition of chronic NaHCO3 supplementation during the training period did not significantly enhance performance further.

  10. Acute vs chronic exposure to high fat diet leads to distinct regulation of PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Edra; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-07-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO). 12-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to a regular diet or HFD and weighed weekly throughout the feeding studies (4 days, 14 weeks; respectively), and during killing. PKA activity and subunit expression were measured in liver, gonadal adipose tissue (AT) and brain. Acute HFD-feeding suppressed basal hepatic PKA activity. In contrast, hepatic and hypothalamic PKA activities were significantly increased after chronic HFD-feeding. Changes in AT were more subtle, and overall, altered PKA regulation in response to chronic HFD exposure was more profound in female mice. The suppression of hepatic PKA activity after 4 day HFD-feeding was indicative of a protective peripheral effect against obesity in the context of overnutrition. In response to chronic HFD-feeding, and with the development of DIO, dysregulated hepatic and hypothalamic PKA signaling was a signature of obesity that is likely to promote further metabolic dysfunction in mice. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    be readily solved with continuous exogenous worker heterogene- ity, where high type workers (high outside options and productivity) earn higher wages in high type jobs and are hired at least as frequently to the better job types as low type workers (low outside options and productivity). Third, we...... a number of new theoretical results, which are essential for the empirical application of this type of model to matched employer-employee microdata. First, we o¤er a robust equilibrium concept in which there is a continu- ous dispersion of job productivities and wages. Second, we show that our model can...... of these results preserve the essential tractability of the baseline model with aggregate shocks. Therefore, we o¤er a parsimonious, general equilibrium framework in which to study the process by which the contin- uous dispersion of wages and productivities varies over the business cycle for a large population...

  12. Characteristics of symptomatic chronic subdural haematomas on high-field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminogo, M.; Moroki, J.; Ochi, A.; Ichikura, A.; Onizuka, M.; Shibayama, A.; Miyake, H.; Shibata, S.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the frequency of various features of the appearances on high-field MRI in symptomatic patients with chronic subdural haematomas (CSDH). The ability to predict recurrence after treatment with one burr-hole procedure using MRI was evaluated. Recurrence was seen in three haematomas of group A and one of group B. Reoperation was most closely correlated with diffuse low signal on T2-weighted images but not with a multiloculated appearance. Low signal on T2 weighting was surprisingly high (72.5 %) and the age of the haematomas as estimated on the MRI correlated well with the interval between the onset of symptoms and MRI. Our findings support the causative role of recurrent bleeding in the enlargement of CSDH. (orig.)

  13. Chronic bronchitis is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi JY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joon Young Choi,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,2 Seoung Ju Park,3 Yong Bum Park,4 Kyeong-Cheol Shin,5 Ju Ock Na,6 Kwang Ha Yoo,7 Ki-Suck Jung,8 Young Kyoon Kim,1 Chin Kook Rhee1 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, 5Regional Center for Respiratory Disease, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Republic of Korea Background: The chronic bronchitis (CB phenotype has been associated with poor quality of life and an increased risk of disease in patients with COPD. However, little information exists regarding the relationship between the CB phenotype and the COPD assessment test (CAT score. The goal of this study was to reveal the different pattern of CAT scores between CB and non-CB patients. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups.Methods: Data were obtained from the Korea COPD Subgroup Study cohort recruited from 46 centers in South

  14. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    OpenAIRE

    Gozani, Shai

    2016-01-01

    Shai N Gozani NeuroMetrix, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be ...

  15. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C.; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B.; Raphael, Kalani L.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The ...

  16. Pre-employment job orientation seminar - after two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petullo, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Formerly, applicants for the Radiation Monitor job were primarily individuals with 4-yr degrees in the sciences or engineering, because of upgraded education requirements. Reynolds found, however, that they lost a very high percentage of such hirees within 4 months after training and going into the field - since they had felt they were hired for a white collar job. Therefore, they instituted the Pre-Employment Job Training Seminar for all applicants - a 40-minute slide presentation showing the Nevada Test Site Terrain; Radiation Monitor job locations such as tunnels, drill rigs, and a decontamination facility; and Radiation Monitors active in their job functions. In other words the earthy side of the job is depicted. Applicants still interested in the job after initial orientation stay for a 3-hour examination. The author expects future hiring at the technician level, with job requirements a high school diploma and science and math skills necessary for good job performance

  17. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: high resolution computed tomography patterns and pulmonary function indices as prognostic determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Devaraj, Anand; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sverzellati, Nicola [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Diseases Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function indices (PFTs) for determining prognosis in patients with chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Case records, PFTs (FEV{sub 1}, FVC and DLco) and HRCTs of ninety-two patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were evaluated. HRCT studies were scored by two observers for total disease extent, ground-glass opacification, fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, centrilobular emphysema and consolidation. Traction bronchiectasis within each pattern was graded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models the prognostic strength of individual HRCT patterns and pulmonary function test variables were determined. There were forty two deaths during the study period. Increasing severity of traction bronchiectasis was the strongest predictor of mortality (HR 1.10, P < 0.001, 95%CI 1.04-1.16). Increasing global interstitial disease extent (HR 1.02, P = 0.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.03), microcystic honeycombing (HR 1.09, P = 0.019, 95%CI 1.01-1.17) and macrocystic honeycombing (HR 1.06, P < 0.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.10) were also independent predictors of mortality. In contrast, no individual PFT variable was predictive of mortality once HRCT patterns were accounted for. HRCT patterns, in particular, severity of traction bronchiectasis and extent of honeycombing are superior to pulmonary function tests for predicting mortality in patients with CHP. (orig.)

  18. Chronic high fat diet induces cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Liaoliao; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2015-08-01

    Obesity can cause pathological changes in organs. We determined the effects of chronic high fat diet (HFD) and intermittent fasting, a paradigm providing organ protection, on mouse heart. Seven-week old CD1 male mice were randomly assigned to control, HFD and intermittent fasting groups. Control mice had free access to regular diet (RD). RD was provided every other day to mice in the intermittent fasting group. Mice in HFD group had free access to HFD. Their left ventricles were harvested 11 months after they had been on these diet regimens. HFD increased cardiomyocyte cross-section area and fibrosis. HFD decreased active caspase 3, an apoptosis marker, and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) II/LC3I, an autophagy marker. HFD increased the phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9, a sign of GSK-3β inhibition. Nuclear GATA binding protein 4 and yes-associated protein, two GSK-3β targeting transcription factors that can induce hypertrophy-related gene expression, were increased in HFD-fed mice. Mice on intermittent fasting did not have these changes except for the increased active caspase 3 and decreased ratio of LC3II/LC3I. These results suggest that chronic HFD induces myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, which may be mediated by GSK-3β inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: high resolution computed tomography patterns and pulmonary function indices as prognostic determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Devaraj, Anand; Hansell, David M.; Sverzellati, Nicola; Wells, Athol U.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function indices (PFTs) for determining prognosis in patients with chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Case records, PFTs (FEV 1 , FVC and DLco) and HRCTs of ninety-two patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were evaluated. HRCT studies were scored by two observers for total disease extent, ground-glass opacification, fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, centrilobular emphysema and consolidation. Traction bronchiectasis within each pattern was graded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models the prognostic strength of individual HRCT patterns and pulmonary function test variables were determined. There were forty two deaths during the study period. Increasing severity of traction bronchiectasis was the strongest predictor of mortality (HR 1.10, P < 0.001, 95%CI 1.04-1.16). Increasing global interstitial disease extent (HR 1.02, P = 0.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.03), microcystic honeycombing (HR 1.09, P = 0.019, 95%CI 1.01-1.17) and macrocystic honeycombing (HR 1.06, P < 0.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.10) were also independent predictors of mortality. In contrast, no individual PFT variable was predictive of mortality once HRCT patterns were accounted for. HRCT patterns, in particular, severity of traction bronchiectasis and extent of honeycombing are superior to pulmonary function tests for predicting mortality in patients with CHP. (orig.)

  20. Interferon alpha 2 maintenance therapy may enable high rates of treatment discontinuation in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchert, A; Saussele, S; Eigendorff, E; Müller, M C; Sohlbach, K; Inselmann, S; Schütz, C; Metzelder, S K; Ziermann, J; Kostrewa, P; Hoffmann, J; Hehlmann, R; Neubauer, A; Hochhaus, A

    2015-06-01

    A minority of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients is capable of successfully discontinuing imatinib. Treatment modalities to increase this proportion are currently unknown. Here, we assessed the role of interferon alpha 2a (IFN) on therapy discontinuation in a previously reported cohort of 20 chronic phase CML patients who were treated upfront with IFN alpha plus imatinib followed by IFN monotherapy to maintain cytogenetic or molecular remission (MR) after imatinib discontinuation. After a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range, 5.2-12.2), relapse-free survival was 73% (8/11 patients) and 84% (5/6 patients) for patients who discontinued imatinib in major MR (MMR) and MR4/MR4.5, respectively. Ten patients discontinued IFN after a median of 4.5 years (range, 0.24-9.3). After a median of 2.8 years (range, 0.7-5.1), nine of them remain in ongoing treatment-free remission with MR5 (n=6) and MR4.5 (n=3). The four patients who still administer IFN are in stable MR5, MR4.5, MR4, and MMR, respectively. In conclusion, an IFN/imatinib induction treatment followed by a temporary IFN maintenance therapy may enable a high rate of treatment discontinuation in CML patients in at least MMR when stopping imatinib.

  1. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  2. Work motivation, task delegation and job satisfaction of general practice staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria; Le, Jette V; Ledderer, Loni; Pedersen, Line B; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the practise staff's overall job satisfaction, and this association is important to explore since job satisfaction is related to medical as well as patient-perceived quality of care. This study aimed: (1) to investigate associations between degrees of task delegation in the management of chronic disease in general practice, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a case and the staff's work motivation, (2) to investigate associations between the work motivation of the staff and their job satisfaction. The study was based on a questionnaire to which 621 members of the practice staff responded. The questionnaire consisted of a part concerning degree of task delegation in the management of COPD in their respective practice and another part being about their job satisfaction and motivation to work. In the first analysis, we found that 'maximal degree' of task delegation was significantly associated with the staff perceiving themselves to have a large degree of variation in tasks, odds ratio (OR) = 4.26, confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 16.62. In the second analysis, we found that this perceived large degree of variation in tasks was significantly associated with their overall job satisfaction, OR = 2.81, confidence interval = 1.71, 4.61. The results suggest that general practitioners could delegate highly complex tasks in the management of COPD to their staff without influencing the staff's work motivation, and thereby their job satisfaction, negatively, as long as they ensure sufficient variation in the tasks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyu; Pu, Juncai; Zhong, Xiaoni; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Dinghong; Yang, Lining; Zhang, Yuqing; Fu, Yuying; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Peng

    2017-05-02

    To investigate the prevalence of and personal and professional characteristics associated with burnout, psychological morbidity, job stress, and job satisfaction in Chinese neurologists. The China Neurologist Association conducted a national cross-sectional study from September 2014 to March 2015. A questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Consultants' Mental Health Questionnaire, and questions assessing personal and professional characteristics, career satisfaction, and current doctor-patient relationships was administered. A total of 693 directors of neurology departments and 6,111 neurologists in 30 Chinese provinces returned surveys. Overall, 53.2% of responding neurologists experienced burnout, 37.8% had psychological morbidity, 50.7% had high levels of job stress, 25.7% had low levels of job satisfaction, 76.9% had poor doctor-patient relationships, and 58.1% regretted becoming a doctor. Factors independently associated with burnout were lower income, more hours worked per week, more nights on call per month, working in public hospitals, psychological morbidity, high levels of job stress, low levels of job satisfaction, and poor doctor-patient relationships. Factors independently associated with psychological morbidity included lower income, more nights on call per month, working in enterprise-owned hospitals, burnout, high levels of job stress, and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout and psychological morbidity are common in Chinese neurologists. Burnout is the single greatest predictor of neurologists' psychological morbidity, high job stress, and low job satisfaction. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Classic or Modern? Enhancement of Job Satisfaction Scale for Green Job Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Basol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green jobs, in environmental and eco-friendly sectors, are defined as jobs where decent work conditions are presented. The green jobs, significantly increasing all over the world, support the protection of natural resources and also provide high quality work life for workers. The goal of this research is to improve the job satisfaction scale for green job workers by using the Structural Equation Model with model development strategy. Within this research SPSS 21 has been used for internal consistency rate and exploratory factor analysis and smartPLS 2.0 has been used for Structural Equation Model. Analysis results show that contingent reward, supervision, co-workers and communication effect job satisfaction of green job workers.

  5. Chronic high-sucrose diet increases fibroblast growth factor 21 production and energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Ryuya; Seino, Yusuke; Ogata, Hidetada; Murase, Masatoshi; Iida, Atsushi; Hosokawa, Kaori; Joo, Erina; Harada, Norio; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Excess carbohydrate intake causes obesity in humans. On the other hand, acute administration of fructose, glucose or sucrose in experimental animals has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of anti-obesity hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which contribute to reducing body weight. However, the secretion and action of GLP-1 and FGF21 in mice chronically fed a high-sucrose diet has not been investigated. To address the role of anti-obesity hormones in response to increased sucrose intake, we analyzed mice fed a high-sucrose diet, a high-starch diet or a normal diet for 15 weeks. Mice fed a high-sucrose diet showed resistance to body weight gain, in comparison with mice fed a high-starch diet or control diet, due to increased energy expenditure. Plasma FGF21 levels were highest among the three groups in mice fed a high-sucrose diet, whereas no significant difference in GLP-1 levels was observed. Expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and β-klotho (KLB) mRNA in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in high sucrose-fed mice, suggesting increases in FGF21 sensitivity and energy expenditure. Expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) mRNA in liver and brown adipose tissue was also increased in high sucrose-fed mice. These results indicate that FGF21 production in liver and brown adipose tissue is increased in high-sucrose diet and participates in resistance to weight gain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  7. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  8. Practical job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop

  9. Mobility into favourable jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice Gesthuizen; Jaco Dagevos

    2005-01-01

    Original title: Arbeidsmobiliteit in goede banen. Hundreds of thousands of employees change jobs each year. Why do they do this, and what benefits do they derive from it? Many employees are not in the right jobs. Job dissatisfaction is found to be a key reason for labour mobility. These

  10. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  11. Study of chronic pain and its associated risk factors among Japanese industry workers: the Quality of Working Life Influenced by Chronic pain (QWLIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Wakaizumi, Kenta; Fukai, Kyosuke; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sobue, Tomotaka; Shibata, Masahiko; Matsudaira, Ko

    2017-10-05

    This study was performed to identify the prevalence, influence, and risk factors associated with chronic pain among Japanese industry workers. We investigated 2,544 participants working at a manufacturing company A, a manufacturing company B, and 16 branch shops of a retail chain company C. The participants responded to self-administered questionnaires related to pain. Furthermore, data obtained from the lifestyle interview sheet of an annual health screening examination and those obtained from the questionnaires were merged. We analyzed the association between lifestyles, psychosocial factors, and chronic pain. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios were calculated with a 95% confidence interval using the logistic regression model. Of 2,544 participants, 1,914 (1,224 men and 690 women) completed the questionnaire, and the response rate was 75.2%. The prevalence of chronic pain over 3 months was 42.7% and that of chronic pain with work disability was 11.3%. A higher proportion of obesity, smoking habit, insomnia, psychological stress, depressive state, workaholic nature, low social support from supervisors and coworkers, high job demand, low job control, and job dissatisfaction was observed in workers with chronic pain than in workers without pain. Several risk factors of chronic pain in Japanese industry workers were found. Obesity, smoking habits, sleep disorders, workplace environment, and mental state should be taken into account as risk factors associated with chronic pain issues and general occupational health.

  12. The Correlation between Teachers' Perceptions about Principal's Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction of Teachers of State Senior High School in Gunungsitoli Nias, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waruwu, Binahati

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at finding out the significant correlation between: (1) teachers' perceptions about principal's emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of teachers, (2) organizational climate and job satisfaction of teachers, and (3) teachers' perceptions about principal's emotional intelligence and organizational climate and job…

  13. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987......BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP......) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI...

  14. Job rotation and internal marketing for increased job satisfaction and organisational commitment in hospital nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Yueh; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Lin, Chia-Tzu

    2015-04-01

    To develop or enhance the job satisfaction and organisational commitment of nurses by implementing job rotation and internal marketing practices. No studies in the nursing management literature have addressed the integrated relationships among job rotation, internal marketing, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. This cross-sectional study included 266 registered nurses (response rate 81.8%) in two southern Taiwan hospitals. Software used for data analysis were SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modelling). Job rotation and internal marketing positively affect the job satisfaction and organisational commitment of nurses, and their job satisfaction positively affects their organisational commitment. Job rotation and internal marketing are effective strategies for improving nursing workforce utilisation in health-care organisations because they help to achieve the ultimate goals of increasing the job satisfaction of nurses and encouraging them to continue working in the field. This in turn limits the vicious cycle of high turnover and low morale in organisations, which wastes valuable human resources. Job rotation and internal marketing help nursing personnel acquire knowledge, skills and insights while simultaneously improving their job satisfaction and organisational commitment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Noninvasive Assessment of Excessive Erythrocytosis as a Screening Method for Chronic Mountain Sickness at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Kaetan J; Danz, David; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-06-01

    Vyas, Kaetan J., David Danz, Robert H. Gilman, Robert A. Wise, Fabiola León-Velarde, J. Jaime Miranda, and William Checkley. Noninvasive assessment of excessive erythrocytosis as a screening method for chronic mountain sickness at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:162-168, 2015.--Globally, over 140 million people are at risk of developing chronic mountain sickness, a common maladaptation to life at high altitude (>2500 meters above sea level). The diagnosis is contingent upon the identification of excessive erythrocytosis (EE). Current best practices to identify EE require a venous blood draw, which is cumbersome for large-scale surveillance. We evaluated two point-of-care biomarkers to screen for EE: noninvasive spot-check tests of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation (Pronto-7, Masimo Corporation). We conducted paired evaluations of total serum hemoglobin from a venous blood draw and noninvasive, spot-check testing of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation with the Pronto-7 in 382 adults aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru (3825 meters above sea level). We used the Bland-Altman method to measure agreement between the noninvasive hemoglobin assessment and the gold standard lab hemoglobin analyzer. Mean age was 58.8 years and 47% were male. The Pronto-7 test was unsuccessful in 21 (5%) participants. Limits of agreement between total hemoglobin measured via venous blood draw and the noninvasive, spot-check test ranged from -2.8 g/dL (95% CI -3.0 to -2.5) to 2.5 g/dL (95% CI 2.2 to 2.7), with a bias of -0.2 g/dL (95% CI -0.3 to -0.02) for the difference between total hemoglobin and noninvasive hemoglobin concentrations. Overall, the noninvasive spot-check test of total hemoglobin had a better area under the receiver operating characteristic curve compared to oxyhemoglobin saturation for the identification of EE as measured by a gold standard laboratory hemoglobin analyzer (0.96 vs. 0.82; p<0.001). Best cut-off values to screen for EE with

  16. Empowering leadership and job crafting: The role of employee optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Sylvi; Bakker, Arnold B

    2018-06-08

    The objective of this study was to test the relationship between empowering leadership and job crafting and to examine the moderating role of optimism as a personal resource. We hypothesized that the association between empowering leadership and job crafting would be stronger for employees with high (vs. low) levels of optimism. A total of 331 Norwegian workers from a variety of occupations participated in our study. Results of structural equation modelling analysis generally supported our hypotheses. Empowering leadership was positively related to 3 of the 4 job crafting strategies investigated (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, and increasing challenging job demands; but not reducing hindrance job demands). Moreover, as hypothesized, optimism strengthened the empowering leadership-job crafting relationship for increasing structural resources and increasing challenging demands. The results suggest that empowering leadership is an important antecedent of job crafting strategies, except for reducing hindrance demands. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Job Satisfaction among Women in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywczynski, James V.; Crowley, John H.

    A study examined job satisfaction among women in advertising. Subjects were 48 female respondents from a mail survey of membership of a Midwest advertising club. Two types of job satisfaction measures were used: items from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and the action tendency scales developed by E. Locke. The results showed a high level…

  18. Job Design for Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Amanda E.

    2012-01-01

    Special education teachers, especially those that teach students with behavioral/emotional challenges, have high attrition rates stemming from stress, job dissatisfaction, and low motivation. The external factors in the school setting and job contribute to special education teachers' attrition and disengagement. A relationship between motivation…

  19. Predictors of Instrumental Music Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert Louis, III

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies related to teacher quality have found that teacher attrition rates are at an all-time high. Although much research has been conducted in the area of job satisfaction within the general teaching population, few studies of job satisfaction exist for instrumental music teachers. The purpose of this correlational study was to…

  20. Contextualized Literacy in Green Jobs Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Millions of adult Americans lack the basic literacy skills necessary to perform everyday tasks requiring basic reading and math. This stifles our economy, given that employers are increasingly likely to require education or training beyond high school. Organizations that provide job training to lower-skilled adults through Jobs for the Future's…

  1. Specific job anxiety in comparison to general psychosomatic symptoms at admission, discharge and six months after psychosomatic inpatient treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Job anxiety is a severe problem in many patients with chronic mental disorders, as it usually results in specific participation problems in the workplace and long-term sick leave. The aim of this study was to explore the development of sick leave in dependence on general psychosomatic complaints and job anxiety from admission to a psychosomatic inpatient treatment until 6 months after discharge. A convenience sample of 91 patients, suffering from multiple mental disorders, filled in self-rating questionnaires on job anxiety (Job Anxiety Scale) and on general psychosomatic symptom load (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised) at the beginning, the end, and 6 months after discharge from an inpatient psychosomatic treatment. Additionally, sick leave status and employment status were assessed before and 6 months after the treatment. 15.4% of 91 patients were on sick leave before inpatient treatment and at follow-up (SS group), 20.9% were fit for work at intake and follow-up (FF group), 6.6% were fit for work initially and on sick leave later (FS group), and 57.1% on sick leave first and working at follow-up (SF group). In regard to general psychosomatic complaints, there were initially high scores on the SCL, a marked reduction during inpatient treatment, and a bouncing back to initial levels at follow-up for all 4 patient groups. SS and FS patients showed the highest scores at intake and follow-up. Concerning job anxiety, SS patients had the highest scores at all three assessments, while FF patients had significantly lower scores, with only low variation between assessments. SF patients started with comparatively high scores of job anxiety, which even increased before reentering work, but decreased in the follow-up period when they were confronted with work again. FS patients started low (like the FF patients) at intake, reduced their job anxiety further till discharge, but increased to higher scores at follow-up. General psychosomatic symptom load and job anxiety show a

  2. Do High School STEM Courses Prepare Non-College Bound Youth for Jobs in the STEM Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozick, Robert; Srinivasan, Sinduja; Gottfried, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Our study assesses whether high school science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses provide non-college bound youth with the skills and training necessary to successfully transition from high school into the STEM economy. Specifically, our study estimates the effects that advanced math, advanced science, engineering, and…

  3. Tension Band Plating for Chronic Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in High-Performance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbeda, Robert M; Sculco, Peter K; Urch, Ekaterina Y; Lazaro, Lionel E; Borens, Olivier; Williams, Riley J; Lorich, Dean G; Wellman, David S; Helfet, David L

    2015-07-01

    Anterior tibial stress fractures are associated with high rates of delayed union and nonunion, which can be particularly devastating to a professional athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Current surgical treatment strategies include intramedullary nailing, which has satisfactory rates of fracture union but an associated risk of anterior knee pain. Anterior tension band plating is a biomechanically sound alternative treatment for these fractures. Tension band plating of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures leads to rapid healing and return to physical activity and avoids the anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2001 and 2013, there were 13 chronic anterior tibial stress fractures in 12 professional or collegiate athletes who underwent tension band plating after failing nonoperative management. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, injury history, and surgical details. Radiographs were used to assess time to osseous union. Follow-up notes and phone interviews were used to determine follow-up time, return to training time, and whether the patient was able to return to competition. Cases included 13 stress fractures in 12 patients (9 females, 3 males). Five patients were track-and-field athletes, 4 patients played basketball, 2 patients played volleyball, and 1 was a ballet dancer. Five patients were Division I collegiate athletes and 7 were professional or Olympic athletes. Average age at time of surgery was 23.6 years (range, 20-32 years). Osseous union occurred on average at 9.6 weeks (range, 5.3-16.9 weeks) after surgery. Patients returned to training on average at 11.1 weeks (range, 5.7-20 weeks). Ninety-two percent (12/13) eventually returned to preinjury competition levels. Thirty-eight percent (5/13) underwent removal of hardware for plate prominence. There was no incidence of infection or nonunion. Anterior tension band plating for chronic tibial stress

  4. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellor Duane D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range Exact Sig. (2-tailed] [33 (25 - 38 vs. 21.5 (6 - 35 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP [ 28.5 (17 - 20 vs. 34.5 (13-26 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62 vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68 vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.620.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  5. Chronic high-fat diet-induced obesity decreased survival and increased hypertrophy of rats with experimental eccentric hypertrophy from chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Wahiba; Drolet, Marie-Claude; Roussel, Elise; Couet, Jacques; Arsenault, Marie

    2014-09-24

    The composition of a diet can influence myocardial metabolism and development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The impact of a high-fat diet in chronic left ventricular volume overload (VO) causing eccentric LVH is unknown. This study examined the effects of chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet in rats with chronic VO caused by severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) on LVH, function and on myocardial energetics and survival. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Shams on control or high-fat (HF) diet (15 rats/group) and AR rats fed with the same diets (ARC (n = 56) and ARHF (n = 32)). HF diet was started one week before AR induction and the protocol was stopped 30 weeks later. As expected, AR caused significant LV dilation and hypertrophy and this was exacerbated in the ARHF group. Moreover, survival in the ARHF group was significantly decreased compared the ARC group. Although the sham animals on HF also developed significant obesity compared to those on control diet, this was not associated with heart hypertrophy. The HF diet in AR rats partially countered the expected shift in myocardial energy substrate preference usually observed in heart hypertrophy (from fatty acids towards glucose). Systolic function was decreased in AR rats but HF diet had no impact on this parameter. The response to HF diet of different fatty acid oxidation markers as well as the increase in glucose transporter-4 translocation to the plasma membrane compared to ARC was blunted in AR animals compared to those on control diet. HF diet for 30 weeks decreased survival of AR rats and worsened eccentric hypertrophy without affecting systolic function. The expected adaptation of myocardial energetics to volume-overload left ventricle hypertrophy in AR animals seemed to be impaired by the high-fat diet suggesting less metabolic flexibility.

  6. Central Sensitization and Perceived Indoor Climate among Workers with Chronic Upper-Limb Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    threshold (PPT) was measured in muscles of the arm, shoulder, and lower leg. Cross-sectional associations were determined using general linear models controlled for age, smoking, and job position. The number of indoor climate complaints was twice as high among workers with chronic pain compared with pain...

  7. Central sensitization and perceived indoor climate among workers with chronic upper-limb pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    threshold (PPT) was measured in muscles of the arm, shoulder, and lower leg. Cross-sectional associations were determined using general linear models controlled for age, smoking, and job position. The number of indoor climate complaints was twice as high among workers with chronic pain compared with pain...

  8. Adverse effect of combination of chronic psychosocial stress and high fat diet on hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2009-12-01

    The combined effects of high fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress on the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were studied in rats using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Chronic psychosocial stress and/or HFD were simultaneously administered for 3 months to young adult male Wister rats. In the RAWM, rats were subjected to 12 learning trials as well as short-term and long-term memory tests. This procedure was applied on a daily basis until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and in memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Groups were compared based on the number of errors per trial or test as well as on the DTC. Chronic stress, HFD and chronic stress/HFD animal groups showed impaired learning as indicated by committing significantly (Pchronic stress, HFD and chronic stress/HFD groups showed significantly impaired performance compared to control group. Additionally, the stress/HFD was the only group that showed significantly impaired performance in memory tests on the 5th training day, suggesting more severe memory impairment in that group. Furthermore, DTC value for above groups indicated that chronic stress or HFD, alone, resulted in a mild impairment of spatial memory, but the combination of chronic stress and HFD resulted in a more severe and long-lasting memory impairment. The data indicated that the combination of stress and HFD produced more deleterious effects on hippocampal cognitive function than either chronic stress or HFD alone.

  9. When selection ratios are high: predicting the expatriation willingness of prospective domestic entry-level job applicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.T.; Born, M.P.; Willemsen, M.E.; van der Molen, H.T.; Derous, E.

    2009-01-01

    High expatriate selection ratios thwart the ability of multinational organizations to select expatriates. Reducing the selection ratio may be accomplished by selecting those applicants for entry level domestic positions who have expatriate aspirations. Regression analyses conducted on data from a

  10. The organ specificity in pathological damage of chronic intermittent hypoxia: an experimental study on rat with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Jian-li; Feng, Shu-zhi; Sun, Ning; Chen, Bao-yuan; Zhang, Yun

    2013-09-01

    It is known today that sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and its characteristic chronic intermittent hypoxia can cause damages to multiple organs, including the cardiovascular system, urinary system, and liver. It is still unclear, however, whether the damage caused by sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and the severity of the damage are organ-specific. This research observed the pathological effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on rat's thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney, under the condition of lipid metabolism disturbance, through establishing the rat model of chronic intermittent hypoxia with high-fat diet by imitating the features of human sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. In this model, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group fed by regular diet, a high-fat group fed by high-fat diet, and a high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group fed by high-fat diet and treated with intermittent hypoxia 7 h a day. At the end of the ninth week, the pathological changes of rat's organs, including the thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney are observed (under both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). As the result of the experiment shows, while there was no abnormal effect observed on any organs of the control group, slight pathological changes were found in the organs of the high-fat group. For the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, however, remarkably severer damages were found on all the organs. It also showed that the severity of the damage varies by organ in the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, with the thoracic aorta being the worst, followed by the liver and myocardium, and the kidney being the slightest. Chronic intermittent hypoxia can lead to multiple-organ damage to rat with high-fat diet. Different organs appear to have different sensitivity to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

  11. JOB ANXIETY, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and work experience with job satisfaction. ... were more likely to perceive the appraisal as unfair and inappropriate (Desai and ... Working freedom, salary and fringe benefits are the major factors ..... Men, women and attitudinal commitment:.

  12. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Bester

    2006-09-01

    categories of dominant career anchors. No significant differences regarding job satisfaction between psychologists with and without service as dominant career orientation could be determined. Both groups experienced a fairly high degree of job satisfaction and a higher level of intrinsic job satisfaction occurred compared to extrinsic job satisfaction. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of job involvement occurred. Psychologists with service as dominant career orientation showed a higher level of job involvement, although the degree of job involvement for both groups was fairly low. No significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement among psychologists with different career orientations could be found.

  13. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, C L; Mouton, T

    2006-08-01

    career anchors. No significant differences regarding job satisfaction between psychologists with and without service as dominant career orientation could be determined. Both groups experienced a fairly high degree of job satisfaction and a higher level of intrinsic job satisfaction occurred compared to extrinsic job satisfaction. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of job involvement occurred. Psychologists with service as dominant career orientation showed a higher level of job involvement, although the degree of job involvement for both groups was fairly low. No significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement among psychologists with different career orientations could be found.

  14. Research on readiness for job creation through one's own agribusiness startup

    OpenAIRE

    Vojnović Boško; Stefanović Vidoje; Vojnović Dragana; Perović Milorad

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problems of jobs, employment, staff hiring in the agriindustrial complex, job description and requirements, theoretical and practical job cost indicators, and the willingness of our people to create new jobs by starting up their own private agribusiness. The results indicate a chronic lack of private funds necessary for every new business as well as the inevitability of borrowing. Potential entrepreneurs know the advantages and the disadvantages of solo and partnership...

  15. Optimal Taxation with On-the-Job Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Moen, Espen R.; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the optimal taxation of labor income in the presence of search frictions. Heterogeneous workers undertake costly search off- and on-the-job in order to locate more productive jobs that pay higher wages. More productive workers search harder, resulting in equilibrium sorting where low......-type workers are overrepresented in low-wage jobs while high-type workers are overrepresented in high-wage jobs. Absent taxes, worker search effort is efficient, because the social and private gains from search coincide. The optimal tax system balance efficiency and equity concerns at the margin. Equity...... concerns make it desirable to levy low taxes on (or indeed, subsidize) low-wage jobs including unemployment, and levy high taxes on high-wage jobs. Efficiency concerns limit how much taxes an optimal tax system levy on high-paid jobs, as high taxes distort the workers' incentives to search. The model...

  16. Second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors prevent disease progression in high-risk (high CIP2A) chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Harris, R J; Holcroft, A K; Scott, L J; Carmell, N; McDonald, E; Polydoros, F; Clark, R E

    2015-07-01

    High cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein levels at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) are predictive of disease progression in imatinib-treated patients. It is not known whether this is true in patients treated with second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G TKI) from diagnosis, and whether 2G TKIs modulate the CIP2A pathway. Here, we show that patients with high diagnostic CIP2A levels who receive a 2G TKI do not progress, unlike those treated with imatinib (P=<0.0001). 2G TKIs induce more potent suppression of CIP2A and c-Myc than imatinib. The transcription factor E2F1 is elevated in high CIP2A patients and following 1 month of in vivo treatment 2G TKIs suppress E2F1 and reduce CIP2A; these effects are not seen with imatinib. Silencing of CIP2A, c-Myc or E2F1 in K562 cells or CML CD34+ cells reactivates PP2A leading to BCR-ABL suppression. CIP2A increases proliferation and this is only reduced by 2G TKIs. Patients with high CIP2A levels should be offered 2G TKI treatment in preference to imatinib. 2G TKIs disrupt the CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, leading to lower disease progression risk. The data supports the view that CIP2A inhibits PP2Ac, stabilising E2F1, creating a CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, which imatinib cannot overcome.

  17. Effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mahdi; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Salati, Amir Parviz; Ghaedi, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout. Rainbow trout juveniles (42.6 ± 2.3 g average body weight) were randomly distributed into six tanks at two stocking densities (low stocking density (LD) = 20 kg m -3 and high stocking density (HD) = 80 kg m -3 ). Both treatments were performed in triplicate tanks for a period of 60 days. High stocking density caused a reduction in the growth performance compared with LD fish. Lysozyme activity increased with stocking density, while serum complement activity presented the opposite pattern. Serum cortisol and total protein levels did not show significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental groups. The fish reared at high stocking density showed significantly lower osmolality and globulin values but higher albumin level. The HD group had significantly higher activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde content in the liver when compared to the LD group. Comparative proteomics was used to determine the proteomic responses in livers of rainbow trout reared at high stocking density for 60 days. Out of nine protein spots showing altered abundance (>1.5-folds, P < 0.05), eight spots were successfully identified. Two proteins including apolipoprotein A-I-2 precursor and mitochondrial stress-70 protein were found to increase in HD group. The spots found to decrease in the HD group were identified as follows: 2-peptidylprolyl isomerase A, two isoforms of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an unnamed protein product similar to fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, and serum albumin 1 protein.

  18. Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M

    2007-03-01

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation. Burnout is a negative affective response occurring as a result of chronic work stress. While the early theories of burnout focused exclusively on work-related stressors, recent research adopts a more integrative approach where both environmental and individual factors are studied. Nevertheless, such studies are scarce with teacher samples. The present cross-sectional study sought to investigate the association between burnout, personality characteristics and job stressors in primary school teachers from Cyprus. The study also investigates the relative contribution of these variables on the three facets of burnout - emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. A representative sample of 447 primary school teachers participated in the study. Teachers completed measures of burnout, personality and job stressors along with demographic and professional data. Surveys were delivered by courier to schools, and were distributed at faculty meetings. Results showed that both personality and work-related stressors were associated with burnout dimensions. Neuroticism was a common predictor of all dimensions of burnout although in personal accomplishment had a different direction. Managing student misbehaviour and time constraints were found to systematically predict dimensions of burnout. Teachers' individual characteristics as well as job related stressors should be taken into consideration when studying the burnout phenomenon. The fact that each dimension of the syndrome is predicted by different variables should not remain unnoticed especially when designing and implementing intervention programmes to reduce burnout in teachers.

  19. Job-Structure and Job-Related Information

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 善郎

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of job-related information in many domain, such as personnel selection, placement, training, personnel appraisal, job evaluation, job design etc, have developed many techniques of job analysis.In this paper, several approaches to analyze the job characteristics are reviewed; (a) conventional approach, (b) worker-oriented approach, and (c) perceived job characteristics approach.In addition, new direction of job-related information is discussed.

  20. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanda, Francine Nesello; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Gabani, Flávia Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome that results from chronic stress at work, with several consequences to workers’ well-being and health. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence of the physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout in prospective studies. The PubMed, Science Direct, PsycInfo, SciELO, LILACS and Web of Science databases were searched without language or date restrictions. The Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective studies that analyzed burnout as the exposure condition were included. Among the 993 articles initially identified, 61 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 36 were analyzed because they met three criteria that must be followed in prospective studies. Burnout was a significant predictor of the following physical consequences: hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hospitalization due to cardiovascular disorder, musculoskeletal pain, changes in pain experiences, prolonged fatigue, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, respiratory problems, severe injuries and mortality below the age of 45 years. The psychological effects were insomnia, depressive symptoms, use of psychotropic and antidepressant medications, hospitalization for mental disorders and psychological ill-health symptoms. Job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, new disability pension, job demands, job resources and presenteeism were identified as professional outcomes. Conflicting findings were observed. In conclusion, several prospective and high-quality studies showed physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout. The individual and social impacts of burnout highlight the need for preventive interventions and early identification of this health condition in the work environment. PMID:28977041

  1. [Job performance and climacteric in female workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alide; Paravic, Tatiana

    2005-03-01

    During climacteric, the presence of disabling symptoms and the higher incidence of chronic diseases, may impair the job performance of women. To relate job performance levels with the climacteric period and associated factors in working women aged from 42 to 55 years old. In a cross-sectional and correlative design, 64 secretaries at two public organizations at the Eighth Region of Chile, were assessed using the following instruments: Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (University of Toronto), adapted for Chile by PROSAM, Climacteric Self-care Questionnaire, Perceived Social Support Scale and Biodemographics Variables Questionnaire. A Perception of the Job Performance Scale was applied to the persons that superintended these woman. The Department Heads or persons supervising these women, determined that most workers did their work well. The best evaluations were given by older bosses. Most women under study showed a moderate alteration of the Menopause Quality of Life. A deficit of self-care during the climacteric period was detected in 92.2%. The perceived social support from friends correlated with job performance. Menopause quality of life in its different domains had no correlation with job performance variable. No association between changes during the climacteric period and job performance was observed among women participating in this study.

  2. Stress in highly demanding IT jobs: transformational leadership moderates the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrek, Christine J; Apostel, Ella; Antoni, Conny H

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate transformational leadership as a potential moderator of the negative relationship of time pressure to work-life balance and of the positive relationship between time pressure and exhaustion. Recent research regards time pressure as a challenge stressor; while being positively related to motivation and performance, time pressure also increases employee strain and decreases well-being. Building on the Job Demand-Resources model, we hypothesize that transformational leadership moderates the relationships between time pressure and both employees' exhaustion and work-life balance such that both relationships will be weaker when transformational leadership is higher. Of seven information technology organizations in Germany, 262 employees participated in the study. Established scales for time pressure, transformational leadership, work-life balance, and exhaustion were used, all showing good internal consistencies. The results support our assumptions. Specifically, we find that under high transformational leadership the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance was less strong. The results of this study suggest that, particularly under high time pressure, transformational leadership is an important factor for both employees' work-life balance and exhaustion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  4. Focus on the Finish Line: Does High-Impact Practice Participation Influence Career Plans and Early Job Attainment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Rocconi, Louis M.; Dumford, Amber D.

    2018-01-01

    High-impact practices (HIPs) are important co-curricular educational experiences in post-secondary education, as they promote learning, development, and persistence among students. The goal of this study was to extend the research on HIPs to explore potential connections with HIP participation and career outcomes. Using data from the National…

  5. Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Matthew S; Carter, Cameron S; Decant, Rashel; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-08-15

    Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, which can induce palatable "comfort" food consumption, may trigger or reinforce neural pathways leading to stronger reactions to highly rewarding foods. We implemented functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether chronic stress influences activation in reward, motivation and executive brain regions in response to pictures of high calorie and low calorie foods in thirty women. On separate lab visits, we also assessed food intake from a snack food buffet and circulating cortisol. In women reporting higher chronic stress (HCS), pictures of high calorie foods elicited exaggerated activity in regions of the brain involving reward, motivation, and habitual decision-making. In response to pictures of high calorie food, higher chronic stress was also associated with significant deactivation in frontal regions (BA10; BA46) linked to strategic planning and emotional control. In functional connectivity analysis, HCS strengthened connectivity between amygdala and the putamen, while LCS enhanced connectivity between amygdala and the anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10). A hypocortisolemic signature and more consumption of high calorie foods from the snack buffet were observed in the HCS group. These results suggest that persistent stress exposure may alter the brain's response to food in ways that predispose individuals to poor eating habits which, if sustained, may increase risk for obesity. © 2013.

  6. The job self-efficacy and job involvement of clinical nursing teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ling; Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching

    2006-09-01

    This paper explored the present status of self-efficacy and job involvement of clinical nursing teachers and investigated the predictive power of teachers' personal background variables on such, as well as the relationship between self-efficacy and job involvement. A total of 419 participants in the survey sample were chosen among clinical nursing teachers at 19 public and private institutes of technology and junior colleges in Taiwan in 2004. The self-developed structural questionnaire was categorized into three sections, including personal background data, job self-efficacy related to the clinical teaching inventory and job involvement related to clinical teaching inventory. Of the total 419 questionnaires distributed for this cross-sectional survey, 266 valid copies were registered, at a recovery rate of 63%. Findings indicated that both the job self-efficacy and job involvement of clinical nursing teachers are at a medium to high level and that significant differences exist in job self-efficacy and job involvement based on differences in age, marital status, teaching seniority, teacher qualifications, and job satisfaction. Second, samples have significantly different performance in self-efficacy due to differences in education level attained and the medical institution to which nursing teachers had been assigned. Self-efficacy and job involvement are significantly positively correlated. These results can serve as a reference for the cultivation of nursing teachers and reform of clinical nursing education in the future.

  7. Communication Techniques for Individual and Organizational Coping with Job Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Michael

    This paper reviews the literature on the causes of job burnout, a condition which has been linked with high personnel turnover, friction with co-workers and supervisors, increased dissatisfaction with both the job and the organization, job withdrawal, decreased productivity and absenteeism. The paper discusses the communication skills necessary to…

  8. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and Job Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, M.U.

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between job flows and wages in the U.S. manufacturing sector, where wage differentials for seemingly identical workers and job reallocation rates are shown to be negatively correlated across 3-digit industries.High wage industries have the lowest turnover of jobs,

  9. Do Job Security Guarantees Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...

  10. Job demand-control and job stress at work: A cross-sectional study among prison staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Jafar; Akbari, Rouhollah; Shakerian, Mahnaz; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Job stress can impose significant costs to the workplaces and organizations due to some issues such as absenteeism, less productivity, and medical costs. Job overload and lack of decision latitude can lead to job stress. The current study aimed to investigate the job demands and control as predictor of job stress and its relationship, with some of the demographic characteristics of Iranian prison staff. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 171 male employees working in four prisons located in Ilam, Iran. The sampling method was census and all four prisons’ staff were selected to respond the Job Content Questionnaires. Finally, the data were analyzed using t-test or independent samples test as well as SPSS 20. Results: The highest amount of job demand (mean = 21.28) and the lowest amount of job control on average (9.76) were reported by those staff working in Darehshahr prison. There was also a significant relationship between job post and job control among the prison staff (β = −0.375, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The level of job stress reported by prison staff was high in this study mainly caused by high job demand and low job control, especially in Darehshahr prison staff. PMID:28546980

  11. The future of work: How G20 countries can leverage digital-industrial innovations into stronger high-quality jobs growth

    OpenAIRE

    Annunziata, Marco; Bourgeois, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    A new wave of innovation is beginning to disrupt industry on a global scale. It constitutes a tremendous opportunity for faster productivity growth, but also a potential disruption to a number of economic sectors and to job markets. Academic research and the public debate have focused mostly on the threat that innovation poses to jobs and wages. This paper instead suggests that (i) these same technological disruptions make human capital more important than ever for companies' strategies; (ii)...

  12. Job sharing. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K; Forbes, R

    1989-01-01

    This article is the first of a three part series discussing the impact of nurses job sharing at University Hospital, London, Ontario. This first article explores the advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for staff nurses and their supervising nurse manager, as discussed in the literature. The results of a survey conducted on a unit with a large number of job sharing positions, concur with literature findings. The second article will present the evaluation of a pilot project in which two nurses job share a first line managerial position in the Operating Room. The third article will relate the effects of job sharing on women's perceived general well being. Job sharing in all areas, is regarded as a positive experience by both nurse and administrators.

  13. Exploring job embeddedness' antecedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadeer Mohamed Badr ElDin Aboul-Ela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Employees are the key resources of organizational success. Developing and maintaining job embeddedness is a cornerstone success in the workplace. The purpose of this research study is to analyze selected antecedents of job embeddedness. Role ambiguity, training, and demographics (age groups, gender and education were identified from the extant literature as the selected antecedents for this study. An in-depth statistical analysis of the job embeddedness sub-dimensions was conducted in relation to the selected antecedents. Questionnaires were administered among the employees working in the private banks in Egypt. Results revealed a negative relationship between role ambiguity and job embeddedness, a positive relationship between training and job embeddedness, elder employees held higher level of embeddedness compared to young employees, females possessed higher level of embeddedness compared to males, and no significant differences among the various education levels and job embeddedness.

  14. Motor unit properties of biceps brachii in chronic stroke patients assessed with high-density surface EMG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate motor unit (MU) characteristics of the biceps brachii in post-stroke patients, using high-density surface electromyography (sEMG). Eighteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients took part. The Fugl-Meyer score for the upper extremity was assessed. Subjects

  15. Characteristics of highly impaired children with severe chronic pain: a 5-year retrospective study on 2249 pediatric pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernikow Boris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of pain as a recurrent symptom in children is known to be high, but little is known about children with high impairment from chronic pain seeking specialized treatment. The purpose of this study was the precise description of children with high impairment from chronic pain referred to the German Paediatric Pain Centre over a 5-year period. Methods Demographic variables, pain characteristics and psychometric measures were assessed at the first evaluation. Subgroup analysis for sex, age and pain location was conducted and multivariate logistic regression applied to identify parameters associated with extremely high impairment. Results The retrospective study consisted of 2249 children assessed at the first evaluation. Tension type headache (48%, migraine (43% and functional abdominal pain (11% were the most common diagnoses with a high rate of co-occurrence; 18% had some form of musculoskeletal pain disease. Irrespective of pain location, chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors was diagnosed frequently (43%. 55% of the children suffered from more than one distinct pain diagnosis. Clinically significant depression and general anxiety scores were expressed by 24% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Girls over the age of 13 were more likely to seek tertiary treatment compared to boys. Nearly half of children suffered from daily or constant pain with a mean pain value of 6/10. Extremely high pain-related impairment, operationalized as a comprehensive measure of pain duration, frequency, intensity, pain-related school absence and disability, was associated with older age, multiple locations of pain, increased depression and prior hospital stays. 43% of the children taking analgesics had no indication for pharmacological treatment. Conclusion Children with chronic pain are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as they often have two or more different pain diagnoses, are prone to misuse of

  16. Job Satisfaction and the Neglected Variable of Job Seniority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha

    1978-01-01

    This research investigates the hypotheses that the relationship between job seniority and job satisfaction will resemble a curvilinear function of a U-shaped curve, while age and job level will be linearly related to job satisfaction; and that intrinsic rather than extrinsic aspects of job satisfaction will be the major contributor to the U-shaped…

  17. An economic analysis of high-dose imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib for imatinib-resistant chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia in China: A CHEERS-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Maobai; Li, Te; Lin, Houwen; Zhong, Hua

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to test the cost-effectiveness of dasatinib compared to high-dose imatinib and nilotinib in Chinese patients who were diagnosed with imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). A Markov model combined with clinical effectiveness, utility, and cost data was used. The sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the robustness of the model outcomes. The impact of patient assistance programs (PAPs) was assessed. Treatment with dasatinib is expected to produce 3.65, 0.59, and 0.15 more quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in comparison with high-dose imatinib (600 and 800 mg) and nilotinib, respectively. When a PAP was available, dasatinib yielded an incremental cost of $16,417 per QALY compared to imatinib (600 mg) and was cost-saving compared to imatinib (800 mg) and nilotinib. When PAP is available in the Chinese setting, dasatinib is likely to be a cost-effective strategy for patients with CML-CP standard-dose imatinib resistance. The results should be carefully explained due to the assumptions and limitations used in the study.

  18. Combined stent placement and high dose PGE1 drip infusion for chronic occlusion of the superficial femoral artery as a modality to salvage chronic critical limb ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Miyakonojo Medical Association Hospital, 5822-3 Oiwadacho, Miyakonojo 885-0062 (Japan)], E-mail: iku-i@fk.enjoy.ne.jp; Hirai, Toshinori [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University (Japan); Ishii, Akihiko [Department of Radiology, Miyakonojo Medical Association Hospital, 5822-3 Oiwadacho, Miyakonojo 885-0062 (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the initial effect, short-term patency, and limb salvage rates of combined stent placement and high-dose prostaglandin E-1 (PGE1) drip infusion for chronic occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Materials and methods: A total of 15 arteriosclerotic occlusive lesions of the SFA were treated in 11 consecutive patients (mean age: 78.4 years old). All cases were of category 4 or 5, based on the criteria of the Society of Vascular Surgery and Intermittent Society for Cardiovascular Surgery (SVC/ISCVS). In all cases a self-expandable stainless steel stent was implanted. PGE1 treatment was started 3-5 days before stent placement and continued for 7-10 days after the intervention. The technical success, limb salvage outcomes, patency rates, and complications were examined. Results: In all cases, the technical success rate of the procedure was 100%. After stent implantation, the clinical status of all cases was improved by at least +2, and major amputation was not required in any cases. The 12-month primary, secondary patency rates, and limb salvage rate were 57%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Combined stent placement and high-dose PGE1 drip infusion is a treatment of choice for salvaging the lower limb of a patient with chronic critical ischemia.

  19. Can job sharing work for nurse managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, Laurence; Ahmling, Janette A; Bujas, Lenka

    2006-02-01

    Addressing employer reluctance to employ nurse managers in a job-sharing capacity, the aim of this paper is to explore job sharing among nurse managers. The literature highlighted potential fragmentation of leadership, breakdown of communication and higher costs as issues, with the retention of experienced highly motivated managers identified as an advantage. A staff survey explored whether the job-sharing arrangement trialled in a day surgery setting by two nurse managers was successful compared with similar roles held by full-time managers. This paper suggests that nurse managers can successfully job share. Overall, this paper recommends that employers consider a job-sharing arrangement when they wish to retain experienced nurse managers, and highlights aspects that can enhance a successful outcome.

  20. Impact of job characteristics on psychological health of Chinese single working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, D Y; Tang, C S

    2001-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of individual and contextual job characteristics of control, psychological and physical demand, and security on psychological distress of 193 Chinese single working women in Hong Kong. The mediating role of job satisfaction in the job characteristics-distress relation is also assessed. Multiple regression analysis results show that job satisfaction mediates the effects of job control and security in predicting psychological distress; whereas psychological job demand has an independent effect on mental distress after considering the effect of job satisfaction. This main effect model indicates that psychological distress is best predicted by small company size, high psychological job demand, and low job satisfaction. Results from a separate regression analysis fails to support the overall combined effect of job demand-control on psychological distress. However, a significant physical job demand-control interaction effect on mental distress is noted, which reduces slightly after controlling the effect of job satisfaction.

  1. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury

  2. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Hosseini, S.K. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Alavi, S.A. [Medical Center for Chemical Warfare Victims Foundation, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury.

  3. High-throughput sequencing of plasma microRNA in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekua W Brenu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to regulate many biological processes and their dysregulation has been associated with a variety of diseases including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME. The recent discovery of stable and reproducible miRNA in plasma has raised the possibility that circulating miRNAs may serve as novel diagnostic markers. The objective of this study was to determine the role of plasma miRNA in CFS/ME. RESULTS: Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we identified 19 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the plasma of CFS/ME patients in comparison to non-fatigued controls. Following RT-qPCR analysis, we were able to confirm the significant up-regulation of three miRNAs (hsa-miR-127-3p, hsa-miR-142-5p and hsa-miR-143-3p in the CFS/ME patients. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to identify circulating miRNAs from CFS/ME patients and also to confirm three differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in CFS/ME patients, providing a basis for further study to find useful CFS/ME biomarkers.

  4. High-Throughput Sequencing of Plasma MicroRNA in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenu, Ekua W.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Batovska, Jana; Staines, Donald R.; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M.

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate many biological processes and their dysregulation has been associated with a variety of diseases including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The recent discovery of stable and reproducible miRNA in plasma has raised the possibility that circulating miRNAs may serve as novel diagnostic markers. The objective of this study was to determine the role of plasma miRNA in CFS/ME. Results Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we identified 19 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the plasma of CFS/ME patients in comparison to non-fatigued controls. Following RT-qPCR analysis, we were able to confirm the significant up-regulation of three miRNAs (hsa-miR-127-3p, hsa-miR-142-5p and hsa-miR-143-3p) in the CFS/ME patients. Conclusion Our study is the first to identify circulating miRNAs from CFS/ME patients and also to confirm three differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in CFS/ME patients, providing a basis for further study to find useful CFS/ME biomarkers. PMID:25238588

  5. Use of high performance technologies in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streltov Ion

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord neurostimulation is a minimally invasive treatment method for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to treatment, and is part of top technology in field. Relatively recent introduction of this method in the Neurosurgery Clinic “Prof. Dr. N. Oblu” of Iasi has aligned the clinic’s therapeutic arsenal to world standards. This has made it possible to treat in Romania a category of patients who would be treated abroad until now. Our clinic has entered the “National Program for diagnostic and treatment using high performance equipment” - Subprogram of treatment of neuropathic pain by implant of a spinal cord neurostimulator and is currently the only one in Romania where this treatment can be done. This represents a new step in the transformation process of the Clinical Hospital Emergency “Prof. Dr. N. Oblu” Iasi in a real Center of Excellence in the field Neurosurgery. The team dealing with the implant consists of 3 neurosurgeons, a neurologist, pa sychologist and an anesthetist, trained in a specialized foreign center.

  6. Association of high post-transplant soluble CD30 serum levels with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcello F; Soares, Maria Fernanda; Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Gerbase-Delima, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of post-transplant soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels, isolated or in combination with of anti-HLA class II antibodies and of serum creatinine levels, with kidney graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and type of lesions in graft biopsies for cause. The study comprised 511 first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 2.8 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient. sCD30 levels were determined by ELISA, and HLA antibodies by Luminex assay. The minimum follow-up after testing was 9.3 years. High sCD30 levels, set at sCD30 ≥ 34.15 ng/mL, the presence of HLA class II antibodies, and serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL were independently associated with CAN-graft loss (P values sCD30 levels and creatinine were independently associated with interstitial lesions. Post-transplant sCD30 serum levels, especially in conjunction with information regarding HLA class II antibodies and serum creatinine levels, provide valuable information regarding graft outcome and could be useful for the management of kidney transplant recipients. © 2013.

  7. High-Intensity Chronic Stroke Motor Imagery Neurofeedback Training at Home: Three Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; Schweinitz, Clara; Sterr, Annette; Meekes, Joost; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2017-11-01

    Motor imagery (MI) with neurofeedback has been suggested as promising for motor recovery after stroke. Evidence suggests that regular training facilitates compensatory plasticity, but frequent training is difficult to integrate into everyday life. Using a wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system, we implemented a frequent and efficient neurofeedback training at the patients' home. Aiming to overcome maladaptive changes in cortical lateralization patterns we presented a visual feedback, representing the degree of contralateral sensorimotor cortical activity and the degree of sensorimotor cortex lateralization. Three stroke patients practiced every other day, over a period of 4 weeks. Training-related changes were evaluated on behavioral, functional, and structural levels. All 3 patients indicated that they enjoyed the training and were highly motivated throughout the entire training regime. EEG activity induced by MI of the affected hand became more lateralized over the course of training in all three patients. The patient with a significant functional change also showed increased white matter integrity as revealed by diffusion tensor imaging, and a substantial clinical improvement of upper limb motor functions. Our study provides evidence that regular, home-based practice of MI neurofeedback has the potential to facilitate cortical reorganization and may also increase associated improvements of upper limb motor function in chronic stroke patients.

  8. A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic response to chronic high-fat diet consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, E; Frank, A P; Palmer, B F; Rodriguez-Navas, C; Criollo, A; Clegg, D J

    2016-02-01

    In this review, we discuss the observations that, following chronic high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, male mice have higher levels of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and total sphingolipids, whereas lower amounts of polyunsaturated FAs in the central nervous system (CNS) than females. Furthermore, males, when compared with female mice, have higher levels of inflammatory markers in the hypothalamus following exposure to HFD. The increase in markers of inflammation in male mice is possibly due to the reductions in proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which is not recapitulated in female mice. Consistently, hypothalamic inflammation is induced both in male and female ERα total-body knockout mice when exposed to a HFD, thus confirming the key role of ERα in the regulation of HFD-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Finally, the HFD-induced depletion of hypothalamic ERα is associated with dysregulation in metabolic homeostasis, as evidenced by reductions in glucose tolerance and decrements in myocardial function.

  9. The Effect of High-Frequency Stimulation on Sensory Thresholds in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Youngwon; Smith, Heather; Morris, Brian; Argoff, Charles; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation (HFS) has recently gained attention as an alternative to parameters used in traditional spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Because HFS is paresthesia free, the gate theory of pain control as a basis of SCS has been called into question. The mechanism of action of HFS remains unclear. We compare the effects of HFS and traditional SCS on quantitative sensory testing parameters to provide insight into how HFS modulates the nervous system. Using quantitative sensory testing, we measured thermal detection and pain thresholds and mechanical detection and pressure pain thresholds, as well as vibratory detection, in 20 SCS patients off stimulation (OFF), on traditional stimulation (ON) and on HFS in a randomized order. HFS significantly increased the mechanical detection threshold compared to OFF stimulation (p < 0.001) and traditional SCS (p = 0.01). Pressure pain detection and vibratory detection thresholds also significantly increased with HFS compared to ON states (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). In addition, HFS significantly decreased 10- and 40-gram pinprick detection compared to OFF states (both p = 0.01). No significant differences between OFF, ON and HFS states were seen in thermal and thermal pain detection. HFS is a new means of modulating chronic pain. The mechanism by which HFS works seems to differ from that of traditional SCS, offering a new platform for innovative advancements in treatment and a greater potential to treat patients by customizing waveforms. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. High-resolution computed tomography findings in chronic eosinophilic vs. cryptogenic organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrian, P; Doroudinia, A; Rashti, A; Aloosh, O; Dorudinia, A

    2017-11-01

    The similar clinical and computed tomography (CT) characteristics of cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) make precise diagnosis challenging. To help differentiate between COP and CEP using high-resolution CT (HRCT). Clinical data and HRCT images of COP and CEP patients referred to Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2007 to 2015 were reviewed. Diagnosis of COP or CEP was confirmed using open lung biopsy or a combination of transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, peripheral eosinophilia and a favourable response to corticosteroids. Ground-glass opacity, a dominant ground-glass pattern, upper-lobe pneumonia, increased thickness of bronchial walls and a mosaic pattern in the lungs were more frequent in CEP. Lower-lobe pneumonia, subpleural reticulation, a dominant consolidation pattern, nodules and masses, non-septal linear opacities, bronchial dilation and a reverse halo sign were more frequent in COP. History of asthma, wheezing and peripheral eosinophilia was significantly more common in CEP than in COP. Distinguishing between CEP and COP based on HRCT alone is not always possible. However, in many cases, especially if the correct diagnosis cannot be established by other means, certain HRCT features can be very helpful.

  11. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1 evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2 explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  12. Efficacy of high iodine concentration contrast medium with saline pushing in hepatic CT in patients with chronic liver disease. Comparison of high doses-standard contrast medium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Munetaka; Kondo, Tamaki; Nishikawa, Takahiro; Kuginuki, Yasuaki; Yokota, Hajime; Higashi, Kotaro; Tonami, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the enhancement of liver parenchyama with high iodine concentration contrast medium with saline pushing to that with high doses standard iodine concentration in hepatic CT in patients with chronic liver disease. There was no statistically significant difference regarding to the enhancement of liver parenchyama between the 370 mgI/ml of contrast medium with saline pushing and high doses standard iodine concentration contrast medium. (author)

  13. Job involvement and job satisfaction of South African nurses compared with other professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kaplan

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed primarily to compare the work outcomes of job satisfaction and job involvement of South African nurses with those of members of 13 other professional groups in South Africa and with American nurses where data was available. Secondary aims included identifying areas where job satisfaction was particularly low and demonstrating the relative independence of the job involvement and job satisfaction constructs. A questionnaire incorporating the Kanungo Job Involvement Scale and the Short Form of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire was mailed to random samples of people between the ages of 29 and 41 drawn from 14 professional registers. There were 114 nurses in the final sample and 1677members of other professions. Differences among professions were tested for significance using one-way analyses of variance and Bonferroni ranges tests. South African Nurses were shown to have extremely low job satisfaction relative to American nurses and to other professional groups in South-Africa. By contrast their job involvement was moderately high. The implications of these findings for the medical profession as a whole and for nurses in particular are discussed. The fear is expressed that wide spread dissatisfaction may lead to fewer people entering the profession and highly trained people leaving.

  14. Job satisfaction among control room operators of electrical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaia, Amanda A Silva; Marqueze, Elaine C; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Fischer, Frida Marina; Moreno, Claudia R C

    2012-01-01

    Shift workers from control centers of electrical systems are a group that has received little attention in Brazil. This study aimed to compare workers' job satisfaction at five control centers of a Brazilian company electrical system, and according to their job titles. The Organization Satisfaction Index (OSI) questionnaire to assess job satisfaction was used. ANOVA was used to compare OSI means, according to job title and control center. The results showed that there is no difference in job satisfaction among job titles, but a significant difference was found according to the control center. A single organizational culture cannot be applied to several branches. It is required to implement actions that would result in job satisfaction improvements among workers of all studied control rooms centers. The high level of education of operators working in all centers might have contributed to the similar values of perceived satisfaction among distinct job titles.

  15. Job satisfaction trends during nurses' early career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction is an important component of nurses' lives that can impact on patient safety, productivity and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover, commitment to the organisation and the profession. Little is known about job satisfaction in early career and how it varies for different groups of nurses. This paper investigates how the components of job satisfaction vary during early career in newly qualified UK nurses. Methods Nurses were sampled using a combined census and multi-stage approach (n = 3962. Data were collected by questionnaire at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years after qualification between 1998 and 2001. Scores were calculated for seven job satisfaction components and a single item that measured satisfaction with pay. Scores were compared longitudinally and between nursing speciality (general, children's, mental health using a mixed model approach. Results No single pattern across time emerged. Trends varied by branch and job satisfaction component. Rank order of job satisfaction components, from high to low scores, was very similar for adult and child branch nurses and different for mental health. Nurses were least satisfied with pay and most satisfied with relationships at 6 and 18 months and with resources (adult and child and relationships (mental health at 3 years. Trends were typically upwards for adult branch nurses, varied for children's nurses and downwards for mental health nurses. Conclusion The impact of time on job satisfaction in early career is highly dependent on specialism. Different contexts, settings and organisational settings lead to varying experiences. Future research should focus on understanding the relationships between job characteristics and the components of job satisfaction rather than job satisfaction as a unitary construct. Research that further investigates the benefits of a formal one year preceptorship or probationary period is needed.

  16. Job satisfaction trends during nurses' early career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrells, Trevor; Robinson, Sarah; Griffiths, Peter

    2008-06-05

    Job satisfaction is an important component of nurses' lives that can impact on patient safety, productivity and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover, commitment to the organisation and the profession. Little is known about job satisfaction in early career and how it varies for different groups of nurses. This paper investigates how the components of job satisfaction vary during early career in newly qualified UK nurses. Nurses were sampled using a combined census and multi-stage approach (n = 3962). Data were collected by questionnaire at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years after qualification between 1998 and 2001. Scores were calculated for seven job satisfaction components and a single item that measured satisfaction with pay. Scores were compared longitudinally and between nursing speciality (general, children's, mental health) using a mixed model approach. No single pattern across time emerged. Trends varied by branch and job satisfaction component. Rank order of job satisfaction components, from high to low scores, was very similar for adult and child branch nurses and different for mental health. Nurses were least satisfied with pay and most satisfied with relationships at 6 and 18 months and with resources (adult and child) and relationships (mental health) at 3 years. Trends were typically upwards for adult branch nurses, varied for children's nurses and downwards for mental health nurses. The impact of time on job satisfaction in early career is highly dependent on specialism. Different contexts, settings and organisational settings lead to varying experiences. Future research should focus on understanding the relationships between job characteristics and the components of job satisfaction rather than job satisfaction as a unitary construct. Research that further investigates the benefits of a formal one year preceptorship or probationary period is needed.

  17. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I.; Watson, Walter H.; Zhong, Hai; States, J. Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a ‘2-hit’ paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet (± arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: ► Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. ► Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. ► This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  18. Job satisfaction amongst Nigerian ophthalmologists: an exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-08

    Jan 8, 2010 ... Aim: This study aimed to assess job satisfaction amongst Nigerian ophthalmologists. Methods: The study ... work are likely to report high satisfaction in their marriages and fewer ..... turnover and retention. London, England ...

  19. Job satisfaction is more than a fruit basket, health checks and free exercise: Cross-sectional study among 10,000 wage earners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Fishwick, David; Robinson, Edward; Wiezer, Noortje M; Mockałło, Zofia; Grosjean, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Workers who are satisfied with their job are the cornerstones of healthy and productive companies. This study investigated factors associated with job satisfaction in the general working population. From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners ( N=10,427) replied to questions about work, lifestyle and health. Multinomial logistic regression controlled for sex, age, job group, smoking, body mass index, chronic disease and general health assessed the association between work factors and job satisfaction (very satisfied and satisfied, respectively, with unsatisfied as reference). Psychosocial work factors - social support from superiors, social support from colleagues and influence at work - had the strongest association with job satisfaction. For example, for high social support from superiors, the odds ratio (OR) for being very satisfied with the job was 12.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.71-17.51). With sedentary work as reference, the OR for being very satisfied with the job for 'standing and walking work that is not strenuous' was 1.57 (95% CI 1.06-2.33), while the opposite was seen for 'heavy and strenuous work' with an OR of 0.34 (95% CI 0.18-0.62). Only two out of five types of workplace health-promotion offers (physical exercise and healthy diet) were associated with job satisfaction. For example, for offers of physical exercise the OR for being very satisfied with the job was 1.84 (95% CI 1.33-2.55). While psychosocial work factors and to some extent physical work demands are important for job satisfaction, workplace health-promotion offers appear to play a minor role.

  20. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.

  1. Job stress and mental health among nonregular workers in Korea: What dimensions of job stress are associated with mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor

    2016-01-01

    Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.

  2. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee; Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee; Sohn, Tae Yong

    1997-01-01

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  3. Job characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction and labour mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelißen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of detailed job characteristics on job satisfaction, job search and quits using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) in a fixed effects framework. Using a factor analysis, seventeen job characteristics are reduced to seven factors that describe different aspects of a job, which are qualified as status, physical strain, autonomy, advancement opportunities, social relations at the work place, work time and job security. The effects of these facto...

  4. Managing job stress among nurses : what kind of job resources do we need?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooren, van den M.; Jonge, de J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study to investigate the functionality of different kinds of job resources for managing job stress in nursing. Background. There is increasing recognition that healthcare staff, and especially nurses, are at high risk for burnout and physical complaints. Several

  5. Hollowing Out: Job Loss, Job Growth and Skills for the Future. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Hannah; Krueger, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Even as unemployment in Ohio has remained high, headlines regularly feature employers lamenting the lack of qualified job applicants. Some have even suggested that a dearth of skilled workers is driving Ohio's unemployment crisis. In this report, Policy Matters Ohio uses Bureau of Labor Statistics job projections and wage data to look at whether a…

  6. A Turkish translation of the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002/LONG) adapted for young workers in high-risk jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Emine; Esin, Melek Nihal

    2016-03-01

    Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) represent 10-40% of all occupational diseases in many industrialized countries. Young workers are frequently exposed to toxic substances and chemicals in the workplace. The occupational conditions of young workers can impose a high level of risk for the occurrence of OSDs. The Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) was developed in English as a new, comprehensive, standardized tool with which to screen for OSDs. The purpose of this study was to translate the NOSQ-2002 into Turkish and to culturally adapt the long version of the instrument for use with young workers in jobs with high risk for the occurrence of OSDs. Forward and back translations were carried out. Problematic items were modified until the Turkish-language version achieved a satisfactory consensus with the original version of the NOSQ-2002. The final Turkish version was tested in 40 randomly selected young workers with and without OSDs who were studying in the fields of hairdressing, jewelry making, and car mechanics at vocational training schools run by the National Education Ministry. When the original questionnaire had been translated into the target language, a first consensus version was evaluated by an expert panel. The expert panel determined that 36 questions (63.2%) in the Turkish version required some level of modification in order to facilitate clear understanding. Cognitive interviews were then performed. After some modification, the final Turkish version was established and tested among young workers. The new Turkish version of the NOSQ is a comprehensible, reliable, and useful tool that can be applied to young workers in specific occupations. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Job related stress among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagget, Tadesse; Molla, Ashagre; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress exists in every profession, nevertheless, the nursing profession appears to experience more stress at work compared to other health care workers. Unmanaged stress leads to high levels of employee dissatisfaction, illness, absenteeism, high turnover, and decreased productivity that compromise provision of quality service to clients. However, there is a scarcity of information about nurses' job stress in Jimma zone public hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to assess job related stress and its predictors among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South-West Ethiopia in 2014. An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March 10 to April 10, 2014 through a census of nurses who are working in Jimma Zone public hospitals using a structured self-administered questionnaire. SPSS Statistics Version 20 used. For the outcome variable: overall job related stress, the participant's responses on each item score summed: a stress score ranging from a minimum of 26 and maximum score of 116. The higher the sum the more the stressed the nurse. The level of stress calculated through tertial the lower to low stress, the middle to moderate & the higher to high stress. Moreover, bivariate and multivariable linear regressions done to see the association between the predictor (sex, age, mutual understanding at work, Job satisfaction and working unit/department) and the outcome variable (Job related stress). A total of 341 nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals were given the questionnaire, and the response rate was 92.3 % (315). This study indicated an average overall job related stress level of 58.46 ± 12.62. The highest level of job related stress was on the sub scale of dealing with death & dying mean score of 62.94 % followed by uncertainty regarding patient treatment 57.72 % and workload 57.6 %. While job related stress from sexual harassment had the lowest mean score of 46.19 %. Overall job related stress varies

  8. Sexual aggression when power is new: Effects of acute high power on chronically low-power individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa J; Gruenfeld, Deborah H; Guillory, Lucia E

    2017-02-01

    Previous theorists have characterized sexually aggressive behavior as an expression of power, yet evidence that power causes sexual aggression is mixed. We hypothesize that power can indeed create opportunities for sexual aggression-but that it is those who chronically experience low power who will choose to exploit such opportunities. Here, low-power men placed in a high-power role showed the most hostility in response to a denied opportunity with an attractive woman (Studies 1 and 2). Chronically low-power men and women given acute power were the most likely to say they would inappropriately pursue an unrequited workplace attraction (Studies 3 and 4). Finally, having power over an attractive woman increased harassment behavior among men with chronic low, but not high, power (Study 5). People who see themselves as chronically denied power appear to have a stronger desire to feel powerful and are more likely to use sexual aggression toward that end. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Treating Chronic Pain: Reviewing Preclinical and Clinical Data on Paresthesia-Free High-Frequency Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Krishnan; Richter, Hira; Christo, Paul J; Williams, Kayode; Guan, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Traditional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) requires that paresthesia overlaps chronic painful areas. However, the new paradigm high-frequency SCS (HF-SCS) does not rely on paresthesia. A review of preclinical and clinical studies regarding the use of paresthesia-free HF-SCS for various chronic pain states. We reviewed available literatures on HF-SCS, including Nevro's paresthesia-free ultra high-frequency 10 kHz therapy (HF10-SCS). Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE/OVID, and SCOPUS, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. The primary goal is to describe the present developing conceptions of preclinical mechanisms of HF-SCS and to review clinical efficacy on paresthesia-free HF10-SCS for various chronic pain states. HF10-SCS offers a novel pain reduction tool without paresthesia for failed back surgery syndrome and chronic axial back pain. Preclinical findings indicate that potential mechanisms of action for paresthesia-free HF-SCS differ from those of traditional SCS. To fully understand and utilize paresthesia-free HF-SCS, mechanistic study and translational research will be very important, with increasing collaboration between basic science and clinical communities to design better trials and optimize the therapy based on mechanistic findings from effective preclinical models and approaches. Future research in these vital areas may include preclinical and clinical components conducted in parallel to optimize the potential of this technology. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  10. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  11. Effect of General Health Status on Chronicity of Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing patients at a higher risk of developing chronic low back pain (LBP is important in industrial medicine. This study aimed to assess the power and quality of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ for prediction of the odds of chronicity of acute LBP. This study was conducted on industrial workers. All subjects with acute LBP who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, occupational, physical, and mental parameters and the general health status of subjects were evaluated;  they were followed up for developing chronic LBP for one year. Cigarette smoking, high body mass index, job stress, physical load and high GHQ scores were found to be the risk factors for the progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP (P<0.05. Standing position while working, age, work experience, exercise, level of education, weekly work hours and shift work were not the risk factors for chronic LBP (P>0.05.High GHQ score can be a risk factor for progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP. The GHQ in combination with the Job Content Questionnaire can be used as a quick and simple screening tool for detection of subjects at high risk of chronic LBP when evaluating acute LBP in an occupational setting.

  12. Job control and coworker support improve employee job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Makiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prospective association of psychosocial job characteristics with employee job performance among 777 full-time employees at a manufacturing company in Japan, using data from a one-year follow-up survey. Psychosocial job characteristics were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire in 2008; job performance was evaluated using the item from the World Mental Health Survey Instrument in 2008 and 2009. The association between psychosocial job characteristics and job performance was tested using multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, work status, average working hours per day, job type and job performance in 2008. Job control and coworker support in 2008 were positively related to job performance in 2009. Stratified analyses revealed that job control for staff and coworker support for managers were positively related to job performance in 2009. These associations were prominent among men; however, supervisor support in 2008 was negatively related to job performance in 2009 among men. Job demand was not significantly related to job performance. Our findings suggest that it is worthwhile to enhance employees' job control and provide a mutually supportive environment to ensure positive employee job performance.

  13. Safety behavior: Job demands, job resources, and perceived management commitment to safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansez, Isabelle; Chmiel, Nik

    2010-07-01

    The job demands-resources model posits that job demands and resources influence outcomes through job strain and work engagement processes. We test whether the model can be extended to effort-related "routine" safety violations and "situational" safety violations provoked by the organization. In addition we test more directly the involvement of job strain than previous studies which have used burnout measures. Structural equation modeling provided, for the first time, evidence of predicted relationships between job strain and "routine" violations and work engagement with "routine" and "situational" violations, thereby supporting the extension of the job demands-resources model to safety behaviors. In addition our results showed that a key safety-specific construct 'perceived management commitment to safety' added to the explanatory power of the job demands-resources model. A predicted path from job resources to perceived management commitment to safety was highly significant, supporting the view that job resources can influence safety behavior through both general motivational involvement in work (work engagement) and through safety-specific processes.

  14. Preliminary safety analysis of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel L; Boyne, Pierce; Rockwell, Bradley; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Kissela, Brett; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess safety via electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and orthopedic responses to 3 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols in persons with stroke. Eighteen participants (10 male; 61.9 + 8.3 years of age; 5.8 + 4.2 years poststroke) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test (GXT) with ECG monitoring to screen for eligibility and determine HR peak. The 3 HIIT protocols involved repeated 30 s bursts of treadmill walking at maximum speed alternated with rest periods of 30 s (P30), 1 min (P60), or 2 min (P120). Sessions were performed in random order and included 5 min warm up, 20 min HIIT, and 5 min cool down. Variables measured included ECG activity, BP, HR, signs and symptoms of cardiovascular intolerance, and orthopedic concerns. Generalized linear mixed models and Tukey-Kramer adjustment were used to compare protocols using p HIIT session. HIIT elicited HRs in excess of 88% of measured HR peak including 6 (P30), 8 (P60), and 2 (P120) participants eliciting a HR response above their GXT HR peak . Both maximum BP and HR were significantly higher in P30 and P60 relative to P120. Preliminary data indicate that persons with chronic stroke who have been prescreened with an ECG stress test, a symptom-limited GXT, and a harness for fall protection may safely participate in HIIT, generating substantially higher HRs than what is seen in traditional moderate intensity training.

  15. The role of high fat diet in the development of complications of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiñeira-Alvariño, M; Lindkvist, B; Luaces-Regueira, M; Iglesias-García, J; Lariño-Noia, J; Nieto-García, L; Domínguez-Muñoz, J E

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about risk factors for complications in chronic pancreatitis (CP). High fat diet (HFD) has been demonstrated to aggravate pancreatic injury in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HFD in age at diagnosis of CP and probability of CP related complications. A cross-sectional case-case study was performed within a prospectively collected cohort of patients with CP. Diagnosis and morphological severity of CP was established by endoscopic ultrasound. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by ¹³C mixed triglyceride breath test. Fat intake was assessed by a specific nutritional questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) for CP related complications were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. 168 patients were included (128 (76.2%) men, mean age 44 years (SD 13.5)). Etiology of CP was alcohol abuse in 89 patients (53.0%), other causes in 30 (17.9%) and idiopathic in the remaining 49 subjects (29.2%). 24 patients (14.3%) had a HFD. 68 patients (40.5%) had continuous abdominal pain, 39 (23.2%) PEI and 43 (25.7%) morphologically severe CP. HFD was associated with an increased probability for continuous abdominal pain (OR = 2.84 (95% CI, 1.06-7.61)), and a younger age at diagnosis (37.0 ± 13.9 versus 45.8 ± 13.0 years, p = 0.03) but not with CP related complications after adjusting for sex, years of follow-up, alcohol and tobacco consumption, etiology and body mass index. Compared with a normal fat diet, HFD is associated with a younger age at diagnosis of CP and continuous abdominal pain, but not with severity and complications of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcoholic Liver Disease in the Asian–Pacific Region with High Prevalence of Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sien-Sing Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hospitalized cases and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD are increasing in Taiwan and worldwide. Meanwhile, the Asia–Pacific region also has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The Taiwanese have the highest percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 deficiency and the lowest amount of alcohol consumption. Based on the histological changes, ALD is clinically classified as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and alcoholic hepatitis on cirrhosis. Patients with overt alcoholic hepatitis often develop marked hepatomegaly, audible hepatic arterial bruit, mild leukocytosis, and mild fever. Patients having alcoholic cirrhosis had much more serious complications and mortality. It is clinically important to identify hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis earlier for early management. Active assessments for esophageal varices and ascites may help the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Sonography is helpful for exanimating features of cirrhosis including portal hypertension, ascites, increased hepatic portal flow, and collaterals. Synergistic damage of viral hepatitis on ALD patients lead to rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Distinct from the Western population, 30% of Taiwanese alcoholics had concomitant chronic HBV regardless of the different histologic categories. Patient groups with combined alcoholics and HBV had fewer platelet counts and much more cirrhosis with Ishak Stage 5–6 fibrosis. The annual incidences of HCC were significantly higher in alcoholic cirrhotic patients having concomitant HBV infection than those with only HBV infection or alcoholism alone. Antiviral nucleotide and nucleoside analogs therapy reduces the prevalence of HCC to a similar level to those ALD patients without active HBV.

  17. JOB SATISFACTION OF MIDWIVES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nedvědová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the literature review were to identify and analyze factors affecting job satisfaction of midwives. Design: A literature review. Methods: Included in the literature review were full texts of papers published in English language from 1990 to 2014. The search for relevant data was performed using the electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct and Wiley Online Library. From a total of 43 studies found, 11were analyzed as quantitative studies that fulfilled the specified criteria. Results: Job satisfaction of midwives is affected by a lack of support from the management of healthcare facilities, low salary, understaffing, insufficient time for professional activities, work-family imbalance, high workload, physical demands, inadequate professional development, working environment, stress and low autonomy at work. Midwives showed signs of exhaustion, fatigue, hostility and depression, contributing to job turnover. Conclusion: The literature review presents the factors influencing job satisfaction of midwives. This is affected by many variable determinants, which create a feeling of job satisfaction of midwives, but can also lead to job dissatisfaction and, consequently, high turnover. Keywords: midwives, job satisfaction.

  18. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-11-01

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  19. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  20. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with hetero-geneous JS-preferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with w...

  1. Jobs in Public Service. Job Family Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes jobs in public service. The introductory chapter provides a definition and overview of public service work. Following chapters describe various levels of public service including: (1) neighborhood workers--letter carriers and postal employees, fire fighters, police officers, service repair workers, and bus drivers; (2) city…

  2. Scoping the common antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction for nurses (2000-2013) using the job demands-resources model of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicar, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To identify core antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction, and to explore the potential of stress interventions to improve job satisfaction. Decreased job satisfaction for nurses is strongly associated with increased job stress. Stress management strategies might have the potential to improve job satisfaction. Comparative scoping review of studies (2000-2013) and location of their outcomes within the 'job demands-job resources' (JD-R) model of stress to identify commonalities and trends. Many, but not all, antecedents of both phenomena appeared consistently suggesting they are common mediators. Others were more variable but the appearance of 'emotional demands' as a common antecedent in later studies suggests an evolving influence of the changing work environment. The occurrence of 'shift work' as a common issue in later studies points to further implications for nurses' psychosocial well-being. Job satisfaction problems in nursing might be co-responsive to stress management intervention. Improving the buffering effectiveness of increased resilience and of prominent perceived job resource issues are urgently required. Participatory, psychosocial methods have the potential to raise job resources but will require high-level collaboration by stakeholders, and participative leadership and facilitation by managers to enable better decision-latitude, support for action planning and responsive changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between obesity and chronic inflammation has been studied. Diet-induced obesity or chronic inflammation could reduce the testicular functions of males. However, the mechanism underlying the reproductive effects of fattening foods in males with or without chronic inflammation still needs further discussion. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of high-fat, high-protein diet on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice under physiological and chronic inflammatory conditions. Because casein can trigger a non-infectious systemic inflammatory response, we used casein injection to induce chronic inflammation in male adult Kunming mice. Twenty-four mice were randomly and equally divided into four groups: (i) normal diet+saline (Control); (ii) normal diet+casein (ND+CS); (iii) high-fat, high-protein diet+saline (HFPD+SI); (iv) high-fat, high-protein diet+casein (HFPD+CS). After 8weeks, there was a significant increase in body weight for groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS and a decrease in group ND+CS compared with the control. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and lipid profiles were increased markedly in groups ND+CS, HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control. A remarkable reduction of serum adiponectin level occurred in group HFPD+CS compared with group ND+CS. Sperm parameters (sperm count, viability and abnormality) were also adversely affected in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI. Groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI showed severe pathological changes in testicular tissues. Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining also showed significant reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control, whereas testicular mRNA and protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS significantly increased. The m

  4. Professional involvement is associated with increased job satisfaction among dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jenny K; Nyland, Nora K; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L

    2002-10-01

    This study explored a relationship between professional involvement and job satisfaction among dietitians. A random sample of 2,600 employed registered dietitians (RDs) received a 55-item questionnaire including a standardized measure of job satisfaction. The response rate was 67.3%; 50.8% were useable (n = 1,321). Ninety-two percent of RDs reported job satisfaction. The mean score was 68.8 +/- .28 (possible range: 18-90), with scores over 54 indicating job satisfaction. A positive relationship was found between job satisfaction and markers of professional involvement. Additionally, six characteristics related to professional involvement were: having had a mentor, being a mentor, self-assessed high professional involvement, full-time employment, high annual income, and increased hours worked per week. There was also a positive relationship between markers of professional involvement and employer support. We conclude that, overall, RDs are satisfied with their jobs and that greater professional involvement is related to greater job satisfaction.

  5. Happiness and job satisfaction in a casino-dominated economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhonglu; Forrest, David; McHale, Ian G

    2013-09-01

    Proposals for casinos usually focus on numbers of jobs without considering their quality. We surveyed 1,506 Macau residents, modelling happiness and job satisfaction. Being employed is shown to be important for 'happiness'. But job attributes also matter, confirming the work domain as influential on wellbeing. Casino employees report similar happiness as others. However, despite relatively high pay, they report low overall job satisfaction. The particular aspects of their jobs that they rated generally negatively tended to be those inherent in casino employment rather than easily modifiable by managerial action.

  6. Multiple job holding, local labor markets, and the business cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry T. Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 5 % of US workers hold multiple jobs, which can exacerbate or mitigate employment changes over the business cycle. Theory is ambiguous and prior literature is not fully conclusive. We examine the relationship between multiple job holding and local unemployment rates using a large Current Population Survey data set of workers in urban labor markets during 1998–2013. Labor markets with high unemployment have moderately lower rates of multiple job holding. Yet no relationship between multiple job holding and unemployment is found within markets over time, with near-zero estimates being precisely estimated. Multiple job holding is largely acyclic. JEL Classification: J21

  7. Cordyceps militaris improves tolerance to high intensity exercise after acute and chronic supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katie R.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Roelofs, Erica J.; Trexler, Eric T.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effects of a mushroom blend containing cordyceps militaris on high intensity exercise after 1- and 3-weeks of supplementation. Twenty-eight individuals (Mean ± SD; Age=22.7 ± 4.1 yrs; Height=175.4 ± 8.7 cm; Weight=71.6 ± 12.0 kg) participated in this randomized, repeated measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion (TTE), and ventilatory threshold (VT) were measured during a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Relative peak power output (RPP), average power output (AvgP), and percent drop (%drop) were recorded during a 3-minute maximal cycle test with resistance at 4.5% body weight. Subjects consumed 4 g·d−1 mushroom blend (MR) or maltodextrin (PL) for 1 week. Ten volunteers supplemented for an additional 2 weeks. Exercise tests were separated by at least 48-hours and repeated following supplementation periods. One week of supplementation elicited no significant time × treatment interaction for VO2max (p=0.364), VT (p=0.514), TTE (p=0.540), RPP (p=0.134), AvgP (p=0.398), or %drop (p=0.823). After 3-weeks, VO2max significantly improved (p=0.042) in MR (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1), but not PL (+0.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Analysis of 95% confidence intervals revealed significant improvements in TTE after 1- (+28.1 s) and 3-weeks (+69.8 s) in MR, but not PL, with additional improvements in VO2max (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) and VT (+0.7 l·min−1) after 3-weeks. Acute supplementation with a cordyceps militaris containing mushroom blend may improve tolerance to high intensity exercise; greater benefits may be elicited with consistent chronic supplementation. PMID:27408987

  8. High prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthat, Walter G; Castellano, Mauro; Berenguer, Leandro; Guzmán, M Alejandra; de Arteaga, Javier; Chiurchiu, Carlos R; Massari, Pablo U; Garay, Gabriela; Capra, Raúl; de La Fuente, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    There are few data in Argentina on the prevalence and management of bone and mineral metabolism (BMM) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A survey was carried out in dialysis units in 2010 to measure the prevalence of and types of treatments for BMM disorders in Argentina. The data obtained was then compared to the published results from other large population studies. We recorded characteristics of dialysis centres and participating patients, the frequency of measurements and individual results for BMM biochemical markers, as well as the type of management used to control hyperphosphataemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. 1210 patients from 25 dialysis centres in Argentina participated in the study (representing 4.7% of the country’s prevalent dialysis population in 2010). The mean patient age was 55.3±17.6 years, 60.8% were male, 3.3% were on peritoneal dialysis and 29.1% suffered diabetes. In all centres, phosphataemia and calcaemia were measured on a monthly basis, 60% of centres measured intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) every 6 months, 36% every 3 to 4 months, and 4% annually. As recommended by K/DOQI, 51.6% of patients had adequate levels of calcium (8.4-9.5 mg/dl), 51.6% had adequate phosphorus (3.5-5.5 mg/dl) and 21.1% displayed acceptable iPTH levels (150-300 pg/ml). 24% had iPTH 300 pg/ml. iPTH ≥600 pg/ml was present in 28.3%, and 13.3% had values ≥1000 pg/ml. These figures differed from those published by the DOPPS II study, in which 51.1% of patients had iPTH hyperparathyroidism, oral or intravenous calcitriol was predominantly used (50.5%) with a small percentage of patients receiving paricalcitol or doxercalciferol. The present study shows a high prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, which differs from that published by other large population studies. There was a high proportion of patients with BMM markers outside the ranges suggested by K/DOQI. Mainly phosphate binders based on calcium and calcitriol continue to be used

  9. Job Strain and Cognitive Decline: A Prospective Study of the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Agbenyikey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. Objective: To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Methods: Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429, were assessed on job strain, and received neuropsychological assessment approximately 15 years and 21 years afterwards. Results: High job strain and low control were associated with decline in verbal learning and memory. Job strain was associated with decline in word recognition skills. Active job and passive job predicted decline in verbal learning and memory relative to low strain jobs in the younger subgroup. Active job and demands were positively associated with abstract reasoning skills. Conclusions: Job strain and job control may influence decline in cognitive performance.

  10. The God of Job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Mare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available God is often portrayed extremely negatively in the Old Testament. For example, in the Book of Nahum God is pictured as being responsible for the most horrifying violence imaginable. This negative portrayal of God is also found in the Book of Job. God is responsible for the suffering that his righteous servant Job, has to endure. He is even manipulated by the satan to allow him free reign in attacking Job. God even acknowledges that the misery and pain inflicted on Job, was for no reason. Job�s children are killed in order for God to prove a point, and in his response to Job�s suffering, he doesn�t even address the issue of Job�s suffering. This is a picture of a very cruel, vicious God. This article investigates the negative, disturbing images of God in the Book of Job. Are these images of God who God really is, or is the God of Job a literary construct of the author? The focus of this study is on the prologue and epilogue to the book, as well as the speeches of God in Job 38�41.

  11. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  12. Job satisfaction and burnout among paediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat; Ayar, Dijle; Armstrong, Merry A

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to determine factors of job satisfaction and burnout levels of paediatric nurses. A total of 165 nurses working in paediatric clinics completed the Minnesota job satisfaction scale and the Maslach burnout scale. Average scores of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation score were low, while personal accomplishment scores were high. A high level of job satisfaction, being married, increased age and a decreased number of assigned patients were significantly associated with a low level of burnout. Paediatric nurses experience burnout at significant levels. The most important variable that affected job satisfaction was income. The results of the study could guide development of strategies that might prevent or alleviate burnout of paediatric nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF HIGHLY PURIFIED DE-GLYCOSYLATED GCMAF IN THE IMMUNOTHERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Lynda Thyer; Emma Ward; Rodney Smith; Jacopo J.V. Branca; Gabriele Morucci; Massimo Gulisano; David Noakes; Stefania Pacini

    2013-01-01

    The de-Glycosylated vitamin D binding protein is a powerful Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) that shows multiple biological effects that could be exploited in the immunotherapy of tumours, viral infections and autism. Here we report the observation of a series of clinical cases describing the results obtained administering highly purified GcMAF to patients with diverse types of chronic diseases. These are heterogeneous and refer to patients with different types of diseases at different s...

  14. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Annet H; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Houtman, Irene L D; Bongers, Paulien M

    2009-09-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a four-wave complete panel study among 1163 Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality and fatigue across a 1-year time lag, supporting the strain hypothesis (Demand-Control model; Karasek and Theorell, Basic Books, New York, 1990). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected. Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high-strain work environment (characterized by high job demands and low job control) was associated with elevated levels of sleep-related complaints. Cumulative exposure to a low-strain work environment (i.e. low job demands and high job control) was associated with the highest sleep quality and lowest level of fatigue. Our results revealed further that changes in exposure history were related to changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. As expected, a transition from a non-high-strain towards a high-strain job was associated with a significant increase in sleep-related complaints; conversely, a transition towards a non-high-strain job was not related to an improvement in sleep-related problems.

  15. Jobs: Ohio's Future. Creating a High Performance Workforce for Ohio. A Comprehensive Workforce Development Strategy Developed by the Governor's Human Resources Advisory Council. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Bureau of Employment Services, Columbus.

    For a competitive advantage, Ohio must be sensitive to three national trends that will reshape its work force: the growing gap between the skill requirements of jobs and workers' capabilities, the slow growth of the labor force, and demands of a global economy. The future competitiveness of Ohio's economy will depend on its capacity to support the…

  16. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of presenteeism, that is, employees coming to work despite being sick, has recently received more attention in the literature. Presenteeism not only threatens employees' health but also substantially drains productivity and drives considerable costs. When they are sick......, employees have the choice of whether to go to work or to stay at home. Therefore, determinants of (sickness) absenteeism and presenteeism should be examined simultaneously. Nursing homes are faced with a particularly high prevalence of both absenteeism and presenteeism and are therefore a relevant object...... of investigation. PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of job demands and job resources on absenteeism, presenteeism, and the tendency to choose one behavior (being absent or being present in times of sickness) rather than the other over the last 12 months. To do so, we identify the determinants...

  17. On Job Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Metin M. Cosgel; Thomas J. Miceli

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental principle of economics with which Adam Smith begins The Wealth of Nations is the division of labor. Some firms, however, have been pursuing a practice called job rotation, which assigns each worker not to a single and specific task but to a set of several tasks among which he or she rotates with some frequency. We examine the practice of job rotation as a serious alternative to specialization, with three objectives. The first is to consider current and historical examples of job...

  18. An international perspective: job satisfaction among transplant nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia L; Van Gelder, Frank

    2008-03-01

    The high demand for transplant nurses across the world leads us to examine job design and job satisfaction because job satisfaction is linked to better outcomes for patients. To describe international transplant nurses' perspectives of job design and job satisfaction by using Herzberg's theory of motivation. Descriptive, correlational design. An electronic version of the Job Design and Job Satisfaction survey was mailed to all members of the International Transplant Nurses Society. A total of 331 members of the International Transplant Nurses Society responded to the survey. The mean age of respondents was 44.12 years, they had worked a mean of 19.12 years in nursing and 10.22 years in transplantation, and 50.6% of respondents were transplant nurse coordinators. Respondents were very satisfied overall with their jobs; they perceived that transplant nursing requires a high level of nonrepetitive, complex skills, autonomy in personal initiative and judgment, cooperation and collaboration with others, and that the job allows for completion of the work. Respondents were satisfied with pay, fringe benefits, and supervision. The feeling that the job could positively and significantly affect others was very strong. Results of this study provide empirical evidence supporting the perceived benefits and challenges of working in transplantation and support Herzberg's theory that motivators leading to job satisfaction include achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, and advancement. Transplant nursing includes many of these motivators and desirable characteristics, including autonomy and working with a multidisciplinary team on a clear, patient-centered goal.

  19. The Job Training and Job Satisfaction Survey Technical Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Job training has become an important aspect of an employee's overall job experience. However, it is not often called out specifically on instruments measuring job satisfaction. This technical manual details the processes used in the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure job training satisfaction and overall job…

  20. Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An empirical assessment of supervisors in the state of Eritrea. ... The findings of the present research revealed that (i) recognition and self-esteem facets of job anxiety were found to be significantly related to job satisfaction, (ii) facets of organizational commitment ...

  1. The Relationship of Job Involvement, Motivation and Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that job involvement had significant relationship with work motivation and job satisfaction of the respondents. It was also found that work motivation and job satisfaction jointly and individually predict job involvement of the respondents. Nevertheless, it was established that there was significant difference in ...

  2. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... practitioner, might help with pain for some patients. Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Adjusting to a chronic, debilitating ... Consequence Pathogens and Pathology (DHCPP) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  3. How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect total care costs among people with chronic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haichang; Harman, Jeffrey S; Yang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether high cost-sharing in physician care is associated with a differential impact on total care costs by health status. Total care includes physician care, emergency room (ER) visits and inpatient care. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients. This study used the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data with a cross-sectional study design. Difference in difference (DID), instrumental variable technique, two-part model, and bootstrap technique were employed to analyze cost data. Chronically ill individuals' probability of reducing any overall care costs was significantly less than healthier individuals (beta = 2.18, p = 0.04), while the integrated DID estimator from split results indicated that going from low cost-sharing to high cost-sharing significantly reduced costs by $12,853.23 more for sick people than for healthy people (95% CI: -$17,582.86, -$8,123.60). This greater cost reduction in total care among sick people likely resulted from greater cost reduction in physician care, and may have come at the expense of jeopardizing health outcomes by depriving patients of needed care. Thus, these policies would be inappropriate in the short run, and unlikely in the long run to control health plans costs among chronically ill individuals. A generous benefit design with low cost-sharing policies in physician care or primary care is recommended for both health plans and chronically ill individuals, to save costs and protect these enrollees' health status.

  4. Physician Assistant Job Satisfaction: A Narrative Review of Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Kuilman, Luppo; Everett, Christine M

    2015-12-01

    To examine physician assistant (PA) job satisfaction and identify factors predicting job satisfaction and identify areas of needed research. With a global PA movement underway and a half-century in development, the empirical basis for informing employers of approaches to improve job satisfaction has not received a careful review. A narrative review of empirical research was undertaken to inform stakeholders about PA employment with a goal of improved management. The a priori criteria included published studies that asked PAs about job satisfaction. Articles addressing PA job satisfaction, written in English, were reviewed and categorized according to the Job Characteristics Model. Of 68 publications reviewed, 29 met criteria and were categorized in a Job Characteristics Model. Most studies report a high degree of job satisfaction when autonomy, income, patient responsibility, physician support, and career advancement opportunities are surveyed. Age, sex, specialty, and occupational background are needed to understand the effect on job satisfaction. Quality of studies varies widely. Employers may want to examine their relationships with PAs periodically. The factors of job satisfaction may assist policymakers and health administrators in creating welcoming professional employment environments. The main limitation: no study comprehensively evaluated all the antecedents of job satisfaction. PAs seem to experience job satisfaction supported by low attrition rates and competitive wages. Contributing factors are autonomy, experienced responsibility, pay, and supportive supervising physician. A number of intrinsic rewards derived from the performance of the job within the social environment, along with extrinsic rewards, may contribute to overall job satisfaction. PA job satisfaction research is underdeveloped; investigations should include longitudinal studies, cohort analyses, and economic determinants.

  5. Relationship between cynicism and job satisfaction: exploration of mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Adams, John W

    2011-02-01

    Personality traits related to evaluation of other people and the world are important to study in relation to job satisfaction, which itself is an evaluation of various facets of a job, including the social dimensions. Accordingly, the relationship between cynicism and job satisfaction was studied. Cynicism was expected to be negatively related to job satisfaction, employees' perceptions of job enrichment, quality of leader-member exchange, and support from coworkers. Survey data from 105 employees in a diverse set of organizations (M age = 48 yr.; 50% women; M work experience = 28 yr.; 73% had >16 yr. education) were subjected to hierarchical regression. Individuals high in Cynicism were likely to have lower job satisfaction, job enrichment, quality of leader-member exchange, and perceptions of co-worker support.

  6. Job Accommodation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TTY) Email JAN Subscribe to Newsletters Share Through Social Networks Newsletter Live Help Link to Us Toolkit Webcasts FOR EMPLOYERS Private Employers Federal Employers State & Local Government FOR INDIVIDUALS Employees Job Seekers Entrepreneurs FOR OTHERS ...

  7. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Rural nurse job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A

    2008-01-01

    The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by

  9. Application of Assessment Tools to Examine Mental Health in Workplaces: Job Stress and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2018-06-07

    Despite the fact that the lifetime and yearly prevalence rates of mental illness continue rising, such diseases have only been acknowledged as involved in workplace health issue since the 2000s. Additionally, while the number of recognized cases of mental illnesses is rather low compared to their prevalence, they have a high likelihood of causing significant problems, including fatalities. Many workers are terrified of losing their jobs due to mental illness and therefore attempt to hide their mental health problems. For this reason, clinicians involved in occupational and environmental medicine should focus on interviews or screenings to identify such hidden mental health problems. More specifically, it would be helpful to evaluate job stress and depression in workplaces to ensure appropriate preventive actions and thereby reduce the prevalence of mental illness. Job stress not only causes mental illness and dissatisfaction with work, but also can increase the prevalence and morbidity of medical diseases, as well as other physical health problems. Depression is a major contributor to work loss and absence with effects surpassing almost all of the chronic medical disorder. These facts show why measure of job stress and depression should be highlighted in the occupational settings. This article introduces a variety of assessment tools to examine mental health, particularly stress and depression, in workplaces. These tools can be used by clinicians or professionals involved in the mental health, occupational safety, or health service fields for running diagnostics or screening tests.

  10. Cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist attenuates pain related behavior in rats with chronic alcohol/high fat diet induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Kline, Robert H; McNearney, Terry A; Johnson, Michael P; Westlund, Karin N

    2014-11-17

    Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a complex and multifactorial syndrome. Many contributing factors result in development of dysfunctional pain in a significant number of patients. Drugs developed to treat a variety of pain states fall short of providing effective analgesia for patients with chronic pancreatitis, often providing minimal to partial pain relief over time with significant side effects. Recently, availability of selective pharmacological tools has enabled great advances in our knowledge of the role of the cannabinoid receptors in pathophysiology. In particular, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as an attractive target for management of chronic pain, as demonstrated in several studies with inflammatory and neuropathic preclinical pain models. In this study, the analgesic efficacy of a novel, highly selective CB2 receptor agonist, LY3038404 HCl, is investigated in a chronic pancreatitis pain model, induced with an alcohol/high fat (AHF) diet. Rats fed the AHF diet developed visceral pain-like behaviors detectable by week 3 and reached a maximum at week 5 that persists as long as the diet is maintained. Rats with AHF induced chronic pancreatitis were treated with LY3038404 HCl (10 mg/kg, orally, twice a day for 9 days). The treated animals demonstrated significantly alleviated pain related behaviors after 3 days of dosing, including increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT), prolonged abdominal withdrawal latencies (ABWL), and decreased nocifensive responses to noxious 44°C hotplate stimuli. Terminal histological analysis of pancreatic tissue sections from the AHF chronic pancreatitis animals demonstrated extensive injury, including a global pancreatic gland degeneration (cellular atrophy), vacuolization (fat deposition), and fibrosis. After the LY3038404 HCl treatment, pancreatic tissue was significantly protected from severe damage and fibrosis. LY3038404 HCl affected neither open field exploratory behaviors nor dark/light box preferences as measures

  11. Structured intermittent interruption of chronic HIV infection treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy: effects on leptin and TNF-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, M Montes de Oca; Pérez-Cano, R; Garcia-Juárez, R; Martín-Aspas, A; del Alamo, C Fernández Gutiérrez; Girón-González, J A

    2006-04-01

    The changes in nutritional parameters and adipocytokines after structured intermittent interruption of highly active antiretroviral treatment of patients with chronic HIV infection are analyzed. Twenty-seven patients with chronic HIV infection (median CD4+ T cell count/microl: nadir, 394; at the beginning of structured interruptions, 1041; HIV viral load: nadir, 41,521 copies/ml; at the beginning of structured interruptions triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor and its soluble receptors I and II were determined. After the three cycles of intermittent interruptions of therapy, no significant differences in CD4+ T cell count/microl, viral load, or serum concentrations of cholesterol or triglycerides with reference to baseline values were found. A near-significant higher fatty mass (skinfold thicknesses, at the end, 121 mm, at the beginning, 100 mm, p = 0.100), combined with a significant increase of concentration of leptin (1.5 vs. 4.7 ng/ml, p = 0,044), as well as a decrease in serum concentrations of soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor (TNFRI, 104 vs. 73 pg/ml, p = 0.022; TNFRII 253 vs. 195 pg/ml, p = 0.098) were detected. Structured intermittent interruption of highly active antiretroviral treatment of patients with chronic HIV infection induces a valuable positive modification in markers of lipid turnover and adipose tissue mass.

  12. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vidya M Raj; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B; Raphael, Kalani L; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) was 5.8%. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the odds of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels were decreased by 11% and 38% in those without and with kidney disease, respectively. Dietary total fiber intake was not significantly associated with mortality in those without but was inversely related to mortality in those with kidney disease. The relationship of total fiber with inflammation and mortality differed significantly in those with and without kidney disease. Thus, high dietary total fiber intake is associated with lower risk of inflammation and mortality in kidney disease and these associations are stronger in magnitude in those with kidney disease. Interventional trials are needed to establish the effects of fiber intake on inflammation and mortality in kidney disease.

  13. The skill-divide in job quality: a cross-national analysis of 28 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Haya

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the skill divide in job quality and the role of social institutions in structuring the relation of workers' qualifications to the attributes of their jobs. Four measures of job quality are examined: job security, job achievement, job content and work schedule flexibility. The study is based on the 2005 ISSP module on work orientations and encompasses 28 countries. Obtained through multilevel modeling, the findings show that low-skilled workers are disadvantaged in all aspects of job quality. However, skill inequality in the quality of employment depends on countries' characteristics, with declining inequality in countries at higher levels of technological development and to some extent also in times of technological growth. At times of high unemployment, skill disparities in job security widen while on other measures of job quality they decline. Under high market regulation, the low skilled enjoy better job security but on other measures, skill inequalities increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Job stress and occupational health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanc, Le P.M.; Jonge, de J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Chmiel, N.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter focuses on job stress in relation to workers’ physical and psycho logical health. We begin with an outline of job stress as a social problem, fol lowed by a discussion of the main perspectives on (job) stress, resulting in a process model of job stress that will be used as a frame of

  15. Job satisfaction of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Using data for The Netherlands, this paper analyzes the relation between allocation, wages and job satisfaction. Five conclusions emerge from the empirical analysis: satisfaction with the job content is the main factor explaining overall job satisfaction; the effects of individual and job

  16. Chronic blood pressure and appetite responses to central leptin infusion in rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinion, John H; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2011-04-01

    Obesity has been suggested to induce selective leptin resistance whereby leptin's anorexic effects are attenuated, whereas the effects to increase sympathetic nervous system activity and blood pressure remain intact. Most studies, however, have tested only the acute responses to leptin administration. This study tested whether feeding a high-fat diet causes resistance to the appetite and cardiovascular responses to chronic central leptin infusion. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (40% kcal from fat, n=5) or normal-fat diet (13% kcal from fat, n=5) for a year. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). A 21G steel cannula was implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle [intracerebroventricular (ICV)]. After recovery, leptin was infused ICV at 0.02 μg/kg per min for 10 days. High-fat rats were heavier than normal-fat rats (582±12 vs. 511±19 g) and exhibited significantly higher MAP (114±3 vs. 96±7 mmHg). Although the acute (24 h) effects of leptin were attenuated in high-fat rats, chronic ICV leptin infusion decreased caloric intake in both groups similarly (50±8 vs. 40±10%) by day 5. Despite decreased food intake and weight loss, leptin infusion significantly increased MAP and HR in both high-fat and normal-fat rats (7±2 and 5±1 mmHg; 18±11 and 21±10 b.p.m., respectively). These results suggest that obesity induced by feeding a high-fat diet blunts the acute anorexic effects of leptin but does not cause significant resistance to the chronic central nervous system effects of leptin on appetite, MAP, or HR.

  17. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  18. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  19. High-intensity facial nerve lesions on T2-weighted images in chronic persistent facial nerve palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Sendai City Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. (Japan); Ishii, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Sendai City Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Okitsu, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Sendai City Hospital (Japan); Ogawa, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori Univ. (Japan); Okudera, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels-Akita, Akita (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Our aim was to estimate the value of MRI in detecting irreversibly paralysed facial nerves. We examined 95 consecutive patients with a facial nerve palsy (14 with a persistent palsy, and 81 with good recovery), using a 1.0 T unit, with T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The geniculate ganglion and tympanic segment had gave high signal on T2-weighted images in the chronic stage of persistent palsy, but not in acute palsy. The enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in the chronic persistent facial nerve palsy is similar to that in the acute palsy with good recovery. These findings suggest that T2-weighted MRI can be used to show severely damaged facial nerves. (orig.)

  20. Job design and job stress in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, P

    1993-05-01

    A model to look at various job components that affect individual well-being and health was developed drawing from the job design and job stress literature. Briefly stated, the model proposes job control to be a primary causal determinant of the stress outcomes. The effects of perceived demands, job content, and career/future concerns were hypothesized to influence the stress outcomes only to the extent of their influence on job control. This was tested in a population of government office employees in various clerical, professional, and managerial jobs all of which involve the use of computers. Results indicated that job control was not a crucial determinant of the stress outcomes, that job demands and career/future concerns were consistent determinants of the stress outcomes, and that job content, demands, and career/future concerns did not influence the stress outcomes through job control as described by the proposed model. The differentiation of job control levels to define specific relationships with stress outcomes and other job elements was shown to be useful because different levels of job control were associated with different stress outcomes and job elements.

  1. Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tims

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory. Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences. Research design, approach and method: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting. Main findings: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand. Practical/managerial implications: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics. Contribution/value-add: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories.

  2. Microbial cells can cooperate to resist high-level chronic ionizing radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Shuryak, Igor; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Tkavc, Rok; Grichenko, Olga; Klimenkova, Polina; Volpe, Robert P.; Daly, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding chronic ionizing radiation (CIR) effects is of utmost importance to protecting human health and the environment. Diverse bacteria and fungi inhabiting extremely radioactive waste and disaster sites (e.g. Hanford, Chernobyl, Fukushima) represent new targets of CIR research. We show that many microorganisms can grow under intense gamma-CIR dose rates of 13–126 Gy/h, with fungi identified as a particularly CIR-resistant group of eukaryotes: among 145 phylogenetically diverse strain...

  3. Chronic Subdural Hematoma Preceded by High-Impact Trauma: Does the Intensity of Trauma Influence the Pathogenesis of Traumatic Chronic Subdural Hematoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Su; Lee, Chang-Heon; Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the intensity of trauma influences the pathogenesis of traumatic chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Thirty-one patients treated surgically for traumatic CSDH were divided into high-impact and lowimpact groups according to the intensity of trauma. They were respectively evaluated with respect to clinical and radiological findings at presentation, and the subdural concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor, and beta-trace protein (ΒTP) [a highly specific protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)] related to the pathogenesis of CSDH. If ΒTP (subdural fluid/serum) was > 2, an admixture of CSF to the subdural fluid was indicated. The ΒTP (subdural fluid/serum) was > 2 in all patients with a traumatic CSDH. The mean concentration of subdural ΒTP in the high-impact group was higher than in the low-impact group (6.1 mg/L versus 3.9 mg/L), and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.02). In addition, mean concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF were higher in the high-impact group, as compared to the low-impact group, though the differences did not reach statistical significance. Trauma may be related to CSF leakage into the subdural space in CSDH, and the intensity of trauma may influence the amount of CSF leakage. Although there is no direct correlation between the amount of CSF leakage and other subdural molecules, the intensity of trauma may be associated with larger concentrations of molecules in traumatic CSDH.

  4. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. Methods One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients’ characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Results Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD, 70.4 (6.6 years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6 ml/min/1.73 m2; serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2 mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8 mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3 mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186. A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.684-0.914]. Conclusions In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression.

  5. Certified pediatric nurses' perceptions of job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Janet; Harrison, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Pediatric Nursing Certification Board surveyed a national sample of 1354 hospital-based certified pediatric nurses (CPNs) to determine their perceptions of certification on job satisfaction and other factors. There is a substantial body of literature that demonstrates job satisfaction among nurses positively increases retention and reduces absenteeism and burnout. CPNs seek certification for a personal sense of achievement, professional recognition, and validation of clinical competency. The certified nurse survey respondents had self-reported high levels of job satisfaction and indicated that relationships with colleagues and a supportive work environment were very important to their levels of job satisfaction. The results of this study highlight important factors for hospitals to consider as they plan strategies and cost-effective ways to positively affect patient care and retain qualified pediatric nurses at the bedside.

  6. Job stress among Iranian prison employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, J; Akbari, R; Farasati, F; Mahaki, B

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Job stress was highest among employees of "correction and rehabilitation center" of Ilam province followed by "Dalab vocational training center." There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.

  7. Job Stress among Iranian Prison Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Akbari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. Objective: To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Results: Job stress was highest among employees of “correction and rehabilitation center” of Ilam province followed by “Dalab vocational training center.” There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Conclusion: Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.

  8. [Cooperation, Job Satisfaction and Burn Out - Sustainability in Outpatient Mental Health Care among Medical Specialists in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Johanna; Moock, Jörn; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-04-01

    Objective Cooperation, job satisfaction, and burn out risk are indicators of sustainability in mental health services. Thus they were assessed among registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany. Method A postal survey consisting of three questionnaires about cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout was carried out among all registered medical specialists in outpatient mental health care in Germany (n = 4,430). Results 14.1 % (n = 626) of the specialists responded to the survey. Quality and quantity of cooperation regarding mental health care services were rated diverse, job satisfaction was assessed medium to high, and burnout risk was low to medium. Higher job satisfaction correlated with good quality of cooperation, fewer years of practice, fewer patients' chronically ill, more patients who as well seek psychotherapy, and less time spent on cooperation. Low burn out risk correlated with good quality of cooperation, higher age, single practice setting and a higher amount of patients who as well seek psychotherapy. Conclusion Quality and quantity of cooperation in outpatient mental health care - especially regarding community mental health care institutions - should be fostered. Aspects to be considered to reinforce job satisfaction and minimize burn out risk are age, years of practice, quality and quantity of cooperation, practice setting, and the mixture of patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. High-Definition and Non-Invasive Brain Modulation of Pain and Motor Dysfunction in Chronic TMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Adam; Nascimento, Thiago; Lawrence, Mara; Gupta, Vikas; Zieba, Tina; Truong, Dennis Q.; Bikson, Marom; Datta, Abhi; Bellile, Emily; DaSilva, Alexandre F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a relatively high prevalence and in many patients pain and masticatory dysfunction persist despite a range of treatments. Non-invasive brain neuromodulatory methods, namely transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can provide relatively long-lasting pain relief in chronic pain patients. Objective To define the neuromodulatory effect of five daily 2×2 motor cortex high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) sessions on clinical pain and motor measures in chronic TMD patients. It is predicted that M1 HD-tDCS will selectively modulate clinical measures, by showing greater analgesic after-effects compared to placebo, and active treatment will increase pain free jaw movement more than placebo. Methods Twenty-four females with chronic myofascial TMD pain underwent five daily, 20-minute sessions of active or sham 2 milliamps (mA) HD-tDCS. Measurable outcomes included pain-free mouth opening, visual analog scale (VAS), sectional sensory-discriminative pain measures tracked by a mobile application, short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Follow-up occurred at one-week and four-weeks post treatment. Results There were significant improvements for clinical pain and motor measurements in the active HD-tDCS group compared to the placebo group for: responders with pain relief above 50% in the VAS at four-week follow-up (p=0.04); pain-free mouth opening at one-week follow-up (ppain area, intensity and their sum measures contralateral to putative M1 stimulation during the treatment week (ppain and motor measures during stimulation, and up to four weeks post-treatment in chronic myofascial TMD pain patients. PMID:26226938

  10. The radiology job market: analysis of the ACR jobs board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Anand M; Oklu, Rahmi; Harvey, H Benjamin; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Rosman, David A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of the radiology job market as represented by the ACR Jobs Board from October 2010 to June 2013. With the assistance of the ACR, data from the ACR Jobs Board from October 2010 through June 2013, including the numbers of monthly new job seekers, new job postings, and job posting clicks, were gathered and used to calculate a monthly competitive index, defined as the ratio of new job seekers to new job postings. During the study period, the mean number of new job seekers was 168 per month, which was significantly greater than the 84 average new job postings for any given month (P = .0002). There was no significant difference between 2011 and 2012 with regard to the number of new job seekers or job postings. Over the time period assessed, more new job seekers registered in October and November 2010, August to November 2011, and October and November 2012. These periods were also associated with the highest competitive index values. There were less job seekers in the winter and spring of 2011, 2012, and 2013, periods associated with lower competitive index values. ACR Jobs Board activity, measured by job posting clicks, was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2011 (P Jobs Board, there were consistently more new job seekers than job postings throughout the study period, and fall is the period in the year most associated with the highest competitive index for radiologist employment. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Job insecurity and health: a study of 16 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk Aversion and Job Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job mobility. The results for men show that risk averse workers are less likely to move to other jobs. For women, the evidence that risk aversion affects job mobility is weak. Our empirical findings indicate ...

  13. Job Satisfaction of Nursing Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosova, Liana; Pokhilenko, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to research levels of job satisfaction, factors affecting job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, and ways to improve job satisfaction among nursing managers. The purposes of the study were to extend knowledge in the field of healthcare management, to raise awareness about factors that affect job satisfaction in nursing management career, and to provide suggestions regarding how to increase job satisfaction among nursing managers. The method of this study is literature r...

  14. Nurses' Job satisfaction: an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, J; De Caro, W; Marucci, A R; Sorrentino, M; Mayner, L; Lancia, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work presented was to assess job satisfaction of a number of nurses from different departments working in public hospitals in Italy. The assessment was carried out through the combined use of questionnaires, which measured different aspects of job satisfaction, such as coping abilities, stress level and optimism/pessimism. The literature supports the fact that nurses' job dissatisfaction is closely connected with high levels of stress, burnout and physical and mental exhaustion, together with high workload levels and the complexity of care. The growing interest in measuring the levels of nurses' job satisfaction is attributable to a number of problems that have been raised worldwide, two of which are becoming ever so important: turnover and shortage of nurses. The research question is: Which are the main motivating factors of Italian nurses' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction? The study used a convenience (non probability) sample of 1,304 nurses from 15 different wards working in Italian public hospitals from a number of cities in northern, central and southern Italy. The survey instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 205 items which included 5 different questionnaires combined together. The results show a low level of job satisfaction (IWS= 11.5, JSS=126.4). However, the participants were overall happy about their job and considered autonomy and salary important factors for job satisfaction. Research has shown that the nurses' level of satisfaction in Italian hospitals is low. The results revealed dissatisfaction with task requirements, organizational policies and advance in career. Nurses interviewed did not feel stressed and showed to be optimistic overall. New research on the subject should be conducted by focusing on ward differences, North and South of Italy and on gender differences.

  15. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes

  16. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozani SN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shai N Gozani NeuroMetrix, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Methods: Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. Results: One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9% were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1 pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80

  17. Does low job satisfaction lead to job mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    This paper seeks to analyse the role of job satisfaction and actual job change behaviour. The analysis is based on the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) data for Danish families 1994-2000. The results show that inclusion of job satisfaction, which is a subjective measure, does improve...... the ability to predict actual quit behaviour: Low overall job satisfaction significantly increases the probability of quit. Various job satisfaction domains are ranked according to their ability to predict quits. Satisfaction with Type of Work is found to be the most important job characteristic while...... satisfaction with Job Security is found to be insignificant. These results hold across age, gender and education sub-groups and are opposed to results for UK, where job security is found to be the most important job domain. This discrepancy between UK and Denmark might be due to differences in unemployment...

  18. Chronic rectal bleeding after high dose conformal treatment of prostate cancer warrants modification of existing morbidity scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, A.L.; Schulthiess, T.E.; Hunt, M.A.; Movsas, B.; Peter, R.; Hanks, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Serious late morbidity (Grade (3(4))) from the conformal treatment of prostate cancer has been reported in <1% to 6% of patients. This study demonstrates that the reported frequency of Grade (3(4)) complications varies by the morbidity scale selected and that no existing morbidity scale adequately represents chronic rectal bleeding, which is our most frequent persisting late sequela of high dose conformal treatment. Materials and Methods: Between (5(89)) and (12(93)), 352 patients with T1-3 NXM0 prostate cancers were treated with our 4-field conformal technique without special rectal blocking. This technique includes a 1 cm margin from the CTV to the PTV in all directions. The median follow-up for these patients was 38 mos (4 to 78), and the median ICRU reporting point dose was 74 Gy (63 to 81). Patients are followed at six month intervals, and no patient is lost to follow-up. Three morbidity scales are assessed, the RTOG, the late effects group (LENT), and our modification of the LENT (FC-LENT). This modification registers chronic rectal bleeding requiring more than two coagulations as a grade 3 event. Estimates for Grade (3(4)) late GI complication rates were determined using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Differences in morbidity rates were evaluated using the log-rank test and differences in time to latency of complications were evaluated using the nonparametric Wilcoxon test. The duration of severe symptoms with chronic rectal bleeding is measured from the first to the last transrectal coagulation. Results: Sixteen patients developed Grade (3(4)) complications by one of the three morbidity scales. Two patients required surgery (colostomy, sigmoid resection), 5 required a transfusion, and 9 required more than two coagulations. The median latency to the third coagulation (plus or minus transfusions) was 24 mos (17 to 40). The median duration of bleeding between the first and last coagulation was 6 mos (3 to 25), illustrating the chronicity of this problem

  19. High satisfaction and low decisional conflict with advance care planning among chronically ill patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure using an online decision aid: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scoy, Lauren J; Green, Michael J; Dimmock, Anne Ef; Bascom, Rebecca; Boehmer, John P; Hensel, Jessica K; Hozella, Joshua B; Lehman, Erik B; Schubart, Jane R; Farace, Elana; Stewart, Renee R; Levi, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Many patients with chronic illnesses report a desire for increased involvement in medical decision-making. This pilot study aimed to explore how patients with exacerbation-prone disease trajectories such as advanced heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experience advance care planning using an online decision aid and to compare whether patients with different types of exacerbation-prone illnesses had varied experiences using the tool. Pre-intervention questionnaires measured advance care planning knowledge. Post-intervention questionnaires measured: (1) advance care planning knowledge; (2) satisfaction with tool; (3) decisional conflict; and (4) accuracy of the resultant advance directive. Comparisons were made between patients with heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Over 90% of the patients with heart failure (n = 24) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 25) reported being "satisfied" or "highly satisfied" with the tool across all satisfaction domains; over 90% of participants rated the resultant advance directive as "very accurate." Participants reported low decisional conflict. Advance care planning knowledge scores rose by 18% (p < 0.001) post-intervention. There were no significant differences between participants with heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients with advanced heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were highly satisfied after using an online advance care planning decision aid and had increased knowledge of advance care planning. This tool can be a useful resource for time-constrained clinicians whose patients wish to engage in advance care planning. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. High infection control rate and function after routine one-stage exchange for chronically infected TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Barbe, Bruno; Gaudias, Jeannot; Boeri, Cyril; Argenson, Jean-Noël

    2013-01-01

    Many surgeons consider two-stage exchange the gold standard for treating chronic infection after TKA. One-stage exchange is an alternative for infection control and might provide better knee function, but the rates of infection control and levels of function are unclear. We asked whether a one-stage exchange protocol would lead to infection control rates and knee function similar to those after two-stage exchange. We followed all 47 patients with chronically infected TKAs treated with one-stage exchange between July 2004 and February 2007. We monitored for recurrence of infection and obtained Knee Society Scores. We followed patients a minimum of 3 years or until death or infection recurrence. Three of the 47 patients (6%) experienced a persistence or recurrence of the index infection with the same pathogen isolated. Three patients (6%) had control of the index infection but between 6 and 17 months experienced an infection with another pathogen. The 3-year survival rates were 87% for being free of any infection and 91% for being healed of the index infection. Twenty-five of the 45 patients (56%) had a Knee Society Score of more than 150 points. While routine one-stage exchange was not associated with a higher rate of infection recurrence failure, knee function was not improved compared to that of historical patients having two-stage exchange. One stage-exchange may be a reasonable alternative in chronically infected TKA as a more convenient approach for patients without the risks of two operations and hospitalizations and for reducing costs. The ideal one stage-exchange candidate should be identified in future studies.

  1. High incidence of adrenal crisis in educated patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahner, Stefanie; Spinnler, Christina; Fassnacht, Martin; Burger-Stritt, Stephanie; Lang, Katharina; Milovanovic, Danijela; Beuschlein, Felix; Willenberg, Holger S; Quinkler, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    Adrenal crisis (AC) is a life-threatening complication of adrenal insufficiency (AI), which according to retrospective data represents a significant clinical complication. Here we aimed to prospectively assess incidence of AC and mortality associated with AC in patients with chronic AI. A total of 423 patients with AI (primary AI, n = 221; secondary AI, n = 202) were prospectively followed up for 2 years. Baseline assessment included a general questionnaire and detailed written instructions on glucocorticoid dose adaptation during stress. Patients received follow-up questionnaires every 6 months and were contacted by phone in case of reported adrenal crisis. A total of 423 data sets were available for baseline analysis, and 364 patients (86%) completed the whole study. Sixy-four AC in 767.5 patient-years were documented (8.3 crises per 100 patient-years). Precipitating causes were mainly gastrointestinal infection, fever, and emotional stress (20%, respectively) but also other stressful events (eg, major pain, surgery, strenuous physical activity, heat, pregnancy) or unexplained sudden onset of AC (7%) were documented. Patients with a previous AC were at higher risk of crisis (odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.5-5.5, P cases death was associated with AC (0.5 AC related deaths per 100 patient-years). Even in educated patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency, AC occurs in a substantial proportion of cases. Furthermore, we identified AC-associated mortality in approximately 6% of AC. Our findings further emphasize the need for improved management of AC in patients with chronic AI.

  2. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Job satisfaction developmental trajectories and health: A life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlam, Jonathan; Zheng, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the health consequence of job dissatisfaction becomes increasingly important because job insecurity, stress and dissatisfaction have significantly increased in the United States in the last decade. Despite the extensive work in this area, prior studies nonetheless may underestimate the harmful effect of job dissatisfaction due to the cross-sectional nature of their data and sample selection bias. This study applies a life-course approach to more comprehensively examine the relationship between job satisfaction and health. Using data from the NLSY 1979 cohort, we estimate group based job satisfaction trajectories of respondents starting at age 25 and ending at age 39. Four job satisfaction trajectory groups are identified, a consistently high satisfaction group, a downward group, an upward group, and a lowest satisfaction group. We examine the effects of these trajectories on several physical and mental health outcomes of respondents in their early forties. We find membership in the lowest job satisfaction trajectory group to be negatively associated with all five mental health outcomes, supporting the accumulation of risks life course model. Those in the upward job satisfaction trajectory group have similar health outcomes to those in the high job satisfaction trajectory group, supporting the social mobility life course model. Overall, we find the relationship between job satisfaction trajectories and health to be stronger for mental health compared to physical health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced gene expression levels after chronic exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Tulupová, Elena; Rössnerová, Andrea; Líbalová, Helena; Hoňková, Kateřina; Gmuender, H.; Pastorková, Anna; Švecová, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 780, oct (2015), s. 60-70 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1508; GA ČR GA13-13458S; GA MŠk 2B08005 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chronic exposure * air pollution * gene expression profiles * human health * particulate matter * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2015

  5. Job demands, job control, psychological climate, and job satisfaction: a cognitive dissonance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, M; Michaelides, G; Wood, S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Research into job design and employee outcomes has tended to examine job design in isolation of the wider organizational context, leading to calls to attend to the context in which work is embedded. This study examines the effects of the interaction between job design and psychological climate on job satisfaction.\\ud \\ud Design/approach: Cognitive Dissonance Theory was used to explore the nature of this relationship and its effect on job satisfaction. We hypothesized that psychologic...

  6. Job Hunting, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Ed; Stringer, Susan

    1998-05-01

    The AAS is again sponsoring a career workshop for Astronomers seeking employment. The workshop will cover a wide range of tools needed by a job seeker with a background in astronomy. There are increasingly fewer job opportunities in the academic areas. Today, astronomers need placement skills and career information to compete strongly in a more diversified jobs arena. The workshop will offer practical training on preparing to enter the job market. Topics covered include resume and letter writing as well as how to prepare for an interview. Advice is given on resources for jobs in astronomy, statistics of employment and education, and networking strategies. Workshop training also deals with a diverse range of career paths for astronomers. The workshop will consist of an two approximately three-hour sessions. The first (1-4pm) will be on the placement tools and job-search skills described above. The second session will be for those who would like to stay and receive personalized information on individual resumes, job search problems, and interview questions and practice. The individual appointments with Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer that will take place during the second session (6-9pm) will be arranged on-site during the first session. A career development and job preparation manual "Preparing Physicists for Work" will be on sale at the workshop for \\9.00. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: How to prepare an effective resume How to research prospective employers Interviewing skills Networking to uncover employment Job prospects present and future Traditional and non-traditional positions for astronomers This workshop will be presented by Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer of the American Institute of Physics. The cost of the workshop is \\15.00 which includes a packet of resource materials supporting the workshop presentation. Please send your request for attendance by 8 May 1998 to the Executive Office along with a check, payable to the AAS, for the fee. Credit cards will not be

  7. Calidad de vida y estrés laboral: la incidencia del Burnout en el deporte de alto rendimiento madrileño. Quality of life and job stress: Burnout among high performance sport professionals from Madrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez del Castillo, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la literatura sobre la psicología de la salud en las organizaciones es generalmente aceptado que el Burnout (Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo aparece como consecuencia de un estrés laboral crónico excesivo que provoca una disminución de la habilidad en el desempeño de la actividad profesional y la aparición de diferentes problemas de salud en quien lo padece. El Burnout (Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo ha sido conceptualizado como un síndrome psicológico tridimensional de agotamiento emocional, despersonalización y baja realización personal en el trabajo. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar la presencia del Burnout en el colectivo de los profesionales del Alto Rendimiento Deportivo. Para ello se utilizó una muestra de 102 profesionales en activo empleados en 20 organizaciones representativas del fenómeno del Alto Rendimiento Deportivo de la ciudad de Madrid, España. Para medir la incidencia del Burnout (Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo se utilizó el Inventario de Burnout de Maslach. Los resultados obtenidos en este colectivo fueron de un 37,25% con altos niveles de Burnout (Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo, 50% con nivel intermedio y 12,75% con bajo nivel. Estos profesionales presentan mayores niveles de baja realización personal en el trabajo (26,47% y menores niveles de despersonalización (11,76% y agotamiento emocional (10,78%. También se encontraron diferencias en los niveles cuando fueron comparados con otros profesionales del deporte.AbstractIt is widely accepted in organizational and health psychology literatures that burnout is a consequence of chronic job stress wh+ºich causes an array of negative work related performance and health outcomes. Burnout was conceptualized as a 3-dimensional psychological syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased personal accomplishment. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Burnout syndrome in High

  8. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    JS-preferences trade JS for higher wages. The relation between optimal job insecurity and the perceived dismissal probability is hump-shaped. If firms observe demand, but workers do not, separation is not contractible and firms dismiss workers at-will. Although the workers are risk-averse......, they respond to the one-sided private information by trading wage-risk for a higher JS. With two-sided private information, even JS-neutral workers pay the price for a JS guarantee, if their risk premium associated with the wage-replacement risk is larger than the social net loss from production....

  9. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. On the job : careers in the oilpatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-10-15

    A young employee at Canadian Dewatering LP was interviewed about the requirements for his job as a commercial diver in the oilsands tailings ponds at Fort McMurray, Alberta. The objective was to highlight careers in the oilpatch with particular reference to job qualifications, education requirements, job tasks on a day-to-day basis, and risks and rewards associated with the job. A typical job might be removing a large pump so it can be winterized. Obstructions from pump intakes are cleaned regularly and inspections are carried out routinely, but every day of the job is different. The tailings ponds are shallow, but under the water is a very soft bed of fine particles. The work is well paid, and it is relatively easy to get employment contracts. However, living costs are currently very high. The young employee plans to enroll in mechanical engineering to become an operator of remotely operated vehicles (ROV). These unmanned underwater robots are used for offshore oil and gas operations as well as in other industries. 1 fig.

  11. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2018-01-01

    in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0......Objective: Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. Design: The study was designed...... as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control...

  12. Doubtful association of antipsychotic polypharmacy and high dosage with cognition in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Kleisas, Spyridon; Kalogerakou, Stamatina; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Psaras, Rafael; Makris, Yannis; Karouzos, Charalambos; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2010-10-01

    Despite consistent recommendations for antipsychotic monotherapy, antipsychotic polypharmacy (the use of two or more antipsychotic agents) and the administration of excessive doses (higher than 1000 mgr/day of chloropromazine equivalents) is a common practice in schizophrenia. The therapeutic and adverse effects of this practice are poorly studied, in particular with regards to the cognitive symptoms of the disease. In this cross-sectional study we investigated the cognitive effects of antipsychotic polypharmacy and excessive doses in 53 patients with chronic schizophrenia using non-verbal cognitive tasks involving speed of movement, memory and executive functions. No significant difference in performance scores was found between the groups under polypharmacy and monotherapy, or the groups receiving either excessive or normal doses of antipsychotics. Since these groups did not also differ in demographic, clinical, other pharmacologic parameters, in the relative anticholinergic potency of antipsychotics, or in intelligence scores, we raise doubts about the association of polypharmacy and excessive doses with non-verbal cognitive performance in chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of job-related depression in laboratory technicians in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH) Hospitals in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, B D; Rusli, B N; Winn, T; Naing, L; Tengku, M A

    2004-06-01

    Karasek's job strain model postulates that workers chronically exposed to adverse psychosocial work environment (high strain job)--high psychological job demands and low job control, including poor social support, increased physical demand and hazardous work condition--will eventually develop both physical illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases and psychological disorders such as depression. In order to determine the prevalence and associated factors of job-related depression, a cross-sectional study was conducted among laboratory technicians in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM) Hospitals in Kelantan between September 2001 and February 2002. One hundred and two laboratory technicians in HUSM and 79 laboratory technicians in 7 KKM Hospitals were selected; 84/102 (82.4%) in HUSM and 71/79 (89.9%) in KKM Hospitals responded. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires of the validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) originally developed by Robert Karasek. Results indicated that the prevalence of high job strain in laboratory technicians in HUSM and KKM hospitals was 33.3% (28/84) and 26.8% (19/71), respectively (p>0.05). Significantly higher proportion (59.5%) (50/84) of laboratory technicians in HUSM compared to those in KKM Hospitals (39.4%) (28/71) (p = 0.016) experienced job-related depression. Significant associated factors of job-related depression were low social support (HUSM: adjusted OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.2-18.8; KKM: adjusted OR 14.8, 95%CI 2.4-89.3), high psychological demand (HUSM: adjusted OR 3.0, 95%CI 1.0-8.8), and low decision authority (KKM: adjusted OR 9.7, 95%CI 1.0-91.1). We conclude that strengthening the social support network (supervisors' and coworkers' support), reducing psychological job demand, and increasing decision-making authority of laboratory technicians may go a long way towards reducing job-related depression.

  14. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  15. Comfort food is comforting to those most stressed: evidence of the chronic stress response network in high stress women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Dallman, Mary F; Epel, Elissa S

    2011-11-01

    Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to acute stress and underwent diurnal saliva sampling for basal cortisol and response to dexamethasone administration. Based on perceived stress scores, women were divided into extreme quartiles of low versus high stress categories. We found as hypothesized that the high stress group had significantly greater BMI and sagittal diameter, and reported greater emotional eating. In response to acute lab stressor, the high stress group showed a blunted cortisol response, lower diurnal cortisol levels, and greater suppression in response to dexamethasone. These cross-sectional findings support the animal model, which suggests that long-term adaptation to chronic stress in the face of dense calories result in greater visceral fat accumulation (via ingestion of calorie-dense food), which in turn modulates HPA axis response, resulting in lower cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social Justice and Job Distribution in Japan: Class, Minority and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kaori H.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Japanese high school students in terms of 1995 post-school destinations and types of jobs obtained. Describes the school-based job referral process that systematically regulates job distribution for high school graduates, including high school-employer networks and guidance for students in employment-related…

  17. The changing nature of jobs in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Job polarization can pose serious problems for emerging economies that rely on worker reallocation from low-skilled to middle-skilled jobs to converge toward advanced economies. Evidence from Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries shows that structural change and education expansion can prevent polarization, as they enable a shift from manual to cognitive work and prevent the “hollowing out” of middle-skilled jobs. However, in CEE countries they have also led to a high routine cognitive...

  18. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Shai N

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Methods Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. Results One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9%) were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1) pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80.3% of responders reporting a reduction compared to 11.8% of non

  19. Fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic low back and lower extremity pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Shai N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if fixed-site high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (FS-TENS) is effective in treating chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is widely used for treatment of chronic pain. General-purpose transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation devices are designed for stimulation anywhere on the body and often cannot be used while the user is active or sleeping. FS-TENS devices are designed for placement at a pre-determined location, which enables development of a wearable device for use over extended time periods. Study participants with chronic low back and/or lower extremity pain self-administered an FS-TENS device for 60 days. Baseline, 30-, and 60-day follow-up data were obtained through an online questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the patient global impression of change. Pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Changes in use of concomitant pain medications were evaluated with a single-item global self-rating. One hundred and thirty participants were enrolled, with 88 completing the 60-day follow-up questionnaire. Most participants (73.9%) were 50 years of age or older. At baseline, low back pain was identified by 85.3%, lower extremity pain by 71.6%, and upper extremity pain by 62.5%. Participants reported widespread pain, at baseline, with a mean of 3.4 (standard deviation 1.1) pain sites. At the 60-day follow-up, 80.7% of participants reported that their chronic pain had improved and they were classified as responders. Baseline characteristics did not differentiate non-responders from responders. There were numerical trends toward reduced pain interference with walking ability and sleep, and greater pain relief in responders. There was a large difference in use of concomitant pain medications, with 80.3% of responders reporting a reduction compared to 11.8% of non-responders. FS-TENS is a safe and effective

  20. High physical work load and low job satisfaction increase the risk of sickness absence due to low back pain: results of a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, W E; Bongers, P M; de Vet, H C W; Ariëns, G A M; van Mechelen, W; Bouter, L M

    2002-05-01

    To determine whether physical and psychosocial load at work influence sickness absence due to low back pain. The research was a part of the study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress, and health (SMASH), a 3 year prospective cohort study on risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Workers from 21 companies located throughout The Netherlands participated in the part of this study on sickness absence due to low back pain. The study population consisted of 732 workers with no sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain in the 3 months before the baseline survey and complete data on the reasons for absences during the follow up period. The mean (range) period of follow up in this group was 37 (7-44) months. Physical load at work was assessed by analyses of video recordings. Baseline information on psychosocial work characteristics was obtained by a questionnaire. Data on sickness absence were collected from company records. The main outcome measure was the rate of sickness absences of 3 days or longer due to low back pain during the follow up period. After adjustment of the work related physical and psychosocial factors for each other and for other potential determinants, significant rate ratios ranging from 2.0 to 3.2 were found for trunk flexion, trunk rotation, lifting, and low job satisfaction. A dose-response relation was found for trunk flexion, but not for trunk rotation or lifting. Non-significant rate ratios of about 1.4 were found for low supervisor support and low coworker support. Quantitative job demands, conflicting demands, decision authority, and skill discretion showed no relation with sickness absence due to low back pain. Flexion and rotation of the trunk, lifting, and low job satisfaction are risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain. Some indications of a relation between low social support, either from supervisors or coworkers, and sickness absence due to low back pain are also present.

  1. Ecobuilding and job creation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kolev, M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available directly or indirectly from the renewable energy sector. Million Jobs Geothermal 25 000 Small Hydro 39 000 Biomass 1 174 000 Solar Thermal 645 000 Solar PV 170 000 Wind Power 300 000 Figure 1: Worldwide employment in renewable energy... threat to the way we live our lives. We need to change the way we travel, build, cook, generate and consume energy, and heat and cool our living and office spaces. We need to change the way we think about our surroundings, our families and our jobs...

  2. Branding McJobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noppeney, Claus; Endrissat, Nada; Kärreman, Dan

    Traditionally, employer branding has been considered relevant for knowledge intensive firms that compete in a ‘war for talent’. However, the continuous rise in service sector jobs and the negative image of these so-called McJobs has motivated a trend in rebranding service work. Building on critical...... oriented branding literature, our contribution to this stream of research is twofold: We provide an empirical account of employer branding of a grocery chain, which has repeatedly been voted among the ‘100 best companies to work for’. Second, we outline the role of symbolic compensation that employees...... of employer branding....

  3. High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease in Children Print Email High ... such as the heart and brain. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood ...

  4. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K

    2013-01-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job.......Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job....

  5. Chronic high-sodium diet increases aortic wall endothelin-1 expression in a blood pressure-independent fashion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Ohkita, Mamoru; Gariepy, Cheryl E

    2006-06-01

    Vascular endothelin (ET)-1 is upregulated in several forms of salt-induced hypertension. It is unclear to what extent these effects are primary or secondary to endothelial damage. We hypothesized that a high-sodium diet (HNa) increases vascular ET-1 production independent of arterial blood pressure changes. We investigated the effect of chronic HNa with and without ET(A) blockade on circulating and aortic ET-1 protein levels as well as aortic expression of ET-1 and ET(A) messenger RNA (mRNA) in inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and congenic ET(B)-deficient rats. Comparing WKY rats fed a low-sodium diet (LNa) with those fed HNa for 3 weeks, aortic wall ET-1 protein is significantly increased in response to HNa (331 +/- 43 pg/g tissue for LNa vs. 557 +/- 34 pg/gm tissue for HNa). HNa also increased aortic wall ET-1 mRNA levels by 40%, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We then compared rats chronically treated with the ET(A)-selective antagonist, ABT-627, while receiving either LNa or HNa. There were no differences in arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure 89 +/- 1 mm Hg for WKY on LNa; 90 +/- 3 for WKY on HNa; 91 +/- 2 for ET(B)-deficient/ABT-627-treated on HNa) or heart rate. However, aortic wall ET-1 protein levels were 4-fold higher in the HNa group. Further, HNa increased aortic wall ET-1 mRNA (approximately 1.5- to 3-fold) and ET(A) mRNA (approximately 2- to 7-fold), independent of activation of ET(B). Therefore, the expression of ET-1 mRNA by the aortic wall is increased in response to chronic high dietary sodium in WKY rats in the absence of changes in arterial blood pressure.

  6. High-intensity strength training improves function of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. METHODS: Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were...... randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed...... MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. CONCLUSION: Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength...

  7. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians in private practice: comparison of German and Norwegian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Rosta, Judith; Siegrist, Johannes; Aasland, Olaf G

    2012-10-01

    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress of German compared to Norwegian physicians in private practice. A representative sample of physicians in private practice of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (N = 414) and a nationwide sample of Norwegian general practitioners and private practice specialists (N = 340) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire comprised the standard instruments "Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS)" and a short form of the "Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI)". Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (job satisfaction scale compared to German physicians (M 5.57, SD 0.74 vs. M 4.78, SD 1.01). The effect size was highest for the items freedom to choose method (d = 1.012), rate of pay (d = 0.941), and overall job satisfaction (d = 0.931). While there was no significant difference in the mean of the overall effort scale between German and Norwegian physicians, Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (p job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and reward were significantly higher in Norwegian than in German physicians. An almost threefold higher proportion of German physicians exhibited a high level of work-related stress. Findings call for active prevention and health promotion among stressed practicing physicians, with a special focus on improved working conditions.

  8. Job Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Academic Staff in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Stankovska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most important organization of a nation; it plays a significant role in the development of any country. Universities create and cultivate knowledge for the sake of building a modern world. The academic staff is the key resource within higher education institutions. A positive and healthy university structure results in increased academic staff’s job satisfaction and better job motivation. According to this, the main purpose of this research was to investigate the possible relationship between job motivation and job satisfaction among academic staff. The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS and Job Motivation Questionnaire (JMQ were administered to a sample of 100 (50 males and 50 females university employees. The results indicated that the academic staff was highly motivated with their job. At the same time the results showed that academicians were more satisfied with their salary, co-workers, promotion, operating procedures and supervision, but dissatisfied with fringe benefits, contingent rewards, nature of work and communication. This research offers practical suggestions to the educational institutions and human resource managers on how to pay, promote, retain and maintain equity in the universities.

  9. An Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Iranian Pharmacists through Various Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi Moghadam, Mohamad Javad; Peiravian, Farzad; Naderi, Azadeh; Rajabzadeh, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacists and pharmaceutical services are among the most important resources and programs in providing health for a society. Pharmacists as the key players in presenting health services, greatly impact on the health of a society and if they suffer low job satisfaction, their dissatisfaction may relatively threaten health in a society. This study was conducted to determine Iranian pharmacists' job satisfaction and additionally, some causes of dissatisfaction among pharmacists have been diagnosed. A job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and reliability tests were done by some experts in field of pharmacy practice. A sample of 700 pharmacists was selected among ten leading provinces of the country and questionnaires were distributed at the continuing pharmacy education conferences. Three essential factors named "Endogenous Satisfaction", "Exogenous Satisfaction" and "Current Sense of Being Pharmacists" was considered as the main job satisfaction factors. Generally low scores of exogenous and endogenous job satisfaction were concluded among pharmacists while most of them were highly satisfied with being pharmacist. Male pharmacists were more satisfied than their female colleagues and a positive relationship between age and work experience with exogenous job satisfaction was found. Low levels of job satisfaction which were found among Iranian pharmacists could be considered as a deficiency of health system in Iran. Fortunately, inherent interest in the pharmacy profession found among Iranian pharmacists is an optimistic point at which policy-makers could develop their modifying policies. Health policy-makers must endeavor to take other steps to issue solutions for this current problem.

  10. Evidence of direct cardiac damage following high-intensity exercise in chronic energy restriction: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Marianne F; Grace, Fergal; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Graham, Scott M; Fleming, Audrey; Baker, Julien S

    2017-07-01

    Following prolonged endurance events such as marathons, elevated levels of cardiospecific biomarkers are commonly reported. Although transiently raised levels are generally not considered to indicate clinical myocardial damage, comprehension of this phenomenon remains incomplete. The popularity of high-intensity interval training highlights a paucity of research measuring cardiac biomarker response to this type of exercise. This a posteriori case report discusses the elevation of cardiac troponins (cTn) associated with short interval, high-intensity exercise. In this case report, an apparently healthy 29-year-old recreationally active female presented clinically raised cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels (>0.04 ng/mL), after performing high-intensity cycle ergometer sprints. As creatine kinase (CK) is expressed by multiple organs (e.g., skeletal muscle, brain, and myocardium), cTnI assays were performed to determine any changes in total serum CK levels not originating from skeletal muscle damage. A posteriori the individual's daily energy expenditure indicated chronically low-energy availability. Psychometric testing suggested that the individual scored positive for disordered eating, highly for fatigue levels, and low in mental health components. The current case report provides novel evidence of elevated cTnI occurring as a result of performing short duration, high intensity, cycle ergometer exercise in an individual with self-reported chronically depleted energy balance. A schematic to identify potentially "at risk" individuals is presented. Considering this as a case report, results cannot be generalized; however, the main findings suggest that individuals who habitually restrict their calorie intake below their bodies' daily energy requirements, may have elevated biomarkers of exercise induced myocardial stress from performing high-intensity exercise.

  11. Job Creation and Job Destruction, Worker Reallocation, and Wages.

    OpenAIRE

    Belzil, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Using Danish firm (workplace) data on employment reallocation merged with individual records, the effects of job creation/destruction and worker reallocation on wages are estimated using fixed effects techniques. After controlling for business cycle fluctuations, job creation is found to increase male wages. The effect of net job creation seems present at all phases of the business cycle. Entry wages as well as wages of low tenure workers appear much more sensitive to idiosyncratic job creati...

  12. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Method: Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study a...

  13. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C C; Stewart, Roy E; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-05-11

    Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study among physicians starting medical training at Groningen University in 1982/83/92/93 (N = 597). Data from 506 participants (85%) were available for this study. We used regression analysis to investigate the influence of job size on physicians' job satisfaction (13 aspects) and ANOVA to examine differences in job satisfaction between physicians wishing to retain, reduce or increase job size. The majority of the respondents (57%) had an actual job size less than 1.0 FTE. More than 80% of all respondents preferred not to work full-time in the future. Respondents' average actual and preferred job sizes were .85 FTE and .81 FTE, respectively. On average, respondents who wished to work less (35% of respondents) preferred a job size reduction of 0.18 FTE and those who wished to work more (12%) preferred an increase in job size of 0.16 FTE. Job size influenced satisfaction with balance work-private hours most (β = -.351). Physicians who preferred larger job sizes were - compared to the other groups of physicians - least satisfied with professional accomplishments. A considerable group of physicians reported a gap between actual and preferred job size. Realizing physicians' preferences as to job size will hardly affect total workforce, but may greatly benefit individual physicians as well as their patients and society. Therefore, it seems time for a shift in work ethic.

  14. Job Creation, Job Destruction and Plant Turnover in Norwegian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Jakob Klette; Astrid Mathiassen

    1995-01-01

    The labour market in Norway, as in other Scandinavian countries, is often claimed to be overregulated and incapable of adjustment to changes in job opportunities. The results presented in this paper suggest to the contrary that in terms of job creation and job reallocation between plants, the manufacturing sector in Norway is surprisingly flexible, and similar to the manufacturing sector in other OECD countries such as the U.S. We show that 8.4 percent of the manufacturing jobs are eliminated...

  15. Job Management and Task Bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Jansen, Gustav R.; McElvain, Kenneth; Walker-Loud, André

    2018-03-01

    High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users' current workflows or executables.

  16. Job Management and Task Bundling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkowitz Evan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users’ current workflows or executables.

  17. Job Satisfaction and Affecting Factors in Primary Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit Kaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the job sat­isfaction of the primary health care providers and the fac­tors affecting it. Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out among the staff in The Public Health Care Centers (PHCC by performing a questionnaire under di­rect observation. Results: Out of 310 people consisting of the study uni­verse, 282 participants (94% were reached. The par­ticipants were 104 doctors, 132 assistant health care providers and 46 others (janitors, drivers The mean age of the participants was 37.21±7.70; 60.6% of them were women, 80.1% married, 96.5% graduated from at least High school. The mean of the general job satisfac­tion point of the participants in the study is 63.24±13.63. While the mean of the general job satisfaction point of the physicians and the nurses is found higher, the mean of the general job satisfaction point of janitors and other staff was found lower. The mean of the general job sat­isfaction point was found higher among the permanent and contract employee, women, health care staff, those whose wife/husband works, who chose his job willingly, more educated; who has longer working hours, high in­come, has 3 or less children and finds his job suitable for his skills; however the marital status, having children and age do not affect the mean job satisfaction point. Conclusion: Subjects having high income, found his job suitable for his skills, chose his job willingly had higher job satisfaction scores. This implies that there should be a wage balance among the staff with the same status. The lower job satisfaction score in PHCC indicates the neces­sity of improving the conditions of these centers.

  18. Jobs at Risk!? Effects of Automation of Jobs on Occupational Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgner, Alina

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between the risk of automation of jobs and individual-level occupational mobility using a representative German household survey. The results suggest that expected occupational changes such as losing a job and demotion at the current place of employment, among others, are likely to be driven by the high occupation-specific risk of automation. However, switches to self-employment are more likely to occur from occupations with low risk of automation.

  19. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  20. Relationship Between Job Characteristics And Job Performance Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agricultural extension agent is a key stakeholder in extension systems. The nature of their work is so important that it has overriding effect on their job performance. This study investigates the relationship between job characteristics and job performance of agricultural extension agents in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria.

  1. Job flexibility and job insecurity : the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Vuuren, T. van

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1970s the flexible workforce in the Netherlands has been an important factor of labour force growth. The question raised in this article is whether job flexibility gives rise to feelings of job security. It appears that flexiworkers experience more job insecurity than workers with

  2. [Relationship of job stress with job burnout and quality of work life in workers for offshore oil platforms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X L; Wei, T D; Lan, Y J

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To evaluate the current status of job burnout and qual ity of work life (QWL) in workers for offshore oil platforms, and to analyze the relationship of job stress with job burnout and QWL and the direct and indirect effects of job stress on QWL. Methods: Cluster random sampling was used to select 382 work-ers for 8 oil platforms of China National Offshore Oil Corporation in October 2015. A self - designed questionnaire was used to collect the individual characteristics of subjects. The Quality of Work Life Scale (QWL7 - 32) , Occupa-tional Stress Inventory - Revised Edition (OSI - R) , and Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI - GS) were used to investigate the QWL, job stress, and job burnout of subjects. Results: Among all the workers for offshore oil platforms, 87.2% had mild job burnout. The total QWL score was 116.01 ± 16.73; 8.3% of the workers had poor QWL, and 68.5% had moderate QWL. QWL was reduced with heavier task, vaguer task, and increasing mental stress and physical stress ( P stress had di-rect and indirect effects on QWL; stress reaction had the most effect on QWL (total effect size - 0.509) , followed by social support (total effect size 0.444) . Conclusion: Most workers for offshore oil platforms have mild job burn-out and moderate QWL. Job stress is associated with job burnout and QWL, and stress reaction and social support have relatively high influence on QWL.

  3. Earnings and Job Satisfaction of Employed Spanish Doctoral Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Canal Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for highly qualifi ed workers in developed countries has raised a new interest in analysing whether doctoral training meets the needs of the European labour market. Job satisfaction enables an approach to both the relationship between training and job position and to a company?s successful management of its relationship with those workers who are PhD holders. The results indicate that an analysis based on earnings is relevant, as it makes it possible to identify two clear job satisfaction behaviours: on the one hand, as earnings increase, so does job satisfaction, although this is found to a lesser extent in the higher earnings range; on the other hand, when moving up in the salary range, the relative assessment of job satisfaction components changes, as well as their signifi cance in explaining the variations in job satisfaction.

  4. The effects of restorative care training on caregiver job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L; Harrington, Susan S

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of assisted living facility staff was examined as part of an evaluation study of a restorative care training program. Participants completed a job satisfaction survey at registration (before the training) and again at follow-up 3 months after registration (1 month after the conclusion of the training). Researchers examined the effects of training on job satisfaction. Researchers found a high level of job dissatisfaction at registration. At follow-up, responses were more positive on most of the items suggesting a slight but significant change to a more positive attitude toward their jobs. Improving staff job satisfaction in the assisted living environment is an important goal and needs further investigation. Providing staff with inservice training may be one way to help nurse educators achieve that goal.

  5. Books for the Job Hunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Reviews new and classic titles on career choice, job search methods, executive/professional job search, resume writing, and interviewing. Advises avoiding books with simplistic formulas and exercises or overt sales pitches for software, videos, and other products. (SK)

  6. Jobs Plan Highlights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama is putting new money to save educators' jobs and help states refurbish aging school facilities at the center of a nearly $450 billion plan to jump-start the sluggish economy. The author talks about the president's plan which is sure to face hurdles in a politically polarized Washington where one house of Congress is…

  7. Predicting Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Psychological theories about human motivation and accommodation to environment can be used to achieve a better understanding of the human factors that function in the work environment. Maslow's theory of human motivational behavior provided a theoretical framework for an empirically-derived method to predict job satisfaction and explore the…

  8. Enhancing Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Self-Determined Career Development Model (hereafter called the Self-Determined Career Model) on the job performance of four adults with moderate intellectual disability employed in competitive work settings was examined. Employees learned to set work-related goals, develop an action plan, implement the plan, and adjust their…

  9. Better Pay, More Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Vicki L.; Wohlmuth, Sonia Ramirez

    2000-01-01

    Reports the results of the 1999 survey of library schools that investigated salaries and job placement. Highlights include status of graduates; average starting salaries; discrepancies between salaries of men and women; and views of graduates regarding the placement process and their library school preparation. (LRW)

  10. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  11. What is Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke. Edwin A.

    Despite considerable interest in the study of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, our understanding of these phenomena has not increased substantially in the past 30 years. It is argued that a major reason for this lack of progress is the implicit conception of casuality accepted by most psychologists. It is called the policy of "correlation…

  12. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  13. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....

  14. Employer support for innovative work and employees' job satisfaction and job-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Milosh

    2014-01-01

    There are high levels of global and national underemployment, but limited information is available on the impact of this phenomenon on the quality of employees' working lives. This study examines the relations among perceived employer support for creative work, different forms of underemployment and employee quality of life, including job satisfaction, perceived job security and job satisfaction. The study was performed using cross-sectional data from the Canadian 2010 Work and Lifelong Learning Survey (WALL), which included 1,042 randomly selected currently employed participants between the ages of 18 and 64 years of age. The study found a significant inverse association between employer support for innovative work and different forms of underemployment. It also suggested a strong relationship between support for such work and participation in work-related informal learning. The results from this study confirmed the hypothesis that employer support for creative work is significantly associated with the quality of employees' working lives, as manifested through increased job security and job satisfaction. Employees experiencing greater support for workplace creativity report less job-related stress. The present study identified relatively low employer support for creative work and significant differences in the perception of support among managers and workers. The results of this study indicate that employer support for innovative work can mitigate significant underutilization of employee knowledge and skills. Such support can contribute to the reduction of job-related stress, increased job satisfaction and perceived job security. This kind of support can also improve the quality of life of employees and facilitate creativity and overall organizational and social development.

  15. Job strain among blue-collar and white-collar employees as a determinant of total mortality: a 28-year population-based follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitsamo, Jorma; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of job demand, job control and job strain on total mortality among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the public sector. Design 28-year prospective population-based follow-up. Setting Several municipals in Finland. Participants 5731 public sector employees from the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees Study aged 44–58 years at baseline. Outcomes Total mortality from 1981 to 2009 among individuals with complete data on job strain in midlife, categorised according to job demand and job control: high job strain (high job demands and low job control), active job (high job demand and high job control), passive job (low job demand and low job control) and low job strain (low job demand and high job control). Results 1836 persons died during the follow-up. Low job control among men increased (age-adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42) and high job demand among women decreased the risk for total mortality HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.95). Adjustment for occupational group, lifestyle and health factors attenuated the association for men. In the analyses stratified by occupational group, high job strain increased the risk of mortality among white-collar men (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.13) and passive job among blue-collar men (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47) compared with men with low job strain. Adjustment for lifestyle and health factors attenuated the risks. Among white-collar women having an active job decreased the risk for mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00). Conclusion The impact of job strain on mortality was different according to gender and occupational group among middle-aged public sector employees. PMID:22422919

  16. Social Interactions in Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumen, Semih; Zeydanli, Tugba

    2015-01-01

    The literature documents that job satisfaction is positively correlated with worker performance and pro- ductivity. We examine whether aggregate job satisfaction in a certain labor market environment can have an impact on individual-level job satisfaction. If the answer is yes, then policies targeted to increase job satisfaction can increase productivity not only directly, but through spillover externalities too. We seek an answer to this question using two different data sets from the United...

  17. Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Leao, Izabela; Ahmed, Mansur; Kar, Anuja

    2018-01-01

    The agriculture sector can play an important role in poverty reduction and sustained growth in Afghanistan, primarily through job creation, improved productivity, and inclusiveness. Using an 'agricultural jobs lens' and multidimensional approach, this report explores the sector’s direct and indirect roles in explaining the dynamics of rural employment. The report critically examines three dimensions. First, it evaluates the current jobs structure in rural areas and finds that rural jobs are c...

  18. Molecular Characterization of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients with a High Number of Losses in 13q14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana Eugenia; Hernández, Jose Ángel; Benito, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Norma C.; García, Juan Luis; Hernández-Sánchez, María; Risueño, Alberto; Sarasquete, M. Eugenia; Fermiñán, Encarna; Fisac, Rosa; de Coca, Alfonso García; Martín-Núñez, Guillermo; de las Heras, Natalia; Recio, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Oliver; De Las Rivas, Javier; González, Marcos; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 13q deletion as their only FISH abnormality could have a different outcome depending on the number of cells displaying this aberration. Thus, cases with a high number of 13q- cells (13q-H) had both shorter overall survival and time to first therapy. The goal of the study was to analyze the genetic profile of 13q-H patients. Design and Methods: A total of 102 samples were studied, 32 of which served as a validation cohort and five were healthy donors. Results Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with higher percentages of 13q- cells (>80%) showed a different level of gene expression as compared to patients with lower percentages (<80%, 13q-L). This deregulation affected genes involved in apoptosis and proliferation (BCR and NFkB signaling), leading to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis in 13q-H patients. Deregulation of several microRNAs, such as miR-15a, miR-155, miR-29a and miR-223, was also observed in these patients. In addition, our study also suggests that the gene expression pattern of 13q-H cases could be similar to the patients with 11q- or 17p-. Conclusions This study provides new evidence regarding the heterogeneity of 13q deletion in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, showing that apoptosis, proliferation as well as miRNA regulation are involved in cases with higher percentages of 13q- cells. PMID:23152777

  19. Cardiovascular and metabolic consequences of the association between chronic stress and high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Bruna B; Nunes, Everson A; Crestani, Carlos C; Speretta, Guilherme F

    2018-05-01

    Obesity and chronic stress are considered independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and changes in autonomic system activity. However, the cardiovascular consequences induced by the association between high-fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress are not fully understood. We hypothesized that the association between HFD and exposure to a chronic variable stress (CVS) protocol for four weeks might exacerbate the cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in rats when compared to these factors singly. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control-standard chow diet (SD; n = 8); control-HFD (n = 8); CVS-SD (n = 8); and CVS-HFD (n = 8). The CVS consisted of repeated exposure of the rats to different inescapable and unpredictable stressors (restraint tress; damp sawdust, cold, swim stress and light cycle inversion). We evaluated cardiovascular function, autonomic activity, dietary intake, adiposity and metabolism. The HFD increased body weight, adiposity and blood glucose concentration (∼15%) in both control and CVS rats. The CVS-HFD rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity (25%) compared to CVS-SD rats. The control-HFD and CVS-HFD rats presented increased intrinsic heart rate (HR) values (∼8%). CVS increased cardiac sympathetic activity (∼65%) in both SD- and HFD-fed rats. The HFD increased basal HR (∼10%). Blood pressure and baroreflex analyzes showed no differences among the experimental groups. In conclusion, the present data indicate absence of interaction on autonomic imbalance evoked by either CVS or HFD. Additionally, HFD increased HR and evoked metabolic disruptions which are independent of stress exposure.

  20. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Maria; Bakker, Arnold B; Derks, Daantje

    2013-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs.

  1. Relation between job strain and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, B; Nielsen, F E; Kristensen, T S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of different job related and socioeconomic factors for development of myocardial infarction (MI). METHOD: The study was a case-control study of 76 male wage earners who had been admitted to hospital with MI. As a control group 176 male wage earners not admitted......, the isostrain model. RESULTS: The most significant findings were consistent with Karasek's job strain model in that mean with a high degree of demand combined with a low degree of control at work had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 2.1 (1.2 to 3.8) for MI after...... adjustment for age compared with men with a low degree of demand and a high degree of control at work. Further adjustment for smoking, socioeconomic status, employment sector, job category, and social network did not affect the OR substantially (OR 2.3 (1.2 to 4.4)). Other factors significantly associated...

  2. Characterizing colonic motility in children with chronic intractable constipation: a look beyond high-amplitude propagating sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, S.; Koppen, I. J. N.; Wiklendt, L.; Costa, M.; Benninga, M. A.; Dinning, P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Children with chronic intractable constipation experience severe and long-lasting symptoms, which respond poorly to conventional therapeutic strategies. Detailed characterization of colonic motor patterns in such children has not yet been obtained. In 18 children with chronic intractable

  3. High-NaCl diet impairs dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aso; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 2 wk of high-NaCl diet on kidney function and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without...... arterial pressure variability (SAPV), and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analytical techniques. Rats with ACRF showed marked reductions in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow (RBF), whereas mean arterial pressure and SAPV were significantly elevated. In addition, spontaneous...... adenine (controls). After 10 wk, rats were randomized to either remain on the same diet (0.6% NaCl) or to be switched to high 4% NaCl chow. Two weeks after randomization, renal clearance experiments were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and dynamic RBFA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), systolic...

  4. The investigation of the relationship between the job satisfaction and job performance of employees in furniture sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Türkoğlu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Manpower and performance of employees in furniture industry plays an important role in the quality of the products. It is necessary to ensure the job satisfaction of employees to achieve their high performance. “The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale” and “the Job Performance Scale” were used as data collection tools in the study. Therefore, questionnaire form was conducted on 362 employees of furniture sector. Obtained data was analyzed in SPSS program by means of Correlation and Regression Analyses, t-test and ANOVA. The result of the study shows that there is a strong relationship between job satisfaction and employees performance. While there were significant differences in job satisfaction and job performance in term of some employees’ demographic characteristics such as gender, age, educational status and seniority, it wasn’t found significant difference in marital status.

  5. Highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclical amplification with beads (PMCAb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad J.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie; Samuel, Michael D.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. The method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase K-resistant conformation. Inclusion of Teflon® beads in the PMCA reaction (PMCAb) has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 K and SSLOW strains of hamster-adapted prions. Here, we demonstrate that PMCAb with saponin dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection for chronic wasting disease (CWD) agent without compromising the specificity of the assay (i.e., no false positive results). Addition of Teflon® beads increased the robustness of the PMCA reaction, resulting in a decrease in the variability of PMCA results. Three rounds of serial PMCAb allowed detection of CWD agent from a 6.7×10−13 dilution of 10% brain homogenate (1.3 fg of source brain). Titration of the same brain homogenate in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein (Tg(CerPrP)1536+/−mice) allowed detection of CWD agent from the 10−6 dilution of 10% brain homogenate. PMCAb is, thus, more sensitive than bioassay in transgenic mice by a factor exceeding 105. Additionally, we are able to amplify CWD agent from brain tissue and lymph nodes of CWD-positive white-tailed deer having Prnp alleles associated with reduced disease susceptibility.

  6. Highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclic amplification with beads (PMCAb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Johnson

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. The method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase K-resistant conformation. Inclusion of Teflon® beads in the PMCA reaction (PMCAb has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 K and SSLOW strains of hamster-adapted prions. Here, we demonstrate that PMCAb with saponin dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection for chronic wasting disease (CWD agent without compromising the specificity of the assay (i.e., no false positive results. Addition of Teflon® beads increased the robustness of the PMCA reaction, resulting in a decrease in the variability of PMCA results. Three rounds of serial PMCAb allowed detection of CWD agent from a 6.7 × 10(-13 dilution of 10% brain homogenate (1.3 fg of source brain. Titration of the same brain homogenate in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein (Tg(CerPrP1536(+/- mice allowed detection of CWD agent from the 10(-6 dilution of 10% brain homogenate. PMCAb is, thus, more sensitive than bioassay in transgenic mice by a factor exceeding 10(5. Additionally, we are able to amplify CWD agent from brain tissue and lymph nodes of CWD-positive white-tailed deer having Prnp alleles associated with reduced disease susceptibility.

  7. Job Satisfaction: An International Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    An international comparison of job satisfaction levels strongly suggests that the idea of job satisfaction as a gauge of well-being at the workplace should be rejected, but that workers' reactions to aspects of their jobs may be meaningful. The article presents data from national surveys of managers, workers, and trade unions to explain this…

  8. Risk Aversion and Job Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job

  9. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  10. Jobs for Two Million Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VocEd, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The outlook for jobs in the computer industry is excellent for people with appropriate training. The shortage of computer personnel is expected to continue, resulting in higher wages, more job mobility, increasing job security and generally greater opportunities for two million Americans by 1990. (CT)

  11. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  12. Job satisfaction among recreation practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Parks; Andrew Holdnak

    2002-01-01

    Job satisfaction among recreation professionals can be affected by many working conditions. This study has investigated the impact fourteen variables had on the job satisfaction of recreation practitioners. The sample consisted of 106 responses from members of the Resort and Commercial Recreation Association (RCRA). The results of the regression analysis for job...

  13. Modelling job support, job fit, job role and job satisfaction for school of nursing sessional academic staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne S; Moroney, Robyn

    2018-01-01

    Sessional academic staff are an important part of nursing education. Increases in casualisation of the academic workforce continue and satisfaction with the job role is an important bench mark for quality curricula delivery and influences recruitment and retention. This study examined relations between four job constructs - organisation fit, organisation support, staff role and job satisfaction for Sessional Academic Staff at a School of Nursing by creating two path analysis models. A cross-sectional correlational survey design was utilised. Participants who were currently working as sessional or casual teaching staff members were invited to complete an online anonymous survey. The data represents a convenience sample of Sessional Academic Staff in 2016 at a large school of Nursing and Midwifery in Australia. After psychometric evaluation of each of the job construct measures in this study we utilised Structural Equation Modelling to better understand the relations of the variables. The measures used in this study were found to be both valid and reliable for this sample. Job support and job fit are positively linked to job satisfaction. Although the hypothesised model did not meet model fit standards, a new 'nested' model made substantive sense. This small study explored a new scale for measuring academic job role, and demonstrated how it promotes the constructs of job fit and job supports. All four job constructs are important in providing job satisfaction - an outcome that in turn supports staffing stability, retention, and motivation.

  14. Whose Job Goes Abroad? International Outsourcing and Individual Job Separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the adjustment costs of globalisation by studying the effects of international outsourcing on individual transitions out of jobs in the Danish manufacturing sector for the period 1990-2003. A competing risks duration model that distinguishes between job-to-job and job......-to-unemployment transitions is estimated. Outsourcing is found to increase the unemployment risk of low-skilled workers, but the quantitative impact is modest. Outsourcing is also found to reduce the job change hazard rate for all education groups. Thus, the paper provides evidence for small adjustment costs of globalisation....

  15. Cardiovascular Responsivity, Physical and Psychosocial Job Stress, and the Risk of Preterm Delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatch, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    ..., was 2.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.9, 4.4). Of the job stressors we studied, including long hours, only a High Workload and Low Job Satisfaction had elevated relative risks for preterm delivery...

  16. Redefining Cut-Points for High Symptom Burden of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Classification in 18,577 Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smid, Dionne E; Franssen, Frits M E; Gonik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be classified into groups A/C or B/D based on symptom intensity. Different threshold values for symptom questionnaires can result in misclassification and, in turn, different treatment recommendations. The primary aim was ...

  17. Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance: the moderating role of job context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Crystal I C Chien; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Tesluk, Paul E

    2012-07-01

    We advance understanding of the role of ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) and its subdimensions in the workplace by examining the mechanisms and context-based boundary conditions of the EI-performance relationship. Using a trait activation framework, we theorize that employees with higher overall EI and emotional perception ability exhibit higher teamwork effectiveness (and subsequent job performance) when working in job contexts characterized by high managerial work demands because such contexts contain salient emotion-based cues that activate employees' emotional capabilities. A sample of 212 professionals from various organizations and industries indicated support for the salutary effect of EI, above and beyond the influence of personality, cognitive ability, emotional labor job demands, job complexity, and demographic control variables. Theoretical and practical implications of the potential value of EI for workplace outcomes under contexts involving managerial complexity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Chronic rectal bleeding after high-dose conformal treatment of prostate cancer warrants modification of existing morbidity scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Hunt, Margie A.; Movsas, Benjamin; Peter, Ruth S.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1997-01-01

    coagulations. The median duration of bleeding for those patients requiring multiple procedures was 7 months (range 3-33) and the median latency was 22 months (range 9-40). The 5-year actuarial rate of Grade (3(4)) complications by each scale are: RTOG 0.7%, LENT 2%, and FC-LENT 6%. The rate of chronic rectal bleeding increases with increasing dose and is low in patients treated with conventional techniques owing to lower doses. Conclusion: Chronic rectal bleeding requiring any blood transfusion(s) or multiple coagulation procedures is our most frequently observed complication. This complication appears late in follow-up and is present for a long duration. We believe this justifies the inclusion of chronic rectal bleeding requiring multiple coagulation procedures as a Grade 3 event in future morbidity scales. Our data illustrate that published Grade (3(4)) morbidity rates are highly dependent on the morbidity scale selected, as our data show 0.7% RTOG, 2% LENT, and 6% FC-LENT. Obviously, a uniform scale is required that includes the newly recognized serious late effects associated with the conformal treatment of prostate cancer

  19. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng Hsiu; Lee, Chin Pang; Hsu, Shih Chieh; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ching Yen

    2015-01-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (PHIIT has positive effects on the physical and mental health of patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  20. Prediction of outcome by highly sensitive troponin T in outpatients with chronic systolic left ventricular heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, Michael; Schou, Morten; Tuxen, Christian D

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the prognostic impact of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay in an outpatient population with chronic systolic left ventricular heart failure (HF). Four hundred sixteen patients with chronic HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 45% were enrolled...... in a prospective cohort study. In addition to hs-cTnT, plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide was measured at baseline. Mean age was 71 years, 29% were women, 62% had coronary artery disease (CAD), mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 31%, and 57% had abnormal level of hs-cTnT. During 4.......4 years of follow-up, 211 (51%) patients died. In multivariate Cox regression models, hs-cTnT was categorized as quartiles or dichotomized by the 99th percentile of a healthy population. Adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality for quartiles 2 to 4, with quartile 1 as reference, were 1.4 (95...