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Sample records for high cholesterol concentrations

  1. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  2. High Pre-β1 HDL Concentrations and Low Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activities Are Strong Positive Risk Markers for Ischemic Heart Disease and Independent of HDL-Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amar A.; Sampson, Maureen; Warnick, Russell; Muniz, Nehemias; Vaisman, Boris; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that patients with high HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) may have dysfunctional HDL or unrecognized nonconventional risk factors. METHODS Individuals with IHD (Copenhagen University Hospital) and either high HDL-C (n = 53; women ≥735 mg/L; men ≥619 mg/L) or low HDL-C (n = 42; women ≤387 mg/L; men ≤341 mg/L) were compared with individuals without IHD (Copenhagen City Heart Study) matched by age, sex, and HDL-C concentrations (n = 110). All participants had concentrations within reference intervals for LDL-C (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity by using a proteoliposome cholesterol esterification assay. RESULTS Pre-β1 HDL concentrations were 2-fold higher in individuals with IHD vs no IHD in both the high [63 (5.7) vs 35 (2.3) mg/L; P < 0.0001] and low HDL-C [49 (5.0) vs 27 (1.5) mg/L; P = 0.001] groups. Low LCAT activity was also associated with IHD in the high [95.2 (6.7) vs 123.0 (5.3) μmol · L−1 · h−1; P = 0.002] and low [93.4 (8.3) vs 113.5 (4.9) μmol · L−1 · h−1; P = 0.03] HDL-C groups. ROC curves for pre-β1 HDL in the high–HDL-C groups yielded an area under the curve of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.81) for predicting IHD, which increased to 0.92 (0.87–0.97) when LCAT was included. Similar results were obtained for low HDL-C groups. An inverse correlation between LCAT activity and pre-β1 HDL was observed (r2 = 0.30; P < 0.0001) in IHD participants, which was stronger in the low HDL-C group (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS IHD was associated with high pre-β1 HDL concentrations and low LCAT levels, yielding correct classification in more than 90% of the IHD cases for which both were measured, thus making pre-β1 HDL concentration and LCAT activity level potentially useful diagnostic markers for cardiovascular disease. PMID:20511449

  3. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

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    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  4. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and mortality from coronary heart disease among Japanese men and women: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

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    Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ohtaka, Emiko; Ohta, Hitoshi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol) raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a non-obese population with low total cholesterol levels and high HDL-cholesterol levels, such as Japanese. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993 under the auspices of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study. Systematic mortality surveillance through 2003 identified 539 coronary heart disease deaths. The mean values for non-HDL-cholesterol were 140 mg/dL for men and 151 mg/dL for women. The corresponding mean values were 193 mg/dL and 208 mg/dL total cholesterol and 52 mg/dL and 57 mg/dL HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Men with non-HDL-cholesterol > or = 180 mg/dL had a two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with non-HDL-cholesterol or = 180 mg/dL versus <100 mg/dL of non-HDL-cholesterol was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 3.62) for men and 0.71 (0.37 to 1.34) for women. Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women.

  5. Grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells of rats subjected to a high-cholesterol diet.

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    Aguiar, Odair; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; de Moraes, Bárbara Bueno; Pasquini, Gabriela; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Ihara, Silvia Saiuli Miki; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect liver and peripheral blood cells against cholesterol-induced injury in rats. The effects of the grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, immunohistochemistry for cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and basal and oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 using a single-cell gel (comet) assay were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n 18) were divided into three groups: group 1--negative control; group 2--cholesterol at 1 % (w/w) in their diet, treated for 5 weeks; group 3--cholesterol at 1 % in their chow, treated for 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg/d in their drinking-water in the final week only. The results indicated that the treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in group 3 compared with group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to decrease oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 in peripheral blood cells, as depicted by the tail moment results. COX-2 expression in the liver did not show statistically significant differences (P>0·05) between groups. Taken together, the present results suggest that the administration of subchronic grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells.

  6. Cholesterol concentrations in lipoprotein fractions separated by anion-exchange-high-performance liquid chromatography in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Hirowatari, Yuji; Takoura, Toshie; Manita, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tomoya; Shono, Saori; Onozawa, Eri; Mizutani, Hisashi; Miki, Yohei; Itabashi, Yukiko; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-01

    Anion-exchange (AEX)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for measurement of cholesterol can be used to separate serum lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein (HDL); low-density lipoprotein (LDL); intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL); very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)) in humans. However, AEX-HPLC has not been applied in veterinary practice. We had three objectives: (i) the validation of AEX-HPLC methods including the correlation of serum cholesterol concentration in lipoprotein fraction measured by AEX-HPLC and gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) in healthy dogs and those with hypercholesterolemia was investigated; (ii) the reference intervals of lipoprotein fractions measured by AEX-HPLC from healthy dogs (n=40) was established; (iii) lipoprotein fractions from the serum of healthy dogs (n=12) and dogs with hypercholesterolemia (n=23) were compared. Analytic reproducibility and precision of AEX-HPLC were acceptable. Positive correlation between serum concentrations of total cholesterol (Total-Chol), HDL cholesterol (HDL-Chol), LDL cholesterol (LDL-Chol)+IDL cholesterol (IDL-Chol), and VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-Chol) was noted for AEX-HPLC and GP-HPLC in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercholesterolemia. Reference intervals measured by AEX-HPLC for serum concentrations of Total-Chol, HDL-Chol, and LDL-Chol were determined to be 2.97-9.32, 2.79-6.57, 0.16-3.28mmol/L (2.5-97.5% interval), respectively. Furthermore, there was significant difference in lipoprotein profiles between healthy and dogs with hypercholesterolemia. These results suggest that AEX-HPLC can be used to evaluate lipoprotein profiles in dogs and could be a new useful indicator of hyperlipidemia in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction Cholesterol What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? Cholesterol travels to the body’s cells through the ... doctor about medicines that can help. What are triglycerides? Triglycerides are the most common type of fat ...

  8. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  9. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

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    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  10. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

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    Donato Jose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10 or HFD (n = 37. After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF, LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group. After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019. In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019, serum insulin (P = 0.022 and TNF-α (P = 0.044. Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021 levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042. Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration.

  11. High Cholesterol in Children and Teens

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    ... dairy products. The body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if your child or teen has high cholesterol (too much cholesterol in the blood), he or she has a higher risk of coronary artery disease and other heart diseases. What causes high cholesterol in children and teens? Three main ...

  12. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

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    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  13. Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

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    Abbasi, Fahim; Reaven, Gerald M

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

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    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Recognition of Odontogenic Cyst-Fluid Cholesterol Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Serum cholesterol is usually determined to know if a subject is at a risk of heart diseases. This lipid is found in most fluids in the body including the odontogenic cyst-fluid. We investigated the concentration of cholesterol in the odontogenic ...

  16. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  17. Rethinking reverse cholesterol transport and dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rosales, Corina; Xu, Bingqing; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2018-04-12

    Human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations are a negative risk factor for atherosclerosis-linked cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological attempts to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been disappointing so that recent research has shifted from HDL quantity to HDL quality, that is, functional vs dysfunctional HDL. HDL has varying degrees of dysfunction reflected in impaired reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In the context of atheroprotection, RCT occurs by 2 mechanisms: one is the well-known trans-hepatic pathway comprising macrophage free cholesterol (FC) efflux, which produces early forms of FC-rich nascent HDL (nHDL). Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase converts HDL-FC to HDL-cholesteryl ester while converting nHDL from a disc to a mature spherical HDL, which transfers its cholesteryl ester to the hepatic HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B1 for uptake, conversion to bile salts, or transfer to the intestine for excretion. Although widely cited, current evidence suggests that this is a minor pathway and that most HDL-FC and nHDL-FC rapidly transfer directly to the liver independent of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. A small fraction of plasma HDL-FC enters the trans-intestinal efflux pathway comprising direct FC transfer to the intestine. SR-B1 -/- mice, which have impaired trans-hepatic FC transport, are characterized by high plasma levels of a dysfunctional FC-rich HDL that increases plasma FC bioavailability in a way that produces whole-body hypercholesterolemia and multiple pathologies. The design of future therapeutic strategies to improve RCT will have to be formulated in the context of these dual RCT mechanisms and the role of FC bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Doris M.; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; Roo, de Niels; Trautwein, Elke A.; Duynhoven, van John; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP)

  19. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

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    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  20. Lowering of cholesterol bioaccessibility and serum concentrations by saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Atanasov, Vasil; Pantcheva, Ivayla; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Stoyanov, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Using an in vitro digestion model, we studied the effect of six saponin extracts on the bioaccessibility of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). In the absence of saponins, around 78% of the available cholesterol was solubilized in the simulated intestinal fluids. The addition of two

  1. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

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    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  2. Highly sensitive and selective cholesterol biosensor based on direct electron transfer of hemoglobin.

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    Zhao, Changzhi; Wan, Li; Jiang, Li; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kui

    2008-12-01

    A cholesterol biosensor based on direct electron transfer of a hemoglobin-encapsulated chitosan-modified glassy carbon electrode has been developed for highly sensitive and selective analysis of serum samples. Modified by films containing hemoglobin and cholesterol oxidase, the electrode was prepared by encapsulation of enzyme in chitosan matrix. The hydrogen peroxide produced by the catalytic oxidation of cholesterol by cholesterol oxidase was reduced electrocatalytically by immobilized hemoglobin and used to obtain a sensitive amperometric response to cholesterol. The linear response of cholesterol concentrations ranged from 1.00 x 10(-5) to 6.00 x 10(-4) mol/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9969 and estimated detection limit of cholesterol of 9.5 micromol/L at a signal/noise ratio of 3. The cholesterol biosensor can efficiently exclude interference by the commonly coexisting ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, and epinephrine. The sensitivity to the change in the concentration of cholesterol as the slope of the calibration curve was 0.596 A/M. The relative standard deviation was under 4.0% (n=5) for the determination of real samples. The biosensor is satisfactory in the determination of human serum samples.

  3. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycerol concentrations in the postmature rabbit.

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    Harlow, A C; Roux, J F; Shapiro, M I

    1980-02-15

    Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glycerol, and glucose concentrations were measured in term and postmature rabbits. The data show that the term and postmature mothers have significantly higher glycemia than their fetuses. However, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations are lower in the postmature mother than in her fetus. Postmature fetuses are characterized by very high plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. The results demonstrate that postmaturity is accompanied by maternal and fetal lipid metabolic changes related to a decrease in the transfer of maternal fatty acids through the placenta and to a diminution in fetal liver glucose utilization. The postmature fetus is then in a relative state of fasting and must rely on its own supply of fuel (glycogen and lipids) to provide cells for growth and survival. The maternal metabolic changes can possibly be explained by a decreased utilization of maternal substrates by the fetus, the placenta becoming insufficient. The close interrelationship of fetal and maternal lipid metabolism with the activity of the placenta suggests that an accurate knowledge of the metabolic changes taking place in the fetus during alteration of the maternal environment is indispensable to the understanding of the short- and long-term effects of maternal disease on the fetus.

  4. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S.; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Robinson, John F.; McIntyre, Adam D.; Ban, Matthew R.; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J.; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. PMID:28870971

  5. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  6. Achieving secondary prevention low-density lipoprotein particle concentration goals using lipoprotein cholesterol-based data.

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    Simon C Mathews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical

  7. Plasma 27-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio is increased in low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Valéria S; Leança, Camila C; Panzoldo, Natália B; Parra, Eliane; Zago, Vanessa; Cazita, Patrícia M; Nakandakare, Edna R; de Faria, Eliana C; Quintão, Eder C R

    2013-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) which is widely distributed among tissues and is expressed at high levels in the vascular endothelium and macrophages. There is a continuous flow of this oxysterol from the tissues into the liver, where it is converted to bile acids. Measure plasma concentrations of 27-OHC in subjects that differ according to their plasma HDL-C concentration. Healthy men presenting low HDL-C (1.55 mmol/L), n=18, BMIm² were recruited after excluding secondary causes that might interfere with their plasma lipid concentrations such as smoking, heavy drinking and diabetes. Blood samples were drawn after a 12h fasting period for the measurement of 27-OHC by the combined GC/MS analysis utilizing deuterium-label internal standards. The plasma ratio 27-OHC/total cholesterol (median and range nmoL/mmoL) was 50.41 (27.47-116.00) in the High HDL-C subjects and 63.34 (36.46-91.18) in the Low HDL-C subjects (p=0.0258). Our data indicate that the production of 27-OHC by extrahepatic tissues and its transport to the liver may represent an alternative pathway for a deficient reverse cholesterol transport system when plasma HDL-C is low. © 2013.

  8. Concentrated oat β-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulcher R Gary

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble fibers lower serum lipids, but are difficult to incorporate into products acceptable to consumers. We investigated the physiological effects of a concentrated oat β-glucan on cardiovascular disease (CVD endpoints in human subjects. We also compared the fermentability of concentrated oat β-glucan with inulin and guar gum in a model intestinal fermentation system. Methods Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat β-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 3, and week 6 and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP. To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5 g concentrated oat β-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. Fecal donors were not involved with the β-glucan feeding trial. Inulin and guar gum were also incubated in separate serum bottles for comparison. Results Oat β-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L, and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03. Concentrated oat β-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. Concentrated oat β-glucan produced the highest concentrations of butyrate at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Conclusion Six grams concentrated oat β-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat β-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other

  9. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Trautwein, Elke A

    2013-06-01

    Evidence from clinical studies has suggested that cocoa may increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components. We investigated whether pure theobromine increases serum HDL cholesterol and whether there is an interaction effect between theobromine and cocoa. The study had a 2-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, full factorial parallel design. After a 2-wk run-in period, 152 healthy men and women (aged 40-70 y) were randomly allocated to consume one 200-mL drink/d for 4 wk that contained 1) cocoa, which naturally provided 150 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [cocoa intervention (CC)], 2) 850 mg pure theobromine [theobromine intervention (TB)], 3) cocoa and added theobromine, which provided 1000 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [theobromine and cocoa intervention (TB+CC)], or 4) neither cocoa nor theobromine (placebo). Blood lipids and apolipoproteins were measured at the start and end of interventions. In a 2-factor analysis, there was a significant main effect of the TB (P cocoa and interaction effects suggested that theobromine may be the main ingredient responsible for the HDL cholesterol-raising effect. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01481389.

  10. Simulations of simple Bovine and Homo sapiens outer cortex ocular lens membrane models with a majority concentration of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark; Wang, Eric; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2017-11-21

    The lipid composition of bovine and human ocular lens membranes has been probed, and a variety of lipids have been found including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol (CHOL) with cholesterol being present in particularly high concentrations. In this study, we use the all-atom CHARMM36 force field to simulate binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures as models of the ocular lens. High concentration of cholesterol, in combination with different and varying diversity of phospholipids (PL) and sphingolipids (SL), affect the structure of the ocular lens lipid bilayer. The following analyses were done for each simulation: surface area per lipid, component surface area per lipid, deuterium order parameters (S CD ), electron density profiles (EDP), membrane thickness, hydrogen bonding, radial distribution functions, clustering, and sterol tilt angle distribution. The S CD show significant bilayer alignment and packing in cholesterol-rich bilayers. The EDP show the transition from liquid crystalline to liquid ordered with the addition of cholesterol. Hydrogen bonds in our systems show the tendency for intramolecular interactions between cholesterol and fully saturated lipid tails for less complex bilayers. But with an increased number of components in the bilayer, the acyl chain of the lipids becomes a less important characteristic, and the headgroup of the lipid becomes more significant. Overall, cholesterol is the driving force of membrane structure of the ocular lens membrane where interactions between cholesterol, PL, and SL determine structure and function of the biomembrane. The goal of this work is to develop a baseline for further study of more physiologically realistic ocular lens lipid membranes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emergence of Complex Behavior in Biomembranes edited by Marjorie Longo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Are You Taking the Right Treatment for Your High Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... open('/content/cro/en/health/prescription-drugs/best-buy-drugs/evaluating-statin-drugs-to-treat--high-cholesterol-and- ... talking with your doctor How to share Best Buy Drug reports About us Less common issues: Diabetes, memory ...

  12. High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2013 Dietary Supplements Red Yeast ... to exploring complementary health products and practices in the context of rigorous ... health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  13. Development of mediator-type biosensor to wirelessly monitor whole cholesterol concentration in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Mai; Murata, Masataka; Hibi, Kyoko; Huifeng, Ren; Endo, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    We developed a wireless monitoring system to monitor fish condition by tracking the change in whole cholesterol concentration. The whole cholesterol concentration of fish is a source of steroid hormones or indicator of immunity level, which makes its detection important for tracking physiological condition of fish. Wireless monitoring system comprises of mediator-type biosensor and wireless transmission device. Biosensor is implantable to fish body, and transmission device is so light, in that fish is allowed to swim freely during monitoring. Cholesterol esterase and oxidase were fixated on to the detection site of biosensor and used to detect the whole cholesterol concentration. However, cholesterol oxidase incorporates oxidation-reduction reaction of oxygen for detection, which concentration fluctuates easily due to change in environmental condition. Meanwhile, mediator-type biosensor enables monitoring of whole cholesterol concentration by using mediator to substitute that oxidation-reduction reaction of oxygen. Characteristic of fabricated mediator-type biosensor was tested. The sensor output current of mediator-type biosensor remained stable compared to output current of non-mediator-type biosensor under fluctuating oxygen concentration of 0-8 ppm, which implied that this sensor is less affected by change in dissolved oxygen concentration. That biosensor was then implanted into fish for wireless monitoring. As a result, approximately 48 h of real-time monitoring was successful.

  14. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  15. Potassium-doped carbon nanotubes toward the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and its application in highly sensitive cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Jingjuan, E-mail: xujj@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen Hongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-10-30

    We demonstrate herein a newly developed serum total cholesterol biosensor by using the direct electron transfer of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), which is based on the immobilization of cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) on potassium-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (KMWNTs) modified electrodes. The KMWNTs accelerate the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx and maintaining its bioactivity. As a new platform in cholesterol analysis, the resulting electrode (ChOx/KMWNTs/GCE) exhibits a sensitive response to free cholesterol, with a linear range of 0.050-16.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and a detection limit of 5.0 nmol L{sup -1} (S/N = 3). Coimmobilization of ChEt and ChOx (ChEt/ChOx/KMWNTs/GCE) allows the determination of both free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol. The resulting biosensor shows the same linear range of 0.050-16.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} for free cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate, with the detection limit of 10.0 and 12.0 nmol L{sup -1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The concentrations of total (free and esterified) cholesterol in human serum samples, determined by using the techniques developed in the present study, are in good agreement with those determined by the well-established techniques using the spectrophotometry.

  16. Total protein and cholesterol concentrations in brain regions of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed similarities (P>0.05) between the treatments in total protein concentrations in the cerebral cortex, medulla, hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon and hippocampus. Total protein concentrations however differed significantly between diets (P<0.05) in the cerebellum and pons varoli with the lowest ...

  17. Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Robinson, John F; McIntyre, Adam D; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Hegele, Robert A

    2017-11-01

    HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Holme, Rebecca L; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Silverstein, Roy L; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  19. Relative variations of gut microbiota in disordered cholesterol metabolism caused by high-cholesterol diet and host genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Tao; Shao, Shanshan; Wu, Dongming; Niu, Shaona; Zhao, Jiajun; Gao, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies performed provide mechanistic insight into effects of the microbiota on cholesterol metabolism, but less focus was given to how cholesterol impacts the gut microbiota. In this study, ApoE -/- Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and their wild-type counterparts (n = 12) were, respectively, allocated for two dietary condition groups (normal chow and high-cholesterol diet). Total 16S rDNA of fecal samples were extracted and sequenced by high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in microbiome composition. Data were collected and performed diversity analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The influence of cholesterol on gut microbiota was discussed by using cholesterol dietary treatment as exogenous cholesterol disorder factor and genetic modification as endogenous metabolic disorder factor. Relative microbial variations were compared to illustrate the causality and correlation of cholesterol and gut microbiota. It turned out comparing to genetically modified rats, exogenous cholesterol intake may play more effective role in changing gut microbiota profile, although the serum cholesterol level of genetically modified rats was even higher. Relative abundance of some representative species showed that the discrepancies due to dietary variation were more obvious, whereas some low abundance species changed because of genetic disorders. Our results partially demonstrated that gut microbiota are relatively more sensitive to dietary variation. Nevertheless, considering the important effect of bacteria in cholesterol metabolism, the influence to gut flora by "genetically caused cholesterol disorder" cannot be overlooked. Manipulation of gut microbiota might be an effective target for preventing cholesterol-related metabolic disorders. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, H; Viall, A; Ruaux, C; Bracha, S

    2017-10-01

    To determine if total serum cholesterol concentrations were altered in dogs with osteosarcoma. To evaluate association of total serum cholesterol concentration with clinical outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective, multi-institutional study on 64 dogs with osteosarcoma. Control population consisted of dogs with traumatic bone fractures (n=30) and healthy patients of similar age and weight as those of the osteosarcoma cases (n=31). Survival analysis was done on 35 appendicular osteosarcoma patients that received the current standard of care. Statistical associations were assessed by univariable and multi-variable analysis. Information about age, sex, primary tumour location, total cholesterol concentration, monocytes and lymphocyte counts and alkaline phosphatase were also included. Total cholesterol was elevated above the reference interval (3·89 to 7·12 mmol/L) (150 to 275 mg/dL) in 29 of 64 (45·3%) osteosarcoma-bearing dogs, whereas similar elevations were found in only 3 of 30 (10%) fracture controls (Posteosarcoma. These results suggest that elevated total cholesterol is associated with canine osteosarcoma and may have prognostic significance. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts.

  2. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High cholesterol is an important cardiovascular risk factor in all population groups in South Africa. S Afr Mea12007; 97: 708—715. The value of abnormal blood lipids and apo—lipoprotein levels to predict ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has been studied for decades, with the initial focus shifting from studying the relationship ...

  3. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in adults aged 30 years and older in South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Small community studies were used to derive the prevalence by population group.

  4. Kefiran reduces atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masashi; Ishii, Itsuko; Inoue, Chika; Akisato, Yoshie; Watanabe, Kenta; Hosoyama, Saori; Toida, Toshihiko; Ariyoshi, Noritaka; Kitada, Mitsukazu

    2010-09-30

    Kefiran is an exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, and has been proposed to have many health-promoting properties. We investigated the antiatherogenic effect of kefiran on rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet without (control group, n = 7) or with kefiran (kefiran group, n = 8) for eight weeks. The aorta was analyzed by histochemistry and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified. Lipids and sugars in serum were measured. Foam cell formation of RAW264.7 by βVLDL derived from both groups of rabbits was also investigated. Cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids levels of serum and lipoprotein fractions were not significantly different between these groups. Atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta in the kefiran group were statistically lower than those of the control group, with marked differences in the abdominal aorta. T-lymphocytes were not detectable in the aorta of the kefiran group. Cholesterol contents in stools were almost identical in both groups. Cholesterol content in the liver of the kefiran group was statistically lower than in the control group. Galactose content of βVLDL derived from the kefiran group was higher, and the lipid peroxidation level was much lower than in the control group. RAW264.7 macrophages treated with βVLDL from the kefiran group showed a more spherical shape and accumulated statistically lower cholesterol than macrophages treated with βVLDL from the control group. Orally derived kefiran is absorbed in the blood. Kefiran prevents the onset and development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions.

  5. Reduced and high molecular weight barley beta-glucans decrease plasma total and non-HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Delaney, Bryan; Chadwell, Kim; Moolchandani, Vikas; Kotyla, Timothy; Ponduru, Sridevi; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Hess, Richard; Knutson, Nathan; Curry, Leslie; Kolberg, Lore; Goulson, Melanie; Ostergren, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan lowers plasma cholesterol because of its soluble dietary fiber nature. The role of molecular weight (MW) in lowering serum cholesterol is not well established. Prior studies showed that enzymatic degradation of beta-glucan eliminates the cholesterol-lowering activity; however, these studies did not evaluate the MW of the beta-glucan. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether barley beta-glucan concentrates, partially hydrolyzed to reduce MW, possess cholesterol-lowering and antiatherogenic activities. The reduced MW fraction was compared with a high MW beta-glucan concentrate from the same barley flour. Concentrated beta-glucan preparations were evaluated in Syrian Golden F(1)B hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) with cholesterol, hydrogenated coconut oil, and cellulose. After 2 wk, hamsters were fed HCD or diets that contained high or reduced MW beta-glucan at a concentration of 8 g/100 g at the expense of cellulose. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations occurred in the hamsters fed reduced MW and high MW beta-glucan diets. Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not differ. HCD-fed hamsters had higher plasma triglyceride concentrations. Liver TC, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester concentrations did not differ. Aortic cholesterol ester concentrations were lower in the reduced MW beta-glucan-fed hamsters. Consumption of either high or reduced MW beta-glucan increased concentrations of fecal total neutral sterols and coprostanol, a cholesterol derivative. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was greater than in HCD-fed hamsters only in those fed the reduced MW beta-glucan. Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.

  6. Low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and risk of incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Lyass, Asya; Larson, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Statins and niacin (nicotinic acid) reduce circulating LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by different mechanisms. Yet, both increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. Our objective was to relate blood LDL-C concentrations and a genetic risk score (GRS) for LDL-C to the risk of incident...

  7. Comparison of human plasma low- and high-density lipoproteins as substrates for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, P J; Hopkins, G J; Gorjatschko, L

    1984-01-17

    A recent observation that lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) interacts with both low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in human plasma is in apparent conflict with an earlier finding that the purified enzyme, while highly reactive with isolated HDL, was only minimally reactive with LDL. There is evidence, however, that lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase may exist physiologically as a component of a complex with other proteins and that studies with the isolated enzyme may therefore provide misleading results. Consequently, interactions of the enzyme with isolated human lipoproteins have been re-examined in incubations containing lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase as a component of human lipoprotein-free plasma in which a physiologically active complex of the enzyme with other proteins may have been preserved. In this system there was a ready esterification of the free cholesterol associated with both LDL and HDL-subfraction 3 (HDL3) in reactions that obeyed typical enzyme-saturation kinetics. For a given preparation of lipoprotein-free plasma the Vmax values with LDL and with HDL3 were virtually identical. The apparent Km for free cholesterol associated with HDL3 was 5.6 X 10(-5) M, while for that associated with LDL it was 4.1 X 10(-4) M. This implied that, in terms of free cholesterol concentration, the affinity of HDL3 for lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase was about 7-times greater than that of LDL. When expressed in terms of lipoprotein particle concentration, however, it was apparent that the affinity of LDL for the enzyme was considerably greater than that of HDL3. When the lipoprotein fractions were equated in terms of lipoprotein surface area, the apparent affinities of the two fractions for the enzyme were found to be comparable.

  8. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Managing High Cholesterol Cholesterol-lowering Medicine High Cholesterol Statistics and Maps High Cholesterol Facts High Cholesterol Maps ... Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart ...

  9. Effect of a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet on gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-12-01

    OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism-related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs. RESULTS The HFCD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The HFCD also increased the concentration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and decreased the concentration of taurocholic acid in bile and reduced gallbladder contractility, whereas the LFD significantly decreased the concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid in bile. Gene expression analysis revealed significant elevation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression after feeding the HFCD for 2 weeks, but the expression of other genes was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the HFCD and LFD for 2 weeks induced changes in gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs. In particular, feeding the HFCD caused an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration, an increase of hydrophobic bile acid concentration in bile, and a decrease in gallbladder sensitivity to CCK. These results suggested that similar bile acid compositional changes and gallbladder hypomotility might be evident in dogs with hyperlipidemia.

  10. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  11. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; de Roo, Niels; Trautwein, Elke A; van Duynhoven, John; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1 H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  12. Early incorporation of cell-derived cholesterol into pre-beta-migrating high-density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.R.; Fielding, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of human skin fibroblasts were labeled to high cholesterol specific activity with [ 3 H]cholesterol and incubated briefly (1-3 min) with normal human plasma. The plasma was fractionated by two-dimensional agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the early appearance of cholesterol label among plasma lipoproteins determined. A major part of the label at 1-min incubation was in a pre-beta-migrating apo A-I lipoprotein fraction with a molecular weight of ca. 70,000. Label was enriched about 30-fold in this fraction relative to its content of apo A-I (1-2% of total apo A-I). The proportion of label in this lipoprotein was strongly correlated with its concentration in plasma. Further incubation (2 min) in the presence of unlabeled cells demonstrated transfer of label from this fraction to a higher molecular weight pre-beta apo A-I species, to low-density lipoprotein, and to the alpha-migrating apo A-I that made up the bulk (96%) of total apo A-I in plasma. The data suggest that a significant part of cell-derived cholesterol is transferred specifically to a pre-beta-migrating lipoprotein A-I species as part of a cholesterol transport transfer sequence in plasma

  13. High Cholesterol/Low Cholesterol: Effects in Biological Membranes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subczynski, Witold K; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija

    2017-12-01

    Lipid composition determines membrane properties, and cholesterol plays a major role in this determination as it regulates membrane fluidity and permeability, as well as induces the formation of coexisting phases and domains in the membrane. Biological membranes display a very diverse lipid composition, the lateral organization of which plays a crucial role in regulating a variety of membrane functions. We hypothesize that, during biological evolution, membranes with a particular cholesterol content were selected to perform certain functions in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the major membrane properties induced by cholesterol, and their relationship to certain membrane functions.

  14. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD supplement with perilla oil (POH for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  16. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  17. High cholesterol level is essential for myelin membrane growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Brügger, Britta; Lappe-Siefke, Corinna; Möbius, Wiebke; Tozawa, Ryu-ichi; Wehr, Michael C; Wieland, Felix; Ishibashi, Shun; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2005-04-01

    Cholesterol in the mammalian brain is a risk factor for certain neurodegenerative diseases, raising the question of its normal function. In the mature brain, the highest cholesterol content is found in myelin. We therefore created mice that lack the ability to synthesize cholesterol in myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. Mutant oligodendrocytes survived, but CNS myelination was severely perturbed, and mutant mice showed ataxia and tremor. CNS myelination continued at a reduced rate for many months, and during this period, the cholesterol-deficient oligodendrocytes actively enriched cholesterol and assembled myelin with >70% of the cholesterol content of wild-type myelin. This shows that cholesterol is an indispensable component of myelin membranes and that cholesterol availability in oligodendrocytes is a rate-limiting factor for brain maturation.

  18. Should we change our lipid management strategies to focus on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rana, Jamal S.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering, patients continue to be at significant risk of cardiovascular events. Assessment of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) provides a measure of cholesterol contained in all atherogenic particles. In the

  19. Fatty Acid and Cholesterol Concentrations in Usually Consumed Fish in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scherr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of fish consumption for the cardiovascular system. These effects are attributed to the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids in these foods. However, the concentrations of fatty acids may vary according to region. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the amount of,cholesterol and fatty acids in 10 Brazilian fishes and in a non-native farmed salmon usually consumed in Brazil. Methods: The concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids, especially omega-3, were determined in grilled fishes. Each fish sample was divided in 3 sub-samples (chops and each one was extracted from the fish to minimize possible differences in muscle and fat contents. Results: The largest cholesterol amount was found in white grouper (107.6 mg/100 g of fish and the smallest in badejo (70 mg/100 g. Omega-3 amount varied from 0.01 g/100 g in badejo to 0.900 g/100 g in weakfish. Saturated fat varied from 0.687 g/100 g in seabass to 4.530 g/100 g in filhote. The salmon had the greatest concentration of polyunsaturated fats (3.29 g/100 g and the highest content of monounsaturated was found in pescadinha (5.98 g/100 g. Whiting and boyfriend had the best omega-6/omega 3 ratios respectively 2.22 and 1.19, however these species showed very little amounts of omega-3. Conclusion: All studied Brazilian fishes and imported salmon have low amounts of saturated fat and most of them also have low amounts of omega-3.

  20. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety of achieving very low LDL-cholesterol concentrations with the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab: a prespecified secondary analysis of the FOURIER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Robert P; Pedersen, Terje R; Park, Jeong-Gun; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Gaciong, Zbigniew A; Ceska, Richard; Toth, Kalman; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Schiele, François; Mach, François; Ott, Brian R; Kanevsky, Estella; Pineda, Armando Lira; Somaratne, Ransi; Wasserman, Scott M; Keech, Anthony C; Sever, Peter S; Sabatine, Marc S

    2017-10-28

    concentrations of 2·6 mmol/L or higher. There was a highly significant monotonic relationship between low LDL-cholesterol concentrations and lower risk of the primary and secondary efficacy composite endpoints extending to the bottom first percentile (LDL-cholesterol concentrations of less than 0·2 mmol/L; p=0·0012 for the primary endpoint, p=0·0001 for the secondary endpoint). Conversely, no significant association was observed between achieved LDL cholesterol and safety outcomes, either for all serious adverse events or any of the other nine prespecified safety events. There was a monotonic relationship between achieved LDL cholesterol and major cardiovascular outcomes down to LDL-cholesterol concentrations of less than 0·2 mmol/L. Conversely, there were no safety concerns with very low LDL-cholesterol concentrations over a median of 2·2 years. These data support further LDL-cholesterol lowering in patients with cardiovascular disease to well below current recommendations. Amgen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations depend on smoking habit in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background-Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and concentrations are modulated by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking. Objective- To assess whether the association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  3. Physical inactivity interacts with an endothelial lipase polymorphism to modulate high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the GOLDN study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is highly heritable but is also modifiable by environmental factors including physical activity. HDL-C response to exercise varies among individuals, and this variability may be associated with genetic polymorphism...

  4. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  5. Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression

  6. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and

  8. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  9. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Frédéric; Wang, Long; Moser, Mireille; Metairon, Sylviane; Mansourian, Robert; Zwahlen, Marie-Camille; Kussmann, Martin; Fuerholz, Andreas; Macé, Katherine; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet that has a high (H) or a low (L) protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C) ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d) followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words).

  10. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL (bad) cholesterol and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to ...

  11. Effect of ionising radiation and sal of cadmium on the changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in serum of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, I.; Danova, D.; Kalenicova, Z.; Striskova, K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated changes of concentrations glucose and cholesterol in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg -1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14 and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)

  12. Consumption of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol lowering foods improves blood lipids without affecting concentrations of fat soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Jenkins, David J A; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Couture, Patrick; Ireland, Chris; Abdulnour, Shahad; Patel, Darshna; Bashyam, Balachandran; Srichaikul, Korbua; de Souza, Russell J; Vidgen, Edward; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-10-18

    Consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio including plant sterols (PS), viscous fibre, soy proteins and nuts for 6 months improves blood lipid profile. Plant sterols reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and concerns have been raised whether PS consumption reduces fat soluble vitamin absorption. The objective was to determine effects of consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio on circulating concentrations of PS and fat soluble vitamins. Using a parallel design study, 351 hyperlipidemic participants from 4 centres across Canada were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. Participants followed dietary advice with control or portfolio diet. Participants on routine and intensive portfolio involved 2 and 7 clinic visits, respectively, over 6 months. No changes in plasma concentrations of α and γ tocopherol, lutein, lycopene and retinol, but decreased β-carotene concentrations were observed with intensive (week 12: p = 0.045; week 24: p = 0.039) and routine (week 12: p = 0.031; week 24: p = 0.078) portfolio groups compared to control. However, cholesterol adjusted β-carotene and fat soluble compound concentrations were not different compared to control. Plasma PS concentrations were increased with intensive (campesterol:p = 0.012; β-sitosterol:p = 0.035) and routine (campesterol: p = 0.034; β-sitosterol: p = 0.080) portfolio groups compared to control. Plasma cholesterol-adjusted campesterol and β-sitosterol concentrations were negatively correlated (p portfolio diet reduces serum total and LDL-C levels while increasing PS values, without altering fat soluble compounds concentrations. The extent of increments of PS with the current study are not deleterious and also maintaining optimum levels of fat soluble vitamins are of paramount necessity to maintain overall metabolism and health. Results indicate portfolio diet as one of the best options for CVD risk reduction

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Store and Mobilize High Amounts of Cholesterol in Reservosome Lipid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Miria G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Sant'Anna, Celso; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Georgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Almeida, Igor C.; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Reservosomes are lysosome-related organelles found in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. They represent the last step in epimastigote endocytic route, accumulating a set of proteins and enzymes related to protein digestion and lipid metabolism. The reservosome matrix contains planar membranes, vesicles and lipid inclusions. Some of the latter may assume rectangular or sword-shaped crystalloid forms surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer, resembling the cholesterol crystals in foam cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Nile Red fluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy, as well as electron microscopy, we have established a direct correlation between serum concentration in culture medium and the presence of crystalloid lipid inclusions. Starting from a reservosome purified fraction, we have developed a fractionation protocol to isolate lipid inclusions. Gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that lipid inclusions are composed mainly by cholesterol and cholesterol esters. Moreover, when the parasites with crystalloid lipid-loaded reservosomes were maintained in serum free medium for 48 hours the inclusions disappeared almost completely, including the sword shaped ones. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results suggest that epimastigote forms of T. cruzi store high amounts of neutral lipids from extracellular medium, mostly cholesterol or cholesterol esters inside reservosomes. Interestingly, the parasites are able to disassemble the reservosome cholesterol crystalloid inclusions when submitted to serum starvation. PMID:21818313

  14. Nonenzymatic free-cholesterol detection via a modified highly sensitive macroporous gold electrode with platinum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Jae; Park, Jae-Yeong

    2010-12-15

    A sensitive macroporous Au electrode with a highly rough surface obtained through the use of with Pt nanoparticles (macroporous Au-/nPts) is reported. It has been designed for nonenzymatic free-cholesterol biosensor applications. A macroporous Au-/nPts electrode was fabricated by electroplating Pt nanoparticles onto a coral-like shaped macroporous Au electrode structure. The macroporous Au-/nPts electrode was physically characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was confirmed that the Pt nanoparticles were well deposited on the surface of the macroporous Au electrode. The porosity and window pore size of the macroporous Au electrode were 50% and 100-300 nm, respectively. The electroplated Pt nanoparticle size was approximately 10-20 nm. Electrochemical experiments showed that the macroporous Au-/nPts exhibited a much larger surface activation area (roughness factor (RF)=2024.7) than the macroporous Au electrode (RF=46.07). The macroporous Au-/nPts also presented a much stronger electrocatalytic activity towards cholesterol oxidation than does the macroporous Au electrode. At 0.2 V, the electrode responded linearly up to a 5 mM cholesterol concentration in a neutral media, with a detection limit of 0.015 mM and detection sensitivity of 226.2 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). Meanwhile, interfering species such as ascorbic acid (AA), acetaminophen (AP), and uric acid (UA), were effectively avoided. This novel nonenzymatic detection electrode has strong applications as an electrochemically based cholesterol biosensor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of Abcg1 results in decreased plasma HDL cholesterol levels and increased biliary cholesterol secretion in mice fed a high cholesterol diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Harmen; Nijstad, Niels; de Boer, Jan Freark; Out, Ruud; Hogewerf, Wytse; Van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Objective: The ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) has been implicated in cholesterol efflux towards HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Biliary cholesterol secretion is considered as an important step in RCT. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of Abcg1

  16. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol

  17. Prevalence of obesity and high level of cholesterol in hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine what proportion of patients with hypertension are obese and or have elevated serum cholesterol. The data of two hundred and fifty patients who attended the outpatient clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from January 1998 to December 2001 were analysed. Almost half ...

  18. The influence of turmeric and curcumin on cholesterol concentration of eggs and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, K

    1976-05-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to study the hypocholesteremic effect of tumeric and its coloring principle namely curcumin both in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol. Laying hens were used as the experimental animals and they were fed the experimental diets for a duration of 8 weeks. The results of the experiment showed that tumeric or various levels of curcumin had no adverse effect on egg production, egg weight and feed to egg ratio. Moreover tumeric or various levels of curcumin both in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol did not reduce the fat or cholesterol levels of plasma, liver or the egg yolk. An interesting finding from this experiment was that the egg yolk cholesterol levels of cholesterol fed groups sharply increased at the beginning of the experiment, and thereafter they gradually decreased and tended to approach the normal levels at the termination of the experiment. The possible reasons for variation in egg yolk cholesterol levels of cholesterol-fed groups with time is discussed.

  19. High Sensitivity Electrochemical Cholesterol Sensor Utilizing a Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrode with Electropolymerized Enzyme Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditsayut Phokharatkul

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this report, a new cholesterol sensor is developed based on a vertically aligned CNT electrode with two-step electrochemical polymerized enzyme immobilization. Vertically aligned CNTs are selectively grown on a 1 mm2 window of gold coated SiO2/Si substrate by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD with gravity effect and water-assisted etching. CNTs are then simultaneously functionalized and enzyme immobilized by electrochemical polymerization of polyaniline and cholesterol enzymes. Subsequently, ineffective enzymes are removed and new enzymes are electrochemically recharged. Scanning electron microscopic characterization indicates polymer-enzyme nanoparticle coating on CNT surface. Cyclic voltammogram (CV measurements in cholesterol solution show the oxidation and reduction peaks centered around 450 and −220 mV, respectively. An approximately linear relationship between the cholesterol concentration and the response current could be observed in the concentration range of 50–300 mg/dl with a sensitivity of approximately 0.22 μA/mg·dl−1, which is considerably higher compared to previously reported CNT bioprobe. In addition, good specificity toward glucose, uric acid acetaminophen and ascorbic acid have been obtained. Moreover, sensors have satisfactory stability, repeatability and life time. Therefore, the electropolymerized CNT bioprobe is promising for cholesterol detection in normal cholesterol concentration in human blood.

  20. Decreased Retinol Binding Protein 4 Concentrations are Associated With Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Nien Wang

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: Circulating RBP4 decreases in cholesterol gallstone disease independent of renal function. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between liver function and RBP4 levels in these patients.

  1. Effect of apolipoprotein E-free high density lipoproteins on cholesterol metabolism in cultured pig hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachorik, P.S.; Virgil, D.G.; Kwiterovich, P.O. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    We studied cholesterol synthesis from [ 14 C]acetate, cholesterol esterification from [ 14 C]oleate, and cellular cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels after incubating cells with apoE-free high density lipoproteins (HDL) or low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL suppressed synthesis by up to 60%, stimulated esterification by up to 280%, and increased cell cholesteryl ester content about 4-fold. Esterification increased within 2 h, but synthesis was not suppressed until after 6 h. ApoE-free HDL suppressed esterification by about 50% within 2 h. Cholesterol synthesis was changed very little within 6 h, unless esterification was maximally suppressed; synthesis was then stimulated about 4-fold. HDL lowered cellular unesterified cholesterol by 13-20% within 2 h and promoted the removal of newly synthesized cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. These changes were transient; by 24 h, both esterification and cellular unesterified cholesterol returned to control levels, and cholesteryl esters increased 2-3-fold. HDL core lipid was taken up selectively from 125 I-labeled [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester- and ether-labeled HDL. LDL core lipid uptake was proportional to LDL apoprotein uptake. The findings suggest that 1) the cells respond initially to HDL or LDL with changes in esterification, and 2) HDL mediates both the removal of free cholesterol from the cell and the delivery of HDL cholesteryl esters to the cell

  2. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  3. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg -1 ) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg -1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg -1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg -1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El

  4. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  5. Imputation of Baseline LDL Cholesterol Concentration in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia on Statins or Ezetimibe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Isabelle; Aljenedil, Sumayah; Sadri, Iman; de Varennes, Émilie; Hegele, Robert A; Couture, Patrick; Bergeron, Jean; Wanneh, Eric; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane; Brunham, Liam R; Francis, Gordon A; Cermakova, Lubomira; Brophy, James M; Ryomoto, Arnold; Mancini, G B John; Genest, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most frequent genetic disorder seen clinically and is characterized by increased LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (>95th percentile), family history of increased LDL-C, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the patient or in first-degree relatives, presence of tendinous xanthomas or premature corneal arcus, or presence of a pathogenic mutation in the LDLR , PCSK9 , or APOB genes. A diagnosis of FH has important clinical implications with respect to lifelong risk of ASCVD and requirement for intensive pharmacological therapy. The concentration of baseline LDL-C (untreated) is essential for the diagnosis of FH but is often not available because the individual is already on statin therapy. To validate a new algorithm to impute baseline LDL-C, we examined 1297 patients. The baseline LDL-C was compared with the imputed baseline obtained within 18 months of the initiation of therapy. We compared the percent reduction in LDL-C on treatment from baseline with the published percent reductions. After eliminating individuals with missing data, nonstandard doses of statins, or medications other than statins or ezetimibe, we provide data on 951 patients. The mean ± SE baseline LDL-C was 243.0 (2.2) mg/dL [6.28 (0.06) mmol/L], and the mean ± SE imputed baseline LDL-C was 244.2 (2.6) mg/dL [6.31 (0.07) mmol/L] ( P = 0.48). There was no difference in response according to the patient's sex or in percent reduction between observed and expected for individual doses or types of statin or ezetimibe. We provide a validated estimation of baseline LDL-C for patients with FH that may help clinicians in making a diagnosis. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. Phospholipase A2-treated human high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol movements: exchange processes and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, F; Perret, B P; Chap, H; Douste-Blazy, L

    1986-02-12

    Human HDL3 (d 1.125-1.21 g/ml) were treated by an exogenous phospholipase A2 from Crotalus adamenteus in the presence of albumin. Phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis ranged between 30 and 90% and the reisolated particle was essentially devoid of lipolysis products. (1) An exchange of free cholesterol was recorded between radiolabelled erythrocytes at 5-10% haematocrit and HDL3 (0.6 mM total cholesterol) from 0 to 12-15 h. Isotopic equilibration was reached. Kinetic analysis of the data indicated a constant rate of free cholesterol exchange of 13.0 microM/h with a half-time of equilibration around 3 h. Very similar values of cholesterol exchange, specific radioactivities and kinetic parameters were measured when phospholipase-treated HDL replaced control HDL. (2) The lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity of HDL3, containing different amounts of phosphatidylcholine, as achieved by various degrees of phospholipase A2 treatment, was measured using a crude preparation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (the d 1.21-1.25 g/ml plasma fraction). The rate of esterification was determined between 0 and 12 h. Following a 15-30% lipolysis, the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase reactivity of HDL3 was reduced about 30-40%, and then continued to decrease, though more slowly, as the phospholipid content was further lowered in the particle. (3) The addition of the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase preparation into an incubation medium made of labelled erythrocytes and HDL3 promoted a movement of radioactive cholesterol out of cells, above the values of exchange, and an accumulation of cholesteryl esters in HDL. This reflected a mass consumption of free cholesterol, from both the cellular and the lipoprotein compartments upon the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase action. As a consequence of a decreased reactivity, phospholipase-treated HDL (with 2/3 of phosphatidylcholine hydrolyzed) proved much less effective in the lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase

  7. Lack of P2Y(13) in mice fed a high cholesterol diet results in decreased hepatic cholesterol content, biliary lipid secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Serhan, Nizar; Annema, Wijtske; Combes, Guillaume; Robaye, Bernard; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Perret, Bertrand; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Laffargue, Muriel; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The protective effect of HDL is mostly attributed to their metabolic function in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), a process whereby excess cellular cholesterol is taken up from peripheral cells, processed in HDL particles, and later delivered to the liver for further metabolism and

  8. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  9. Role of Hepatic Lipase and Endothelial Lipase in High-Density Lipoprotein-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) constitutes a key part of the atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although overexpression of EL decreases overall

  10. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum) on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoorechi, Vahideh; Rismanchi, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks. High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.

  12. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption, plasma cholesterol concentration and neuroendocrine response to mental and physical task load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odink, J.; Kramer, F.M.; Beek, E.J. van der; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Kempen, H.J.M.; Berg, H. van den; Egger, R.J.; Wientjes, C.J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relation between fatty acid consumption, total plama cholesterol and neuroendocrine response to exposure to stress, factors thought to play a role in the development of coronary heart disease. For this purpose 32 apparently healthy male volunteers were

  14. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  15. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz ... What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Common Misconceptions Cholesterol IQ Quiz • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes of High ...

  16. Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kausik K; Landmesser, Ulf; Leiter, Lawrence A; Kallend, David; Dufour, Robert; Karakas, Mahir; Hall, Tim; Troquay, Roland P T; Turner, Traci; Visseren, Frank L J; Wijngaard, Peter; Wright, R Scott; Kastelein, John J P

    2017-04-13

    In a previous study, a single injection of inclisiran, a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA designed to target PCSK9 messenger RNA, was found to produce sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels over the course of 84 days in healthy volunteers. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-dose trial of inclisiran administered as a subcutaneous injection in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of placebo or 200, 300, or 500 mg of inclisiran or two doses (at days 1 and 90) of placebo or 100, 200, or 300 mg of inclisiran. The primary end point was the change from baseline in LDL cholesterol level at 180 days. Safety data were available through day 210, and data on LDL cholesterol and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels were available through day 240. A total of 501 patients underwent randomization. Patients who received inclisiran had dose-dependent reductions in PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels. At day 180, the least-squares mean reductions in LDL cholesterol levels were 27.9 to 41.9% after a single dose of inclisiran and 35.5 to 52.6% after two doses (PLDL cholesterol levels: 48% of the patients who received the regimen had an LDL cholesterol level below 50 mg per deciliter (1.3 mmol per liter) at day 180. At day 240, PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels remained significantly lower than at baseline in association with all inclisiran regimens. Serious adverse events occurred in 11% of the patients who received inclisiran and in 8% of the patients who received placebo. Injection-site reactions occurred in 5% of the patients who received injections of inclisiran. In our trial, inclisiran was found to lower PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol levels among patients at high cardiovascular risk who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels. (Funded by the Medicines Company

  17. Data for the size of cholesterol-fat micelles as a function of bile salt concentration and the physico-chemical properties of six liquid experimental pine-derived phytosterol formulations in a cholesterol-containing artificial intestine fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Yi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data in this paper are additional information to the research article entiltled “Inhibition of cholesterol transport in an intestine cell model by pine-derived phytosterols” (Yi et al.,2016 [1]. The data derived from the measurement on six liquid formulations of commercial pine-derived phytosterol (CPP by dynamic light scattering. The data cover micelle size and the zeta-potential for formulations with cholesterol including monoglyceride, oleic acid, and bile salt. The data demonstrate the critical effect of the bile salt concentration on the size of cholesterol-digested fat micelles.

  18. Treating patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: choices, issues and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Gerald F

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three clinical trials have recently focused on the benefits of lipid-regulating therapy in populations with normocholesterolaemia and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. Two secondary prevention studies (Veterans Affairs HDL-Cholesterol Intervention Trial [VA-HIT] and Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention [BIP] trial testified to the efficacy of fibrates in decreasing cardiovascular events, particularly in patients with coexisting risk factors, including hypertriglyceridaemia. The Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS demonstrated that a statin could decrease acute coronary events in patients with isolated low HDL-cholesterol in a primary prevention setting. The absolute risk reduction in coronary events in the VA-HIT study compares favourably with those reported from the statin-based Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE and Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID trials. The absolute risk reduction in AFCAPS-TexCAPS is similar to that in West of Scotland Coronary Pravastatin Study (WOSCOPS. Recommendations are given concerning lifestyle and pharmacological management of low HDL-cholesterol. Optimal management also requires review of current treatment targets for HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels.

  19. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p < or = 0.05). Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the

  20. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D D; Sathyapalan, T; Kilpatrick, E S; Beckett, S; Atkin, S L

    2010-11-01

    To examine the effects of chocolate on lipid profiles, weight and glycaemic control in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Twelve individuals with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. Subjects were randomized to 45 g chocolate with or without a high polyphenol content for 8 weeks and then crossed over after a 4-week washout period. Changes in weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. HDL cholesterol increased significantly with high polyphenol chocolate (1.16 ± 0.08 vs. 1.26 ± 0.08 mmol/l, P = 0.05) with a decrease in the total cholesterol: HDL ratio (4.4 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.4 mmol/l, P = 0.04). No changes were seen with the low polyphenol chocolate in any parameters. Over the course of 16 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor glycaemic control altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving the atherosclerotic cholesterol profile in patients with diabetes by increasing HDL cholesterol and improving the cholesterol:HDL ratio without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycaemic control.

  1. Drying process of fermented inulin fiber concentrate by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a dietary fiber source for cholesterol binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Ghozali, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation on inulin hydrolysate as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a result of hydrolysis by inulase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi has been performed to bind cholesterol. Their applications on preparation of fermented pour beverages was conducted via a series of concentration process using dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at stirrer rotation of 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure of 40 psia for 0 minute (pre-concentration process) as concentrate (A) and 45 minutes as concentrate (B), and drying process using vacuum dryer at 30 °C and 22 cm Hg for 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 hours. Based on optimization of Total Dietary Fiber (TDF), the best time of drying process was achieved for 40 hours. Long time of drying process would increase TDF and total solids, decreased total acids, and fluctuated dissolved protein and Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC). At the optimum condition of drying process was get fermented inulin fiber powder from concentration processes using both UF as pre process (0 minute) as concentrate (A) and UF for 45 minutes as concentrate (B) with compositions of total solids of 92.31 % and 93.67 %, TDF of 59.07 % (dry weight) and 69.28 %, total acids of 7.03 % and 7.5 %, dissolved protein of 3.95 mg/mL and 3.05 mg/mL, and CBC pH 2 15.71 mg/g and 16.8 mg/g, respectively. Concentration process through dead-end SUFC mode gave distribution of particles with better smoothness level than without through dead-end SUFC mode.

  2. Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and pulmonary function in healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hye; Mun, Seyeon; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-12-11

    Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fasting blood samples were collected for hematologic and biochemical assessment. Forced vital capacity volume (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1) were measured using dry-rolling-seal spirometry. The associations between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Among male adolescents, an increase of 1.0 mg/dL in HDL cholesterol was associated with 10 mL decrease in FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.013) after adjusting for age, height, weight, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and monthly household income. Percent predicted values of FVC (p = 0.036) and FEV1 (p = 0.017) were also inversely associated with HDL cholesterol. However, among female adolescents, HDL cholesterol level was not significantly associated with absolute or percent predictive value of FVC and FEV1. Higher HDL cholesterol level may be associated with decreased pulmonary function among healthy male adolescents. The sex differences observed in the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function need further investigation.

  3. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley r......Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague...

  4. Novel mutations in scavenger receptor BI associated with high HDL cholesterol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunham, Liam R.; Tietjen, Ian; Bochem, Andrea E.; Singaraja, Roshni R.; Franchini, Patrick L.; Radomski, Chris; Mattice, Maryanne; Legendre, Annick; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor class B, member 1 (SR-BI), is a key cellular receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in mice, but its relevance to human physiology has not been well established. Recently a family was reported with a mutation in the gene encoding SR-BI and high HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).

  5. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  6. Structured triglycerides containing caprylic (8:0) and oleic (18:1) fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Kritchevsky, David; Kotyla, Timothy; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    The effects of structured triglycerides containing one long chain fatty acid (oleic acid, C18:1) and one short chain saturated fatty acid (caprylic acid, 8:0) on lipidemia, liver and aortic cholesterol, and fecal neutral sterol excretion were investigated in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic regimen consisting of 89.9% commercial ration to which was added 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol (w/w). After 2 weeks on the HCD diet, the hamsters were bled, following an overnight fast (16 h) and placed into one of three dietary treatments of eight animals each based on similar plasma cholesterol levels. The hamsters either continued on the HCD diet or were placed on diets in which the coconut oil was replaced by one of two structured triglycerides, namely, 1(3),2-dicaproyl-3(1)-oleoylglycerol (OCC) or 1,3-dicaproyl-2-oleoylglycerol (COC) at 10% by weight. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hamsters fed the OCC and COC compared to the HCD were reduced 40% and 49%, respectively (Pstructured triglyceride oils had lower blood cholesterol levels and lower aortic accumulation of cholesterol compared to the control fed hamsters.

  7. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  8. High concentration agglomerate dynamics at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, M C; Pratsinis, S E

    2006-11-21

    The dynamics of agglomerate aerosols are investigated at high solids concentrations that are typical in industrial scale manufacture of fine particles (precursor mole fraction larger than 10 mol %). In particular, formation and growth of fumed silica at such concentrations by chemical reaction, coagulation, and sintering is simulated at nonisothermal conditions and compared to limited experimental data and commercial product specifications. Using recent chemical kinetics for silica formation by SiCl4 hydrolysis and neglecting aerosol polydispersity, the evolution of the diameter of primary particles (specific surface area, SSA), hard- and soft-agglomerates, along with agglomerate effective volume fraction (volume occupied by agglomerate) is investigated. Classic Smoluchowski theory is fundamentally limited for description of soft-agglomerate Brownian coagulation at high solids concentrations. In fact, these high concentrations affect little the primary particle diameter (or SSA) but dominate the soft-agglomerate diameter, structure, and volume fraction, leading to gelation consistent with experimental data. This indicates that restructuring and fragmentation should affect product particle characteristics during high-temperature synthesis of nanostructured particles at high concentrations in aerosol flow reactors.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of phytosterol esters against high cholesterol-induced cognitive deficits in aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xu; Wenfang, Li; Jing, Cheng; Meng, Chen; Chengcheng, Ding; Jiqu, Xu; Shuang, Rong

    2017-03-22

    Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects. Based on their Morris water maze performance, the latencies differed by <1.5 standard deviations (SDs) on days 3-5 of testing, 60 rats were chosen from 12-month-old female Sprague Dawley aged rats and were randomized into three groups, which were fed either a control diet, a high cholesterol diet (HCD) or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with 2% PSE (HCD + PSE) for 6 months. In our study, we found that PSE treatment maintained the body weight balance, reduced the serum lipid levels, and improved the cognitive performance of aged rats in the Morris water maze test, as evaluated by shortened escape latencies. Importantly, histological and immunohistochemical results in the brain showed that PSE supplementation may have a neuroprotective effect that alleviates neuroinflammation in aged rats. This neuroprotective effect significantly inhibited degeneration, resulting in a significant increase in the number of pyramidal cells and an apparent decrease in the number of astrocytes compared to rats that were fed only a HCD. Furthermore, PSE improved cholinergic activities by restoring the acetylcholine (ACh) content and decreasing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, as well as by elevating choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that PSE can play a useful role in alleviating cognitive deficit induced by a

  10. Relationship between birth weight and total cholesterol concentration in adulthood: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Results: A total of 20 studies with 26,122 participants were identified. After adjustment for adult body mass index, the summary regression coefficient for an increment in birth weight of 1 kg was −0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.13, −0.05 for men without heterogeneity (I2 = 17.2% and −0.08 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.13, −0.03 for women with low heterogeneity (I2 = 34.0%. Stratified and sensitivity analyses generally confirmed the robustness of the findings in men. However, subgroup analyses by age indicated that the association of birth weight with total cholesterol was statistically significant only in women aged 18 years and in women aged <50 years.

  11. Nutritional value of the marine invertebrates Anemonia viridis and Haliothis tuberculata and effects on serum cholesterol concentration in ratsopen star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional value of diets with protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality protein reference based on casein or casein supplemented with olive oil. We also investigated the effects of these diets on serum lipid levels. Male rats were fed these diets for 23 days. Protein quality indicators (true digestibility, net protein utilization, biological value) were similar to those obtained for casein-based feeds except for lower true digestibility and net protein utilization values for the Anemonia viridis feed. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the groups fed marine species or casein supplemented with olive oil than in the casein group. Total-cholesterol level was higher in the group fed Haliotis tuberculata fed than in the other groups. These results suggest that these marine species are a good protein source, and that they may have positive effects on serum cholesterol level.

  12. Genetic analysis of long-lived families reveals novel variants influencing high density-lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feitosa, Mary F; Wojczynski, Mary K; Straka, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights...

  13. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jia; Liang, Shan; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli; Jin, Feng; Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period.

  14. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Methods Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. Results In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. Discussion High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period. PMID:25179125

  15. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil R

    2003-01-01

    The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed ...

  16. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil R

    2004-01-01

    The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed ...

  17. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M J; Häggström, J; Møller, J E

    2017-01-01

    -tocopherol [P = .003]) was associated with body condition score (BCS), but the association disappeared when cholesterol was included in the analyses. All markers of oxidative stress (MDA, oxLDL, and vitamin E) were positively associated with serum cholesterol concentration (P ≤ .04), but none were associated...... with clinical stage of MMVD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD....

  18. Agmatine ameliorates atherosclerosis progression and endothelial dysfunction in high cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohammed S; Suddek, Ghada M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to explore possible effects of agmatine, an endogenous inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), against hypercholesterolemia-induced lipid profile changes and endothelial dysfunction. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD, 0.5%) for 8 weeks. Another HCD-fed group was orally administered agmatine (10 mg/kg/day) during weeks 5 through 8. Serum lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. Aorta was isolated to analyse vascular reactivity, atherosclerotic lesions and intima/media (I/M) ratio. HCD induced a significant increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Agmatine administration significantly decreased HCD-induced elevations in serum TC and LDL-C, MDA, LDH and NO while significantly increased HDL-C levels. Additionally, agmatine significantly protected against HCD-induced attenuation of rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. HCD and agmatine did not significantly influence aortic endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside. Moreover, agmatine significantly reduced the elevation in aortic atherosclerotic lesion area and I/M ratio. This study is the first to reveal that agmatine has the ability to ameliorate hypercholesterolemia-induced lipemic-oxidative and endothelial function injuries possibly by its antioxidant potential and/or iNOS inhibition. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Impact of high cholesterol and endoplasmic reticulum stress on metabolic diseases: An updated mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdi Sozen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH, and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress. Recent animal model and human studies have showed high cholesterol and ER stress as an emerging factors involved in the development of many metabolic diseases. In this review, we will summarize the crucial effects of hypercholesterolemia and ER stress response in the pathogenesis of CVDs, NAFLD/NASH, diabetes and obesity which are major health problems in western countries. Keywords: Endoplasmic reticulum stress, High cholesterol, Cardiovascular diseases, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis

  20. Modelling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Perturbations by Externally Induced Cholesterol Pulses of Finite Duration and with Asymmetrically Distributed Concentration Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojević, A.; Marković, V. M.; Čupić, Ž.; Vukojević, V.; Kolar-Anić, L.

    2017-12-01

    A model was developed that can be used to study the effect of gradual cholesterol intake by food on the HPA axis dynamics. Namely, well defined oscillatory dynamics of vital neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has proven to be necessary for maintaining regular basal physiology and formulating appropriate stress response to various types of perturbations. Cholesterol, as a precursor of all steroid HPA axis hormones, can alter the dynamics of HPA axis. To analyse its particular influence on the HPA axis dynamics we used stoichiometric model of HPA axis activity, and simulate cholesterol perturbations in the form of finite duration pulses, with asymmetrically distributed concentration profile. Our numerical simulations showed that there is a complex, nonlinear dependence between the HPA axis responsiveness and different forms of applied cholesterol concentration pulses, indicating the significance of kinetic modelling, and dynamical systems theory for the understanding of large-scale self-regulatory, and homeostatic processes within this neuroendocrine system.

  1. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  2. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  3. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chen; Wei, Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-12-17

    Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  4. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  5. High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol—What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that two out of three U.S. adults with high cholesterol and half of U.S. adults with high blood pressure don't have their condition under control which puts them at risk for heart disease and stroke. Listen to this program for ways to reduce your risk for heart disease and stroke.

  6. Changes in the serum profiles of lipids and cholesterol in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were used for haematological and parasitological analyses and determination of serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-cholesterol). All animals in the infected group showed parasitaemia by day ...

  7. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipoprotein ( LDL ) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) cholesterol. LDL (bad) cholesterol - the main source of cholesterol buildup ... Teens How to Lower Cholesterol How to Lower Cholesterol with Diet LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol Nutrition Statins Triglycerides VLDL Cholesterol ...

  8. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is more likely to clog blood vessels because ... Here's a way to remember the difference: the LDL cholesterol is the bad kind, so call it "lousy" ...

  9. Gemfibrozil treatment of the high triglyceride-low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol trait in men with established atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipscheer, H. C.; Nurmohamed, M. T.; van den Ende, A.; Plaat, B.; Pruijs, H. J.; Mulder, W. J.; Kastelein, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the short-term efficacy, tolerability and safety of the treatment with gemfibrozil 600 mg twice daily or placebo in male patients with established atherosclerosis, with a lipid profile matching the 'high triglyceride-low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol trait'. Double-blind

  10. Direct-to-consumer television advertising exposure, diagnosis with high cholesterol, and statin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Byrne, Sahara; Avery, Rosemary J; Cantor, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    While statin drugs are recommended for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), there is no medical consensus on whether or not a statin should be added to lifestyle change efforts for primary prevention of CHD. Previous research suggests that exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) increases drug demand among those at comparatively low risk. Research has yet to examine whether individual-level DTCA exposure may influence statin use among men and women at high, moderate, or low risk for future cardiac events. To determine the relationship between estimated exposure to DTCA for statin drugs and two clinical variables: diagnosis with high cholesterol and statin use. We used logistic regression to analyze repeated cross-sectional surveys of the United States population, merged with data on the frequency of DTCA appearances on national, cable, and local television, between 2001 and 2007. American adults (n=106,685) aged 18 and older. Levels of exposure to statin DTCA, based on ad appearances and TV viewing patterns; self-reports of whether or not a respondent has been diagnosed with high cholesterol, and whether or not a respondent took a statin in the past year. Adjusting for potential confounders, we estimate that exposure to statin ads increased the odds of being diagnosed with high cholesterol by 16 to 20 %, and increased statin use by 16 to 22 %, among both men and women (p<0.05). These associations were driven almost exclusively by men and women at low risk for future cardiac events. There was also evidence of a negative association between DTCA exposure and statin use among high-risk women (p<0.05) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that DTCA may promote over-diagnosis of high cholesterol and over-treatment for populations where risks of statin use may outweigh potential benefits.

  11. Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil mitigates high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Nibrass Taher; Yaseen, Awny H; Said, Eman; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2017-04-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial therapeutic outcome of Rho kinase inhibitor (fasudil) against hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial and vascular injury in rabbits together with diet modification. Sixteen male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group which received standard rabbit chow, hypercholesterolemic control group, and treated groups which received cholesterol-rich rabbit chow (1.5% cholesterol) for 8 weeks. Treated groups received either fasudil (100 mg/kg/day) or rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/kg/day) starting from the ninth week for further 4 weeks with interruption of the cholesterol-rich chow. Biochemical assessment of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and myocardial oxidative/antioxidant biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH), besides biochemical assessment of serum nitric oxide (NO), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), was conducted. Serum vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and serum Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) were also evaluated along with histopathological examination of aorta specimens. Fasudil administration significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and LDL and significantly increased serum HDL, with concomitant decrease in serum CK and LDH activities, NO, and restoration of serum TAC. Myocardial MDA significantly declined; SOD activity and GSH contents were restored. Serum ROCK-1 and VCAM-1 levels significantly declined as well. Vascular improvement was confirmed with histopathological examination, which revealed normal aortic intema with the absence of atheromas. Fasudil has promising anti-atherogenic activity mediated primarily via alleviation of hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and modulation of inflammatory response.

  12. Concentration of radiolabeled cholesterol in a feminizing adenoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.M.; Rudd, T.G.; Gurgess, E.C.; Monda, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative tissue studies demonstrated increased 19-[ 131 I]-iodocholesterol concentration in a feminizing adenoma of the testis. The potential application of iodocholesterol and its isomers in the detection of steroid-secreting neoplasms of the testis and ovary is suggested

  13. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavon...

  14. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, C; Cena, H; Wells, J C K; Lara, J; Celis-Morales, C; Siervo, M

    2015-12-01

    Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trans-intestinal cholesterol effl ux is not mediated through high density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, C.L.; Ottenhoff, R.; Oever, K. van den; Waart, D.R. de; Kruyt, J.K.; Zhao, Y.; Berkel, T.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Aerts, J.M.; Eck, M. van; Rensen, P.C.; Groen, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) provides an attractive target to increase body cholesterol excretion. At present, the cholesterol donor responsible for direct delivery of plasma cholesterol to the intestine is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HDL in TICE. ATP-binding

  16. Trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux is not mediated through high density lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; van den Oever, Karin; de Waart, Dirk R.; Kruyt, J. Kar; Zhao, Ying; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Havekes, Louis M.; Aerts, Johannes M.; van Eck, Miranda; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Groen, Albert K.

    2012-01-01

    Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) provides an attractive target to increase body cholesterol excretion. At present, the cholesterol donor responsible for direct delivery of plasma cholesterol to the intestine is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HDL in TICE. ATP-binding

  17. Low-carbohydrate diets reduce lipid accumulation and arterial inflammation in guinea pigs fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jose O; DeOgburn, Ryan; Ratliff, Joseph; Su, Randy; Smyth, Joan A; Volek, Jeff S; McGrane, Mary M; Dardik, Alan; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) efficiently induce weight loss and favorably affect plasma lipids, however, the effect of LCD on atherosclerosis is still argued. To evaluate the effect of LCD on the prevention of atherosclerosis. Twenty guinea pigs were fed either a LCD or a low-fat diet (LFD) in combination with high-cholesterol (0.25g/100g) for 12 weeks. The percentage energy of macronutrient distribution was 10:65:25 for carbohydrate:fat:protein for the LCD, and 55:20:25 for the LFD. Plasma lipids were measured using colorimetric assays. Plasma and aortic oxidized (oxLDL) were quantified using ELISA methods. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in aortic homogenates using an immunoassay. H&E stained sections of aortic sinus and Schultz stained sections of carotid arteries were examined. LDL cholesterol was lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (71.9+/-34.8 vs. 81.7+/-26.9mg/dL; p=0.039). Aortic cholesterol was also lower in the LCD (4.98+/-1.3mg/g) compared to the LFD group (6.68+/-2.0mg/g); p<0.05. The Schultz staining method confirmed less aortic cholesterol accumulation in the LCD group. Plasma oxLDL did not differ between groups, however, aortic oxLDL was 61% lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (p=0.045). There was a positive correlation (r=0.63, p=0.03) between oxLDL and cholesterol concentration in the aorta of LFD group, which was not observed in LCD group (r=-0.05, p=0.96). Inflammatory markers were reduced in guinea pigs from the LCD group (p<0.05) and they were correlated with the decreases in oxLDL in aorta. These results suggest that LCD not only decreases lipid deposition, but also prevents the accumulation of oxLDL and reduces inflammatory cytokines within the arterial wall and may prevent atherosclerosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subedi BH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bishnu H Subedi,1,2 Parag H Joshi,1 Steven R Jones,1 Seth S Martin,1 Michael J Blaha,1 Erin D Michos1 1Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, lipids, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, therapy

  19. Prevalence of Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa L; Akinbami, Lara J; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Fryar, Chryl D

    2017-03-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •The prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher among adults who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines (21.0%) than adults who met the guidelines (17.7%). •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence differed significantly for both men and women by adherence to physical activity guidelines. •Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol declined as age increased for both those who did and did not meet the physical activity guidelines. •Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults who did not meet the physical activity guidelines had a higher prevalence than those who met the guidelines. •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence declined with increasing education level regardless of adherence to physical activity guidelines. Regular physical activity can improve cholesterol levels among adults, including increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1). HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because high levels can reduce cardiovascular disease risk (2). The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults engage in 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination (3). Adherence to these guidelines is expected to decrease the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol levels (4-8). This report presents national data for 2011-2014 on low HDL cholesterol prevalence among U.S. adults aged 20 and over, by whether they met these guidelines. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  20. Gender difference of association between LDL cholesterol concentrations and mortality from coronary heart disease amongst Japanese: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H; Iso, H; Irie, F; Sairenchi, T; Ohtaka, E; Ohta, H

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether LDL cholesterol raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a population with low LDL-cholesterol levels. Population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993. Systematic mortality surveillance was performed through 2003 and 539 coronary heart disease deaths were identified. The mean values for LDL-cholesterol were 110.5 mg dL(-1) (2.86 mmol L(-1)) for men and 123.9 mg dL(-1) (3.20 mmol L(-1)) for women. Men with LDL-cholesterol > or =140 mg dL(-1) (> or =3.62 mmol L(-1)) had two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with LDL-cholesterol <80 mg dL(-1) (<2.06 mmol L(-1)), whereas no such association for women was found. The multivariable hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest categories of LDL-cholesterol was 2.06 (95 percent confidence interval: 1.34 to 3.17) for men and 1.16 (0.64 to 2.12) for women. Higher concentrations of LDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women, in a low cholesterol population.

  1. The Relationship between the Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Young-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Yo-Han; Kang, Hee-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDLC) ratio predicts insulin resistance better than individual lipid levels, including TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), or HDLC. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. We evaluated the data of adults ≥20 years old who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. Subjects with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the harmonized definition. We examined the odds ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome according to TG/HDLC ratio quartiles using logistic regression analysis (SAS ver. 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Weighted complex sample analysis was also conducted. We found a significant association between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome. The cutoff value of the TG/HDLC ratio for the fourth quartile was ≥3.52. After adjustment, the OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with that of the first quartile was 29.65 in men and 20.60 in women (Pmetabolic syndrome.

  2. Comparison of different statin therapy to change low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korean patients with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in Lebanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Farah, Vanessa; Chahine, Elise; Balech, Nicole; Ibrahim, Toni; Asmar, Nadia; Barakett-Hamadé, Vanda; Jambart, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidelmia in pediatric Middle-Eastern populations is unknown. Our study aims to investigate the distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides among Lebanese school children. A total of 969 subjects aged 8-18 years were included in the study (505 boys and 464 girls). Recruitment was done from 10 schools located in the Great Beirut and Mount-Lebanon areas. Non-fasting total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Non-HDL-C was calculated. Schools were categorized into 3 socioeconomic statuses (SESs; low, middle, and high). In the overall population, the prevalence of high non-HDL-C (>3.8 mmol/L), very high non-HDL-C (>4.9 mmol/L), and high triglycerides (>1.5 mmol/l) are respectively 9.2%, 1.24%, and 26.6%. There is no significant gender difference for non-HDL-C or triglycerides. Non-HDL-C and triglycerides are inversely correlated with age in girls (P triglycerides are higher in children from lower SES schools. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), testosterone is inversely associated with triglycerides in boys (P triglycerides are independently associated with BMI and schools' SES in both girls and boys. This study confirms, in our population, the association between obesity and both high non-HDL-C and triglycerides, and between high triglycerides and low SES. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Promotive effect of Bofutsushosan (Fangfengtongshengsan) on lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces in mice treated with a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaki, Junji; Tachi, Shiori; Nakamura, Naoki; Arai, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Hiroo; Inoue, Makoto; Makino, Toshiaki

    2018-06-28

    Bofutsushosan (fangfengtongshengsan in Chinese, BTS) is a formula in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese medicine comprising 18 crude drugs that is used for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the promotive effects of BTS on lipid and cholesterol elimination in mice. Mice were reared with a high-fat diet containing boiled water extract of BTS for 30 days, and their biochemical parameters as well as the weight and lipid content of feces were measured. We also measured cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells cultured with or without BTS extract. The body weight and amounts of visceral fat and subcutaneous fat on day 28; the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric fat; and the serum concentrations of triglyceride, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c on day 30 were significantly lower in the BTS extract-treated groups than in the control in a dose-dependent manner. The amounts of lipid and cholesterol in the feces collected from day 6-23 were significantly greater than in the control. When Caco-2 cells were incubated with BTS extract, the uptake of cholesterol into cells was significantly reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the components of BTS, the methanol extracts of Platycodi Radix and Zingiberis Rhizoma contribute but the extracts of Ephedrae Herba and Rhei Rhizoma counteract the suppressive effect of BTS on cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells. BTS has beneficial effects on obesity and metabolic syndrome, and its mechanisms of action include the promotion of lipid elimination and the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in the intestine. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterising the extent of misreporting of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes using the Australian Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen Louise; Jacobs, Jane Philippa; Allender, Steven; Alston, Laura Veronica; Nichols, Melanie

    2016-08-02

    Measuring and monitoring the true prevalence of risk factors for chronic conditions is essential for evidence-based policy and health service planning. Understanding the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia relies heavily on self-report measures from surveys, such as the triennial National Health Survey. However, international evidence suggests that self-reported data may substantially underestimate actual risk factor prevalence. This study sought to characterise the extent of misreporting in a large, nationally-representative health survey that included objective measures of clinical risk factors for CVD. This study employed a cross-sectional analysis of 7269 adults aged 18 years and over who provided fasting blood samples as part of the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey. Self-reported prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes was compared to measured prevalence, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified socio-demographic characteristics associated with underreporting for each risk factor. Approximately 16 % of the total sample underreported high blood pressure (measured to be at high risk but didn't report a diagnosis), 33 % underreported high cholesterol, and 1.3 % underreported diabetes. Among those measured to be at high risk, 68 % did not report a diagnosis for high blood pressure, nor did 89 % of people with high cholesterol and 29 % of people with high fasting plasma glucose. Younger age was associated with underreporting high blood pressure and high cholesterol, while lower area-level disadvantage and higher income were associated with underreporting diabetes. Underreporting has important implications for CVD risk factor surveillance, policy planning and decisions, and clinical best-practice guidelines. This analysis highlights concerns about the reach of primary prevention efforts in certain groups and implications for patients who may be unaware of their

  6. Characterising the extent of misreporting of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes using the Australian Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Louise Peterson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring and monitoring the true prevalence of risk factors for chronic conditions is essential for evidence-based policy and health service planning. Understanding the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Australia relies heavily on self-report measures from surveys, such as the triennial National Health Survey. However, international evidence suggests that self-reported data may substantially underestimate actual risk factor prevalence. This study sought to characterise the extent of misreporting in a large, nationally-representative health survey that included objective measures of clinical risk factors for CVD. Methods This study employed a cross-sectional analysis of 7269 adults aged 18 years and over who provided fasting blood samples as part of the 2011–12 Australian Health Survey. Self-reported prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes was compared to measured prevalence, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified socio-demographic characteristics associated with underreporting for each risk factor. Results Approximately 16 % of the total sample underreported high blood pressure (measured to be at high risk but didn’t report a diagnosis, 33 % underreported high cholesterol, and 1.3 % underreported diabetes. Among those measured to be at high risk, 68 % did not report a diagnosis for high blood pressure, nor did 89 % of people with high cholesterol and 29 % of people with high fasting plasma glucose. Younger age was associated with underreporting high blood pressure and high cholesterol, while lower area-level disadvantage and higher income were associated with underreporting diabetes. Conclusions Underreporting has important implications for CVD risk factor surveillance, policy planning and decisions, and clinical best-practice guidelines. This analysis highlights concerns about the reach of primary prevention efforts in certain

  7. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  8. Density profile and cholesterol concentration of serum lipoproteins in experimental animals and human subjects on hypercholesterolaemic diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Terpstra, A.H.M.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. The density profile of Sudan black stained serum lipoproteins was studied in human subjects and various animal species on diets supplemented with cholesterol. 2. 2. In the animals studied (rabbits, calves, mice, chickens, rats and guinea-pigs), the feeding of cholesterol resulted in an

  9. High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol—What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-01

    This podcast is based on the February, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that two out of three U.S. adults with high cholesterol and half of U.S. adults with high blood pressure don't have their condition under control which puts them at risk for heart disease and stroke. Listen to this program for ways to reduce your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 2/1/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/1/2011.

  10. Controlling for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol does not affect the magnitude of the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per; Bakke, Eirin; Hoff, Dominic A; Høiseth, Gudrun; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Myhre, Ronny; Normann, Per Trygve; Næss, Øyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Thelle, Dag S; Mørland, Jørg

    2011-11-22

    This study tested the hypothesis that moderate alcohol intake exerts its cardioprotective effect mainly through an increase in the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) study, 149 729 adult participants, recruited from 1994 to 2003, were followed by linkage to the Cause of Death Registry until 2006. At recruitment, questionnaire data on alcohol intake were collected, and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum was measured. Using Cox regression, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio for men for dying from coronary heart disease was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.69) when consuming alcohol more than once a week compared with never or rarely. The ratio changed only slightly, to 0.55 (0.41-0.73), after the regression model included the serum level of high-density cholesterol. For women, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.62 (0.32-1.23) and 0.68 (0.34-1.34), respectively. Alcohol intake is related to a reduced risk of death from coronary heart disease in the follow-up of a large, population-based Norwegian cohort study with extensive control for confounding factors. Our findings suggest that the serum level of high-density cholesterol is not an important intermediate variable in the possible causal pathway between moderate alcohol intake and coronary heart disease.

  11. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, Anneke M. J.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    2008-01-01

    , independently mediated by weight loss, improvements in HOMA(IR), and the fat content of the prescribed diet. However, after inclusion of plasma triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and FFA concentrations in the models, HOMA(IR) and WHR no longer significantly predicted fasting RLP-C, although WHR remained...

  12. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  13. Effects of cations and cholesterol with sphingomyelin membranes investigated by high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Feng, Rong-juan; Li, Yi-yi; Liu, Ming-hua; Guo, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Sphingomyelin(SM) is specifically enriched in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. Its molecular structure is compose by N-acyl-Derythro-sphingosylphosphorylcholine. The function of the SM related to membrane signaling and protein trafficking are relied on the interactions of the SM, cations, cholesterol and proteins. In this report, the interaction of three different nature SMs, cations and cholesterol at air/aqueous interfaces studied by high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, respectively. Our results shed lights on understanding the relationship between SMs monolayer, cholesterol and Cations.

  14. The Comparison of Gemfibrozil and Lovastatin Therapy in Patients with High LDL and Low HDL Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    CLI ’T i-ITI2N 20. IM~IA~iN OF ASIRACTj OF REPORT OF TIIlS PAGF OF ARrsWiIlACT i The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin therapy in patients...PRESENTATIONS/SEMINARS: Jun 1990 The comparison of gemfibrozil and lovastatin in a subpopulation of patients with high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels...aggressive ndical treatment. 2 Gemfibrozil is known to increase HDL cholesterol, decrease VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as lower LDL

  15. High ratio of triglycerides to hdl-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protasio Lemos da Luz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c indicates an atherogenic lipid profile and a risk for the development of coronary disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between lipid levels, specifically TG/HDL-c, and the extent of coronary disease. METHODS: High-risk patients (n = 374 submitted for coronary angiography had their lipid variables measured and coronary disease extent scored by the Friesinger index. RESULTS: The subjects consisted of 220 males and 154 females, age 57.2 ± 11.1 years, with total cholesterol of 210± 50.3 mg/dL, triglycerides of 173.8 ± 169.8 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c of 40.1 ± 12.8 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c of 137.3 ± 46.2 mg/dL, TG/HDL-c of 5.1 ± 5.3, and a Friesinger index of 6.6 ± 4.7. The relationship between the extent of coronary disease (dichotomized by a Friesenger index of 5 and lipid levels (normal vs. abnormal was statistically significant for the following: triglycerides, odds ratio of 2.02 (1.31-3.1; p = 0.0018; HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.21 (1.42-3.43; p = 0.0005; and TG/HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.01(1.30-3.09; p = 0.0018. However, the relationship was not significant between extent of coronary disease and total cholesterol [1.25 (0.82-1.91; p = 0.33] or LDL-c [1.47 (0.96-2.25; p = 0.0842]. The chi-square for linear trends for Friesinger > 4 and lipid quartiles was statistically significant for triglycerides (p = 0.0017, HDL-c (p = 0.0001, and TG/HDL-c (p = 0.0018, but not for total cholesterol (p = 0.393 or LDL-c (p = 0.0568. The multivariate analysis by logistic regression OR gave 1.3 ± 0.79 (p = .0001 for TG/HDL-c, 0.779 ± 0.074 (p = .0001 for HDL-c, and 1.234 ± 0.097 (p = 0.03 for LDL. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that only TG/HDL-c and HDL-c were useful for detecting extensive coronary disease, with the former more strongly associated with disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although some lipid variables were associated with the extent of

  16. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  17. The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of poor outcomes in a Chinese population with acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Xu, Jianing; Sun, Hao; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    High admission cholesterol has been associated with better outcome after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), but a paradox not completely illustrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) on short-term survival after AIS. Consecutive patients admitted in 2013 and 2015 were enrolled in the present study. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of 3-month outcomes. The primary endpoint was death. Secondary endpoint was good (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 or equal to prestrike modified Rankin Scale score) at 3 months. Of 871 patients enrolled in the final analysis, 94 (10.8%) individuals died during 3 months of observation. The serum TC and TC/HDL-C levels at admission were significantly associated with stroke outcomes at 3 months, and the HDL-C level was only correlated with the good outcomes at 3 months. Mortality risk was markedly decreased for patients with high TC/HDL-C ratio (odds ratio: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.50 for Q4:Q1; P-trend <.001) after adjustment. The effect of TC/HDL-C ratio on the probability of good outcomes was still obvious (odds ratio: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.40-3.39 for Q4:Q1; P-trend=.029). According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the best discriminating factor was a TG/HDL-C ≥3.37 (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.643, sensitivity 61.3%, specificity 61.7%) as well as the TC/HDL-C ≥4.09 for good outcomes (AUC: 0.587, sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 79.7%). High TC/HDL-C ratio may be associated with increased short-term survival and better outcomes after AIS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-10-01

    Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR.

  19. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risks of stroke: a result from the Kailuan study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Wu

    Full Text Available AIMS: To prospectively explore the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC and the risks of stroke and its subtypes. METHODS: A total of 95,916 participants (18-98 years old; 76,354 men and 19,562 women from a Chinese urban community who were free of myocardial infarction and stroke at baseline time point (2006-2007 were eligible and enrolled in the study. The serum non-HDLC levels of participants were determined by subtracting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC from total serum cholesterol. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of stroke, which was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria and classified into three subtypes: ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk of stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS: During the four-year follow-up, we identified 1614 stroke events (1,156 ischemic, 416 intracerebral hemorrhagic and 42 subarachnoid hemorrhagic. Statistical analyses showed that hazard ratios (HR (95% Confidence Interval: CI of serum Non-HDLC level for total and subtypes of stroke were: 1.08 (1.03-1.12 (total, 1.10 (1.05-1.16 (ischemic, 1.03 (0.96-1.10 (intracerebral hemorrhage and 0.83 (0.66-1.05 (subarachnoid hemorrhage. HR for non-HDLC refers to the increase per each 20 mg/dl. For total and ischemic stroke, the risks were significantly higher in the fourth and fifth quintiles of non-HDLC concentrations compared to the first quintile after adjusting the confounding factors (total stroke: 4(th quintile HR=1.33 (1.12-1.59; 5(th quintile HR = 1.36 (1.15-1.62; ischemic stroke: 4(th quintile HR =1.34 (1.09-1.66; 5(th quintile HR = 1.53 (1.24-1.88. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that serum non-HDLC level is an independent risk factor for total and ischemic stroke, and that higher serum non-HDLC concentrations are associated with increased risks for total stroke and ischemic stroke, but not

  20. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Four prospective American studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D J; Probstfield, J L; Garrison, R J; Neaton, J D; Castelli, W P; Knoke, J D; Jacobs, D R; Bangdiwala, S; Tyroler, H A

    1989-01-01

    The British Regional Heart Study (BRHS) reported in 1986 that much of the inverse relation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and incidence of coronary heart disease was eliminated by covariance adjustment. Using the proportional hazards model and adjusting for age, blood pressure, smoking, body mass index, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we analyzed this relation separately in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Mortality Follow-up Study (LRCF) and Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (CPPT), and Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). In CPPT and MRFIT (both randomized trials in middle-age high-risk men), only the control groups were analyzed. A 1-mg/dl (0.026 mM) increment in HDLC was associated with a significant coronary heart disease risk decrement of 2% in men (FHS, CPPT, and MRFIT) and 3% in women (FHS). In LRCF, where only fatal outcomes were documented, a 1-mg/dl increment in HDLC was associated with significant 3.7% (men) and 4.7% (women) decrements in cardiovascular disease mortality rates. The 95% confidence intervals for these decrements in coronary heart and cardiovascular disease risk in the four studies overlapped considerably, and all contained the range 1.9-2.9%. HDLC levels were essentially unrelated to non-cardiovascular disease mortality. When differences in analytic methodology were eliminated, a consistent inverse relation of HDLC levels and coronary heart disease event rates was apparent in BRHS as well as in the four American studies.

  2. Drugs targeting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for coronary artery disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Pamela M; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Many patients remain at high risk for future cardiovascular events despite levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at, or below, target while taking statin therapy. Much effort is therefore being focused on strategies to reduce this residual risk. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong, independent, inverse predictor of coronary heart disease risk and is therefore an attractive therapeutic target. Currently available agents that raise HDL-C have only modest effects and there is limited evidence of additional cardiovascular risk reduction on top of background statin therapy associated with their use. It was hoped that the use of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors would provide additional benefit, but the results of clinical outcome studies to date have been disappointing. The results of ongoing trials with other CETP inhibitors that raise HDL-C to a greater degree and also lower LDL-C, as well as with other emerging therapies are awaited. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypolipidemic activity of Phellinus rimosus against triton WR-1339 and high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rony, K A; Ajith, T A; Nima, N; Janardhanan, K K

    2014-03-01

    Patients with the risk for atherosclerotic disease will be targeted to reduce the existing hyperlipidemia. The hypolipidemic activity of Phellinus rimosus was studied using triton WR-1339 and high cholesterol diet (HCD) induced models. The triton induced elevated lipid profile was attenuated by P. rimosus or standard drug atorvastatin. Similarly, administration of P. rimosus along with HCD significantly decline serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, with elevating the high-density lipoprotein. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances in heart and liver significantly decreased; where as activity of enzymatic antioxidants and level of reduced glutathione were significantly increased. In both models, P. rimosus extract showed a significant ameliorative effect on the elevated atherogenic index as well as LDL/HDL-C ratio. The hypolipidemic activity of P. rimosus can be ascribed to its inhibitory effect on the liver HMG CoA reductase activity. The results suggest the possible therapeutic potential of this fungus as hypolipidemic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypo- and hyperthyroid patients are related to changes in free thyroxine, not to polymorphisms in LDL receptor or cholesterol ester transfer protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Anghelescu, N.; Endert, E.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in lipoprotein metabolism. Both plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase in hypothyroidism and decrease in hyperthyroidism. Changes in LDL-C relate to altered clearance of LDL particles

  5. Efficacy of functional foods mixture in improving hypercholesterolemia, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers-induced by high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muzafar, Hessah Mohammed; Amin, Kamal Adel

    2017-10-06

    Hypercholesterolemia associated with cardiovascular diseases is a global health issue that could be alleviated by functional foods. This study aimed to explore the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on lipid profile, cardiac, inflammatory, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers, and the possible improvement by functional foods mixture. Male albino rats weighing 100-150 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: 1st control, giving a normal diet; the 2nd received high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks, the 3rd received the high-cholesterol diet + functional foods mixture, and the 4th administered high-cholesterol diet +atorvastatin (20 mg) orally. The results showed a significant increase in lipid profile and cardiac biomarkers levels (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and homocystein), also inflammatory markers, as, tumor necrotic factor alpha and chronic reactive proteins were elevated, moreover, vascular adhesion molecule-1 and nitric oxide synthase were disturbed in high-cholesterol diet compared with normal group. While administration of atorvastatin and functional foods mixture ameliorated these alterations. Administration of functional foods mixture and atorvastatin were effective in treating hypercholesterolemia, reduce the risk of inflammation and cardiovascular biomarkers with a high safety margin. These efficiencies may be due to its active ingredient that improve the imbalance in the measured biomarkers.

  6. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  7. High serum coenzyme Q10, positively correlated with age, selenium and cholesterol in Inuit of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Mortensen, S.A.; Rhode, M.

    1999-01-01

    impact. From a health survey we chose the subpopulation from the most remote area, where the traditional Greenlandic diet with high intake of sea mammals and fish predominates. The mean (SD) of S-CoQ10 in males was 1.495 (0.529) nmol/ml and 1.421 (0.629) nmol/ml in females, significantly higher (p ....001) compared to a Danish population. In a linear multiple regression model the S-CoQ10 level is significantly positively associated with age and S-selenium in males, and S-total cholesterol in females. The high level of CoQ10 in Greenlanders probably reflects diet, since no bioaccumulation takes place...

  8. Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been reported that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<35 mg/dL. But in this study, some patients had hypertension that may have affected the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio. This study consisted of 1274 asymptomatic healthy young men. In contrast with the previous study, we investigated the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with controls. Methods: We studied 1274 asymptomatic young males (military personnel screening who underwent routine health check-up. Of them, 102 subjects had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than that of the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in asymptomatic healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control participants.

  10. The anti-inflammatory effect of kaempferol on early atherosclerosis in high cholesterol fed rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis has been widely accepted as an inflammatory disease of vascular, adhesion molecules play an important role in the early progression of it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on the inflammatory molecules such as E-selectin (E-sel), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesionmolecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in high cholesterol induced atherosclerosis rabbit models. Methods Thirty male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were randomly divided into five groups, control group, model group, fenofibrate (12mg/kg) group and kaempferol groups (150 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). The rabbits were fed with a normal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. Levels of blood lipids, serum tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) were detected at the end of the sixth and tenth week. Malonaldehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum were also determined. Lesion areas of the aorta were measured with morphometry analysis after ten weeks. Gene expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas was determined by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Immunohistochemical staining was employed to measure protein expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1. Results Model rabbits fed with ten weeks of high-cholesterol diet developed significant progression of atherosclerosis. Compared with the control, levels of blood lipids, TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA increased markedly in serum of model rabbits, while SOD levels decreased. Gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in atherosclerotic aortas increased remarkably in model group. However, comparing to the model rabbits, levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA decreased significantly and serum SOD activity increased, gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas decreased significantly with the treatment of

  11. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within......- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women. In addition, the index of individuality, prediction intervals, and power calculations were derived....

  12. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: An ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oggioni

    2015-12-01

    Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs.

  13. Comparison of soymilk and probiotic soymilk effects on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Babashahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soy milk (SM and its fermented products are identified as rich sources of bioactive compounds helping to manage and to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of SM and probiotic SM (PSM consumption on serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in diabetic Wistar rats. METHODS: Probiotic SM was prepared by fermentation of the plain SM with a native strain of Lactobacillus plantarum. 20 streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic Wistar rats were divided into two groups based on the type of administered SM (SM group and PSM group. The animals were fed with 1 ml/day of either soy or PSM for 21 days. The serum lipoprotein levels were analyzed at baseline and the end of the intervention period. RESULTS: HDL-C increased significantly in PSM group. Furthermore, this group showed more percent of change in increased HDL-C in compression with SM group (P < 0.050. Regarding LDL-C level, rats fed with SM was not significantly different from the PSM group (P < 0.050; though, this biomarker was reduced in both group. CONCLUSION: Probiotic SM could modulate blood lipoprotein levels. Thus, it may be considered in managing diabetes complications and atherosclerotic risks. 

  14. Agonistic Human Antibodies Binding to Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Modulate High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N.; Fordstrom, Preston; Piper, Derek E.; Masterman, Stephanie; Siu, Sophia; Liu, Dongming; Brown, Mike; Lu, Mei; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Richard; Cheng, Janet; Gates, Andrew; Meininger, David; Chan, Joyce; Carlson, Tim; Walker, Nigel; Schwarz, Margrit; Delaney, John; Zhou, Mingyue

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery opportunities where loss-of-function alleles of a target gene link to a disease-relevant phenotype often require an agonism approach to up-regulate or re-establish the activity of the target gene. Antibody therapy is increasingly recognized as a favored drug modality due to multiple desirable pharmacological properties. However, agonistic antibodies that enhance the activities of the target enzymes are rarely developed because the discovery of agonistic antibodies remains elusive. Here we report an innovative scheme of discovery and characterization of human antibodies capable of binding to and agonizing a circulating enzyme lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Utilizing a modified human LCAT protein with enhanced enzymatic activity as an immunogen, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies using the XenoMouseTM platform. One of the resultant agonistic antibodies, 27C3, binds to and substantially enhances the activity of LCAT from humans and cynomolgus macaques. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the 2.45 Å LCAT-27C3 complex shows that 27C3 binding does not induce notable structural changes in LCAT. A single administration of 27C3 to cynomolgus monkeys led to a rapid increase of plasma LCAT enzymatic activity and a 35% increase of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol that was observed up to 32 days after 27C3 administration. Thus, this novel scheme of immunization in conjunction with high throughput screening may represent an effective strategy for discovering agonistic antibodies against other enzyme targets. 27C3 and other agonistic human anti-human LCAT monoclonal antibodies described herein hold potential for therapeutic development for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26644477

  15. Effects of the Brown Seaweed Laminaria japonica Supplementation on Serum Concentrations of IgG, Triglycerides, and Cholesterol, and Intestinal Microbiota Composition in Rats

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    Jae-Young Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbial communities play critical roles in various aspects of body function of the host. Prebiotics, such as dietary fiber, can affect health of the host by altering the composition of intestinal microbiota. Although brown seaweed Laminaria japonica is rich in dietary fiber, studies on its prebiotic potential are quite rare. In this study, basal diet (control, basal diet supplemented with dried L. japonica (DLJ, heat-treated dried L. japonica (HLJ, or heated dried L. japonica with added fructooligosaccharide (FHLJ was fed to rats for 16 weeks. Serum concentrations of IgG, triglyceride, and cholesterol were measured. In addition, the intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. As compared to the control group, DLJ, HLJ, and FHLJ groups showed significantly higher serum IgG concentration, but had lower weight gain and serum triglyceride concentration. Moreover, DLJ, HLJ, and FHLJ groups showed lower Fimicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio when compared with the control group. As compared with the control group, obesity-associated bacterial genera (Allobaculum, Turicibacter, Coprobacillus, Mollicute, and Oscilibacter, and the genera with pathogenic potentials (Mollicute, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Prevotella decreased while leanness-associated genera (Alistipes, Bacteroides, and Prevotella, and lactic acid bacterial genera (Subdoligranulum, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium increased in all treatment groups. On the contrary, butyric acid producing genera including Subdoligranulum, Roseburia, Eubacterium, Butyrivibrio, and Anaerotruncus increased significantly only in FHLJ group. The overall results support multiple prebiotic effects of seaweed L. japonica on rats as determined by body weight reduction, enhanced immune response, and desirable changes in intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting the great potential of L. japonica as an

  16. Association of Air Pollution Exposures With High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Particle Number: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Griffith; Mora, Samia; Greenland, Philip; Tsai, Michael; Gill, Ed; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease may be explained by changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We examined the cross-sectional relationship between air pollution and both HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number in the MESA Air study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution). Study participants were 6654 white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women aged 45 to 84 years. We estimated individual residential ambient fine particulate pollution exposure (PM 2.5 ) and black carbon concentrations using a fine-scale likelihood-based spatiotemporal model and cohort-specific monitoring. Exposure periods were averaged to 12 months, 3 months, and 2 weeks prior to examination. HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number were measured in the year 2000 using the cholesterol oxidase method and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure and HDL measures. A 0.7×10 - 6 m - 1 higher exposure to black carbon (a marker of traffic-related pollution) averaged over a 1-year period was significantly associated with a lower HDL cholesterol (-1.68 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -2.86 to -0.50) and approached significance with HDL particle number (-0.55 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -1.13 to 0.03). In the 3-month averaging time period, a 5 μg/m 3 higher PM 2.5 was associated with lower HDL particle number (-0.64 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.01 to -0.26), but not HDL cholesterol (-0.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -0.82 to 0.71). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution is adversely associated with measures of HDL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  18. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  19. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  20. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  1. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  2. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation.To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks.Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks.Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  3. Clerodendron glandulosum Coleb., Verbenaceae, ameliorates high fat diet-induced alteration in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RN Jadeja

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze dried extract of Clerodendron glandulosum Coleb., Verbenaceae, leaves (FECG on alteration in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. Plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, lipid and cholesterol metabolizing enzymes in target tissues and fecal total lipids and bile acid contents were evaluated in FECG treated normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats. These results were compared with synthetic hypolipidemic drug Lovastatin (LVS. Results indicate that FECG was able to positively regulate induced experimental hyperlipidemia by significant alteration in plasma and tissue lipid profiles. These results can be attributed to reduced absorption, effective elimination and augmented catabolism of lipids and cholesterol possibly due to high content of saponin and phytosterols in C. glandulosum. Use of C. glandulosum extract as a potential therapeutic agent against hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia is indicated.

  4. Electronegative LDL is linked to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Ho, Shu-Li; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lu, Shao-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), like that of atherosclerosis, involves lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis. Recent studies suggest that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be a risk factor for NASH, but oxLDL levels were not directly measured in these studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an association between electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], a mildly oxLDL found in the blood, and the development of NASH using two animal models. Golden Syrian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 6 or 12weeks, then liver lipid and histopathology, plasma lipoprotein profile and LDL(-) levels were examined. The HFC-diet-fed hamsters and mice had similar levels of hepatic lipid but different histopathological changes, with microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and bridging fibrosis in the hamsters, but only in mild steatohepatitis with low inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice. It also resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and LDL(-) in hamsters, but only a slight increase in mice. Moreover, enlarged Kupffer cells, LDL(-) and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol were detected in the portal area of HFC-diet-fed hamsters, but not HFC-diet-fed mice. An in vitro study showed that LDL(-) from HFC-diet-fed hamsters induced TNF-α secretion in rat Kupffer cell through a LOX-1-dependent pathway. Our results strongly suggest that LDL(-) is one of the underlying causes of hepatic inflammation and plays a critical role in the development of NASH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efeito do processamento sobre os níveis de colesterol e 7-cetocolesterol em camarão-rosa Effects of processing on free cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol concentrations in pink-shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Figueiredo Procópio de Moura

    2002-08-01

    has been used as a "tracer" of the degree of cholesterol oxidation, due to its fast and continuous formation and thus relatively high amounts with respect to the other oxidation products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of boiling and deep-frying on the cholesterol oxidation in pink-shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis and Penaeus paulensis. Cooking of pink-shrimp, in general, decreased both free cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol concentrations. Such decrease was higher after frying than after boiling and was more pronounced for 7-ketocholesterol. While the cholesterol concentrations were 10.7 and 24.7% lower, the decrease of 7-ketocholesterol concentrations was 41.5 and 61% in boiled and fried shrimp, respectively. The reduction of free cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol concentrations in processed pink-shrimp was related to elution of these compounds by the cooking medium, i.e. water in boiling and oil in frying.

  6. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF CURCUMIN OR CO-ENZYME Q1-0 AND THEIR MIXTURE ON OBESE RATS FED A HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAHIN, M.I.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats by feeding diet enriched with cholesterol for two weeks. After 2 weeks of induction of hypercholesterolemia in rats and in comparison to normal rats, the results showed that incorporation of extra cholesterol in diet led to significant increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, leptin and MDA levels. On the other hand, total serum triiodothyronine (T3), liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased significantly in cholesterol fed rats. The concentration of TBARS in the liver was elevated.All previous parameters were corrected after the hypercholesterolemic rats were treated with curcumin or co-enzyme Q 1 -0 or a mixture of them dependent on the time of treatment. These findings are consistent with the concept that curcumin and co-enzyme Q 10 are antioxidant agents. The underlying mechanisms of these effects were discussed

  7. Effects of Food Based Yeast on Oxidant-Antioxidant Systems in Rats fed by High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Savaş, Hasan Basri; Yüksel, Özlem; Şanlıdere Aloğlu, Hatice; Öner, Zübeyde; Demir Özer, Ezgi; Gültekin, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    In living organisms, oxidant and antioxidant systems are in a balance. In the present study, our aim was to study the effects of Cryptococcus humicola, which is a food based yeast whose cholesterol lowering activity is under investigation, on oxidant and antioxidant systems.31 adult male, Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gr were included in the study. Rats were divided into four groups based on their diets. Group 1(Control Group) was fed a normal diet, Group 2 was fed a high cholesterol di...

  8. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  9. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  10. Isotope dilution/mass spectrometry of serum cholesterol with [3,4-13C]cholesterol: proposed definitive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Wright, L.A.; Breckenridge, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a new gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) isotope-dilution method for determination of serum cholesterol. The method has been fully optimized and documented to provide the high accuracy and precision expected for a Definitive Method. In the presence of [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol, cholesteryl esters in serum are hydrolyzed under optimum conditions and the entire cholesterol pool is extracted and derivatized to silyl ethers. The cholesterol derivatives are resolved from other sterols by gas-liquid chromatography on a fused silica column, and selected ions characteristic of cholesterol and the [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol are monitored with a GC/MS quandrupole system. We estimated the cholesterol content of samples by bracketing each sample with standards of comparable cholesterol concentration that also contained the [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol. The procedure was highly reproducible (CV less than 0.5%), better accuracy and precision being obtained with [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol than with heptadeuterated cholesterol. Mean values per gram of dry serum for one serum pool assayed by this method and that of the National Bureau of Standards differed by 0.5%. We conclude that the method satisfies the criteria for a Definitive Method

  11. [A history and review of cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and their contribution to the understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of high density lipoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Pablo; Schreier, Laura

    2014-01-01

    There is irrefutable evidence that statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a magnitude proportional to the intensity of the decrease in cholesterol transport by the low density lipoproteins. Despite this great advance there is still a residual risk of cardiovascular events. For this reason, an increase in the levels of high density lipoprotein is considered in order to boost the main action of this lipoprotein, which is reverse cholesterol transport. Distinct classes of evidence (epidemiological, genetic, and pathophysiological) show that the inhibition and/or modulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein increases plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The main reason for presenting this review is to look at the physiology of cholesterol ester transfer protein, its interrelationship with high density lipoproteins, and to give an update on the development of different cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor/modulator molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  12. High serum coenzyme Q10, positively correlated with age, selenium and cholesterol, in Inuit of Greenland. A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H S; Mortensen, S A; Rohde, M

    1999-01-01

    .001) compared to a Danish population. In a linear multiple regression model the S-CoQ10 level is significantly positively associated with age and S-selenium in males, and S-total cholesterol in females. The high level of CoQ10 in Greenlanders probably reflects diet, since no bioaccumulation takes place...

  13. EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID ON THE RIGHT AND LEFT CORONARY ARTERIES OF MALE RABBITS FED WITH HIGH-CHOLESTEROL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Dashti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death in western countries. The beneficial effect of ascorbic acid on various organs has been reported. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of ascorbic acid on the right and left coronary arteries of male rabbits fed with high-cholesterol diet. methods: Twenty white male rabbits (mean weight: 950 g were weighed and randomly divided into two groups. For 40 days, group 1 (n=10 was given a high-cholesterol (1% diet, group 2 (n=10 was fed with a high-cholesterol diet and ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg. Then both of the groups were weighed and the animals were sacrificed. The right and left coronary arteries were dissected and then fixation, tissue processing, histological sectioning and H & E staining were carried out and sections were studied by light microscopy. The results were analyzed by using the Mann Whitney test. results: Group 2 which received ascorbic acid had no fatty streaks in their coronary arteries. Significant difference in mean weight was observed before and after the diet in both groups (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological study of the coronary arteries showed that the rabbits which received ascorbic acid diet did not develop fatty streaks. Thus ascorbic acid exerts an apparently inhibitory effect on fatty streak formation and may slow down or prevent atherosclerosis by countering the side effects of a high-fat meal.     Keywords: Ascorbic acid, cholesterol, coronary arteries.

  14. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    We claim that (1) cholesterol protects bilayers from disruption caused by lipid oxidation by sequestering conical shaped oxidized lipid species such as 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PZPC) away from phospholipid, because cholesterol and the oxidized lipid have complementary...... shapes and (2) mixtures of cholesterol and oxidized lipids can self-assemble into bilayers much like lysolipid–cholesterol mixtures. The evidence for bilayer protection comes from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Unimodal size distributions of extruded...... vesicles (LUVETs) made up of a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and PZPC containing high amounts of PZPC are only obtained when cholesterol is present in high concentrations. In simulations, bilayers containing high amounts of PZPC become porous, unless cholesterol is also present...

  15. Acute sterol o-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2 knockdown rapidly mobilizes hepatic cholesterol for fecal excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Marshall

    Full Text Available The primary risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is LDL cholesterol, which can be reduced by increasing cholesterol excretion from the body. Fecal cholesterol excretion can be driven by a hepatobiliary as well as a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE. We previously showed that chronic knockdown of the hepatic cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2 increased fecal cholesterol loss via TICE. To elucidate the initial events that stimulate TICE, C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce hepatic cholesterol accumulation and were then treated for 1 or 2 weeks with an antisense oligonucleotide targeting SOAT2. Within 2 weeks of hepatic SOAT2 knockdown (SOAT2HKD, the concentration of cholesteryl ester in the liver was reduced by 70% without a reciprocal increase in hepatic free cholesterol. The rapid mobilization of hepatic cholesterol stores resulted in a ∼ 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol loss but no change in biliary cholesterol concentration. Acute SOAT2HKD increased plasma cholesterol carried primarily in lipoproteins enriched in apoB and apoE. Collectively, our data suggest that acutely reducing SOAT2 causes hepatic cholesterol to be swiftly mobilized and packaged onto nascent lipoproteins that feed cholesterol into the TICE pathway for fecal excretion.

  16. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from [ 3 H] acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37 0 C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane

  17. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  18. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  19. Anticholesterolemic effect of 3,4-di(OH)-phenylpropionic amides in high-cholesterol fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon-Ja; Bok, Song-Hae; Lee, Sangku; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Two amide synthetic derivatives of 3,4-di(OH)-hydrocinnamate (HC), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic (L-serine methyl ester) amide (E030) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic (L-aspartic acid) amide (E076), were investigated to compare their lipid-lowering efficacy with HC. Male rats were fed a 1 g/100 g high-cholesterol diet for 6 weeks with supplements of either clofibrate (0.02%, w/w), HC (0.025%, w/w), E030 (0.039%, w/w) or E076 (0.041%, w/w). The clofibrate supplement was used as a positive control for the lipid-lowering efficacy. The food intakes and body weight gains were not significantly different among the groups. The plasma and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in clofibrate, HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups compared to the control group. The supplementation of HC and its amide derivatives was as effective as clofibrate in increasing the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total plasma cholesterol and reducing the atherogenic index (AI). The hepatic cholesterol level in the HC and E076 groups was significantly lower than that in the clofibrate group. The hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase) and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activities were significantly lower in the all test groups than in the control group. The excretion of neutral sterol was significantly higher in the HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups compared to the control group. The plasma AST and ALT activities, indirect indexes of hepatic toxicity, were significantly lower in the HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups than in the control group. Accordingly, the current results suggest that E030 and E076, two amide synthetic derivatives of HC, are effective in lowering lipid activity

  20. Clinical benefit from pharmacological elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcade-Potelleret, F; Laporte, S; Lehnert, V; Delmar, P; Benghozi, Renée; Torriani, U; Koch, R; Mismetti, P

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence that the risk of coronary heart disease is inversely associated with the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has motivated several phase III programmes with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors. To assess alternative methods to predict clinical response of CETP inhibitors. Meta-regression analysis on raising HDL-C drugs (statins, fibrates, niacin) in randomised controlled trials. 51 trials in secondary prevention with a total of 167,311 patients for a follow-up >1 year where HDL-C was measured at baseline and during treatment. The meta-regression analysis showed no significant association between change in HDL-C (treatment vs comparator) and log risk ratio (RR) of clinical endpoint (non-fatal myocardial infarction or cardiac death). CETP inhibitors data are consistent with this finding (RR: 1.03; P5-P95: 0.99-1.21). A prespecified sensitivity analysis by drug class suggested that the strength of relationship might differ between pharmacological groups. A significant association for both statins (p<0.02, log RR=-0.169-0.0499*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.21) and niacin (p=0.02, log RR=1.07-0.185*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.61) but not fibrates (p=0.18, log RR=-0.367+0.077*HDL-C change, R(2)=0.40) was shown. However, the association was no longer detectable after adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for statins or exclusion of open trials for niacin. Meta-regression suggested that CETP inhibitors might not influence coronary risk. The relation between change in HDL-C level and clinical endpoint may be drug dependent, which limits the use of HDL-C as a surrogate marker of coronary events. Other markers of HDL function may be more relevant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam; Noutsi, Bakiza Kamal; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2016-01-01

    to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration

  2. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  3. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jasmine G; O'Dea, Kerin; Walker, Karen Z

    2014-06-02

    Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia's Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes prevalence and inflammatory markers suggest a particularly adverse CVD risk factor profile. An absence of sex dichotomy in HDL-C levels warrants further investigation.

  4. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Lin, Suhan; Zippi, Maddalena; Geng, Wujun; Stock, Simon; Zimmer, Vincent; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs) were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict SAP as follows: -2.25-0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl) at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl) at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl) at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  5. Characterization of high concentration dust generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Toichiro; Yokochi, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development of fluidized bed type high concentration dust generator that keeps for long period dust concentration range of about 10 mg/m 3 for the study of working place monitoring system and evaluation of respirator. The generator is keeping constant powder in fluidized bed for keeping the dust concentration. It is necessary to keep constant feeding rate of powder in order to keep the quantity of dust in the fluidized bed. Our generator enables to obtain constant feeding rate by a screw feeder and by using mixed powder with fluidising particles (glass beads) before feeding. The generator produces high concentration dust of 11.3 mg/m 3 ± 1.0 mg/m 3 for about 5 hours and keeps the dust size 4.2-4.6 μm in mass median aerodynamic diameter with reasonable reproducibility. (author)

  6. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  7. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...

  8. Cholesterol effect on water permeability through DPPC and PSM lipid bilayers: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Wataru

    2011-12-29

    Water permeability of two different lipid bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) in the absence and presence of cholesterol (0-50 mol %) have been studied by molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the reduction in water leakage across the membranes by the addition of cholesterol. An enhanced free energy barrier was observed in these membranes with increased cholesterol concentration, and this was explained by the reduced cavity density around the cholesterol in the hydrophobic membrane core. There was an increase of trans conformers in the hydrophobic lipid chains adjacent to the cholesterol, which reduced the cavity density. The enhanced free energy barrier was found to be the main reason to reduce the water permeability with increased cholesterol concentration. At low cholesterol concentrations the PSM bilayer exhibited a higher free energy barrier than the DPPC bilayer for water permeation, while at greater than 30 mol % of cholesterol the difference became minor. This tendency for the PSM and DPPC bilayers to resemble each other at higher cholesterol concentrations was similar to commonly observed trends in several structural properties, such as order parameters, cross-sectional area per molecule, and cavity density profiles in the hydrophobic regions of bilayer membranes. These results demonstrate that DPPC and PSM bilayers with high cholesterol contents possess similar physical properties, which suggests that the solubility of cholesterol in these lipid bilayers has importance for an understanding of multicomponent lipid membranes with cholesterol. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Shuzo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine how lipid profiles are associated with insulin resistance in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 614 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20-89 years and 779 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21-88 years. The study sample were 1,042 (74.8% non-obese (BMI 2 and 351 (25.2% overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 subjects. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR of at least 2.5. The areas under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC were used to compare the power of these serum markers. Results In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio of 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.66-0.80. The HDL-C, triglyceride (TG/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C also discriminated insulin resistance, as the values for AUC were 0.31 (95% CI, 0.24-0.38, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62-0.75 and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.62-0.75, respectively. In overweight subjects, the AUC for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 0.64 (0.58-0.71 and 0.64 (0.57-0.70, respectively. The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: TG/HDL-C ratio of ≥1.50 and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio of ≥2.14 in non-obese subjects, and ≥2.20, ≥2.25 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Conclusion In non-obese Japanese adults, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio may be the best reliable marker of insulin resistance.

  10. Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Charlotte N; Derdemezis, Christos; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Doleman, Joanne F; Saha, Shikha; Leung, Wing; Potter, John F; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mithen, Richard F

    2015-05-01

    Cruciferous-rich diets have been associated with reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), which may be due to the action of isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in these vegetables. This study tests the hypothesis that a diet rich in high glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli will reduce plasma LDL-C. One hundred and thirty volunteers were recruited to two independent double-blind, randomly allocated parallel dietary intervention studies, and were assigned to consume either 400 g standard broccoli or 400 g HG broccoli per week for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were quantified before and after the intervention. In study 1 (37 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL-C by 7.1% (95% CI: -1.8%, -12.3%, p = 0.011), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 1.8% (95% CI +3.9%, -7.5%, ns). In study 2 (93 volunteers), the HG broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1% (95% CI: -2.1%, -8.1%, p = 0.001), whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL-C by 2.5% (95% CI: +0.8%, -5.7%, ns). When data from the two studies were combined the reduction in LDL-C by the HG broccoli was significantly greater than standard broccoli (p = 0.031). Evidence from two independent human studies indicates that consumption of high glucoraphanin broccoli significantly reduces plasma LDL-C. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The tuber extract and flour of Dioscorea alatanormalize the blood lipid profile of rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2014-08-01

    rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets.Methods:DA tuber extract and flour were administrated to the rabbits for 60 days using completely randomised design. The ration treatment are as follows: 1 Basal ration as negative control (K0, 2 Basal ration + 0.5% cholesterol, as positive control (K1, 3 Basal ration + 0.5% cholesterol + DA extract 1.8 g/100 g (KE1, 4 Basal ration + cholesterol 0.5% + DA extract 3.6 g/100 g (KE2, 5 Basal ration with 15% DA flour + 0.5% cholesterol (KT1 and 6 Basal ration with 30% DA flour + 0.5% cholesterol (KT2. The Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL cholesterol in serum were analysed at baseline, days 28, days 56 and at the end of study.Results:The administration of high cholesterol (1% ration increased blood lipid levels by 16 fold compared to that of control. The administration of 15% and 30% of DA flour could maintain blood lipid profile to normal condition, in particular at 30% substitution DA flour. However the water extract of DA can not maintain a normal blood lipids of high cholesterol treated rabbitsConclusion: Dioscorea alata flour has suggested to have anti-hyperlipidemia effect. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:23-9Key words: Dioscorea alata, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis

  12. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Biological degradation of biomass on an industrial scale culminates in high concentrations of end products. It is known that the accumulation of glucose and cellobiose, end products of hydrolysis, inhibit cellulases and decrease glucose yields. Aside from these end products, however, other monosa...

  13. Cholesterol crystallization within hepatocyte lipid droplets and its role in murine NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, George N; Subramanian, Savitha; Chait, Alan; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Yeh, Matthew M; Farrell, Geoffrey C; Lee, Sum P; Savard, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    We recently reported that cholesterol crystals form in hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) in human and experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Herein, we assigned WT C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat (15%) diet for 6 months, supplemented with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, or 1% dietary cholesterol. Increasing dietary cholesterol led to cholesterol loading of the liver, but not of adipose tissue, resulting in fibrosing steatohepatitis at a dietary cholesterol concentration of ≥0.5%, whereas mice on lower-cholesterol diets developed only simple steatosis. Hepatic cholesterol crystals and crown-like structures also developed at a dietary cholesterol concentration ≥0.5%. Crown-like structures consisted of activated Kupffer cells (KCs) staining positive for NLRP3 and activated caspase 1, which surrounded and processed cholesterol crystal-containing remnant LDs of dead hepatocytes. The KCs processed LDs at the center of crown-like structures in the extracellular space by lysosomal enzymes, ultimately transforming into lipid-laden foam cells. When HepG2 cells were exposed to LDL cholesterol, they developed cholesterol crystals in LD membranes, which caused activation of THP1 cells (macrophages) grown in coculture; upregulation of TNF-alpha , NLRP3, and interleukin 1beta ( IL1β ) mRNA; and secretion of IL-1beta. In conclusion, cholesterol crystals form on the LD membrane of hepatocytes and cause activation and cholesterol loading of KCs that surround and process these LDs by lysosomal enzymes.

  14. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) metabolism and its role in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzado, Z.A.; Sngi, S.A.; Malik, R.

    1999-01-01

    Case control and prospective epidemiological studies have found a striking, consistently negative association between High Density Lipoprotein(HDL) levels and coronary vascular events. As a results, the genetic and environmental determinants of HDL levels are being studied intensively. These investigations and their potential clinical applications require a fundamental understanding of the structure, function and metabolism of HDL and its components. Of the special interest are the means by which it exerts its apparently protective effect. In this report we characterize the structure of HLD: and describe its compounds, particularly the protein component. We discuss HDL metabolism in light of the relationship of HDL to other lipoprotein classes and relate what little is known of the functions of HDL. We also review the biochemical mechanism by which HDL may protect against cardiovascular disease and discuss further biochemical research that will be necessary for a better understanding of HDL. Interest in HDL has been greatly intensified in recent years, stimulated largely by the finding that HDL is inversely related in HDL has been greatly intensified in recent years, stimulated largely by the finding that HDL is inversely related to coronary artery disease. Case-control and prospective observations of the striking, consistent and independent negative association between HDL levels and coronary vascular events have in turn generated new interest in the structure, composition and metabolism of these fascinating lipoproteins. Several studies carried out in Pakistan also reveal the inverse relation of HDL to IHD/sup 1,2/. This article contains a tremendous amount of information on HDL and its relationship to genetic and environmental factors which should be useful to investigations and clinicians in their evaluation and use of HDL cholesterol measurements to assess hearth disease risk. A knowledge of the structure, function and metabolism of HDL and its components is

  15. Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, Kausik K.; Landmesser, Ulf; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Kallend, David; Dufour, Robert; Karakas, Mahir; Hall, Tim; Troquay, Roland P. T.; Turner, Traci; Visseren, Frank L. J.; Wijngaard, Peter; Wright, R. Scott; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a previous study, a single injection of inclisiran, a chemically synthesized small interfering RNA designed to target PCSK9 messenger RNA, was found to produce sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels over the course of 84 days in healthy volunteers.

  16. Oxidation of Cholesterol Does Not Alter Significantly Its Uptake into High-Density Lipoprotein Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karilainen, T.; Timr, Štěpán; Vattulainen, I.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 13 (2015), s. 4594-4600 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * free energy profiles * cholesterol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.187, year: 2015

  17. Low plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone deficient and acromegalic men: role in altered high density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency and acromegaly may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Little is known about alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL) in these conditions. Lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) has the ability to esterify free cholesterol (FC) in HDL.

  18. Increased cholinergic contractions of jejunal smooth muscle caused by a high cholesterol diet are prevented by the 5-HT4 agonist – tegaserod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer Eldon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess cholesterol in bile and in blood is a major risk factor for the respective development of gallbladder disease and atherosclerosis. This lipid in excess negatively impacts the functioning of other smooth muscles, including the intestine. Serotonin is an important mediator of the contractile responses of the small intestine. Drugs targeting the serotonin receptor are used as prokinetic agents to manage intestinal motor disorders, in particular irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, tegaserod, acting on 5-HT4 receptor, ideally should obviate detrimental effects of excessive cholesterol on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. In this study we examined the effect of tegaserod on cholesterol-induced changes in the contractile responses of intestinal smooth muscle. Methods The effects of a high cholesterol (1% diet on the in vitro contractile responses of jejunal longitudinal smooth muscle from Richardson ground squirrels to the cholinergic agonist carbachol were examined in the presence or absence of tetrodrodotoxin (TTX. Two groups of animals, fed either low (0.03% or high cholesterol rat chow diet, were further divided into two subgroups and treated for 28 days with either vehicle or tegaserod. Results The high cholesterol diet increased, by nearly 2-fold, contractions of the jejunal longitudinal smooth muscle elicited by carbachol. These cholinergic contractions were mediated by muscarinic receptors since they were blocked by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, but not by the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium. Tegaserod treatment, which did not affect cholinergic contractions of tissues from low cholesterol fed animals, abrogated the increase caused by the high cholesterol diet. With low cholesterol diet TTX enhanced carbachol-evoked contractions, whereas this action potential blocker did not affect the augmented cholinergic contractions seen with tissues from animals on the high cholesterol diet. Tegaserod

  19. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...

  20. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density

  1. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...

  2. Is High Serum LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio an Emerging Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac Death? Findings from the KIHD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which are components of total cholesterol, have each been suggested to be linked to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the relationship between LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and the risk of SCD has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the associations of LDL-c, HDL-c, and the ratio of LDL-c/HDL-c with the risk of SCD. Serum lipoprotein concentrations were assessed at baseline in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2,616 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were assessed. During a median follow-up of 23.0 years, a total of 228 SCDs occurred. There was no significant evidence of an association of LDL-c or HDL-c with the risk of SCD. In analyses adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, years of education, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, there was approximately a two-fold increase in the risk of SCD (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.21-3.11; p=0.006), comparing the top (>4.22) versus bottom (≤2.30) quintile of serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In this middle-aged male population, LDL-c or HDL-c was not associated with the risk of SCD. However, a high serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of SCD. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanistic pathways underlying this association.

  3. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food-style meal. Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: -1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food-style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food–style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. PMID:26338890

  5. Potentiation of antioxidant effect of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Shubhra; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant role of tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, CB), a rich source of soluble fibre, was investigated in a hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress situation in rats. In the context of dietary garlic (Allium sativa) potentiating the hypocholesterolemic influence of CB, we also examined if dietary garlic enhances the antioxidant potential of CB. Groups of Wistar rats were rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding them a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made by inclusion of 15% tender CB powder or 1% garlic powder or their combination in a high-cholesterol diet. Concentrations of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and liver were examined. Dietary CB displayed an antioxidant influence in terms of elevating ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations and stimulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes both in blood and liver. The antioxidant effect of dietary CB was generally potentiated by co-administration of garlic. Thus, consumption of tender CB and garlic together could form a strategy for improving the body's antioxidant status.

  6. How to Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes high triglyceride levels, low HDL (good) cholesterol levels, and being overweight with a large waist measurement (more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women). Physical Activity. Everyone should get regular physical activity (30 minutes ...

  7. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fats and oil in the diet on the other hand. Gallstones result from ... such factors as high levels of estrogens, multiple pregnancies, obesity, genetic factors and certain ... protein with an inner core of cholesterol and triglycerides. Lipoproteins are ...

  8. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases

  9. Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Bodhini

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs17782313 and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146 and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT (n = 821 and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D (n = 861 recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P = 0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day (Pinteraction = 0.0001 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, where the 'T' allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P = 0.008 and those in the highest tertile (P = 0.017 had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day (Pinteraction<0.0001 on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P = 0.024 and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P = 0.028 than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day on HDL

  10. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol calculation and goal awareness among physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Smita I; Steinberg, Lynne; Polsani, Venkateshwar R; Gowani, Saqib A; Nambi, Vijay; Kumar, Varinder; Marinescu, Victor; Jones, Peter H; Petersen, Laura A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2012-01-01

    Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) goal attainment per Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines remains low. To understand gaps in knowledge and practices of physicians-in-training (internal medicine, family medicine, cardiology, endocrinology) towards non-HDL-C. A survey based on a conceptual model to assess the trainee's knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding non-HDL-C was developed and administered to physicians-in-training (n = 655) at 26 training programs in the United States. Responses of those in internal medicine and family medicine (residents-in-training; n = 418) were compared with those in cardiology and endocrinology (fellows-in-training; n = 124). Response rate was 83.7%. Fifty-three percent of residents and 31% of fellows-in-training had not read the ATP III guidelines (P training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel (P = .7). Sixty-seven percent of the residents and 52% of fellows were not aware of treatment goals for non-HDL-C (P = .004 for comparison between residents and fellows). Both residents and fellows reported infrequent calculation of non-HDL-C levels in patients with elevated triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL; 32.5% vs 35.4%, respectively, P = .6). Lack of familiarity with ATP III guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding importance of non-HDL-C, lack of institutional mandate to calculate non-HDL-C, and lack of emphasis on non-HDL-C by teaching staff were reported as barriers to non-HDL-C use in routine clinical practice. At least one-third of physicians-in-training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel, and a large number were not aware of ATP III treatment goals pertaining to non-HDL-C. This area represents one for improvement if non-HDL-C is to be retained as a treatment target in the forthcoming ATP-IV guidelines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hip circumference is associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol response following statin therapy in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio-Magalhães, J A; Ferreira-Sae, M C; Souza, F A; Grespan-Magossi, A M; Schreiber, R; Velloso, L A; Geloneze, B; Franchini, K G; Nadruz, W

    2011-10-01

    This report investigated the relationship between anthropometric measurements of body fat distribution and lipid response to statins in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive patients. We prospectively examined 129 subjects who used either simvastatin 20 mg/day (no.=83) or atorvastatin 10 mg/day (no.=46) for 3 months. Anthropometry included evaluation of body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip-ratio. Significant decreases in LDL (pcorrelation between waist circumference and HDLcholesterol levels was detected (r=-0.18; p=0.04). Conversely, a direct relationship between hip circumference and HDLcholesterol response to statins was found in the whole sample (r=0.24; p=0.006), while no other anthropometric measurement displayed significant correlation with lipid changes. The association between HDL-cholesterol response and hip circumference was further confirmed by stepwise regression analysis adjusted for baseline HDL-cholesterol levels, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and waist circumference. Hip circumference, a surrogate marker of peripheral adiposity, is associated with HDL-cholesterol changes following statin therapy in hypertensive patients.

  12. A comparative study on the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampal CA1 area of adult and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Khair, Doaa M; El-Safti, Fatma El-Nabawia A; Nooh, Hanaa Z; El-Mehi, Abeer E

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is one of the most important problems nowadays. Aging is associated with learning and memory impairments. Diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. This work was carried out to compare the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampus of adult and aged male albino rats. Twenty adult and twenty aged male rats were used in this study. According to age, the rats were randomly subdivided into balanced and high cholesterol diet fed groups. The diet was 15 g/rat/day for adult rats and 20 g/rat/day for aged rats for eight weeks. Serial coronal sections of hippocampus and blood samples were taken from each rat. For diet effect evaluation, Clinical, biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric assessments were done. In compare to a balanced diet fed rat, examination of Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA 1) area in the hippocampus of the high cholesterol diet adult rats showed degeneration, a significant decrease of the pyramidal cells, attenuation and/or thickening of small blood vessels, apparent increase of astrocytes and apparent decrease of Nissl's granules content. Moreover, the high cholesterol diet aged rats showed aggravation of senility changes of the hippocampus together with Alzheimer like pathological changes. In conclusion, the high cholesterol diet has a significant detrimental effect on the hippocampus and aging might pronounce this effect. So, we should direct our attention to limit cholesterol intake in our food to maintain a healthy life style for a successful aging.

  13. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da

    2013-01-01

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats

  14. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  15. Self-Reported Snoring Is Associated with Dyslipidemia, High Total Cholesterol, and High Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Rural Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-17

    Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m². In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC.

  16. The Chemical Potential of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol: Implications for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuyan, Artem G; Cohen, Fredric S

    2018-02-27

    Cholesterol is abundant in plasma membranes and exhibits a variety of interactions throughout the membrane. Chemical potential accounts for thermodynamic consequences of molecular interactions, and quantifies the effective concentration (i.e., activity) of any substance participating in a process. We have developed, to our knowledge, the first method to measure cholesterol chemical potential in plasma membranes. This was accomplished by complexing methyl-β-cyclodextrin with cholesterol in an aqueous solution and equilibrating it with an organic solvent containing dissolved cholesterol. The chemical potential of cholesterol was thereby equalized in the two phases. Because cholesterol is dilute in the organic phase, here activity and concentration were equivalent. This equivalence allowed the amount of cholesterol bound to methyl-β-cyclodextrin to be converted to cholesterol chemical potential. Our method was used to determine the chemical potential of cholesterol in erythrocytes and in plasma membranes of nucleated cells in culture. For erythrocytes, the chemical potential did not vary when the concentration was below a critical value. Above this value, the chemical potential progressively increased with concentration. We used standard cancer lines to characterize cholesterol chemical potential in plasma membranes of nucleated cells. This chemical potential was significantly greater for highly metastatic breast cancer cells than for nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. Chemical potential depended on density of the cancer cells. A method to alter and fix the cholesterol chemical potential to any value (i.e., a cholesterol chemical potential clamp) was also developed. Cholesterol content did not change when cells were clamped for 24-48 h. It was found that the level of activation of the transcription factor STAT3 increased with increasing cholesterol chemical potential. The cholesterol chemical potential may regulate signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  17. Inulin and Fibersol-2 Combined Have Hypolipidemic Effects on High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistant carbohydrates, inulin, and Fibersol-2, belong to soluble dietary fibers and are considered important prebiotics that maintain biological functions, including glucose homeostasis, lipid regulation, colon disease prevention, and prebiotics characteristics. However, few studies have investigated Fibersol-2 alone or in combination with inulin to assess a pooled effect on modulation of hyperlipidemia. We aimed to investigate the effects of this combined supplement (defined as InF on hamsters fed a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet, HCD to induce hyperlipidemia. A total of 40 male hamsters were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 8 per group for treatment: standard diet, vehicle (control; or vehicle or InF supplementation by oral gavage at 0, 864, 1727, or 2591 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, designated HCD, InF-1X, InF-2X, and InF-3X groups, respectively. The hypolipidemic efficacy and safety of InF supplementation was assessed by serum lipid indexes, hepatic and fecal lipid content, and histology. InF supplementation significantly improved serum levels of triacylglycerol (TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C after two-week treatment, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC levels after four-week administration. After eight-week supplementation, InF supplementation dose-dependently improved serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C; LDL-C/HDL-C ratio; and hepatic TC and TG levels. It inhibited TC absorption by feces elimination. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that this prebiotics remedy may be useful in preventing or treating hyperlipidemia.

  18. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your cholesterol is in this normal range. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is sometimes called "bad" cholesterol. ... to 3.3 mmol/l) are desired. VLDL (Bad) Cholesterol VLDL contains the highest amount of triglycerides. ...

  19. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Cholesterol There are two main types of cholesterol: LDL and HDL. The cholesterol blood test tells how much of each kind you have. Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. This type is most ...

  20. Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl. (Thymelaeaceae Leaves Increase SR-BI Expression and Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosie Andriani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies of the activity of Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl (Thymelaeaceae leaves against the therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia were done using the HDL receptor (SR-BI and hypercholesterolemia-induced Sprague Dawley rats. The in vitro study showed that the active fraction (CF6 obtained from the ethyl acetate extract (EMD and its component 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxybenzophenone increased the SR-BI expression by 95% and 60%, respectively. The in vivo study has proven the effect of EMD at 0.5 g/kgbw dosage in reducing the total cholesterol level by 224.9% and increasing the HDL cholesterol level by 157% compared to the cholesterol group. In the toxicity study, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT activity were observed to be at normal levels. The liver histology also proved no toxicity and abnormalities in any of the treatment groups, so it can be categorized as non-toxic to the rat liver. The findings taken together show that P. macrocarpa leaves are safe and suitable as an alternative control and prevention treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Sprague Dawley rats.

  1. Effect of Processing Methods on Cholesterol Contents and Cholesterol Oxides Formation in Some Dairy Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRowaily, Meshref A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pasteurization, boiling, microwaving, processing and storage of milk and some locally produced dairy products on cholesterol contents and cholesterol oxides formation were studied and evaluated. The 7-ketocholesterol were not detected (ND) in all raw milk samples. On the contrary, heating of milk led to formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), mostly, 7- ketocholesterol in different quantities. No significant effect of heating of milk on cholesterol level was observed with the exception of the ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk prepared from milk powder heated at 140 + - 1.0 degree C for 4 sec showed the highest value of 7-ketocholesterol (80.97 mgg-1), followed by microwave heated milk for 5 min (31.29 mgg-1), whereas the lowest value was in milk pasteurized at 85 + - 1.0 degree C for 16 sec (3.125 mgg-1). Commercial storage showed no significant effect on cholesterol and 7-ketocholestrol but lowered cholesterol concentration and increased 7-ketocholestrol level of UHT reconstituted milk. Cholesterol content of both yogurt and labaneh strained by centrifugal separator showed significant decrease while 7-ketochostrol level was increased significantly with refrigerated storage. The findings are discussed in the context with the results of previous similar studies. (author)

  2. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

    • Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci That Determine Plasma Total-Cholesterol and Triglyceride Concentrations in DDD/Sgn and C57BL/6J Inbred Mice

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jun-ichi Suto

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available DDD/Sgn mice have significantly higher plasma lipid concentrations than C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for plasma total-cholesterol (CHO and triglyceride (TG concentrations in reciprocal F2 male intercross populations between the two strains. By single-QTL scans, we identified four significant QTL on chromosomes (Chrs 1, 5, 17, and 19 for CHO and two significant QTL on Chrs 1 and 12 for TG. By including cross direction as an interactive covariate, we identified separate significant QTL on Chr 17 for CHO but none for TG. When the large phenotypic effect of QTL on Chr 1 was controlled by composite interval mapping, we identified three additional significant QTL on Chrs 3, 4, and 9 for CHO but none for TG. QTL on Chr 19 was a novel QTL for CHO and the allelic effect of this QTL significantly differed between males and females. Whole-exome sequence analysis in DDD/Sgn mice suggested that Apoa2 and Acads were the plausible candidate genes underlying CHO QTL on Chrs 1 and 5, respectively. Thus, we identified a multifactorial basis for plasma lipid concentrations in male mice. These findings will provide insight into the genetic mechanisms of plasma lipid metabolism.

    • The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

      OpenAIRE

      Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

      2015-01-01

      Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and sub...

    • Silicon Alleviates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Apoptosis in Aged Wistar Rats Fed a High-Saturated Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, M Elvira; Sántos-López, Jorge A; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Macho-González, Adrián; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

      2017-06-01

      Background: Lipoapoptosis has been identified as a key event in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hence, antiapoptotic agents have been recommended as a possible effective treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Silicon, included in meat as a functional ingredient, improves lipoprotein profiles and liver antioxidant defenses in aged rats fed a high-saturated fat, high-cholesterol diet (HSHCD). However, to our knowledge, the antiapoptotic effect of this potential functional meat on the liver has never been tested. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon on NASH development and the potential antiapoptotic properties of silicon in aged rats. Methods: One-year-old male Wistar rats weighing ∼500 g were fed 3 experimental diets containing restructured pork (RP) for 8 wk: 1 ) a high-saturated fat diet, as an NAFLD control, with 16.9% total fat, 0.14 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg (control); 2 ) the HSHCD as a model of NASH, with 16.6% total fat, 16.3 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg [high-cholesterol diet (Chol-C)]; and 3 ) the HSHCD with silicon-supplemented RP with amounts of fat and cholesterol identical to those in the Chol-C diet, but with 750 mg SiO 2 /kg (Chol-Si). Detailed histopathological assessments were performed, and the NAFLD activity score (NAS) was calculated. Liver apoptosis and damage markers were evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Chol-C rats had a higher mean NAS (7.4) than did control rats (1.9; P silicon substantially affects NASH development in aged male Wistar rats fed an HSHCD by partially blocking apoptosis. These results suggest that silicon-enriched RP could be used as an effective nutritional strategy in preventing NASH. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

    • [Relationship between the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Roa Barrios, Marlene; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela; Valeri, Lenin; Velázquez-Maldonado, Elsy

      2009-02-01

      To evaluate the relationship between the triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The present crosssectional study analyzed 62 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women (control group) aged 17- 35 years old. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were registered. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-c were measured. TheTG/HDL-c ratio, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher values of the TG/HDL-c ratio and HOMA(IR), and a significantly lower QUICKI value. These differences were related to BMI and WC, with the highest values being observed in obese patients. The 50th percentile for the TG/HDL-c ratio was 3.64; the TG/cHDL ratio was positively correlated with BMI, WC and HOMA(IR) (r=0.48, pglucose > 100 mg/dl (10% vs 3%; ptriglycerides>150 mg/dl (55% vs 20%; p80 cm (82.3% vs 43.8%; pindexes (HOMA(IR), QUICKI). The TG/HDL-c ratio could be considered as a useful and practical method to identify an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with PCOS.

    • Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

      2012-04-01

      Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

    • Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

      2017-07-01

      Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pinsulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Protective potentials of wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

      2012-07-01

      The study evaluates the protective potentials of wild rice against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. In addition to the rats of low-fat diet group, others animals were exposed to a high-fat/cholesterol diet condition for 8 weeks. The city diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by urban residents in modern China, which is rich in fat/cholesterol and high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The chief source of dietary carbohydrates of wild rice diet (WRD) is from Chinese wild rice and other compositions are the same with CD. Rats fed CD showed elevated body and liver organ weights, lipid profiles, free fatty acids (FFA) and leptin comparable with rats fed high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia in this species. However, rats consuming WRD suppressed the increase of lipid droplets accumulation, FFA, and leptin, and the decrease of lipoprotein lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase. Meanwhile, WRD prevented high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced elevation in protein expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c, and gene expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These findings indicate that wild rice as a natural food has the potentials of preventing obesity and liver lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    • Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Papaioannou Ioanna

      2003-06-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has long been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. In this work we evaluated the effect of physical activity on lipid levels, in a sample of cardiovascular disease free people. Methods The ATTICA study is a population – based cohort that has randomly enrolled 2772 individuals, stratified by age – gender (according to the census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, 1376 were men (45 ± 12 years old, range: 18 – 86 and 1396 women (45 ± 13 years old, range: 18 – 88. We assessed the relationship between physical activity status (measured in kcal/min expended per day and several lipids, after taking into account the effect of several characteristics of the participants. Results 578 (42% men and 584 (40% women were classified as physically active. Compared to sedentary physically active women had significantly lower levels of total serum cholesterol (p Conclusions Substantial independent increases in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations were observed in women, but not in men, in a Mediterranean cohort.

    • Grape juice concentrate modulates p16 expression in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in Wistar rats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ferreira, Andressa Orlandeli; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Noguti, Juliana; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Yamamura, Elsa Tiemi Hojo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

      2012-04-01

      The goal of this study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect the liver from high fat diet injury in rats. The effects of grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, and immunohistochemistry for p53, p16 and p21 were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were distributed into three groups: group 1: negative control; group 2: cholesterol at 1% (w/w) in their diet, treated during 5 weeks; and group 3: cholesterol at 1% in their chow during 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg per day in their drinking-water in the last week only. The results pointed out that treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in the cholesterol-exposed group when compared to group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to modulate p16 immunoexpression when compared to high fat diet group. p53 and p21 did not show any significant statistical differences among groups. Taken together, our results suggest that subchronic grape juice concentrate administration was able to modulate cell cycle control by downregulation of p16 immunoexpression in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in rats.

    • Mucins and calcium phosphate precipitates additively stimulate cholesterol crystallization

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      van den Berg, A. A.; van Buul, J. D.; Tytgat, G. N.; Groen, A. K.; Ostrow, J. D.

      1998-01-01

      Human biliary mucin and calcium binding protein (CBP) influence formation of both calcium salt precipitates and cholesterol crystals and colocalize in the center of cholesterol gallstones. We investigated how physiological concentrations of these proteins regulate cholesterol crystallization in

    • Cholesterol Medicines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... heart diseases . There are two main types of cholesterol. LDL is the "bad" cholesterol. A high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in ... 75 years old, you have diabetes, and your LDL cholesterol level is 70 mg/dL or higher You ...

    • Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol

      Science.gov (United States)

      Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

    • Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 isolated from Tibet kefir on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed on high-cholesterol diet.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wang, Yanping; Xu, Nv; Xi, Aodeng; Ahmed, Zaheer; Zhang, Bin; Bai, Xiaojia

      2009-08-01

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2, an isolate from Chinese traditional Tibet kefir, on cholesterol-lowering and microflora of rat in vivo. Rats were fed on cholesterol-enriched experimental diet, supplemented with lyophilized L. plantarum MA2 powder, with a dose of 10(11) cells/day per mice. The results showed that L. plantarum MA2 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides level, while there was no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides was also decreased. However, fecal cholesterol and triglycerides was increased significantly (P MA2 increased the population of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the fecal, but it did not change the number of Escherichia coli as compared to control. Moreover, pH, moisture, and organic acids in the fecal were also measured. The present results indicate the probiotic potential of the L. plantarum MA2 strain in hypocholesterolemic effect and also increasing the probiotic count in the intestine.

    • Effects of +G_z exposure on gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin,and somatostatin in rabbits with high cholesterol diets

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Guo-feng XIAO

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available Objective The present study explores the effects of +Gz exposure on the gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin(CCK,and somatostatin(SS in rabbits with high cholesterol diets and investigates its mechanism in the occurrence of cholecystolithiasis.Methods Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the high cholesterol diet(control group,n=8 and high cholesterol diet plus +Gz exposure groups.The latter was divided into the four-and six-week +Gz exposure groups(n=8 based on the exposure time.Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the CCK and SS contents of the gallbladder at the end of the experiment in the fourth and sixth weeks and to calculate the gallbladder volume and maximum emptying ratio.A microcomputer biodynamic pressure monitor was used to record the hydrostatic pressure in the gallbladder to measure its capacity.Moreover,the bile properties and formation of concretion were observed with the naked eye,and polarized light microscopy was used to observe cholesterin crystallization on the gallbladder wall.Results The gallbladder capacity increased upon +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,indicating that the maximum emptying ratio(E% decreased,the empty and residual volumes improved,and the pressure increased(P < 0.05.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the CCK contents in the experimental groups were evidently lower than that in the control group and gradually decreased(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.On the other hand,after +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the SS contents in the experimental groups were higher than that in the control group and gradually improved(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,bile was turbid and sticky with cholesterol crystals and without visible concretion.Conclusions Therefore,+Gz exposure may cause abnormal gallbladder emptying functions,decrease CCK content,increase SS content,and thus cause bile stasis

    • Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C among children with steady-state sickle cell disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Seixas Magda O

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic subphenotype characterized by low HDL-C with hypertriglyceridemia and high VLDL-C in association with other biomarkers, including those related to inflammation. This represents an important step toward a more reliable clinical prognosis. Additional studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and the probably mechanisms involved in this complex network of markers and their role in SCD pathogenesis.

    • Cholesterol biosynthesis in polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Kling, D.; Gamble, W.

      1982-01-01

      After administration of polychlorinated biphenly (PCB) at 0.055 (w/w) of the diet to Wistar rats for 30 days, followed by intraperitioneal injection of tritiated water, [ 14 C]mevalonate, and [ 14 C]acetate, there was a decrease in cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver. No significant change in cholesterol formation was observed when PCB was administered at 0.01% (w/w) of the diet. In vitro inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by rat liver microsomes was observed with PCB. Squalene 2,3-oxidocyclase activity of rat liver microsomes was not significantly altered. Desmosterol delta 24 reductase activity was inhibited only at relatively high concentrations of PCB. There was increased incorporation of radioactivity into squalene and lanosterol, in vitro, in the presence of PCB. The primary inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be at the demethylation and rearrangement reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol in the biosynthetic pathway

    • The Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and regulates cholesterol homeostasis

      OpenAIRE

      Horner, Michael A.; Pardee, Keith; Liu, Suya; King-Jones, Kirst; Lajoie, Gilles; Edwards, Aled; Krause, Henry M.; Thummel, Carl S.

      2009-01-01

      Cholesterol homeostasis is required to maintain normal cellular function and avoid the deleterious effects of hypercholesterolemia. Here we show that the Drosophila DHR96 nuclear receptor binds cholesterol and is required for the coordinate transcriptional response of genes that are regulated by cholesterol and involved in cholesterol uptake, trafficking, and storage. DHR96 mutants die when grown on low levels of cholesterol and accumulate excess cholesterol when maintained on a high-choleste...

    • Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jin Gang

      2009-10-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future.

  1. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailamuguli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P<0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P<0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of <3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

  2. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food, monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect......, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations has already been assessed with a favourable outcome at daily intakes of 10 mg monacolin K from any red...... on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  4. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia accelerating renal injury: a novel model of type 1 diabetic hamsters induced by short-term high-fat / high-cholesterol diet and low-dose streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Fu, Xin; Huang, Mingshu; Li, Rui

    2015-04-11

    Hyperlipidemia is thought to be a major risk factor for the progression of renal diseases in diabetes. Recent studies have shown that lipid profiles are commonly abnormal early on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with diabetic nephropathy. However, the early effects of triglyceride and cholesterol abnormalities on renal injury in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are not fully understood and require reliable animal models for exploration of the underlying mechanisms. Hamster models are important tools for studying lipid metabolism because of their similarity to humans in terms of lipid utilization and high susceptibility to dietary cholesterol and fat. Twenty-four male Golden Syrian hamsters (100-110 g) were rendered diabetes by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ) on consecutive 3 days at dose of 30 mg/kg, Ten days after STZ injections, hamsters with a plasma Glu concentration more than 12 mmol/L were selected as insulin deficient ones and divided into four groups (D-C, D-HF, D-HC, and D-HFHC), and fed with commercially available standard rodent chow, high-fat diet, high-cholesterol diet, high-fat and cholesterol diet respectively, for a period of four weeks. After an induction phase, a stable model of renal injury was established with the aspects of early T1DM kidney disease, These aspects were severe hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, proteinuria with mesangial matrix accumulation, upgraded creatinine clearance, significant cholesterol and triglyceride deposition, and increasing glomerular surface area, thickness of basement membrane and mesangial expansion. The mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, transforming growth factors-β, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the D-HFHC group were significantly up-regulated compared with control groups. This study presents a novel, non-transgenic, non-surgical method for induction of renal injury in hamsters, which is an important

  5. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  6. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  7. Short and long-term impact of lipectomy on expression profile of hepatic anabolic genes in rats: a high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bey-Leei; Chiu, Chun-Tang; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Jin-Jin; Kuo, Chiung-Yin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of the short and long-term effects of an immediate shortage of energy storage caused by lipectomy on expression profile of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese rats. The hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes, regulator and transcription factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) ten days and eight weeks after lipectomy in obese rats. Body and liver weights and serum biochemical parameters, adiponectin, leptin and insulin were determined. No significant difference was observed on the food intake between the lipectomized and sham-operated groups during the experimental period. Ten days after the operation, the lipectomized animals showed significant higher triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin levels, a lower adiponectin concentration than the sham-operated rats, along with significant higher hepatic mRNA levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis also confirmed increased levels of lipogenic enzymes in the liver of lipectomized versus sham-operated animals. The lipectomized group had a significantly lower adiponectin/leptin ratio that was positively correlated to the level of LDL (r = 0.823, Pshort term enhancement of the expression of hepatic anabolic genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was triggered that might eventually lead to the final extra weight gain. These metabolic changes could be the results of reduced circulating adiponectin that further influences the functions of insulin and hepatic HNF4α.

  8. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  9. Kinetic Assessment and Therapeutic Modulation of Metabolic and Inflammatory Profiles in Mice on a High-Fat and Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura W. Engstrom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of metabolic and inflammatory parameters associated with obesity were evaluated in a murine diet-induced obesity (DIO model using a diet high in fat and cholesterol. Cellular infiltration and mediator production were assessed and shown to be therapeutically modulated by the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone. C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a 45% fat/0.12% cholesterol (HF/CH or Chow diet for 3, 6, 16, or 27 weeks. Flow cytometry was employed to monitor peripheral blood monocytes and adipose tissue macrophages (ATM. Gene expression and protein analysis methods were used to evaluate mediator production from total epididymal fat (EF, stromal vascular fraction (SVF, and sorted SVF cells. To investigate therapeutic intervention, mice were fed a HF/CH diet for 12 weeks and then a diet formulated with rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg for an additional 6 weeks. A HF/CH diet correlated with obesity and a dramatic proinflammatory state. Therapeutic intervention with rosiglitazone attenuated the HF/CH induced inflammation. In addition, a novel population was found that expressed the highest levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators CCL2 and IL-6.

  10. To Study the Activity of Paraoxonase-1 and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Nemagoudar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most common complication of ethanol abuse. Alcoholic fatty liver progresses to alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Lipoproteins are synthesized by the liver and secreted into the circulation. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis causes alteration in lipoprotein metabolism producing liver steatosis and necrosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 is an enzyme synthesized in liver and has an esterase activity towards lipid peroxides and circulates in plasma bound to High-Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c. Aim and Objectives: To determine the activity of PON-1 and levels of HDL-c in alcoholic liver disease and to correlate PON-1 activity with HDL-c. Materials and Methods: A Cross sectional study done in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from 1st December 2014 to 31st January 2016 Study included 50 males (age range 25-55 years with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 50 healthy male participants (age range 25-55 years. PON-1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of phenylacetate. HDL-c level was measured by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase method. Results: The serum PON-1 activity and levels of HDL-c in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were significantly reduced (p<0.001 compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant decrease in PON-1 and HDL-c in alcoholic liver cirrhosis may contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients.

  11. Quercetin Prevents Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by a High-Cholesterol Diet: Role of Oxidative Stress and Bioenergetics in Hyperglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Castillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Hypercholesterolemia associated with bioenergetic impairment and oxidative stress has not been well characterized in the cardiac function under glycemic control deficiency conditions. This work aimed to determine the cardioprotective effects of quercetin (QUE against the damage induced by a high-cholesterol (HC diet in hyperglycemic rats, addressing intracellular antioxidant mechanisms and bioenergetics. Quercetin reduced HC-induced alterations in the lipid profile and glycemia in rats. In addition, QUE attenuated cardiac diastolic dysfunction (increased E:A ratio, prevented cardiac cholesterol accumulation, and reduced the increase in HC-induced myocyte density. Moreover, QUE reduced HC-induced oxidative stress by preventing the decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression, and antioxidant enzymatic activity. Quercetin also counteracted HC-induced bioenergetic impairment, preventing a reduction in ATP levels and alterations in PGC-1α, UCP2, and PPARγ expression. In conclusion, the mechanisms that support the cardioprotective effect of QUE in rats with HC might be mediated by the upregulation of antioxidant mechanisms and improved bioenergetics on the heart. Targeting bioenergetics with QUE can be used as a pharmacological approach to modulate structural and functional changes of the heart under hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic conditions.

  12. High-flux solar concentration with imaging designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuermann, D. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research; Gordon, J.M. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ries, H. [Ries and Partners, Munich (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Most large solar concentrators designed for high flux concentration at high collection efficiency are based on imaging primary mirrors and nonimaging secondary concentrators. In this paper, we offer an alternative purely imaging two-stage solar concentrator that can attain high flux concentration at high collection efficiency. Possible practical virtues include: (1) an inherent large gap between absorber and secondary mirror; (2) a restricted angular range on the absorber; and (3) an upward-facing receiver where collected energy can be extracted via the (shaded) apex of the parabola. We use efficiency-concentration plots to characterize the solar concentrators considered, and to evaluate the potential improvements with secondary concentrators. (author)

  13. Cholesterol synthesis by human fetal hepatocytes: effect of lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.R.; Simpson, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effect of various lipoproteins on the rate of cholesterol synthesis of human fetal liver cells maintained in culture. This was accomplished by measuring the rate of incorporation of tritium from tritiated water or carbon 14-labeled acetate into cholesterol in human fetal liver cells. Optimal conditions for each assay were determined. When human fetal liver cells were maintained in the presence of low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol synthesis was inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion. Intermediate--density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein also suppressed cholesterol synthesis in human fetal liver cells. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein stimulated cholesterol synthesis in human fetal liver cells. The results of the present as well as our previous investigations suggest that multiple interrelationships exist between fetal liver cholesterol synthesis and lipoprotein-cholesterol utilization by the human fetal adrenal gland and that these processes serve to regulate the lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in fetal plasma

  14. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease are Influenced by Sex, Neuter Status, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M. J.; Haggstrom, J.; Moller, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease has been associated with oxidative stress, which has been suggested to contribute to myocardial remodeling in human patients. Little is known about the relationship between myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and oxidative stress in dogs. Objective To determin...... with clinical stage of MMVD. Conclusions In conclusion, markers of oxidative stress are associated with sex, BCS, neuter status, and cholesterol. The results cannot confirm a relationship between oxidative stress and clinical stage of the disease in dogs with MMVD.......Background Cardiovascular disease has been associated with oxidative stress, which has been suggested to contribute to myocardial remodeling in human patients. Little is known about the relationship between myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and oxidative stress in dogs. Objective To determine...... whether clinical stage of MMVD is associated with changes in the plasma concentrations of certain markers of oxidative stress in clinically healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Animals Seventy five privately owned dogs: 59 cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with different severities of MMVD and 16 dogs...

  15. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakala, Gopala K; Wielinga, Peter Y; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Four groups of ApoE*3Leiden mice were exposed to the following diet regimens. Group 1: cholesterol-free control diet (CO). Group 2: high-dose (1.0% w/w) control cholesterol (CC). Group 3: CC supplemented chocolate A (CCA) and Group 4: CC supplemented chocolate B (CCB). Both chocolates differed in polyphenol and fiber content, CCA had a relatively high-polyphenol and low-fiber content compared to CCB. Mice fed a high-cholesterol diet showed increased plasma-cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. Both chocolate treatments, particularly CCA, further increased plasma-cholesterol and increased atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, compared to mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, both chocolate-treated groups displayed increased liver injury. Mice on high-cholesterol diet had elevated plasma levels of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and SAA, which was further increased in the CCB group. Similar effects were observed for renal inflammation markers. The two chocolate preparations showed unfavorable, but different effects on cardiometabolic health in E3L mice, which dissimilarities may be related to differences in chocolate composition. We conclude that discrepancies reported on the effects of chocolate on cardiometabolic health may at least partly be due to differences in chocolate composition. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nori- and sea spaghetti- but not wakame-restructured pork decrease the hypercholesterolemic and liver proapototic short-term effects of high-dietary cholesterol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; Benedi, Juana; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Reus, Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Restructured pork (RP) enriched in Seaweeds are potential functional foods. The antiapoptotic and hypocholesterolemic effects of consuming cholesterol enriched diets containing Wakame-RP (CW), Nori-RP (CN) and Sea Spaghetti (CS) were tested in a 1-wk study. Groups of six rats per group were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid as a cholesterol rising agent plus 15% RP containing alga. These diets were compared to control-RP diets enriched or not in cholesterol (CC and C, respectively). After 1-wk, cholesterol feeding significantly increased liver apoptosis markers which were significantly reduced by CS (cellular cycle DNA, caspase-3, and cytochrome c), CN (caspase-3 and cytochrome c) and CW (caspase-3) diets. CN and CS diets significantly blocked the cholesterolaemic rising effect observed in the CC group but no protective effect was observed in the CW group. Differences in seaweed composition added to RP appear responsible for blocking or not the proapoptotic and hypercholesterolemic effects of high cholesterol-RP consumption; thus, any generalization on seaweed effects or food containing seaweeds must be avoided. Although present results are worthy, future studies are demanded to ascertain the utility of consuming algal-RP as part of usual diets. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  18. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  19. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  20. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  1. Cementification for radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Shinya; Sato, Tatsuaki; Sasoh, Michitaka; Sakurai, Jiro; Takada, Takao

    2005-01-01

    For the cementification of radioactive waste that has large concentrations of sodium sulfate and radioactive nuclide, a way of fixation for sulfate ion was studied comprising the pH control of water in contact with the cement solid, and the removal of the excess water from the cement matrix to prevent hydrogen gas generation with radiolysis. It was confirmed that the sulfate ion concentration in the contacted water with the cement solid is decreased with the formation of ettringite or barium sulfate before solidification, the pH value of the pore water in the cement solid can control less than 12.5 by the application of zeolite and a low-alkali cement such as alumina cement or fly ash mixed cement, and removal of the excess water from the cement matrix by heating is possible with aggregate addition. Consequently, radioactive waste including high-concentration sodium sulfate and high-concentration radioactive nuclide can be solidified with cementitious materials. (author)

  2. Comparison of cardiovascular protective effects of tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, on high-cholesterol/high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanjun, Patricia; Mohamed, Suhaila; Muhammad, Kharidah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative in vivo cardiovascular protective effects of red, green, and brown tropical seaweeds, namely, Kappaphycus alvarezii (or Eucheuma cottonii), Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, in rats fed on high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCF) diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 260-300 g) on the HCF diet had significantly increased body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase levels after 16 weeks. Supplementing 5% seaweeds to HCF diet significantly reduced plasma TC (-11.4% to -18.5%), LDL-C (-22% to -49.3%), and TG (-33.7% to -36.1%) levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels (16.3-55%). Among the seaweeds, S. polycystum showed the best anti-obesity and blood GSH-Px properties, K. alvarezii showed the best antihyperlipemic and in vivo antioxidation effects, and C. lentillifera was most effective at reducing plasma TC. All seaweeds significantly reduced body weight gain, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and plasma lipid peroxidation of HCF diet rats towards the values of normal rats.

  3. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  4. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-10-01

    Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik , was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase ( P < 0.05). The hepatic peroxynitrite level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group ( P < 0.05). In addition, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) expression in the GBRD group was significantly lower than that in the RCD group. GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory status in HFD-fed mice via CAT and GPx upregulation and

  5. Relationship between plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification in isolated human mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallongeville, J.; Davignon, J.; Lussier-Cacan, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and cholesterol esterification in freshly isolated human mononuclear cells from 27 normolipidemic and 32 hyperlipidemic individuals. Cells were either incubated for 5 hours with radiolabeled oleate immediately after isolation or were preincubated for 18 hours in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, and then incubated with [ 14 C]sodium-oleate-albumin complex. In the absence of exogenous cholesterol, control and hypercholesterolemic subjects had similarly low values of intracellular cholesterol esterification. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, both hypertriglyceridemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects had higher cholesterol esterification than controls. There was a significant correlation between the rate of cholesterol esterification and plasma total cholesterol. These results suggest that plasma cholesterol levels may regulate mononuclear cell intra-cellular cholesterol esterification in humans

  6. Exploration of molecular interactions in cholesterol superlattices: effect of multibody interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juyang

    2002-08-01

    Experimental evidences have indicated that cholesterol may adapt highly regular lateral distributions (i.e., superlattices) in a phospholipid bilayer. We investigated the formations of superlattices at cholesterol mole fraction of 0.154, 0.25, 0.40, and 0.5 using Monte Carlo simulation. We found that in general, conventional pairwise-additive interactions cannot produce superlattices. Instead, a multibody (nonpairwise) interaction is required. Cholesterol superlattice formation reveals that although the overall interaction between cholesterol and phospholipids is favorable, it contains two large opposing components: an interaction favoring cholesterol-phospholipid mixing and an unfavorable acyl chain multibody interaction that increases nonlinearly with the number of cholesterol contacts. The magnitudes of interactions are in the order of kT. The physical origins of these interactions can be explained by our umbrella model. They most likely come from the requirement for polar phospholipid headgroups to cover the nonpolar cholesterol to avoid the exposure of cholesterol to water and from the sharp decreasing of acyl chain conformation entropy due to cholesterol contact. This study together with our previous work demonstrate that the driving force of cholesterol-phospholipid mixing is a hydrophobic interaction, and multibody interactions dominate others over a wide range of cholesterol concentration.

  7. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High protein and cholesterol intakes associated with emergence of glucose intolerance in a low-risk Canadian Inuit population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidbakht, Saghar; Johnson-Down, Louise; Young, T Kue; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-07-01

    The rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Inuit is 12·2 % in individuals over 50 years of age, similar to the Canadian prevalence. Given marked dietary transitions in the Arctic, we evaluated the dietary and other correlates of not previously diagnosed glucose intolerance, defined as type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults with a completed 2 h oral glucose tolerance test and without pre-existing diabetes. Anthropometric assessments, health and medication usage questionnaires and a 24 h dietary recall were administered. Canadian International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Inuit adults (n 777). Glucose intolerance was associated with older age and adiposity. Percentage of energy from protein above the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range of 35 %, compared with intake within the range, was associated with increased odds of glucose intolerance (OR=1·98; 95 % CI 1·09, 3·61) in multivariable analyses. Further, cholesterol intake in the highest three quartiles combined (median exposures of 207, 416 and 778 mg/d, respectively) compared with the lowest quartile (median intake of 81 mg/d) was associated with glucose intolerance (OR=2·15; 95 % CI 1·23, 3·78) in multivariable analyses. Past-day traditional food consumption was borderline protective of glucose intolerance (P=0·054) and high fibre intake was not significantly protective (P=0·08). The results contribute to the existing literature on high protein and cholesterol intakes as they may relate to diabetes risk.

  9. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  10. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Triglycerides/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Were the Optimal Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Uighur Men and Women in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Dang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Yi-Tong; Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Liu, Fen; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Ying-Ying

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the best single predictor of metabolic syndrome by comparing the predictive ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic parameters among a Uighur population in Xinjiang, northwest China. A total of 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS), which was carried out from October, 2007, to March, 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting glucose were documented. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components were confirmed according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome was compared. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), distance in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and cutoffs of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome were calculated. In all, 23.7% of men had the metabolic syndrome, whereas 40.1% of women had the metabolic syndrome in a Uighur population in Xinjiang; the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women was significantly higher than that in men (PAUC value (AUC=0.838); it was followed by TGs/HDL-C (AUC=0.826), body mass index (BMI) (AUC=0.812), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (AUC=0.781), and body adiposity index (BAI) (AUC=0.709). In women, the TGs/HDL-C had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.815); it was followed by WHtR (AUC=0.780), WHR (AUC=0.730), BMI (AUC=0.719), and BAI (AUC=0.699). Similarly, among all five anthropometric and atherogenic parameters, the WHtR had the shortest ROC distance of 0.32 (Sen=85.40%, Spe=71.6%), and the optimal cutoff for WHtR was 0.55 in men. In women, TGs/HDL-C had the shortest ROC distance of 0.35 (Sen=75.29%, Spe=75.18%), and the optimal cutoff of TGs/HDL-C was 1.22. WHtR was the best predictor of metabolic

  11. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance associated with cholesterol-induced activation of macrophages is prevented by high density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Carey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL may modulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms including pancreatic insulin secretion as well as insulin-independent glucose uptake into muscle. We hypothesized that HDL may also increase skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via cholesterol removal and anti-inflammatory actions in macrophages associated with excess adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition. METHODS: Human primary and THP-1 macrophages were treated with vehicle (PBS or acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL with or without HDL for 18 hours. Treatments were then removed, and macrophages were incubated with fresh media for 4 hours. This conditioned media was then applied to primary human skeletal myotubes derived from vastus lateralis biopsies taken from patients with type 2 diabetes to examine insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS: Conditioned media from acLDL-treated primary and THP-1 macrophages reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes compared with vehicle (primary macrophages, 168±21% of basal uptake to 104±19%; THP-1 macrophages, 142±8% of basal uptake to 108±6%; P<0.05. This was restored by co-treatment of macrophages with HDL. While acLDL increased total intracellular cholesterol content, phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, none were altered by co-incubation with HDL. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in human skeletal myotubes exposed to conditioned media was unaltered by either treatment condition. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes by conditioned media from macrophages pre-incubated with acLDL was restored by co-treatment with HDL. However, these actions were not linked to modulation of common pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators or insulin signaling via Akt.

  12. Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütjohann, Dieter; Meyer, Sven; von Bergmann, Klaus; Stellaard, Frans

    2018-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are considered health-promoting; however, a plasma cholesterol lowering effect is not always observed. We investigate the link between vegetarian-diet-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism. We study male and female omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and vegans. Cholesterol intake, absorption, and fecal sterol excretion are measured as well as plasma concentrations of cholesterol and noncholesterol sterols. These serve as markers for cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and catabolism. The biliary cholesterol secretion rate is estimated. Flux data are related to body weight. Individual vegetarian diet groups are statistically compared to the omnivore group. Lacto vegetarians absorb 44% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 22% more cholesterol, and show no differences in plasma total and LDL cholesterol. Vegan subjects absorb 90% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 35% more cholesterol, and have a similar plasma total cholesterol, but a 13% lower plasma LDL cholesterol. No diet-related differences in biliary cholesterol secretion and absorption are observed. Total cholesterol absorption is lower only in vegans. Total cholesterol input is similar under all vegetarian diets. Unaltered biliary cholesterol secretion and higher cholesterol synthesis blunt the lowered dietary cholesterol intake in vegetarians. LDL cholesterol is significantly lower only in vegans. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effect of dietary fat on hepatic liver X receptor expression in P-glycoprotein deficient mice: implications for cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Stephen D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pgp (P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1 is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC family of proteins. Preliminary studies have reported that nonspecific inhibitors of Pgp affect synthesis and esterification of cholesterol, putatively by blocking trafficking of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, and that relative increases in Pgp within a given cell type are associated with increased accumulation of cholesterol. Several key efflux proteins involved in the cholesterol metabolic pathway are transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR. Therefore, to examine the interplay between P-glycoprotein and the cholesterol metabolic pathway, we utilized a high fat, normal cholesterol diet to upregulate LXRα without affecting dietary cholesterol. Our research has demonstrated that mice lacking in P-glycoprotein do not exhibit alterations in hepatic total cholesterol storage, circulating plasma total cholesterol levels, or total cholesterol concentration in the bile when compared to control animals on either a normal (25% calories from dietary fat or high fat (45% calories from dietary fat diet. However, p-glycoprotein deficient mice (Mdr1a-/-/1b-/- exhibit increased hepatic LXRα protein expression and an elevation in fecal cholesterol concentration when compared to controls.

  14. Adzuki bean ameliorates hepatic lipogenesis and proinflammatory mediator expression in mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sera; Hong, Jihye; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a simple steatosis, in which fat accumulates more than 5% in the liver, and regarded as most common liver diseases worldwide. Because NAFLD can be developed to severe liver disease and correlated with metabolic disease, its importance is currently emphasized. Occurrence of NAFLD is strongly related to dietary patterns and lifestyles; therefore, the suggestion of physiologically beneficial food is essential. Based on these, adzuki beans containing anthocyanin, catechin, and adzukisaponin are suggested as a health-beneficial food. Moreover, the effects of adzuki beans on metabolic improvement are not well established through the in vivo studies. Therefore, this study hypothesized that adzuki beans can alleviate lipid accumulation and oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in high-cholesterol and high-fat diet-induced NALFD mice. To demonstrate its effects, 6-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were allocated into 4 groups and fed a normal diet (ND), a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (HCD), and HCD with 10% and 20% adzuki bean for 10 weeks. The result shows that fasting blood glucose, serum and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and antioxidative enzyme activity ameliorated in the adzuki bean groups (P hepatic lipogenesis, such as adiponectin, AMP-activated protein kinase α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and apolipoprotein B, as well as proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB, and caspase-3, improved in both experimental groups (P hepatic messenger RNA expression of lipogenic and inflammatory mediators in NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Can non-cholesterol sterols and lipoprotein subclasses distribution predict different patterns of cholesterol metabolism and statin therapy response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkovic, Tamara; Vladimirov, Sandra; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Djuricic, Ivana; Sobajic, Sladjana; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana

    2017-03-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis disorders may cause dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis progression and coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Evaluation of non-cholesterol sterols (NCSs) as synthesis and absorption markers, and lipoprotein particles quality may indicate the dyslipidemia early development. This study investigates associations of different cholesterol homeostasis patterns with low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subclasses distribution in statin-treated and statin-untreated CAD patients, and potential use of aforementioned markers for CAD treatment optimization. The study included 78 CAD patients (47 statin-untreated and 31 statin-treated) and 31 controls (CG). NCSs concentrations were quantified using gas chromatography- flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Lipoprotein subclasses were separated by gradient gel electrophoresis. In patients, cholesterol-synthesis markers were significantly higher comparing to CG. Cholesterol-synthesis markers were inversely associated with LDL size in all groups. For cholesterol homeostasis estimation, each group was divided to good and/or poor synthetizers and/or absorbers according to desmosterol and β-sitosterol median values. In CG, participants with reduced cholesterol absorption, the relative proportion of small, dense LDL was higher in those with increased cholesterol synthesis compared to those with reduced synthesis (p<0.01). LDL I fraction was significantly higher in poor synthetizers/poor absorbers subgroup compared to poor synthetizers/good absorbers (p<0.01), and good synthetizers/poor absorbers (p<0.01). Statin-treated patients with increased cholesterol absorption had increased proportion of LDL IVB (p<0.05). The results suggest the existence of different lipoprotein abnormalities according to various patterns of cholesterol homeostasis. Desmosterol/β-sitosterol ratio could be used for estimating individual propensity toward dyslipidemia development and direct the future treatment.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using both endogenous and exogenous [4-14C]cholesterol as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylemon, P.B.; Studer, E.J.; Pandak, W.M.; Heuman, D.M.; Vlahcevic, Z.R.; Chiang, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The HPLC-spectrophotometric method for measuring cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was modified by using a C-18 reverse-phase column to separate 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 4-cholesten-3-one and by adding 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol to each reaction mixture as an internal recovery standard. With this method, we were able to simultaneously measure cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity using endogenous cholesterol and exogenous [4- 14 C]cholesterol as substrate. Rat liver cytosol differentially stimulated (286%) the 7 alpha-hydroxylation of exogenous [4- 14 C]-cholesterol. In contrast, total cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was stimulated only 35% by cytosol. This method should prove useful for studying mechanisms of cholesterol delivery to cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase

  17. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... and restores high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined .... However, we found a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.96,.

  18. Short and long-term impact of lipectomy on expression profile of hepatic anabolic genes in rats: a high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey-Leei Ling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the molecular basis of the short and long-term effects of an immediate shortage of energy storage caused by lipectomy on expression profile of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: The hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes, regulator and transcription factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR ten days and eight weeks after lipectomy in obese rats. Body and liver weights and serum biochemical parameters, adiponectin, leptin and insulin were determined. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed on the food intake between the lipectomized and sham-operated groups during the experimental period. Ten days after the operation, the lipectomized animals showed significant higher triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin levels, a lower adiponectin concentration than the sham-operated rats, along with significant higher hepatic mRNA levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC analysis also confirmed increased levels of lipogenic enzymes in the liver of lipectomized versus sham-operated animals. The lipectomized group had a significantly lower adiponectin/leptin ratio that was positively correlated to the level of LDL (r = 0.823, P<0.05 and negatively to glucose and insulin (r = -0.821 and -0.892 respectively, P<0.05. Eight weeks after the operation, the lipectomized animals revealed significant higher body and liver weights, weight gain, liver to body weight ratio, hepatic triacylglycerol and serum insulin level. CONCLUSIONS: In response to lipectomy a short term enhancement of the expression of hepatic anabolic genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was triggered that might eventually lead to the final extra weight gain. These

  19. Cold labelled substrate and estimation of cholesterol esterification rate in lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobiasova, M.; Schuetzova, M.

    1986-01-01

    A new method is described of cold labelling of blood serum, plasma and body fluids containing lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and/or lipoproteins for radioassay to assess the cholesterol esterification rate. The method uses the principle of transfer, in refrigeration conditions, of 14 C-cholesterol from filter paper discs to the fluids. The preparation of the disc guarantees homogeneous labelling and high stability. The use of the labelling disc was shown to be reliable, easy and fast and suitable for accurate assessment of LCAT reaction, applicable in the widest possible enzyme concentration range. It was also, found suited for the measurement of the esterification rate of rabbit intraocular fluid which is a medium with the lowest contents of the substrate and LCAT. (L.O.)

  20. Vitamin E concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinoseki Kaio, Daniella J Itinoseki; Rondó, Patricia Helen C; Luzia, Liania Alves; Souza, José Maria P; Firmino, Aline Vale; Santos, Sigrid Sousa

    2014-09-15

    HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037). A positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment.

  1. [Consensus on objectives and action guidelines on low density lipoproteins-cholesterol control in very high risk cardiovascular patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Enrique; Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Among cardiovascular disease risk factors one of the most relevant is low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol (LDL-c), but there is controversy about the methods used to control it. The aim was to obtain an expert opinion to clarify the most relevant issues regarding the control of dyslipidemia in very high cardiovascular risk patients. A survey with 55 items, stratified into 4 blocks: LDL-c as a therapeutic target, therapeutic goals, causes of the failure to achieve LDL-c goals, and recommendations to optimize their achievement, was addressed to 41 specialists (Cardiology and Internal Medicine) using the Delphi method to achieve professional consensus criteria. A high consensus was reached among all items, in line with the European recommendations. The panelists considered that the goal of 70mg/dl for LDL-c for high cardiovascular disease risk (mainly vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure), using combined treatment when necessary. Lack of adherence and therapeutic inertia were considered the main reasons for treatment failure. The Spanish experts show an elevated consensus with the European recommendations, confirming the LDL-c control target of <70mg/dl. The simplification of the guidelines and the combined treatment may favor an improvement the achievement of lipid target goals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Can Predict Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young

    2016-11-01

    The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.

  3. High triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis: A potential link among inflammation, oxidative status, and dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López, Patricia; López-Mejías, Raquel; Alonso-Castro, Sara; Abal, Francisco; Ballina-García, Francisco J; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Suárez, Ana

    The interactions between inflammation and lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are poorly understood. The lipid profile study in RA has been biased toward lipoprotein levels, whereas those of triglycerides (TGs) and lipoprotein functionality have been underestimated. Since recent findings suggest a role for TG and TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) on inflammation, we aimed to evaluate a combined lipid profile characterized by high TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (TG high HDL low ) in RA. Lipid profiles were analyzed in 113 RA patients, 113 healthy controls, and 27 dyslipemic subjects. Levels of inflammatory mediators, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, and total antioxidant capacity were quantified in serum. PON1-rs662 status was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The TG high HDL low profile was detected in 29/113 RA patients. Although no differences in prevalence compared with healthy controls or dyslipemic subjects were observed, this profile was associated with increased tumor necrosis factor α (P = .004), monocyte chemotactic protein (P = .004), interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (P = .018), and leptin (P < .001) serum levels in RA, where decreased PON1 activity and total antioxidant capacity were found. TG high HDL low prevalence was lower among anti-TNFα-treated patients (P = .004). When RA patients were stratified by PON1-rs662 status, these associations remained in the low-activity genotype (QQ). Finally, a poor clinical response on TNFα blockade was related to an increasing prevalence of the TG high HDL low profile over treatment (P = .021) and higher TRL levels at baseline (P = .042). The TG high HDL low profile is associated with systemic inflammation, decreased PON1 activity, and poor clinical outcome on TNFα blockade in RA, suggesting a role of TRL and HDL dysfunction as the missing link between inflammation and lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Gioia, Cira; Carletti, Raffaella; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis. Retrospective study. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined. In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively. High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Analysis of Cholesterol Trafficking with Fluorescent Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wustner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in determining the biophysical properties of biological membranes, and its concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic processes. The intracellular transport of cholesterol among organelles is a key part of the homeostatic mechanism, but sterol transport...... that can bind to cholesterol to reveal its distribution in cells. We also discuss the use of intrinsically fluorescent sterols that closely mimic cholesterol, as well as some minimally modified fluorophore-labeled sterols. Methods for imaging these sterols by conventional fluorescence microscopy...... and by multiphoton microscopy are described. Some label-free methods for imaging cholesterol itself are also discussed briefly....

  6. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube probes for monitoring blood cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somenath; Vedala, Harindra; Choi, Wonbong

    2006-02-01

    Detection of blood cholesterol is of great clinical significance. The amperometric detection technique was used for the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), vertically aligned on a silicon platform, promote heterogeneous electron transfer between the enzyme and the working electrode. Surface modification of the MWNT with a biocompatible polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), converted the hydrophobic nanotube surface into a highly hydrophilic one, which facilitates efficient attachment of biomolecules. The fabricated working electrodes showed a linear relationship between cholesterol concentration and the output signal. The efficacy of the multiwall carbon nanotubes in promoting heterogeneous electron transfer was evident by distinct electrochemical peaks and higher signal-to-noise ratio as compared to the Au electrode with identical enzyme immobilization protocol. The selectivity of the cholesterol sensor in the presence of common interferents present in human blood, e.g. uric acid, ascorbic acid and glucose, is also reported.

  7. Intestinal CREBH overexpression prevents high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia by reducing Npc1l1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kikuchi

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Intestinal CREBH regulates dietary cholesterol flow from the small intestine by controlling the expression of multiple intestinal transporters. We propose that intestinal CREBH could be a therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia.

  8. High density lipoprotein as a source of cholesterol for adrenal steroidogenesis: a study in individuals with low plasma HDL-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, Andrea E.; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Hoekstra, Menno; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Stroes, Erik S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the delivery of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol to the adrenals for steroid production in humans. While there is evidence against a role for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), it is unresolved whether high density lipoprotein (HDL) contributes to adrenal steroidogenesis. To

  9. Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for better prevention of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birjmohun, Rakesh S.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2007-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence supports the benefits of lipid lowering on cardiovascular outcome. As a consequence, statin therapy has emerged as the foundation for management of dyslipidemia in high-risk patients. Despite these achievements, two-thirds of cardiovascular events cannot be prevented

  10. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S., E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [M. D. University, Department of Biochemistry (India)

    2013-09-15

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 Degree-Sign C.

  11. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 °C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5–700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 °C

  12. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  13. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  14. Acute Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar Intake on Some Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Setorki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Metabolic changes in postprandial stage, especially after consumption of high fat meal cause atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group, high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group, %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group. The C-Reactive Protein (CRP, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized-LDL (OxLDL, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, nitrite, nitrate, glucose, fibrinogen triacylglycerol (TG, apolipoprotein A (ApoA1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB100 were all measured before the experiment and three hours after feeding with these treatment diets.

    Results: In high cholesterol diet fibrinogen, nitrite, glucose, OxLDL, MDA and CRP showed a significant increase compared to normal diet. Significant differences were observed between both groups of apple cider vinegar by fibrinogen in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Using 10ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant reduction in Ox-LDL, MDA and glucose in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Moreover, the consumption of 5ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant decrease in LDL-C and TC compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. No significant difference was found between apple cider vinegar taking groups and

  15. Cholesterol autoxidation in phospholipid membrane bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevanian, A.; McLeod, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of known cholesterol-phospholipid composition was monitored under conditions of autoxidation or as induced by a superoxide radical generating system, gamma-irradiation or cumene hydroperoxide. Formation of cholesterol oxidation products was indexed to the level of lipid peroxidation. The major cholesterol oxidation products identified were 7-keto-cholesterol, isomeric cholesterol 5,6-epoxides, isomeric 7-hydroperoxides and isomeric 3,7-cholestane diols. Other commonly encountered products included 3,5-cholestadiene-7-one and cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol. Superoxide-dependent peroxidation required iron and produced a gradual increase in 7-keto-cholesterol and cholesterol epoxides. Cholesterol oxidation was greatest in liposomes containing high proportions of unsaturated phospholipid to cholesterol (4:1 molar ratio), intermediate with low phospholipid to cholesterol ratios (2:1) and least in liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. This relationship held regardless of the oxidizing conditions used. Cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation and/or more prolonged oxidations with other oxidizing systems yielded a variety of products where cholesterol-5 beta,6 beta-epoxide, 7-ketocholesterol and the 7-hydroperoxides were most consistently elevated. Oxyradical initiation of lipid peroxidation produced a pattern of cholesterol oxidation products distinguishable from the pattern derived by cumene hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidation

  16. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Keong Yeap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR. In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.

  17. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  18. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  19. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche

    2017-04-09

    In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. To estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum levels of renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides. The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to March 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Studies randomising persons to low-sodium and high-sodium diets were included if they evaluated at least one of the above outcome parameters. Two review authors independently collected data, which were analysed with Review Manager 5.3. A total of 185 studies were included. The average sodium intake was reduced from 201 mmol/day (corresponding to high usual level) to 66 mmol/day (corresponding to the recommended level).The effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) was as follows: white people with normotension: SBP: mean difference (MD) -1.09 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.63 to -0.56; P = 0.0001); 89 studies, 8569 participants; DBP: + 0.03 mmHg (MD 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.43; P = 0.89); 90 studies, 8833 participants. High-quality evidence. Black people with normotension: SBP: MD -4.02 mmHg (95% CI:-7.37 to -0.68; P = 0.002); seven studies, 506 participants; DBP: MD -2.01 mmHg (95% CI:-4.37 to 0.35; P = 0.09); seven studies, 506 participants. Moderate-quality evidence. Asian people with normotension: SBP: MD -0.72 mmHg (95% CI: -3.86 to 2.41; P = 0.65); DBP: MD -1.63 mmHg (95% CI:-3.35 to 0

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1648, 1700) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    effect refers to maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two randomised controlled trials provided from......-cholesterol concentrations is well established and that the mechanism by which monacolin K can contribute to the claimed effect is well known. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of monacolin K from red yeast rice...

  1. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discoveries to improve ... information about Evaluation of the Effects of Niacin Therapy on Lipoprotein Composition ... in helping research on lipid disorders? This study is comparing how ...

  2. High cholesterol - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and added sugar Use skim milk or low-fat milk and milk products Avoid sugary drinks such as soda and flavored fruit drinks Eat lean meat and avoid red meat Eat more fish Encourage your child to be physically active . Children ages 5 years ...

  3. CER-001, a HDL-mimetic, stimulates the reverse lipid transport and atherosclerosis regression in high cholesterol diet-fed LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Bluteau, Alice; Cholez, Guy; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-β HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of CER-001 to perform reverse lipid transport in single dose studies as well as to regress atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice after short-term multiple-dose infusions. CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from macrophages and exhibited anti-inflammatory response similar to natural HDL. Studies with HUVEC demonstrated CER-001 at a concentration of 500 μg/mL completely suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1. Following infusion of CER-001 (10mg/kg) in C57Bl/6J mice, we observed a transient increase in the mobilization of unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles containing recombinant human apoA-I. Finally we show that cholesterol elimination was stimulated in CER-001 treated animals as demonstrated by the increased cholesterol concentration in liver and feces. In a familial hypercholesterolemia mouse model (LDL-receptor deficient mice), the infusion of CER-001 caused 17% and 32% reductions in plaque size, 17% and 23% reductions in lipid content after 5 and 10 doses given every 2 days, respectively. Also, there was an 80% reduction in macrophage content in the plaque following 5 doses, and decreased VCAM-1 expression by 16% and 22% in the plaque following 5 and 10 intravenous doses of CER-001, respectively. These data demonstrate that CER-001 rapidly enhances reverse lipid transport in the mouse, reducing vascular inflammation and promoting regression of diet-induced atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice upon a short-term multiple dose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of thi...

  5. Lipoprotein distribution and serum concentrations of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and bile acids: effects of monogenic disturbances in high-density lipoprotein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Carine; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Karuna, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    BA (bile acid) formation is considered an important final step in RCT (reverse cholesterol transport). HDL (high-density lipoprotein) has been reported to transport BAs. We therefore investigated the effects of monogenic disturbances in human HDL metabolism on serum concentrations and lipoprotein...... concentrations of conjugated and secondary BAs differed between heterozygous carriers of SCARB1 (scavenger receptor class B1) mutations and unaffected individuals (P...

  6. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridker, Paul M.; Genest, Jacques; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Libby, Peter; Gotto, Antonio M.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Mora, Samia; Macfadyen, Jean G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Kastelein, John Jp

    2010-01-01

    Background HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Methods

  7. Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high-cholesterol diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2010-01-01

    The Göttingen minipig is an excellent model for studying effects of dietary high-fat intake on obesity. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and its target mRNA, CAT1, in intact young male minipigs fed either high-cholesterol or standard diet for 11 wk. Mi...... with a decrease in the expression of miRNA-122, confirming the implication of this microRNA in obesity. Gene expression levels of CAT1 did not differ between groups.......RNA-122 and CAT1 are known to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. The weight of the young minipigs was monitored once a week during the feeding period; measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were recorded at 4 time points (8, 14...

  8. Pathways-driven sparse regression identifies pathways and genes associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in two Asian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Silver

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK

  9. Conflicting interactions of apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Zahra; Afarideh, Mohsen; Ghajar, Alireza; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2017-11-01

    This study is amid at investigating the associations, and interactions of serum lipid biomarkers with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A nested case-control study was conducted within an ongoing prospective study on patients with T2D. Microvascular complications of T2D including diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were investigated. A total of 444 cases with at least one of the microvascular complications of T2D and 439 age- and gender-matched controls free of any of the chronic microvascular complications of T2D were included. The associations and interactions of a panel of serum lipid biomarkers with the microvascular complications of T2D were investigated. Serum triglyceride had the strongest association with microvascular complications of T2D (crude model: β=0.632, P value=0.045). Each standard deviation increment in serum TG was associated with 3.7 times increased frequency of microvascular complications. Despite high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) was positively associated with the presence of diabetic neuropathy. Each standard deviation increment in serum ApoA1 was associated with increased frequency of diabetic neuropathy (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, (1.1-1.3), P value=0.006). The frequency of diabetic neuropathy was higher in 2nd and 3rd quartiles of serum Lp(a) compared to diabetic patients in the first quartile (OR, 5.52, 95% (1.17-25.8), P value=0.047). ApoA1 but not HDL-C is straightly associated with diabetic neuropathy. Even Slight rise in serum Lp(a) is associated with increased frequency of diabetic retinopathLipid variables could serve as specific predictors of vascular complications in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathways-Driven Sparse Regression Identifies Pathways and Genes Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Two Asian Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Matt; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Montana, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK signalling and immune

  11. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Polymorphism 1936A > G in the AKAP10 gene (encoding A-kinase-anchoring protein 10) is associated with higher cholesterol cord blood concentration in Polish full-term newsborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łoniewska, Beata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Kordek, Agnieszka; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) coordinate the specificity of protein kinase A signaling by localizing the kinase to subcellular sites. The 1936G (V646) AKAP10 allele has been associated with adults with low cholinergic/vagus nerve sensitivity and with newborns with increased blood pressure. Decreased activity of the parasympathetic system is associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to answer the question of whether 1936A > G AKAP10 polymorphism is associated with metabolic changes in full-term newborns that are predictive factors for the metabolic phenotype in adulthood. The study included 114 consecutive healthy Polish newborns born after the end of the 37 th week of gestation to healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies. At birth, cord blood of neonates was obtained for isolation of genomic DNA and cholesterol as well as triglyceride concentration. The cholesterol level in homozygotes GG was significantly higher than that in 1936A variant carriers (AG + AA, recessive mode of inheritance). Our results demonstrate a possible association between the 1936G AKAP10 variant and the total cholesterol level in the cord blood of the Polish newborn population.

  13. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena

    2014-04-27

    absorption inhibition with STAEST. Serum plant sterol concentrations decrease dose-dependently in response to plant stanols suggesting that the higher the plant stanol dose, the more cholesterol absorption is inhibited and the greater the reduction in LDL cholesterol level is that can be achieved. Clinical Trials Register # NCT00698256 [Eur J Nutr 2010, 49:111-117].

  16. Multijunction Photovoltaic Technologies for High-Performance Concentrators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2006-05-01

    Multijunction solar cells provide high-performance technology pathways leading to potentially low-cost electricity generated from concentrated sunlight. The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has funded different III-V multijunction solar cell technologies and various solar concentration approaches. Within this group of projects, III-V solar cell efficiencies of 41% are close at hand and will likely be reported in these conference proceedings. Companies with well-developed solar concentrator structures foresee installed system costs of $3/watt--half of today's costs--within the next 2 to 5 years as these high-efficiency photovoltaic technologies are incorporated into their concentrator photovoltaic systems. These technology improvements are timely as new large-scale multi-megawatt markets, appropriate for high performance PV concentrators, open around the world.

  17. Cholesterol Assimilation with Isolated lactobacilli Strains of Fars’ Local Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Cholesterol is an important compound in most of the biological reactions which the excess of it can be seen as a harmful compound of causing heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cholesterol removal property and also its pathway by dairy lactobacillus in in vitro condition under different bile salts concentration. Materials & Methods: After isolation of lactobacillus strains from dairy products, they were identified with chemical tests and their growths were evaluated under presence of cholesterol and bile salts. The method of action of the bacillus in cholesterol removal was assayed by spectrophotometer method. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: result of this study showed that any strains of the bacteria had the ability of cholesterol removal (7.82-34.69 µg/ml. L.casei had more competence for removal of cholesterol in compare to the rest of bacilli. The evaluation of cholesterol cell wall attachment revealed that most of removed cholesterols have been changed to the other products. Conclusion: Considering the result of this study, it can be concluded that cholesterol removal has a direct association with growth of bacteria where the L. casei with high growth rate had more capability of cholesterol removal. Whereas the Lactobacillus can remove the cholesterol with different methods, results of this study showed that dairy products, especially yogurt, can remove the harmful substances such as cholesterol using non chemical methods. The results of this study could be expanded on human use if more study and research could be carried out.

  18. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p safflower oil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (p<0.05). There was no dietary cholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (p<0.05). These results indicate that the hepatic mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and of 7alpha-hydroxylase depended on the dietary combination of cholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  19. Fermentation of soy milk via Lactobacillus plantarum improves dysregulated lipid metabolism in rats on a high cholesterol diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhye Kim

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether in vitro fermentation of soy with L. plantarum could promote its beneficial effects on lipids at the molecular and physiological levels. Rats were fed an AIN76A diet containing 50% sucrose (w/w (CTRL, a modified AIN76A diet supplemented with 1% (w/w cholesterol (CHOL, or a CHOL diet where 20% casein was replaced with soy milk (SOY or fermented soy milk (FSOY. Dietary isoflavone profiles, serum lipids, hepatic and fecal cholesterol, and tissue gene expression were examined. The FSOY diet had more aglycones than did the SOY diet. Both the SOY and FSOY groups had lower hepatic cholesterol and serum triglyceride (TG than did the CHOL group. Only FSOY reduced hepatic TG and serum free fatty acids and increased serum HDL-CHOL and fecal cholesterol. Compared to CHOL, FSOY lowered levels of the nuclear forms of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 and expression of their target genes, including FAS, SCD1, LDLR, and HMGCR. On the other hand, FSOY elevated adipose expression levels of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein uptake (ApoE, VLDLR, and Lrp1, fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, CPT1α, LCAD, CYP4A1, UCP2, and UCP3, HDL-biogenesis (ABCA1, ApoA1, and LXRα, and adiponectin signaling (AdipoQ, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, as well as levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC. SOY conferred a similar expression profile in both liver and adipose tissues but failed to reach statistical significance in many of the genes tested, unlike FSOY. Our data indicate that fermentation may be a way to enhance the beneficial effects of soy on lipid metabolism, in part via promoting a reduction of SREBP-dependent cholesterol and TG synthesis in the liver, and enhancing adiponectin signaling and PPARα-induced expression of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid oxidation, and reverse cholesterol transport in adipose tissues.

  20. Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors and screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults, United States, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklina, Elena V; Yoon, Paula W; Keenan, Nora L

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have reported low rates of screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults in the United States. Although recommendations for screening young adults without risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) differ, all guidelines recommend screening adults with CHD, CHD equivalents, or 1 or more CHD risk factors. This study examined national prevalence of CHD risk factors and compliance with the cholesterol screening guidelines among young adults. National estimates were obtained using results for 2,587 young adults (men aged 20 to 35 years; women aged 20 to 45 years) from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We defined high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as levels higher than the goal specific for each CHD risk category outlined in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. About 59% of young adults had CHD or CHD equivalents, or 1 or more of the following CHD risk factors: family history of early CHD, smoking, hypertension, or obesity. In our study, the overall screening rate in this population was less than 50%. Moreover, no significant difference in screening rates between young adults with no risk factors and their counterparts with 1 or more risk factors was found even after adjustment for sociodemographic and health care factors. Approximately 65% of young adults with CHD or CHD equivalents, 26% of young adults with 2 or more risk factors, 12% of young adults with 1 risk factor, and 7% with no risk factor had a high level of LDL-C. CHD risk factors are common in young adults but do not appear to alter screening rates. Improvement of risk assessment and management for cardiovascular disease among young adults is warranted.

  1. Recombinant high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles containing gadolinium-labeled cholesterol for morphologic and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mengjie Rui,1 Wei Guo,2 Qian Ding,2 Xiaohui Wei,2 Jianrong Xu,3 Yuhong Xu21School of Life Science and Biotechnology, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital Affiliation with Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Natural high-density lipoproteins (HDL possess important physiological functions to the transport of cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver for metabolic degradation and excretion in the bile.Methods and results: In this work, we took advantage of this pathway and prepared two different gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-labeled cholesterol-containing recombinant HDL nanoparticles (Gd-chol-HDL and Gd-(chol2-HDL as liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. The reconstituted HDL nanoparticles had structural similarity to native HDL, and could be taken up by HepG2 cells via interaction with HDL receptors in vitro. In vivo MRI studies in rats after intravenous injections of 10 µmol gadolinium per kg of recombinant HDL nanoparticles indicated that both nanoparticles could provide signal enhancement in the liver and related organs. However, different T1-weighted image details suggested that they participated in different cholesterol metabolism and excretion pathways in the liver.Conclusion: Such information could be highly useful to differentiate functional changes as well as anatomic differences in the liver. These cholesterol-derived contrast agents and their recombinant HDL preparations may warrant further development as a new class of contrast agents for MRI of the liver and related organs.Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, apolipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, contrast agent, gadolinium, liver

  2. Cholesterol and related sterols autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinati, Chiara; Iuliano, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Cholesterol is a unique lipid molecule providing the building block for membranes, hormones, vitamin D and bile acid synthesis. Metabolism of cholesterol involves several enzymes acting on the sterol nucleus or the isooctyl tail. In the recent years, research interest has been focused on oxysterols, cholesterol derivatives generated by the addition of oxygen to the cholesterol backbone. Oxysterols can be produced enzymatically or by autoxidation. Autoxidation of cholesterol proceeds through type I or type II mechanisms. Type I autoxidation is initiated by free radical species, such as those arising from the superoxide/hydrogen peroxide/hydroxyl radical system. Type II autoxidation occurs stoichiometrically by non-radical highly reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, HOCl, and ozone. The vulnerability of cholesterol towards high reactive species has raised considerable interest for mechanistic studies and for the potential biological activity of oxysterols, as well as for the use of oxysterols as biomarkers for the non-invasive study of oxidative stress in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. to HDL-cholesterol functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence concerning the effects of two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase – on the functions of HDL-cholesterol. It is well documented that disturbed circulating lipoproteins (a high total and high LDL-cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol bring about atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD which is recognised as the main cause of death all around the world. In consequence, numerous studies have focused on procedures which will improve the plasma lipoproteins profile by decreasing the total cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and increasing the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the anti-atherogenic role of HDL-C has been challenged in studies showing that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol does not offer protection against CVD. Moreover, it has been found that raising the circulating HDL-cholesterol fails to reduce atherosclerosis. The doubts concerning the protective role of HDL-C have been supported by in vitro studies which indicate that the HDL-C from patients with atherosclerosis does not have a protective action, but does stimulate inflammation and free radical synthesis. The above data suggests that HDL-C, commonly recognised as protective against atherosclerosis, in some circumstances becomes pro-atherogenic, and is thus dysfunctional. Our review focuses on two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and myeloperoxidase (MPO – which markedly affect the properties of HDL-C and contribute to its anti – or pro-atherogenic activity. Moreover, the effects of the diet and physical activity on PON1 and MPO are summarised with respect to the HDL-C functionality.

  4. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  5. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  6. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-01-01

    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy

  7. The Interpretation of Cholesterol Balance Derived Synthesis Data and Surrogate Noncholesterol Plasma Markers for Cholesterol Synthesis under Lipid Lowering Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Stellaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated by de novo synthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepatic de novo synthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath as a marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin. Cholesterol balance derived synthesis data increase during both therapies. We hypothesize the following. (1 The cholesterol balance data must be applied to the hepatobiliary cholesterol pool. (2 The calculated cholesterol synthesis value is the sum of hepatic de novo synthesis and the net plasma—liver cholesterol exchange rate. (3 The reduced rate of biliary cholesterol absorption is the major trigger for the regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism under ezetimibe treatment. Supportive experimental and literature data are presented that describe changes of cholesterol fluxes under ezetimibe, statin, and combined treatments in omnivores and vegans, link plasma R_Lath to liver function, and define hepatic de novo synthesis as target for regulation of synthesis. An ezetimibe dependent direct hepatic drug effect cannot be excluded.

  8. Influence of chronic stress on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride in male Wistar rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siyuan; Han, Xue; Fu, Jihua; Yuan, Xiaoling; Sun, Xing; Li, Qiang

    2012-07-01

      We determined the influence of chronic stress (CS) on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD).   Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard diet or a HFD and half of the HFD fed rats were given CS (electric foot shock assisted with noise) for 8 weeks.   Compared with the control group, the levels of hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and TG were significantly elevated in the HFD and HFD with chronic stress (HFD+CS) groups, and the more severe elevations of them were found in the HFD group. Inversely, the more severe elevations of hepatic water-soluble parts of TC and TG were found in the HFD+CS group, as the elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in liver and serum, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde in liver. Meanwhile, downregulated mRNA expressions of hepatic liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were also more severe in the HFD+CS group.   CS can aggravate the high levels of water-soluble compositions of hepatic TC and TG induced by HFD as it aggravates hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress; in spite of that, however, it cannot further promote hepatic lipidosis. This is consistent with the downregulated mRNA expressions of LXR-α and PPAR-γ. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  9. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  10. Case study of elevated layers of high sulfate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, D.J.; Orgill, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    During studies in August 1976 that were part of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study (MAP3S), Alkezweeny et al., (1977) noted that in the Milwaukee urban plume, layers of relatively high sulfate concentrations occurred at high altitudes with respect to the boundary layer. This paper represents a progress report on studies undertaken to investigate possible causes for a bimodel vertical profile of sulfate concentrations. Data presented by Alkezweeny et al., (1977) serve as a basis for this study. Data from August 23, 1976, and August 24, 1978, indicate concentrations relatively high in sulfate, at 1000 and 6000 ft, respectively, with lower concentrations at lower altitudes. Concentrations of trace metals also indicate no peaks in the vertical concentration profiles above the surface. Initial studies of the high, elevated sulfate concentrations have centered on the August 23 measurements taken over southeast Wisconsin using synoptic data from the national weather service, emissions data from the national emissions data bank system (EPA), air quality data from the national air surveillance network (EPA), and satellite photographs from the EROS Data Center

  11. High mobility and high concentration Type-III heterojunction FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, R.; Fiddy, M. A.; Her, T.

    2018-02-01

    The PN junction was introduced in transistors by doping, resulting in high losses due to Coulomb scattering from the dopants. The MOSFET introduced carriers in the form of electrons and holes with an applied bias to the oxide barrier, resulting in carrier transfer without doping. This avoids high scattering losses and dominates the IC industries. With heterojunctions having valence-band maxima near and even above the conduction-band minimum in the formation of Type-III superlattices, very useful devices, introduced by Tsu, Sai-Halacz, and Esaki, soon followed. If the layer thicknesses are more than the carrier mean-free-path, incoherent scattering results in the formation of carrier transfer via diffusion instead of opening up new energy gaps. The exploitation of carriers without scattering represents a new and significant opportunity in what we call a Broken Gap Heterojunction FET.

  12. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  13. The protective role of low-concentration alcohol in high-fructose induced adverse cardiovascular events in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqi; Pan, Bo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Lingjuan; Huang, Xupei; Tian, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a worldwide public health issue. As fructose consumption is dramatically increasing, it has been demonstrated that a fructose-rich intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, emerging evidences suggest that low concentration alcohol intake may exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate whether low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the adverse effects on cardiovascular events induced by high fructose in mice. From the results of hematoxylin-eosin staining, echocardiography, heart weight/body weight ratio and the expression of hypertrophic marker ANP, we found high-fructose result in myocardial hypertrophy and the low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy from happening. In addition, we observed low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit mitochondria swollen induced by high-fructose. The elevated levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol in high-fructose group were reduced by low concentration alcohol. Low expression levels of SIRT1 and PPAR-γ induced by high-fructose were significantly elevated when fed with low-concentration alcohol. The histone lysine 9 acetylation (acH3K9) level was decreased in PPAR-γ promoter in high-fructose group but elevated when intake with low concentration alcohol. The binding levels of histone deacetylase SIRT1 were increased in the same region in high-fructose group, while the low concentration alcohol can prevent the increased binding levels. Overall, our study indicates that low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit high-fructose related myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac mitochondria damaged and disorders of glucose-lipid metabolism. Furthermore, these findings also provide new insights into histone acetylation-deacetylation mechanisms of low-concentration alcohol treatment that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease induced by high

  14. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  15. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  16. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  17. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I

    2014-01-01

    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  18. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport in the second half of mouse pregnancy does not involve LDL receptor-related protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, M V; Baardman, M E; van Dijk, T H; Jurdzinski, A; Wisse, L J; Bloks, V W; Berger, R M F; DeRuiter, M C; Groen, A K; Plösch, T

    2017-08-01

    LDL receptor-related protein type 2 (LRP2) is highly expressed on both yolk sac and placenta. Mutations in the corresponding gene are associated with severe birth defects in humans, known as Donnai-Barrow syndrome. We here characterized the contribution of LRP2 and maternal plasma cholesterol availability to maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal cholesterol levels in utero in mice. Lrp2 +/- mice were mated heterozygously to yield fetuses of all three genotypes. Half of the dams received a 0.5% probucol-enriched diet during gestation to decrease maternal HDL cholesterol. At E13.5, the dams received an injection of D7-labelled cholesterol and were provided with 1- 13 C acetate-supplemented drinking water. At E16.5, fetal tissues were collected and maternal cholesterol transport and fetal synthesis quantified by isotope enrichments in fetal tissues by GC-MS. The Lrp2 genotype did not influence maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal cholesterol. However, lowering of maternal plasma cholesterol levels by probucol significantly reduced maternal-fetal cholesterol transport. In the fetal liver, this was associated with increased cholesterol synthesis rates. No indications were found for an interaction between the Lrp2 genotype and maternal probucol treatment. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and endogenous fetal cholesterol synthesis depend on maternal cholesterol concentrations but do not involve LRP2 in the second half of murine pregnancy. Our results suggest that the mouse fetus can compensate for decreased maternal cholesterol levels. It remains a relevant question how the delicate system of cholesterol transport and synthesis is regulated in the human fetus and placenta. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooman, M.U.; Mahmoud, M.H.; Al-kashef, A.S.; Rashad, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g−1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin. [es

  20. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Nooman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g-1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin.

  1. Dual function of Lactobacillus kefiri DH5 in preventing high-fat-diet-induced obesity: direct reduction of cholesterol and upregulation of PPAR-α in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-11-01

    Kefir consumption inhibits the development of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) in mice fed 60% high-fat diet (HFD). To identify the key contributor of this effect, we isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kefir and examined their anti-obesity properties from in vitro screening and in vivo validation. Thirteen kefir LAB isolates were subjected to survivability test using artificial gastrointestinal environment and cholesterol-reducing assay. Lactobacillus kefiri DH5 showed 100% survivability in gastrointestinal environments and reduced 51.6% of cholesterol; thus, this strain was selected for in vivo experiment. Compared to the HFD-saline group, the HFD-DH5 group showed significantly lower body weight (34.68 versus 31.10 g; p kefiri DH5 administration significantly modulated gut microbiota of HFD-fed mice. The hepatic steatosis was significantly milder (Lesion score, 2.1 versus 1.2; p kefiri DH5 upregulated PPAR-α, FABP4, and CPT1 expression in the epididymal adipose tissues (2.29-, 1.77-, and 2.05-fold change, respectively), suggesting a reduction in adiposity by stimulating fatty acid oxidation. L. kefiri DH5 exerts anti-obesity effects by direct reduction of cholesterol in the lumen and upregulation of PPAR-α gene in adipose tissues. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Metabolism of high density lipoproteins reconstituted with [3H]cholesteryl ester and [14C]cholesterol in the rat, with special reference to the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestler, J.E.; Bamberger, M.; Rothblat, G.H.; Strauss, J.F. III

    1985-01-01

    In order to study the metabolism of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-carried sterol in the rat, human HDL was reconstituted with [ 14 C]cholesterol and [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester. After iv injection into immature PMSG-human CG primed rats pretreated with 4-aminopyrazolopyrimidine and aminoglutethimide, there was time-dependent accumulation of 3 H and 14 C in various organs which reached a maximum by 15-90 min. On a milligram wet weight basis, uptake of 3 H and 14 C was greatest in the adrenals, next in ovaries, followed by the liver, with little uptake by kidneys and spleen. On an organ basis, accumulation was greatest by the liver. Coadministration of excess unlabeled HDL, but not human low density lipoprotein, reduced accumulation of radioactivity by the ovaries and adrenals by 60%, indicating a specific and saturable uptake process. Granulosa cells cultured in lipoprotein-deficient medium with reconstituted HDL formed 3 H- and 14 C-labeled 20 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one. Over a 24-h period, utilization of both [ 14 C]cholesterol and [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester was linear, but rates of utilization of the two sterol moieties were not parallel. Lysosomotropic agents had no effect on utilization of either free or esterified cholesterol for steroidogenesis but reduced degradation of 125 I-labeled low density lipoprotein apoprotein. These findings lend further support to the concept of a distinct HDL pathway in steroidogenic cells of the rat

  3. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged 75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bron James E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO, driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO, soybean (SO or linseed (LO oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain

  5. A compact spectrum splitting concentrator for high concentration photovoltaics based on the dispersion of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J.; Flowers, C. A.; Yao, Y.; Atwater, H. A.; Rockett, A. A.; Nuzzo, R. G.

    2018-06-01

    Photovoltaic devices used in conjunction with functional optical elements for light concentration and spectrum splitting are known to be a viable approach for highly efficient photovoltaics. Conventional designs employ discrete optical elements, each with the task of either performing optical concentration or separating the solar spectrum. In the present work, we examine the performance of a compact photovoltaic architecture in which a single lens plays a dual role as both a concentrator and a spectrum splitter, the latter made possible by exploiting its intrinsic dispersion. A four-terminal two-junction InGaP/GaAs device is prepared to validate the concept and illustrates pathways for improvements. A spectral separation in the visible range is demonstrated at the focal point of a plano-convex lens with a geometric concentration ratio of 1104X with respect to the InGaP subcell.

  6. Multiphysics modelling and experimental validation of high concentration photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theristis, Marios; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Sumner, Mike; O'Donovan, Tadhg S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multiphysics modelling approach for concentrating photovoltaics was developed. • An experimental campaign was conducted to validate the models. • The experimental results were in good agreement with the models. • The multiphysics modelling allows the concentrator’s optimisation. - Abstract: High concentration photovoltaics, equipped with high efficiency multijunction solar cells, have great potential in achieving cost-effective and clean electricity generation at utility scale. Such systems are more complex compared to conventional photovoltaics because of the multiphysics effect that is present. Modelling the power output of such systems is therefore crucial for their further market penetration. Following this line, a multiphysics modelling procedure for high concentration photovoltaics is presented in this work. It combines an open source spectral model, a single diode electrical model and a three-dimensional finite element thermal model. In order to validate the models and the multiphysics modelling procedure against actual data, an outdoor experimental campaign was conducted in Albuquerque, New Mexico using a high concentration photovoltaic monomodule that is thoroughly described in terms of its geometry and materials. The experimental results were in good agreement (within 2.7%) with the predicted maximum power point. This multiphysics approach is relatively more complex when compared to empirical models, but besides the overall performance prediction it can also provide better understanding of the physics involved in the conversion of solar irradiance into electricity. It can therefore be used for the design and optimisation of high concentration photovoltaic modules.

  7. Melanocortin signaling in the CNS directly regulates circulating cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Tilve, Diego; Hofmann, Susanna M; Basford, Joshua; Nogueiras, Ruben; Pfluger, Paul T; Patterson, James T; Grant, Erin; Wilson-Perez, Hilary E; Granholm, Norman A; Arnold, Myrtha; Trevaskis, James L; Butler, Andrew A; Davidson, William S; Woods, Stephen C; Benoit, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol circulates in the blood in association with triglycerides and other lipids, and elevated blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol carries a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood is thought to be beneficial. Circulating cholesterol is the balance among dietary cholesterol absorption, hepatic synthesis and secretion, and the metabolism of lipoproteins by various tissues. We found that the CNS is also an impo...

  8. Modulation of cholesterol transport by maternal hypercholesterolemia in human full-term placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhang

    Full Text Available The significance of maternal cholesterol transporting to the fetus under normal as well as pathological circumstances is less understood. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of maternal hypercholesterolemia on placental cholesterol transportation. Human full-time placenta, maternal and venous cord blood were sampled at delivery from the pregnant women with serum total cholesterol (TC concentrations at third trimester higher than 7.25 mM (n = 19 and the pregnant women with normal TC concentrations (n = 19. Serum lipids and expression of genes related to cholesterol transportation were measured by western blot or real-time PCR. The results indicated that serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly increased, in pregnancies, but decreased in cord blood in hypercholesterolemic group compared to the matched control group. All the subjects were no-drinking, non-smoker, and gestational disease free. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors, including LDLR and VLDLR were significantly increased, while the protein expression of PCSK9 was significantly increased in hypercholesterolemic placenta. In conclusion, maternal hypercholesterolemia might decrease the transportation of cholesterol from mother to fetus because of the high levels of PCSK9 protein expression.

  9. Colesterol e composição dos ácidos graxos nas dietas para humanos e na carcaça suína Fatty acids concentration and level of cholesterol in diets for humans and present in swine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O colesterol é uma substância complexa do tipo lipídio-esteróide presente principalmente nas gorduras animais. Apresenta múltiplas funções no organismo, entretanto, problemas no metabolismo do colesterol no organismo podem acarretar aumento na sua concentração no sangue e conseqüentemente doenças coronárias como arterosclerose. Porém, já está comprovado que o consumo de colesterol é um fator de risco para pessoas que apresentam problemas genéticos de regulação do seu metabolismo. São pessoas que possuem níveis de colesterol acima de 200mg/dl e com concentração de HDL no sangue inferior a 35mg/dl. Apenas para estes indivíduos é importante o controle do colesterol através da dieta, na qual o consumo de carne suína, como de qualquer carne de outra espécie animal, deve ser considerada a composição dos ácidos graxos da gordura subcutânea e intramuscular. O fornecimento de dietas para suínos com maior concentração de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados apresentaram maior teor deste tipo de gordura nas suas carcaças. A suplementação destas gorduras de origem vegetal não pode ultrapassar a 4% nas dietas, devido à obtenção de carcaças com deficiência de conservação, apesar de originar uma carne mais benéfica à saúde do consumidor.Cholesterol is a complex lipid-steroid like substance mostly present in animal fat, and it has many essencial functions in living organisms. However, in humans, any metabolic problems can increase blood cholesterol concentration and, consequently, increase the risk of coronary heart disease, such as arteriosclerosis. It is a known fact that cholesterol consumption is a risk factor for people who have genetic disorders in the metabolic regulation of cholesterol. These people have plasma levels of cholesterol above 200mg/dl and a plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL under 35mg/dl. For these people, it is important to control the cholesterol level in the diet. The

  10. Lactic-fermented egg white reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic Japanese men: a double-blind, parallel-arm design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2017-05-30

    Lactic-fermented egg white (LE), produced by lactic acid fermentation of egg white, is an easy-to-consume form of egg white. Here we assessed the effect of daily consumption of LE for 8 weeks on serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. The study followed a double-blind, parallel-arm design and included 88 adult men with mild hypercholesterolemia (mean ± standard error) serum TC levels, 229 ± 1.6 mg/dL; range, 204-259 mg/dL). The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, which consumed LE containing 4, 6, or 8 g of protein daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected before starting LE consumption (baseline) and at 4 and 8 weeks to measure serum TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. After 8 weeks of consumption, serum TC levels in the 8 g group decreased by 11.0 ± 3.7 mg/dL, a significant decrease compared to baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than for the 4 g group (3.1 ± 3.4 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Serum LDL-C levels in the 8 g group decreased by 13.7 ± 3.1 mg/dL, again a significant decrease compared with baseline (p < 0.05) and a significantly greater decrease than that for the 4 g group (2.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL; p < 0.05). Consumption of LE for 8 weeks at a daily dose of 8 g of proteins reduced serum TC and LDL-C levels in men with mild hypercholesterolemia, suggesting this may be effective in helping to prevent arteriosclerotic diseases. This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the Japan Medical Association Center for Clinical Trials, (JMA-IIA00279; registered on 13/03/2017; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/JMACTR/App/JMACTRE02_04/JMACTRE02_04.aspx?kbn=3&seqno=6530 ).

  11. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Barley β-glucan reduces blood cholesterol levels via interrupting bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Harding, Scott V; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Tosh, Susan M; Jones, Peter J H; Ames, Nancy P

    2017-11-01

    Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks. Cholesterol absorption was determined by assessing the enrichment of circulating 13C-cholesterol over 96 h following oral administration; fractional rate of synthesis for cholesterol was assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of 2H derived from deuterium oxide within the body water pool into the erythrocyte cholesterol pool over 24 h; bile acid synthesis was determined by measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan decreased total cholesterol (TC) levels (P=0·029), but did not affect cholesterol absorption (P=0·25) or cholesterol synthesis (P=0·14). Increased bile acid synthesis after consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan was observed in all participants (P=0·049), and more pronounced in individuals carrying homozygous G of rs3808607 (P=0·033). In addition, a linear relationship between log (viscosity) of β-glucan and serum 7α-HC concentration was observed in homozygous G allele carriers. Results indicate that increased bile acid synthesis rather than inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis may be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. The pronounced TC reduction in G allele carriers of rs

  13. High indoor radon concentrations in some Swedish waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Heiberg, A.

    2002-01-01

    High indoor radon concentrations in buildings used for water treatment are not uncommon. When raw water is processed in an open system radon escapes from the water to the indoor air of the premises. It is not unusual that the staff of the waterworks have their offices in the building where the water is processed. If large volumes of water are processed and the evaporated radon can reach the workplaces the indoor radon concentration can be very high even if the radon concentration of the raw water is moderate. Groundwaters from aquifers in bedrock and soil and surface water that has been infiltrated through deposits of sand or gravel have the potential to cause high indoor radon levels. In surface water emanating directly from a lake or a river the radon concentrations are normally too low to cause problems. Three waterworks in central Sweden have been studied, Ludvika, Fredriksberg and Kolbaeck. The radon concentrations in the raw water of these waterworks are from 85 Bq/l to 300 Bq/l. Average indoor radon concentrations exceeding 17,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured in Ludvika with peaks of almost 37,000 Bq/m 3 . In Kolbaeck radon concentrations up to 56,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured. It is quite possible that employees of waterworks can receive doses exceeding 20 mSv per year (calculated according to ICRP:s dose conversion convention). Measurements of radon and gamma radiation from the waterworks are reported and methods to lower the indoor radon concentrations are discussed. (author)

  14. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  15. Hepatic cholesterol metabolism following a chronic ingestion of cesium-137 starting at fetal stage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, R.; Grandcolas, L.; Blanchardon, E.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M.; Veyssiere, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident released many radionuclides in the environment. Some are still contaminating the ground and thus the people through dietary intake. The long-term sanitary consequences of this disaster are still unclear and several biological systems remain to be investigated. Cholesterol metabolism is of particular interest, with regard to the link established between atherosclerosis and exposure to high-dose ionizing radiations. This study assesses the effect of cesium-137 on cholesterol metabolism in rats, after a chronic exposure since fetal life. To achieve this, rat dams were contaminated with cesium-137-supplemented water from two weeks before mating until the weaning of the pups. Thereafter, the weaned rats were given direct access to the contaminated drinking water until the age of 9 months. After the sacrifice, cholesterol metabolism was investigated in the liver at gene expression and protein level. The cholesterolemia was preserved, as well as the cholesterol concentration in the liver. At molecular level, the gene expressions of ACAT 2 (a cholesterol storage enzyme), of Apolipoprotein A-I and of RXR (a nuclear receptor involved in cholesterol metabolism) were significantly decreased. In addition, the enzymatic activity of CYP27A1, which catabolizes cholesterol, was increased. The results indicate that the rats seem to adapt to the cesium-137 contamination and display modifications of hepatic cholesterol metabolism only at molecular level and within physiological range. (author)

  16. Shared polymorphisms and modifiable behavior factors for myocardial infarction and high cholesterol in a retrospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yulan; Kelemen, Arpad

    2017-09-01

    Genetic and environmental (behavior, clinical, and demographic) factors are associated with increased risks of both myocardial infarction (MI) and high cholesterol (HC). It is known that HC is major risk factor that may cause MI. However, whether there are common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with both MI and HC is not firmly established, and whether there are modulate and modified effects (interactions of genetic and known environmental factors) on either HC or MI, and whether these joint effects improve the predictions of MI, is understudied.The purpose of this study is to identify novel shared SNPs and modifiable environmental factors on MI and HC. We assess whether SNPs from a metabolic pathway related to MI may relate to HC; whether there are moderate effects among SNPs, lifestyle (smoke and drinking), HC, and MI after controlling other factors [gender, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension (HTN)]; and evaluate prediction power of the joint and modulate genetic and environmental factors influencing the MI and HC.This is a retrospective study with residents of Erie and Niagara counties in New York with a history of MI or with no history of MI. The data set includes environmental variables (demographic, clinical, lifestyle). Thirty-one tagSNPs from a metabolic pathway related to MI are genotyped. Generalized linear models (GLMs) with imputation-based analysis are conducted for examining the common effects of tagSNPs and environmental exposures and their interactions on having a history of HC or MI.MI, BMI, and HTN are significant risk factors for HC. HC shows the strongest effect on risk of MI in addition to HTN; gender and smoking status while drinking status shows protective effect on MI. rs16944 (gene IL-1β) and rs17222772 (gene ALOX) increase the risks of HC, while rs17231896 (gene CETP) has protective effects on HC either with or without the clinical, behavioral, demographic factors with different effect sizes that may indicate the

  17. Consumption of restructured meat products with added walnuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I; Blázquez-García, S; Pérez-Sacristán, B

    2008-04-01

    Diet and lifestyle are modifiable factors involved in the development and prevention of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Nut consumption, particularly walnut intake, has been inversely related to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in observational studies and to improved lipid profiles in short-term feeding trials. To assess the potential functional effect associated with the regular consumption of walnut-enriched restructured meat products in subjects at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A crossover single-dose bioavailability study (n = 3) using gamma-tocopherol as exposure marker and a crossover unblinded dietary intervention study (5 weeks) in subjects at risk (n = 25). Dietary intervention consisted of regular consumption of the meat product, with or without walnuts, five times per week for five weeks with a 1-month washout in between. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected on days 0, 12, 21, 28 and 35, coinciding with blood pressure and body weight recordings. Participants were asked to complete a diet record throughout the study. The functional effects were assessed using clinically relevant and related biomarkers of CHD: serum total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, homocysteine, vitamins B(6) and B(12), folic acid, alpha-tocopherol and platelet function test (obturation time). The regular consumption of walnut-enriched meat products compared with that of the restructured meat products without added walnuts provokes a decrease in total cholesterol of 6.8 mg/dl (CI(95%): -12.8, -0.85). Compared to baseline (mixed diet), meat products with walnuts decreased total cholesterol (-10.7 mg/dl, CI(95%): -17.1, -4.2), LDL cholesterol (-7.6 mg/dl, CI(95%): -2.2, -13.0) and body weight (-0.5 kg, CI(95%): -0.1, -0.9) and increased gamma-tocopherol (8.9 mg/dl, CI(95%): 1.0, 16.8). The restructured meat products with added walnuts supplied in this study can be considered functional foods for subjects at high risk for

  18. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  19. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  20. Exercise Does Not Protect Against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad Libitum in Old ApoE-/- Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Di Cataldo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE-/- mice.Methods:45-weeks old obese ApoE-/-mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access and Sedentary (SED groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta and brain were then assessed.Results:In EX ApoE-/- mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE-/- EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during twelve weeks, brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r²=0.87; p=0.049 with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE-/-mice. Conclusion:We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE-/- animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE-/- mice.

  1. Impact of high-density lipoprotein 3 cholesterol subfraction on periprocedural myocardial injury in patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Susumu; Tanaka, Akihito; Aoki, Toshijiro; Iwakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hirayama, Kenshi; Mitsuda, Takayuki; Sumi, Takuya; Negishi, Yosuke; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2018-02-02

    Periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) is a major complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with atherosclerotic coronary plaque and worse clinical outcomes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a protective factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the role of HDL-C subfractions, such as HDL2 cholesterol (HDL2-C) or HDL3 cholesterol (HDL3-C), in cardiovascular disease remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between HDL2-C and HDL3-C subfractions and the incidence of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI. We enrolled 129 patients who underwent elective PCI for stable angina pectoris. PMI was defined as an increase in high-sensitivity troponin T levels > 5 times the upper normal limit (> 0.070 ng/mL) at 24 h after PCI. Serum HDL-C subfractions (HDL2-C and HDL3-C) were assessed using ultracentrifugation in patients with and those without PMI. HDL3-C levels were significantly lower in patients with PMI than in those without (15.1 ± 3.0 mg/dL vs. 16.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL, p = 0.016) and had an independent and inverse association with PMI (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99; p = 0.038). When divided by the cut-off value of HDL3-C for PMI (14.3 mg/dL), the incidence of PMI was significantly higher in low HDL3-C patients than in high HDL3-C patients (51.2% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.020). HDL3-C was an independent inverse predictor of PMI in patients who underwent elective PCI.

  2. Characteristics of human hypo- and hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B; Beynen, A C

    1987-03-01

    The characteristics of people whose serum cholesterol level is unusually susceptible to consumption of cholesterol were investigated. Thirty-two volunteers from the general population of Wageningen, the Netherlands, each participated in three controlled dietary trials in 1982. A low-cholesterol diet was fed during the first half and a high-cholesterol diet during the second half of each trial, and the change (response) of serum cholesterol was measured. The responses in the three trials were averaged to give each subject's mean responsiveness. Fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites were measured in the second trial, and body cholesterol synthesis was calculated. Responsiveness showed a positive correlation with serum high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) cholesterol (r = 0.41, p less than 0.05) and with serum total cholesterol level on a high-cholesterol diet (r = 0.31, p = 0.09). A negative relation was found with habitual cholesterol consumption (r = -0.62, p less than 0.01), with body mass index (r = -0.50, p less than 0.01), and with the rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r = -0.40, p less than 0.05), but not with the reaction of endogenous cholesterol synthesis rate to an increased intake of cholesterol. No relation was found with age, sex, total caloric needs, or the ratio of primary to secondary fecal steroids. Upon multiple regression analysis, only habitual cholesterol intake and serum total and HDL2 cholesterol levels contributed significantly to the explanation of variance in responsiveness. Thus, a low habitual cholesterol intake, a high serum HDL2 cholesterol level, or a low body weight do not make one less susceptible to dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Daniel V. [Biosystems and; Wang, Dongbo [Biosystems and; Lin-Gibson, Sheng [Biosystems and

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.

  4. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  5. Easy, Fast, and Reproducible Quantification of Cholesterol and Other Lipids in Human Plasma by Combined High Resolution MSX and FTMS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Sandra F; Højlund, Kurt; Ejsing, Christer S

    2018-01-01

    Reliable, cost-effective, and gold-standard absolute quantification of non-esterified cholesterol in human plasma is of paramount importance in clinical lipidomics and for the monitoring of metabolic health. Here, we compared the performance of three mass spectrometric approaches available for di...... can be shortened for high throughput-oriented clinical lipidomics studies or extended with more advanced MS(ALL) technology (Almeida R. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 26, 133-148 [1]) to support in-depth structural elucidation of lipid molecules. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  6. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  7. Effects of high concentration of chromium stress on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effects of high concentration of chromium (Cr) stress on physiological and biochemical characters and accumulation of Cr in Pingyang Tezao tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kutze 'Pingyangtezao'] through a pot experiment. The results show that the indicators of photosynthesis were all suppressed with ...

  8. The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelenburg, F. A. C.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schuitemaker, H.; Moorer, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture (80% ethanol and 5% isopropanol) was determined for a broad series of lipid-enveloped (LE) and non-lipid-enveloped (NLE) viruses covering all relevant blood-borne viruses. LE viruses were represented by human immunodeficiency virus

  9. Effect of dietary cholesterol and plant sterol consumption on plasma lipid responsiveness and cholesterol trafficking in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Peter A S; Ramprasath, Vanu; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-01-01

    Dietary cholesterol and plant sterols differentially modulate cholesterol kinetics and circulating cholesterol. Understanding how healthy individuals with their inherent variabilities in cholesterol trafficking respond to such dietary sterols will aid in improving strategies for effective cholesterol lowering and alleviation of CVD risk. The objectives of this study were to assess plasma lipid responsiveness to dietary cholesterol v. plant sterol consumption, and to determine the response in rates of cholesterol absorption and synthesis to each sterol using stable isotope approaches in healthy individuals. A randomised, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial (n 49) with three treatment phases of 4-week duration were conducted in a Manitoba Hutterite population. During each phase, participants consumed one of the three treatments as a milkshake containing 600 mg/d dietary cholesterol, 2 g/d plant sterols or a control after breakfast meal. Plasma lipid profile was determined and cholesterol absorption and synthesis were measured by oral administration of [3, 4-13C] cholesterol and 2H-labelled water, respectively. Dietary cholesterol consumption increased total (0·16 (sem 0·06) mmol/l, P=0·0179) and HDL-cholesterol (0·08 (sem 0·03) mmol/l, P=0·0216) concentrations with no changes in cholesterol absorption or synthesis. Plant sterol consumption failed to reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations despite showing a reduction (6 %, P=0·0004) in cholesterol absorption. An over-compensatory reciprocal increase in cholesterol synthesis (36 %, P=0·0026) corresponding to a small reduction in absorption was observed with plant sterol consumption, possibly resulting in reduced LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant sterols. These data suggest that inter-individual variability in cholesterol trafficking mechanisms may profoundly impact plasma lipid responses to dietary sterols in healthy individuals.

  10. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity in rats fed enriched-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Y; Bouderbala, S; Djellouli, F; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2014-10-15

    The effects of Portulaca oleracea (Po) lyophilized aqueous extract were determined on the serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) amounts and composition, as well as on lecithin: cholesterol acyltansferase (LCAT) activity. Male Wistar rats (n = 12) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 10 days. After this phase, hypercholesterolemic rats (HC) were divided into two groups fed the same diet supplemented or not with Portulaca oleracea (Po-HC) (0.5%) for four weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG), and liver TG values were respectively 1.6-, 1.8-, and 1.6-fold lower in Po-HC than in HC group. Cholesterol concentrations in LDL-HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3 were respectively 1.8, 1.4-, and 2.4-fold decreased in Po-HC group. HDL2 and HDL3 amounts, which were the sum of apolipoproteins (apos), TG, cholesteryl esters (CE), unesterified cholesterol (UC), and phospholipids (PL) contents, were respectively 4.5-fold higher and 1.2-fold lower with Po treatment. Indeed, enhanced LCAT activity (1.2-fold), its cofactor-activator apo A-I (2-fold) and its reaction product HDL2-CE (2.1-fold) were observed, whereas HDL3-PL (enzyme substrate) and HDL3-UC (acyl group acceptor) were 1.2- and 2.4-fold lower. Portulaca oleracea reduces triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, and improves reverse cholesterol transport in rat fed enriched-cholesterol diet, contributing to anti-atherogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Rheological behavior of high-concentration sodium caseinate dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Simon M; Rao, M Anandha; Creamer, Lawrence K; Singh, Harjinder

    2010-03-01

    Apparent viscosity and frequency sweep (G', G'') data for sodium caseinate dispersions with concentrations of approximately 18% to 40% w/w were obtained at 20 degrees C; colloidal glass behavior was exhibited by dispersions with concentration >or=23% w/w. The high concentrations were obtained by mixing frozen powdered buffer with sodium caseinate in boiling liquid nitrogen, and allowing the mixtures to thaw and hydrate at 4 degrees C. The low-temperature G'-G'' crossover seen in temperature scans between 60 and 5 degrees C was thought to indicate gelation. Temperature scans from 5 to 90 degrees C revealed gradual decrease in G' followed by plateau values. In contrast, G'' decreased gradually and did not reach plateau values. Increase in hydrophobicity of the sodium caseinate or a decrease in the effective volume fraction of its aggregates may have contributed to these phenomena. The gelation and end of softening temperatures of the dispersions increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate. From an Eldridge-Ferry plot, the enthalpy of softening was estimated to be 29.6 kJ mol(-1). The results of this study should be useful for creating new products with high concentrations of sodium caseinate.

  12. Investigation of the areas of high radon concentration in Gyeongju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Min; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the radon concentrations at 21 elementary schools in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to identify those schools with high radon concentrations. Considering their geological characteristics and the preliminary survey results, three schools were finally placed under close scrutiny. For these three schools, continuous measurements over 48 h were taken at the principal's and administration office. The radon concentrations at one school, Naenam, exceeded the action level (148 Bq/m 3 ) established by the U.S. EPA, while those at the other two schools were below that level. - Highlights: • Preliminary measurements of the indoor radon concentrations were performed at the auditoriums in 23 elementary schools in Gyeongju. • Considering the geological characteristics and preliminary survey results, three elementary schools were screened for closer scrutiny. • For the three schools, continuous measurements were made at their principal's and administration offices over 48-h period. • The scrutiny revealed one elementary school of high radon concentration much higher than the U.S. EPA action level

  13. Effects of disturbed liver growth and oxidative stress of high-fat diet-fed dams on cholesterol metabolism in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Juhae; Kwon, Young Hye

    2016-08-01

    Changes in nutritional status during gestation and lactation have detrimental effects on offspring metabolism. Several animal studies have shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) can predispose the offspring to development of obesity and metabolic diseases, however the mechanisms underlying these transgenerational effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of maternal HFD consumption on metabolic phenotype and hepatic expression of involved genes in dams to determine whether any of these parameters were associated with the metabolic outcomes in the offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD: 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD: 45% calories from fat) for three weeks before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Dams and their male offspring were studied at weaning. Dams fed an HFD had significantly higher body and adipose tissue weights and higher serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels than dams fed an LFD. Hepatic lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including LXRα, SREBP-2, FXR, LDLR, and ABCG8 were significantly changed by maternal HFD intake. Significantly lower total liver DNA and protein contents were observed in dams fed an HFD, implicating the disturbed liver adaptation in the pregnancy-related metabolic demand. HFD feeding also induced significant oxidative stress in serum and liver of dams. Offspring of dams fed an HFD had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels, which were negatively correlated with liver weights of dams and positively correlated with hepatic lipid peroxide levels in dams. Maternal HFD consumption induced metabolic dysfunction, including altered liver growth and oxidative stress in dams, which may contribute to the disturbed cholesterol homeostasis in the early life of male mice offspring.

  14. Easy, Fast, and Reproducible Quantification of Cholesterol and Other Lipids in Human Plasma by Combined High Resolution MSX and FTMS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sandra F.; Højlund, Kurt; Ejsing, Christer S.

    2018-01-01

    Reliable, cost-effective, and gold-standard absolute quantification of non-esterified cholesterol in human plasma is of paramount importance in clinical lipidomics and for the monitoring of metabolic health. Here, we compared the performance of three mass spectrometric approaches available for direct detection and quantification of cholesterol in extracts of human plasma. These approaches are high resolution full scan Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) analysis, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), and novel multiplexed MS/MS (MSX) technology, where fragments from selected precursor ions are detected simultaneously. Evaluating the performance of these approaches in terms of dynamic quantification range, linearity, and analytical precision showed that the MSX-based approach is superior to that of the FTMS and PRM-based approaches. To further show the efficacy of this approach, we devised a simple routine for extensive plasma lipidome characterization using only 8 μL of plasma, using a new commercially available ready-to-spike-in mixture with 14 synthetic lipid standards, and executing a single 6 min sample injection with combined MSX analysis for cholesterol quantification and FTMS analysis for quantification of sterol esters, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids. Using this simple routine afforded reproducible and absolute quantification of 200 lipid species encompassing 13 lipid classes in human plasma samples. Notably, the analysis time of this procedure can be shortened for high throughput-oriented clinical lipidomics studies or extended with more advanced MSALL technology (Almeida R. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 26, 133-148 [1]) to support in-depth structural elucidation of lipid molecules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was

  16. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-03-16

    An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male

  17. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rejaie Salim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins

  18. Unphysiologically high magnesium concentrations support chondrocyte proliferation and redifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Witte, Frank; Kammal, Michael; Willumeit, Regine

    2006-12-01

    The effect of unphysiologically high extracellular magnesium concentrations on chondrocytes, induced by the supplementation of magnesium sulfate, was studied using a 3-phase tissue engineering model. The experiments showed that chondrocyte proliferation and redifferentiation, on the gene and protein expression level, are enhanced. A negative influence was found during chondrogenesis where an inhibition of extracellular matrix formation was observed. In addition, a direct impact on chondrocyte metabolism, elevated magnesium concentrations also affected growth factor effectiveness by consecutive influences during chondrogenesis. All observations were dosage dependent. The results of this study indicate that magnesium may be a useful tool for cartilage tissue engineering.

  19. Impact of hormonal contraception and weight loss on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux and lipoprotein particles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokras, Anuja; Playford, Martin; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Williams, Nancy I; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Coutifaris, Christos; Mehta, Nehal; Legro, Richard S

    2017-05-01

    To study the effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCP), the first-line treatment for PCOS, on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) function (reverse cholesterol efflux capacity) and lipoprotein particles measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in obese women. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (OWL-PCOS) of OCP or Lifestyle (intensive Lifestyle modification) or Combined (OCP + Lifestyle) treatment groups for 16 weeks. Eighty-seven overweight/obese women with PCOS at two academic centres. Change in HDL-C efflux capacity and lipoprotein particles. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity increased significantly at 16 weeks in the OCP group [0·11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·03, 0·18, P = 0·008] but not in the Lifestyle (P = 0·39) or Combined group (P = 0·18). After adjusting for HDL-C and TG levels, there was significant mean change in efflux in the Combined group (0·09; 95% CI 0·01, 0·15; P = 0·01). Change in HDL-C efflux correlated inversely with change in serum testosterone (r s = -0·21; P = 0·05). In contrast, OCP use induced an atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) profile with increase in small (P = 0·006) and large LDL-particles (P = 0·002). Change in small LDL-particles correlated with change in serum testosterone (r s = -0·31, P = 0·009) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI; r s = -0·31, P = 0·02). Both Lifestyle and Combined groups did not show significant changes in the atherogenic LDL particles. Oral contraceptive pills use is associated with improved HDL-C function and a concomitant atherogenic LDL-C profile. Combination of a Lifestyle program with OCP use improved HDL-C function and mitigated adverse effects of OCP on lipoproteins. Our study provides evidence for use of OCP in overweight/obese women with PCOS when combined with Lifestyle changes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenwanthanang, Puttavee; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Phivthong-Ngam, Laddawal; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Porntadavity, Sureerut

    2011-04-12

    Curcuma comosa has been known to have potential use in cardiovascular diseases, but its immunoregulatory role in atherosclerosis development and liver toxicity has not been well studied. We therefore investigated the effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Twelve male New Zealand White rabbits were treated with 1.0% cholesterol for one month and were subsequently treated with 0.5% cholesterol either alone, or in combination with 5mg/kg/day of simvastatin or with 400mg/kg/day of Curcuma comosa powder for three months. The expression of IL-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in the isolated abdominal aorta and liver were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Liver toxicity was determined by hepatic enzyme activity. Curcuma comosa significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a stronger reduction in IL-1, MCP-1, and TNF-α expression compared to that was suppressed by simvastatin treatment. However, neither Curcuma comosa nor simvastatin affected the expression of anti-inflammation cytokines. In the liver, Curcuma comosa insignificantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and significantly increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 without altering the activity of hepatic enzymes. In contrast, simvastatin significantly increased the MCP-1 and TNF-α expressions and serum ALT level, without affecting the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that Curcuma comosa exerts anti-inflammatory activity in the aorta and liver without causing liver toxicity, indicating that Curcuma comosa is a potential candidate as an alternative agent in cardiovascular disease therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene are associated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and not with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Young Min; Moon, Min Kyong; Choi, Hye Hun; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Seong Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2006-11-01

    Ghrelin is known to play a role in glucose metabolism and in beta-cell function. There are controversies regarding the role of ghrelin polymorphisms in diabetes and diabetes-related phenotypes. The objective of this study was to examine polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene in a Korean cohort and investigate associations between them and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and its related phenotypes. The ghrelin gene was sequenced to identify polymorphisms in 24 DNA samples. Common variants were then genotyped in 760 type 2 diabetic patients and 641 nondiabetic subjects. Genetic associations with diabetes-related phenotypes were also analyzed. Nine polymorphisms were identified, and four common polymorphisms [g.-1500C>G, g.-1062G > C, g.-994C > T, g.+408C > A (Leu72Met)] were genotyped in a larger study. The genotype distributions of these four common polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes patients were similar to those of normal nondiabetic controls. However, these four common polymorphisms were variably associated with several diabetes-related phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. In particular, subjects harboring g.-1062C were associated with a lower serum HDL cholesterol level after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.0004 or 0.01 after Bonferroni correction for 24 tests). The aforementioned four common polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene were not found to be significantly associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. However, the common polymorphism g.-1062G > C in the promoter region of the ghrelin gene was found to be significantly associated with serum HDL cholesterol levels.

  2. Impact of the Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and the Hypertriglyceremic-Waist Phenotype to Predict the Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bibra, Helene; Saha, Sarama; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Müller, Gabriele; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2017-07-01

    Insulin resistance is the underlying mechanism for the metabolic syndrome and associated dyslipidaemia that theoretically implies a practical tool for identifying individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2-diabetes. Another screening tool is the hypertriglyceremic-waist phenotype (HTW). There is important impact of the ethnic background but a lack of studied European populations for the association of the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and insulin resistance. This observational, retrospective study evaluated lipid ratios and the HTW for predicting the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance in 1932 non-diabetic individuals from Germany in the fasting state and during a glucose tolerance test. The relations of triglyceride/HDL-C, total-cholesterol/HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C with 5 surrogate estimates of insulin resistance/sensitivity and metabolic syndrome were analysed by linear regression analysis and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) in participants with normal (n=1 333) or impaired fasting glucose (n=599), also for the impact of gender. Within the lipid ratios, triglyceride/HDL-C had the strongest associations with insulin resistance/sensitivity markers. In the prediction of metabolic syndrome, diagnostic accuracy was good for triglyceride/HDL-C (area under the ROC curve 0.817) with optimal cut-off points (in mg/dl units) of 2.8 for men (80% sensitivity, 71% specificity) and 1.9 for women (80% sensitivity, 75% specificity) and fair for HTW and HOMA-IR (area under the curve 0.773 and 0.761). These data suggest the triglyceride/HDL-C ratio as a physiologically relevant and practical index for predicting the concomitant presence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia for therapeutic and preventive care in apparently healthy European populations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness in Chinese adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while HDL-C was decreased significantly across the groups (P < 0.01). In general linear regression model, TG/HDL-C was an independent determinant of CIMT even after adjusting for BMI, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. TG/HDL-C ratio, the marker of small dense LDL particles, is an independent determinant of CIMT in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed T2DM, and may be a simple and helpful tool in predicting the increased CIMT in such patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Frequency of significant three vessel coronary artery disease and left main stem disease in acute coronary syndrome patients having high LDL cholesterol level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, S.; Achakzai, A.S.; Zeb, J.; Zeb, R.; Adil, M.; Jan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the frequency of significant three-vessel coronary artery and left main stem disease in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome having high LDL cholesterol level. Methodology: This observational study was performed in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from June 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. All consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography admitted with acute coronary syndrome within past 30 days and having LDL cholesterol more than 130mg/dl were included in the study. Demographic data was noted. The data was analyzed by using software SPSS version 16. Results: A total number of 206 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 51.25+-8.4 years. Of them, 139(67.5%) were male and 67(32.5%) female. Hypertension was found in 87(42.2%) patients, diabetes was found in 71(34.5%) patients, 56(27.2%) were smokers, family history of CAD was present in 39(18.9%) patients. The incidence of significant three vessel coronary artery disease was 52(25.2%) and left main stem disease were present in 15(7.2%). Out of 67(32.4%) with severe triple vessel and Left main stem disease, males were 51(76.1%) and females were 16(23.9%). Patients with significant three vessel and left main stem disease were more frequently males and younger. Conclusion: Patients having acute coronary syndrome with High LDL levels are more frequently have significant three vessel and Left main stem disease.

  5. Highly concentrated zinc oxide nanocrystals sol with strong blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafaee, M.; Sasani Ghamsari, M.; Radiman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highly concentrated ZnO sol was synthesized by an improved sol-gel method. Water was used as a modifier to control the sol-gel reaction and provide a way to increase the sol concentration. Concentration of ZnO in the prepared sol is higher than from other methods. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were used to investigate optical properties of the prepared sol. FTIR test was performed to study the influence of water on the compounds of as-prepared sol. The size and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied by HRTEM. The prepared colloidal ZnO nanocrystals have narrow size distribution (5-8 nm) and showed strong blue emission. The prepared sol has enough potential for optoelectronic applications. - Research highlights: → Novel sol-gel route has been employed to prepare highly concentrated ZnO colloidal nanocrystals. → Water has been used to control the sources of emission in synthesized material. → A strong blue luminescent material has been obtained.

  6. Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number, and Incident Cardiovascular Events: An Analysis From the JUPITER Trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Amit V; Demler, Olga V; Adelman, Steven J; Collins, Heidi L; Glynn, Robert J; Ridker, Paul M; Rader, Daniel J; Mora, Samia

    2017-06-20

    Recent failures of drugs that raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials have led to increased interest in alternative indices of HDL quality, such as cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL quantity, such as HDL particle number. However, no studies have directly compared these metrics in a contemporary population that includes potent statin therapy and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. HDL cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein A-I, cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL particle number were assessed at baseline and 12 months in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized primary prevention trial that compared rosuvastatin treatment to placebo in individuals with normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increased C-reactive protein levels. In total, 314 cases of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular death) were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for risk factors evaluated associations between HDL-related biomarkers and incident CVD. Cholesterol efflux capacity was moderately correlated with HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and HDL particle number (Spearman r = 0.39, 0.48, and 0.39 respectively; P capacity (OR/SD, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; P =0.28), HDL cholesterol (OR/SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02; P =0.08), or apolipoprotein A-I (OR/SD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.03; P =0.08). Twelve months of rosuvastatin (20 mg/day) did not change cholesterol efflux capacity (average percentage change -1.5%, 95% CI, -13.3 to +10.2; P =0.80), but increased HDL cholesterol (+7.7%), apolipoprotein A-I (+4.3%), and HDL particle number (+5.2%). On-statin cholesterol efflux capacity was inversely associated with incident CVD (OR/SD, 0.62; 95% CI, 0

  7. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubha, Malenahalli C; Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-04-01

    Spice bioactive compounds, capsaicin and curcumin, were both individually and in combination examined for antilithogenic potential during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstones in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced by feeding mice a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet for 10 weeks. Groups of mice were maintained on a lithogenic diet that was supplemented with 0.015% capsaicin/0.2% curcumin/0.015% capsaicin + 0.2% curcumin. The lithogenic diet that contained capsaicin, curcumin, or their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 50%, 66%, and 56%, respectively, compared with lithogenic control. This was accompanied by reduced biliary cholesterol and a marginal increase in phospholipid in these spice-fed groups. Increased cholesterol saturation index and cholesterol : phospholipid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds. The antilithogenic influence of spice compounds was attributable to the cholesterol-lowering effect of these dietary spices in blood and liver, as well as a moderate increase in phospholipids. Decreased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase caused by the lithogenic diet were countered by the combination of capsaicin and curcumin. The increased lipid peroxidation and the decreased concentration of ascorbic acid in the liver that was caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds, individually or in combination. Thus, while the capsaicin and curcumin combination did not have an additive influence in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstones in mice, their combination nevertheless was more beneficial in enhancing the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzyme ─ glutathione reductase in the lithogenic situation. The antioxidant effects of dietary spice compounds are consistent with the observed reduction in cholesterol gallstones formed under lithogenic condition.

  8. Nonfaradaic nanoporous electrochemistry for conductometry at high electrolyte concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Je Hyun; Kang, Chung Mu; Choi, Hyoungseon; Kim, Beom Jin; Jang, Woohyuk; Lim, Sung Yul; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2015-02-17

    Nanoporous electrified surfaces create a unique nonfaradaic electrochemical behavior that is sensitively influenced by pore size, morphology, ionic strength, and electric field modulation. Here, we report the contributions of ion concentration and applied ac frequency to the electrode impedance through an electrical double layer overlap and ion transport along the nanopores. Nanoporous Pt with uniform pore size and geometry (L2-ePt) responded more sensitively to conductivity changes in aqueous solutions than Pt black with poor uniformity despite similar real surface areas and enabled the previously difficult quantitative conductometry measurements at high electrolyte concentrations. The nanopores of L2-ePt were more effective in reducing the electrode impedance and exhibited superior linear responses to not only flat Pt but also Pt black, leading to successful conductometric detection in ion chromatography without ion suppressors and at high ionic strengths.

  9. Phytosterol stearate esters elicit similar responses on plasma lipids and cholesterol absorption but different responses on fecal neutral sterol excretion and hepatic free cholesterol in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-07-01

    The dietary impact of specific phytosterols incorporated into phytosterol fatty acid esters has not been elucidated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that phytosterol esters containing different sterol moieties (sitosterol, sitostanol, or stigmasterol) but the same fatty acid moiety (stearic acid) produce different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian hamsters were fed sitosterol, sitostanol, and stigmasterol stearate esters (25 g/kg diet) in an atherogenic diet containing cholesterol (1.2 g/kg) and coconut oil (80 g/kg). The phytosterol stearates produced no decrease in cholesterol absorption or plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol despite a reduction in liver free cholesterol in hamsters fed both sitosterol and sitostanol stearate diets. In addition, sitosterol stearate significantly increased fecal esterified and total neutral sterol excretion. Stigmasterol stearate did not differ from control in neutral sterol excretion, plasma lipids, or hepatic lipid concentration. Sitosterol stearate demonstrated the highest level of net intestinal hydrolysis, whereas sitostanol and stigmasterol stearate equivalently demonstrated the lowest. The cholesterol-lowering effect in liver-but not plasma-and the limited presence of fecal free sterols indicate that intact (unhydrolyzed) phytosterol stearates may impact cholesterol metabolism by mechanisms unrelated to the role of free phytosterols. The consumption of phytosterol esters at 2.5% of the diet elicited only modest impacts on cholesterol metabolism, although sitosterol stearate had a slightly greater therapeutic impact by lowering liver free cholesterol and increasing esterified and total neutral sterol fecal excretion, possibly due to a greater level of intestinal hydrolysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  11. Survival of adult neurons lacking cholesterol synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfschilling, Ursula; Saher, Gesine; Xiao, Le; Möbius, Wiebke; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2007-01-02

    Cholesterol, an essential component of all mammalian plasma membranes, is highly enriched in the brain. Both during development and in the adult, brain cholesterol is derived from local cholesterol synthesis and not taken up from the circulation. However, the contribution of neurons and glial cells to total brain cholesterol metabolism is unknown. Using conditional gene inactivation in the mouse, we disrupted the squalene synthase gene (fdft1), which is critical for cholesterol synthesis, in cerebellar granule cells and some precerebellar nuclei. Mutant mice showed no histological signs of neuronal degeneration, displayed ultrastructurally normal synapses, and exhibited normal motor coordination. This revealed that these adult neurons do not require cell-autonomous cholesterol synthesis for survival or function. We conclude that at least some adult neurons no longer require endogenous cholesterol synthesis and can fully meet their cholesterol needs by uptake from their surrounding. Glia are a likely source of cholesterol in the central nervous system.

  12. Survival of adult neurons lacking cholesterol synthesis in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möbius Wiebke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol, an essential component of all mammalian plasma membranes, is highly enriched in the brain. Both during development and in the adult, brain cholesterol is derived from local cholesterol synthesis and not taken up from the circulation. However, the contribution of neurons and glial cells to total brain cholesterol metabolism is unknown. Results Using conditional gene inactivation in the mouse, we disrupted the squalene synthase gene (fdft1, which is critical for cholesterol synthesis, in cerebellar granule cells and some precerebellar nuclei. Mutant mice showed no histological signs of neuronal degeneration, displayed ultrastructurally normal synapses, and exhibited normal motor coordination. This revealed that these adult neurons do not require cell-autonomous cholesterol synthesis for survival or function. Conclusion We conclude that at least some adult neurons no longer require endogenous cholesterol synthesis and can fully meet their cholesterol needs by uptake from their surrounding. Glia are a likely source of cholesterol in the central nervous system.

  13. High Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Inhibit Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2017-07-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Tranexamic acid modulation of NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainate receptors was studied using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of current from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Tranexamic acid rapidly and reversibly inhibited NMDA receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 241 ± 45 mM, mean ± SD; 95% CI, 200 to 281; n = 5) and shifted the glycine concentration-response curve for NMDA-evoked current to the right. Tranexamic acid also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 231 ± 91 mM; 95% CI, 148 to 314; n = 5 to 6) and kainate receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 90 ± 24 mM; 95% CI, 68 to 112; n = 5). Tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors likely by reducing the binding of the co-agonist glycine and also inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate receptors. Receptor blockade occurs at high millimolar concentrations of tranexamic acid, similar to the concentrations that occur after topical application to peripheral tissues. Glutamate receptors in tissues including bone, heart, and nerves play various physiologic roles, and tranexamic acid inhibition of these receptors may contribute to adverse drug effects.

  14. Effect of different fat-enriched meats on non-cholesterol sterols and oxysterols as markers of cholesterol metabolism: Results of a randomized and cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baila-Rueda, L; Mateo-Gallego, R; Pérez-Calahorra, S; Lamiquiz-Moneo, I; de Castro-Orós, I; Cenarro, A; Civeira, F

    2015-09-01

    Different kinds of fatty acids can affect the synthesis, absorption, and elimination of cholesterol. This study was carried out to assess the associations of cholesterol metabolism with the intake of two meats with different fatty acid composition in healthy volunteers. The study group was composed of 20 subjects (12 males and eight females; age, 34.4 ± 11.6 years; body mass index (BMI), 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2); low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 2.97 ± 0.55 mmol/l; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 1.61 ± 0.31 mmol/l; triglycerides (TG), 1.06 ± 0.41 mmol/l) who completed a 30-day randomized and cross-over study to compare the cholesterol metabolism effect of 250 g of low-fat lamb versus 250 g of high-fat lamb per day in their usual diet. Cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and elimination were estimated from the serum non-cholesterol sterol and oxysterol concentrations analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). No changes in weight, plasma lipids, or physical activity were observed across the study. Cholesterol intestinal absorption was decreased with both diets. Cholesterol synthesis and elimination decreased during the low-fat lamb dietary intervention (ρ = 0.048 and ρ = 0.005, respectively). Acute changes in the diet fat content modify the synthesis, absorption, and biliary elimination of cholesterol. These changes were observed even in the absence of total and LDL cholesterol changes in plasma. ClinicalTrials.gov PRS, NCT02259153. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and ... of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low ... birds had higher feed conversion ratio compared with birds in the other treatments.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed...... effect, maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim....... A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, maintenance...... of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A cause and effect...... relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  18. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-10-15

    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Covalent immobilization of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase on polyaniline films for application to cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suman [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Solanki, Pratima R. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Pandey, M.K. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi@mail.nplindia.ernet.in

    2006-05-24

    Cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) have been covalently immobilized on electrochemically prepared polyaniline (PANI) films. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films have been characterized using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical behavior of these films has been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric techniques, respectively. The PANI/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films show broad oxidation peak from 0.2 to 0.5 V. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx biosensing electrodes have a response time of about 40 s, linearity from 50 to 500 mg/dl of cholesterol oleate concentration. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx films are thermally stable up to 46 deg. C. This polyaniline based cholesterol biosensor has optimum pH in the range of 6.5-7.5, sensitivity as 7.5 x 10{sup -4} nA/mg dl and a lifetime of about 6 weeks.

  20. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p < 0.05) fecal isobutyric, isovaleric and propionic acids as well as the total amount of fecal short chain fatty acids. Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  1. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  2. Rosuvastatin ameliorates cognitive impairment in rats fed with high-salt and cholesterol diet via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid beta peptide aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, I; Akhtar, M; Abdin, M Zainul; Islamuddin, M; Shaharyar, M; Najmi, A K

    2018-04-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation and cholinergic neurodegeneration are involved in the development of cognitive impairment. Therefore, in this article, we examined rosuvastatin (RSV), an oral hypolipidemic drug, to determine its potential as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aβ peptide aggregation for the treatment of cognitive impairment. Molecular docking study was done to examine the affinity of RSV with Aβ 1-42 and AChE in silico. We also employed neurobehavioral activity tests, biochemical estimation, and histopathology to study the anti-Aβ 1-42 aggregation capability of RSV in vivo. Molecular docking study provided evidence that RSV has the best binding conformer at its receptor site or active site of an enzyme. The cognitive impairment in female Wistar rats was induced by high-salt and cholesterol diet (HSCD) ad libitum for 8 weeks. RSV ameliorated serum cholesterol level, AChE activity, and Aβ 1-42 peptide aggregations in HSCD induced cognitive impairment. In addition, RSV-treated rats showed greater scores in the open field (locomotor activity) test. Moreover, the histopathological studies in the hippocampus and cortex of rat brain also supported that RSV markedly reduced the cognitive impairment and preserved the normal histoarchitectural pattern of the hippocampus and cortex. Taken together, these data indicate that RSV may act as a dual inhibitor of AChE and Aβ 1-42 peptide aggregation, therefore suggesting a therapeutic strategy for cognitive impairment treatment.

  3. Practical design constraints for using secondary concentrators at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J.J.; Winston, R.

    1999-07-01

    The optical advantages of using nonimaging secondary concentrators in two-stage solar thermal dish systems are well understood. However, practical questions having to do with the thermal behavior of any secondary and its possible effects on the performance of cavity type receivers have only recently begun to be investigated. A few years ago an experimental demonstration of a trumpet type nonimaging secondary concentrator was carried out with a cavity receiver operating 660 C in combination with the Cummins Power Generation CPG-460 7.5 kWe concentrator system. Lessons learned from this and previous experiments are reviewed. The tests alleviated any operational concerns about the effectiveness of active water cooling and have shown that secondaries can be operated successfully at high temperatures without significant problems. There was no evidence of direct heat loss from the hot receiver to the cooled trumpet. The optical quality of any primary can be expected to fall well below design goals and to deteriorate further with time. This expectation should be taken into account in planning future experiments and developing new concentrating systems.

  4. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 by using the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 for the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian-Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  5. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: jasouza@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 g U/c m3 by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 g U/c m3 for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian- Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  6. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were monitored in 164 Pakistani patients with AMI and 106 normal healthy adults matched for gender, BMI and age within 10 years. Mean serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol and mean serum paraoxonase activity in AMI patients were not significantly different from the corresponding values in normal healthy subjects. Mean serum paraoxonase activity value was significantly lower in normal healthy subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (serum levels < 40mg/dl) compared to the value in those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.04). In AMI patients, paraoxonase activity was lower in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol compared to those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. Correlation analyses of the data revealed a moderate association of paraoxonase activity with HDL-cholesterol (Pearson's r= 0.225, P<0.01 for AMI patients and r=0.281, P<0.01 for normal healthy controls). Seventy three percent of normal healthy subjects and 65% of AMI patients in this study had low HDL-cholesterol. Low serum paraoxonase activity and high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani population could be contributing to the high rates of coronary heart disease in this population. (author)

  7. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  8. Novel association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children with high prevalence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Galindo-Gómez, Carlos; Juárez-Martínez, Liliana; Gómez, F Enrique; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Ávila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Ávila-Curiel, Abelardo

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder that includes a cluster of several risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene has been associated with low HDL-cholesterol in several studies, but its association with MetS in children remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the R230C variant with MetS and other metabolic traits in school-aged Mexican children. The study was performed in seven urban primary schools in the State of Mexico. Four hundred thirty-two Mexican school-age children 6-13 years old were recruited. MetS was identified using the International Diabetes Federation definition. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene was genotyped to seek associations with MetS and other metabolic traits. The prevalence of MetS was 29% in children aged 10-13 years. The R230C variant was not associated with MetS (OR = 1.65; p = 0.139). Furthermore, in the whole population, the R230C variant was associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels (β coefficient = -3.28, p <0.001). Interestingly, in the total population we found a novel association of this variant with high triglyceride levels (β coefficient = 14.34; p = 0.027). We found a new association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels. Our findings also replicate the association of this variant with low HDL-cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholesterol lipoproteins and prevalence of dyslipidemias in urban Asian Indians: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soneil Guptha

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Mean cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are low and triglycerides were high in urban Asian Indians. Most prevalent dyslipidemias are borderline high LDL, low HDL and high triglycerides. Subjects with high socioeconomic status, high fat intake and greater adiposity have higher total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol.

  10. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  11. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  12. Liver imaging with MDCT and high concentration contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, Audrey L.

    2003-01-01

    Liver imaging has advanced greatly over the last 10 years with helical CT capability and more recently the addition of multidetector-row CT (MDCT). Multidetector CT technology facilitates imaging at faster speeds with improved image quality and less breathing artifact [Abdom. Imaging 25 (2000) 643]. Exquisite three-dimensional data sets can be obtained with thin collimation providing improved lesion detection, multiplanar imaging, and the ability to perform CT angiography of the liver and mesenteric vessels. New challenges arise with this advance in technology including safety considerations. The radiation dose to the patient has increased with MDCT and this is compounded by the ability to perform multi-phase liver imaging. Furthermore, issues of contrast media administration require reconsideration including optimal timing and rate of administration, the total volume of contrast needed and the ideal iodine concentration of the contrast media. Recently, the use of high concentration contrast media (HCCM) has been explored and study results to date will be reviewed

  13. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Lefevre, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Most, Marlene M; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol supplementation of 2 g/d is recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to reduce LDL cholesterol. However, the effects of different intakes of phytosterol on cholesterol metabolism are uncertain. We evaluated the effects of 3 phytosterol intakes on whole-body cholesterol metabolism. In this placebo-controlled, crossover feeding trial, 18 adults received a phytosterol-deficient diet (50 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal) plus beverages supplemented with 0, 400, or 2000 mg phytosterols/d for 4 wk each, in random order. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen; breakfast and dinner on weekdays were eaten on site. Primary outcomes were fecal cholesterol excretion and intestinal cholesterol absorption measured with stable-isotope tracers and serum lipoprotein concentrations. Phytosterol intakes (diet plus supplements) averaged 59, 459, and 2059 mg/d during the 3 diet periods. Relative to the 59-mg diet, the 459- and 2059-mg phytosterol intakes significantly (P phytosterol dose (-8.9 +/- 2.3%); a trend was observed with the 459-mg/d dose (-5.0 +/- 2.1%; P = 0.077). Dietary phytosterols in moderate and high doses favorably alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. A moderate phytosterol intake (459 mg/d) can be obtained in a healthy diet without supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860054.

  14. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Lefevre, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Most, Marlene M; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Phytosterol supplementation of 2 g/d is recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to reduce LDL cholesterol. However, the effects of different intakes of phytosterol on cholesterol metabolism are uncertain. Objective: We evaluated the effects of 3 phytosterol intakes on whole-body cholesterol metabolism. Design: In this placebo-controlled, crossover feeding trial, 18 adults received a phytosterol-deficient diet (50 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal) plus beverages supplemented with 0, 400, or 2000 mg phytosterols/d for 4 wk each, in random order. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen; breakfast and dinner on weekdays were eaten on site. Primary outcomes were fecal cholesterol excretion and intestinal cholesterol absorption measured with stable-isotope tracers and serum lipoprotein concentrations. Results: Phytosterol intakes (diet plus supplements) averaged 59, 459, and 2059 mg/d during the 3 diet periods. Relative to the 59-mg diet, the 459- and 2059-mg phytosterol intakes significantly (P phytosterol dose (−8.9 ± 2.3%); a trend was observed with the 459-mg/d dose (−5.0 ± 2.1%; P = 0.077). Conclusions: Dietary phytosterols in moderate and high doses favorably alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. A moderate phytosterol intake (459 mg/d) can be obtained in a healthy diet without supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860054. PMID:19889819

  15. [Condition optimization for bio-oxidation of high-S and high-As gold concentrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caiyun; Dong, Bowen; Wang, Meijun; Ye, Zhiyong; Zheng, Tianling; Huang, Huaiguo

    2015-12-04

    To study the effects of temperature and lixivium return on the concentrate bio-oxidation and rate of gold cyanide leaching. The bioleaching of a high-sulphur (S) and high-arsenic (As) refractory gold concentrate was conducted, and we studied the effects of different temperature (40 ° and 45 °C) and lixivium return (0 and 600 mL) on the bio-oxidation efficiency. The bacterial community structure also was investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results showed that both the temperature and lixivium return significantly influenced the oxidation system. The temperature rising elevated the oxidation level, while the addition of lixivium depressed the oxidation. Dissimilarity and DCA (detrended correspondence analysis) indicated the effect of temperature on oxidation system was much greater than lixivium. The bacterial community was comprised by Acidithiocacillus caldu (71%) Leptospirillum ferriphilum (23%) and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (6%) indicated by the clone library, and the OTU coverage based on 97% sequence similarity was as high as 93.67%. Temperature rising to 45 T would improve the oxidation efficiency while lixivium return would decrease it. This study is helpful to provide an important guiding value for the industry cost optimization of mesophile bacterial oxidation and reduction process.

  16. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 for U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm 3 for U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 in U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm 3 U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U 3 Si 2 -Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm 3 showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U 3 Si 2 production at 4.8 gU/cm 3 , with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  17. Mitigation of houses with extremely high indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.; Neznal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on the experience of the Czech Technical University in dealing with mitigation of houses in which unusually high indoor radon concentrations were found. The whole process of remediation is illustrated by example of an old single-family house that was built in the area formed by highly permeable soils with high radon content in the soil air. T he house has a small cellar located under 1/5 of the ground floor area. Two types of floors, i.e. timber floors and cracked concrete slabs were found in the house. As a result of extremely high radon concentration in the sub-floor region (up to 600 kBq/m 3 ) and leaky structures in contact with soil, radon concentrations around 100 kBq/m 3 in the cellar and up to 60 kBq/m 3 in the living rooms on the ground floor were measured prior to mitigation. Mitigation measures that were carried out in the house consist of reconstruction of timber floors and installation of active soil depressurization. Timber floors were replaced with concrete slab fitted with damp proof membrane, thermal insulation and floor covering. The soil depressurization system was made up of two sections. The first section is composed of the network of perforated pipes inserted in the drainage layer placed under the new floors and four perforated tubes drilled under the existing floors. The soil air from this section is extracted by means of a roof fan installed at the top of the vertical exhaust pipe running inside the living space and terminating above the roof. The second section was designed to withdraw by means of a small fan radon-laden air from the filling in the floor above the cellar and from perforated tubes drilled into the sub-floor region under the rooms adjacent to the cellar. It serves also for the active ventilation of the cellar. Pressure, temperature and radon concentration sensors were installed into the drainage layer during the reconstruction of floors to record variations in these

  18. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  19. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, Chesa G; Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Seier, Jurgen V

    2014-02-01

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.

  20. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.

    2014-01-22

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.©2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; Duross, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HPβCD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid conjugate enables cholesterol clearance from endo/lysosomes of Npc1 mutant (Npc1-/-) cells. Herein, we show that distearyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG (DSPE-PEG), which forms 12-nm micelles above the critical micelle concentration, accumulates heavily inside cholesterol-rich late endosomes in Npc1-/- cells. This potentially results in cholesterol solubilization and leakage from lysosomes. High-throughput screening revealed that DSPE-PEG, in combination with HPβCD, acts synergistically to efflux cholesterol without significantly aggravating autophagy defects. These well-known excipients can be used as admixtures to treat NPC1 disorder. Increasing PEG chain lengths from 350 Da-30 kDa in DSPE-PEG micelles, or increasing DSPE-PEG content in an array of liposomes packaged with HPβCD, improved cholesterol egress, while Pluronic block copolymers capable of micelle formation showed slight effects at high concentrations. We postulate that PEG-lipid based nanocarriers can serve as bioactive drug delivery systems for effective treatment of lysosomal storage disorders.

  2. Introduction of high oxygen concentrations into silicon wafers by high-temperature diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Ruzin, A.; Wegrzecki, M.

    1999-01-01

    The tolerance of silicon detectors to hadron irradiation can be improved by the introduction of a high concentration of oxygen into the starting material. High-resistivity Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon is required for detectors used in particle physics applications. A significantly high oxygen concentration (>10 17 atoms cm -3 ) cannot readily be achieved during the FZ silicon refinement. The diffusion of oxygen at elevated temperatures from a SiO 2 layer grown on both sides of a silicon wafer is a simple and effective technique to achieve high and uniform concentrations of oxygen throughout the bulk of a 300 μm thick silicon wafer

  3. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  4. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  5. Bakery products enriched with phytosterol esters, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol and maintain plasma beta-carotene concentrations in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quílez, Joan; Rafecas, Magda; Brufau, Gemma; García-Lorda, Pilar; Megías, Isabel; Bulló, Mònica; Ruiz, Joan A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2003-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of phytosterols have not been evaluated in bakery products, and the addition of liposoluble antioxidants to the carrier has never been tested. We investigated the effects of consuming croissants and magdalenas (Spanish muffins) enriched with sterol esters, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on plasma lipid and fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations in normocholesterolemic, habitual consumers of bakery products following their usual diet and lifestyle. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, the control (C) group (n = 29) received two pieces daily (standard croissant and muffin) and the sterol ester (SE) group (n = 28), the same products with sterol esters added (3.2 g/d) for 8 wk. Total and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the SE group by 0.24 mmol/L (P bakery products are excellent carriers for phytosterols, and their consumption is associated with a decrease in total and LDL-C concentrations, with no changes in alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. The ability of bakery products to include sufficient quantities of beta-carotene to compensate for a potential deficiency, and the fact that their efficacy was not associated with the time of day at which they were consumed, are interesting findings.

  6. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  7. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between simulations and observations of

  8. Influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on biliary proteins, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol crystal growth in rat bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-02-01

    Tender cluster beans (CBs; Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) are observed to possess anti-lithogenic potential in experimental mice. Formation of cholesterol gallstones in gallbladder is controlled by procrystallizing and anticrystallizing factors present in bile in addition to supersaturation of cholesterol. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of CB on biliary glycoproteins, low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) proteins, cholesterol nucleation time, and cholesterol crystal growth in rat hepatic bile. Groups of rats were fed for 10 weeks with 0.5% cholesterol to render the bile lithogenic. Experimental dietary interventions were: 10% freeze-dried CB, 1% garlic powder or their combination. Incorporation of CB into HCD decreased the cholesterol saturation index in bile, increased bile flow and biliary glycoproteins. Dietary CB prolonged cholesterol nucleation time in bile. Electrophoresis of biliary proteins showed the presence of high concentration of 27 kDa protein which might be responsible for the prolongation of cholesterol nucleation time in the CB fed group. Proteins of 20 kDa and 18 kDa were higher in CB treated animals, while the same were less expressed in HCD group. Biliary proteins from CB fed animals reduced cholesterol crystal growth index which was elevated in the presence of proteins from HCD group. Cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and cholesterol-27-hydroxylase mRNA expression was increased in CB treated animals contributing to the bile acid synthesis. Thus, the beneficial anti-lithogenic effect of dietary CB which primarily is due to reduced cholesterol saturation index was additionally affected through a modulation of the nucleating and anti-nucleating proteins that affect cholesterol crystallization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Relates to Working Memory, Immediate and Delayed Cued Recall in Brazilian Older Adults: The Role of Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. A critically low HDL-C level (cued recall. Moderation analyses suggested that the relations of the HDL-C level to working memory and delayed cued recall were negligible in individuals with longer education, a higher cognitive level of the job, and greater engagement in cognitive leisure activity. Cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course may reduce the detrimental influences of a critically low HDL-C level on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10 15 cm -3 has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium β-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H 2 with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10 7 cm -3 and are estimated to contain 10 8 H atoms each

  11. Plasma cholesterol and related lipid levels of seemingly healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was achieved through analysis of fasting plasma samples for the following: Total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerols (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and molar ratios of LDL/HDL, TC/ HDL, and TC/TG. Methods: One hundred and seventy four ...

  12. Risk factors associated with high linezolid trough plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, L; De la Calle, C; Gómez-Cerquera, J M; Manzanedo, L; Casals, G; Brunet, M; Cobos-Trigueros, N; Martínez, J A; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2016-06-01

    The major concern of linezolid is the adverse events. High linezolid trough serum concentration (Cmin) has been associated with toxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze factors associated with high Cmin. Main clinical characteristics of 104 patients treated with 600 mg/12 hours of linezolid were retrospectively reviewed. Samples were obtained just before the next dose after at least three doses and within the first 8 days of treatment. High Cmin was considered when it was >8 mg/L. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. 34.6% patients had a Cmin >8 mg/L, and they were older and had more frequently an estimated glomerular filtration by MDRD 8 was the renal function. Patients with an eGF 80 mL/min (OR: 4.273) and there was a trend towards a high Cmin in patients with eGF between 40-80 mL/min (OR: 2.109). High Cmin were frequent, especially in patients with MDRD <40 mL/min. Therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful to avoid toxicity in patients with renal dysfunction.

  13. Dietary supplementation with d-tagatose in subjects with type 2 diabetes leads to weight loss and raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Thomas W; Magder, Laurence S; Zarbalian, Kiarash

    2010-12-01

    Oral d-tagatose (d-tag) attenuates the rise in plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and reduces food intake in healthy human subjects. A reduction in food consumption and less weight gain occur in rats fed tagatose. This pilot study explored the metabolic effects of d-tag given daily to 8 human subjects with type 2 DM for 1 year. We hypothesized that this treatment period would lead to weight loss and improvements in glycated hemoglobin and the lipid profile. A 2-month run-in period was followed by a 12-month treatment period when 15 g of oral d-tag was taken 3 times daily with food. No serious adverse effects were seen during the 12-month treatment period. Ten of the initially 12 recruited subjects experienced gastrointestinal side effects that tended to be mild and transient. When 3 subjects were excluded who had oral diabetes, medications added and/or dosages increased during the study and mean (SD) body weight declined from 108.4 (9.0) to 103.3 (7.3) kg (P = .001). Glycated hemoglobin fell nonsignificantly from 10.6% ± 1.9% to 9.6% ± 2.3% (P = .08). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol progressively rose from a baseline level of 30.5 ± 15.8 to 41.7 ± 12.1 mg/dL at month 12 in the 6 subjects who did not have lipid-modifying medications added during the study (P < .001). Significant improvements in body weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in this pilot study suggest that d-tag may be a potentially useful adjunct in the management of patients with type 2 DM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food. PMID:25230211

  15. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  16. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-16

    The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  17. EFFECT OF THE LEVEL AND TYPE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE METABOLISM OF CHOLESTEROL AND BETA LIPOPROTEINS IN THE CEBUS MONKEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Oscar W.; Hegsted, D. Mark; Stare, Fredrick J.; Bruno, Dorothy; Murphy, Robert; Sinisterra, Leonardo

    1956-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of the level and type of dietary fat on the concentration of cholesterol and beta lipoproteins in the sera of Cebus monkeys. Three groups of monkeys were fed isocaloric diets containing a fixed ratio of alpha protein and cholesterol to calories but with different amounts of corn oil and sucrose. Corn oil provided 10, 32, and 45 per cent of the calories in the three diets, and the level of sucrose was varied inversely. After 8 weeks the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoprotein concentrations were significantly greater in the medium and high fat groups. When corn oil was decreased from 45 to 10 per cent of dietary calories and sucrose was increased, the serum cholesterol fell in all cases, and when the reverse change was made, the concentration of serum cholesterol increased. Variation in dietary sucrose had no specific effect. Substitution of starch for sucrose with diets otherwise constant did not cause significant change in the concentration of serum cholesterol. When monkeys fed corn oil diets at any of three levels were changed to hydrogenated cottonseed oil diets at the same level, the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoproteins rose. However, hydrogenated cottonseed oil had no greater hypercholesteremic effect than did corn oil in the absence of dietary cholesterol. Diets containing lard with cholesterol also produced strikingly greater serum lipide responses than did diets based on corn oil and cholesterol. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil had a greater hypercholesteremic effect than an unhydrogenated cottonseed oil from the same lot. Preliminary studies indicated that the saturated fats (hydrogenated cottonseed oil) produced the most striking elevation of serum cholesterol values (above controls fed corn oil) when casein was the dietary protein. PMID:13376806

  18. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaio, Daniella Junko; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Souza, José Maria Pacheco; Firmino, Aline Vale; Luzia, Liania Alves; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition in HIV-infected individuals and may occur in all stages of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, micronutrients related to immunity and oxidative stress, in 182 adults with HIV/AIDS, under different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their HAART regimen: combination of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs; combination of NRTIs, protease inhibitors, and ritonavir; combination of NRTIs and other classes. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the effect of the treatment regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen, on vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations, controlling for the following variables: gender, age, educational level, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, time of infection with HIV, presence of comorbidities, CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglyceride levels. There was no significant difference in vitamin A or beta-carotene concentrations in patients under the different HAART regimens. However, approximately 4% of the patients had deficient/low concentrations of vitamin A (<0.70 μmol/L), and 98% showed concentrations of beta-carotene <1.0 μmol/L. In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients in this region will not benefit from vitamin A supplementation, independently of the HAART regimen utilized, but beta-carotene may be of importance, considering its antioxidant effect.

  19. Effects of apolipoproteins on the kinetics of cholesterol exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letizia, J.Y.; Phillips, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of apolipoproteins on the kinetics of cholesterol exchange have been investigated by monitoring the transfer of [ 14 C]cholesterol from donor phospholipid/cholesterol complexes containing human apolipoproteins A, B, or C. Negatively charged discoidal and vesicular particles containing purified apolipoproteins complexed with lipid and a trace of [ 14 C]cholesterol were incubated with a 10-fold excess of neutral, acceptor, small unilamellar vesicles. The donor and acceptor particles were separated by chromatogrphy of DEAE-Sepharose, and the rate of movement of labeled cholesterol was analyzed as a first-order exchange process. The kinetics of exchange of cholesterol from both vesicular and discoidal complexes that contain apoproteins are consistent with an aqueous diffusion mechanism, as has been established previously for PC/cholesterol SUV. Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, reduced and carboxymethylated A-11, and B-100 present in SUV at the same lipid/protein (w/w) ratio all enhance the rate of cholesterol exchange to about the same degree. Cholesterol molecules exchange more rapidly from discoidal complexes. Generally, as the diameter of apoprotein/phospholipid/cholesterol discs decreases, t 1/2 for cholesterol exchange decreases. Since small bilayer discs have a relatively high ratio of boundary to face surface area, cholesterol molecules desorb more rapidly than from larger discs. The modulation of lipid packing by the apoprotein molecules present at the surface of lipoprotein particles affects the rate of cholesterol exchange from such particles

  20. A Healthy Balance of Plasma Cholesterol by a Novel Annurca Apple-Based Nutraceutical Formulation: Results of a Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are nowadays preferential targets of preventive medicine through a straightforward therapy on lipid profile. However, statins, the first-line lipid-lowering drug therapy, specifically act on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), having a modest effect on plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Today, a number of novel HDL-targeted therapies are emerging, along with unexpected side effects. Thus, novel and possibly safe substa...

  1. BMI and waist circumference; cross-sectional and prospective associations with blood pressure and cholesterol in 12-year-olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga B M Bekkers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Childhood and adolescent overweight, defined by body mass index (BMI are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Abdominal adiposity may be more important in associations with cardiovascular diseases but waist circumference (WC has been rarely studied in children. We studied associations between BMI and WC and blood pressure (BP and cholesterol in 12-year-old children and prospectively changes in BMI or WC status between age 8 and 12 years and BP and cholesterol at age 12. STUDY DESIGN: Weight, height, WC, BP and cholesterol concentrations were measured in 1432 children at age 12 years. Linear regression was used to study the associations between high BMI and large WC (>90(th percentile and BP and cholesterol. RESULTS: Systolic BP was 4.9 mmHg higher (95% (CI 2.5, 7.2 in girls and 4.2 mmHg (95%CI 1.9, 6.5 in boys with a high BMI. Large WC was also associated with higher systolic BP in girls (3.7 mmHg (95%CI 1.3, 6.1 and boys (3.5 mmHg (95%CI 1.2, 5.8. Diastolic BP and cholesterol concentrations were significantly positively (HDL cholesterol negatively associated with high BMI and large WC, too. Normal weight children with a history of overweight did not have higher blood pressure levels or adverse cholesterol concentrations than children that were normal weight at both ages. CONCLUSION: A high BMI and large WC were associated with higher BP levels and adverse cholesterol concentrations. WC should be taken into account when examining cardiovascular risk factors in children.

  2. Metabolic syndrome and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with adverse pathological features in patients with prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebdai, Souhil; Mathieu, Romain; Leger, Julie; Haillot, Olivier; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Fournier, Georges; Perrouin-Verbe, Marie-Aimée; Doucet, Laurent; Azzouzi, Abdel Rahmene; Rigaud, Jérome; Renaudin, Karine; Charles, Thomas; Bruyere, Franck; Fromont, Gaelle

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, we aimed to assess the association between MetS and markers of PCa aggressiveness on radical prostatectomy (RP). All patients consecutively treated for PCa by RP in 6 academic institutions between August 2013 and July 2016 were included. MetS was defined as at least 3 of 5 components (obesity, elevated blood pressure, diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia). Demographic, biological, and clinical parameters were prospectively collected, including: age, biopsy results, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen, surgical procedure, and pathological data of RP specimen. Locally advanced disease was defined as a pT-stage ≥3. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) groups were used for pathological grading. Qualitative and quantitative variables were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon tests; logistic regression analyses assessed the association of MetS and its components with pathological data. Statistical significance was defined as a P<0.05. Among 567 men, 249 (44%) had MetS. In a multivariate model including preoperative prostate-specific antigen, biopsy ISUP-score, clinical T-stage, age, and ethnicity: we found that MetS was an independent risk factor for positive margins, and ISUP group ≥4 on the RP specimen (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3; P = 0.035; OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-4.0; P = 0.044, respectively). In addition, low HDL-cholesterol level was associated with locally advanced PCa (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4; P = 0.024). Risks of adverse pathological features increased with the number of MetS components: having ≥ 4 MetS components was significantly associated with higher risk of ISUP group ≥ 4 and higher risk of positive margins (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3; P = 0.017; OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8; P = 0.007, respectively). MetS was an independent predictive factor for

  3. [Cholesterol reducing food certainly is useful].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenhoef, A F

    1997-12-27

    The effect of a low-cholesterol diet in open intervention studies depends in the long run on motivation, knowledge and dedication. The mean decrease of the serum cholesterol level is 10% (range: 0-20). Epidemiological and cohort studies clearly prove a connection between the intake of saturated fat, the serum cholesterol level and the risk of coronary heart disease and death. High-fat food slows down the clearance of the degradation products rich in cholesterol which appear in the blood after a meal and which are highly atherogenic (these products are not found at a fasting cholesterol assay). Cholesterol-reducing nutrition has additional useful effects, for instance on the blood pressure and the coagulation. The recommendations for healthy, low-cholesterol nutrition for the population as a whole apply particularly to patients with a high risk of coronary heart disease. Although advice given to individuals often has a disappointing effect, influencing the life pattern should be included in the strategy to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

  4. Steady-state oxidation of cholesterol catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase in lipid bilayer membranes on platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Devadoss, Anando; Palencsar, Mariela S.; Burgess, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase is immobilized in electrode-supported lipid bilayer membranes. Platinum electrodes are initially modified with a self-assembled monolayer of thiolipid. A vesicle fusion method is used to deposit an outer leaflet of phospholipids onto the thiolipid monolayer forming a thiolipid/lipid bilayer membrane on the electrode surface. Cholesterol oxidase spontaneously inserts into the electrode-supported lipid bilayer membrane from solution and is consequently immobilized to the electrode surface. Cholesterol partitions into the membrane from buffer solutions containing cyclodextrin. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol by molecular oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide as a product. Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide for continuous solution flow experiments are presented, where flow was alternated between cholesterol solution and buffer containing no cholesterol. Steady-state anodic currents were observed during exposures of cholesterol solutions ranging in concentration from 10 to 1000 μM. These data are consistent with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for oxidation of cholesterol as catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase immobilized in the lipid bilayer membrane. The cholesterol detection limit is below 1 μM for cholesterol solution prepared in buffered cyclodextrin. The response of the electrodes to low density lipoprotein solutions is increased upon addition of cyclodextrin. Evidence for adsorption of low density lipoprotein to the electrode surface is presented

  5. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Jaime L; Matthan, Nirupa R; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2011-10-21

    The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA) or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA) (both 10% [w/w]) and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w]) or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]). Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P safflower oil, had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.001) which were associated with lower hepatic SREBP-1c (p < 0.05) but not apo B-100, apo E or ACAT-2 mRNA or protein levels. Independent of cholesterol status, fish oil fed hamsters had lower HDL cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.001), which were associated with lower hepatic apoA-I protein levels (p < 0.05). These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  6. Cholesterol Bilayer Domains in the Eye Lens Health: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija

    2017-12-01

    The most unique biochemical characteristic of the eye lens fiber cell plasma membrane is its extremely high cholesterol content, the need for which is still unclear. It is evident, however, that the disturbance of Chol homeostasis may result in damages associated with cataracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance methods allow discrimination of two types of lipid domains in model membranes overloaded with Chol, namely, phospholipid-cholesterol domains and pure Chol bilayer domains. These domains are also detected in human lens lipid membranes prepared from the total lipids extracted from lens cortices and nuclei of donors from different age groups. Independent of the age-related changes in phospholipid composition, the physical properties of phospholipid-Chol domains remain the same for all age groups and are practically identical for cortical and nuclear membranes. The presence of Chol bilayer domains in these membranes provides a buffering capacity for cholesterol concentration in the surrounding phospholipid-Chol domains, keeping it at a constant saturating level and thus keeping the physical properties of the membrane consistent with and independent of changes in phospholipid composition. It seems that the presence of Chol bilayer domains plays an integral role in the regulation of cholesterol-dependent processes in fiber cell plasm membranes and in the maintenance of fiber cell membrane homeostasis.

  7. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels...... are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated...... levels of remnant cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis same way as elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall. Genetic studies of variants associated with elevated remnant cholesterol levels show that an increment of 1mmol/L (39mg...

  8. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  9. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  10. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Pillai, Raji; Wilson, Anand Babu; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha

    2018-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10–20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015). Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05). Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047), whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004). Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:29444162

  11. Low serum levels of High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c as an indicator for the development of severe postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Ramachandran Pillai

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression (PPD is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10-20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015. Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05. Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047, whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004. Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  12. Alcohol consumption is associated with high concentrations of urinary hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; de la Torre, Rafael; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Flores, Gemma; Civit, Ester; Farré, Magí; Fiol, Miguel; Vila, Joan; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquín; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, Jose; Sáez, Guillermo; Covas, María-Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we reported the presence of hydroxytyrosol in red wine and higher human urinary recovery of total hydroxytyrosol than that expected after a single red wine intake. We hypothesized that the alcohol pre