WorldWideScience

Sample records for high child activity

  1. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) related to highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-seropositive child. A report of a case, and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Malema, V; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2010-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is increasingly frequently observed in rural South African communities. HIV-seropositive subjects have a higher prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections than immunocompetent subjects; and paradoxically, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-seropositive subjects is associated with increased frequency of focal epithelial hyperplasia. We describe a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in an HIV-seropositive child receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, who was successfully treated by using diode laser ablation.

  2. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  3. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  4. Active Surveillance of Child Abuse Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Patricia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Birth and death certificates were correlated with information in the state Child Abuse and Neglect Registry on 104 abuse-related fatalities. Significant findings included young age of parents at first pregnancy; high rate of single parenthood; and lower educational achievement among mothers. A model for data collection is discussed. (Author/BRM)

  5. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Fraga, Lynette; McCready, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  6. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Lynette; Dobbins, Dionne; McCready, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  7. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  8. [Effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and on infant growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Luo, Yan; Ding, Yi-ling; Zheng, Yu-huang; Li, Jing; Huang, Jian; Li, Jie-min

    2011-10-01

    To identify the effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and on infant growth and development. A total of 16 HIV-infected women or pregnant women selected in this study received HAART before or 18 - 24 weeks after pregnancy. The treatment included taking Zidovudine (AZT) 0.3 g each time, twice a day, Lamivudine (3TC) 0.3 g each time, once a day and Nevirapine (NVP) 0.2 g each time, twice a day or Efavirenz (EFV) 0.6 g each time, once a day, as well as labor intervention and artificial feeding. The growth index for 17 infants from HIV-infected mothers (experimental group) and 16 normal infants (control group) were observed for 18 months. Neonatal hemoglobin (Hb), liver and kidney function, serum iron and calcium were detected at neonatal period and at 12(th) month, respectively. All the pregnant women were in good conditions and had tolerance with HAART. The birth weight, length and Apgar score of the newborns in the experimental group were (3.5 ± 0.9) kg, (54.2 ± 3.8) cm and 7 - 10 scores respectively, however those in the control group were (3.6 ± 0.8) kg, (55.6 ± 3.6) cm and 8 - 10 scores (t(weight) = 1.01, t(length) = 6.98, P > 0.05). Weight and length of infants in experimental group were (9.36 ± 1.8) kg and (76.3 ± 2.7) cm at 12(th) month, while those in control group were (9.86 ± 2.5) kg and (76.8 ± 2.9) cm (t(weight) = 0.83, t(length) = 1.00, P > 0.05). The level of Hb in experimental group was (126.2 ± 16.7) g/L, and was (148.6 ± 20.5) g/L in control group (t = -5.89, P = 0.11). At 12(th) month, the levels of Hb and the total bilirubin (TB) were (125.9 ± 19.8) g/L and (11.7 ± 3.5) µmol/L in experimental group; and those in the control group were (130.1 ± 18.7) g/L and (13.2 ± 3.7) µmol/L (t(Hb) = -3.82, t(TB) = -2.14, P > 0.05). Serum iron and calcium were (25.4 ± 5.7) µmol/L and (26.4 ± 7.2) µmol/L at neonatal period and were (2.3 ± 0.6) mol/L and (2.8 ± 0

  9. Physical extracurricular activities in educational child-robot interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, Daniel; Schindler, Louisa; Reidsma, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In an exploratory study on educational child-robot interaction we investigate the effect of alternating a learning activity with an additional shared activity. Our aim is to enhance and enrich the relationship between child and robot by introducing "physical extracurricular activities". This enriched relationship might ultimately influence the way the child and robot interact with the learning material. We use qualitative measurement techniques to evaluate the effect of the additional activit...

  10. Physical extracurricular activities in educational child-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, Daniel Patrick; Schindler, Louisa; Reidsma, Dennis; Dautenhahn, K.; Baxter, P.; Weiss, A.; Salem, A.

    In an exploratory study on educational child-robot interaction we investigate the effect of alternating a learning activity with an additional shared activity. Our aim is to enhance and enrich the relationship between child and robot by introducing ``physical extracurricular activities''. This

  11. Physical extracurricular activities in educational child-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, Daniel Patrick; Schindler, Louisa; Reidsma, Dennis; Dautenhahn, K.; Baxter, P.; Weiss, A.; Salem, A.

    2016-01-01

    In an exploratory study on educational child-robot interaction we investigate the effect of alternating a learning activity with an additional shared activity. Our aim is to enhance and enrich the relationship between child and robot by introducing ``physical extracurricular activities''. This enric

  12. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and ge

  13. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: Do active parents foster active children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Methods Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a ≥ 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. Results In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020 but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day, was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037. For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038. Conclusions There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys

  14. Effects of Child Participation in Livelihood Activities on Children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Child Participation in Livelihood Activities on Children's Welfare among ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... still face many challenges as a result of participating in the activities prohibited by the legislations.

  15. Child adjustment in high conflict families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Berthelsen, D; O'Connor, I

    1997-03-01

    Children exposed to spousal violence are at risk for social-emotional problems. This research investigated a number of family and child factors which might influence the effects of witnessing spousal violence on young children. Fifty-four mothers who had at least one child in the age range of 3 to 6 years participated in the study. These women had left a violent relationship 12 to 24 months prior to their participation in the study and were not in a new relationship. Information was collected through a structured interview which included the administration of a standardized family violence measure (conflict tactics scale) and child adjustment profile (child behaviour checklist). Forty-two per cent of the children exhibited a level of behavioural problems which would warrant clinical intervention. The amount of violence that the children witnessed, the children's responses when the violence occurred and whether the child copied the violent partner's behaviour, were associated with the children's behavioural adjustment scores. Maternal parenting style was not found to have a significant effect on behavioural adjustment. The study provided important quantitative and qualitative data on the nature of parent-child relationships and children's adjustment in families where there is spousal violence.

  16. Child Poverty and Child Rights Meet Active Citizenship: A New Zealand and Sweden Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael; Salonen, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Children's rights and active citizenship have been significant policy emphases and developments in recent years but the relationship between the two has not been actively explored in relation to the implications for child poverty. Recent policy developments in New Zealand and Sweden are drawn on here to explore this relationship. The article…

  17. Child Poverty and Child Rights Meet Active Citizenship: A New Zealand and Sweden Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael; Salonen, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Children's rights and active citizenship have been significant policy emphases and developments in recent years but the relationship between the two has not been actively explored in relation to the implications for child poverty. Recent policy developments in New Zealand and Sweden are drawn on here to explore this relationship. The article…

  18. Child health insurance coverage and household activity toward child development in four South American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L

    2014-05-01

    We evaluate the association between child health insurance coverage and household activities that enhance child development. We use micro-level data on a unique sample of 2,370 children from four South American countries. Data were collected by physicians via in-person interviews with the mothers. The regression models compare insured and uninsured children seen within the same pediatric care practice for routine well-child care and adjust for several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also stratify these analyses by selective household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and by country. We find that insurance coverage is associated with increasingly engaging the child in development-enhancing household activity in the total sample. This association significantly varies with ethnic ancestry and is more pronounced for children of Native or African ancestry. When stratifying by country, a significant positive association is observed for Argentina, with two other countries having positive but insignificant associations. The results suggest that insurance coverage is associated with enhanced household activity toward child development. However, other data and research are needed to estimate the causal relationship.

  19. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  20. Impact of HIV/Aids on Child Mortality before the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era: A Study in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lallemant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented the contribution of HIV/AIDS to mortality among children under 15 years. From June 30 to October 19, 2001, all child deaths (n=588 registered to the morgue and/or hospitals of the city of Pointe-Noire, Congo, were investigated using a combined approach including an interview of relatives and postmortem clinical and biological HIV diagnosis. Twenty-one percent of children were HIV positive, while 10.5% of deaths were attributed to AIDS. The most common causes of death in HIV-infected children were pneumonia (30%, pyrexia (22%, diarrhoea (16% and wasting syndrome (16%. Infant mortality rate was estimated 6.3 times higher in children born to HIV-infected mothers compared to HIV-uninfected mothers. This study provides a direct measure of HIV/AIDS as impact on child mortality using a rapid and reliable method. A significant number of deaths could be prevented if HIV infection was diagnosed earlier and infants were provided with antiretroviral treatments.

  1. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  3. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mâsse Louise C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on parent-child correlations of physical activity have been mixed. Few studies have examined concurrent temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in parents and children using direct measures. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child activity correlations by gender, day of week, and time of day, using accelerometers - a method for direct assessment of physical activity. Methods Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday. Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm. Results Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3, for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1 and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64. Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps Conclusions Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.

  4. Parents' perception of their influence on their child's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerworp, Gwendolyn Kay; Ryan, Sarah-Jane

    2016-03-01

    Childhood physical activity (PA) has declined in the western world recently. To combat child inactivity, government programs have been organized to promote PA within families. It is important for physiotherapists to understand the influence parents perceive to have on their child's PA habits in order to better encourage a positive parental influence. The purpose of this study is to explore how parents perceive their influence on their child/children's PA through an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews conducted with five participants. The interviews were analyzed using elements of IPA. Master themes developed with their corresponding subthemes: creating an environment of opportunity--logistics, opportunities through encouragement and PA within the family, barriers to PA--barriers created by parents and barriers created by external factors, and parent and child interactions--children communicating interest and disinterest in PA and parent's attitudes toward children's disinterest. The findings suggest that parents perceive themselves to have a greater positive influence on their children rather than negative. The barriers that parents create are not perceived to prevent their child's PA but rather restrict it. Many participants reported enjoying doing PA with their children and used PA as an opportunity for family time, indicating a dual purpose for PA.

  5. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja-Peklaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.

  6. Advocacy for Child Wellness in High-Poverty Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Child wellness needs to be understood holistically so that children and youth from high-poverty environments can succeed in schooling and life. Teachers who foster advocacy in themselves are well equipped to teach students to take ownership of their own well-being. Such advocacy can enrich the classroom curriculum and mitigate the negative effects…

  7. High School Child Development Courses Provide a Valuable Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Sally M.

    2009-01-01

    The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…

  8. An Examination of Language Practices during Mother-Child Play Activities among Mexican Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Parr, Alyssa; Bergey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We examined the language practices of five mother-child dyads during a structured play activity, particularly in relation to maternal question use. The study includes second-generation, 4-year-old children of Mexican immigrants who demonstrate either high vocabulary levels in English and Spanish or low levels of vocabulary in both languages.…

  9. The "Renaissance Child": High Achievement and Gender in Late Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept of the "Renaissance Child" to illustrate the ways in which gender influences the opportunities and possibilities of high-achieving pupils. Using data from a study of 12-13-year high-achieving boys and girls based in schools in England, the paper considers the ways in which a group of popular boys was able to show an…

  10. Parent Child Relationship Among High and Low Achieving High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Satish Kumar Kalhotra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to identify Parent Child Relationship Among High and Low Achieving High School Students. A sample of 151 students of IX class students of Govt. school were selected from stratified random sampling. Rao’s (1989 parent-child relationship scale were used to assess the parental relationship The statistical technique like mean, median critical ration was used to find the low and high achiever relationship between father-child & mother child relationship. Lamsal inventory was used to collected the data.The results reveals that High achievers are loved more by their fathers than low ones and are given due importance at home. In constant the mothers equally love both high and low achievers.

  11. Child Care and Mothers' Mental Health: Is High-Quality Care Associated with Fewer Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…

  12. Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Child Care Centers within Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jaime S; Contreras, Dawn; Gold, Abby; Keim, Ann; Oscarson, Renee; Peters, Paula; Procter, Sandra; Remig, Valentina; Smathers, Carol; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Although some researchers have examined nutrition and physical activity policies within urban child care centers, little is known about the potentially unique needs of rural communities. Child care centers serving preschool children located within low-income rural communities (n = 29) from seven states (Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) were assessed to determine current nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices and policies. As part of a large-scale childhood obesity prevention project, the Community Healthy Living Index's previously validated Early Childhood Program Assessment Tool was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to identify high-priority areas. Healthy People 2020 and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' recommendations for nutrition and PA policies in child care centers were used as benchmarks. Reports of not fully implementing (nutrition-related policies or practices within rural early child care centers were identified. Centers not consistently serving a variety of fruits (48%), vegetables (45%), whole grains (41%), limiting saturated fat intake (31%), implementing healthy celebration guidelines (41%), involving children in mealtime (62%), and referring families to nutrition assistance programs (24%) were identified. More than one third of centers also had limited structured PA opportunities. Although eligible, only 48% of the centers participated in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Overall, centers lacked parental outreach, staff training, and funding/resources to support nutrition and PA. These results provide insight into where child care centers within low-income, rural communities may need assistance to help prevent childhood obesity.

  13. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Activities to improve the quality of child care services may include, but are not limited to: (i) Operating... technical assistance in areas appropriate to the provision of child care services, such as training in... (such as fringe benefits) for full-and part-time staff who provide child care services for which...

  14. Child-caregivers' body weight and habitual physical activity status is associated with overweight in kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sascha W; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles

    2014-08-09

    The aim of this study was to examine whether child-caregivers', both parents and kindergarten teachers, health parameters (age, weight status, habitual physical activity score) are significantly associated with the risk of overweight in young children. We assessed the individual body mass index standard deviation score in a regional cross-sectional health study and matched a representative sample of 434 kindergartners aged 3 to 6-years with their caregivers' weight and habitual physical activity status. Furthermore, we identified factors associated with the general ability of child-caregivers to identify overweight in children, and the awareness to classify a child within the correct weight category. Our study confirmed most of the known associations between parental anthropometrics and psychosocial factors with childhood overweight and obesity. A significantly higher proportion of boys tended to be overweight or obese (p = 0.027) and parents were more likely to misclassified boys overweight as normal weight (OR: 1.86; 95% CI 1.21-2.86). Adjusted for confounders, logistic regression analysis revealed that kindergarten teachers' weight status (OR: 1.97; 95%-CI: 1.01-3.83) and habitual physical activity scores (OR: 2.32; 95%-CI: 1.10-4.92) were associated with children's weight status. Kindergarten teachers' weight and habitual physical activity score seem to be new independent risk factors for overweight in kindergartners 3 to 6-years of age. Our results suggest that the psychosocial, non-genetic association of non-parental child-caregivers on children's weight is relatively high and that the association of non-parental child-caregivers warrants further investigation.

  15. Child mortality, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and cellular aging in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barha, Cindy K; Salvante, Katrina G; Hanna, Courtney W; Wilson, Samantha L; Robinson, Wendy P; Altman, Rachel M; Nepomnaschy, Pablo A

    2017-01-01

    Psychological challenges, including traumatic events, have been hypothesized to increase the age-related pace of biological aging. Here we test the hypothesis that psychological challenges can affect the pace of telomere attrition, a marker of cellular aging, using data from an ongoing longitudinal-cohort study of Kaqchikel Mayan women living in a population with a high frequency of child mortality, a traumatic life event. Specifically, we evaluate the associations between child mortality, maternal telomere length and the mothers' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), or stress axis, activity. Child mortality data were collected in 2000 and 2013. HPAA activity was assessed by quantifying cortisol levels in first morning urinary specimens collected every other day for seven weeks in 2013. Telomere length (TL) was quantified using qPCR in 55 women from buccal specimens collected in 2013. Shorter TL with increasing age was only observed in women who experienced child mortality (p = 0.015). Women with higher average basal cortisol (p = 0.007) and greater within-individual variation (standard deviation) in basal cortisol (p = 0.053) presented shorter TL. Non-parametric bootstrapping to estimate mediation effects suggests that HPAA activity mediates the effect of child mortality on TL. Our results are, thus, consistent with the hypothesis that traumatic events can influence cellular aging and that HPAA activity may play a mediatory role. Future large-scale longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results and further explore the role of the HPAA in cellular aging, as well as to advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved.

  16. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...... universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... poorer child outcomes....

  17. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  18. Timing of High-Quality Child Care and Cognitive, Language, and Preacademic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child…

  19. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Kendall, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Every week in the United States, nearly 11 million children younger than age 5 are in some type of child care arrangement. On average, these children spend 36 hours a week in child care. While parents are children's first and most important teachers, child care programs provide early learning for millions of young children daily, having a profound…

  20. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Århus Universitet, Marianne

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  1. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  2. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    universal preschool programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in preschool at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or the mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, longer hours in non-parental care lead to poorer child outcomes.......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudoexperiment generating variation in the take-up of preschool across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  3. Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Family Child Care Homes in Oregon: Baseline Findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine B.; Rice, Kelly R.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2012-01-01

    Baseline findings from the Healthy Home Child Care Project include data from Family Child Care Providers (FCCPs) in Oregon (n=53) who completed assessments of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices and BMI data for children in the care of FCCPs (n=205). Results show that a significant percentage of FCCPs failed to meet child care…

  4. Providing Education to Child Care Instructors: Matching Children's Learning Activities to Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Margaret M.

    Child care instructors and their aides at the Good Shepherd Day Care Center, Punta Gorda, Florida, were taught skills needed to develop classroom activities matching the cognitive development of 3- and 4-year-old children. Through a program of in-service activity in child growth and development, instruction was provided to enable teachers to more…

  5. Child Find Activities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Recent Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Blanton, Kimberly; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    Since the enactment of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (IDEA's forerunner) in 1975, an important requirement has been Child Find activities. According to Shapiro and Derrington (2004), Child Find is broadly defined as the entire range of activities, including public awareness, identification, referral, eligibility determination, and…

  6. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillis, Lauren; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner.......The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner....

  7. Older Babies - More Active Mothers? How Maternal Labor Supply Changes as the Child Grows

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Sommerfeld

    2009-01-01

    Female labor market activity is dependent on the presence and the age of a child, but how do the determinants develop in magnitude and significance with the child's age? Using German SOEP data from 1991 to 2006 for mothers with young children, the change in maternal labor supply when the child is one, two, and three years old is explicitly addressed. According to the tobit regression results for precise working hours, maternal labor supply becomes increasingly responsive to economic incentive...

  8. Stress through the mind of the beholder: preliminary differences in child and maternal perceptions of child stress in relation to child cortisol and cardiovascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Maureen A; Gaffey, Allison E; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined associations among parent and child reports of youth's stressful life events (SLEs), perceived stress, and biological measures of stress activity (i.e. cortisol and cardiovascular activity). Examining these aspects of youth stress presents several challenges. Unlike adult studies of individual differences in which information regarding SLEs, perceptions of events, and biological activity are gathered from one individual, assessment of individual differences among children usually involves other informants (e.g. parent). However, parent and child reports of SLEs and the child's psychological response to such events are often discordant. Moreover, examinations of youth perception of stress are hampered by limitations of child cognitive processes, as well as parents' limited knowledge of their child's perception of stress. In a preliminary effort to unscramble the complex effects of youth SLEs and perceived stress in relation to biological response to acute stressors, this study examined 51 boys and girls aged 7-16, with no history of psychopathology or medical concerns. Contrary to hypotheses, findings revealed that compared to actual experiences of stress, perceived stress has greater associations with both cortisol and cardiovascular activity. That is, perceived stress is more biologically salient relative to actual stress. Results also suggest that informant differences may explain some previous inconsistent findings in studies of youth's stress reactivity. The current findings mirror the adult studies that show appraisal and perception of traumatic and stressful events may be more predictive of negative health and mental health outcomes than the severity of the events. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of youth's perceptions of stress on their biological stress reactions and later health outcomes such as clinical disorders.

  9. Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Adjustment Moderated by Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Activity: Within- and between-Family Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Philip A.; Marceau, Kristine; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Child hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity was investigated as a moderator of parental depressive symptom effects on child behavior in an adoption sample ("n" = 210 families). Adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 18, 27, and 54 months, and child morning and evening HPA…

  10. A systematic review of responsive feeding and child obesity in high-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child overweight/obesity continues to be a serious public health problem in high-income countries. The current review had 3 goals: 1) to summarize the associations between responsive feeding and child weight status in high-income countries; 2) to describe existing responsive feeding measures; and 3)...

  11. 75 FR 41140 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... industry to update and expand the Child Nutrition Database in support of the School Meals Initiative for...

  12. Personality as a factor in parental encouragement and parent-child TV and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the relation of personality to parent TV watching, physical activity (PA), and encouragement for child PA as parental influences on child TV and PA. Structural equation modeling (LISREL 8.7) was used to examine cross-sectional responses from 674 parents (63.0% female, 55...

  13. Non-cognitive Child Outcomes and Universal High Quality Child Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    universal pre-school programs and family day care vis-à-vis home care. We find that, compared to home care, being enrolled in pre-school at age three does not lead to significant differences in child outcomes at age seven no matter the gender or mother's level of education. Family day care, on the other...... hand, seems to significantly deteriorate outcomes for boys whose mothers have a lower level of education. Finally, increasing hours in family day care from 30-40 hours per week to 40-50 hours per week and hours in pre-school from 20-30 hours per week to 30-40 hours per week leads to significantly......Exploiting a rich panel data child survey merged with administrative records along with a pseudo-experiment generating variation in the take-up of pre-school across municipalities, we provide evidence of the effects on non-cognitive child outcomes of participating in large scale publicly provided...

  14. New Policies Allow High School Child Development Programs to Provide CDA Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Amanda G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…

  15. Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…

  16. New Policies Allow High School Child Development Programs to Provide CDA Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Amanda G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…

  17. The impact of a statewide training to increase child care providers' knowledge of nutrition and physical activity rules in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Stefanie; Lessard, Laura; Dupont Phillips, Kate

    2013-02-01

    Childhood obesity has been recognized as a national problem of epidemic proportions. Child care represents an ideal venue in which to address this problem, as many young children spend a significant amount of time and consume the majority of their meals in this setting. Recognizing this opportunity, Delaware recently enacted reforms to statewide licensing regulations designed to improve the quality of the nutrition-, physical activity-, and screen viewing-related environments in child care settings. To facilitate the translation of these regulations into practices, a series of broad-scale trainings was held throughout the state. Attendance was required for all Child & Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-participating facilities, although child care providers from non-CACFP facilities also attended. Pre- and posttraining surveys were used to assess changes in providers' knowledge of the regulations and satisfaction with the training. In total 1094 presurveys and 1076 postsurveys were received. Participants were highly satisfied with the training format and content, including the instructors, materials, and schedule. Data analysis demonstrates improved knowledge of all 26 regulation components from presurvey to postsurvey. Family child care providers, providers with more years of experience, CACFP-participating facilities, and facilities with food service personnel scored significantly higher than their center staff, less experienced and non-CACFP counterparts, as well as those without food service personnel. Broad-scale, in-person training can effectively increase child care providers' knowledge of the regulations and is well received by this audience. Other states and jurisdictions seeking to improve nutrition, physical activity, and screen-viewing practices in child care settings should consider this model of quality improvement.

  18. Identifying Children at High Risk for a Child Maltreatment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Kim, Jeongeun; Black, Maureen M.; Weisbart, Cindy; Semiatin, Joshua; Magder, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To help professionals identify factors that place families at risk for future child maltreatment, to facilitate necessary services and to potentially help prevent abuse and neglect. Method: The data are from a prospective, longitudinal study of 332 low-income families recruited from urban pediatric primary care clinics, followed for…

  19. Mother and Child Health Pmp Report: 2011-2012 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz-Pelaez, Juan G.; de Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * REMINDER: THE MOTHER AND CHILD PMP MANIFESTO (ERICE 2002) * SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE KANGAROO FOUNDATION FOR THE PAST 20 YEARS * WHAT ARE WE EXPECTING FROM 2014? * SOME NEWS FROM THE PHILIPPINES AND ASIA KMC NETWORK. * CONCLUSION

  20. Relationship between child care centers' compliance with physical activity regulations and children's physical activity, New York City, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Lesesne, Catherine A; Dunn, Lillian; Kakietek, Jakub; Jernigan, Jan; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2014-10-16

    Physical activity may protect against overweight and obesity among preschoolers, and the policies and characteristics of group child care centers influence the physical activity levels of children who attend them. We examined whether children in New York City group child care centers that are compliant with the city's regulations on child physical activity engage in more activity than children in centers who do not comply. A sample of 1,352 children (mean age, 3.39 years) served by 110 group child care centers in low-income neighborhoods participated. Children's anthropometric data were collected and accelerometers were used to measure duration and intensity of physical activity. Multilevel generalized linear regression modeling techniques were used to assess the effect of center- and child-level factors on child-level physical activity. Centers' compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 60 minutes of total physical activity per day was positively associated with children's levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 30 minutes of structured activity was not associated with increased levels of MVPA. Children in centers with a dedicated outdoor play space available also spent more time in MVPA. Boys spent more time in MVPA than girls, and non-Hispanic black children spent more time in MVPA than Hispanic children. To increase children's level of MVPA in child care, both time and type of activity should be considered. Further examination of the role of play space availability and its effect on opportunities for engaging in physical activity is needed.

  1. Training highly qualified health research personnel: The Pain in Child Health consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baeyer, Carl L; Stevens, Bonnie J; Chambers, Christine T; Craig, Kenneth D; Finley, G Allen; Grunau, Ruth E; Johnston, C Celeste; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Stinson, Jennifer N; Dol, Justine; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; McGrath, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain in Child Health (PICH) is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadian universities. The goal of PICH has been to create a community of scholars in pediatric pain to improve child health outcomes. METHODS: Quantitative analyses enumerated PICH faculty, trainees, training activities and scientific outputs. Interviews with PICH stakeholders were analyzed using qualitative methods capturing perceptions of the program’s strengths, limitations, and opportunities for development and sustainability. RESULTS: PICH has supported 218 trainee members from 2002 through 2013, from 14 countries and more than 16 disciplines. The faculty at the end of 2013 comprised nine co-principal investigators, 14 Canadian coinvestigators, and 28 Canadian and international collaborators. Trainee members published 697 peer-reviewed journal articles on pediatric pain through 2013, among other research dissemination activities including conference presentations and webinars. Networks have been established between new and established researchers across Canada and in 13 other countries. Perceptions from stakeholders commended PICH for its positive impact on the development of pediatric pain researchers. Stakeholders emphasized skills and abilities gained through PICH, the perceived impact of PICH training on this research field, and considerations for future training in developing researchers in pediatric pain. CONCLUSIONS: PICH has been successfully developing highly qualified health research personnel within a Canadian and international community of pediatric pain scholarship. PMID:25299474

  2. Measurement of compliance with New York City's regulations on beverages, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Laura; Lesesne, Catherine; Kakietek, Jakub; Breck, Andrew; Jernigan, Jan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    Policy interventions designed to change the nutrition environment and increase physical activity in child care centers are becoming more common, but an understanding of the implementation of these interventions is yet to be developed. The objective of this study was to explore the extent and consistency of compliance with a policy intervention designed to promote nutrition and physical activity among licensed child care centers in New York City. We used a multimethod cross-sectional approach and 2 independent components of data collection (Center Evaluation Component and Classroom Evaluation Component). The methods were designed to evaluate the impact of regulations on beverages served, physical activity, and screen time at child care centers. We calculated compliance scores for each evaluation component and each regulation and percentage agreement between compliance in the center and classroom components. Compliance with certain requirements of the beverage regulations was high and fairly consistent between components, whereas compliance with the physical activity regulation varied according to the data collection component. Compliance with the regulation on amount and content of screen time was high and consistent. Compliance with the physical activity regulation may be a more fluid, day-to-day issue, whereas compliance with the regulations on beverages and television viewing may be easier to control at the center level. Multiple indicators over multiple time points may provide a more complete picture of compliance - especially in the assessment of compliance with physical activity policies.

  3. The high-riding superior aortic recess of the pericardium: MRI visualization in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Johnson, Tiffanie; Hoyer, Mark [Indiana University School of Medicine, Pediatric Cardiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2005-12-01

    We report a 4-year-old child with a high-riding superior aortic recess of the pericardium, initially misdiagnosed as a possible vascular malformation. The anatomy of the pericardial recesses is reviewed. (orig.)

  4. SUPPORT OF PSYCHO-PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises

  5. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, K; Waters, E; Green, J; Salmon, L; Williams, J

    2005-03-01

    Preventative health strategies incorporating the views of target participants have improved the likelihood of success. This qualitative study aimed to elicit child and parent views regarding social and environmental barriers to healthy eating, physical activity and child obesity prevention programmes, acceptable foci, and appropriate modes of delivery. To obtain views across a range of social circumstances three demographically diverse primary schools in Victoria, Australia were selected. Children in Grades 2 (aged 7-8 years) and 5 (aged 10-11 years) participated in focus groups of three to six children. Groups were semi-structured using photo-based activities to initiate discussion. Focus groups with established parent groups were also conducted. Comments were recorded, collated, and themes extracted using grounded theory. 119 children and 17 parents participated. Nine themes emerged: information and awareness, contradiction between knowledge and behaviour, lifestyle balance, local environment, barriers to a healthy lifestyle, contradictory messages, myths, roles of the school and family, and timing and content of prevention strategies for childhood obesity. In conclusion, awareness of food 'healthiness' was high however perceptions of the 'healthiness' of some sedentary activities that are otherwise of benefit (e.g. reading) were uncertain. The contradictions in messages children receive were reported to be a barrier to a healthy lifestyle. Parent recommendations regarding the timing and content of childhood obesity prevention strategies were consistent with quantitative research. Contradictions in the explicit and implicit messages children receive around diet and physical activity need to be prevented. Consistent promotion of healthy food and activity choices across settings is core to population prevention programmes for childhood obesity.

  6. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

  7. Child contact management in high tuberculosis burden countries: A mixed-methods systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Lienki; Du Preez, Karen; Carr, Catherine; Mandalakas, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996–2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population: child contacts (studied and compared in HBCs, and d) outcomes: monitoring and evaluation of CCM outcomes reported in the literature for each CCM cascade step. We included any quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods study design except for randomized-controlled trials, editorials or commentaries. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed. Child contact losses varied greatly for screening, isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, and completion. CCM challenges included: infrastructure, knowledge, attitudes, stigma, access, competing priorities, and treatment. CCM recommendations included: health system strengthening, health education, and improved preventive therapy. Identified predictors included: index case and clinic characteristics, perceptions of barriers and risk, costs, and treatment characteristics. CCM lacks standardization resulting in common challenges and losses throughout the CCM cascade. Prioritization of a CCM-friendly healthcare environment with improved CCM processes and tools; health education; and active, evidence-based strategies can decrease barriers. A focused approach toward every aspect of the CCM cascade will likely diminish losses throughout the CCM cascade and ultimately decrease TB

  8. Assessment of food, nutrition, and physical activity practices in Oklahoma child-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Campbell, Janis E; May, Kellie B; Brittain, Danielle R; Monroe, Lisa A; Guss, Shannon H; Ladner, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the obesogenic practices in all-day child-care centers caring for preschool-aged children. This study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey mailed to centers across Oklahoma (n=314). Frequency of responses and χ(2) were calculated comparing region and star rating. Items where the majority of centers frequently report best practices include: daily fruits served (76%), daily nonfried vegetables served (71%), rarely/never served sugary drinks (92%), rarely/never used food to encourage good behaviors (88%), staff join children at table most of the time (81%), staff rarely eat different foods in view of children (69%), visible self-serve or request availability of water (93%), regular informal communication about healthy eating (86%), opportunities for outdoor play (95%), not withholding activity for punishment (91%), accessible play equipment (59% to 80% for different types of equipment), and minimization of extended sitting time (78%). Practices where centers can improve include increasing variety of vegetables (18%), reducing frequency of high-fat meats served (74% serve more than once per week), increasing high-fiber and whole-grain foods (35% offer daily), serving style of "seconds" (28% help kids determine whether they are still hungry), nonfood holiday celebrations (44% use nonfood treats), having toys and books that encourage healthy eating (27%) and physical activity (25%) in all rooms in the center, a standard nutrition (21%) and physical education (50%) curriculum, and following a written physical activity policy (43%). Practitioners can use these data to develop benchmarks and interventions, as this was the first study to assess statewide obesogenic practices in child care.

  9. Do parents know best? Parent-reported vs. child-reported depression symptoms as predictors of future child mood disorder in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katie J S; Mars, Becky; Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Ajay K; Craddock, Nicholas; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2012-12-10

    Parents with depression are thought to be unreliable reporters of children's depression symptoms, but findings are contradictory and primarily focus on discrepancies between parent and child reports rather than on the predictive validity of informants. Using a sample of parents with recurrent depression, our analyses utilised data from a prospective high-risk longitudinal study (the Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression study) to investigate whether baseline parental reports of child depression symptoms predicted new onset mood disorder (NOMD) in children. The sample included 287 parents with a history of recurrent depression and their adolescent offspring (aged 9-17 at baseline). Families were assessed at three time points. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric assessment (parent and child versions) was used to assess the number of child depression symptoms (computed separately by informant at baseline) and NOMD at follow-up. All DSM-IV diagnoses were confirmed by two child psychiatrists. Parent reports of child depression symptoms at baseline significantly predicted NOMD in children. Secondary analyses stratifying the sample according to child age showed that, for younger children, parent reports were significantly better at predicting NOMD compared to child reports. For children aged 12 or older, there were no significant differences between parent and child reports in predicting NOMD. The pattern of association remained the same once we controlled for baseline levels of parental depression. Not all parents were currently experiencing an episode of depression at the baseline assessments; the sample consisted predominantly of mothers, thus findings may not be applicable to fathers or families without a history of parental depression. In this high risk sample, child and parent ratings of depression predict new onset child mood disorder to a similar degree. Clinicians and researchers should give due consideration to parent ratings of their children's depression

  10. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  11. Policy at play: The implementation of Healthy Eating and Active Living Guidelines in municipal child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Kelly; Nigro, Sherry

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, Ottawa Public Health (OPH) partnered with the City of Ottawa Municipal Child Care (MCC) Services to develop Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) Guidelines. The Guidelines aim to promote consistent standards of practice in child care settings related to healthy environments and food, physical activity, physical literacy, decreased sedentary behaviours, and positive role modeling by staff. The Guidelines targeted 498 children aged 18 months to 5 years, attending MCC centres. Resources and training were provided to 10 supervisors, 63 child care educators and 9 cooks. Components of the Guidelines were piloted in 5 MCC sites prior to being launched in 10 MCC sites across Ottawa, Ontario. Two project Advisory Groups supported the development of the Guidelines. Staff training, resources, recipes and menus were provided. An evaluation was conducted and has informed the Guidelines' subsequent community implementation. In 2015, accompanying web-based resources and e-modules were developed. The evaluation demonstrated environmental and programming changes. Parent satisfaction was high and preliminary findings showed no real changes in food costs. Following implementation, the cooks reported high compliance to the 6-week menu plans provided, and the number of sites offering 120 minutes or more of daily physical activity increased. Through novel intersectoral partnerships, OPH was able to implement and evaluate HEAL Guidelines in tandem. The interdisciplinary project Advisory Groups, training of cooks, and engagement of the Ontario Coaches Association were all innovative elements of this project and may influence future public health activity in this area.

  12. Relationship of child abuse with personality features and high risk behaviors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghezelseflo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of the society and are constantly threatened by different people in their family or society. The aim of this study was investigating the correlation of child abuse with personality features and high risk behavior in high school students of Islamshahr, Iran. Methods: This study cross-sectional analytical was conducted on the high school girls and boys of Islamshahr in spring 2014.528 students were selected by cluster random sampling among 4 high schools (two female and two male high schools. Childhood trauma questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Youth Risk-Taking Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by independence t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results: The results of independence t-test indicated significant differences between girls and boys in terms of child abuse and high risk experience (t=-2.16,p=0.03 and t=-5.03, P=0.001, respectively. Also, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between child abuse and personality characteristics, high risk behavior and all its subscales (P<0.05. The findings of multiple linear regressionindicated that child abuse could explain 14% total risk-taking, 25% neurotic personality feature , 14% extroversion, 10% agreeableness, 1% flexibility and 13% conscientiousness (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the research findings, appropriate behavior with children is of great importance. Therefore, child abuse would form inappropriate personality features and increase risk behaviors among children.

  13. Child in Sport and Physical Activity. International Series on Sport Sciences. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinson, J.G., Ed.; Andrew, G.M., Ed.

    This collection of papers reviews the effects of sport and physical activity on children. It is organized around six sections representing the basic disciplines that contribute to a broad view of the child in sport and physical activity: physiology; medicine; growth and development; psychology; sociology; and motor learning. Although each paper…

  14. The Father-Child Activation Relationship, Sex Differences, and Attachment Disorganization in Toddlerhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paquette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation relationship theory serves as a complement to Bowlby’s attachment theory to better understand the impact of fathering on child development, focusing primarily on parental stimulation of risk taking and control during children’s exploration. The first aim of this study was to confirm that the activation relationship as assessed with the observational procedure, the Risky Situation, is primarily determined by paternal stimulation of risk taking as assessed by questionnaire. The second aim was to verify the link between the activation relationship and attachment disorganization. The third aim was to verify the existence of a sex difference in father-toddler dyad activation relationships. The Strange Situation procedure and the Risky Situation procedure were conducted with 58 father-toddler dyads. Fathers completed questionnaires on child temperament and parental behavior. Paternal stimulation of risk taking explains activation once child sex and temperament, the attachment relationship, and emotional support are taken into account. Moreover, there is no relation between the father-child activation relationship and attachment disorganization. Finally, data confirm the existence of a sex difference in the activation relationship in toddlers: fathers activate their sons more than their daughters.

  15. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  16. The Effect of Parenting Stress on Child Behavior Problems in High-Risk Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…

  17. Physical activity of young overweight and obese children: parent reports of child activity level compared with objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leigh; Bonds-McClain, Darya; Gannon, Alex M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare objectively measured physical activity (PA) and parent-reported assessments of the children's PA in an overweight/obese child sample. A total of 67 child-parent dyads were recruited for study participation. Child anthropometric measures and parent-reported questionnaires were completed, and then PA was measured by accelerometers for 48 consecutive hours. These children demonstrated moderate-to-vigorous PA for 17.32 min per day on average. The children spent 86.7% of their time in sedentary activities. Parents' reports of hyperactivity were significantly related to the objectively measured PA; however, the parents significantly overestimated the average amount of time children spent in each activity level. These findings suggest that although parents may be able to generally characterize their child's PA, they may not be able to accurately report specific information and thus may struggle to identify clear activity goals for their child and/or be unable to assess intervention effects.

  18. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-08-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were highest among children who experienced high-quality care in both the infant-toddler and preschool periods, somewhat lower among children who experienced high-quality child care during only 1 of these periods, and lowest among children who experienced low-quality care during both periods. Irrespective of the care received during infancy-toddlerhood, high-quality preschool care was related to better language and preacademic outcomes at the end of the preschool period; high-quality infant-toddler care, irrespective of preschool care, was related to better memory skills at the end of the preschool period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Child Protection in Sport: Reflections on Thirty Years of Science and Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia H. Brackenridge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the responses of state and third sector agencies to the emergence of child abuse in sport since the mid-1980s. As with other social institutions such as the church, health and education, sport has both initiated its own child protection interventions and also responded to wider social and political influences. Sport has exemplified many of the changes identified in the brief for this special issue, such as the widening of definitional focus, increasing geographic scope and broadening of concerns to encompass health and welfare. The child protection agenda in sport was initially driven by sexual abuse scandals and has since embraced a range of additional harms to children, such as physical and psychological abuse, neglect and damaging hazing (initiation rituals. Whereas in the 1990s, only a few sport organisations acknowledged or addressed child abuse and protection (notably, UK, Canada and Australia, there has since been rapid growth in interest in the issue internationally, with many agencies now taking an active role in prevention work. These agencies adopt different foci related to their overall mission and may be characterised broadly as sport-specific (focussing on abuse prevention in sport, children’s rights organisations (focussing on child protection around sport events and humanitarian organisations (focussing on child development and protection through sport. This article examines how these differences in organisational focus lead to very different child protection approaches and “solutions”. It critiques the scientific approaches used thus far to inform activism and policy changes and ends by considering future challenges for athlete safeguarding and welfare.

  20. Gender Differences in Empathy in Parents at High- and Low-Risk of Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Albeniz, A.; de Paul, Joaquin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The present research was designed to study empathy in high-risk parents for child physical abuse. The main objective was to study if high-risk mothers and fathers, compared to low-risk mothers and fathers, presented more Personal distress, less Perspective-taking, less Empathic concern and a deficit in dispositional empathy toward…

  1. A systematic review of responsive feeding and child obesity in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2011-03-01

    Child overweight/obesity continues to be a serious public health problem in high-income countries. The current review had 3 goals: 1) to summarize the associations between responsive feeding and child weight status in high-income countries; 2) to describe existing responsive feeding measures; and 3) to generate suggestions for future research. Articles were obtained from PubMed and PsycInfo using specified search criteria. The majority (24/31) of articles reported significant associations between nonresponsive feeding and child weight-for-height Z-score, BMI Z-score, overweight/obesity, or adiposity. Most studies identified were conducted exclusively in the United States (n = 22), were cross-sectional (n = 25), and used self-report feeding questionnaires (n = 28). A recent trend exists toward conducting research among younger children (i.e. infants and toddlers) and low-income and/or minority populations. Although current evidence suggests that nonresponsive feeding is associated with child BMI or overweight/obesity, more research is needed to understand causality, the reliability and validity between and within existing feeding measures, and to test the efficacy of responsive feeding interventions in the prevention and treatment of child overweight/obesity in high-income countries.

  2. Parent-child leisure activities and cultural capital in the United Kingdom: The gendered effects of education and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    This article uses data on couples from the 2000 UK Time Use Survey (N=610) to analyze how social position influences parents' leisure activities with children. The study is the first using representative data to investigate this fundamental question to understand social inequalities in family life and children's life chances. Results reveal that social position intersects with gender in influencing parent-child leisure activities with implications on children's cultural capital. Three are the main findings: (1) social position has significant positive effects on cultural activities with children and negative on parent-child television watching among mothers, but moderate differences are observed for fathers; (2) father-child leisure is strongly influenced by the spouse's social position, but not mother-child leisure; (3) education and social class show complex differences in affecting parent-child leisure, suggesting that future studies should include these two variables when analyzing parent-child time and family life.

  3. Parents’ views on child physical activity and their implications for physical activity parenting interventions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentley Georgina F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing healthy physical activity (PA behaviours in early childhood is important for future PA behaviours. Parents play a central role in young children’s PA. However, there is currently little research on parenting interventions to increase child PA. This study was formative work to inform the content of a pilot randomised-controlled trial. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 32 parents of 6 to 8 year old children residing in two areas that varied in their socio-economic characteristics, in Bristol, UK. Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results Most parents described their child as being active or very active and indicated that they did not perceive a need for an increase in their child’s PA. Parents used a variety of visual cues to make this judgement, the most common being that they perceived their child as having lots of energy or that they did not view them as overweight. Parents reported environmental factors such as monetary cost, time constraints, lack of activity provision and poor weather as the main barriers to their child’s PA. Parental support and child’s enjoyment of PA appeared to be important facilitators to children participating in PA. Conclusion Improving parents’ knowledge of the PA recommendations for children, and increasing their awareness of the benefits of PA beyond weight status may be an important first step for a parenting PA intervention. Although parents commonly perceive environmental factors as the main barriers to their child’s PA, parental concern about low levels of child PA, their capacity to support behaviour change, child motivation, self confidence and independence may be key areas to address within an intervention to increase child PA. Effective methods of helping parents address the latter have been developed in the context of generic parenting programmes.

  4. Child goal setting of dietary and physical activity in a serious videogame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Baranowski, J.; Thompson, D.; Buday, R.; Abdelsamad, D.; Baranowski, T.

    2013-01-01

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious videogame for health, “Escape from Diab” (Archimage Inc., Houston,

  5. 78 FR 79660 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-31355] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  6. Understanding Children's Reading Activities: Reading Motivation, Skill and Child Characteristics as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…

  7. Child goal setting of dietary and physical activity in a serious videogame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Baranowski, J.; Thompson, D.; Buday, R.; Abdelsamad, D.; Baranowski, T.

    2013-01-01

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious videogame for health, “Escape from Diab” (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX)

  8. Understanding Children's Reading Activities: Reading Motivation, Skill and Child Characteristics as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…

  9. Evaluating the Impacts of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health. PRGS Dissertation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  10. Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR VIDEOTAPING CHILD ACTIVITIES (SOP-2.23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for videotaping a preschool child at a home. The CTEPP main study will collect multimedia samples and questionnaire data at the homes of participants (adults and children) during 48-hr sampling periods. Videotaping the activities of 10% of these chi...

  12. Self-Regulation, Metacognition and Child- and Adult-Initiated Activity: Does It Matter Who Initiates the Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Debate about the balance between child- and adult-initiated activities in early childhood settings is long standing. This article reports a study of 29 children aged 4-5 years in a London state school, on the influences of child- and adult-initiated activities on children's self-regulation and metacognition. Whilst both contexts were supportive,…

  13. Self-Regulation, Metacognition and Child- and Adult-Initiated Activity: Does It Matter Who Initiates the Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Debate about the balance between child- and adult-initiated activities in early childhood settings is long standing. This article reports a study of 29 children aged 4-5 years in a London state school, on the influences of child- and adult-initiated activities on children's self-regulation and metacognition. Whilst both contexts were supportive,…

  14. High-risk diagnosis, social stress, and parent-child relationships: A moderation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Eryn; Millman, Zachary B; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Kline, Emily; Pitts, Steven C; DeVylder, Jordan E; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Stress is related to symptom severity among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, although this relation may be influenced by protective factors. We explored whether the association of CHR diagnosis with social stress is moderated by the quality of parent-child relationships in a sample of 96 (36 CHR; 60 help-seeking controls) adolescents and young adults receiving mental health services. We examined self-reported social stress and parent-child relationships as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), and determined CHR status from the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS). The social stress subscale, part of the clinical domain of the BASC-2, assesses feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships and the relations with parents subscale, part of the adaptive domain of the BASC-2, assesses perceptions of importance in family and quality of parent-child relationship. There was a modest direct relation between risk diagnosis and social stress. Among those at CHR, however, there was a significant relation between parent-child relationships and social stress (b=-0.73, t[92]=-3.77, psocial stress for those at risk for psychosis. Findings provide additional evidence to suggest that interventions that simultaneously target both social stress and parent-child relationships might be relevant for adolescents and young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis.

  15. Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Browne, Kevin; Fergusson, David; Webb, Elspeth; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-03

    Child maltreatment remains a major public-health and social-welfare problem in high-income countries. Every year, about 4-16% of children are physically abused and one in ten is neglected or psychologically abused. During childhood, between 5% and 10% of girls and up to 5% of boys are exposed to penetrative sexual abuse, and up to three times this number are exposed to any type of sexual abuse. However, official rates for substantiated child maltreatment indicate less than a tenth of this burden. Exposure to multiple types and repeated episodes of maltreatment is associated with increased risks of severe maltreatment and psychological consequences. Child maltreatment substantially contributes to child mortality and morbidity and has longlasting effects on mental health, drug and alcohol misuse (especially in girls), risky sexual behaviour, obesity, and criminal behaviour, which persist into adulthood. Neglect is at least as damaging as physical or sexual abuse in the long term but has received the least scientific and public attention. The high burden and serious and long-term consequences of child maltreatment warrant increased investment in preventive and therapeutic strategies from early childhood.

  16. Child dopamine active transporter 1 genotype and parenting: evidence for evocative gene-environment correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Elizabeth P; Hanna, Brigitte; Sheikh, Haroon I; Laptook, Rebecca S; Kim, Jiyon; Singh, Shiva M; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-02-01

    The dopamine active transporter 1 (DAT1) gene is implicated in psychopathology risk. Although the processes by which this gene exerts its effects on risk are poorly understood, a small body of research suggests that the DAT1 gene influences early emerging negative emotionality, a marker of children's psychopathology risk. As child negative emotionality evokes negative parenting practices, the DAT1 gene may also play a role in gene-environment correlations. To test this model, children (N = 365) were genotyped for the DAT1 gene and participated in standardized parent-child interaction tasks with their primary caregiver. The DAT1 gene 9-repeat variant was associated with child negative affect expressed toward the parent during parent-child interactions, and parents of children with a 9-repeat allele exhibited more hostility and lower guidance/engagement than parents of children without a 9-repeat allele. These gene-environment associations were partially mediated by child negative affect toward the parent. The findings implicate a specific polymorphism in eliciting negative parenting, suggesting that evocative associations play a role in elevating children's risk for emotional trajectories toward psychopathology risk.

  17. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  18. Real-World Usage of Educational Media Does Not Promote Parent-Child Cognitive Stimulation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jason H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Weisleder, Adriana; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Canfield, Caitlin; Seery, Anne; Dreyer, Benard P; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2017-04-25

    To determine whether educational media as actually used by low-income families promote parent-child cognitive stimulation activities. We performed secondary analysis of the control group of a longitudinal cohort of mother-infant dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Educational media exposure (via a 24-hour recall diary) and parent-child activities that may promote cognitive stimulation in the home (using StimQ) were assessed at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months. Data from 149 mother-child dyads, 93.3% Latino, were analyzed. Mean (standard deviation) educational media exposure at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months was, respectively, 25 (40), 42 (58), 39 (49), and 39 (50) minutes per day. In multilevel model analyses, prior educational media exposure had small positive relationship with subsequent total StimQ scores (β = 0.11, P = .03) but was nonsignificant (β = 0.08, P = .09) after adjusting for confounders (child: age, gender, birth order, noneducational media exposure, language; mother: age, ethnicity, marital status, country of origin, language, depressive symptoms). Educational media did predict small increases in verbal interactions and toy provision (adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.13, P = .02; β = 0.11; P = .03). In contrast, more consistent relationships were seen for models of the relationship between prior StimQ (total, verbal interactions and teaching; adjusted models, respectively: β = 0.20, P = .002; β = 0.15, P = .006; β = 0.20, P = .001) and predicted subsequent educational media. Educational media as used by this sample of low-income families does not promote cognitive stimulation activities important for early child development or activities such as reading and teaching. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. No Child Left Behind and High School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Astronomy was a required subject in the first American secondary level schools, the academies of the 18th century. When these were supplanted a century later by public high schools, astronomy still was often required, subsumed into courses of Natural Philosophy. Reasons given at that time to support astronomy as a part of general education include…

  20. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  1. Parent readiness to change differs for overweight child dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; McEachern, Rebecca; Jelalian, Elissa

    2014-10-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the Action/Maintenance stage of change in each domain. From November 2008 to August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Providence, RI, answered questions assessing their stage of change, beliefs about child health and weight, and provider behaviors. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine which factors were associated with parent readiness to make changes for child dietary and PA behaviors. Almost 62% of parents were in the Action stage of change for child dietary behaviors, but only 41% were in the Action stage of change for PA behaviors. Parents who believed their own weight was a health problem were less likely to be ready to make changes to their child's dietary behaviors. Physician discussion of strategies was related to readiness to make changes for child dietary behaviors, but not PA behaviors. In the PA domain, parents of younger children were more likely to be ready to make changes. Training health care providers to address PA readiness and be aware of factors influencing dietary and PA readiness may result in more effective conversations with parents and improve behavior change efforts for pediatric weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Malawian parents' perceptions of physical activity and child development: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulakka, A; Ashorn, P; Gondwe, A; Phiri, N; Ashorn, U

    2015-11-01

    In scientific studies, physical activity is measured by the amount of bodily movement, but lay perceptions of physical activity might be different. Parental influence is important for the development of children's physical activity behaviour, and parental perceptions of facilitators of physical activity are context specific. We aimed to investigate how parents of young Malawian children conceptualize physical activity in childhood, situate it in child development and understand its facilitators. We used convenience sampling to identify parents of young children from different socio-economic backgrounds and age groups in semi-rural area of Malawi. We conducted in-depth interviews with 16 parents, a focus group discussion with six parents and key informant interviews with two nurses in Malawi. Six of the participants were fathers. We analysed the data with conventional qualitative content analysis by inductive approach. The parents emphasized practical skills, education and proper behaviour as goals for their children. They viewed activity as encompassing both mental and physical qualities and they perceived it as a positive attribute of children. The parents discussed skills acquisition, social competence, health and bodily movement as signs for being active. As facilitators of physical activity the parents mentioned balanced diet, good health and stimulation. The main concerns of the parents in regard to facilitators of physical activity and good child development were the availability of food and the child being healthy. Malawian parents' concept of children's physical activity is more comprehensive than scientific definition and includes aspects of both physical and mental activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of high fluoride intake on child mental work capacity: preliminary investigation into the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Li, X.J.; Wei, S.Q. [Child & Adolescent Hygiene Teaching Research Station, Chengdu (China)

    2008-10-15

    A study was carried out on 157 children, age 12-13, from a coal-burning fluorosis endemic area together with an experiment looking into the effect of high fluoride intake in animals. The results showed that early, prolonged high fluoride intake causes a decrease in a child's mental work capacity and that prolonged high uptake of fluoride causes a child's levels of hair zinc to drop. A multifactoral correlative analysis demonstrated a direct correlation between hair zinc and mental work capacity. The decrease of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and the increase of norepinephrine in animal brains exposed to high levels of fluoride suggest a possible mechanism for mental work capacity deficits in children. However, further research is necessary.

  4. Physical activity in child-care centers: do teachers hold the key to the playground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristen A; Kendeigh, Cassandra A; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Sherman, Susan N

    2012-02-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3-5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49 child-care teachers/providers in Cincinnati, OH. Participants noted physical and socio-emotional benefits of physical activity particular to preschoolers (e.g. gross motor skill development, self-confidence after mastery of new skills and improved mood, attention and napping after exercise) but also noted several barriers including their own personal attitudes (e.g. low self-efficacy) and preferences to avoid the outdoors (e.g. don't like hot/cold weather, getting dirty, chaos of playground). Because individual teachers determine daily schedules and ultimately make the decision whether to take the children outdoors, they serve as gatekeepers to the playground. Participants discussed a spectrum of roles on the playground, from facilitator to chaperone to physical activity inhibitor. These findings suggest that children could have very different gross motor experiences even within the same facility (with presumably the same environment and policies), based on the beliefs, creativity and level of engagement of their teacher.

  5. Low-Income Parents' Warmth and Parent-Child Activities for Children with Disabilities, Suspected Delays and Biological Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Peterson, Carla A.; Wall, Shavaun; Carta, Judith J.; Luze, Gayle; Swanson, Mark; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Warm and responsive parenting is optimal for child development, but this style of parenting may be difficult for some parents to achieve. This study examines how parents' observed warmth and their reported frequency of parent-child activities were related to children's classifications as having biological risks or a range of disability indicators.…

  6. Longitudinal effects of parental child and neighborhood factors on moderate vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in Latino children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderate-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) confers beneficial effects on child musculoskeletal health, cardiovascular fitness, and psychosocial well-being; in contrast, sedentary time (%SED) is emerging as a risk factor for health. This study aimed to identify parental, child and neighborhood facto...

  7. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated with Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Okely, Anthony D.; Masters, Jane M.; Moore, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of child care centers associated with preschoolers' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior while in child care (MVPA-C, SB-C), and attributes of outdoor play areas associated with the same behaviors during outdoor time (MVPA-O, SB-O). Participants were 89 children (3 -5 years) recruited…

  8. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Ly Wane, Coudy Thierno

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and child feeding and the nutrition situation of children nutrition division was developed to support a national nutrition strengthening programme; (4) the national nutrition counsel was organized to coordinate nutritional activities across various organizations and governmental sectors, involving representatives from health, agriculture and surveillance; and (5) an integrated communications programme was developed to support harmonized behaviour change communication tools for the health and nutrition sectors. Along with these activities, a number of programme evaluations were conducted to ensure that programmes obtain desired results. Although useful, these evaluations were not rigorous enough to identify effective programmes that contributed to the mentioned reductions in the prevalence of underweight and mortality, and increases in exclusive breastfeeding. The policy and programme framework is well established for support of optimal IYCN practices in Senegal. Despite the recent improvements in infant and young child nutritional status indicators, there is still much to do. Greater resources and continued capacity building are needed to: (1) conduct necessary research for adapting training materials and programme protocols to programmatic needs; (2) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective programme components; and (3) apply these findings in developing, expanding and improving effective programmes.

  9. Child growth and nutritional status in a high-poverty community in eastern Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, D L

    1999-05-01

    The research reported in this paper examines the relationship between household socioeconomic measures, child growth, and nutritional status in a community in eastern Kentucky with a high rate of poverty. It is based on the premise that child growth and nutritional status reflect the social circumstances in which they occur. 21.6% of the children exhibited low height (85th percentile and >95th percentile of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] reference values, respectively); 21.4% of boys were obese, compared to 8.7% of girls. Analysis of variance indicated that child stature is best explained by the father's education level interacting with employment status, and by the mother's employment status interacting with household poverty level. Weight is best explained by the mother's employment status. However, the relationships among socioeconomic measures and growth outcomes differed by gender of the child. These issues are discussed in light of the anthropology literature and the situation in Bridges County, Kentucky where the research took place.

  10. Effect of a governmentally-led physical activity program on motor skills in young children attending child care centers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Schindler, Christian; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2013-07-08

    To assess the effect of a governmentally-led center based child care physical activity program (Youp'là Bouge) on child motor skills. We conducted a single blinded cluster randomized controlled trial in 58 Swiss child care centers. Centers were randomly selected and 1:1 assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention lasted from September 2009 to June 2010 and included training of the educators, adaptation of the child care built environment, parental involvement and daily physical activity. Motor skill was the primary outcome and body mass index (BMI), physical activity and quality of life secondary outcomes. The intervention implementation was also assessed. At baseline, 648 children present on the motor test day were included (age 3.3 ± 0.6, BMI 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2, 13.2% overweight, 49% girls) and 313 received the intervention. Relative to children in the control group (n = 201), children in the intervention group (n = 187) showed no significant increase in motor skills (delta of mean change (95% confidence interval: -0.2 (-0.8 to 0.3), p = 0.43) or in any of the secondary outcomes. Not all child care centers implemented all the intervention components. Within the intervention group, several predictors were positively associated with trial outcomes: (1) free-access to a movement space and parental information session for motor skills (2) highly motivated and trained educators for BMI (3) free-access to a movement space and purchase of mobile equipment for physical activity (all p physical activity program in child care centers confirms the complexity of implementing an intervention outside a study setting and identified potentially relevant predictors that could improve future programs. Clinical trials.gov NCT00967460.

  11. Adult functioning of mothers with traumatic brain injury at high risk of child abuse: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet-Ruissen, Cora; McKinlay, Audrey; Taylor, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    There is little information regarding the impact that traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on the functioning of mothers at risk of child abuse. This study evaluated adult functioning (e.g. child abuse, substance use, criminal convictions, and mental health problems) of mothers, at high risk for child abuse, who also had a history of TBI compared with those without TBI. It was hypothesised that mothers with a history of TBI would engage in higher rates of dysfunctional behaviour compared to those with no history of TBI. Participants were 206 women engaged in a child abuse prevention programme for mothers who are highly socially disadvantaged, and at high risk for child abuse. Using historical data collected as part of the referral, and self report intake process, this study compared child abuse, mental health problems (depression, anxiety, substance use) and rates of criminal offending for mothers with a history of TBI versus those with no history of TBI. Mothers with TBI were no more likely than those without TBI to have engaged in child abuse. However, mothers with a history of TBI were significantly more likely to have one or more mental health problems, engage in substance use and have a history of criminal offending. Parents with TBI who have been identified as high risk for engaging in child abuse have increased risk for mental health problems and criminal offending. These issues need to be considered when designing parenting programmes in order for intervention strategies to be effective.

  12. From child to child: children as communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  13. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad provide specific guidance for nearly all of the key IYCN topics, except for appropriate feeding choices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Some of the programmes were intended for national coverage, but we could not confirm whether these programmes were actually implemented nationally. Monitoring and evaluation reports were available for some small-scale programmes, but few of these evaluated whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed and none evaluated whether participants adopted the promoted feeding practices. Establishment of the policy and programme framework has commenced for improving IYCN practices. Formative research is needed to guide the development of evidence-based training materials and programmes to address the nutritional needs of infants and children. Once more directed programmes are established, there is a further need for rigorous monitoring and evaluation to ensure that training is adequate, programmes are implemented as designed, and effective programmes are identified for expansion nationally. Evaluations are also needed to

  14. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  15. The Effects of Structured Musical Activity Sessions on the Development of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Rose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study sought to discover the effects of structured music activity sessions on eye contact and communication skills of Hunter; a six year old, high functioning child with autism. The research design consisted of two baseline observations in music class, six biweekly home activity sessions concurrent with three weekly music class observations, and two final music class observations. Activity sessions lasted approximately thirty minutes, and consisted of seven different activities, which were designed to increase joint attention through verbal, emotional, and social communication skills, as well as eye contact. Sessions were video recorded, and data analysis showed that Hunter’s eye contact increased from 76% in the first session to a high of 91% by the fifth activity session. Eye contact during the dedicated discussion activities increased from 21% in the first session to 46% by the sixth session. Observations and parent/teacher questionnaires revealed that he demonstrated higher levels of social functioning and both emotional and musical expression (including improvisation following activity sessions. Hunter transferred verbal communication, facial gestures and social cues from his sessions to music classes. In his concert following the fifth session, Hunter made contextually appropriate verbal improvisations and improved singing and movement synchronisation with the music

  16. Exploring eating and activity behaviors with parent-child dyads using event history calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, Cynthia A; Martyn, Kristy K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in science, the prevalence of childhood obesity persists and outcomes remain inconsistent. An event history calendar (EHC) is a tool to facilitate understanding of family life dynamics influencing eating and activity choices. This tool uses reflection to assess temporally linked behavior in the context of life events so that choices related to eating and activity are more explicit. Fourteen parent-child (6-14 years) dyads completed an EHC and interview 2 months following a healthy eating/activity intervention. Phenomenological analysis revealed themes including "awareness" of activity/eating behaviors, "healthy lessons," "family time," and "barriers" to change. The EHC facilitated participant communication and understanding by making connections between behaviors, habits, and events in family context, so that eating and activity behaviors could be realistically reviewed. This tool has potential to guide development of individualized interventions through barrier identification and goal establishment in research and clinical settings to help counteract childhood obesity over time.

  17. Parental influences on child physical activity and screen viewing time: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfenden Luke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0

  18. phenomenon of child abuse based on studies of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kasznia-Kocot

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of child abuse is considered to be voluntary or involuntary action of an adult which has a detrimental effect on child’s health and/or his psychophysical development. The concept of child abuse syndrome includes physical, mental and emotional maltreatment and negligence of physical, medical and emotional needs and also rape and sexual abuse. The authors conducted a questionnaire survey in order to assess children mistreatment by parents, caretakers and school environment. Studies included 228 high school students aged 14– 16 out of which 44,3% were girls and 55,7% were boys. 84% of the children were brought up by full families, 13% by mothers only, and 3% by fathers only. The most common form of mistreatment of children was physical violence (20,3%, psychological violence (12,1% and negligence (6,5%. Violence in the form of bad touch was experienced by 7,9% of girls and 0,8% of boys. High school students often suffered emotional violence from peers (22,9%, siblings (5,2% and teachers (4,8%. Results of the surveys were discussed paying attention to sociological context and legal conditions. The need for cooperation between many organizations and sectors of public life was highlighted to prevent the phenomenon of child abuse.

  19. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  20. A new mother-child play activity program to decrease parenting stress and improve child cognitive abilities: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Fukushima, Ai; Saito, Hitomi; Yoneyama, Satoshi; Ushida, Kazuo; Yoneyama, Susumu; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. Participants were 238 pairs of mothers and typically developing preschool children (ages 4-6 years old) from Wakakusa kindergarten in Japan. The pairs were asked to play at home for about 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group by class unit. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (for mothers), the Goodenough Draw-a-Man intelligence test (DAM), and the new S-S intelligence test (NS-SIT) (for children) were administered prior to and 3 months after the intervention period. Pre-post changes in test scores were compared between the groups using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The primary outcomes were the Total score on the child domain of the PSI (for child psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), Total score on the parent domain of the PSI (for maternal psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), and the score on the DAM (for child cognitive abilities). The results of the PSI suggested that the program may reduce parenting stress. The results of the cognitive tests suggested that the program may improve the children's fluid intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Our intervention program may ameliorate the children's psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and increase their cognitive abilities. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002265.

  1. A new mother-child play activity program to decrease parenting stress and improve child cognitive abilities: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Tachibana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were 238 pairs of mothers and typically developing preschool children (ages 4-6 years old from Wakakusa kindergarten in Japan. The pairs were asked to play at home for about 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group by class unit. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI (for mothers, the Goodenough Draw-a-Man intelligence test (DAM, and the new S-S intelligence test (NS-SIT (for children were administered prior to and 3 months after the intervention period. Pre-post changes in test scores were compared between the groups using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The primary outcomes were the Total score on the child domain of the PSI (for child psychosocial problems related to parenting stress, Total score on the parent domain of the PSI (for maternal psychosocial problems related to parenting stress, and the score on the DAM (for child cognitive abilities. The results of the PSI suggested that the program may reduce parenting stress. The results of the cognitive tests suggested that the program may improve the children's fluid intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our intervention program may ameliorate the children's psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and increase their cognitive abilities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002265.

  2. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  3. Measurement of Compliance With New York City’s Regulations on Beverages, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Early Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesesne, Catherine; Kakietek, Jakub; Breck, Andrew; Jernigan, Jan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; O’Dell, Sarah Abood; Stephens, Robert L.; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Policy interventions designed to change the nutrition environment and increase physical activity in child care centers are becoming more common, but an understanding of the implementation of these interventions is yet to be developed. The objective of this study was to explore the extent and consistency of compliance with a policy intervention designed to promote nutrition and physical activity among licensed child care centers in New York City. Methods We used a multimethod cross-sectional approach and 2 independent components of data collection (Center Evaluation Component and Classroom Evaluation Component). The methods were designed to evaluate the impact of regulations on beverages served, physical activity, and screen time at child care centers. We calculated compliance scores for each evaluation component and each regulation and percentage agreement between compliance in the center and classroom components. Results Compliance with certain requirements of the beverage regulations was high and fairly consistent between components, whereas compliance with the physical activity regulation varied according to the data collection component. Compliance with the regulation on amount and content of screen time was high and consistent. Conclusion Compliance with the physical activity regulation may be a more fluid, day-to-day issue, whereas compliance with the regulations on beverages and television viewing may be easier to control at the center level. Multiple indicators over multiple time points may provide a more complete picture of compliance — especially in the assessment of compliance with physical activity policies. PMID:25321634

  4. Toward a child-centered approach to evaluating claims of alienation in high-conflict custody disputes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichols, Allison M

    2014-01-01

    Theories of parental alienation abound in high-conflict custody cases. The image of one parent brainwashing a child against the other parent fits with what we think we know about family dynamics during divorce...

  5. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  6. Weaving Whole Cloth: The Nurture of a Highly Intelligent Child. What Is It Like To Live with a Highly Intelligent Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Hope

    2000-01-01

    The parent of an extremely intelligent child discusses what it is like to live with a child who exhibits a different web of cognition, perception, intuition, and mental processing; the necessity of educational acceleration for learning to achieve and develop self-esteem; and the importance of challenging material in learning the satisfaction of…

  7. Physical activity perceptions, context, barriers, and facilitators from a Hispanic child's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharon E. Taverno; Francis, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to develop effective physical activity interventions and to address the burden of obesity in Hispanic children, qualitative studies are needed to build descriptive theory and expand the state of the science. The purpose of this study is to describe physical activity perceptions, context, facilitators, and barriers from the perspective of Hispanic immigrant-origin children. Method This in-depth, ethnographic study included 14, 6- to 11-year old, first- and second- generation Hispanic children recruited from an afterschool program in Southeastern Pennsylvania, USA. Methods included child observation, field notes, semi-structured interviews, and a PhotoVoice activity. Transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed using the constant comparison method to identify overarching themes and patterns in the data. Results Data analysis yielded four overarching themes regarding children's perspectives on physical activity. Children engaged in a variety of physical activities and sedentary behaviors, which differed by physical (e.g., park, outside home, and afterschool programs) and social (e.g., parents, siblings, and friends) contexts. Children discussed specific benefits of physical activity. Children's negative attitudes toward physical activity were related to physical discomfort, low athletic competence, and safety concerns. Children perceived physical activity and play to be one in the same, and “fun” was identified as a primary driver of physical activity preferences. The facilitators and barriers to physical activity were related to specific parent/home, school, and neighborhood factors. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that an emphasis on fun and active play, while taking into account family and neighborhood context, may be a desirable intervention approach in Hispanic immigrant-origin children. This study lays the groundwork for future studies to further explore some of the themes identified here to better understand children

  8. Physical activity perceptions, context, barriers, and facilitators from a Hispanic child's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Taverno Ross

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop effective physical activity interventions and to address the burden of obesity in Hispanic children, qualitative studies are needed to build descriptive theory and expand the state of the science. The purpose of this study is to describe physical activity perceptions, context, facilitators, and barriers from the perspective of Hispanic immigrant-origin children. Method: This in-depth, ethnographic study included 14, 6- to 11-year old, first- and second- generation Hispanic children recruited from an afterschool program in Southeastern Pennsylvania, USA. Methods included child observation, field notes, semi-structured interviews, and a PhotoVoice activity. Transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed using the constant comparison method to identify overarching themes and patterns in the data. Results: Data analysis yielded four overarching themes regarding children's perspectives on physical activity. Children engaged in a variety of physical activities and sedentary behaviors, which differed by physical (e.g., park, outside home, and afterschool programs and social (e.g., parents, siblings, and friends contexts. Children discussed specific benefits of physical activity. Children's negative attitudes toward physical activity were related to physical discomfort, low athletic competence, and safety concerns. Children perceived physical activity and play to be one in the same, and “fun” was identified as a primary driver of physical activity preferences. The facilitators and barriers to physical activity were related to specific parent/home, school, and neighborhood factors. Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that an emphasis on fun and active play, while taking into account family and neighborhood context, may be a desirable intervention approach in Hispanic immigrant-origin children. This study lays the groundwork for future studies to further explore some of the themes identified here to better

  9. Creating nurturing environments: a science-based framework for promoting child health and development within high-poverty neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Flay, Brian R; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities.

  10. Evidence for a relationship between child maltreatment and absenteeism among high-school students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagborg, Johan Melander; Berglund, Kristina; Fahlke, Claudia

    2017-09-07

    School absenteeism is a potent predictor of academic failure. Maltreated adolescents have been found to be more absent from school compared to their peers. However, it is scarcely studied in what degree a general population of students with high levels of school absenteeism has been exposed to child maltreatment. Furthermore, it is not known if maltreated school-absentees have specific characteristics compared to not-maltreated absentees. In this article, the first objective was to present and compare the prevalence of six types of child maltreatment in a general population of high school students reporting no, moderate or excessive absenteeism. The second objective was to compare maltreated and not-maltreated students who report absenteeism in respect to mental health, perceived school environment and peer victimization in school. Data from 667 girls and 649 boys (mean age 14.3) was used from the longitudinal multidisciplinary research program LoRDIA (Longitudinal Research on Development In Adolescence). Data was collected via self-report questionnaires in classroom settings. All six types of child maltreatment were overrepresented among absentees. Roughly 25% of absentees reported one subtype of maltreatment (16% in the total population) and a mean of 22% of absentees reported two or more types of maltreatment (11% in the total population). Maltreated absentees reported more mental health problems, personal harassment and worse relationship with their teachers than not-maltreated absentees. There might be specific correlates of school absenteeism among maltreated adolescents and professionals involved in preventing school-absenteeism should be made aware of the relationship between maltreatment and absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristic prefrontal blood volume patterns when imaging body type, high-calorie food, and mother-child attachment in childhood anorexia nervosa: A near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Fumiko; Araki, Yuko; Iizuka, Chiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Komatsu, Hiroko; Ohya, Takashi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tsuda, Akira; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prefrontal activation in childhood anorexia nervosa (AN) patients when imaging symptom-provocative factors such as body type, high-calorie food, and attachment between mother and child. The prefrontal activations during each task, in terms of blood volume changes, were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Twelve females with childhood AN (mean age, 14.4 years old) and 13 age-matched healthy female controls (mean age, 14.3 years old) participated in this study. Both groups showed increased prefrontal blood volume when viewing images of each symptom-provocative factor. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the prefrontal blood volume increases between the control group and the childhood AN group when viewing images of slender and obese body types and high-calorie food. On the other hand, images of mother-child attachment resulted in significantly greater increases in prefrontal blood volume in the childhood AN group than in the control group. These results indicated that prefrontal activation in AN might be associated with imaging attachment between mother and child, but not associated with imaging body type or high-calorie food.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version...

  13. Child abuse potential inventory and parenting behavior: relationships with high-risk correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, M E; Scott, S S; Fann, K D

    1995-12-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine the construct validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory by comparing maltreating and high-risk parents' CAP Inventory abuse scores to their behavior during interactions with their children. A second purpose was to determine the degree to which CAP Inventory scores and parenting behavior were related to several known correlates of abuse, as measured by parent and teacher reports. Participants (n = 41) included abusive and high-risk parents and their children referred to a treatment group. Correlational analyses revealed that CAP Inventory scores and observed parenting style yielded highly related findings, supporting construct validity of the CAP Inventory. However, the CAP Inventory and observed behavior index showed a different pattern of relationships to the risk correlates. Implications for assessment of risk status are discussed and recommendations are provided for continued research.

  14. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  15. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…

  16. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…

  17. 76 FR 13339 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child and Adult...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Request--Child and Adult Care Food Program Improper Payments Meal Claims Assessment AGENCY: Food and... children who attend the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) day care homes. The assessment is tasked... Lesnett at 703-605-0811. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Child and Adult Care Food Program...

  18. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrini Laura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS. This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Methods Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009, which were then analysed in detail. Results Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%. First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years

  19. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  20. High or low? Comparing high and low-variability phonetic training in adult and child second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Brown, Helen; Clayards, Meghan; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    High talker variability (i.e., multiple voices in the input) has been found effective in training nonnative phonetic contrasts in adults. A small number of studies suggest that children also benefit from high-variability phonetic training with some evidence that they show greater learning (more plasticity) than adults given matched input, although results are mixed. However, no study has directly compared the effectiveness of high versus low talker variability in children. Native Greek-speaking eight-year-olds (N = 52), and adults (N = 41) were exposed to the English /i/-/ɪ/ contrast in 10 training sessions through a computerized word-learning game. Pre- and post-training tests examined discrimination of the contrast as well as lexical learning. Participants were randomly assigned to high (four talkers) or low (one talker) variability training conditions. Both age groups improved during training, and both improved more while trained with a single talker. Results of a three-interval oddity discrimination test did not show the predicted benefit of high-variability training in either age group. Instead, children showed an effect in the reverse direction-i.e., reliably greater improvements in discrimination following single talker training, even for untrained generalization items, although the result is qualified by (accidental) differences between participant groups at pre-test. Adults showed a numeric advantage for high-variability but were inconsistent with respect to voice and word novelty. In addition, no effect of variability was found for lexical learning. There was no evidence of greater plasticity for phonetic learning in child learners. This paper adds to the handful of studies demonstrating that, like adults, child learners can improve their discrimination of a phonetic contrast via computerized training. There was no evidence of a benefit of training with multiple talkers, either for discrimination or word learning. The results also do not support the

  1. Physical activity and child health: Can school-based intervention make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Quinto Romani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractChildhood obesity and inactivity is a significant public health problem that also has economic consequences. Therefore, economists have a role to play in determining the causal impacts. The influences of childhood background on outcomes can, usefully, be broken down into the effect of family, school and peer. To combat the raising childhood obesity, schools have been advocated as a potential area. This paper analyses whether increasing physical activity in a school context can contribute to health improvement using multiple outcomes. We address the issue by using a unique longitudinal data set of, respectively, 1087 (BMI and 1047 (fitness schoolchildren attending 37 state schools in the Municipality of Aalborg, Denmark. The effect is identified by using a randomized experiment that creates an exogenous increase in physical activity. Surprisingly, we find that the intervention did not have the expected impact on schoolchildren’s health, and the scant evidence we have points towards a negative effect. A plausible explanation is that the results mask important heterogeneity. Another plausible explanation is that the results also capture any compensating behaviour that schoolchildren engage in by being less active out of school. From a public-policy perspective, increasing physical activity in a school context seems to increase the ‘gap’ in child health and ‘crowd-out’ outside-school physical activity. Consequently, a supportive cost-benefit case might exist if parental behaviour is assumed to be affected by school resources and endogenous.

  2. Parental attachment insecurity predicts child and adult high-caloric food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-05-01

    Eating habits are established early and are difficult to change once formed. This study investigated the role of caregiver-child attachment quality and its associations with high-caloric food consumption in a sample of middle socio-economic status children and adults, respectively. Survey data were collected from an online questionnaire administered separately to 213 (143 girls) children and 216 parents (adult sample; 180 women). Two studies showed that an insecure parental attachment, whether actual (Study 1; children) or recalled (Study 2; adults), significantly and positively predicted high-caloric food consumption in both samples. The present findings highlight the importance of parental attachment and its association with unhealthy eating patterns in children and adults.

  3. Parent-child attitude congruence on type and intensity of physical activity: Testing multiple mediators of sedentary behavior in older children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined parent–child attitudes on value of specific types and intensities of physical activity, which may explain gender differences in child activity, and evaluated physical activity as a mechanism to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors. A community sample of 681 parents and 433 ch...

  4. High fertility Gambians in low fertility Spain: The dynamics of child accumulation across transnational space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Sow

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the Spanish census and the January 1, 2005 municipal register and on exploratory fieldwork in Catalonia, this paper combines ethnography and demography, in conjunction with current Spanish reunification law, to examine the dynamics of what appears to be high fertility among Gambian immigrants living in Spain. We suggest that this high fertility rate reflects several things. One is the high costs of living in Spain for an unskilled, often-undocumented, but also relatively-longstanding SubSaharan group from a homeland with high rates of fertility: a homeland with which close ties remain vital for migrants in highly marginal conditions. Another is the replacement, in some cases, of older wives by younger ones from Africa, resulting in high rates of reproduction for short slices of time by a circulating pool of young women. We focus, however, on the role of Spanish and European policies themselves in shaping these numbers, particularly those policies that place restrictions on the free movement of people. We conclude that the most interesting demographic facet of this population may not be high fertility but rather the paradoxical dynamics of child accumulation in particular geographic regions as an artifact of Spanish law itself.

  5. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Child Formula Dentifrices at different Concentrations: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Shilpy; Shashikiran, ND

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present in vitro study is to evaluate and compare antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available child’s dental formulas in reduced concentrations containing different forms of fluoride against Streptococcus mutans activity. Materials and methods The selected dentifrices were prepared in dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, and 1:16 using sterile pyrogen-free distilled water. Various dilutions of the selected toothpaste slurries were incubated in the agar plate containing pure strains of S. mutans, and antimicrobial activity of each was assessed by measuring the diameter of zones of inhibition (in mm). Agar well plate diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination were the methods used in this study. The inhibitory circle of each dentifrice was measured and MIC was achieved by considering the value of diameter of the circle. Results The results of the study showed that even at a lower concentration of fluoride, inhibition halos were obtained for all the formulations at different dilutions. Conclusion The kid’s formulations having lower fluoride concentration show antimicrobial activity even after dilutions. Thus, commercially, the fluoride concentrations can be further lowered down in the dentifrices, thereby reducing the risk associated with fluoride. How to cite this article Malhotra R, Singla S, Shashikiran ND. Comparison ofAntimicrobial Activity of Child Formula Dentifrices at different Concentrations: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):131-135. PMID:28890611

  6. Child Developmental Impact of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) in High-Risk Communities: First-Phase Authentic Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Suen, Hoi K.; Brickley, Dale; Smith-Jones, Janell; Dettore, Ernie

    2002-01-01

    This study used an "enhanced constructed comparison group" statistical model to conduct longitudinal research on the child developmental impact of Pittsburgh's early childhood initiative (ECI), a partnership to provide high-quality early care and education for children in high-risk neighborhoods. First-phase findings indicate that…

  7. Pregnancy Diet High in Refined Grains Could Increase Child Obesity Risk By Age 7, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases Media Advisory Wednesday, June 7, 2017 Pregnancy diet high in refined grains could increase child obesity ... during pregnancy, affects about 5 percent of all pregnancies in the United ... studies have linked diets high in refined grains — such as white rice — ...

  8. High prevalence of syphilis among demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutala Prosper

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.

  9. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account.

  10. Observational study of child restraining practice on Norwegian high-speed roads: restraint misuse poses a major threat to child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven-Martinsen; Naess, P A; Hansen, T B; Staff, T; Stray-Pedersen, A

    2013-10-01

    Restraint misuse and other occupant safety errors are the major cause of fatal and, severe injuries among child passengers in motor vehicle collisions. The main objectives of the present, study were to provide estimates of restraining practice among children younger than 16 years, traveling on Norwegian high-speed roads, and to uncover the high-risk groups associated with, restraint misuse and other safety errors. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in conjunction with regular traffic, control posts on high-speed roads. The seating and restraining of child occupants younger than 16, years were observed, the interior environment of the vehicles was examined, and a structured, interview of the driver was conducted according to a specific protocol. In total, 1260 child occupants aged 0-15 years were included in the study. Misuse of restraints, was observed in 38% of cases, with this being severe or critical in 24%. The presence of restraint, misuse varied significantly with age (psystem. Moreover, 24% of the children were seated in, vehicles with heavy, unsecured objects in the passenger compartment and/or the trunk that were, likely to move into the compartment upon impact and cause injury. No totally unrestrained children, were observed. This study provides a detailed description of the characteristics of restraint misuse and, the occupant's exposure to unsecured objects. Future education and awareness campaigns should, focus on children aged Information campaigns should also advocate the use, of chest clips and address the potential risks of hard, heavy objects in the passenger compartment and, the importance of the placement and strapping of heavy objects in the trunk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical Activity for Young Children: A Quantitative Study of Child Care Providers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Health Promotion Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Many preschool children fail to achieve the National Association for Sport and Physical Education physical activity recommendations placing themselves at increased risk of overweight and its associated health consequences. The early learning and care system is well positioned to intervene. Yet few child obesity prevention efforts have focused on…

  12. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  13. 77 FR 16796 - Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child-Occupied Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 745 Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child... requirements, training program accreditation requirements, and work practice standards for lead-based paint... the Arkansas lead-based paint program and passed a new statute establishing a State lead-based paint...

  14. Breaking Out of Surveillance Silos: Integrative Geospatial Data Collection for Child Injury Risk and Active School Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Laura; Curtis, Jacqueline W; Curtis, Andrew; Hudson, Courtney; Wuensch, Heather; Sampsell, Malinda; Wiles, Erika; Infantino, Mary; Davis, Andrew J

    2016-02-01

    The preponderance of active school transport (AST) and child injury research has occurred independently, yet they are inherently related. This is particularly true in urban areas where the environmental context of AST may pose risks to safety. However, it can be difficult to make these connections due to the often segregated nature in which these veins of research operate. Spatial video presents a geospatial approach for simultaneous data collection related to both issues. This article reports on a multi-sector pilot project among researchers, a children's hospital, and a police department, using spatial video to map child AST behaviors; a geographic information system (GIS) is used to analyze these data in the environmental context of child pedestrian injury and community violence.

  15. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Antoine; Barral, Jérôme; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Kriemler, Susi; Longchamp, Anouk; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J

    2012-03-09

    Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA) using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight) for body mass index (BMI). Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059) for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04). Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting health promotion interventions in young children.

  16. Child Goal Setting of Dietary and Physical Activity in a Serious Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Abdelsamad, Dina; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-06-01

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious videogame for health, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX). One hundred three children, 10-12 years of age, played "Escape from Diab." During game play the children were presented with a menu of goals, values, and barriers from which they selected the ones most important to them. The children's selections were transmitted to a central server and stored in a database. Frequencies were calculated and reported. The most important diet-related values and reasons for children were getting good grades and being healthy and fit. The most often reported barrier for fruit intake was that it does not fill you up, and for vegetable intake it was that availability at home was limited. Also, limited availability of bottled water at home was an often chosen barrier. PA-related important values and reasons were not missing school and having energy to do homework. Children preferred to limit sedentary activities for only 30 minutes rather than for 60 minutes. The most frequently mentioned barrier for reducing inactivity was "feeling too tired to do anything else." These findings provide important input for future obesity prevention videogames attempting to motivate children to set healthy diet and PA goals.

  17. Child-Friendly Cities: A Place for Active Citizenship in Geographical and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate innovative practices associated with child-friendly cities initiatives in the United Kingdom and Italy and how civics and citizenship initiatives are being applied into practical programmes of exploration and learning in geography and environmental education. The Child-Friendly Cities Initiative (CFCI) of…

  18. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Ralston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456. We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg. Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=-.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=-.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=-.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=-.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects.

  19. Targeting Prosody in an Eight-Year-Old Child with High-Functioning Autism during an Interactive Approach to Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Harn, William E.; Watson, Gina D.

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental deficit in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) is social communicative competence. Atypical prosody in variable forms has been implicated in contributing to this deficit. The purpose of this case study was to describe the clinical management of an eight-year-old child with HFA for whom prosody became the primary target of…

  20. New Mexico Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Mexico's Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  1. New Mexico Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Mexico's Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Child Maltreatment on Later Outcomes among High-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Katherine A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examines the effects of child maltreatment, parenting, and disadvantaged neighborhood on victimization, delinquency, and well-being via running away and school engagement among a sample of 360 high-risk adolescents. Results of a path analysis revealed that parenting was associated with school engagement, running…

  3. Comparison of high- versus low-intensity community health worker intervention to promote newborn and child health in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findley SE

    2013-10-01

    the five prior years (baseline: n = 6,906; follow-up: n = 2,310. The follow-up respondents were grouped by level of intensity of the CHW interventions in their community, with “low” including group activities led only by a trained community volunteer and “high” including the community volunteer activities plus CBSD from a CHW providing one-on-one advice and assistance. t-tests were used to test for significant differences from baseline to follow-up, and F-statistics, which adjust for the stratified cluster design, were used to test for significant differences between the control, low-intensity, and high-intensity intervention groups at follow-up. These analyses focused on changes in newborn and sick child care practices.Results: Anti-tetanus vaccination coverage during pregnancy increased from 69.2% at baseline to 85.7% at follow-up in the intervention areas. Breastfeeding within 24 hours increased from 42.9% to 59.0% in the intervention areas, and more newborns were checked by health workers within 48 hours (from 16.8% at baseline to 26.8% at follow-up in the intervention areas. Newborns were more likely to be checked by trained health personnel, and they received more comprehensive newborn care. Compared to the control communities, more than twice as many women in intervention communities knew to watch for specific newborn danger signs. Compared to the control and low-intensity intervention communities, more mothers in the high-intensity communities learned about the care of sick children from CHWs, with a corresponding decline those seeking advice from family or friends or traditional birth attendants. Significantly fewer mothers did nothing when their child was sick. High-intensity intervention communities experienced the most decline. Those who did nothing for children with fever or cough declined from 35% to 30%, and with diarrhea from 40% to 31%. Use of medications, both traditional and modern, increased from baseline to follow-up, with no

  4. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE, BULLYING, CYBERBULLYING, AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG HIGH SCHOOLS STUDENTS: A MODERATED MEDIATED MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Martine; Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with adverse outcomes, including heightened vulnerability that may translate into risk of revictimization. The aims of the study were: (1) to explore the direct and indirect links between child sexual abuse and cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems and (2) to study maternal support as a potential protective factor. Teenagers involved in the two first waves of the Quebec Youths' Romantic Relationships Survey (N = 8,194 and 6,780 at Wave I and II, respectively) completed measures assessing child sexual abuse and maternal support at Wave I. Cyberbullying, bullying, and mental health problems (self-esteem, psychological distress, and suicidal ideations) were evaluated 6 months later. Rates of cyberbullying in the past 6 months were twice as high in sexually abused teens compared to nonvictims both for girls (33.47 vs. 17.75%) and boys (29.62 vs. 13.29%). A moderated mediated model revealed a partial mediation effect of cyberbullying and bullying in the link between child sexual abuse and mental health. Maternal support acted as a protective factor as the conditional indirect effects of child sexual abuse on mental health via cyberbullying and bullying were reduced in cases of high maternal support. Results have significant relevance for prevention and intervention in highlighting the heightened vulnerability of victims of child sexual abuse to experience both bullying and cyberbullying. Maternal support may buffer the risk of developing mental health distress, suggesting that intervention programs for victimized youth may profit by fostering parent involvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Planning High-Risk High-Reward Activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casault, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    This body of work addresses a gap in financial and economic theories related to assets that are typically associated with high uncertainty. Specifically, this thesis provides some foundational work towards a new way to quantify and explain how high-risk high-reward activities, such as exploration,

  6. Fibrinolytic changes in pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osime, Odaburhine E; Ese-Onakewhor, Joseph U; Kolade, Samson O

    2015-02-01

    To report on the changes in fibrinolytic activity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected pregnant women who are undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Blood was collected from 50 HIV positive women on HAART (test subjects), and 50 HIV positive women not on HAART (controls). These women were attending the prevention of mother to child clinic (PMTCT) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Standard manual techniques were used to estimate plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC), euglobulin lysis time (ELT), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma viscosity (PV). The mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of PFC was 4.02±0.13 g/l and ELT from the test subjects was 378±15 mins was significantly higher (p0.05). There were differences in the various parameters investigated when the various trimesters were compared. These differences did not, however, follow a particular pattern. Highly active antiretroviral therapy can cause changes in fibrinolytic activity that may predispose pregnant women to hyperfibrinogenemia and anemia.

  7. The impact of peer victimization, parent distress and child depression on barrier formation and physical activity in overweight youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Ingerski, Lisa M; Silverstein, Janet H

    2008-02-01

    With the prevalence of childhood overweight reaching epidemic proportions, there is an increased need to identify factors which may aid in the development of successful weight intervention programs. Given that lower levels of physical activity are inversely correlated with weight status in children, research has focused on identifying and addressing reported barriers to physically activity. A relationship exists between the number of reported barriers and weight status such that children who are overweight report more barriers to being physically active. However, important demographic and psychosocial correlates of barriers have not been examined. This study investigates the relationship among parent distress, peer victimization, childhood depression, barriers to physical activity, and physical activity among a sample of 95 clinically overweight children and adolescents. Higher levels of parent distress, peer victimization, and childhood depression are predictive of a variety of barriers to physical activity, with peer victimization emerging as the strongest predictor of barriers. Barriers to physical activity mediate the relationships between peer victimization, parent distress, child depression and physical activity. These findings have significant implications for the development/design of weight intervention programs. Interventions targeting increases in physical activity should not only focus on the barriers children report, but should also include a psycho-emotional component to address factors such as parent distress, peer victimization and child mood that may contribute to barrier formation/maintenance. Future interventions may benefit from the identification of additional factors that impact barrier formation and physical activity levels among children.

  8. Occupational activity during pregnancy based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Poland conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium are one of the most common causes of sickness absence. The aim of the study was to analyze the occupational activity pattern during pregnancy and to evaluate the determinants of pregnancy-related temporary work disability confirmed by medical certificate. Materials and Methods: The presented analysis is based on data collected under the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. The study population consisted of 954 women who reported occupational activity during pregnancy. All women participating in the study were interviewed 3 times during pregnancy. Detail information on occupational activity during pregnancy and occupational stress, based on the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, was collected from all women. Results: The pregnant women had been issued medical certificate of temporary work disability because of conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth or by the puerperium at 16 week of gestation on average and did not continue their activities until the end of pregnancy. The statistically significant determinants of receiving such medical certificate in the first trimester of pregnancy (≤ 12 weeks of pregnancy comprised poor health condition and complications during pregnancy (OR = 1.4; p = 0.01, lower education (OR = 2.4; p < 0.001, socio-economic status (OR = 9.6; p = 0.03, use of public transport to commute to work (OR = 2.7; p < 0.001, a longer work commute (OR = 1.4; p = 0.008 and a higher level of occupational stress (OR = 3.0; p < 0.01. Waitresses, nurses and saleswomen received medical certificate of temporary work disability in the first trimester of pregnancy more frequently than office workers (OR = 4.2; p = 0.005; OR = 3.3; p = 0.02; OR = 2.3; p < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: It is crucial to develop the model of cooperation between occupational medicine physicians and gynecologists and a

  9. Training Highly Qualified Health Research Personnel: The Pain in Child Health Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl L von Baeyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain in Child Health (PICH is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadian universities. The goal of PICH has been to create a community of scholars in pediatric pain to improve child health outcomes.

  10. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica

    2004-04-01

    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated cements. A significant factor influencing their properties is alkali activator used. In this paper we present a new high effective alkali activator prepared from silica fume and its effectiveness. According to the results obtained this activator seems to be more effective than currently used activators like natrium hydroxide, natrium carbonate, and water glass.

  11. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  12. Child Care Services Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  13. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  14. The impact of fathers' military deployment on child adjustment. The support needs of primary school children and their families separated during active military service: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pexton, Sharon; Farrants, Jacqui; Yule, William

    2017-09-01

    Although direct exposure to war-related trauma negatively impacts children's psychological well-being, little is known about this impact within the context of parental military deployment to a combat zone and 'indirect' experience of the effects of armed conflict. This study investigates the impact of father's military deployment to Afghanistan on child well-being in primary schoolchildren and compares measures of adjustment with a matched group of children with fathers deployed on military training (non-combat) deployment. Data were collected within primary schools in 2011-2012 from 52 children aged 8-11 years with fathers deploying to Afghanistan ( n = 26) and fathers deploying on military training ( n = 26) via self-completion of questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, stress and levels of self-esteem. Data were collected in both groups, at pre-, mid- and post-parental deployment. Class teachers and parents (non-deployed) completed a measure of child behaviour and parents completed a measure of parenting stress and general health. Unexpectedly child adjustment difficulties were not significantly raised in children whose parents deployed to Afghanistan. Ratings of behavioural difficulties and depression were low in both groups. However, clinically elevated levels of anxiety and stress symptoms were reported by both groups of children at each stage of deployment. No associations between parental stress, parental mental health and child adjustment were found. High levels of children's anxiety and stress reported during fathers' active military service warrant further investigation. Implications for school and health monitoring and CAMHS community liaison work are discussed.

  15. Providing High Quality Care in Low-Income Areas of Maryland: Definitions, Resources, and Challenges from Parents and Child Care Providers' Perspectives. Publication #2012-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole; Simkin, Shana; Wessel, Julia; Rodrigues, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Early life experiences are critical to a child's development. Research has shown that, for a variety of reasons, children born into low-income families are at a disadvantage when compared to their higher-income peers. Fortunately, research has also shown a positive association between high quality child care and the academic and social-emotional…

  16. Weight status and gender-related differences in motor skills and in child care - based physical activity in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvin Antoine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decades, a decline in motor skills and in physical activity and an increase in obesity has been observed in children. However, there is a lack of data in young children. We tested if differences in motor skills and in physical activity according to weight or gender were already present in 2- to 4-year-old children. Methods Fifty-eight child care centers in the French part of Switzerland were randomly selected for the Youp'là bouge study. Motor skills were assessed by an obstacle course including 5 motor skills, derived from the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment test. Physical activity was measured with accelerometers (GT1M, Actigraph, Florida, USA using age-adapted cut-offs. Weight status was assessed using the International Obesity Task Force criteria (healthy weight vs overweight for body mass index (BMI. Results Of the 529 children (49% girls, 3.4 ± 0.6 years, BMI 16.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 13% were overweight. There were no significant weight status-related differences in the single skills of the obstacle course, but there was a trend (p = 0.059 for a lower performance of overweight children in the overall motor skills score. No significant weight status-related differences in child care-based physical activity were observed. No gender-related differences were found in the overall motor skills score, but boys performed better than girls in 2 of the 5 motor skills (p ≤ 0.04. Total physical activity as well as time spent in moderate-vigorous and in vigorous activity during child care were 12-25% higher and sedentary activity 5% lower in boys compared to girls (all p Conclusions At this early age, there were no significant weight status- or gender-related differences in global motor skills. However, in accordance to data in older children, child care-based physical activity was higher in boys compared to girls. These results are important to consider when establishing physical activity recommendations or targeting

  17. Mother-Child Interactions during Shared Literacy Activities: Education in a Fractured Bilingual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L. Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that mothers scaffold the literacy skills of their children when jointly engaged in literacy-related activities in monolingual families (Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2001). Yet little is known about the linguistic environment of English language learners in the USA, a group at high risk for reading difficulties if they are only taught…

  18. Mother-Child Interactions during Shared Literacy Activities: Education in a Fractured Bilingual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L. Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that mothers scaffold the literacy skills of their children when jointly engaged in literacy-related activities in monolingual families (Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2001). Yet little is known about the linguistic environment of English language learners in the USA, a group at high risk for reading difficulties if they are only taught…

  19. Measurement and Analysis of Child Well-Being in Middle and High Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas Heshmati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the recent UNICEF publications on child poverty in the developed countries, which received a wide audience in the political and scientific world, in this paper we further analyze the UNICEF study data base and present three composite indices that are multidimensional and quantitative measures of child well-being. While the original UNICEF studies simply added together the ranks on different measurement scales, we present a much more sophisticated approach, with the first of our indicators being a non-parametric measure, while the remaining two are parametric. In the non-parametric index of child welfare, the well-being indicators are given the same weights in their aggregation to form different components from which an overall index is being constructed. Two different forms of the parametric index are estimated by using principal component analysis. The first model uses a pool of all indicators without classification of the indicators by type of well-being, while the second model estimates first the sub-components separately and then uses the share of variance explained by each principal component to compute the weighted average of each component and their aggregation into an index of overall child well-being. The indices indicate which countries have the best system of child welfare and show how child well-being varies across countries and regions. The indices are composed of six well-being components including material, health and safety, educational well-being, family and peer relationships, behaviours and risks and subjective well-being. Each of the components is generated from a number of well-being sub-indicators.

  20. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Maïga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have stressed the importance of spatial heterogeneity analysis in modern contraceptive use and the relationships with high-risk births. Objective: This paper aims to analyse the association between modern contraceptive use, distribution of birth risk, and under-five child mortality at both national and regional levels in Burkina Faso. Design: The last three Demographic and Health Surveys – conducted in Burkina Faso in 1998, 2003, and 2010 – enabled descriptions of differentials, trends, and associations between modern contraceptive use, total fertility rates (TFR, and factors associated with high-risk births and under-five child mortality. Multivariate models, adjusted by covariates of cultural and socio-economic background and contact with health system, were used to investigate the relationship between birth risk factors and modern contraceptive prevalence rates (mCPR. Results: Overall, Burkina Faso's modern contraception level remains low (15.4% in 2010, despite significant increases during the last decade. However, there are substantial variations in mCPR by region, and health facility contact was positively associated with mCPR increase. Women's fertility history and cultural and socio-economic background were also significant factors in predicting use of modern contraception. Low modern contraceptive use is associated with higher birth risks and increased child mortality. This association is stronger in the Sahel, Est, and Sud-Ouest regions. Even though all factors in high-risk births were associated with under-five mortality, it should be stressed that short birth spacing ranked as the highest risk in relation to mortality of children. Conclusions: Programmes that target sub-national differentials and leverage women's health system contacts to inform women about family planning opportunities may be effective in improving coverage, quality, and equity of modern contraceptive use. Improving

  1. Bilateral Lower Limb Amputations in a Nigerian Child Following High-Voltage Electrical Burns Injury: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Dim, EM; Amanari, OC; Nottidge, TE; Inyang, UC; Nwashindi, A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The human body conducts electricity very well. Direct contact with electric current can be lethal. The passage of electric current through the body is capable of producing a wide spectrum of injuries, including serious damage to the heart, brain, skin and muscles. Naked high-voltage electric cables negligently abandoned in residential, commercial and industrial areas are a recipe for disaster. This is a case report of a 5-year girl child who had bilateral lower limb gangrene followin...

  2. The impact of a 20-month physical activity intervention in child care centers on motor performance and weight in overweight and healthy-weight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-12-01

    A child-centered physical activity intervention was administered in child care centers over 20 months to promote motor performance and reduce weight in preschool children. The intervention group (N = 211) received at least one weekly 45-min. session of physical education and sessions of physical activities of at least 20 minutes on the other days. Control children (N = 217) experienced the regular curriculum, which consisted of one session of physical activities of 45 min. per week. At the end of the study, children in the intervention group surpassed children in the control group in motor performance (body coordination, physical fitness, and dexterity, measured by a motor test battery MoTB 3-7). Children in the top 20% by BMI at the beginning of the study ("high weight") had inferior motor performance. Children with higher BMIs in the intervention group had better motor scores than children with higher BMIs in the control group, but the intervention had no effect on body weight, BMI, or skinfold thickness.

  3. Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis in a Child with Recurrent Macrophage Activation Syndrome Secondary to Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Adrovic, Amra

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome, a severe complication of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other inflammatory diseases, represents one of the most important rheumatological emergencies. Delayed diagnosis could lead to life-threatening complications. Pulmonary hemosiderosis has been classically characterized by a triad of anemia, hemoptysis, and lung infiltrates on chest radiogram. Although the majority of patients of pulmonary hemosiderosis are considered idiopathic, secondary hemosiderosis associated with known diseases could be seen. In this case report, we aimed to present gradually increased pulmonary manifestations due to pulmonary hemosiderosis with recurrent macrophage activation syndrome attacks in a child with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  4. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children’s body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children’s body mass index (BMI). Methods A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical activity and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center’s written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical activity practices, and measured randomly selected children’s nutritional intake, physical activity, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention. Results Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass index (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers’ and parents’ knowledge of nutrition and physical activity, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children’s zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points. Conclusions The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by

  5. Stress Responses and Decision Making in Child Protection Workers Faced with High Conflict Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Regehr, Cheryl; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The assessment of children at risk of abuse and neglect is a critical societal function performed by child protection workers in situations of acute stress and conflict. Despite efforts to improve the reliability of risk assessments through standardized measures, available tools continue to rely on subjective judgment. The goal of…

  6. Parents' concerns about children are highly prevalent but often not confirmed by child doctors and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Meer, G. de; Wiefferink, C.H.; Crone, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence in the general population of parents' concerns about the development of their child, to identify groups at risk and to assess the association between parents' concerns and professional judgement. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data

  7. Parents' concerns about children are highly prevalent but often not confirmed by child doctors and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Meer, Gea; Wiefferink, Carin H.; Crone, Matty R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence in the general population of parents' concerns about the development of their child, to identify groups at risk and to assess the association between parents' concerns and professional judgement. Methods: We obtained cross-sectional data

  8. Parents' concerns about children are highly prevalent but often not confirmed by child doctors and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Meer, G. de; Wiefferink, C.H.; Crone, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence in the general population of parents' concerns about the development of their child, to identify groups at risk and to assess the association between parents' concerns and professional judgement. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data

  9. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  10. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2008-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  12. Using sculpturing during speech therapy sessions in order to involve a child with ASD in joint activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova L.I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders often have particular hardships in participating in joint activities with an adult. This makes interventions more problematic and draws back the achievement of planned educational goals. At the early stages of speech therapy, the important goal of individual sessions with the majority of children with autism spectrum disorders is not speech development in itself but developing motivation for joint activities. To ensure successful interaction between an educator and a child, different techniques can be used, including those that are not typical for speech therapy sessions, for example, sculpturing as a preferred activity with enjoyable sensory input. The article describes tips for developing rapport with children with autistic disorders, and a strategy for involving them in joint activities and further development of their speech.

  13. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George G. Stavropoulos; Irene S. Diamantopoulou; George E. Skodras; George P. Sakellaropoulos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory

    2006-07-01

    High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N{sub 2} adsorption at 77K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  15. Child and environmental risk factors predicting readiness for learning in children at high risk of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnot, Julia; Hamilton, Lorna; Maughan, Barbara; Snowling, Margaret J

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the role of distal, proximal, and child risk factors as predictors of reading readiness and attention and behavior in children at risk of dyslexia. The parents of a longitudinal sample of 251 preschool children, including children at family risk of dyslexia and children with preschool language difficulties, provided measures of socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, family stresses, and child health via interviews and questionnaires. Assessments of children's reading-related skills, behavior, and attention were used to define their readiness for learning at school entry. Children at family risk of dyslexia and children with preschool language difficulties experienced more environmental adversities and health risks than controls. The risks associated with family risk of dyslexia and with language status were additive. Both home literacy environment and child health predicted reading readiness while home literacy environment and family stresses predicted attention and behavior. Family risk of dyslexia did not predict readiness to learn once other risks were controlled and so seems likely to be best conceptualized as representing gene-environment correlations. Pooling across risks defined a cumulative risk index, which was a significant predictor of reading readiness and, together with nonverbal ability, accounted for 31% of the variance between children.

  16. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saelens Brian E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Methods Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Results Two major themes about clothing were: 1 children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2 clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Conclusion Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical

  17. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brzezinski, M.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Marine Biotechnology Center

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  18. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  19. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  20. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  1. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  2. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  3. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  4. High Energy Activation Data Library (HEAD-2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Korovin, Yury A; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu; Stankovskiy, Alexey Yu; Mashnik, Stepan G

    2010-01-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1-H to 210-Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed: A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the fin...

  5. High-attenuation mucus plugs on MDCT in a child with cystic fibrosis: potential cause and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey; Brown, Shanaree [Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Applegate, Kimberly E. [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Howenstine, Michelle [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pulmonology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2007-06-15

    High-attenuation mucus plugging is a rare finding in both adults and children. When it occurs, the field of differential diagnoses is typically quite small and includes acute hemorrhage, aspiration of radiodense material, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The last of these three diagnoses is the most difficult to make, although ABPA is more commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) or asthma. ABPA is radiographically characterized by recurrent mucus plugging, atelectasis, and central bronchiectasis. Thus far, high-attenuation mucus plugs have only been reported in adults. We report a rare case of a child with CF who had high-attenuation mucus plugs and atelectasis that raised the possibility of ABPA. We discuss the differential diagnoses of this finding and the role of multidetector CT in these children. (orig.)

  6. A child presenting with acute renal failure secondary to a high dose of indomethacin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Felipe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute renal failure caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered at therapeutic doses is generally mild, non-anuric and transitory. There are no publications on indomethacin toxicity secondary to high doses in children. The aim of this article is to describe acute renal failure secondary to a high dose of indomethacin in a child and to review an error in a supervised drug prescription and administration system. Case presentation Due to a medication error, a 20-day-old infant in the postoperative period of surgery for Fallot's tetralogy received a dose of 10 mg/kg of indomethacin, 50 to 100 times higher than the therapeutic dose. The child presented with acute, oligo-anuric renal failure requiring treatment with continuous venovenous renal replacement therapy, achieving complete recovery of renal function with no sequelae. Conclusion In order to reduce medication errors in critically ill children, it is necessary to develop a supervised drug prescription and administration system, with controls at various levels.

  7. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  8. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  9. What can child silhouette data tell us? Exploring links to parenting, food and activity behaviors, and maternal concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: A study of resiliency to overweight explored how child silhouettes (maternal perception of child’s body size) related to child BMI, maternal concerns, parenting styles and practices. Methods: In a diverse, multi-state sample, 175 low-income mother-child (ages 3-11) dyads were assessed for...

  10. Integrative family therapy for high-conflict divorce with disputes over child custody and visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebow, Jay; Rekart, Kathleen Newcomb

    2007-03-01

    A growing number of divorcing families become locked in intractable disputes over child custody and visitation. This article describes an integrative family therapy approach targeted toward such families. Aspects of this treatment include negotiating a clear therapy contract, creating a multipartial alliance with all parties, assessing through the lens of specific understandings about these cases, incorporating multiple therapy session formats, holding both systemic and individual focused perspectives, incorporating a solution-oriented focus, and drawing upon a wide range of intervention techniques. The treatment aims to create a good-enough postdivorce climate in which a new family structure can be constituted in which parents maintain distance from one another, and conflict and triangulation can be minimized.

  11. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  12. Assessing play-based activities, child talk, and single session outcome in family therapy with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Amber B; Walters, Lynda H; Crane, D Russell

    2014-07-01

    This exploratory, observational study was designed to reveal descriptive information regarding therapists' actual practices with preschool- and school-aged children in a single session of family therapy and to investigate change mechanisms in family play therapy that have been proposed to make this approach effective. A purposive sample of 30 families receiving family therapy was recruited and video-taped during a family session where at least one child between the ages of 4 and 12 was present. Following the session, the therapist and parent(s) completed questionnaires while one of the children (aged 4-12) was interviewed. Session recordings were coded, minute-by-minute, for participant talk time, visual aids or props used, and therapy technique type (e.g., play-based/activity vs. talk-only techniques). Hierarchical regression and canonical correlational analyses revealed evidence supporting the theory that play-based techniques promote young children's participation, enhance the quality of the child-therapist relationship, and build positive emotional experiences in family therapy.

  13. Understanding the motivations and activities of transnational advocacy networks against child sex trafficking in the Mekong Subregion: The value of cosmopolitan globalisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Davy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Child sex trafficking has become one of the most highly publicised social issues of our time and, due to its global nature, transnational anti-trafficking advocacy networks are well placed and central to lead campaigns against it. Whilst there is an abundance of literature on the subjects of child sex trafficking and transnational advocacy networks we lack an understanding of the motivations of these networks that act as buffers against trafficking. Cosmopolitan globalisation theory remains a compelling framework for examining the motivations of transnational anti-child sex trafficking networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Applying a cosmopolitan globalisation lens, this article discusses the social justice goals of transnational advocacy networks, their centrality in combating child sex trafficking, and their ability to perform cosmopolitan ‘globalisation from below’ to counter global social problems.

  14. Toward a child-centered approach to evaluating claims of alienation in high-conflict custody disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Allison M

    2014-02-01

    Theories of parental alienation abound in high-conflict custody cases. The image of one parent brainwashing a child against the other parent fits with what we think we know about family dynamics during divorce. The concept of a diagnosable "Parental Alienation Syndrome" ("PAS") developed as an attempt to explain this phenomenon, but it has been widely discredited by mental health professionals and thus fails the standard for evidentiary admissibility. Nevertheless, PAS and related theories continue to influence the decisions of family courts, and even in jurisdictions that explicitly reject such theories, judges still face the daunting task of resolving these volatile cases. In the midst of this highly adversarial process, children deserve independent representation to ensure that their interests remain front and center. Mandating the appointment of guardians ad litem in cases involving allegations of abuse or alienation will assist courts in conducting individualized, fact-specific investigations into such allegations to craft custody orders that serve the best interests of children.

  15. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub‐Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross‐sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty‐six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0–5 months and 29.3% of children 6–23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0–5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20–23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub‐Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast‐milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale.Strengthened implementation and enforcement

  16. Parents helping parents: does this psychological mechanism work when the child is affected by a high risk disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, L M; Caprino, D; Zarri, D R

    2005-12-01

    Mutual help relationships are very important among families with children affected by serious diseases. Discussing common problems and experiences can provide the stimulus for developing the coping strategies that are needed to face new situations. This can thus be done with an outlook that nurtures subsequent adjustment and restoration of a good quality of life after diagnosis and the start of therapy. However, when parents are faced with the ordeal of a child affected by a high risk disease, this interaction may have detrimental effects. Through our observations of the behavior and relationships of 217 families over 5 years, we have been able to identify the caregiver as the staff member who can provide true and helpful support to the children and their parents. This caregiver is in touch with the psychologist supervisor on a daily basis, as well as with all the staff members involved in the global care of the child, including physicians, nurses, school teachers, and play workers. We strongly believe that physicians and caregivers must adopt strategies and practices to improve communication with, and often among, the families of affected children, and that they must act as a reliable source of support for their hopes for a cure. Treatment and recovery must never be proposed as a war to be won, but rather as an alliance among patients, parents, physicians and other caregivers that is formed to build health, and not merely to destroy the disease.

  17. Concrete with Highly Active Rice Husk Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qing-ge; LIN Qing-yu; YU Qi-jun; ZHAO San-ying; YANG Lu-feng; Shuichi Sugita

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim was to investigate the effect of highly active rice husk ash (RHA) produced by an industrial furnace on some properties of concrete. The strength, pore volume and pore distribution of concrete and the Ca(OH)2 content in concrete were investigated by JIS A 1108 (Method of test for compressive strength of concrete), a mercury instrument porosimeter, and the thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that,with RHA replacement of cement,the compressive strength of concrete is increased evidently;the average pore radius of concrete is greatly decreased, especially the portion of the pores greater than 20nm in radius is decreased while the amount of smaller pores is increased, and the more the RHA replacement, the less the amount of Ca(OH)2 in concrete. The latter two results are the main reasons for the strength enhancement of concrete.

  18. Children’s Executive Function and High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low nutrient (HCLN) food. Design One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from larger randomized control trial Setting Southern California elementary schools Subjects Fourth and fifth grade children (n = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program Results Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.11/0.25, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02/0.10, p perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models’ convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. PMID:25194147

  19. Initial displacements and variations of eight human child skulls owing to high-pull headgear traction determined with laser holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragt, G; Duterloo, H S; Algra, A M

    1986-05-01

    In this study eight macerated, human child skulls (dental age approximately 9.5 years) were subjected to a standardized high-pull headgear traction system. Tensile forces from 0.5 to 3.5 N (1 N = 0.1 kgf) per side were produced to the maxillae. Displacements of skeletal components were determined at 22 indicator points per skull by means of laser holography. Coordinated displacements and variations in amount and direction were established in all skulls. The overall amount of displacements was primarily a characteristic of an individual skull, not of a particular displacement. On the average, the maxillae were displaced in a slightly downward and posterior direction almost parallel to the occlusal plane. No deformations of skeletal components were seen. Results indicated that initial displacements of the maxillae and other skeletal components are not in the same direction as the direction of applied forces.

  20. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…

  1. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in any type of substantial gainful activity which requires skills or abilities comparable to those of... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Miscellaneous Deductions and... substantial gainful activity that does not require skills or ability used in his or her previous work. However...

  2. Reliability of Questionnaires to Assess the Healthy Eating and Activity Environment of a Child's Home and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarey, Anthea; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P questionnaire. The parent and teacher questionnaires are moderately reliable tools for simultaneously assessing child intakes, environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs. PMID:23936636

  3. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Richmond

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal effects.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children collected data on objectively assessed activity levels of 4,296 children at age 11 y with recorded BMI and genotypic data. We used 32 established genetic correlates of BMI combined in a weighted allelic score as an instrumental variable for adiposity to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on activity. In observational analysis, a 3.3 kg/m² (one standard deviation higher BMI was associated with 22.3 (95% CI, 17.0, 27.6 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 1.6×10⁻¹⁶, 2.6 (2.1, 3.1 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 3.7×10⁻²⁹, and 3.5 (1.5, 5.5 min/d more sedentary time (p = 5.0×10⁻⁴. In Mendelian randomization analyses, the same difference in BMI was associated with 32.4 (0.9, 63.9 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 0.04 (∼5.3% of the mean counts/minute, 2.8 (0.1, 5.5 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 0.04, and 13.2 (1.3, 25.2 min/d more sedentary time (p = 0.03. There was no strong evidence for a difference between variable estimates from observational estimates. Similar results were obtained using fat mass index. Low power and poor instrumentation of activity limited causal analysis of the influence of physical activity on BMI.Our results suggest that increased adiposity causes a reduction in physical activity in children and support research into the targeting of BMI in efforts to

  4. Teacher-and child-managed academic activities in preschool and kindergarten and their influence on children's gains in emergent academic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, Annika K E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715726; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool (n = 8) and kindergarten (n = 8) classrooms revealed that

  5. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed in…

  6. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  7. The Child in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Judith

    1979-01-01

    Describes the various displays and activities which make up a traveling exhibit, "Reflections: The Child in America." The exhibition is designed to enhance understanding of American children's lives and experiences from colonial times to the present. (SS)

  8. Assessing Causality in the Association between Child Adiposity and Physical Activity Levels : A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca C Richmond; George Davey Smith; Ness, Andy R; Marcel den Hoed; George McMahon; Nicholas J Timpson

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI) has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal eff...

  9. Physical activity and total energy expenditure of child-bearing Gambian village women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M; Whitehead, R G

    1988-02-01

    In a longitudinal study of pregnancy and lactation levels of physical activity and total energy expenditure (TEE) were measured in 32 rural Gambian women using an activity diary technique. TEE, which was higher than previously measured food intake in this community, ranged from a minimum of 9.6 MJ (2300 kcal)/d (1.7 X BMR) in the months January-March to a maximum of 11.3 MJ (2700 kcal)/d (2 X BMR) during the agricultural season (July-October). During pregnancy and early lactation women went less often to the fields and also reduced the amount of time spent walking and performing household tasks. Standardizing for season and for changes in BMR and the energy cost of activity, reductions in physical activity reduced TEE by 0.59 +/- 0.08 MJ (140 +/- 18 kcal)/d between the 28th week of gestation and 4 weeks post-partum (P less than 0.001). While reduced physical activity may have had an adverse effect on agricultural productivity, energy was spared for other processes including fetal growth and milk output immediately post-partum. Dietary supplementation was without effect on activity pattern.

  10. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing evidence for the presence of a large number of microbes in the oceanic subsurface. Such a habitat has a very low energy input because it is deprived of light. A few meters below the sediment surface, conditions are already anoxic in most cases, sulfate reduction and/or methanogenesis becoming thus the primary respiratory reactions of organic matter. Neither the fate of methanogenesis, nor the fate of Dissimilatory Metal-Reduction (DMR) has been investigated so far as a function of pressure. For this reason, we measured experimentally the pressure limits of microbial anaerobic energetic metabolism. In practice, we measured in situ the kinetics of selenite respiration by the bacterial model Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) between 0 and 150 MPa at 30°C. MR-1 stationary-phase cells were used in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium amended with lactate as an additional electron donor and sodium selenite as an electron acceptor. In situ measurements were performed by X- ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy in both a diamond-anvil cell and an autoclave. A red precipitate of amorphous Se(0) was virtually observed at any pressure to 150 MPa. A progressive reduction of selenite Se(IV) into selenium Se(0) was also observed in the evolution of XANES spectra with time. All kinetics between 0.1 and 150 MPa can be adjusted to a first order kinetic law. MR-1 respires all available selenite up to 60 MPa. Above 60 MPa, the respiration yield decreases linearly as a function of pressure and reaches 0 at 155 ±5 MPa. This indicates that selenite respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 stops at about 155 MPa, whereas its growth is arrested at 50 MPa. Hence, the present results show that the respiration of selenium by the strain MR-1 occurs efficiently up to 60 MPa and 30°C, i.e. from the surface of a continental sediment to an equivalent depth of about 2 km, or beneath a 5-km water column and

  11. Nutrition and physical activity in child care centers: the impact of a wellness policy initiative on environment and policy assessment and observation outcomes, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Rodney; Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah; Davis, Justin; Griffin, Monica

    2013-05-23

    The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. We used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument to identify changes to foods served, staff behaviors, and physical activity opportunities. Observations were performed over 1 day, beginning with breakfast and concluding when the program ended for the day. Observations were conducted from February 2010 through April 2011 for a total of 2 observations in each center. Changes to nutrition and physical activity in centers were assessed on the basis of changes in scores related to the physical activity and nutrition environment documented in the observations. Paired t test analyses were performed to determine significance of changes. Significant improvements to total nutrition (P environments of centers by enhancing active play (P = .02), the sedentary environment (P = .005), the portable environment (P = .002), staff behavior (P = .004), and physical activity training and education (P environment (P < .001), and nutrition training and education (P < .001). Findings from this study suggest that implementing wellness policies and training caregivers in best practices for physical activity and nutrition can promote healthy weight for young children in child care settings.

  12. Child physical abuse - High school students' mental health and parental relations depending on who perpetrated the abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, D; Nordås, E; Pribe, G; Svedin, C G

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the research of child physical abuse (CPA) by examining if there were any differences in high school students' mental health (in this study symptoms of depression and anxiety, self-esteem and sense of coherence) and/or, in how they perceive their parents, depending on whether or not they had been subjected to CPA during childhood. In addition, if high school students reported different mental health and/or, relationships with their parents, depending on if their mother, father or both parents were the perpetrators of CPA. A representative national sample of high school students (N=3288, data collected 2009) participated in the study. Participants completed the following: questions about CPA and alleged perpetrators, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale and Parental Bonding Instrument. The results showed students who reported experiences of CPA were more likely to report symptoms of mental illness and negative perceptions of their parents' parenting. However, there were no mental health differences depending on whether their mother, father or both parents were the perpetrators of CPA. Still, there were differences in perceived parenting indicating that mothers' parenting was perceived as more negative when mothers only or both parents were perpetrators of the abuse than when only fathers were perpetrators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Child-Robot Interaction in the Wild : Field Testing Activities of the ALIZ-E Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, J. de; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Wigdor, N.; Bierman, B.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which CRI activities developed by the ALIZ-E project were tested with the project's primary user group: children with diabetes. This field study resulted in new insights in the modalities and roles a robot aimed at CRI in a healthcare setting might utilise, while in ad

  14. Efficacy of the prescription of physical activity in the obese child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Álvarez, Edgar D; Valero-Bernal, María V; Mancera-Soto, Erica M

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of prescribing physical activity to the population of overweight and obese children, in accordance with the levels of evidence. To find literature pertaining to the intervention of physical activity in overweight and obese children. four electronic databases were used: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane and Lilacs. The search was conducted with a cut-off date of June 2012. Randomized controlled clinical trials of intervention programs involving physical activity for both overweight and obese children were selected. Two independent researchers reviewed and evaluated the quality of the studies, and extracted intervention and result data. A total of 204 studies were identified. 19 randomized controlled studies which complied with inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. These studies evaluated the impact of physical activity among obese children and compared different types of intervention based on exercise and diet or both with the objective of reducing weight in obese children. CONCLUSIONs: It is necessary to conduct studies on obese children with bigger sample sizes to determine the effects of the treatment, and more importantly, to devise comprehensive programs that include a structured exercise program complemented by a dietary program. Likewise, the development of public health policies that allow for the development of national programs for weight and obesity control in Colombian children and adults should be developed, taking into account that the causes of obesity are multiple, including social, familiar, metabolic, and dietary aspects.

  15. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  16. Strategies influence neural activity for feedback learning across child and adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sabine; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Crone, Eveline A; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Raijmakers, Maartje E J

    2014-09-01

    Learning from feedback is an important aspect of executive functioning that shows profound improvements during childhood and adolescence. This is accompanied by neural changes in the feedback-learning network, which includes pre-supplementary motor area (pre- SMA)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), superior parietal cortex (SPC), and the basal ganglia. However, there can be considerable differences within age ranges in performance that are ascribed to differences in strategy use. This is problematic for traditional approaches of analyzing developmental data, in which age groups are assumed to be homogenous in strategy use. In this study, we used latent variable models to investigate if underlying strategy groups could be detected for a feedback-learning task and whether there were differences in neural activation patterns between strategies. In a sample of 268 participants between ages 8 to 25 years, we observed four underlying strategy groups, which were cut across age groups and varied in the optimality of executive functioning. These strategy groups also differed in neural activity during learning; especially the most optimal performing group showed more activity in DLPFC, SPC and pre-SMA/ACC compared to the other groups. However, age differences remained an important contributor to neural activation, even when correcting for strategy. These findings contribute to the debate of age versus performance predictors of neural development, and highlight the importance of studying individual differences in strategy use when studying development.

  17. An Evaluation of a Program to Increase Physical Activity for Young Children in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Allison C.; Zeisel, Susan; Odom, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In the past 20 years, obesity rates among U.S. children have skyrocketed. In fact, 15.4% of 2- to 4-year-olds in North Carolina, where this study takes place, are obese, making it the 5th worst obesity rate in the nation. Research indicates that young children in preschool settings largely engage in sedentary activities,…

  18. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TRANSLATING VIDEOTAPES OF CHILD ACTIVITIES (SOP-4.13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA will conduct a two-day video translation workshop to demonstrate to coders the procedures for translating the activity patterns of preschool children on videotape. The coders will be required to pass reliability tests to successfully complete the training requirements of ...

  19. A Mountain Child: An Active Learning Pack for 9-13 Year Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Sue; Jenkins, Alyson

    This resource packet includes a teacher's guide, reproducible student activity sheets, a simulation game: "Life with the Incas", and a poster. The resource presents a cross-curricular thematic approach to the United Kingdom's National Curriculum. The materials look at the Andes and the Andean people, the Quechuan, who live in the…

  20. Supporting Head Start Parents: Impact of a Text Message Intervention on Parent-Child Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Anthony; Wartella, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Head Start emphasises parent engagement as a critical strategy in promoting children's long-term learning. Parents can support children's positive development by engaging them in stimulating activities. The following study assessed whether a service that delivered parenting tips via text message could prompt parents of children enrolled in Head…

  1. High-grade astroblastoma in a child: Report of one case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Escobar de la Garma

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Astroblastomas are a distinct clinicopathologic entity, with well-described radiologic, pathologic, and cytogenetic features. Its recurrence is high and efforts must be made to elucidate the role and usefulness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in these tumors.

  2. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy-Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-12-08

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required.

  3. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required. PMID:27941658

  4. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup, and the Effects of No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A 2007 nationwide mixed-methods survey of high school astronomy teachers reports on its current characteristics and its changes over intervening decades that included the introduction of standards and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Some changes found include section enrollments trending downward even while the total number of courses offered…

  5. Do We Care More about Our Cars than about Our Children? High-Quality Child Care: Luxury Option or Standard Equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshansky, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research showing that there is a level of quality below which children's development is compromised. Uses analogies of options available to consumers when buying cars to designate features of quality child care. Argues that high-quality care should be available to all children. (AMC)

  6. Evander Childs High School, Cooperative Work-Study Program for Bilingual Students. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Jose Luis; Sica, Michael

    In its first year, the Cooperative Work-Study Program for Bilingual Students offered full and partial programs of bilingual instruction and career exploration, as well as supportive services, to 160 students at Evander Childs High School, Bronx, New York. Full program students spoke Spanish at home and in the community; partial program…

  7. Picturing words? Sensorimotor cortex activation for printed words in child and adult readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Tessa M; Mareschal, Denis; Johnson, Mark H; Sereno, Martin I

    2014-12-01

    Learning to read involves associating abstract visual shapes with familiar meanings. Embodiment theories suggest that word meaning is at least partially represented in distributed sensorimotor networks in the brain (Barsalou, 2008; Pulvermueller, 2013). We explored how reading comprehension develops by tracking when and how printed words start activating these "semantic" sensorimotor representations as children learn to read. Adults and children aged 7-10 years showed clear category-specific cortical specialization for tool versus animal pictures during a one-back categorisation task. Thus, sensorimotor representations for these categories were in place at all ages. However, co-activation of these same brain regions by the visual objects' written names was only present in adults, even though all children could read and comprehend all presented words, showed adult-like task performance, and older children were proficient readers. It thus takes years of training and expert reading skill before spontaneous processing of printed words' sensorimotor meanings develops in childhood.

  8. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  9. Child Maltreatment Profiles and Adjustment Problems in High-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Roesch, Scott C.; Hough, Richard L.; Landsverk, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify profiles of maltreatment experiences in a sample of high-risk adolescents and to investigate the relationship between the derived profiles and psychological adjustment. Participants are 1,131 youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years involved with publicly funded mental health and social services.…

  10. A Discussion of High-Risk HPV in a 6-Year-Old Female Survivor of Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie D. Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papilloma viruses (HPVs cause a variety of clinical manifestations in children including skin warts, laryngeal papillomas, and condyloma acuminatum. Whereas the mode of transmission is well understood and management of HPV infection is clearly defined by guidelines in adults, less is known about the mode of transmission, natural history of disease, and appropriate management of high-risk anogenital HPV infections in children. Case. The patient is a previously healthy 6-year-old female who presented with multiple vaginal lesions causing pain and discomfort and was diagnosed with HPV 18 positive CIN I. Summary and Conclusion. Children infected with high-risk HPV subtypes remain a vulnerable patient population, and there is minimal literature on the natural history of disease and effects of overtreatment. Based on a literature review, conservative management, HPV vaccination, and consideration of the cervical cancer screening guidelines for adolescent females are an appropriate treatment course until more studies are reported on cervical cancer screening in survivors of child sexual abuse.

  11. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Torrance

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Brian Torrance1, K Ashlee McGuire2 ,Richard Lewanczuk1, Jonathan McGavock21Division of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada; 2Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinical scientists with an overview of the current state of the literature describing the negative influence of obesity on blood pressure and it’s determinants in children. In short, we discuss the array of vascular abnormalities seen in overweight children and adolescents, including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and insulin resistance. We also discuss the potential role of an increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction associated with obesity. As there is little consensus regarding the methods to prevent or treat high blood pressure in children, we also provide a summary of the evidence supporting relationship between physical activity and blood pressure in children and adolescents. After reviewing a number of physical activity intervention studies performed in children, it appears as though 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic-based physical activity 3–5 days/week is required to improve vascular function and reduce blood pressure in obese children. Future studies should focus on describing the influence of physical activity on blood pressure control in overweight children.Keywords: arterial compliance, insulin sensitivity, aerobic exercise, sympathetic nervous system

  12. Does your mother know? : parent-child communication about adolescent daily activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, L.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile offending is a wide-spread problem in Western societies: More than half of the adolescents engage in minor forms of delinquency, and this causes high material and immaterial costs. One of the strongest predictors of such types of delinquency is whether or not parents are aware of their adol

  13. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; El Hafed Ould Dehah, Cheikh Mohamed

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children Mauritania as one of the six target countries (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal). These findings are available to assist countries in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between August and November of 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mauritania were interviewed, and 46 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), management of acute malnutrition, food security, and hygienic practices. Mauritania is on track to reaching the MDG of halving undernutrition among children Mauritania, and key informants identified gaps in adapting international programmes to local needs. Monitoring and evaluation reports have not been rigorous enough to identify which programme activities were implemented as designed or whether programmes were effective at improving nutritional and health status of young children. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes might have been responsible for the reported improvements, or if other population-wide changes contributed to these changes. The policy framework is supportive of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to (i) support activities to adapt training materials and programme protocols to fit local needs, (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally, (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective programmes, and (iv) apply these findings in developing, disseminating, and improving effective programmes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Pediatric renal transplantation in a highly sensitised child-8 years on.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2012-01-26

    Highly sensitised children have markedly reduced chances of receiving a successful deceased donor renal transplant, increased risk of rejection, and decreased graft survival. There is limited experience with the long-term followup of children who have undergone desensitization. Following 2 failed transplants, our patient was highly sensitised. She had some immunological response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) but this was not sustained. We developed a protocol involving sequential therapies with rituximab, IVIg, and plasma exchange. Immunosuppressant therapy at transplantation consisted of basiliximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. At the time of transplantation, historical crossmatch was ignored. Current CDC crossmatch was negative, but T and B cell flow crossmatch was positive, due to donor-specific HLA Class I antibodies. Further plasma exchange and immunoglobulin therapy were given pre- and postoperatively. Our patient received a deceased donor-kidney-bearing HLA antigens to which she originally had antibodies, which would have precluded transplant. The graft kidney continues to function well 8 years posttransplant.

  15. Successful Utilization of High-Flux Hemodialysis for Treatment of Vancomycin Toxicity in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Stidham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is routinely used for empiric antibiotic therapy in children. Higher-serum-concentration targets for serious infections are now being recommended. This recommendation may result in aggressive dosing with increased potential for toxicity. We report a case of a pediatric patient who developed vancomycin toxicity and associated oliguric renal failure who was treated effectively with high-flux hemodialysis for vancomycin toxicity, clearing serum concentrations of vancomycin by over 75% in only 6 hours (213.2 mcg/mL to 51.8 mcg/mL with subsequent return to baseline renal function and without adverse sequelae. While not historically considered a viable option for drug removal in cases of toxicity, new high-flux hemodialysis techniques can remove significant percentages of vancomycin in short periods of time.

  16. High-grade astroblastoma in a child: Report of one case and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garma, Victor Hugo Escobar; Arcipreste, Arturo Ayala; Vázquez, Felipe Padilla; Aguilar, Ricardo Ramírez; Castruita, Uriel Oliva; Guerra, Rafael Mendizábal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Astroblastoma is a rare glial neoplastic lesion that affects children and adolescents; its histogenesis remains uncertain. It is considered to account for 0.5% of all glial neoplasms, and two different subtypes have been defined based upon histologic characteristics. Case Description: We present the case of a 9-year-old girl who presented with headache, motor symptoms, and seizures few days before she was admitted to our institution. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed an intra-axial heterogeneous frontoparietal lesion with a striking “bubbly” appearance in MRI T2-weighted sequences and features of intracranial hypertension. Gross total resection of the tumor was achieved and the histopathologic diagnosis revealed high-grade astroblastoma. We reviewed the current published cases of astroblastoma to highlight the demographic, clinical, radiologic, and pathologic data. Conclusion: Astroblastomas are a distinct clinicopathologic entity, with well-described radiologic, pathologic, and cytogenetic features. Its recurrence is high and efforts must be made to elucidate the role and usefulness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in these tumors. PMID:25101206

  17. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26-57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators' attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children's behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features.

  18. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare–Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26–57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Results Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators’ attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children’s behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. Conclusions High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features. PMID:26527856

  19. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  20. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  1. Identifying Military and Combat Specific Risk Factors for Child Adjustment: Comparing High and Low Risk Military Families and Civilian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    measure developmentally salient skills that are indicators of current adaptation among preschool and early childhood boys and girls of civilian intact and...single-parent families. This will allow for the identification of military-specific challenges, if any, of child adjustment and developmental ...n/a INTRODUCTION There is an emerging consensus that parental combat deployment may increase risk for child development ; but details on what the

  2. EFFECT OF ORTHOTIC SUBTALAR ALIGNMENT WITH CO-ACTIVATION EXERCISE FOR ALTERATION IN GAIT ENDURANCE IN A CHILD WITH CEREBRAL PALSYSINGLE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vadivelan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy cost of walking is two times higher in children with cerebral palsy when compared with normal children; this may be due to gait abnormalities.There is a negative influence on physical activity and early onsets of fatigue in activities of daily living are evident in cerebral palsy children and the reason for this is increase in energy cost of walking. Therefore, the treatment techniques which targets on correction of gait abnormalities and Energy conservation during walking are important to maintain orimprove independent functioning.The aim is to find out the effects of using Supra Malleolar Orthosis (SMO along with co-activation exercise in the increase of gait endurance and also to encourage independent skills and abilities in cerebral palsy child. Methods: A 14 years child with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy was treated with custom made supra malleolar orthotic which was designed with an orthotic support followed with specific exercises, co-activating dorsiflexors and plantar flexors actively and with assistance. The subject was made to do the co-activation exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Step length, stride length, cadence, navicular drop test, medial arch height and calcaneal eversion were measured before starting the treatment and at the end of 8th week. Results: the results of treatment shows that there is an improvement in 2 minutes’ walk test from 7(pre-test to 13, step length from 22 (pre-test to 32,stride length from 36(pre-test to 47,cadence from 39 (pretest to 37 after the use of Supra Malleolar Orthosis (SMO and a co-activation exercises intervention. There was a clear and significant improvement noted in navicular drop test, medial arch height and calcaneal eversion after a period of 8 weeks use of orthosis and exercise intervention when compared with pre-test value. Conclusion: Orthotic subtalar alignment with co-acticvation exercises for alteration in gait endurance in a child is showing

  3. High rates of child hypertension associated with obesity: a community survey in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Matthews, David R; Stevens, Denise E

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and epidemiological evidence suggests that it is increasing in parallel with obesity in children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. To identify and determine the relationship between overweight, obesity and hypertension in a community sample of school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 12,730 school children aged 12-18 years in China, India and Mexico as part of the Community Interventions for Health programme, an international study evaluating community interventions to reduce non-communicable disease by addressing the three main risk factors of tobacco use, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of body mass index and gender and hypertension. Prevalence rates of hypertension were 5.2% in China, 10.1% in India and 14.1% in Mexico, and pre-hypertension rates in China, India and Mexico were 13.4%, 9.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence rates varied by country and were 16.6% in China, 4.1% in India and 37.1% in Mexico. In all countries there was a significant association between overweight and obesity and rates of hypertension. Overweight children were 1.7-2.3 times more likely to be hypertensive and obese children 3.5-5.5 more likely to show hypertension than those of normal weight. Rates of hypertension and overweight and obesity are high in school children in China, India and Mexico, and increased bodyweight is a significant risk factor for hypertension.

  4. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  5. Prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among high school students in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N

    2001-10-01

    Based on self-reports the prevalence during childhood of psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among 559 high school students in Standards 7, 8, 9, and 10 of three high schools in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa was examined. The questionnaire asked for the demographic information and experiences of psychological, physical, and emotional abuse by their parents or adult caretakers as well as ritualistic abusive experiences before they were 17 years of age plus an estimate of self-perceived abuse during childhood and an overall rating of their own childhood. Analysis showed the self-reported prevalence rates to be as follows: 70.7% psychologically abused (but 14.4% for extreme cases), 27.0% physically abused, 35.3% emotionally abused, and 10.0% ritualistically abused. 13.4% of those who reported themselves as psychologically abused, 20.7% of the physically abused, 19.3% of the emotionally abused, and 35.8% of the ritualistically abused perceive themselves as not abused in any form during childhood. Yet, of the psychologically abused 23.4%, of the physically abused 18.2%, of the emotionally abused 22.0%, and of the ritualistically abused 28.3% rated their childhood as 'very unhappy'. It appears these various forms of abuse are experienced by the participants as widespread, suggesting that a much more serious problem may exist than has been recognised. More research into those forms of child abuse in this Province and elsewhere is needed for a clear appreciation of the problems and the effects of such abuse in children's behavior.

  6. Efficacy of Child-Focused and Parent-Focused Interventions in a Child Anxiety Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Bogels, Susan Maria; Voncken, Jannie Marisol

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a parent-focused (n = 69), child-focused (n = 58) or…

  7. Influence of Perinatal Depression on Labor-Associated Fear and Emotional Attachment to the Child in High-Risk Pregnancies and the First Days After Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Joanna; Bidzan, Mariola; Smutek, Jerzy; Bidzan, Leszek

    2016-03-29

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the level of perinatal depression on the labor-associated fear and emotional attachment of children born to women during high-risk pregnancies and in the first days after delivery. 133 women aged between 16 and 45 years took part in the study. The first group included 63 pregnant women (mean age=28.59, SD=5.578) with a high-risk pregnancy (of maternal origin, for example, cardiologic disorders and diabetes). The second group included 70 women (mean age=27.94, SD=5.164) who were in the first days post-partum. Research methods included: Analysis of medical documentation; Clinical interview; the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); the Questionnaire of Labor-Associated Anxiety (KLP), the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS). Women after delivery displayed a higher level of concern for the child's health and life when compared to the high-risk pregnancy group. The results indicated the appearance of a postnatal fear, the level of which is connected with the perception of the role of the mother. This fear is lower in women prior to childbirth than it is after. There has also been noted a statistically significant relationship between the appearance of depression and attachment to the child. Those women with depression show less attachment to their child than is the case for those who do not suffer from depression. The appearance of a high level of depression amongst women from the high-risk pregnancy group during the first days post childbirth was accompanied by perinatal depression and a weaker attachment to the child.

  8. Active control system for high speed windmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  9. Assessment of nutritional activities under integrated child development services at anganwadi centers of different districts of Gujarat from April 2012 to March 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Chudasama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS program aims at enhancing survival and development of children from the vulnerable sections of the society. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess various nutritional activities at anganwadi centers (AWCs in different districts of Gujarat state. Settings and Design: AWCs, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 AWCs were selected including 95 from rural and 35 from urban area from April 2012 to March 2015 including 12 districts of Gujarat and union territory, Diu. Five AWCs were selected from one district randomly. Detailed information about various nutritional activities including growth monitoring, preschool education (PSE and nutrition and health education (NHED, coverage for supplementary nutrition (SN, type of food provided under SN, and its issues at AWCs was collected. Statistical Analysis: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square/Fischer's exact test. Results: Growth chart was available in 96.9% AWCs. The malnutrition was reported among 14.9% children. PSE received by all children was only in 14.6% AWCs. NHED meeting was conducted in 73.8% AWCs. High coverage of receiving SN among enrolled was reported in pregnant and lactating mothers (84.6% and adolescents (79.2%. SN was fully acceptable in 91.5% AWCs. Interruption in SN supply during last 6 months was reported in 55.4% AWCs. Conclusion: Regular workshops should be conducted for ICDS staff to sensitize them about the importance of and practices on PSE. Interruption in supply of SN should be corrected by regular and adequate provision of SN foods to the beneficiaries.

  10. Training and technical assistance for compliance with beverage and physical activity components of New York City's regulations for early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakietek, Jakub; Dunn, Lillian; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Jernigan, Jan; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    In 2006, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) passed regulations for child care centers that established standards for beverages provided to children and set a minimum amount of time for daily physical activity. DOHMH offered several types of training and technical assistance to support compliance with the regulations. This article analyzes the association between training and technical assistance provided and compliance with the regulations in a sample of 174 group child care centers. Compliance was measured by using a site inventory of beverages stored on premises and a survey of centers' teachers regarding the amount of physical activity provided. Training and technical assistance measures were based on the DOHMH records of training and technical assistance provided to the centers in the sample and on a survey of center directors. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the association between training and technical assistance measures and compliance with the regulations. Measures of training related to physical activity the center received: the number of staff members who participated in Sport, Play and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK) and other training programs in which a center participated were associated with better compliance with the physical activity regulations. Neither training nor technical assistance were associated with compliance with the regulations related to beverages. Increased compliance with regulations pertaining to physical activity was not related to compliance with beverage regulations. Future trainings should be targeted to the specific regulation requirements to increase compliance.

  11. Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, K; Dorrepaal, E; Draijer, N; de Ruiter, M B; Elzinga, B M; van Balkom, A J; Smit, J H; Veltman, D J

    2012-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence that treatment can normalize these activation patterns. At baseline, we compared classic and emotional Stroop performance and blood oxygenation level-dependent responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of 29 child abuse-related complex PTSD patients with 22 non-trauma-exposed healthy controls. In 16 of these patients, we studied treatment effects of psycho-educational and cognitive behavioural stabilizing group treatment (experimental treatment; EXP) added to treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU only, and correlations with clinical improvement. At baseline, complex PTSD patients showed a trend for increased left anterior insula and dorsal ACC activation in the classic Stroop task. Only EXP patients showed decreased dorsal ACC and left anterior insula activation after treatment. In the emotional Stroop contrasts, clinical improvement was associated with decreased dorsal ACC activation and decreased left anterior insula activation. We found further evidence that successful treatment in child abuse-related complex PTSD is associated with functional changes in the ACC and insula, which may be due to improved selective attention and lower emotional arousal, indicating greater cognitive control over PTSD symptoms.

  12. Macrophage activation syndrome associated with hepatitis a virus in a child with systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imnul Islam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS is a rare but a grave complication of systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SOJIA. It occurs as a result of immune dysfunction of macrophages and T lymphocyte. A twelve-year old boy diagnosed case of SOJIA presented with high grade fever, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. He had high ALT, abnormal coagulation profile and Anti HA V IgM was positive. He had also high ferritin and triglyceride level which were very much suggestive for MAS. Infection especially Epstein Barr Virus, Herpes viruses and drugs are the common triggers for the development of MAS in association with SOJIA patients. MAS associated with hepatitis A virus are very rare. Only a few case reports are available in the literature. Considering its rarity and grave prognosis we are reporting a case of hepatitis A associated Macrophages Activation Syndrome in a systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  13. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  14. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  15. Living in fear of your child's pain: the Parent Fear of Pain Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E; Smith, Allison; Kaczynski, Karen; Basch, Molly

    2015-04-01

    Fear and avoidance have been consistently associated with poor pain-related outcomes in children. In the context of the pediatric pain experience, parent distress and behaviors can be highly influential. This study validated the Parent Fear of Pain Questionnaire (PFOPQ) to assess a parent's fears and avoidance behaviors associated with their child's pain. Using the PFOPQ in conjunction with measures of parent and child pain-related variables, we tested the interpersonal fear-avoidance model (IFAM). The sample comprised 321 parents and their child with chronic or new-onset pain who presented to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain clinic. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure for the PFOPQ consisting of Fear of Pain, Fear of Movement, Fear of School, and Avoidance. As hypothesized, Fear of Pain was most closely related to parent pain catastrophizing and child fear of pain, whereas Avoidance was most closely related to parent protective behaviors and child avoidance of activities. In testing the IFAM, parent behavior contributed directly and indirectly to child avoidance, whereas parent fear and catastrophizing contributed indirectly to child avoidance through parent behavior and child fear and catastrophizing, in turn, influencing child functional disability levels. This study provides the first measure of parent pain-related fears and avoidance behaviors and evaluates the theorized IFAM. These results underscore the important influence of parents on child pain-related outcomes and put forth a psychometrically sound measure to assess parent fear and avoidance in the context of their child's pain.

  16. A longitudinal study of child sleep in high and low risk families: relationship to early maternal settling strategies and child psychological functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Andrew; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J.; Evangeli, Michael; Byram, Victoria; Halligan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives\\ud To investigate whether sleep disturbances previously found to characterise high risk infants: (a) persist into childhood; (b) are influenced by early maternal settling strategies and (c) predict cognitive and emotional/behavioural functioning.\\ud Methods\\ud Mothers experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity (risk) were recruited antenatally and longitudinally assessed with their children. Mothers completed measures of settling strategies and infant sleep postnata...

  17. MULTI DISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN TREATING A GIRL CHILD DIAGNOSED WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPER ACTIVE DISORDER AND OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER. A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shaik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The principle features of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. There is little evidence that confirms that Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is arising purely from child rearing methods or social factors.76 % of children with ADHD has a family history, and the similar cases can be seen in the family. The symptoms of more than 50 % of ADHD children will continue in adulthood which requires treatment. Most of the causes appear for ADHD are categorizing the condition in a group of neurobiological and genetic disorders. This does not mean to say that the influence of environmental factors on the severity of disorder, impairment and suffering the child may experience is nil, but those factors do not give rise to the condition by themselves. The chances of getting associated problems like Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD in children with ADHD is one-third to one-half and ODD is more common in boys with ADHD. These children are often non compliant, stubborn, defiant, have outbursts of temper, or become belligerent. Case description: This is a case report of a child who diagnosed as attention deficit hyper active disordered and Oppositional Defiant Disordered (ODD child, with finger contractures of right hand, which treated with medications, behavioral therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation techniques and music therapy as the means of rehabilitation. Outcome measures: The evaluation measures used are Nine-hole peg test, behavioral rating scale and a seven items temperament evaluation scale. Discussion: A holistic rehabilitation therapy increased attention, listening to suggestions, short stories and sleeping in time. Oppositional behaviors were also reduced both at home and school. Her relationships with parent, teachers and school mates were improved. Listening skills, attention, daily activities such as wake up, brushing, bathing, going to school in time were also

  18. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  19. The Age of Entry into High-Quality Preschool, Child and Family Factors, and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Three blocks of factors were considered as predictors of four year old children's (N = 286) personality, non-verbal intelligence and social behaviour in preschool: (a) personality characteristics at time 1 (T1) when the participants were three years old; (b) parental education and parenting practices measured at T1; and (c) age of child's entry to…

  20. Child Behavior Checklist Profiles of Children and Adolescents with and at High Risk for Developing Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than…

  1. Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods…

  2. Evaluation of the Color Me Healthy Program in Influencing Nutrition and Physical Activity in Mississippi Preschool Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huye, Holly F.; Bankston, Sarah; Speed, Donna; Molaison, Elaine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the level of implementation and perceived value in creating knowledge and behavior change from the Color Me Healthy (CMH) training program in child care centers, family day carehomes, or Head Start facilities throughout Mississippi. Methods: A two-phase survey was used to initially…

  3. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  4. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Torrance; K Ashlee McGuire; Richard Lewanczuk; Jonathan McGavock

    2007-01-01

    Brian Torrance1, K Ashlee McGuire2 ,Richard Lewanczuk1, Jonathan McGavock21Division of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada; 2Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinic...

  5. Overweight, physical activity and high blood pressure in children: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Torrance; K Ashlee McGuire; Richard Lewanczuk; Jonathan McGavock

    2007-01-01

    Brian Torrance1, K Ashlee McGuire2 ,Richard Lewanczuk1, Jonathan McGavock21Division of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada; 2Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Obesity is a growing problem in developed countries and is likely a major cause of the increased prevalence of high blood pressure in children. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians and clinic...

  6. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdoubi Jamila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117

  7. Role Orientation of Parents in Parent -child Activities in Kindergarten%幼儿园亲子活动中的家长角色定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2016-01-01

    Parent -child activities are carried out in kindergartens to strengthen the cooperation between kindergartens and families ,enhance the emotional exchange between parents and children ,and promote the healthy development of children .As important participants in parent -child activities ,Parents role orientation affects the value of parent -child activities .Four commonly seen wrong role orientations are found among parents ,namely ,absentee ,bystander ,performer and enforcer .The existence of these phenomenon affect the meaning of the activity .Based on this ,this paper discusses the influential factors on the role of parents from three aspects :parents ,children and kindergarten ,and puts forwards suggestions on how to correct the role of parents .%幼儿园亲子活动的开展对于加强家园合作、增进亲子情感交流、促进幼儿健康发展具有重要意义。家长作为亲子活动的重要参与者,其角色的正确定位影响到亲子活动的价值。目前,在幼儿园亲子活动开展的过程中,家长容易扮演四种错误角色:缺位者、旁观者、执行者和强制者,这一现象的存在使活动的意义受到影响。基于此,文章从家长自身、幼儿以及幼儿园三个方面探讨影响家长角色定位的因素,并就如何正确定位家长的角色提出了建议。

  8. Catalytically highly active top gold atom on palladium nanocluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Haruta, Masatake; Toshima, Naoki

    2011-10-23

    Catalysis using gold is emerging as an important field of research in connection with 'green' chemistry. Several hypotheses have been presented to explain the markedly high activities of Au catalysts. So far, the origin of the catalytic activities of supported Au catalysts can be assigned to the perimeter interfaces between Au nanoclusters and the support. However, the genesis of the catalytic activities of colloidal Au-based bimetallic nanoclusters is unclear. Moreover, it is still a challenge to synthesize Au-based colloidal catalysts with high activity. Here we now present the 'crown-jewel' concept (Supplementary Fig. S1) for preparation of catalytically highly Au-based colloidal catalysts. Au-Pd colloidal catalysts containing an abundance of top (vertex or corner) Au atoms were synthesized according to the strategy on a large scale. Our results indicate that the genesis of the high activity of the catalysts could be ascribed to the presence of negatively charged top Au atoms.

  9. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  10. Social capital and physical activity among Croatian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, D; Doubova, S V; Kawachi, I

    2016-06-01

    To examine factors associated with regular physical activity in Croatian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013/14 school year. A survey was conducted among 33 high schools in Zagreb City, Croatia. Participants were students aged 17-18 years. The dependent variables were regular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall physical activity measured by the short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and defined as 60 min or more of daily physical activity. The independent variables included family, neighborhood, and high school social capital. Other study covariates included: socio-economic status, self-rated health, psychological distress and nutritional status. The associations between physical activity and social capital variables were assessed separately for boys and girls through multiple logistic regression and inverse probability weighting in order to correct for missing data bias. A total of 1689 boys and 1739 girls responded to the survey. A higher percentage of boys reported performing regular vigorous and moderate physical activity (59.4%) and overall physical activity (83.4%), comparing with the girls (35.4% and 70%, respectively). For boys, high family social capital and high informal social control were associated with increased odds of regular MVPA (1.49, 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90 and 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.56, respectively), compared to those with low social capital. For girls, high informal social control was associated with regular overall physical activity (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.76). High social capital is associated with regular MVPA in boys and regular overall activity in girls. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for promotion of physical activity in youth. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  12. Partner Aggression in High-Risk Families From Birth to Age 3: Associations With Harsh Parenting and Child Maladjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Alice M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggressi...

  13. Child Sex Trafficking in America: A Guide for Parents and Guardians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Sex Trafficking in America: A Guide for Parents and Guardians What is Child Sex Trafficking ? Child sex trafficking is one of the most common types of commercial sexual exploitation . Child sex trafficking is a high priority at the National ...

  14. High disease activity is related to low levels of physical activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongen, Camilla; Halvorsen, Silje; Dagfinrud, Hanne

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to compare physical activity (PA) level and exercise habits in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who have high disease activity with those who have low disease activity and, further, to compare both groups with population controls. Cross-sectional study design was used. The participants include 149 patients (mean age 49.3 (SD 11.1), 61% men, 54% high disease activity) and 133 controls (mean age 52.7 (SD11.3), 58% men). PA was reported with the International PA Questionnaire-Long and results were presented as weekly energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent, MET) in different intensities, domains, and proportion reaching health enhancing physical activity (HEPA). Types of PA were registered in a structured interview. The AS Disease Activity Score was used to assess patients' disease activity. Patients with high disease activity reported significantly lower total weekly energy expenditure (MET) than patients with low disease activity and controls (p = 0.02, p = 0.01, respectively) and lower amounts of walking (p < 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively) and vigorous activity (p = 0.06, p = 0.06, respectively). Only 41% of the patients with high disease activity reached HEPA compared to 61% of the patients with low disease activity (p = 0.02). Patients in general participated less in leisure PA performed outdoor and with higher intensities (MET ≥ 6) than controls.AS patients with high disease activity had lower weekly energy expenditure in PA than patients with low disease activity and controls, and were less likely to reach HEPA than patients with low disease activity. For optimal management, health professionals should focus on physical activity in their consultations with AS patients, especially those with high disease activity.

  15. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  16. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  17. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  18. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a stream of our activity across multiple social networks by visiting the Child Care Aware® of America Social Dashboard. Visit Our Social Dashboard Follow and Engage ... Care Aware of America Home Newsroom Contact Us Log In Register Back About ...

  19. The physical activity climate in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald

    2010-11-01

    This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity.

  20. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  1. Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the eff...

  2. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  3. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...] Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final Programmatic... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI...

  4. A pilot study examining activity participation, sensory responsiveness, and competence in children with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Bendixen, Roxanna M; Lawrence, Tami; Lane, Shelly J

    2011-11-01

    This pilot study explored activity patterns in children with and without ASD and examined the role of sensory responsiveness in determining children's level of competence in activity performance. Twenty-six children with high functioning ASD and twenty-six typically-developing children 6-12 years old were assessed using the Sensory Profile and the Child Behavior Checklist. Results reflect differences in the types of activities and jobs/chores engaged in by children with ASD compared to children without ASD. Significant differences were seen in overall level of competence in activities, social, and school performance. Children demonstrating more frequent Sensory Sensitivity and Sensory Avoiding had significantly lower competence scores than children with fewer behaviors in these domains, suggesting that sensory responsiveness may impact the ability to participate successfully.

  5. Soreness during non-music activities is associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems: an observational study of 731 child and adolescent instrumentalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ranelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is exposure to non-music-related activities associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in young instrumentalists? Is non-music-activity-related soreness associated with playing-related musculoskeletal problems in this group of instrumentalists? Design: Observational study using a questionnaire and physical measures. Participants: 859 instrumentalists aged 7 to 17 years from the School of Instrumental Music program. Results: Of the 731 respondents who completed the questionnaire adequately, 412 (56% experienced instrument-playing problems; 219 (30% had symptoms severe enough to interfere with normal playing. Children commonly reported moderate exposure to non-music-related activities, such as watching television (61%, vigorous physical activity (57%, writing (51% and computer use (45%. Greater exposure to any non-music activity was not associated with playing problems, with odds ratios ranging from 1.01 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.5 for watching television to 2.08 (95% CI 0.5 to 3.3 for intensive hand activities. Four hundred and seventy eight (65% children reported soreness related to non-music activities, such as vigorous physical activity (52%, writing (40%, computer use (28%, intensive hand activities (22%, electronic game use (17% and watching television (15%. Non-music-activity-related soreness was significantly associated with instrument playing problems, adjusting for gender and age, with odds ratios ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9 for soreness whilst watching television, to 4.3 (95% CI 2.6 to 7.1 for soreness during intensive hand activities. Conclusion: Non-music-activity-related soreness co-occurs significantly with playing problems in young instrumentalists. The finding of significant co-occurrence of music and non-music-related soreness in respondents in this study suggests that intervention targets for young instrumentalists could include risk factors previously identified in the general child and adolescent

  6. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  7. Experimental conditions affecting functional comparison of highly active glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedulova, Natalia; Mannervik, Bengt

    2011-06-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) possess multiple functions and have potential applications in biotechnology. Direct evidence of underestimation of activity of human GST A3-3 and porcine GST A2-2 measured at submicromolar enzyme concentrations is reported here for the first time. The combination of time-dependent and enzyme concentration-dependent loss of activity and the choice of the organic solvent for substrates were found to cause irreproducibility of activity measurements of GSTs. These effects contribute to high variability of activity values of porcine GST A2-2 and human Alpha-class GSTs reported in the literature. Adsorption of GSTs to surfaces was found to be the main explanation of the observed phenomena. Several approaches to improved functional comparison of highly active GSTs are proposed.

  8. High Power VCSEL Device with Periodic Gain Active Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers(VCSEKLs) with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structures, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the ca...

  9. Parental Misperception of Their Child's Body Weight Status Impedes the Assessment of the Child's Lifestyle Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine if distinct characteristics are associated with parental misclassification of underweight (UW, normal weight (NW, and overweight or obese (OWOB children and the implications of misclassification on the parental evaluation of the child's lifestyle habits. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis (2004 sample of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998–2010 (n=1,125. Results. 16%, 55%, and 77% of NW, UW and OWOB children were perceived inaccurately, respectively. Misperception was significantly higher in nonimmigrant parents of UW children, in highly educated parents of NW children and in NW and OWOB children with lower BMI percentiles. Erroneous body weight status identification impedes the evaluation of eating habits of all children as well as physical activity and fitness levels of UW and OWOB children. Conclusion. Parental misclassification of the child's body weight status and lifestyle habits constitutes an unfavorable context for healthy body weight management.

  10. TABLET DEVICES, SMARTPHONES, GAME CONSOLES INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN’S SOCIALIZATION, PLAY ACTIVITY AND CHILD-PARENT RELATIONSHIPS OF CHILDREN IN TENDER AGE AND PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousova, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of 130 families having children of early and preschool age are given. The contingent of investigated has been divided into 2 groups: group №1 - children without speech and cognitive violations (n=80, group № 2 - are diagnosed manifestations of the general underdevelopment of the speech combined with like-autistic disturbances (n=50. All the children were divided into 2 groups: group №1 (n = 80, children are without speech disorders, group №2 (n = 50: signs of general underdevelopment of children’s speech are diagnosed, combined with like-autistic disturbances. Features of formation of skills of social interaction, development of a subject role-playing game and the child parent relations at against the active use of tablet devices and smartphones by them are studied. In both groups intensive and unfairly early game interaction with gadgets is marked. There is a clear hierarchy transformation of the family system towards the loss of parents dominant influence on children without an ability to use gadget as an obedience and encourage. Patterns of parental behavior in the study families demonstrate the priority of spending time with the gadget to joint leisure time and active integration of the gadget into child's life with delegating him an authority of development and game interaction with him.

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  12. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ...

  13. Super-SERS-active and highly effective antimicrobial Ag nanodendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. B.; Liu, P.; Liang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Yang, G. W.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed simple and green electrochemistry to synthesize Ag nanostructures with high purity, good crystallinity and smooth surface for applications as super-SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), SERS-active substrates and with highly effective antimicrobial activities. This synthesis takes place in a clean and slow reaction environment without any chemical additives, which ensures an ultrahigh active surface of the as-synthesized Ag nanostructures owing to their purity, good crystallinity and smooth morphology. Using this method, we synthesized nearly perfect Ag nanodendrites (NDs), which exhibit super-SERS sensitivity when they are used to detect the SERS spectra of rhodamine 6G at concentrations as low as 5 × 10-16 M, and have an ultrahigh electromagnetic (EM) enhancement factor of the order of 1013, breaking through the theoretical limit of EM enhancement. Meanwhile, the as-synthesized Ag NDs possess highly effective antimicrobial activities for Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, which are over 10 times that of silver nanoparticles. Additionally, the basic physics and chemistry involved in the fabrication of Ag nanostructures are pursued. These investigations show that silver nanostructures with highly active surfaces can make the most of Ag nanostructures functioning as super-SERS-active substrates and multiple antibiotics.

  14. The Assessment of Math Learning Difficulties in a Primary Grade-4 Child with High Support Needs: Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Mundia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed-methods study incorporated elements of survey, case study and action research approaches in investigating an at-risk child. Using an in-take interview, a diagnostic test, an error analysis, and a think-aloud clinical interview, the study identified the child’s major presenting difficulties. These included: inability to use the four arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division efficiently; not understanding the relationship between units, tens and hundreds; using any two of the four arithmetic processes (+, - , x, ÷ in combination within one operation; treating each column as a separate problem; place value problems / wrong alignment of numbers; poor eye-hand coordination leading to dysgraphia; and memory lapses. The other problems that became apparent through this investigation and implied in the findings include possible causal factors such as dyscalculia, dyslexia, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and math anxiety. Further assessment, intervention and research are recommended to address problems of this vulnerable child.

  15. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  16. Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This final rule makes regulatory changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) based on the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014. These changes strengthen requirements to protect the health and safety of children in child care; help parents make informed consumer choices and access information to support child development; provide equal access to stable, high-quality child care for low-income children; and enhance the quality of child care and the early childhood workforce.

  17. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...

  18. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis....... were sorted by topic, type, quality of study, and relevance for child health today, providing 47 articles. RESULTS: Children in Greenland have become taller and have improved their general health. The morbidity found in Greenlandic children is similar to that found elsewhere even though the magnitude....... Overweight and obesity have tripled in 20 years and are a health threat as well as constituting negative health behaviour. Social ill health, socioeconomic inequity, and sociocultural changes also influence health but their consequences are not well investigated in children. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high...

  19. High-frequency EEG activity in epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Yumiko; Inoue, Takushi; Oka, Makio; Endo, Fumika; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2015-02-01

    We explored high-frequency activity in the suppression-burst (SB) pattern of interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy including Ohtahara syndrome (OS) and early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME) to investigate the pathophysiological characteristics of SB. Subjects included six patients with the SB EEG pattern related to OS or EME (Group SB). The results were evaluated in comparison to tracé alternant (TA) observed during the neonatal period in nine patients to rule out possible nonspecific relationships between high-frequency activity and periodic EEG patterns (Group TA). EEG was digitally recorded with a sampling rate of 500Hz and the analysis was performed in each of the particular bipolar channel-pairs. We visually selected 20 typical consecutive burst sections and 160 inter-burst sections for comparison from the sleep record of each patient and performed the time-frequency analysis. We investigated the maximum frequencies of power enhancement in each derivation in both groups. In Group SB, a significant increase in power at a frequency of 80-150Hz was observed in association with the bursts, particularly in the bilateral parieto-occipital derivations, in all patients. In Group TA, on the contrary, no significant increase in high-frequency power was found. The maximum frequencies of power enhancement were significantly higher in Group SB than in Group TA (phigh frequencies of up to 150Hz were detected in the suppression-burst EEG patterns in epileptic encephalopathy in early infancy. Further studies will be necessary to identify the role of the interictal high-frequency activity in the pathophysiology of such early epileptic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed. The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial. PMID:22672654

  1. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2012-06-06

    Variability exists in children's activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed.The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial.

  2. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairclough Stuart J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH or low active (LOW depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school. Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P P  The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial.

  3. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders.

  4. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Child Neglect Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect.

  5. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....... to the obstetricians, the midwives also reported that they expected the recommendation to be more effective. Most midwives and obstetricians reported that they thought strict activity restriction was associated with severe or moderate adverse effect, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis. Conclusions: Danish......Abstract Aims: To describe specific recommendations of activity restriction, place of care, expected beneficial and adverse effects, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis in nine clinical scenarios. Methods: A national survey. All members of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology...

  6. Identifying Military and Combat-Specific Risk Factors for Child Adjustment: Comparing High and Low Risk Military Families and Civilian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    preschool children, maternal emotional distress was a strong predictor of child psychopathology and poor achievement of developmental ...military-specific challenges, if any, of child adjustment and developmental milestones, and; 2) examine the role of spousal-perceived Service Member risk...INTRODUCTION There is an emerging consensus that parental combat deployment may increase risk for child development ; but details on what the

  7. High lightning activity in maritime clouds near Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kucienska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning activity detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN over oceanic regions adjacent to Mexico is often as high as that observed over the continent. In order to explore the possible cause of the observed high flash density over those regions, the relationships between lightning, rainfall, vertical hydrometeor profiles, latent heating, wind variability and aerosol optical thickness are analyzed. The characteristics of lightning and precipitation over four oceanic zones adjacent to Mexican coastlines are contrasted against those over the continent. In addition, we compare two smaller regions over the Tropical Pacific Ocean: one located within the Inter-Tropical Converge Zone and characterized by high rainfall and weak lightning activity and the other influenced by a continental jet and presenting high rainfall and strong lightning activity over the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Maritime precipitating clouds that develop within the region influenced by offshore winds exhibit similar properties to continental clouds: large content of precipitation ice and an increased height range of coexistence of precipitation ice and cloud water. During the rainy season, monthly distribution of lightning within the region influenced by the continental jet is contrary to that of rainfall. Moreover, the monthly variability of lightning is very similar to the variability of the meridional wind component and it is also related to the variability of aerosol optical depth. The analysis strongly suggests that the high lightning activity observed over the Gulf of Tehuantepec is caused by continental cloud condensation nuclei advected over the ocean.

  8. Factors determining whether the parents accept BCG immunization of the new-born child in a high-income country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    Introduction: A large prospective randomised clinical trial in Denmark is planned to test the hypothesis that compared to non-BCG-vaccinated infants, infants who are BCG vaccinated at birth experience less hospitalisations, use less antibiotics, and develop less atopic disease in early childhood.......' Connors 'Decisional Conflict scale' to compare decisional conflicts for the parents that accept BCG vaccination and parents who do not accept the BCG vaccination of their newborn child.......Introduction: A large prospective randomised clinical trial in Denmark is planned to test the hypothesis that compared to non-BCG-vaccinated infants, infants who are BCG vaccinated at birth experience less hospitalisations, use less antibiotics, and develop less atopic disease in early childhood...

  9. Parent-child attachment, academic performance and the process of high-school dropout: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdal, Gro; Bergvik, Svein; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Poor academic performance is a strong predictor of school dropout. Researchers have tried to disentangle variables influencing academic performance. However, studies on preschool and early care variables are seldom examined when explaining the school dropout process. We reviewed the literature on the relationship between caregiver-child attachment and academic performance, including attachment studies from preschool years, seeking out potential contributions to academic performance and the dropout process. The review was organized according to a model of four main mediating hypotheses: the attachment-teaching hypothesis, the social network hypothesis, the attachment-cooperation hypothesis, and the attachment self-regulation hypothesis. The results of the review are summed up in a model. There is some support for all four hypotheses. The review indicates that attachment and early care contribute substantially to dropout and graduation processes. Mediation effects should be given far more attention in future research.

  10. Efficacy of child-focused and parent-focused interventions in a child anxiety prevention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined anxiety development in median- (n = 74) and high-anxious children (n = 183) aged 8-13, the effect of parent- and child-focused preventive interventions on child/parental anxiety, and the effect of parental anxiety on child anxiety. High-anxious children were randomized into a par

  11. Child Rights Information Network Newsletter, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbrick, Becky, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These three newsletter issues communicate activities of the Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) and report on information resources and worldwide activities concerning children and child rights. The January 1997 issue profiles CRIN members in Costa Rica, Tanzania, Germany, and Switzerland; and provides updates on the activities of projects…

  12. Parental Monitoring and Child Performance in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Kwadwo; Pobbi, Michael Asamani

    2016-01-01

    The role of parents in the guiding and monitoring of child activities is critical towards the development of the child. In Ghana reforms taken, especially at the basic school level, have focused on improving school infrastructure and enrollment ignoring parents awareness to actively involve themselves both at home and in school activities which…

  13. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  14. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  15. High Frequency State-Variable Biquadratic Active Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dostal

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The state-variable (KHN active RC biquadratic filters with good performance in high frequency range , flexibility of outputs (LP, HP, BP, low sensitivities in novel current and hybrid modes, using current conveyors, transimpedance, trans-admittance and current operational amplifiers, are given in this paper.

  16. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...

  17. Reduced autonomic activity during stepwise exposure to high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevre, K; Bendz, B; Hanko, E; Nakstad, AR; Hauge, A; Kasin, JI; Lefrandt, JD; Smit, AJ; Eide, [No Value; Rostrup, M

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have shown increased sympathetic activity during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. In a recent field study we found reduced plasma catecholamines during the first days after a stepwise ascent to high altitude. In the present study 14 subjects were exposed to a simulated ascent in

  18. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT for assessment of response to induction chemotherapy in a child with high-risk neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Genoa (Italy); E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Lopci, Egesta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Foppiani, Luca [Galliera Hospital, Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Genoa (Italy); Morana, Giovanni [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology and Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Conte, Massimo [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Hematology-Oncology, Genoa (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Functional imaging plays a crucial role in the assessment of neuroblastoma. The evaluation of response to induction chemotherapy is a cornerstone in scheduling proper treatment management in patients affected by high-risk neuroblastoma. {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine has been recognized as the radiopharmaceutical of choice in neuroblastoma assessment. To date, the clinical role of PET/CT in pediatric malignancy is not well established.{sup 18}F-DOPA-PET/CT has been recently used in neuroblastoma, and compared with {sup 123}I-MIBG-scan. Scant new data are available about the role of this tool in the evaluation of treatment response after induction chemotherapy. We investigate the role of {sup 18}F-DOPA-PET/CT in characterizing the response to induction chemotherapy in a child affected by high-risk-neuroblastoma, in whom the rare association of {sup 123}I-MIBG-negative primary tumor and MIBG-positive bone marrow metastases was observed. (orig.)

  19. Development activities of the high heat flux scraper element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J., E-mail: jean.boscary@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Lore, J.; Lumsdaine, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maier, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); McGinnis, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peacock, A.; Tretter, J. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The function of the high heat flux scraper element is to reduce the heat loads on the element ends of the actively cooled divertor of Wendelstein 7-X. The scraper element is actively water cooled to remove up to 550 kW steady state power load, with localized heat fluxes as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2}. Its surface area, 0.17 m{sup 2}, is contoured to optimally intercept both upstream and downstream particle fluxes. The plasma facing surface is made of 24 individual scraper fingers based on the monoblock technology. Each scraper finger is 247 mm long and 28 mm wide and has 13 monoblocks made of CFC NB31 bonded by hot isostatic pressing onto a CuCrZr cooling tube equipped with a copper twisted tape. Development activities, described here, include the design and fabrication of prototypes to validate the different technologies selected for the scraper element design to prepare a possible production.

  20. Review of actuators for high speed active flow control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; LUO ZhenBing; XIA ZhiXun; LIU Bing; DENG Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Actuators are one of the key points for the development of active flow control technology.Efficient methods of high speed flow control can provide enhanced propulsive efficiency and at the same time enable safe and maneuverable high speed flight.The development of high speed flight technology promotes the emergence of novel and robust actuators.This review introduces the state of the art in the development of actuators that can be used in high speed active flow control.The classification and different operation criteria of the actuators are discussed.The specifications,mechanisms and applications of various popular actuator types including fluidic,mechanical,and plasma actuators are described.Based on the realistic need of high speed flow control and the existing results of actuators,a new actuator design method is proposed.At last,the merits and drawbacks of the actuators are summarized and some suggestions on the development of active flow control technology are put forward.

  1. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  2. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  3. Use of measles supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) as a delivery platform for other maternal and child health interventions: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Sharma, Jitendar K; Jit, Mark; Verguet, Stéphane

    2013-02-18

    Measles supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) offer children in countries with weaker immunization delivery systems like India a second opportunity for measles vaccination. They could also provide a platform to deliver additional interventions, but the feasibility and acceptability of including add-ons is uncertain. We surveyed Indian programme officers involved in the current (2010-2012) measles SIAs concerning opportunities and challenges of using SIAs as a delivery platform for other maternal and child health interventions. Respondents felt that an expanded SIA strategy including add-ons could be of great value in improving access and efficiency. They viewed management challenges, logistics, and safety as the most important potential barriers. They proposed that additional interventions be selected using several criteria, of which importance of the health problem, safety, and contribution to health equity figured most prominently. For children, they recommended inclusion of basic interventions to address nutritional deficiencies, diarrhoea and parasites over vaccines. For mothers, micronutrient interventions were highest ranked.

  4. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Cheeseright, J. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  5. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  6. High lightning activity in maritime clouds near Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucienska, B.; Raga, G. B.; Romero-Centeno, R.

    2012-09-01

    Lightning activity detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) over oceanic regions adjacent to Mexico is often as high as that observed over the continent. In order to explore the possible causes of the observed high flash density over those regions, the relationships between lightning, rainfall, vertical hydrometeor profiles, latent heating, wind variability and aerosol optical depth are analyzed. The characteristics of lightning and precipitation over four oceanic zones adjacent to Mexican coastlines are contrasted against those over the continent. The number of flashes per rainfall over some coastal maritime regions is found to be higher than over the continent. The largest number of flashes per rainfall is observed during the biomass burning season. In addition, we compare two smaller areas of the Tropical Pacific Ocean: one located within the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and characterized by high rainfall and weak lightning activity and the other one influenced by a continental wind jet and characterized by high rainfall and strong lightning activity. During the rainy season, the monthly distribution of lightning within the region influenced by the continental wind jet is contrary to that of rainfall. Moreover, the monthly variability of lightning is very similar to the variability of the meridional wind component and it is also related to the variability of aerosol optical depth. The analysis suggests that the high lightning activity observed over coastal Pacific region is linked to the continental cloud condensation nuclei advected over the ocean. Analysis of daily observations indicates that the greatest lightning density is observed for moderate values of the aerosol optical depth, between 0.2 and 0.35.

  7. Growing children's bodies and minds: maximizing child nutrition and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice; Huffman, Sandra L

    2010-06-01

    For their optimal growth, and for greater long-term human capital development, children profit not only from improved nutrition but also from improved learning opportunities in the earliest years of life. This paper describes how actions to enhance optimal infant and young child nutrition can be linked with child development interventions for children under 3 years of age. In countries with high rates of malnutrition, linking these two components will result in synergies of program activities, and will bring about a greater impact at reduced cost than either activity conducted separately. New understanding of social marketing and communication strategies can increase effectiveness of linked interventions. Public-private partnerships to improve both child development and nutrition offer promise for sustainable interventions.

  8. A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying, E-mail: liyingjlu@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding Xuefeng; Guo Yupeng; Wang Lili; Rong Chunguang; Qu Yuning; Ma Xiaoyu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Zichen, E-mail: wangzc@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} High surface area activated carbon can be prepared by rice husk H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} without pretreatment. {yields} The characteristics of the activated carbon were greatly influenced by post-processing method. {yields} The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. {yields} Some silica in rice husk reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} which could be removed by post-process. - Abstract: Activated carbons with high surface area were prepared by phosphoric acid as activation agent and rice husks as precursors. It was found that the characteristics of the activated carbons were influenced not only by the preparation but also by the post-processing method. The high surface area of the activated carbons was prepared under the optimum condition (50% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with impregnation ratio of 5:1, activation temperature of 500 deg. C, activation time of 0.5 h, wash water temperature of 100 deg. C). SiO{sub 2} content could affect the surface area of activated carbons, either. The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. The SiO{sub 2} content was 11.2% when used the optimum condition. The explanation was that silicon element in rice husks reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form silicon phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and it could be proved further by X-ray diffraction analysis, SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} could be removed by post-process.

  9. High School Graduation Effects of a Verbal Interaction Program for At-Risk Toddlers: A Study of Long-Term Outcomes in a Replication of the Mother-Child Home Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    High school outcomes were assessed for 123 young adults, originally toddlers in the home-based, low-intensity Mother-Child Home Program (MCHP) and at risk for dropping out of high school because of their parents' low income and education. Participants were recruited for the Pittsfield, MA, replication of the MCHP and randomly selected into program…

  10. Evaluation of Supplementary Nutrition Activities under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS at Anganwadi Centres of Different Districts of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K Chudasama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ICDS program aims at enhancing survival and development of children from the vulnerable sections of the society. The present study was conducted to assess supplementary nutrition (SN activities and its related issues at anganwadi centres. Material and methods: Total 60 anganwadi centres were selected including 46 anganwadi centres (AWCs from rural area and 14 AWCs from urban area during April 2012 to March 2013 from 12 districts of Gujarat. Five AWCs were selected from one district randomly. Detailed information was collected related to beneficiary’s coverage for SN, type of food provided under SN, and various issues related to supplementary nutrition at anganwadi centres.Results: High coverage of receiving SN among enrolled was reported in pregnant mothers (88.3%, lactating mothers (91.7% and adolescents (86.7%. Only 25% AWCs were providing hot cooked food (HCF to 3 to 6 years children. Less than half of the AWCs were providing ready to eat (RTE food to 6 months to 3 years children (48.3%, pregnant (46.7% and lactating (46.7% mothers, and adolescents (45.0%. Total 38.3% AWCs reported shortage of SN supply, more in rural (41.3% compare to urban (28.6%. Various problems were reported by anganwadi workers related to SN like lack of storage facility, non availability of separate kitchen, poor quality of food, irregular supply, inadequate supply, and fuel problem. Conclusion: The regular and adequate supply of SN will improve the provision of hot cooked food, ready to eat food and take home ration to the beneficiaries as per the norms, leading to improvement of overall nutritional status of the community.

  11. Active Photonic crystal fibers for high power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    . This plays an important role in high power lasers and ampliers with respect to efficiency, packaging, and thermal handling. The third part of the work has involved developing tools for characterizing the mode quality and stability of large core bers. Stable, single-mode bers with larger cores are essential......The photonic crystal ber technology provides means to realize bers optimized for high power operation, due to the large single-mode cores and the unique design exibility of the microstructure. The work presented in this thesis focuses on improving the properties of active photonic crystal bers...... for high power ber lasers and ampliers, and on adding new functionality to the fibers - all with the purpose of pushing the technology towards high powers. The first part of the work has been to investigate photo darkening, the mitigation of which is crucial in the quest for higher powers. The work has...

  12. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  13. Preclinical Study for Application of Fabricated High Activity Ir-192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee; Oh, Young Taek; Jeong, Chul; Kim, Mi Hwa; Hwang, Jeong Hye; Kim, Hee Seong; Im, Eun Jeong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of high activity Ir-192 sources manufactured by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for application to present equipment such as various applicators inserted to patients and PLATO(Nucletron, Netherland) of treatment planning system and to evaluate safety and accuracy of Ir-192 as practical clinic use through in vitro dosimetry of Ir-192. We confirmed the physical and radiobiological safety of KAERI sources to use practical. KAERI sources are applicable to commercial high dose rate brachytherapy machine safely. Then those can be substituted for the imported sources such as sources made by Nucletron, Gammamed and exported to the foreign country

  14. Effective management of pulmonary aspergillosis invading the thoracic spine in a child with high risk ALL requiring allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Hans Jürgen; Sovinz, Petra; Lackner, Herwig; Schwinger, Wolfgang; Benesch, Martin; Strenger, Volker; Urban, Christian

    2008-08-01

    Due to unacceptably high mortality, invasive fungal infections (IFI) have long been considered a contraindication against allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Despite severe immunosuppression an 11-year-old girl requiring allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia was cured of a concurrent invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Treatment comprised combinations of liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin and voriconazole with donor granulocyte transfusions. This therapeutic regimen, including the choice of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), allowed the patient to receive an allogeneic BMT. In hematological remission the child later developed fatal chronic graft-versus-host disease. Combined antifungal treatment and granulocyte support allow for effective management of IFI even in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. However, short-term benefits of RIC may be outweighed by late complications.

  15. Activated blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, C.J.; Qian, J.S. [CJS Technology Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the strength and equilibrium water extraction of blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash and activator CaCl{sub 2}. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} increased the strength of cement very significantly. Equilibrium water extraction indicated that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} decreased the pH of the pore solution, but accelerated the pozzolanic reactions between coal fly ash and lime, which became more obvious when the volume of fly ash in the cement was increased from 50-70%. Results from both strength and water extraction testing could conclude that CaCl{sub 2} is a good activator for the activation of pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash and for the improvement of early properties of fly ash cement and concrete.

  16. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  17. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-12-14

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  18. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Soufan

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  19. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  20. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2016-11-28

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  1. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  2. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to Maltreating Parent-Child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J.; Zebell, N.M.; McGrath, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to…

  3. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  5. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  6. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  7. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4–16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  8. Active beam integrator for high power coherent lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguarta, F.; Armengol, J.; Vega, F.; Lupon, N. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. d`Optica i Optometria

    1996-12-31

    In laser materials processing applications it is often necessary to work with uniform intensity distributions. This goal is quite difficult to achieve when dealing with high power laser beams, and becomes critical for a successful application involving surface heat treatment of non-metallic materials. The authors have designed and tested a very simple beam shaper for transforming the initial intensity distribution of a CO{sub 2} laser beam mode into a more uniform intensity profile. The beam shaper is a two-faceted mirror for active integration of high power coherent laser beams. After reflection in the faceted mirror, a TEM00 or TEM01 CO{sub 2} laser beam is divided into two beamlets that overlap to give a more uniform intensity distribution. A sharp interference pattern due to the high spatial coherence of the incident beam appears. This interference pattern is actively integrated by a high-frequency longitudinal displacement of one of the facets. This provides a change in the relative phase of the two beamlets, and consequently the interference pattern vibrates and its contribution to the intensity distribution averages out. When sweeping this distribution over a sample, a uniform amount of energy is deposited at every point of its surface. It must be emphasized that unlike multifaceted mirrors, the two-facet integrator may provide uniform intensity profiles over any working distance. Finally, as in other integration devices an imaging system may be used to obtain a spot of the shape and the size desired for a particular application.

  9. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  10. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  11. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B A; Jones, A; Biggs, B K; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8-14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) "very easy" or "easy" to use. The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies.

  12. Concurrent tubercular and staphylococcus meningitis in a child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Agrawal

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous,non-surgical haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is rare and associated with high mortality.Mixed infection causing meningitis (pyogenic and tubercular)is further rarer,poses a difficult diag-nostic and management challenge,which warrants early diagnosis and aggressive therapy.We present a case of concurrent pyogenic and tubercular meningitis in a child managed successfully.It seems that in present case initial pyogenic infection resulted in the immunocompromised state for the child that would had lead to the acti-vation of tubercular foci resulting in tubercular meningitis.

  13. Active Change in Psychodynamic Therapy: Moments of High Receptiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gauna, Mariano De Iceta Ibáñez; Roibal, M Angela Soler; Ruiz, José Antonio Méndez; Fernández, Joaquin Ingelmo; Bleichmar, Hugo B

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the concept of "moments of high receptiveness" (MoHR or "Momentos de Alta Receptividad"), which is derived from the concept of "experiential coupling" ("Acoplamiento de Experiencias") proposed by Bleichmar (2001). Experiential coupling recently received empirical support by the work of Schiller and colleagues (2010). We will also show the conceptual placing of moments of high receptiveness with respect to the developments of Stern and colleagues (Stern and et al., 1998; Stern, 2004). In order to achieve both objectives, we focus on various clinical vignettes stressing the differences in repercussions of the technique. We describe use of stimuli for active evocation, explain how to identify moments of high receptiveness, and review ways to take advantage of these moments. Lastly, to minimize the risk of iatrogenic symptoms, we examine the role of therapists and some features of the therapeutic process when using this technique.

  14. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  15. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... Learn more about this project > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  16. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  17. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.

  18. Low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate but high loss-to-follow-up among mothers and babies in Mandalay, Myanmar; a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Phyo, Khaing Hnin; Aung, Thet Ko; Mya, Theingi; Aung, Nilar; Oo, Htun Nyunt; Isaakidis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016.LTFU means mother/infant missing appointed visit for more than three months. Of 678 pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT program between March 2011 and June 2014, one stillbirth and 607 live births were recorded in this cohort. Of 457 HIV-exposed babies with HIV-test recorded at the end of the intervention, nine (2%) were HIV-positive. Pregnant women's and exposed-babies' LTFU rate was 7 per 1000 person-years, and 10 per 1000 person-years respectively. PMTCT option B protocol was found to be significantly associate with maternal LTFU [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 95% CI: 3.52 (1.38-8.96)] when compare to mothers receiving option B+/lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Weight <2.5 Kg at enrolment, receiving mixed-feeding, vaginal delivery and option B PMTCT protocol were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes among exposed babies [aHR(95% CI): 5.40 (1.66-17.53), 5.91(1.68-20.84), 2.27 (1.22-4.22) and 2.33 (1.16-4.69) respectively]. Mother-to-child HIV transmission rate in this public hospital-based program was lower than the 5% national target, which indicates a successful PMTCT intervention. However, a high proportion of HIV-infected mothers and exposed babies LTFU was recorded. Lifelong ART provision to HIV-positive pregnant women was shown to reduce exposed babies' LTFU, death and transmission rate (unfavorable outcomes) in this setting. Lessons learned from this program could be used to inform

  19. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  20. High Performance Activity Practices in Small Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ŢUŢUEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Activity Practices in Small Firms in Romania Abstract: High performance activity practices (HPAPs are human resource management activities aimed at stimulating employee and organisational performance. The application of HPAPs is not widespread in small organisations. We examine whether the implementation of coherent bundles of HPAPs (aimed at employee ability, employee motivation or at the opportunity to perform depends on the scarcity of resources, as reflected in the size of the company, and on strategic decision-making in small firms related to the owner’s expertise and attitudes. In our research, a total of 224 employees from 50 small organisations were asked to rate the presence of HPAPs in their organisation. These averaged perceptions were linked to information provided by the owner–managers on the size of their firm and their own expertise and attitudes. The findings support that smaller but coherent bundles of HPAPs can be found in small organisations and that the implementation of these bundles depends on available resources, strategic decision-making and the combination of the two. These findings highlight the need to integrate the notions of resource poverty and strategic decision-making to understand the uptake of bundles of HPAPs within small firms.

  1. Use of dominant harmonic active filters in high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Tai

    The application of power electronics equipment is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that 60% of electrical power will be processed by power electronics equipment by year 2000. These equipments typically require rectifiers for AC-DC power conversion. Due to their nonlinear nature, most rectifiers draw harmonic current from the utility grid. The harmonic current causes higher energy losses, and may excite resonance conditions in the utility grid. Harmonic standards such as IEEE 519 and IEC 1000-3-2 have been proposed to regulate the harmonic current and voltage levels. This work is to develop a dominant harmonic active filter (DHAF) to realize a cost-effective active filtering solution for nonlinear loads in the range of megawatt and above. The DHAF system achieves harmonic isolation at dominant harmonic frequencies, e.g. the 5th and 7th. This approach allows use of low switching frequency and small rating active filter inverters (1%--2% of the load MVA rating) for implementation. Review of conventional passive filters and various active filters based on high bandwidth PWM inverters is provided. The control theory of the DHAF system is presented. Comparison of the DHAF system and other dominant harmonic filtering approach is provided. Simulation results and laboratory prototype test results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed DHAF system.

  2. Increasing physical activity in young primary school children--it's child's play: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Lina; Bundy, Anita C; Naughton, Geraldine; Simpson, Judy M; Bauman, Adrian; Ragen, Jo; Baur, Louise; Wyver, Shirley; Tranter, Paul; Niehues, Anita; Schiller, Wendy; Perry, Gabrielle; Jessup, Glenda; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2013-05-01

    To explore the effects of an innovative school-based intervention for increasing physical activity. 226 children (5-7 years old) randomly selected from 12 Australian primary schools were recruited to a cluster randomised trial with schools randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions. The 13-week intervention comprised: (1) altering the school playground by introducing loose materials and (2) a teacher-parent intervention exploring perceptions of risk associated with children's free play. The primary outcomes were total accelerometer counts and moderate-vigorous physical activity during break times. Testing took place in Sydney, 2009-2010. 221 participants were tested at baseline. Mixed-effect multilevel regression revealed a small but significant increase from the intervention on total counts (9400 counts, 95% CI 3.5-15.2, p=0.002) and minutes of MVPA (1.8 min, 95% CI 0.5-3.1, p=0.006); and a decrease in sedentary activity (2.1 min, 95% CI 0.5-3.8, p=0.01) during break times. We retested children in one intervention school after 2 years; they maintained the gains. Capturing children's intrinsic motivations to play while simultaneously helping adults reconsider views of free play as risky provided increases in physical activity during break times. Using accelerometry as the sole measure of physical activity may underestimate the effect. ACTRN12611000089932. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Child health in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, G Arias; Mutis, F Suescun; Mercer, R; Bonati, M; Choonara, I

    2009-11-01

    Colombia is a country with major problems, mainly a high degree of inequality and an unacceptably high level of violence (both armed military conflict and crime related). There are unacceptably high variations in health and health provision. Despite these difficulties, there are important steps being taken by both the government and independent organisations to try and improve child health and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in relation to poverty, hunger and health issues. The participation of different sectors and stakeholders (including government, non-governmental organisations and other organisations of civil society) is essential to overcome Colombian history and to promote a better place for children.

  4. Significance of High-frequency Electrical Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Agari, Takashi; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Shibata, Takashi; Hanaoka, Yoshiyuki; Akiyama, Mari; Endoh, Fumika; Oka, Makio; Date, Isao

    2017-06-01

     Electroencephalogram (EEG) data include broadband electrical brain activity ranging from infra-slow bands (frequency bands (e.g., the approx. 10 Hz alpha rhythm) to high-frequency bands of up to 500 Hz. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) including ripple and fast ripple oscillations (80-200 Hz and>200 / 250 Hz, respectively) are particularly of note due to their very close relationship to epileptogenicity, with the possibility that they could function as a surrogate biomarker of epileptogenicity. In contrast, physiological high-frequency activity plays an important role in higher brain functions, and the differentiation between pathological / epileptic and physiological HFOs is a critical issue, especially in epilepsy surgery. HFOs were initially recorded with intracranial electrodes in patients with intractable epilepsy as part of a long-term invasive seizure monitoring study. However, fast oscillations (FOs) in the ripple and gamma bands (40-80 Hz) are now noninvasively detected by scalp EEG and magnetoencephalography, and thus the scope of studies on HFOs /FOs is rapidly expanding.

  5. Highly Active Rare-Earth-Metal La-Doped Photocatalysts: Fabrication, Characterization, and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient La-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel method and extensively characterized by various sophisticated techniques. The photocatalytic activity of La-doped TiO2 was evaluated for the degradation of monocrotophos (MCPs in aqueous solution. It showed higher rate of degradation than pure TiO2 for the light of wavelength of 254 nm and 365 nm. The rate constant of TiO2 increases with increasing La loading and exhibits maximum rate for 1% La loading. The photocatalytic activities of La-doped TiO2 are compared with La-doped ZnO; the reaction rate of the former is ~1.8 and 1.1 orders higher than the latter for the lights of wavelength 254 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The relative photonic efficiency of La-doped TiO2 is relatively higher than La-doped ZnO and commercial photocatalysts. Overall, La-doped TiO2 is the most active photocatalyst and shows high relative photonic efficiencies and high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MCP. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of La-doped TiO2 is mainly due to the electron trapping by lanthanum metal ions, small particle size, large surface area, and high surface roughness of the photocatalysts.

  6. Parent-Child Interactions and Obesity Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Aksan, Nazan; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity research has generally not examined multiple layers of parent-child relationships during weight-related activities such as feeding, eating and play. A literature review was conducted to locate empirical studies that measured parent-child interactions and child eating and child weight variables; five papers met the inclusion criteria…

  7. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  8. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Abts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1 M NaCl. Here, we describe an optimized purification protocol using a five-step NaCl elution to remove contaminants. The obtained nisin is devoid of impurities and shows high bactericidal activity against the nisin-sensitive L. lactis strain NZ9000. Purified nisin exhibits an IC50 of ~3 nM, which is a tenfold improvement as compared to nisin obtained via the one-step elution procedure.

  9. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    de Sousa, N; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  10. Highly Active Carbene Ruthenium Catalyst for Metathesis of 1-Hexene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Chen-Xi; ZHANG Zhi-Qiang; L(U) Xiao-Bing; HE Ren; ZHANG Wen-Zhen; LU Shu-Lai

    2006-01-01

    A new carbene ruthenium complex, 1,3-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene)(PPh3)Cl2-Ru=CHPh, was synthesized and used as catalyst for the metathesis of 1-hexene. The resulting complex exhibited very high catalytic activity whose TOF is up to 6680 h-1. However, at the same time significant olefin isomerization was observed and could be surpressed by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, time, alkene/Ru molar ratio and solvent.

  11. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  12. Children's Activities and Their Effect on Child Development: The Results of the IEA Pre-primary Project in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska-Struczyk, Malgorzata

    1998-01-01

    Describes early childhood education research done in Poland as part of the IEA Pre-primary Quality of Life project. Observations discussed include: the children's activities, teacher behavior, management of children's time in kindergarten, the relationship between these variables, and their connection with the development of 4- to 7-year-old…

  13. Error-Related Brain Activity in Young Children: Associations with Parental Anxiety and Child Temperamental Negative Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Dana C.; Hajcak, Greg; Kim, Jiyon; Kujawa, Autumn J.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in error-related brain activity in anxiety disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential approximately 50 [milliseconds] after errors compared to correct responses. Recent studies suggest that the ERN may be a biomarker for anxiety, as it is positively…

  14. Emotional well-being and discrepancies between child and parent educational expectations and aspirations in middle and high school

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutherford, Teomara

    2015-01-01

    .... Age-related hypotheses are tested. Results suggest that middle school children who have expectations that don't match their parents' aspirations for them have lower well-being, and that among high school students, mismatch between...

  15. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...... was available, results suggest that the kind of involvement matters. These results suggest that what matters is the quality and not the quantity of father-child interactions....

  16. High dielectric constant, low loss and high photocatalytic activity in Gd doped ZnO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, N. K.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced photocatalytic activity and high dielectric constant values are achieved by gadolinium (Gd) doping in ZnO. The changes that happened to the wurtzite structure of ZnO on doping are depicted in detail by using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The chemical composition is confirmed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The influence of Gd incorporation in the emission spectra of ZnO is analysed from photoluminescence studies. The photocatalytic activity enhancement occurred in ZnO system on Gd doping was explored by kinetic rate analysis. The optimum incorporation of Gd has enhanced the dielectric constant value and decreased the loss of pristine. The high dielectric constant value and low loss make the system suitable for large scale of applications in microelectronics. The work also proposes large scale synthesis of highly efficient fluorescent Gd doped ZnO photocatalysts.

  17. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Lis; de Sousa, Bruno; Cabral, Lília; Cristiano, Maria LS; Nogueira, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART), artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites. PMID:27276364

  18. Highly active ozonides selected against drug resistant malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Lobo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing multi-drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum is creating new challenges in malaria chemotherapy. In the absence of licensed vaccines, treatment and prevention of malaria is heavily dependent on drugs. Potency, range of activity, safety, low cost and ease of administration are crucial issues in the design and formulation of antimalarials. We have tested three synthetic ozonides NAC89, LC50 and LCD67 in vitro and in vivo against multidrug resistant Plasmodium. In vitro, LC50 was at least 10 times more efficient inhibiting P. falciparum multidrug resistant Dd2 strain than chloroquine and mefloquine and as efficient as artemisinin (ART, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin. All three ozonides showed high efficacy in clearing parasitaemia in mice, caused by multi-drug resistant Plasmodium chabaudi strains, by subcutaneous administration, demonstrating high efficacy in vivo against ART and artesunate resistant parasites.

  19. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . DNPAO Home Division Information Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight and Obesity Healthy Weight Assessing Your Weight Body Mass Index (BMI) About Adult BMI Adult BMI Calculator About Child Teen BMI Child & Teen BMI Calculator Children's BMI ...

  20. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of the environment on the development of the fetus and infant throughout early life is increasingly recognised. To study such effects, biological samples and accurate data records are required. Based on multiple data collection from a healthy pregnant population......, the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data....

  1. Child rearing and child outcomes in Japan and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P

    1998-04-01

    Japan and the UK are compared in relation to various child health outcomes. It is noted that in the rates of child abuse and criminal activity, Japan is in a more favorable position. Rates of behavior problems and suicide rates are very similar in the two countries. Consideration is given to the reasons for the differences. The rates of single parents and divorce are much lower in Japan. The rates of working mothers are about the same, but Japanese women work longer hours. However, it is suggested that more important differences may lie in the greater respect for authority and emphasis on discipline and conformity in Japan. The effects of industrialization on family life and on child development are summarized. It is suggested that the separation of the adolescent age group from the rest of the population has had especially negative results in Western industrialized countries. Various suggestions are made concerning the positive role that pediatricians can play in promoting child development. In particular, pediatricians are encouraged to support and not undermine parents, to involve fathers in management of illness and disability, to press for full implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and for ready availability of good substitute child care facilities.

  2. [Parent-child interaction during activity and rest behavior of inhabitants of Trobriand Islands (Papua New Guinea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, R; Tittel, M; Schiefenhövel, W

    1995-01-01

    Sleep/activity patterns were continuously registered using microelectronic actometers on inhabitants of Tauwema (Papua New Guinea) who represent a traditionally living society. Results of analysis of parent-infant interactions of 4 families with infants of 1, 2, 5, and 11 months of age are presented. Results of power spectral analysis suggest that time patterns of mother-infant interactions are changing with the infants AE age. Consequences of this developmental process are discussed.

  3. Automatic activation of alcohol cues by child maltreatment related words: a replication attempt in a different treatment setting

    OpenAIRE

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Background A growing body of research attempts to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the association between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD). In a preceding study, we found considerable support for a specific priming effect in subjects with AD and emotional abuse experiences receiving alcohol rehabilitation treatment. We concluded that maltreatment related cues can automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcoho...

  4. Great expectations: different high-risk activities satisfy different motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Matthew; Woodman, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2013-09-01

    Research on people's motives for engaging in high-risk activities has typically been viewed through the single-focused lens of sensation seeking. We provide evidence that comprehensively challenges that view. First, we develop and confirm the structure of a 3-factor measure of motives: the Sensation Seeking, Emotion Regulation, and Agency Scale (SEAS; Study 1). We then use the SEAS to provide evidence of differential motives for 2 high-risk activities: skydiving and mountaineering. The motive for skydiving is strongly associated with sensation seeking; the motive for mountaineering is strongly associated with emotion regulation and agency but not with sensation seeking (Study 2). We also show that these conclusions cannot be drawn from existing measures of personality and sensation seeking (Study 3). Finally, individuals who are motivated by emotion regulation and agency needs also have greater expectations regarding their emotion regulation and agency. It is these greater expectations that most successfully discriminate mountaineers from skydivers and control participants (Study 4). It is concluded that researchers should no longer consider risk takers as a homogenous sensation-seeking group and that they should consider risk taking as a potential model of human endeavor. The SEAS can be used as a measure of motives for behavior whenever sensation seeking, agency, or emotion regulation is thought to be at the core of such motives, and the results are discussed in the context of encouraging personality researchers to consider the specific spontaneous behaviors that motivate different people.

  5. Reliability of questionnaires to assess the healthy eating and activity environment of a child's home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle; Magarey, Anthea; Mastersson, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are a growing concern globally, and environments, including the home and school, can contribute to this epidemic. This paper assesses the reliability of two questionnaires (parent and teacher) used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention, the eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs. Parents and teachers were recruited from two primary schools and they completed the same questionnaire twice in 2008 and 2009. Data from both questionnaires were classified into outcomes relevant to healthy eating and activity, and target outcomes, based on the goals of the ewba Community Programs, were identified. Fourteen and 12 outcomes were developed from the parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Sixty parents and 28 teachers participated in the reliability study. Intraclass correlation coefficients for outcomes ranged from 0.37 to 0.92 (parent) (P environments, attitudes, and knowledge associated with healthy eating and physical activity in the home and school and may be useful for evaluation of similar programs.

  6. Activated carbon fibers with a high heteroatom content by chemical activation of PBO with phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Santos, M B; Suárez-García, F; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2012-04-03

    The preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by phosphoric acid activation of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers was studied, with particular attention to the effects of impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature on porous texture. Phosphoric acid has a strong effect on PBO degradation, lowering the temperature range at which the decomposition takes place and changing the number of mass loss steps. Chemical analysis results indicated that activation with phosphoric acid increases the concentration of oxygenated surface groups; the resulting materials also exhibiting high nitrogen content. ACFs are obtained with extremely high yields; they have well-developed porosity restricted to the micropore and narrow mesopore range and with a significant concentration of phosphorus incorporated homogeneously in the form of functional groups. An increase in the impregnation ratio leads to increases in both pore volume and pore size, maximum values of surface area (1250 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (0.67 cm(3)/g) being attained at the highest impregnation ratio (210 wt % H(3)PO(4)) and lowest activation temperature (650 °C) used; the corresponding yield was as large as 83 wt %. The obtained surface areas and pore volumes were higher than those achieved in previous works by physical activation with CO(2) of PBO chars.

  7. Latitude migration of solar activity at high latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Utilized here is the Carte Synoptique solar filament archive,namely the catalogue of solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989,corresponding to solar rotation numbers 876 to 1823 to study Iatitudinal migration of solar activity at high Iatitudes.Except the well-known poleward migration of solar activity from middle Iatitudes to the poles,an equatorward migration is found from the solar poles toward middle Iatitudes(about 40°)within a normal cycle,which iS neglected before,and the time interval for the former migration(4.4 years)is about 2.2 years shorter than that for the latter(6.6 years),indicating that the change from one migration to the other takes place around the maximum time of a normal cycle.In the future,a dynamo model should represent the migration from the poles toward middle Iatitudes of the Sun,besides the migration in"butterfly diagrams"and the"rush to the poles".The traditional extended activity cycle is actually a part of the period of the successive migration from the poles toward the solar equator.

  8. More than teacher directed or child initiated: Preschool curriculum type, parent involvement, and children's outcomes in the child-parent centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the contributions of curriculum approach and parent involvement to the short- and long-term effects of preschool participation in the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Data came from the complete cohort of 989 low-income children (93% African American in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, who attended preschool in the 20 Child-Parent Centers in 1983-1985 and kindergarten in 1985-1986. We found that implementation of an instructional approach rated high by Head Teachers in teacher-directed and child-initiated activities was most consistently associated with children’s outcomes, including school readiness at kindergarten entry, reading achievement in third and eighth grades, and avoidance of grade retention. Parent involvement in school activities, as rated by teachers and by parents, was independently associated with child outcomes from school readiness at kindergarten entry to eighth grade reading achievement and grade retention above and beyond the influence of curriculum approach. Findings indicate that instructional approaches that blend a teacher-directed focus with child-initiated activities and parental school involvement are origins of the long-term effects of participation in the Child-Parent Centers.

  9. The unwanted child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, M

    1982-12-01

    The problem of the unwanted child is a most grievous aspect of the complex of negative factors associated with underdevelopment. Although the problem of the unwanted child exists in industrialized countries as well, the incidence is much higher in the 3rd world. In industrialized nations modern contraceptives are widely available, public awareness of them is high, and legal abortion may be an option in the event of contraceptive failure or nonuse. In Colombia alone, nearly 1 million women are living in immediate danger of an unwanted pregnancy. In the 3rd world as a whole there are an estimated 150 million who do not want another pregnancy but who lack access to contraceptive information and services. Research from a variety of sources suggests that being unwanted and unloved can have a lasting effect on a child's development. Sociological research confirms the need to preserve the bond between mother and child. Studies of adopted children have established a clear relationship between their physical and psychological development and the age at which they were adopted. If this affective bond is not established in the early months of life, the negative effects which result may prove difficult to overcome. Yet, however late it comes, adoption is always preferable to the relative deprivation a child experiences when institutionalized. Studies conducted in Eastern Europe comparing children whose parents had requested an abortion but had not been granted permission with a control group of children revealed a pattern of inferior physical development and social adjustment in the 1st group. Intelligence, in addition to its important genetic foundation, requires physical nurturing and psychological stimulation from the surrounding environment, provided during the final months of pregnancy or the 1st few years of life. Religious doctrine postulates that universal maternal instinct allows the mother to overcome her problems, but this is often not the case. Infanticide dates

  10. High-frequency TRNS reduces BOLD activity during visuomotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Saiote

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS consist in the application of electrical current of small intensity through the scalp, able to modulate perceptual and motor learning, probably by changing brain excitability. We investigated the effects of these transcranial electrical stimulation techniques in the early and later stages of visuomotor learning, as well as associated brain activity changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We applied anodal and cathodal tDCS, low-frequency and high-frequency tRNS (lf-tRNS, 0.1-100 Hz; hf-tRNS 101-640 Hz, respectively and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1 during the first 10 minutes of a visuomotor learning paradigm and measured performance changes for 20 minutes after stimulation ceased. Functional imaging scans were acquired throughout the whole experiment. Cathodal tDCS and hf-tRNS showed a tendency to improve and lf-tRNS to hinder early learning during stimulation, an effect that remained for 20 minutes after cessation of stimulation in the late learning phase. Motor learning-related activity decreased in several regions as reported previously, however, there was no significant modulation of brain activity by tDCS. In opposition to this, hf-tRNS was associated with reduced motor task-related-activity bilaterally in the frontal cortex and precuneous, probably due to interaction with ongoing neuronal oscillations. This result highlights the potential of lf-tRNS and hf-tRNS to differentially modulate visuomotor learning and advances our knowledge on neuroplasticity induction approaches combined with functional imaging methods.

  11. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci,S.Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  12. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  13. Preventing conduct problems and improving school readiness: evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher and Child Training Programs in high-risk schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Jamila Reid, M; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2008-05-01

    School readiness, conceptualized as three components including emotional self-regulation, social competence, and family/school involvement, as well as absence of conduct problems play a key role in young children's future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate increased emotional dysregulation, fewer social skills, less teacher/parent involvement and more conduct problems. Consequently intervention offered to socio-economically disadvantaged populations that includes a social and emotional school curriculum and trains teachers in effective classroom management skills and in promotion of parent-school involvement would seem to be a strategic strategy for improving young children's school readiness, leading to later academic success and prevention of the development of conduct disorders. This randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management and Child Social and Emotion curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a universal prevention program for children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected because of high rates of poverty. Trained teachers offered the Dinosaur School curriculum to all their students in bi-weekly lessons throughout the year. They sent home weekly dinosaur homework to encourage parents' involvement. Part of the curriculum involved promotion of lesson objectives through the teachers' continual use of positive classroom management skills focused on building social competence and emotional self-regulation skills as well as decreasing conduct problems. Matched pairs of schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Results from multi-level models on a total of 153 teachers and 1,768 students are presented. Children and teachers were observed in the classrooms by blinded observers at the beginning and the end of the school year. Results indicated that

  14. [Acute respiratory failure (ARDS) in a young child after drowning accident: therapy with exogenous surfactant and high frequency oscillatory ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, M; Golej, J; Fürst, G; Hermon, M; Trittenwein, G

    1995-01-01

    The adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children has a very poor prognosis with a mortality risk of between 55 and 85%, in spite of improvements due to the introduction of positive endexpiratory pressure ventilation. We describe the clinical course of a not yet 3 year-old boy with severe ARDS following near-drowing. Treatment with exogenous surfactant and high frequency oscillatory ventilation, a well-established procedure in neonatology, was responsible for the favorable outcome. The high cost of surfactant therapy, however, is the main limiting factor for this kind of treatment in children beyond the neonatal period, but it may be the last therapeutic resort in the management of severe ARDS.

  15. Prevalence and attitudinal predictors of child sexual offending in a nonforensic sample of South African high school males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magojo, Thandekile S; Collings, Steven J

    2003-03-01

    Objective - The prevalence, and attitudinal predictors, of sexual aggression were examined in a non-forensic sample of South African high school males. Method - Survey questionnaires were administered to 446 males (aged 16 to 25 years) attending schools in the greater Durban area, South Africa. Results - A history of sexually aggressive behaviour was reported by 66.8% of respondents, with 17.5% reporting an act of sexual aggression that met the legal definition of rape or attempted rape. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant relationship between sexually abusive behaviour and attitudes supportive of both sexual and physical aggression. Additionally, a tendency to attribute blame to the victim of sexual aggression and attitudes reflecting an internalised culture of violence significantly discriminated between respondents who committed rape/attempted rape, indecent assault, and crimen injuria. Conclusions - These findings indicate relatively high rates of sexual offending among South African high school males and suggest that primary prevention programmes are likely to be most effective if they target attitudes supportive of both sexual and physical violence.

  16. High sulfation and a high molecular weight are important for anti-hepcidin activity of heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eAsperti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins, but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4-16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells, in mice, and also for the capacity to bind an Heparin Binding Domain peptide. The three approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with an increase of the N-acetylation level and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites.

  17. Parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status over a 2-year period in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Song, Yun-Mi

    2007-04-01

    This study sought to examine the association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status after 2 years. The design was a 2-year prospective study. A total of 531 Korean children aged 11 to 12 years were followed up for change in weight status (persistent overweight, persistent nonoverweight, recently overweight, recently nonoverweight) between 2001 and 2003 after the measurement of their appetite (low, moderate, and high) using a questionnaire administered to their parents in 2001. Weight status of each child was determined based on the criteria of body mass index (BMI) recommended by the International Obesity Task Force reference. The statistical analyses performed were multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for parental factors (parents' weight and height, education level, and income) and the child's characteristics (baseline BMI, physical activity, and television viewing). Main outcome measures were child's mean BMI and weight status, and the proportions of overweight children at the baseline and at the end of the follow-up were greater among those children whose parents reported that they had high appetites (Pchildren with a low appetite, the odds ratio for overweight at the end of follow-up was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 11.7) in children with a high appetite. Subgroup analysis of overweight children at baseline showed that the risk of being persistently overweight over the 2-year follow-up was 5.5 times (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 27.5) higher in children with a high appetite than in those with a low appetite. There was a strong association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and being overweight after 2 years. Identifying children with higher appetites and targeting them for lifestyle modification may provide an effective way of reducing the incidence of childhood overweight.

  18. Child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, K P; Jenny, C

    1997-08-01

    Multiple obstacles can hinder the medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse in pediatric primary care. The need for diagnostic accuracy is high. Knowledge of sexual abuse risk factors, an understanding of the victimization process, and awareness of the varied clinical presentations of sexual abuse can be of assistance. Open-ended questioning of the suspected victim is the most critical component of the evaluation. Skillful medical interviewing requires time, training, patience, and practice. Pediatricians lacking any of these four requirements should defer interviewing in sexual abuse cases to other professionals. Abnormal physical findings from sexual abuse are uncommon. Colposcopy has assisted pediatricians greatly in reaching consensus regarding diagnostic physical findings. Cases of acute sexual assault require familiarity with the forensic rape examination, STD screening and prophylaxis, and pregnancy prevention. Victimization from sexual abuse continues long after the abusive acts end, often requiring long-term therapeutic intervention. An emerging standard of care for medical evaluations of suspected child sexual abuse recognizes the requirement for patience and compassion while retaining objectivity. The pediatrician's primary concern must be for the child's physical and emotional well-being.

  19. Enzymatic activity of Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase: a thermostable and highly active enzyme with a likely mode of interfacial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horchani, Habib; Bussières, Sylvain; Cantin, Line; Lhor, Mustapha; Laliberté-Gemme, Jean-Sébastien; Breton, Rock; Salesse, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) plays a major role in the vertebrate visual cycle. Indeed, it is responsible for the esterification of all-trans retinol into all-trans retinyl esters, which can then be stored in microsomes or further metabolized to produce the chromophore of rhodopsin. In the present study, a detailed characterization of the enzymatic properties of truncated LRAT (tLRAT) has been achieved using in vitro assay conditions. A much larger tLRAT activity has been obtained compared to previous reports and to an enzyme with a similar activity. In addition, tLRAT is able to hydrolyze phospholipids bearing different chain lengths with a preference for micellar aggregated substrates. It therefore presents an interfacial activation property, which is typical of classical phospholipases. Furthermore, given that stability is a very important quality of an enzyme, the influence of different parameters on the activity and stability of tLRAT has thus been studied in detail. For example, storage buffer has a strong effect on tLRAT activity and high enzyme stability has been observed at room temperature. The thermostability of tLRAT has also been investigated using circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy. A decrease in the activity of tLRAT was observed beyond 70°C, accompanied by a modification of its secondary structure, i.e. a decrease of its α-helical content and the appearance of unordered structures and aggregated β-sheets. Nevertheless, residual activity could still be observed after heating tLRAT up to 100°C. The results of this study highly improved our understanding of this enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel antimicrobial peptides with high anticancer activity and selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Lun Chu

    Full Text Available We describe a strategy to boost anticancer activity and reduce normal cell toxicity of short antimicrobial peptides by adding positive charge amino acids and non-nature bulky amino acid β-naphthylalanine residues to their termini. Among the designed peptides, K4R2-Nal2-S1 displayed better salt resistance and less toxicity to hRBCs and human fibroblast than Nal2-S1 and K6-Nal2-S1. Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that the FITC-labeled K4R2-Nal2-S1 preferentially binds cancer cells and causes apoptotic cell death. Moreover, a significant inhibition in human lung tumor growth was observed in the xenograft mice treated with K4R2-Nal2-S1. Our strategy provides new opportunities in the development of highly effective and selective antimicrobial and anticancer peptide-based therapeutics.

  1. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Ezquer, R G; Brunini, C; Conicet; Meza, A; Mosert, M; Radicella, S M

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly.

  2. Using Highly Interactive Virtual Environments for Safeguards Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Bradley S [ORNL; Alcala, Benjamin S [ORNL; Alcala, Scott [ORNL; Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL; Weil, Logan B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Highly interactive virtual environment (HIVE) is a term that refers to interactive educational simulations, serious games and virtual worlds. Studies indicate that learning with the aid of interactive environments produces better retention and depth of knowledge by promoting improved trainee engagement and understanding. Virtual reality or three dimensional (3D) visualization is often used to promote the understanding of something when personal observation, photographs, drawings, and/or sketches are not possible or available. Subjects and situations, either real or hypothetical, can be developed using a 3D model. Models can be tailored to the audience allowing safeguards and security features to be demonstrated for educational purposes in addition to engineering evaluation and performance analysis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun evaluating the feasibility of HIVEs for improving safeguards activities such as training, mission planning, and evaluating worker task performance. This paper will discuss the development workflow of HIVEs and present some recent examples.

  3. High-resolution infrared observations of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Interferometric resolution at IR wavelengths offers for the first time the possibility to zoom into the nuclei of galaxies beyond the circumnuclear stellar structures and spatially resolve gas and dust in the innermost regions (0.05-5pc), dominated by the central black hole. Ultimate goal is to reveal new aspects of AGN feeding, and interaction with its host galaxy. After first successes of resolving AGN with infrared interferometry (VLTI, Keck-IF), the second generation of high-resolution interferometric imagers behind 8m class telescopes is currently being built. I will summarize current aspects and successes of the field, and present our activities to provide extended capabilities for VLTI-Midi and -Matisse, LBT-Linc-Nirvana and Keck-Astra to study a larger sample of AGN in greater detail.

  4. High resolution dynamical mapping of social interactions with active RFID

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Broeck, Wouter Van den; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental framework to gather data on face-to-face social interactions between individuals, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. We use active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices that assess contacts with one another by exchanging low-power radio packets. When individuals wear the beacons as a badge, a persistent radio contact between the RFID devices can be used as a proxy for a social interaction between individuals. We present the results of a pilot study %recently performed during a conference, and a subsequent preliminary data analysis, that provides an assessment of our method and highlights its versatility and applicability in many areas concerned with human dynamics.

  5. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiki Nagaharu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment.

  6. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Banda

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB, and physical activity (PA.268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA, moderate (MPA, and vigorous (VPA PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points.WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p < .0001, but did not vary significantly by epoch length when using the ≥ 20 minute consecutive zero or Choi WT algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001. Across all epoch lengths, minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA also varied significantly across all sets of activity cut-points with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001.The common practice of converting WT algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  7. Solvothermal syntheses of semiconductor photocatalysts of ultra-high activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kominami, Hiroshi; Kato, Jun-ichi; Murakami, Shin-ya; Ishii, Yoshinori; Kohno, Masaaki; Yabutani, Kei-ichi; Yamamoto, Takuhei; Kera, Yoshiya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Inoue, Masashi; Inui, Tomoyuki [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohtani, Bunsho [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0811 (Japan)

    2003-09-15

    Thermal treatment of titanium(IV) butoxide dissolved in 2-butanol at 573K under autogenous pressure (alcohothermal treatment) yielded microcrystalline anatase-type titanium(IV) oxide (TiO{sub 2}). Thermal treatment of oxobis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O')titanium (TiO(acac){sub 2}) in ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of sodium acetate and a small amount of water at 573K yielded microcrystalline brookite-type TiO{sub 2}. Tungsten(VI) oxide (WO{sub 3}) powders of monoclinic crystal structure with high crystallinity were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment (HTT), at 523 or 573K, of aqueous tungstic acid (H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) solutions prepared from sodium tungstate by ion-exchange (IE) with a proton-type resin. Anatase and brookite TiO{sub 2} products were calcined at various temperatures and then used for photocatalytic mineralization of acetic acid in aqueous solutions under aerated conditions and dehydrogenation of 2-propanol under deaerated conditions. Almost all the anatase-type TiO{sub 2} samples showed the activities more than twice higher than those of representative active photocatalysts, Degussa P-25 and Ishihara ST-01 in both reactions. A brookite sample with improved crystallinity and sufficient surface area obtained by calcination at 973K exhibited the hydrogen evolution rate almost equal to P-25. HTT WO{sub 3} powders with various physical properties were used as photocatalyst for evolution of oxygen (O{sub 2}) from an aqueous silver sulfate solution. WO{sub 3} powder of high crystallinity, e.g., IE-HTT-WO{sub 3} synthesized at 573K, gave much higher O{sub 2} yield than commercially available WO{sub 3} samples.

  8. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  9. Highly active and efficient catalysts for alkoxycarbonylation of alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kaiwu; Fang, Xianjie; Gülak, Samet; Franke, Robert; Spannenberg, Anke; Neumann, Helfried; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Carbonylation reactions of alkenes constitute the most important industrial processes in homogeneous catalysis. Despite the tremendous progress in this transformation, the development of advanced catalyst systems to improve their activity and widen the range of feedstocks continues to be essential for new practical applications. Herein a palladium catalyst based on 1,2-bis((tert-butyl(pyridin-2-yl)phosphanyl)methyl)benzene L3 (pytbpx) is rationally designed and synthesized. Application of this system allows a general alkoxycarbonylation of sterically hindered and demanding olefins including all kinds of tetra-, tri- and 1,1-disubstituted alkenes as well as natural products and pharmaceuticals to the desired esters in excellent yield. Industrially relevant bulk ethylene is functionalized with high activity (TON: >1,425,000 TOF: 44,000 h-1 for initial 18 h) and selectivity (>99%). Given its generality and efficiency, we expect this catalytic system to immediately impact both the chemical industry and research laboratories by providing a practical synthetic tool for the transformation of nearly any alkene into a versatile ester product.

  10. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  12. Socio-economic resources, young child feeding practices, consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages: a population-based survey in rural northwestern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-01-21

    Socio-economic resources may be associated with infant feeding in complex patterns in societies undergoing a nutrition transition. This study evaluates associations of housing quality, food security and maternal education to the World Health Organization (WHO) feeding recommendations and to consumption of highly processed snacks (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in rural Nicaragua. Data were collected from May to November 2009, with mothers of 0- to 35-month-olds being asked about young child feeding using a food frequency questionnaire. A validated questionnaire was used to assess household food insecurity and data were collected on maternal education and housing quality. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare proportions and determine associations between the resources and young child feeding. The three socio-economic resources and other confounders were introduced to multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the independent contribution of the resources to the feeding practices and consumption of HP snacks and SSBs. Mothers with the lowest education level were more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their infants (OR not EBF: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.51), whilst mothers of 6- to 35-month-olds in the lowest education category had more inadequate dietary diversity (DD) (OR for not meet DD: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.08), were less likely to consume HP snacks (OR for HP snacks: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.68) and SSBs (OR for SSBs: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98), compared to mothers with the highest level of education. Similarly, children residing in households with the highest food insecurity were also more prone to have inadequate dietary diversity (OR for not meet DD: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05). The odds for double burden of suboptimal feeding (concurrent inadequate diet and consumption of HP snacks/SSBs) were significantly lower in children of least educated mothers (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). Higher level of education was associated

  13. On the Evolution of High-Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    We build a simple physical model to study the high-redshift active galactic Nucleus (AGN) evolution within the co-evolution framework of central black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. The correlation between the circular velocity of a dark halo $V_c$ and the velocity dispersion of a galaxy $\\sigma$ is used to link the dark matter halo mass and BH mass. The dark matter halo mass function is converted to the BH mass function for any given redshift. The high-redshift optical AGN luminosity functions (LFs) are constructed. At $z\\sim 4$, the flattening feature is not shown at the faint end of the optical AGN LF. This is consistent with observational results. If the optical AGN LF at $z\\sim 6$ can be reproduced in the case in which central BHs have the Eddington-limited accretion, it is possible for the AGN lifetime to have a small value of $2\\times 10^5$ yrs. The X-ray AGN LFs and X-ray AGN number counts are also calculated at $2.03$, respectively, using the same parameters adopted in the calculation for the o...

  14. Highly active antiretroviral therapy: Does it Sound toxic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katijah Khoza-Shangase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The main objective of the current study is to monitor the auditory status in a group of adults with AIDS, receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART (3TC -lamivudine, D4T - stavudine, and efavirenz in a hospital outpatient clinic in Gauteng. A total sample of 54 adults (between the ages of 18 and 50 years in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were assessed prospectively following a repeated measures design. All participants were assessed at baseline at three months, and at six months into the treatment. Materials and Methods : The participants underwent case history interviews and medical record reviews, otoscopy, and tympanometry, as well as conventional pure tone audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emission testing. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results : On audiological monitoring, statistically significant changes (P<0.05 were established, only in the experimental group, for pure tone audiometry - with clinically significant changes found at high frequencies. Statistically significant changes with clinically significant changes were obtained for distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs in the experimental group, particularly at high frequencies - implying subclinical hearing function changes; while lack of statistically significant changes with no clinically significant changes were found in the control group. The subclinical hearing changes in the experimental group were also evident in the findings of the subclinical hearing loss group, who, although they had normal pure tone function after six months of follow up, presented with clinical changes on DPOAEs at 6 and 8 kHz. Conclusions : Findings highlight the need for closer monitoring of the effects of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs on hearing, through the use of more sensitive tools of assessment when conducting drug trials.

  15. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-08-01

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH.

  16. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1982-01-01

    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  17. Preparation of activated carbon with high surface area for high-capacity methane storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingsi Liua; Wenshuo Wanga; Na Wanga; Peter Chak Tong Aub

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was fabricated from corncob, which is cheap and abundant. Experimental parameters such as particle size of corncob, KOH/char weight ratio, and activation temperature and time were optimized to generate AC, which shows high methane sorption capacity. AC has high specific surface area (3227 m2/g), with pore volume and pore size distribution equal to 1.829 cm3/g and ca. 1.7-2.2 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 2◦C and less than 7.8 MPa, methane sorption in the presence of water (Rw=1.4) was as high as 43.7 wt%methane per unit mass of dry AC. The result is significantly higher than those of coconut-derived AC (32 wt%) and ordered mesoporous carbon (41.2 wt%, Rw=4.07) under the same condition. The physical properties and amorphous chaotic structure of AC were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms, XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Hence, the corncob-derived AC can be considered as a competitive methane-storage material for vehicles, which are run by natural gas.

  18. Highlights from the Technical Assistance and Child Care Resources Sponsored by the Office of Child Care. Office of Child Care Pathways and Partnerships Priorities. Issue Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Child Care, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Office of Child Care (OCC) administers the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) program, a multibillion-dollar Federal and State partnership to support access to high-quality child care for working families. OCC helps States, Territories, and Tribes administer their CCDF programs through program support, policy guidance, technical…

  19. Helping Your Child to Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Betty Jean

    This booklet provides suggestions for parents in helping their children to learn how to read. The first section provides 34 suggestions and activities for parents to use with preschool children, such as reciting nursery rhymes, reading aloud, respecting the child's mood, and playing listening games. The second section offers 25 suggestions and…

  20. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  1. Evidence of solar induced cycles of high seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, G.

    2010-12-01

    In the past century, several observational results and corresponding publications indicate a systematic seismic performance with respect to the time of day and seasons as well. Such effects could be caused only by solar or lunar influence. In addition, a possible relation with the solar cycles was discussed in some papers, too. Intensive studies on these topics have also been performed at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna, Austria. They strongly confirm the above mentioned effects. In order to verify a solar influence on earthquake activity correlations were performed between the three-hour magnetic index Kp and the energy release of earthquakes in the long term. Kp characterizes the magnetic field disturbances which are mainly caused by the solar particle radiation, the solar wind. Kp is determined on a routine basis from magnetic records of 13 observatories worldwide and is continuously published by ISGI, France. Three regions of continental size were investigated, using the USGS (PDE) earthquake catalogue data, from 1974 on: N-America, S-America and Eurasia. The statistic analyses reveal that from 1974 to 2009 the index Kp varies in cycles with periods between 9 and 12 years, somewhat different to the sunspot number cycles (no. 21, 22, 23) of 11 years. As to the seismic energy release, the sqrt (energy E) of an event is taken as measure, which relates to the ‘strain release’ due to the earthquake (Benioff). For Kp the monthly averages were computed, for the strain release the monthly sums of sqrt(E), hereinafter referred to as STR. From the statistic estimates of the relation Kp-STR for all the three regions N-America, S-America and Eurasia it becomes evident, that the correlation is highly significant: earthquake activity, quantified by the monthly STR, follows the Kp cycles with high coincidence. A quantitative analysis reveals that on an annual basis, the sum of released energy by earthquakes changes by a factor up to

  2. High Efficiency Interleaved Active Clamped Dc-Dc Converter with Fuel Cell for High Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency interleaved ZVS active clamped current fed dc-dc converter is proposed in this paper specially used for fuel cell applications. As the fuel cell output is very low we are in need of a step up dc-dc converter. Here a current fed dc-dc converter is used. Two current fed dc-dc converters are interleaved by connecting their inputs in parallel and outputs in series. With this proposed methodology input current ripples in the fuel cell stacks can be reduced and a regulated output voltage ripples can be obtained. The active clamping circuit used in this model absorbs the turn off voltage spikes hence low voltage devices with low on state resistance can be used.Voltage doubler circuits will give double the output voltage than normal with smaller transformer turns ratio and flexibility. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB for verifying the accuracy of the proposed design.

  3. On the Evolution of High-redshift Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jirong; Kim, Minsun

    2016-09-01

    We build a simple physical model to study the high-redshift active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution within the co-evolution framework of central black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. The correlation between the circular velocity of a dark halo V c and the velocity dispersion of a galaxy σ is used to link the dark matter halo mass and BH mass. The dark matter halo mass function is converted to the BH mass function for any given redshift. The high-redshift optical AGN luminosity functions (LFs) are constructed. At z˜ 4, the flattening feature is not shown at the faint end of the optical AGN LF. This is consistent with observational results. If the optical AGN LF at z˜ 6 can be reproduced in the case in which central BHs have the Eddington-limited accretion, it is possible for the AGN lifetime to have a small value of 2× {10}5 {{years}}. The X-ray AGN LFs and X-ray AGN number counts are also calculated at 2.0\\lt z\\lt 5.0 and z\\gt 3, respectively, using the same parameters adopted in the calculation for the optical AGN LF at z˜ 4. It is estimated that about 30 AGNs per {{{\\deg }}}2 at z\\gt 6 can be detected with a flux limit of 3× {10}-17 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band. Additionally, the cosmic reionization is also investigated. The ultraviolet photons emitted from the high-redshift AGNs mainly contribute to the cosmic reionization, and the central BHs of the high-redshift AGNs have a mass range of {10}6{--}{10}8{M}⊙ . We also discuss some uncertainties in both the AGN LFs and AGN number counts originating from the {M}{{BH}}{--}σ relation, Eddington ratio, AGN lifetime, and X-ray attenuation in our model.

  4. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  5. Has Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Increased the Time to Seroreversion in HIV Exposed but Uninfected Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mavel; Ludwig, David A.; Khan, Safia S.; Chaparro, Aida A.; Rivera, Delia M.; Cotter, Amanda M.; Scott, Gwendolyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in pregnancy in the United States, the time of seroreversion in infants born to HIV-infected mothers has not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the timing of clearance of HIV antibodies and to identify any associated biological and clinical factors. Methods. A retrospective analysis of infants who remained uninfected after perinatal HIV exposure was performed. Infant and maternal medical records from January 2000 to December 2007 were reviewed and the time of seroreversion was estimated using methods for censored survival data. Results. In total, 744 infants were included in the study, with prenatal data available for 551 mothers. The median age of seroreversion was 13.9 months, and 14% of infants remained seropositive after 18 months, 4.3% after 21 months, and 1.2% after 24 months. Earlier age of seroreversion was associated with higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels at 3–7 months of age (P = .0029) and a higher rate of IgG change over the next 6 months of life (P = .003). Infants born by vaginal delivery were more likely to serorevert at a younger age (P = .0052), and maternal exposure to protease inhibitors was associated with a later age of seroreversion (P = .026). Conclusions. Clearance of HIV antibodies in uninfected infants was found to occur at a later age than has been previously reported. Fourteen percent of the infants had persistence of HIV antibodies at or beyond 18 months of age. PMID:22851494

  6. Birth outcomes in South African women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, a triple-drug combination, in HIV-infected pregnant women markedly reduces mother to child transmission of HIV and decreases maternal morbidity. However, there remains uncertainty about the effects of in utero exposure to HAART on foetal development. Methods Our objectives were to investigate whether in utero exposure to HAART is associated with low birth weight and/or preterm birth in a population of South African women with advanced HIV disease. A retrospective observational study was performed on women with CD4 counts ≤250 cells/mm3 attending antenatal antiretroviral clinics in Johannesburg between October 2004 and March 2007. Low birth weight ( Results Among HAART-unexposed infants, 27% (60/224 were low birth weight compared with 23% (90/388 of early HAART-exposed (exposed 3 increase, 95% CI 0.45-0.71, p 3 increase, 95% CI 0.55-0.85, p = 0.001. HAART exposure was associated with an increased preterm birth rate (15%, or 138 of 946, versus 5%, or seven of 147, in unexposed infants, p = 0.001, with early nevirapine and efavirenz-based regimens having the strongest associations with preterm birth (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 2.1-13.7, p Conclusions In this immunocompromised cohort, in utero HAART exposure was not associated with low birth weight. An association between NNRTI-based HAART and preterm birth was detected, but residual confounding is plausible. More advanced immunosuppression was a risk factor for low birth weight and preterm birth, highlighting the importance of earlier HAART initiation in women to optimize maternal health and improve infant outcomes.

  7. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...... contributor to the ACM CHI conference. Having recently been given status as an IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) TC13 working group, the community now needs to make plans around its academic themes and its coherence as a developing academic community. The CCI SIG at CHI aims to use...

  8. Brief Report: The Smiles of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder during an Animal-Assisted Activity May Facilitate Social Positive Behaviors--Quantitative Analysis with Smile-Detecting Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Atsushi; Gruebler, Anna; Aoki, Takeshi; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We quantitatively measured the smiles of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD-C) using a wearable interface device during animal-assisted activities (AAA) for 7 months, and compared the results with a control of the same age. The participant was a 10-year-old boy with ASD, and a normal healthy boy of the same age was the control. They…

  9. Highly antioxidant carotene-lipid nanocarriers: synthesis and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacatusu, Ioana; Badea, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.badea@gmail.com; Ovidiu, Oprea [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Bojin, Dionezie [Faculty of Engineering and Materials Science (Romania); Meghea, Aurelia [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of two natural oils (squalene-Sq and grape seed oil-GSO) to prepare biocompatible antioxidant nanostructured lipid carriers-NLCs as a safety and protective formulation for sensitive {beta}-carotene. For this purpose different oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by a combination of alkylpolyoxy ethylene sorbitans, lecithin and a block copolymer, were prepared using a melt high-shear homogenization process. The physico-chemical characteristics of the carotene-loaded NLCs were firstly investigated in detail. The smaller lipid nanoparticles have been obtained by using Tween 20 as main non-ionic surfactant, with average diameters of about 85 nm for GSO and 89 nm for Sq, with a polydispersity index <0.19. The developed carotene-NLCs presented an excellent physical stability with almost all zeta potential values ranging between -29 Division-Sign -40 mV. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the {beta}-carotene incorporation has led to a perturbation of solid lipid matrix with a less ordered arrangement. By UV-Vis spectroscopy it was evidenced that after encapsulation {beta}-carotene adopts a supramolecular structure demonstrated by appearance of a shoulder at 530 nm related to a {beta}-carotene triplet-triplet absorption. The carotene-NLCs have been also evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant properties. The presence of Sq and GSO produced a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity of developed NLCs. The samples prepared with GSO and Tween 80 as main surfactant showed the highest antioxidant activity (AA %) against free oxygen radicals, exhibiting an enhancement of 35 % for loaded NLCs, as comparing to pure carotene. In addition to these properties, the ability of NLCs to manifest antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichiacoli bacteria. The antibacterial analysis shown that loaded-NLCs develop an effective inhibition zone against bacteria growth and it was dependent in a

  10. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Ethiopian Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…

  11. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Ethiopian Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…

  12. Military Child Care Programs: Progress Made, More Needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    program areas such as nutri- tion, health, child growth and development, educational guidance, and remedial techniques. None of the existing service...activities weakens their programs. The child care staff should know about such things as nutri- tion, health, child growth and development

  13. Early Canadian Child Study: From Baldwin and Tracy to Blatz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mary J.

    A brief overview of the history of the scientific study of the child in Canada is provided in this paper. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the…

  14. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO(2) photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronyan, Tereza M; Kechiantz, A M; Lin, M C

    2008-03-19

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO(2) electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO(2):F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO(2) nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO(2) film follows the dense packed thin TiO(2) film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO(2) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pHTiO(2) gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO(2) films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO(2) gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100  mWcm(-2) simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO(2) gel.

  15. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronyan, Tereza M.; Kechiantz, A. M.; Lin, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO2 electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO2:F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO2 nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO2 film follows the dense packed thin TiO2 film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pHacidic nanoparticle gel was neutralized by basic ammonia and a TiO2 gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO2 films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO2 gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100 mWcm-2 simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO2 gel.

  16. Active cooling of pulse compression diffraction gratings for high energy, high average power ultrafast lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, David A; Rosso, Paul A; Nguyen, Hoang T; Aasen, Michael D; Britten, Jerald A; Haefner, Constantin

    2016-12-26

    Laser energy absorption and subsequent heat removal from diffraction gratings in chirped pulse compressors poses a significant challenge in high repetition rate, high peak power laser development. In order to understand the average power limitations, we have modeled the time-resolved thermo-mechanical properties of current and advanced diffraction gratings. We have also developed and demonstrated a technique of actively cooling Petawatt scale, gold compressor gratings to operate at 600W of average power - a 15x increase over the highest average power petawatt laser currently in operation. Combining this technique with low absorption multilayer dielectric gratings developed in our group would enable pulse compressors for petawatt peak power lasers operating at average powers well above 40kW.

  17. Impact of parental catastrophizing and contextual threat on parents' emotional and behavioral responses to their child's pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Line; Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Goubert, Liesbet

    2012-03-01

    Limited research has addressed processes underlying parents' empathic responses to their child's pain. The present study investigated the effects of parental catastrophizing, threatening information about the child's pain, and child pain expression upon parental emotional and behavioral responses to their child's pain. A total of 56 school children participated in a heat pain task consisting of 48 trials while being observed by 1 of their parents. Trials were preceded by a blue or yellow circle, signaling possible pain stimulation (i.e., pain signal) or no pain stimulation (i.e., safety signal). Parents received either neutral or threatening information regarding the heat stimulus. Parents' negative emotional responses when anticipating their child's pain were assessed using psychophysiological measures- i.e., fear-potentiated startle and corrugator EMG activity. Parental behavioral response to their child's pain (i.e., pain attending talk) was assessed during a 3-minute parent-child interaction that followed the pain task. The Child Facial Coding System (CFCS) was used to assess children's facial pain expression during the pain task. Results indicated that receiving threatening information was associated with a stronger parental corrugator EMG activity during pain signals in comparison with safety signals. The same pattern was found for parental fear-potentiated startle reflex, particularly when the child's facial pain expression was high. In addition, parents who reported high levels of catastrophizing thought about their child's pain engaged, in comparison with low-catastrophizing parents, in more pain-attending talk when they received threatening information. The findings are discussed in the context of affective-motivational theories of pain.

  18. The changes in relation of auditory and visual input activity between hemispheres analized in cartographic EEG in a child with hyperactivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the changes in relations of visual and auditory inputs between the hemispheres in a child with hyperactive syndrome and its effects which may lead to better attention engagement in auditory and visual information analysis. The method included the use of cartographic EEG and clinical procedure in a 10-year-old boy with hyperactive syndrome and attention deficit disorder, who has theta dysfunction manifested in standard EEG. Cartographic EEG patterns was performed on NihonKohden Corporation, EEG - 1200K Neurofax apparatus in longitudinal bipolar electrode assembly schedule by utilizing10/20 International electrode positioning. Impedance was maintained below 5 kΩ, with not more than 1 kΩ differences between the electrodes. Lower filter was set at 0.53 Hz and higher filter at 35 Hz. Recording was performed in a quiet period and during stimulation procedures that include speech and language basis. Standard EEG and Neurofeedback (NFB treatment indicated higher theta load, alpha 2 and beta 1 activity measured in the cartographic EEG which was done after the relative failure of NFB treatment. After this, the NFB treatment was applied which lasted for six months, in a way that when the boy was reading, the visual input was enhanced to the left hemisphere and auditory input was reduced to the right hemisphere. Repeated EEG mapping analysis showed that there was a significant improvement, both in EEG findings as well as in attention, behavioural and learning disorders. The paper discusses some aspects of learning, attention and behaviour in relation to changes in the standard EEG, especially in cartographic EEG and NFB findings.

  19. Removal of trichlorobenzene using 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; He, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Ma, Shuangchen

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash, industry lime and an additive, Ca(ClO2)2 (C) were used to prepare the 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent (HAA). The influencing factors for removal of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) using this absorbent such as reaction temperature, simulating gas flow rate, oxygen content, etc. were studied in a self-designed reactor. The optimum experimental conditions of removing 1,2,4-TCB are that the content of an oxidizing additive in the absorbent is 3% (wt), simulating gas flow rate is 100 mL/min, reaction temperature is 250 degrees C, and the content of oxygen in simulating gas is 6%. The maximum removal efficiency is 81.71% in 10 mins. The absorption capacity of the absorbent is 0.000111 g/g. The reaction products were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS), 2,6-Bis-[1,1-Dimethylethyl]-4-methyl-Phenol is considered to be the major intermediate product. The reaction route was revealed.

  20. Towards high-throughput microfluidic Raman-activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Peiran; Gou, Honglei; Mou, Chunbo; Huang, Wei E; Yang, Menglong; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2015-09-21

    Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS) is a promising single-cell analysis technology that is able to identify and isolate individual cells of targeted type, state or environment from an isogenic population or complex consortium of cells, in a label-free and non-invasive manner. However, compared with those widely used yet labeling-required or staining-dependent cell sorting technologies such as FACS and MACS, the weak Raman signal greatly limits the further development of the existing RACS systems to achieve higher throughput. Strategies that can tackle this bottleneck include, first, improvement of Raman-acquisition efficiency and quality based on advanced Raman spectrometers and enhanced Raman techniques; second, development of novel microfluidic devices for cell sorting followed by integration into a complete RACS system. Exploiting these strategies, prototypes for a new generation of RACS have been demonstrated, such as flow-based OT-RACS, DEP-RACS, and SERS/CARS flow cytometry. Such high-throughput microfluidic RACS can provide biologists with a powerful single-cell analysis tool to explore the scientific questions or applications that have been beyond the reach of FACS and MACS.

  1. Sclerosing cholangitis by cytomegalovirus in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing colangitis (SC due to cytomegalovirus (CMV is very rare. It has been described mainly in immunocompromised patients. Currently, in HIV infected patients it is exceptional. The most of cases belong to pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART and those cases were in stage AIDS with less than 100 CD4/μl. The most frequently involved pathogen in pre-HAART period was Cryptosporidium parvum (30-57% and CMV (10-30%; in late HAART period this information are unaware. CMV has been implicated as a possible etiological agent in primary SC partly because of the ability to cause liver damage and its relationship with smooth muscle antibodies. The most effective treatment for SC was the combination of antiretroviral therapy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy and stent placement. Following, we present the first case of late HAART period which describes a SC extrahepatic without papillary stenosis with CMV as the only cause and clinical presentation of HIV infection in a woman with 177 CD4/μl.

  2. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  3. Child Prostitution as Filial Duty? The Morality of Child-Rearing in a Slum Community in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that there are universal goals of child-rearing, such as survival of the child or the promotion of their capacity to contribute to economic and social reproduction. Yet in certain circumstances parents appear to pursue child-rearing practices that actively harm children, threaten their survival and inhibit their ability to grow…

  4. Child Prostitution as Filial Duty? The Morality of Child-Rearing in a Slum Community in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Heather

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that there are universal goals of child-rearing, such as survival of the child or the promotion of their capacity to contribute to economic and social reproduction. Yet in certain circumstances parents appear to pursue child-rearing practices that actively harm children, threaten their survival and inhibit their ability to grow…

  5. Activation of fly ashes by the high temperature and high alkalinity in ASR tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    High temperature and high alkalinity are typical testing conditions to accelerate the appraisal process of the suppressing effect of fly ashes on alkali silica reaction(ASR),but the reaction mechanism of fly ashes would be quite different under such conditions compared to the normal condition of temperature and alkalinity.To make a reasonable analysis of the suppressing effect of fly ashes,13 types of fly ashes were tested in this paper by both the accelerated mortar bar test method and the 60°C accelerated concrete prism test method.The results showed that the effect of fly ashes would be magnified under the condition of high temperature and high alkalinity.The XRD analysis showed that all the phases of fly ash could react with the hot alkaline solution except for mullite and a small amount of quartz.Fly ash could be significantly activated by the 80°C 1 mol/L NaOH solution,and form mainly C-S-H phase and P type zeolite,but its effect on inhibiting ASR was exaggerated then.According to the mortar strength test and the ASR suppressing test results,C-S-H phase contributed to mortar strength,but its amount did not decide the ASR suppressing effect of fly ash.

  6. Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: a 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-09-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child's adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influences were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, and child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bidirectional influences and their potential for practical applications.

  7. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  8. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of a child-centered physical activity program, a parent-centered dietary-modification program, or both in overweight children: the HIKCUPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Warren, Janet M; Cliff, Dylan P; Burrows, Tracy L; Colyvas, Kim; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate whether a child-centered physical activity program, combined with a parent-centered dietary program, was more efficacious than each treatment alone, in preventing unhealthy weight-gain in overweight children. An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial involving 165 overweight/obese 5.5- to 9.9- year-old children. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 interventions: a parent-centered dietary program (Diet); a child-centered physical activity program (Activity); or a combination of both (Diet+Activity). All groups received 10 weekly face-to-face sessions followed by 3 monthly relapse-prevention phone calls. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. The primary outcome was change in body mass index z-score at 6 and 12 months (n=114 and 106, respectively). Body mass index z-scores were reduced at 12-months in all groups, with the Diet (mean [95% confidence interval]) (-0.39 [-0.51 to 0.27]) and Diet + Activity (-0.32, [-0.36, -0.23]) groups showing a greater reduction than the Activity group (-0.17 [-0.28, -0.06]) (P=.02). Changes in other outcomes (waist circumference and metabolic profile) were not statistically significant among groups. Relative body weight decreased at 6 months and was sustained at 12 months through treatment with a child-centered physical activity program, a parent-centered dietary program, or both. The greatest effect was achieved when a parent-centered dietary component was included. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  10. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  11. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  12. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  13. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  14. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... 25 September 21, 2017 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  15. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Toilet Teaching Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Toilet Teaching Your ... the process easier. previous continue Tips for Toilet Teaching Even before your child is ready to try ...

  16. Developing an eBook-Integrated High-Fidelity Mobile App Prototype for Promoting Child Motor Skills and Taxonomically Assessing Children's Emotional Responses Using Face and Sound Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce "StorySense", an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children's motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage "low-motor" interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child's gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism.

  17. Alcohol intake in pregnancy increases the child's risk of atopic dermatitis. the COPSAC prospective birth cohort study of a high risk population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Giwercman Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis has increased four-fold over the recent decades in developed countries, indicating that changes in environmental factors associated with lifestyle may play an important role in this epidemic. It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one contributing risk factor in this development. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of alcohol intake during pregnancy on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life. METHOD: The COPSAC cohort is a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of 411 children born to mothers with a history of asthma, followed up for 7 years with scheduled visits every 6 months as well as visits for acute exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Risk of atopic dermatitis from any alcohol consumption during pregnancy was analyzed as time-to-diagnosis and adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS: 177 of 411 children developed atopic dermatitis before age 7 years. We found a significant effect of alcohol intake during pregnancy on atopic dermatitis development (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99 p=0.024. This conclusion was unaffected after adjustment for smoking, mother's education and mother's atopic dermatitis. LIMITATIONS: The selection of a high-risk cohort, with all mothers suffering from asthma, and all children having a gestational age above 35 weeks with no congenital abnormality, systemic illness, or history of mechanical ventilation or lower airway infection. CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake by pregnant women with a history of asthma, is significantly associated with an increased risk for the child for developing atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life.

  18. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  19. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  20. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  1. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward.

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Mental Health, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and Drinking Patterns Among Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ethan Czuy; Martinez, Omar; Mattera, Brian; Wu, Elwin; Arreola, Sonya; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Newman, Bernie; Icard, Larry; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Welles, Seth; Rhodes, Scott D; Dodge, Brian M; Alfonso, Sarah; Fernandez, M Isabel; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2017-07-18

    One in five Latino men who have sex with men has experienced child sexual abuse. Although concerning in itself, child sexual abuse may increase an individuals' likelihood of depression and risk-taking in adult life, including engagement in HIV risk behaviors and alcohol and substance use. It is therefore urgent that researchers and practitioners better understand the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. We utilized logistic and linear regression to assess associations between child sexual abuse (operationalized as forced or coerced sexual activity before age 17) and depression, sexual behaviors, and drinking patterns in a sample of 176 adult Latino men who have sex with men from New York City. Over one-fifth (22%) of participants reported child sexual abuse. In multivariable models, participants with histories of child sexual abuse were significantly more likely than participants without such histories to screen for clinically significant depressive symptoms and heavy drinking and reported more anal sex acts, male sexual partners, and incidents of condomless anal intercourse in the previous three months. These findings confirm a high prevalence of child sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men and associations between child sexual abuse and adulthood depressive symptoms, high-risk alcohol consumption, and sexual risk behaviors. We recommend that providers who serve Latino men who have sex with men incorporate child sexual abuse screenings into mental health, HIV prevention, and substance use treatment programs, utilizing approaches that are inclusive of resilience.

  3. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  4. Your Child's Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations Print A A A en español Las vacunas ... determine the best vaccinations and schedule for your child. Recommended vaccinations: ... (varicella) vaccine Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine ( ...

  5. Supporting Each Child's Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Buchanan, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In using developmentally appropriate practices, teachers should intentionally address all aspects of a child's being, the spiritual along with the physical and the cognitive. Because spirituality is a vital part of human nature, a whole-child teaching approach must include the part of the child some call spirituality. Many have attempted to…

  6. [Autism and child protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  7. Objectively measured habitual physical activity in a highly obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, S A; Summerbell, C D; Reilly, J J

    2009-05-01

    While the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children continues to grow nationally, prevalence in the North-East of England is among the highest in the UK. The objective of this study was to investigate the habitual physical activity levels in a particularly obesogenic environment in the North-East of England. Eight primary schools were selected using a stratified random sampling frame ranking average deprivation levels. Participating children (n = 246, mean age 10 years) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph, GT-256) over five consecutive days (weekend plus three weekdays). Total daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was calculated using thresholds by Puyau and colleagues. Only 7% (17/246) of children were sufficiently active. Boys were more physically active than girls (766 +/- 268 vs. 641 +/- 202 counts/min, 95% CI for the difference 63-186 cpm.). Total physical activity was not influenced significantly by deprivation levels or weight status, and there were no significant differences in physical activity between school or weekend days. The North-East of England is a recognized 'hot spot' for paediatric obesity and the present study shows that low levels of habitual physical activity are typical. Choice of accelerometry threshold affects both the apparent amount of physical activity and the ability to detect groups with particularly low levels of physical activity.

  8. Child to child: an approach to the health education of primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J K

    1988-01-01

    Child to Child is an approach to health education of the primary school-age child. In developing countries, infants and young children spend much of their lives in the care of an older brother or sister. Morley, a paediatrician, saw the potential of teaching these older children to provide better care for their siblings. Working with colleagues in education, Child to Child was launched in 1978, the International Year of the Child. Teaching material was prepared covering developmental needs, nutrition, common illnesses and aspects of the environment; a book was published describing an activity-oriented teaching method. This material was distributed to developing countries world-wide, with encouragement to use the material and ideas freely, adapting, translating, or innovating as found useful. Child to Child is now in use in 60 or more countries, and in at least 15 languages. It is being used by agencies like the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, and OXFAM as a way of reinforcing community education in the search for 'Health for All by 2000'. A world-wide review of Child to Child is in hand. Information from this will help to provide firm guidelines on implementation in the different contexts where its value has already been established.

  9. Child labor, income shocks, and access to credit

    OpenAIRE

    Beegle, Kathleen; Rajeev H. Dehejia; Gatti, Roberta

    2003-01-01

    Although a growing theoretical literature points to credit constraints as an important source of inefficiently high child labor, little work has been done to assess its empirical relevance. Using panel data from Tanzania, the authors find that households respond to transitory income shocks by increasing child labor, but that the extent to which child labor is used as a buffer is lower when...

  10. Variety, Enjoyment, and Physical Activity Participation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon L; Coffield, Edward; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents. Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls. Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation. These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits.

  11. Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal medial prefrontal cortical activity in response to child separation among mothers with histories of violence exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scott Schechter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal Violence-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis, characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother-child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12-42 months participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother-child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother-child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress

  12. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  13. Self-assembly of a thin highly reduced graphene oxide film and its high electrocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Zhou, An-Wei; Li, Hai-Wai; Zhang, Yu; Luong, John H. T.; Cui, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    A thin highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film was self-assembled at the dimethyl formamide (DMF)-air interface through evaporation-induced water-assisted thin film formation at the pentane-DMF interface, followed by complete evaporation of pentane. The thin film was transferred onto various solid substrates for film characterization and electrochemical sensing. UV-visible spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemistry techniques were used to characterize the film. An rGO film showing 82.8% of the transmittance at 550 nm corresponds to a few layers of rGO nanosheets. The rGO nanosheets cross-stack with each other, lying approximately in the plane of the film. An rGO film collected on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode exhibited improved electrical conductivity compared to GC, with the electrode charge-transfer resistance (Rct) reduced from 31 Ω to 22 Ω. The as-formed rGO/GC electrode was mechanically very stable, exhibiting significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity to H2O2 and dopamine. Multiple layers of the rGO films on the GC electrode showed even stronger electrocatalytic activity to dopamine than that of the single rGO film layer. The controllable formation of a stable rGO film on various solid substrates has potential applications for nanoelectronics and sensors/biosensors.

  14. Identification of Tumor Endothelial Cells with High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity and a Highly Angiogenic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maishi, Nako; Ohga, Noritaka; Hida, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Iida, Junichiro; Shindoh, Masanobu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hida, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. It has been reported that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) exhibit highly angiogenic phenotypes compared with those of normal endothelial cells (NECs). TECs show higher proliferative and migratory abilities than those NECs, together with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Furthermore, compared with NECs, stem cell markers such as Sca-1, CD90, and multidrug resistance 1 are upregulated in TECs, suggesting that stem-like cells exist in tumor blood vessels. In this study, to reveal the biological role of stem-like TECs, we analyzed expression of the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in TECs and characterized ALDHhigh TECs. TECs and NECs were isolated from melanoma-xenografted nude mice and normal dermis, respectively. ALDH mRNA expression and activity were higher in TECs than those in NECs. Next, ALDHhigh/low TECs were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to compare their characteristics. Compared with ALDHlow TECs, ALDHhigh TECs formed more tubes on Matrigel-coated plates and sustained the tubular networks longer. Furthermore, VEGFR2 expression was higher in ALDHhigh TECs than that in ALDHlow TECs. In addition, ALDH was expressed in the tumor blood vessels of in vivo mouse models of melanoma and oral carcinoma, but not in normal blood vessels. These findings indicate that ALDHhigh TECs exhibit an angiogenic phenotype. Stem-like TECs may have an essential role in tumor angiogenesis. PMID:25437864

  15. Identification of tumor endothelial cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and a highly angiogenic phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Ohmura-Kakutani

    Full Text Available Tumor blood vessels play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. It has been reported that tumor endothelial cells (TECs exhibit highly angiogenic phenotypes compared with those of normal endothelial cells (NECs. TECs show higher proliferative and migratory abilities than those NECs, together with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2. Furthermore, compared with NECs, stem cell markers such as Sca-1, CD90, and multidrug resistance 1 are upregulated in TECs, suggesting that stem-like cells exist in tumor blood vessels. In this study, to reveal the biological role of stem-like TECs, we analyzed expression of the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in TECs and characterized ALDHhigh TECs. TECs and NECs were isolated from melanoma-xenografted nude mice and normal dermis, respectively. ALDH mRNA expression and activity were higher in TECs than those in NECs. Next, ALDHhigh/low TECs were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to compare their characteristics. Compared with ALDHlow TECs, ALDHhigh TECs formed more tubes on Matrigel-coated plates and sustained the tubular networks longer. Furthermore, VEGFR2 expression was higher in ALDHhigh TECs than that in ALDHlow TECs. In addition, ALDH was expressed in the tumor blood vessels of in vivo mouse models of melanoma and oral carcinoma, but not in normal blood vessels. These findings indicate that ALDHhigh TECs exhibit an angiogenic phenotype. Stem-like TECs may have an essential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  16. JOSHUA: Symmetric Active/Active Replication for Highly Available HPC Job and Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlemann, Kai [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Steven L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's HPC systems employ a single head node for control, which represents a single point of failure as it interrupts an entire HPC system upon failure. Furthermore, it is also a single point of control as it disables an entire HPC system until repair. One of the most important HPC system service running on the head node is the job and resource management. If it goes down, all currently running jobs loose the service they report back to. They have to be restarted once the head node is up and running again. With this paper, we present a generic approach for providing symmetric active/active replication for highly available HPC job and resource management. The JOSHUA solution provides a virtually synchronous environment for continuous availability without any interruption of service and without any loss of state. Replication is performed externally via the PBS service interface without the need to modify any service code. Test results as well as a reliability analysis of our proof-of-concept prototype implementation show that continuous availability can be provided by JOSHUA with an acceptable performance trade-off.

  17. Nigeria: child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amobi, I

    The child in Nigeria is loved and pampered but food may be scarce or inadequate in nutrients, and he/she has overcrowding and poor sanitation to deal with as well as a maze of conflicting and hybrid values and way of life. Statistics show that in black Africa 1 child out of 5 will survive up to his 5th birthday. The infant mortality rate is high primarily because of inadequate nutrition and communicable diseases. The 10 most common diseases in Africa from 4 sample countries, i.e., Ethiopia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Kenya are: malaria; gastroenteritis, measles; respiratory tract infections; malnutrition; intestinal worm, anemias; tetanus; meningitis; and tuberuclosis. All these diseases are preventable, but prevention is more difficult because there are few health workers and inadequate facilities. 80 pediatricians and a few unrecognized pediatric trained nurses look after about 40 million children in Nigeria. Nutrition plays a prominent role in both growth and development. Local food may be plentiful but some families are unable to balance their diets. There is malnutrition or undernutrition because of ignorance, poverty, and feeding habits. In Africa the effect of malnutrition is most marked during weaning. In a traditional African society a child does not lack for love and affection. There are no unwanted pregnancies, no motherless children, no unmarried women, for the extended family system absorbs many of these shocks. The circumstances of the family are related to the incidence of child abuse, which is increasing. Children are used as cheap labor by both parents and guardians. In the current 5-year development plan, the government is making a bold step in health care. Some of the major goals of this 4th 5-year development plan in health care delivery include: rapid expansion of facilities to achieve 100% primary health care coverage by the year 2000; emphasizing preventive care; decentralization so that the local government areas are implementation units

  18. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  19. Novel Logarithmic Active Pixel Sensor with High Dynamic Range and High Output Swing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xian-song; YAO Su-ying; YUAN Yi-dong; XU Jiang-tao; DING Ke; YAN Kun-shan

    2008-01-01

    The logarithmic response complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS) image sensor provides a wide dynamic range, but its drawback is the lack of simple fixed pattern noise(FPN) cancellation scheme. Designed is a novel logarithmic active pixel sensor(APS) with high dynamic range and high output swing. Firstly, the operation principle of mixed-model APS is introduced. The pixel can work in three operation modes by choosing the proper control signals. Then, FPN sources of logarithmic APS are analyzed, and double-sampled technique is implemented to reduce FPN. Finally, according to the simulation results, layout is designed and has passed design rule check(DRC), electronic rule check(ERC) and layout versus schematic(LVS) verifications, and the post-simulation results are basically in agreement with the simulation results. Dynamic range of the new logarithmic APS can reach about 140 dB; and the output swing is about 750 mV. Results show that by using double sampled technique, most FPN is eliminated and the dynamic range is enhanced.

  20. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2016-02-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention.