WorldWideScience

Sample records for high ceiling effects

  1. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  2. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  3. Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of a glass ceiling effect within community colleges by examining faculty, staff and administrator's perceptions of a glass ceiling as it relates to the advancement of women at their institutions. This was done by using a cross-sectional survey administered electronically to faculty, staff…

  4. Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of a glass ceiling effect within community colleges by examining faculty, staff and administrator's perceptions of a glass ceiling as it relates to the advancement of women at their institutions. This was done by using a cross-sectional survey administered electronically to faculty, staff…

  5. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.

    2013-01-01

    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  6. The effect of diffuse ceiling panel on the energy performance of thermally activated building construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    the effect of diffuse ceiling panel on the energy performance of TABS in both heat and cooling mode. Experiments are carried out in a full-scale test facility with the integrated system, and the cases without diffuse ceiling are also measured as references. The results indicate that the diffuse ceiling has...

  7. Chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation system: Laboratory study with high cooling load

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, S.; Bauman, FS; Tully, B; Rimmer, J

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 ASHRAE.Radiant chilled ceilings with displacement ventilation represent a promising system that combines the energy efficiency of both subsystems with the opportunity for improved ventilation performance. Laboratory experiments were conducted for an interior zone office with a very high cooling load (91.0 W/m2) and with two different heat source heights to investigate their influence on thermal stratification and air change effectiveness. The results showed that displacement ventilatio...

  8. Choice of rating scale labels: implication for minimizing patient satisfaction response ceiling effect in telemedicine surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Caterina; Lam, Tony C M

    2014-12-01

    Lack of response variability is problematic in surveys because of its detrimental effects on sensitivity and consequently reliability of the responses. In satisfaction surveys, this problem is caused by the ceiling effect resulting from high satisfaction ratings. A potential solution strategy is to manipulate the labels of the rating scale to create greater discrimination of responses on the high end of the response continuum. This study examined the effects of a positive-centered scale on the distribution and reliability of telemedicine satisfaction responses in a highly positive respondent population. In total, 216 telemedicine participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions as defined by the form of Likert scale: (1) 5-point Balanced Equal-Interval, (2) 5-point Positive-Packed, and (3) 5-point Positive-Centered Equal-Interval. Although the study findings were not statistically significant, partially because of sample size, the distribution and internal consistency reliability of responses occurred in the direction hypothesized. Loading the rating scale with more positive labels appears to be a useful strategy for reducing the ceiling effect and increases the discrimination ability of survey responses. The current research provides a survey design strategy to minimize ceiling effects. Although the findings provide some evidence suggesting the benefit of using rating scales loaded with positive labels, more research is needed to confirm this, as well as extend it to examine other types of rating scales and the interaction between rating scale formats and respondent characteristics.

  9. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  10. Analyzing the glass ceiling effect among radiologic technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Susan B; Blagg, James D

    2011-01-01

    The literature has suggested that advancement within politics, academia and the health professions is influenced by gender. Purpose The authors conducted a survey to determine whether advancement was equal by gender in the radiologic science disciplines of nuclear medicine technology, radiation therapy and radiography. The survey was mailed to 900 subjects, 300 from each discipline. The discipline groups were further stratified by initial year of American Registry of Radiologic Technology certification; the authors selected 100 subjects from each discipline who initially were certified in 1978, 100 in 1988 and 100 in 1998. Approximately 33% of those selected responded. The findings of the study provided no evidence that men are promoted differentially than women. Women perceived that men were paid more for the same work. It appears that gender bias is pervasive outside of promotion decisions and, indeed, that some illegal actions (eg, sexual harassment, inappropriate gender-related interview questions) take place in radiologic science clinical settings. It is hoped that this study will set a baseline for future research on whether there is a glass ceiling effect in radiologic clinical practice and stimulate discussion of the importance of equal opportunity regardless of gender.

  11. Modeling Outcomes with Floor or Ceiling Effects: An Introduction to the Tobit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In gifted education research, it is common for outcome variables to exhibit strong floor or ceiling effects due to insufficient range of measurement of many instruments when used with gifted populations. Common statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance, linear regression) produce biased estimates when such effects are present. In practice,…

  12. What Do We Know about Glass Ceiling Effects? A Taxonomy and Critical Review to Inform Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "glass ceiling effects" has emerged in social science research in general and higher education in particular over the past 20 years. These studies have described the impediments that women and people of color encounter in their quest for senior-level positions (e.g., CEOs) in society as glass ceiling effects. Literature, both…

  13. What Do We Know about Glass Ceiling Effects? A Taxonomy and Critical Review to Inform Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "glass ceiling effects" has emerged in social science research in general and higher education in particular over the past 20 years. These studies have described the impediments that women and people of color encounter in their quest for senior-level positions (e.g., CEOs) in society as glass ceiling effects. Literature, both…

  14. Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a room with Floor/Ceiling Heating and Mixing/Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated different combinations of floor/ceiling heating with mixing/displacement ventilation and their impacts on the indoor air distribution and ventilation effectiveness. Measurements were performed in a room during heating season in December. The results show that indoor...... combined with floor/ceiling heating systems is approximately equal to 1.0, and ventilation effectiveness of displacement ventilation system combined with floor/ceiling heating systems ranges from 1.0 to 1.2. The floor/ceiling heating systems combined with mixing ventilation system have more uniform indoor...... air distribution but smaller ventilation effectiveness compared with the floor/ceiling heating systems combined with displacement ventilation system. With regard to the building heat loss increased by non-uniform indoor air distribution and small ventilation effectiveness, there should be an optimal...

  15. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...... is not well structured with this system. These become the motivations in developing the design guide. This design guide aims to establish a systematic understanding of diffuse ceiling ventilation and provide assistance in designing of such a system. The guide is targeted at design engineers, architects...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...

  16. Deposit interest rate ceilings as credit supply shifters: bank level evidence on the effects of Regulation Q

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Shocks emanating from and propagating through the banking system have recently gained interest in the macroeconomics literature, yet they are not a feature unique to the 2008/09 financial crisis. Banking disintermediation shocks occured frequently during the Great Inflation era due to fixed deposit rate ceilings. I estimate the effect of deposit rate ceilings inscribed in Regulation Q on the transmission of federal funds rate changes to bank level credit growth using a historic bank level dat...

  17. Effects of acoustic ceiling units on the cooling performance of thermally activated building systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacarte, Luis Marcos Domínguez; Rage, Niels; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2017-01-01

    the effects of two types of free hanging ceiling absorbers (horizontal and vertical) on the cooling performance of the TABS and the implications this has on the occupant thermal comfort. The measurements were carried out in a full-scale TABS test facility. The results show a reduction of 11% of the heat...... absorbers for equivalent levels of sound absorption. A reduction of 12% of the heat removed by the TABS has been measured for vertical sound absorbers (equivalent sound absorption levels to 60% coverage ratio with horizontal sound absorbers). This reduction was of 13% for vertical sound absorbers...

  18. Peak and ceiling effects in final-product analysis of mastoidectomy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N; Konge, L; Cayé-Thomasen, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality surgical simulation of mastoidectomy is a promising training tool for novices. Final-product analysis for assessing novice mastoidectomy performance could be limited by a peak or ceiling effect. These may be countered by simulator-integrated tutoring. METHODS: Twenty......-two participants completed a single session of self-directed practice of the mastoidectomy procedure in a virtual reality simulator. Participants were randomised for additional simulator-integrated tutoring. Performances were assessed at 10-minute intervals using final-product analysis. RESULTS: In all, 45.5 per...

  19. Impact of the disease: acceptability, ceiling and floor effects and reliability of an instrument on heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simey de Lima Lopes Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acceptability, ceiling/floor effects, and the reliability of the instrument for measuring the Impact of the Disease on the Daily Life of Patients with Valvular Disease (IDCV when applied to 135 patients with heart failure (HF. Acceptability was evaluated by the percentage of unanswered items and by the proportion of patients who responded to all items; the ceiling/floor effects by the percentage of patients who scored in the top of 10% best and worst results of the scale, respectively. Reliability was estimated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability of the measure (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC. All patients responded to all items. Ceiling/floor effects evidenced were of moderate magnitude. The Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for the majority of the domains and ICC> 0.90 in all the domains. The IDCV proved to be an easy to understand questionnaire, with evidence of reliability in patients with HF.

  20. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombuwela P. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the same time, hypotheses are developed to find out whether there is a significant effect of Individual Factors, Family Factors, Organizational Factors and Cultural Factors on Women Career development. Merely this study has been completed with an empirical survey which was thoroughly conducted using a self-administered questionnaire and the sample consisted of 150 women executives. For presenting and analyzing the data both descriptive andinferential statistics were used. The findings reveal that the Glass Ceiling and Women Career Development have a moderate negative relationship, and also show that Individual Factors, OrganizationalFactors and Cultural Factors have a significant effect on Women Career Development whereas Family Factor has effects on the Glass Ceiling. Following the study results, a conclusion was eventually made that there are significant effects of the Glass Ceiling on WomenCareer Development of Executive level female employees working in private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. By taking all these facts into consideration, better recommendations have been made in this study. Finally, the most valuable suggestions for further studies and limitations of the study have been outlined.

  1. Cognitive screening for children and adolescents: general limits or ceiling effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholt, Laurel J; Ajersch, Susan; Fisher, Ian H; Markham, Roslyn H; Ouvrier, Robert A

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive screening tools designed for children can also be used with adolescents. However, early studies suggest that scores can approach a maximum at about age 10 or 11 years. The initial hypothesis was this apparent ''ceiling effect'' is due to limits in the materials, where items can be insufficiently challenging for some adolescents. The alternative hypothesis is that general cognitive screening has a true limit by early adolescence. Participants (N = 85) were 10 to 15-year-old girls and boys, with a database (N = 1249) of 4 to 12-year-old children. The School-Years Screening Test for the Evaluation of Mental Status (SYSTEMS) cognitive screening was extended by more difficult items. Results show that scores increase rapidly for young children and tend toward a maximum in early adolescence. This characteristic asymptotic curve explained a substantial proportion of the variance. We can conclude that, although specific functions continue to develop, there is an upper limit in early adolescence for such general cognitive functioning. The findings support cognitive screening across a broad age range and suggest worthwhile research and clinical applications.

  2. Effect on health of man-made mineral fibres in kindergarten ceilings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindel, A; Hugod, C; Bach, E; Breum, N O

    1989-01-01

    The relation between the presence of readily visible man-made mineral fibre (MMMF) products in the ceilings and the presence/frequency of symptoms and diseases, and the correlation between the presence/frequency of symptoms and diseases and the concentration of MMMF in the indoor environment was investigated in 24 kindergartens. A combination of traditional epidemiological techniques and a technical analysis of a number of indoor air parameters did not support the hypothesis that release of MMMF from readily visible MMMF products in the ceilings was mainly responsible for the occurrence of symptoms or diseases related to indoor exposure in kindergartens.

  3. Effect of façade systems on the performance of cooling ceilings: In situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Eder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an innovative façade system designed to increase the thermal comfort inside an office room and to enhance the cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. A series of measurements is conducted in an existing office building with different façade systems (i.e., a combination of glazing and shading. An innovative façade system is developed based on this intensive set of measurements. The new system enhances the thermal comfort and cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. The main usage of the new system is the refurbishment and improvement of existing façade systems.

  4. Integrated sound absorption in thermally activated concrete ceilings - acoustic and thermal effectiveness of sound-absorber strips spaced at intervals; Integrierte Schallabsorption in thermisch aktivierten Betondecken - akustische und thermische Wirksamkeit periodischer Schallabsorberstreifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drotleff, Horst; Wack, Roman; Leistner, Philip; Holm, Andreas; Ziegler, Matthias; Sedlbauer, Klaus [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik IBP, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    From the perspectives of energy as well as indoor climate, thermally activated concrete ceilings make sense. Used in office buildings, however, their drawback becomes apparent: they are acoustically reflective. The conventional approaches use sound-absorbing suspended sails and absorber baffles or heat-conducting sound absorbers embedded in large areas of the concrete. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented and is evaluated acoustically and thermally. A few strips of sound absorber, arranged at intervals, are mounted flush into the concrete ceiling. To calculate the sound-absorption spectrum, an already widely publicised model (the Rayleigh approach) is used. It predicts the sound-absorption spectrum for normal sound incidence very well. For diffuse sound incidence, the difference to reverberation chamber measurements is greater, presumably because of the edge effect. The sound- absorption coefficient of the design can be tuned by skilful choice of the strip geometry, and it is significantly higher than the expected average value for the surface. On the one hand, the thermal efficiency of the components is determined by comparing the heat fluxes in the ceilings with absorber strips to an untreated reference ceiling. On the other hand, the indoor climate is investigated using a room model for office rooms of both solid and lightweight constructions. The influence of the strips (proportion of absorber area 20 %) on the thermal efficiency and indoor climate is low. Two absorber materials are examined in the strip approach: open-cell foam glass and a micro-perforated metallic absorber. While the metallic absorber displays thermal advantages, its sound absorption spectrum - even at high surface-coverage proportions - exhibits a much lower absorption coefficient than, for example, open-cell foam glass strips with only 20 % ceiling coverage. A demonstration in situ shows the potential of the absorber strips spaced at intervals. However, the method chosen in

  5. Multiple Glass Ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Giovanni; Hassink, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Both vertical (between job levels) and horizontal (within job levels) mobility can be sources of wage growth. We find that the glass ceiling operates at both margins. The unexplained part of the wage gap grows across job levels (glass ceiling at the vertical margin) and across the deciles of the intra-job-level wage distribution (glass ceiling at the horizontal margin). This implies that women face many glass ceilings, one for each job level above the second, and that the glass ceiling is a p...

  6. Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a room with Floor/Ceiling Heating and Mixing/Displacement Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang,Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Zhao, Jianing

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated different combinations of floor/ceiling heating with mixing/displacement ventilation and their impacts on the indoor air distribution and ventilation effectiveness. Measurements were performed in a room during heating season in December. The results show that indoor vertical air temperature differences and air velocities for different hybrid systems are less than 3 C and 0.2 m/s when supply air temperature is 19 C, air change rate is 4.2 h-1, and heated surface ...

  7. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    both thermal comfort and energy efficient aspects. The present study aims to characterize the air distribution and thermal comfort in the rooms with diffuse ceiling ventilation. Both the stand-alone ventilation system and its integration with a radiant ceiling system are investigated. This study also...

  8. Improvement of psychometric properties of a scale measuring inpatient satisfaction with care: a better response rate and a reduction of the ceiling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombrail Pierre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to solve two problems of an already validated scale measuring inpatient opinion on care: 1 a high non-response rate for some items due to the "not applicable" response option and 2 a skewed score distribution with high ceiling effect. Methods The EQS-H scale ("échelle de qualité des soins en hospitalisation" comprised 26 items and 2 sub-scales of 13 items each, 'quality of medical information' (MI and 'relationships with staff and daily routine' (RS. Three studies were conducted: a first mono-centre study (n = 552, response rate = 83.4%, self-completion of the scale the day before discharge to construct a shorter version of the scale without the items with high non-response rate and maintaining those useful to ensure good internal validity (construct, convergent and divergent and reliability; a second mono-centre study (n = 1246, response rate = 77.9%, self-completion of the scale before discharge to confirm psychometric properties of the new version; a third multi-centre national study (n = 886, response rate 41.7%, self-completion at home 15 days after discharge to test a new response pattern in order to reduce ceiling effect. Results Six items having a non-response rate >20% were deleted, increasing rates of exhaustive response to all items from 15% to 48%. Factorial analysis supported the evidence for removing 4 more items to ensure good internal validity and reliability of the new version. These good results (initial variance explained: 43%; Cronbach's α: 0.80 (MI and 0.81 (RS were confirmed by the second study. The new response format produced a normalisation of the 2 scores with a large decrease in ceiling effect (25% to 4% for MI subscale and 61% to 8% for RS. Psychometric properties of the final version were excellent: the 2 subscales (8 items each explained 66% of the variance in principal component analysis, Cronbach's α were respectively 0.92 (MI and 0.93 (RS. Conclusion The new version of

  9. Women in hospital medicine in the United Kingdom: glass ceiling, preference, prejudice or cohort effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Sproston, K A

    2000-01-01

    To assess from official statistics whether there is evidence that the careers of women doctors in hospitals do not progress in the same way as those of men. The proportions of female hospital doctors overall (1963-96), and in the specialties of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, pathology, radiology/radiotherapy, anaesthetics and psychiatry (1974-1996) were examined. Additionally data were examined on career preferences and intentions from pre-registration house officers, final year medical students, and medical school applicants (1966-1991). Data were analysed according to cohort of entry to medical school to assess the extent of disproportionate promotion. The proportion of women in hospital career posts was largely explained by the rapidly increasing proportion of women entering medical school during the past three decades. In general there was little evidence for disproportionate promotion of women in hospital careers, although in surgery, hospital medicine and obstetrics and gynaecology, fewer women seemed to progress beyond the SHO grade, and in anaesthetics there were deficits of women at each career stage. Analyses of career preferences and intentions suggest that disproportionate promotion cannot readily be explained as differential choice by women. Although there is no evidence as such of a "glass ceiling" for women doctors in hospital careers, and the current paucity of women consultants primarily reflects historical trends in the numbers of women entering medical school, there is evidence in some cases of disproportionate promotion that is best interpreted as direct or indirect discrimination.

  10. Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.

  11. Functional Independence Measure in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Evaluation of Ceiling and Floor Effects in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The functional independence measure (FIM is one of the most important assessment instruments for motor and cognitive dependence in rehabilitation medicine; however, there is little data about its confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and ceiling/floor effects from other countries and also in Iranian patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-factor model (motor and cognitive independence as latent variables and ceiling/floor effects for FIM in Iranian patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 185 subacute TBI patients were selected from emergency and neurosurgery departments of Poursina Hospital (the largest trauma hospital in northern Iran, Rasht using the consecutive sampling method and were assessed for functional independence. Results The results of this study showed that the floor effect was not observed; however, ceiling effects were observed for the FIM total score and its subscales. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the chi-square/df ratio was 2.8 for the two-factor structure and the fit indices for this structural model including root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.099, normed fit index (NFI = 0.96, tucker lewis index (TLI = 0.97, comparative fit index (CFI = 0.97 were close to standard indices. Conclusions Although ceiling effects should be considered for rehabilitation targets, the two-factor model of FIM (motor and cognitive independence has an eligible fitness for Iranian patients with TBI.

  12. Is there a glass ceiling for highly cited scientists at the top of research universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-12-01

    University leaders aim to protect, shape, and promote the missions of their institutions. I evaluated whether top highly cited scientists are likely to occupy these positions. Of the current leaders of 96 U.S. high research activity universities, only 6 presidents or chancellors were found among the 4009 U.S. scientists listed in the ISIHighlyCited.com database. Of the current leaders of 77 UK universities, only 2 vice-chancellors were found among the 483 UK scientists listed in the same database. In a sample of 100 top-cited clinical medicine scientists and 100 top-cited biology and biochemistry scientists, only 1 and 1, respectively, had served at any time as president of a university. Among the leaders of 25 U.S. universities with the highest citation volumes, only 12 had doctoral degrees in life, natural, physical or computer sciences, and 5 of these 12 had a Hirsch citation index m < 1.0. The participation of highly cited scientists in the top leadership of universities is limited. This could have consequences for the research and overall mission of universities.

  13. Shattering the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ "Shattering the Glass Ceiling: the Myths, Opportunities and Chal lenges of Women in Corporate China" was the theme of CEIBS'first Women in Management Forum held on December l 1 on the school's main campus in Shanghai.

  14. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free......Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as an air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Due to the large opening area, air is delivered to the room with very low velocity and no fixed direction, therefore the name ‘diffuse’. Compared......-cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...

  15. The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Views July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 101 The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Lt Col Lawrence Spinetta, PhD, USAF Those...number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Glass Ceiling for Remotely...promotion to flag rank. By design or effect, a bottleneck exists that guarantees a glass ceiling (i.e., a barrier to advancement) for RPA officers. This

  16. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan;

    2016-01-01

    number of design parameters encountered in practice. This study aimed to develop a numerical model that can reliably predict the airflow and thermal performance of the integrated system during the design stage. The model was validated by experiments under different operating conditions. The validated......A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large...... model was further applied to evaluate the effects of different design parameters, including the U-value of the diffuse ceiling panel, plenum height, plenum depth, and inlet configuration. In the integrated system, diffuse ceiling separated the radiant ceiling from the rest of the room and consequently...

  17. Shattering women's glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri Podesta, Marie Therese; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The role of women in academia has always greatly interested me. Several years ago, when I was asked to become Gender Issues Committee chairperson at the University of Malta, I readily accepted. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/shattering-womens-glass-ceiling/

  18. What Glass Ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Post, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    A recent study drawing on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that the wage gap between men and women has virtually disappeared, and that the so-called "glass ceiling" results more from age and qualifications than from explicit discrimination. (SLD)

  19. Glass ceilings of professionalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Dawn L

    2016-04-01

    The term glass ceiling is a political term often used to describe an unbreakable barrier that isnot visible with the human eye, but it keeps minorities from rising up i.e. it is a barrier to minoritygroups, in the past (and sometimes still) for women, that stops them from achieving theirtrue potential.

  20. Stars on the Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy and celestial imagery have been incorporated into architectural ceilings from antiquity to the present to reference the sky on behalf of a variety of agendas. Burial chambers in Egyptian pyramids and tombs, the Osiris chapel on the roof of Ptolemaic Egypt's Temple of Dendera, ancient Chinese tombs, painted rock shelters in California and the American Southwest, the cupola above a hot bath from medieval Jordan, elaborately illustrated ceilings in Italian cathedrals and palaces, the main concourse in New York's Grand Central Terminal, and a variety of other public buildings in America all brought the sky inside to convey relationships between the architecture, people, and the cosmos. In these interior environments, the symbolic function of the astronomical ceiling is driven by the thematic function of the building. At Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles three signature spaces are equipped with astronomically illustrated ceilings. In content and location, these prominent murals operate symbolically to convey meaning through public display and unexpectedly prompt people to think more expansively about the universe. This artwork is familiar in Los Angeles, but its use in a public observatory puts it outside the range of most commentaries on public art. Although experienced by more than seventy-six million persons over the last eighty years, Griffith Observatory's celestial murals are not well known. Their history, content, character, meaning, and purpose are detailed here.

  1. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan;

    2017-01-01

    number of design parameters encountered in practice. This study aimed to develop a numerical model that can reliably predict the airflow and thermal performance of the integrated system during the design stage. The model was validated by experiments under different operating conditions. The validated...... model was further applied to evaluate the effects of different design parameters, including the U-value of the diffuse ceiling panel, plenum height, plenum depth, and inlet configuration. In the integrated system, diffuse ceiling separated the radiant ceiling from the rest of the room and consequently...

  2. Breaking the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, A

    1997-03-01

    The glass ceiling is a form of organizational bias and discrimination that prevents qualified professionals from achieving positions of top governance and leadership. This article examines glass ceiling barriers that keep physicians from the upper reaches of management. While these factors apply mainly to women and minority physicians in academia, and are attributable to sexual harassment and discrimination, physicians as a class are frequently denied executive management positions. Such denial results from inadequate preparation for a career in health care administration. Important issues in the professional development of physician executives include mentoring, training and education, administrative experience, and cultural and personality factors. All of those must be considered when making the transition from medicine to management.

  3. Ceilometer (CEIL) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor R [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Vaisala Laser Ceilometer (CEIL) is a self-contained, ground-based, active, remote-sensing device designed to measure cloud-base height, vertical visibility, and potential backscatter signals by aerosols. It detects up to three cloud layers simultaneously. Model CL31 has a maximum vertical range of 7700 meters (m). The laser ceilometer transmits near-infrared pulses of light, and the receiver detects the light scattered back by clouds and precipitation.

  4. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaki Prosper P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8% of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9% had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431 and 55.7% (127/228 of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508. The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2% or window screens (75.5%. Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake.

  5. Postoperative Perfection: Ceiling Effects and Lack of Discrimination With Both SRS-22 and -24 Outcomes Instruments in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2015-12-01

    Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P self-image (P self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of treatment are crucial in advancing treatment, and improvement in the ability to assess subjective outcomes is essential. 3.

  6. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  7. Parental leave and the glass ceiling in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, James W.; Skogmann Thoursie, Peter; Susan B. Vroman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we update and extend "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?" (Albrecht et al. 2003) by documenting the extent to which the gender log wage gap across the distribution in Sweden has changed over the period 1998-2008. We then examine the Swedish glass ceiling in 2008 in more detail by documenting how it differs for white-collar versus blue-collar workers and for private- versus public-sector workers. We also examine when in the life cycle the glass ceiling effect arises and how thi...

  8. Women through the glass ceiling: gender asymmetries in Wikipedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, Claudia; Graells-Garrido, Eduardo; Garcia, David; Menczer, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    ...: notability, topical focus, linguistic bias, structural properties, and meta-data presentation.We find that (i) women in Wikipedia are more notable than men, which we interpret as the outcome of a subtle glass ceiling effect...

  9. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  10. Passing through the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Robert L.

    This paper describes personal and professional networking, discusses data on women and networking skills, and argues that women should exercise these skills in their efforts to shatter the "glass ceiling" and achieve their career potential. An introductory discussion notes that women, though they do network, may develop ties primarily with other…

  11. Jagged Edges of the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria L.

    2004-01-01

    Although many aspiring young women might believe the glass ceiling was shattered a decade ago, they still need to understand how that glass ceiling impacted an older generation of women in educational leadership. They also must be aware that some segments of the glass ceiling might still exist. This article provides a historical overview of the…

  12. Jagged Edges of the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria L.

    2004-01-01

    Although many aspiring young women might believe the glass ceiling was shattered a decade ago, they still need to understand how that glass ceiling impacted an older generation of women in educational leadership. They also must be aware that some segments of the glass ceiling might still exist. This article provides a historical overview of the…

  13. How to ask about patient satisfaction? The visual analogue scale is less vulnerable to confounding factors and ceiling effect than a symmetric Likert scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Ari; Pitkäaho, Taina; Kvist, Tarja; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of scale type (visual analogue scale vs. Likert), item order (systematic vs. random), item non-response and patient-related characteristics (age, gender, subjective health, need for assistance with filling out the questionnaire and length of stay) on the results of patient satisfaction surveys. Although patient satisfaction is one of the most intensely studied issues in the health sciences, research information about the effects of possible instrument-related confounding factors on patient satisfaction surveys is scant. A quasi-experimental design was employed. A non-randomized sample of 150 surgical patients was gathered to minimize possible alterations in care quality. Data were collected in May-September 2014 from one tertiary hospital in Finland using the Revised Humane Caring Scale instrument. New versions of the instrument were created for the present purposes. In these versions, items were either in a visual analogue format or Likert-scaled, in systematic or random order. The data were analysed using an analysis of covariance and a paired samples t-test. The visual analogue scale items were less vulnerable to bias from confounding factors than were the Likert-scaled items. The visual analogue scale also avoided the ceiling effect better than Likert and the time needed to complete the visual analogue scale questionnaire was 28% shorter than that needed to complete the Likert-scaled questionnaire. The present results supported the use of visual analogue scale rather than Likert scaling in patient satisfaction surveys and stressed the need to account for as many potential confounding factors as possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  15. Glass Ceiling Effect in Urban China: Wage Inequality of Rural-Urban Migrants during 2002-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Zhaopeng Frank; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the levels and changes in wage inequality among Chinese rural-urban migrants during 2002-2007. Using data from two waves of national household surveys, we find that wage inequality among migrants decreased significantly between 2002 and 2007. Our analysis on the wage distribution further shows that the high-wage migrants experienced slower wage growth than middle-and low-wage migrants – a primary cause of declining inequality of migrants. By using distributional decompositio...

  16. Effect of the substrate on the results of the fire tests of thin layers of floor, wall, and ceiling coverings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Fire Technology Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    In the fire tests of many building materials a thin sheet of the sample is mounted on a thicker substrate. The thermal properties of the substrate could have a considerable effect on the heating of a thin slab. This changes the ignition time, burning rate and other measured quantities, and could influence the conclusions from the fire test. Results from a simple linearized heat conduction model are reviewed and used to delineate regions in terms of Fourier and Biot numbers where that effect should be considered while designing fire tests for thin samples. The effective heat transfer coefficient is determined by an asymptotic approach device here. Experimental evidence supports this linearized theory for steel plates on wooden substrates. CEN/TC127/WG1 has proposed standard substrates for the fire tests of surface products. These substrates should represent and cover well common usage. These theoretical and experimental results are used to make a new proposal for standard substrates for CEN/TC127/WG1.

  17. Effect of the substrate on the results of the fire tests of thin layers of floor, wall, and ceiling coverings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Fire Technology Lab.

    1992-12-31

    In the fire tests of many building materials a thin sheet of the sample is mounted on a thicker substrate. The thermal properties of the substrate could have a considerable effect on the heating of a thin slab. This changes the ignition time, burning rate and other measured quantities, and could influence the conclusions from the fire test. Results from a simple linearized heat conduction model are reviewed and used to delineate regions in terms of Fourier and Biot numbers where that effect should be considered while designing fire tests for thin samples. The effective heat transfer coefficient is determined by an asymptotic approach device here. Experimental evidence supports this linearized theory for steel plates on wooden substrates. CEN/TC127/WG1 has proposed standard substrates for the fire tests of surface products. These substrates should represent and cover well common usage. These theoretical and experimental results are used to make a new proposal for standard substrates for CEN/TC127/WG1.

  18. Effects of cloned tumstatin-related and angiogenesis-inhibitory peptides on proliferation and apoptosis of endothelial ceils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-mei; ZHANG Ying-mei; FU Song-bin; LIU Xing-han; FU Xue; YU Yan; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumstatin is a recently developed endogenous vascular endothelial growth inhibitor that can be applied as an anti-angiogenesis and antineoplastic agent.The study aimed to design and synthesize the small molecular angiogenesis inhibition-related peptide (peptide 21),to replicate the structural and functional features of the active zone of angiogenesis inhibition using tumstatin and to prove that synthesized peptide 21 has a similar activity:specifically inhibiting tumor angiogenesis like tumstatin.Methods Peptide 21 was designed and synthesized using biological engineering technology.To determine its biological action,the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV304,the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 and the mouse embryo-derived NIH3T3 fibroblasts were used in in vitro experiments to determine the effect of peptide 21 on proliferation of the three cell lines using the MTT test and growth curves.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry (FCM) were applied to analyze the peptide 21-induced apoptosis of the three cell lines qualitatively and quantitatively.In animal experiments,tumor models in nude mice subcutaneously grafted with SKOV-3 were used to observe the effects of peptide 21 on tumor weight,size and microvessel density (MVD).To initially investigate the role of peptide 21,the effect of peptide 21 on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) by tumor tissue was semi-quantitatively analyzed.Results The in vitro MTT test and growth curves all indicated that cloned peptide 21 could specifically inhibit ECV304 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.01);TEM and FCM showed that peptide 21 could specifically induce ECV304 apoptosis (P <0.01).Results of in vivo experiments showed that tumors in the peptide 21 group grew more slowly.The weight and size of the tumors after 21 days of treatment were smaller than those in the control group (P <0.05),with a mean tumor inhibition rate of 67.86%;MVD of

  19. Effects of Multiglycoside of Tripterygium Wilfordii (GTW) on Spermatogenic Ceils and Enzymatic Activities in Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田健; 周孝瑚

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe consecutively the morphology of testis and epididymis and the changes of enzymatic activities of AKP, ACP, 3β-HSD and LDH-C4 in male rats treated with GTW 30 to 80 days. In addition, male antifertility effect and its possible reversibility were also observed. The results showed that GTW is a potential testicular toxicant in the animals. It can cause damage of the sperm cells with close relation to the treated time and dosage, Sloughing of sperm cells and many multinucleated giant cells in the seminiferous tubules were found on day 40 and 50 after the treatment. The tubules were hyperatrophic and the sperm cells were almost absent at the end of the study(80 days), No obvious morphological alteration was observed in the epididymal epithelial tissue, But changes of quality and number df the spermatozoa in epididymides were found prior to those of testes. Reduced number and abnormal cauda sperm were observed 30 days after the treatment, The ACP activity of Sertoli cells increased slightly, whereas the activities of ACP and LDH-C4 decreased gradually as the treated time prolonged. The 3β-HSD of Leydig cells was changed or subtle by m-phase or treatment and dramatically decreased at the end of treatment, The infertility caused by GTW was reversible 8 weeks after cessation of the treatment.

  20. Who would benefit from memory training? A pilot study examining the ceiling effect of concurrent cognitive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok TCY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstract: Diverse effects of memory training were observed in the literature. One possible factor is the amount of concurrent cognitive training received during the training program. In this pilot study, we recruited 24 elderly adults with or without concurrent cognitive stimulations to attend a memory-training program. Findings suggested that elderly people without concurrent cognitive stimulation could benefit from a memory-training program in the form of improved initiation and memory functioning. Self-rated quality of life measure also showed improvements alongside the cognitive benefits. Elderly people with regular concurrent cognitive stimulation, on the other hand, seemed to plateau in their level of performance and did not show any significant change. Our preliminary findings suggested nonlinear concurrent cognitive stimulation in the elderly.Keywords: memory training, cognitive training, dementia, Chinese, elderly 

  1. Thermal behaviour of cooling ceilings; Thermisches Verhalten von Kuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, C.

    2002-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of cooling ceilings is so far described by characteristic equations in the form of q=C x {delta}{theta}{sup n}. In special cases these equations are extended by terms which take into account the radiation exchange between heat sink and space user (operational ambient temperature). This is insufficient. Therefore a model is presented, which describes more exactly the individual processes (radiation, convection) at the cooled surface. As a first step the ceiling area is divided into three ranges in which different phenomena are affecting the heat transfer considerably: 1. Range under the influence of free convection in the space. 2. Range with forced convection caused by a plume along the window. 3. Range with forced convection caused by air flow through supply air outlets. For each of these ranges the fundamentals of heat transfer are applied using the substantial variables. The results of these models are then compared in a second step with results from laboratory tests. This model is developed first for steady-state conditions. It is extended by a second model to describe the dynamic processes (storage). Finally, both steady-state and unsteady conditions are investigated systematically. Results are presented for the cooling rate effected by the temperature of cooling ceiling, ambient conditions, supply air flow rate, supply air temperature and type of the air outlet. The results computed indicate that the maximum total cooling rate is always gained by a combination of a cooling ceiling and a supply air with minimum permissible temperature. In these cases the cooling rate of the ceiling is lower than that without ventilation of the space. However, the additional cooling rate of the ventilation compensates this effect in all cases investigated. This is an important finding, since cooling ceilings usually must be combined with an HVAC system for reasons of dehumidifying. Dried, cooled supply air can thus be supplied to the space without

  2. Performance analysis of a new design of office diffuse ceiling ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Hviid, Christian Anker; Yang, Honglu

    2013-01-01

    . The measurements of pressure loss across the ceiling show a low pressure drop between the plenum and the occupied zone. Ventilation effectiveness is measured to be close to 1 on average under the tested conditions. It is shown that the diffuse ceiling ventilation system is able to remove indoor pollutant...

  3. Parametrical analysis on the diffuse ceiling ventilation by experimental and numerical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Sølund;

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation in a classroom. An experimental study is carried out in a test chamber to examine the impact of diffuse ceiling opening area on the system cooling capacity and thermal comfort. The results indicate that diffuse ceiling...... ventilation provides a satisfied thermal comfort level in the occupied zone even under a high ventilation rate and a high heat load condition. A design chart method is adopted to compare different diffuse ceiling configurations, and the results indicate that the system with a 18% diffuse ceiling opening area....... The numerical results reveal that even distribution of heat sources gives a lower draught risk environment than centralized distribution. In addition, there is a significant increase on the draught risk with increase of room height....

  4. Temperature reduction in attic and ceiling via insulation of several passive roof designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, K.S., E-mail: Ong.Kok.Seng@eng.monash.edu.m [Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Six passive roof designs were tested simultaneously outdoors. {yields} Roof, attic and ceiling temperatures were determined. {yields} Solar collector roof design provided the coolest attic and ceiling. {yields} Placing insulation under roof is preferred to above ceiling. -- Abstract: High ambient temperatures coupled with high humidity lead to uncomfortable conditions that are non-conducive for human comfort and productivity. Heat transmission through the roof could be reduced by providing insulation in the attic under the roof or above the ceiling. A roof solar collector could provide both ventilation and cooling in the attic. Several laboratory sized units of passive roof designs were constructed and tested side-by-side under outdoor conditions to obtain temperature data of the roof, attic and ceiling in order to compare their performances.

  5. A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Debra E.; Fletcher, Joyce K.

    2000-01-01

    Approaches to the glass ceiling--encouraging women to adopt "masculine" attributes, accommodating women's unique needs, or celebrating women's differences--have shortcomings. A fourth approach links equity and effectiveness. "Small wins" recognizes that gender inequity is rooted in cultural patterns and uses small initiatives…

  6. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  7. The Glass Ceiling Initiative. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    While minorities and women have made considerable gains in entering the workforce in the last few decades, there remains a dearth of minorities and women at management levels. This phenomenon has come to be known as the "glass ceiling." The Department of Labor defines the glass ceiling as those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or…

  8. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  9. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zamfirache

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

  10. Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

  11. 高净空场所洒水喷头动作性能的数值研究%Numerical study of actuation performance of sprinkler for protection of high ceiling clearance occupancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 李毅; 田立伟; 杨丙杰

    2012-01-01

    Nmerical study was applied to analyze full scale fire tests with high ceiling clearance. Development of fire plume field was analyzed. Under the condition of specific ceiling height, sprinkler system parameter and fire development, numerical calculation was carried out to research the actuation performance of the automatic sprinkler based on sprinkler thermal response theory. The results showed that; calculation value of convective heat release rate and sprinkler actuation time is basically in agreement with experiment value, which means calculation model is reasonable and reliable. But empirical constant need to be modified concerning about different fire models.%采用数学计算的方法对高净空场所实体火灾羽流流场进行定量分析.在确定空间高度、灭火系统参数以及火灾发展过程的条件下,基于喷头热响应性能理论,通过数值计算研究高净空场所自动喷水灭火系统第一只喷头的动作性能.结果表明:流场对流热释放速率和喷头动作时间的计算值与试验值基本一致,计算模型合理可靠,但针对不同火灾模型计算模型中的经验参数仍有待进一步修正.

  12. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling.

  13. Women's Career Development at the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Pamela L.

    1998-01-01

    For women, success in shattering the glass ceiling lies not in adapting to a male workplace culture but in using career strategies such as self-knowledge, multiple mentors, integration of body and soul, and fluid, customized careers. (SK)

  14. HEALTH INSURANCE Spectacle frame reimbursement ceiling

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As from 1st January 2001, the three-year reimbursement ceiling for spectacle frames is replaced by annual ceilings which may be cumulated for a maximum of three years. The calculation method is therefore different from the one applied until 2000. A special procedure is applied to the transition between these two methods. Details of those procedures are published in an information sheet made available from divisional secretariats and at the UNIQA office at CERN.

  15. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and the Influence of Room Height and Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Vilsbøll, Rasmus W; Liu, Li;

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling (inlet) ventilation is an air distribution system that supplies air from the entire ceiling surface, giving a low supply velocity. The flow pattern in the room is controlled by the heat sources. The system generates high mixing flow and the air velocities in the room are expected...... with a large room height and it decreases in connection with certain heat load distributions. Room geometries and heat load distributions that are optimal for diffuse ceiling ventilation are discussed. A simplified design procedure is introduced....

  16. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    (ventilation effectiveness of 0.4) and the air flow rate had to be above minimum to safeguard the indoor air quality. The radial swirl jet of chilled beam also was not capable of creating complete mixing at high and concentrated heat load (ventilation effectiveness of 0.7)....... (L x W x H)). A window (6.5 m2) was simulated by radiant panels. Four chilled beam units were installed symmetrically on the suspended ceiling together with two exhaust vents. The diffuse ceiling inlet was made of standard perforated acoustic tiles (0.5% total degree of perforation). The room air...... temperature was controlled at 24 °C. The quality of the generated indoor environment as defined in ISO standard 7730 (2005) was assessed based on comprehensive physical measurements. The systems created Category A thermal environment in cooling situations at heat load of 50 W∙m−2 and 78 W∙m−2 (office room...

  17. Parametric Study and Optimization of Ceiling Fan Blades for Improved Aerodynamic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Adeeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes parametric study and optimization of non-linear ceiling fan blades by combining the techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE, Response Surface Methods (RSM and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Specifically, the nonlinear (elliptical planform shape of ceiling fan blade is investigated in conjunction with blade tip width, root and tip angle of attack. Sixteen cases are designed for three blade ceiling fan using two level full factorial model. The flow field is modeled using Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes approach. The performance variables used to formulate a multi-objective optimization problem are volumetric flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. Response Surface Method is used to generate the optimized design for non-linear ceiling fan blade profile. The results reveal that the interactions between the design variables play a significant role in determining the performance. It is concluded that the nonlinear forward sweep has a moderate effect on response parameters.

  18. Monte Carlo Modeling of Computed Tomography Ceiling Scatter for Shielding Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Stephen; Schick, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Radiation protection for clinical staff and members of the public is of paramount importance, particularly in occupied areas adjacent to computed tomography scanner suites. Increased patient workloads and the adoption of multi-slice scanning systems may make unshielded secondary scatter from ceiling surfaces a significant contributor to dose. The present paper expands upon an existing analytical model for calculating ceiling scatter accounting for variable room geometries and provides calibration data for a range of clinical beam qualities. The practical effect of gantry, false ceiling, and wall attenuation in limiting ceiling scatter is also explored and incorporated into the model. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calibrate the model for scatter from both concrete and lead surfaces. Gantry attenuation experimental data showed an effective blocking of scatter directed toward the ceiling at angles up to 20-30° from the vertical for the scanners examined. The contribution of ceiling scatter from computed tomography operation to the effective dose of individuals in areas surrounding the scanner suite could be significant and therefore should be considered in shielding design according to the proposed analytical model.

  19. Solar passive ceiling system. Final report. [Passive solar heating system with venetian blind reflectors and latent heat storage in ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.

  20. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  1. The Real Glass Ceiling. Your Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    There is a powerful and common glass ceiling (barrier that prevents capable employees from being promoted) that affects men as much as women. Between middle management and the executive level, corporate culture shifts to one based on power and a worker must play by new rules even if these have never been explained. (JOW)

  2. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  3. Ouch! Or ESL and the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliacci, Naomi

    The realities of the glass ceiling, which prevents qualified women, minorities, and many English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students from advancement and promotion, are rarely discussed in English for Special Purposes (ESP)/ESL programs and courses. This paper explores the barriers to success, focusing on the sociolinguistic factors of verbal and…

  4. The Real Glass Ceiling. Your Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    There is a powerful and common glass ceiling (barrier that prevents capable employees from being promoted) that affects men as much as women. Between middle management and the executive level, corporate culture shifts to one based on power and a worker must play by new rules even if these have never been explained. (JOW)

  5. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  6. 2D and 3D GPR imaging of structural ceilings in historic and existing constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Camilla

    2014-05-01

    investigating with rapidity and high resolution, thin as well as very thick ceilings, in a non-destructive manner. Ceilings may be made up as masonry vaults or timber/metal/concrete beams and elements laid down in one or two directions or, again, can be made as a combination of the above. A number of cases are here presented reporting on typical features to be recognised in radargrams in order to distinguish the material and possible shape of the relevant objects with the aim of providing a first small catalogue useful to the radar user and to professionals. This abstract is of interest for COST Action TU1208.

  7. Ceiling (attic) dust: a "museum" of contamination and potential hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey J; Gulson, Brian L

    2005-10-01

    Ceiling or attic dusts provide an indirect measure of air pollution integrated over varying time periods. We undertook an investigation into the particle-size distributions and sources and exposure pathways of metals in ceiling dusts from 38 houses in the city of Sydney, Australia. The houses ranged in age from 4 to 106 years and were grouped into three settings: industrial, semi-industrial, and non-industrial. The main roof types were terracotta tile (n=23), cement tile (n=8), and corrugated iron (n=4), with two slate and one asbestos. Soils and rocks from the Sydney area were also analyzed to provide "background" values and allow the estimation of enrichment factors. The bulk of the dusts contained particles derived from soil of crustal origin and organic plant material, with an anthropogenic component estimated at up to 25%. Particle sizes from selected dust samples showed a bimodal distribution, and the volumes of fine dusts were 50% terracotta tile, cement, and iron, median regression analyses showed that there were no significant effects with respect to age. Median regression analyses for terracotta tile, cement tile, and corrugated iron roofs showed a "roof" effect for Cu and V. Significant correlations (P0.03) were observed between most of the metals As-Cd-Cu-Pb-Sb-Zn, especially from the industrial settings. Pathways of dust exposure in this study are classified as being passive or active based upon the probable route of dust infiltration. Ceiling dusts pose a probable health hazard if the dust is disturbed and allowed to plume within the living areas of a dwelling, thereby exposing the occupants, especially children, to elevated levels of metals and fine particulates. Modeling shows that exposure to the elevated levels of Pb in dust could give rise to blood lead concentrations exceeding current guidelines for the industrial and semi-industrial areas.

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  9. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling. Final technical report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.; Mandeville, M.

    1980-09-01

    A history of the solar garden with the addition of the transparent water ceiling is presented, and a statement of the overall goals of the program is given. The objectives of the water ceiling grant are detailed. The rationale of the transparent water ceiling is developed and its implementation in the solar garden is described. The experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling has proven useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night after the water has been warmed during the day and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing non-flowering plants, such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants, such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan the water ceiling could be much more effective.

  10. Maximizing the Performance of Laser Cut Panel by Interaction of Ceiling Geometries and Different Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Freewan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between different ceiling geometries with laser cut panels (LCPs is investigated using real experiments and computer simulations to maximize the daylight performance of the LCP. In addition, LCP with different aspect ratios (width to depth ratio is studied using simulation with clear sky conditions in hot climate region. Two main performance parameters are investigated: illuminance level and distribution uniformity in a large space located in a sub-tropical climate region like Jordan. It was found that curved and chamfered ceilings increased the daylight level in the rear part of the studied room by 20% compared to a horizontal flat ceiling and reduce it by 30% in front part that improve the quality of daylight by improving the uniformity. LCP with high aspect ratio of 5:6 performed well in climate with clear sky and high solar angles than LCP with ratio of 4:6.

  11. Morphology and reaction force of toes of geckos freely moving on ceilings and walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 3-dimensional interactions between toes of a gecko and substrates (ceilings or walls) were measured when it moves on ceilings or walls by using a 3-dimensional force measuring array,and the correspondent morphology of the gecko toes was recorded by a high speed camera.The study aims to understand the relationship between adhesive and shear forces generated by the toes of the gecko and the locomotion behavior when it walks on walls and ceilings.Results showed that shear force is along the toe-only 12.6° and 3.1° away from the toe for wall-climbing and ceiling-crawling,respectively while the adhesion is big enough to balance the body weight and moment.The shear forces generated by the first and the fifth toes are in opposite directions;this redundant force increases the reliability of adhesion and stability of locomotion.The support angles of toes are equal approximately for ceiling-crawling and wall-climbing.The study greatly inspires the design of a gecko-like robot.

  12. Improved Ceiling and Visibility Forecasts from the US NOAA HRRR/RAP - Hydrometeor Assimilation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Stan; Alexander, Curtis; Weygandt, Stephen; Brown, John; Smirnova, Tatiana; Hu, Ming; Kenyon, Jaymes; Olson, Joseph; James, Eric; Thompson, Greg

    2017-04-01

    Cloud microphysics fields in the US hourly updated weather models, the 13km Rapid Refresh (covering North America) and the 3km High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (covering the lower 48 United States) are used for explicitly derived guidance of ceiling and visibility. Recent changes to the RAP and HRRR models at NOAA's NCEP with improvements for ceiling/visibility fields occurred in August 2016. This coordinated upgrade (RAP version 3 and HRRR version 2, RAPv3/HRRRv2) includes enhancements to the data assimilation, model, and post-processing formulations. Key assimilation/modeling changes relevant to ceiling/visibility forecasts will be described toward the next NCEP operational implementation (RAPv4/HRRRv3), planned for early 2018. These include further enhancements to the model physics components (aerosol-aware Thompson microphysics, MYNN PBL scheme, Smirnova land-surface model), application of a new vertical coordinate), and possible merger with prognostic smoke/aerosol prediction.

  13. The Glass Ceiling: Potential Causes and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Technical Report 993 The Glass Ceiling : Potential Causes 0• and Possible Solutions Beverly A. Dugan, Jessica L. Terner, Felicity A. Tagilarini, N- J...NUMBERS The Glass Ceiling : Potential Causes and Possible MDA903-87-C-0846 Solutions 63007A 792 6.AUTHOR(S) Dugan, Beverly A.; Terner, Jessica L.; 1112...advancement within the Army and highlights methods that might reduce such barriers. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER Of PAGES Army Glass ceiling 67 Civilian

  14. Experimental Study of an Integrated System with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per

    The experiments are carried out in a climate chamber located at the Department of Civil Engineering Aalborg University. The objective of the experiments is to evaluate the performance of the system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and thermally activated building construction (TABS) in terms....... And the thermal comfort is analyzed by draught rate vertical temperature gradient and radiant temperature asymmetry. Finally the effect of plenum and diffuse ceiling is discussed. This report mainly focuses on the experiment results and discussions. Therefore, some details about the measurement are not presented...... in this report but can be found in the experimental plan made before....

  15. Diffuse Ceiling Inlet Systems and the Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse ceiling inlet system is an air distribution system which is supplying the air through the whole ceiling. The system can remove a large heat load without creating draught in the room. The paper describes measurements in the case of both cooling and heating, and CFD predictions are given ...

  16. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    conditions a classroom was retrofitted with mechanical ventilation and a diffuse ceiling. The employed ceiling comprises active panels penetrable to air and impenetrable passive panels. The performance was studied with regard to air movements, temperatures and air change efficiency at two different air...... changes. The experiments were carried out during class to obtain realistic conditions. At both airflows did the ceiling perform satisfactorily with air movements and temperatures within the requirements of indoor climate standards. The air change efficiency is comparable to conventional mixing ventilation....

  17. Smarandache Ceil 函数的均值研究%Reseach on the Mean Value of Smarandache Ceil Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许军保

    2014-01-01

    研究了Smarandache Ceil 函数的均值性质,并利用初等方法得到了该函数关于k次方幂数列均值的几个渐近公式。%The mean value properties of the Smarandache Ceil function were studied , and several asymp-totic formulas of this function was given by using the elementary and analytic methods .This shows that there exists better value distribution properties for the Smarandache Ceil function in some special se -quences .

  18. Renaissance of the ceiling heating?; Renaissance der Deckenheizung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Michael [Studienakademie Sachsen, Dresden (Germany). Heizungstechnik

    2010-03-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the substantial realizations to the ceiling heating. At the same time suggestions are supplied according to a more strongly dealing with the development of assembly-friendly systems.

  19. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  20. Air distribution in a multi-occupant room with mixing or displacement ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    This study performed a comparative analysis of the air distribution in a multi-occupant room with mixing or displacement ventilation and the effect of adding floor or ceiling heating to each of them. The vertical distribution of indoor air temperature and velocity in the occupied zone......; the mean local turbulence intensity varied from 12.0% to 14.1% with mixing ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating, and the corresponding values were 1.5°C to 2.5°C and 7.3% to 9.8% with displacement ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating. Mean air distribution effectiveness...... varied from 0.93 to 1.0 for mixing ventilation and from 1.06 to 1.14 for displacement ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating. The results are relevant to the design and control of mixing and displacement ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating in a multi-occupant room....

  1. The Glass Ceiling Initiative: Implications for DOD in the Year 2000 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine information on the glass ceiling , and determine if a glass ceiling exists within the Department of Defense...the glass ceiling , addresses economic and demographic trends, and their impact on organizational culture, and finally shows the relevancy of the glass ... ceiling to DOD. In the final chapter, five specific recommendations are made for DOD that will be instrumental in breaking the glass ceiling .

  2. The glass ceiling: A biological phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulpen, Tom W J

    2017-09-01

    Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong. In humans hormonal and neuro-imaging studies show ample evidence for fundamental and long lasting pregnancy induced brain changes, not only in the limbic system, but also in the cortical networks like theory of mind and mirror neuron system. Recent research shows pronounced and long lasting brain changes in several of these areas. It can be concluded that there exists a maternal brain that drives mother's behaviour and priorities. Research in men shows that the more fathers are involved in raising their children, the more caring behaviour they develop. Structural anatomical changes are found in neural regions involved in parental motivation. These studies show that brain plasticity in fathers is experience dependent. In Nordic countries, a policy of paid paternal leave followed by a flexible shared parental leave, stimulates fatherly behaviour. This might reduce men's eagerness for top careers, thus creating better opportunities for women. Demolition of women's glass ceiling starts with the father. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. From the glass door to the glass ceiling: An analysis of the gender wage gap by age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Dalla Chiara; Eleonora Matteazzi; Ilaria Petrarca

    2014-01-01

    Using 2009 EU-SILC data for France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, we decompose the gender wage gap for prime age workers. We adopt an age group approach to identify when and how the glass door and the glass ceiling effects arise and their persistency over time. The empirical results verify that the raw gender wage gap increases with age. In all considered countries, the glass ceiling effect is completely realized by the age of 30 and increases over time. French, Italian and B...

  4. Sector Differences in Glass Ceiling in Sweden -Is It Tied to Occupational Segregation?

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores sector differences in how the gender wage gap varies across the wage distribution and the role of occupational segregation in explaining this variation for Sweden. Results indicate that the phenomenon known as the glass ceiling, i.e. larger gender wage differentials at the high end of the wage distribution is stronger in the public sector than the private. This difference is found to be due to occupational segregation and, to a large extent, pre-market educational choices....

  5. 纵向风对隧道火灾拱顶最高温度及其位置的影响%Effects of longitudinal ventilation on maximum ceiling temperature and its position in tunnel fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟; 周晓峰; 胡隆华; 刘帅

    2012-01-01

    Experimental study of temperature distribution along tunnel ceiling with different longitudinal ventilation velocities and different typical fire sizes was conducted in a combustion wind tunnel with length of 20 m. Both square and rectangular pool fires were used as fire sources for longitudinal ventilation velocities ranged in 0 - 3 m/s. The smoke temperatures below the ceiling were recorded by K type thermocouple for near fire region and by thermal resistors for that relative far away from the fire source. The results indicate that longitudinal ventilation velocity and fire size have a great influence on temperature distribution. The variation of ceiling temperature distribution with the increase of longitudinal ventilation velocity was shown to be different for a small fire fromthat for a large fire. For small scale fires, temperature of tunnel ceiling reduced to a stable value with gradual increase of longitudinal ventilation velocity. However, for big scale fire, the temperature increased first, and then decreased. The position of maximum temperature rise point firstly moved downstream horizontally with the increase of the wind speed. When the wind speed reached a certain value, the maximum temperature rise point returned back to an upstream position, and then moved downstream again. This is due to the change of dominant heating mechanism with the increase of longitudinal ventilation velocity. When the longitudinal ventilation velocity is relative small, both convection from hot smoke and radiation from the flame provide considerable contribution. However , when the longitudinal ventilation velocity is relative large, radiation is dominant. The influence of the length of windward side of rectangular pool fire was also discussed. It was shown that when the longitudinal ventilation velocity is relative smaller (0.5 - 1.5 m/s), the maximum temperature is higher when the longer side is parallel to the wind direction than that under perpendicular condition. However

  6. Development of Teaching Materials in Basic Nursing Using Virtual Reality -Ceiling Image Teaching Materials of a Hospital Room-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keiko; Iwata, Naomi; Kodama, Hiromi; Hagiwara, Tomoko; Takai, Kiyako; Matsumoto, Maki

    It is difficult to understand nursing practically for students who have just started studying nursing, because they cannot imagine the actual medical scene. The authors expect that they can improve nursing learning through experiences in virtual medical environments supported by ICT (information and commnication technology). We developed teaching materials in nursing education, and in a previous study we reported that the use of a virtual hospital was useful for students who had not had medical experience. The aim of the present study was to have students consider the meaning of a hospital room ceiling. First, we showed them a few ceiling patterns, and they selected the best one among the patterns. After that, we showed the same one in a virtual hospital room. They had negative opinions about what they had thought was the best one at this time. This demonstrates that the virtual hospital room is effective when students evaluate the ceiling as a part of the hospital room.

  7. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  8. Sustainability assessment of a lightweight biomimetic ceiling structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Florian; Grießhammer, Rainer; Speck, Thomas; Speck, Olga

    2014-03-01

    An intensive and continuous debate centres on the question of whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability. In the context of a case study, the objective of this paper is to contribute to this debate by presenting the first systematic approach to assess the sustainability of a complex biomimetic product. The object of inquiry is a lecture hall's ribbed slab. Based on criteria suggested by the Association of German Engineers (VDI), it has been verified that the slab has been correctly defined as biomimetic. Moreover, a systematic comparative product sustainability assessment has been carefully carried out. For purposes of comparison, estimated static calculations have been performed for conceivable current state-of-the-art lightweight ceiling structures. Alternative options are a hollow article slab and a pre-stressed flat slab. Besides a detailed benefit analysis and a discussion of social effects, their costs have also been compared. A particularly detailed life cycle assessment on the respective environmental impacts has also been performed. Results show that the biomimetic ribbed slab built in the 1960s is able to keep up with the current state-of-the-art lightweight solutions in terms of sustainability. These promising results encourage a systematic search for a broad range of sustainable biomimetic solutions.

  9. Ceiling temperature and photothermalsensitivity of aqueous MSA-CdTe quantum dots thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinbing; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Ben Q.

    2017-02-01

    Ceiling temperature, photothermal sensitivity and size effects of aqueous mercaptosuccinic acid modified CdTe quantum dots (MSA-CdTe QDs) are determined from experimental measurements for temperature sensing applications. Measured data show that the ceiling temperature of MSA-CdTe prepared by the hydrothermal process is 60 °C, better than that of CdTe QDs modified by thioglycolic acid (TGA). Aqueous MSA-CdTe QDs exhibit a reversible PL spectral peak wavelength shift within the temperature range from room temperature up to the ceiling temperature 60 °C. With the size of the QDs increasing from 1.9 nm to 3.1 nm, the photothermal sensitivity remains unchanged and a stable linear correlation with a slope of 0.16 nm/ °C exists between the PL spectral peak wavelength position and the temperature. The morphology of QDs was examined under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measured emission photoluminescence data by QDs further show that the thermal sensitivity is independent of the size of the QDs for the size range studied. Theoretical analysis is presented to substantiate the experiment results.

  10. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation coupled with a thermally activated building construction in an office room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    the opposite effect on energy performance when TABS is activated in heating or cooling mode. Finally, the air temperature distribution in the plenum and the surface temperature distribution of the diffuse ceiling point out that the air does not perfectly mix in the plenum, the air is not evenly distributed...

  11. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...

  12. Experimental study and modeling of cooling ceiling systems using steady-state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecuanica, AA. 97 Pereira (Colombia); Lebrun, Jean [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Andre, Philippe [Departement Sciences et Gestion de l' Environnement, University of Liege Belgium, 185, Avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    This article presents the results of an experimental study performed to develop a computational model of cooling ceiling systems. The model considers the cooling ceiling as a fin. Only the dry regime is considered. From ceiling and room dimensions, material description of the cooling ceiling and measurement of supply water mass flow rate and air and water temperatures, the model calculates the cooling ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature and water exhaust temperature. Fin efficiency, mixed convection close to the cooling ceiling (generated by the ventilation system) and panel perforations influence are studied. The theoretical approach gives to the user an appropriate tool for preliminary calculation, design and diagnosis in commissioning processes in order to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling mode. A series of experimental results got on four types of cooling ceilings are used in order to validate the model. (author)

  13. Managers' Beliefs about the Glass Ceiling: Interpersonal and Organizational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Tina C.; Beehr, Terry A.; Hansen, Curtiss P.; Webster, Jennica

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling refers to the difficulty of women trying to be promoted into the top management levels. The present study examined managers' potential explanations, implicit or explicit, for why women rarely reach the top hierarchical levels in their own organization. Among 685 managers at a large Midwestern insurance company, a model was…

  14. Breaking the Educational Glass Ceiling: An Interview with Harry Lenderman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Harry; Sandelands, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To examine the role that corporations can and are playing in removing restrictions to a college or university education for their employees - the educational glass ceiling. Design/methodology/approach - An interview format is used with an experienced academic, and learning and development practitioner, drawing upon experiences and…

  15. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  16. "Training Floors" and "Training Ceilings": Metonyms for Understanding Training Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a conceptual framework for mapping and understanding training trends. It uses the metonyms of floors and ceilings to distinguish between different types of training configurations. The argument is made that the ups and downs of employer reports of training activity are a crude basis on which to make judgements about the…

  17. Smashing into the Glass Ceiling for Women Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Camilla; Gold, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 10 women administrators in a British metropolitan district council revealed the glass ceiling to be a complex phenomenon reaching beyond the employment sphere. Their career progression was hindered by lack of career counseling, family-work conflicts, lack of management development for women, and particularly a managerial culture…

  18. Breaking the Educational Glass Ceiling: An Interview with Harry Lenderman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Harry; Sandelands, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To examine the role that corporations can and are playing in removing restrictions to a college or university education for their employees - the educational glass ceiling. Design/methodology/approach - An interview format is used with an experienced academic, and learning and development practitioner, drawing upon experiences and…

  19. Managers' Beliefs about the Glass Ceiling: Interpersonal and Organizational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Tina C.; Beehr, Terry A.; Hansen, Curtiss P.; Webster, Jennica

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling refers to the difficulty of women trying to be promoted into the top management levels. The present study examined managers' potential explanations, implicit or explicit, for why women rarely reach the top hierarchical levels in their own organization. Among 685 managers at a large Midwestern insurance company, a model was…

  20. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.422 Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish... Commandant. (b) Bulkheads, linings and ceilings may be covered by a combustible interior finish provided that...

  1. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  2. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reporting period subject to the ceiling if there is a significant increase in the average hourly wage for... wage survey data collected for the cost reporting period subject to the ceiling is at least 8.0 percent... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital...

  3. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  4. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  5. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter;

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb...

  6. Measurements on Buoyant Jet Flows from a Ceiling-Mounted Slot Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Möller, Åke T. A.

    Ceiling-mounted slot diffusers in ventilated rooms will often generate a flow of the wall jet type. The jet follows the ceiling, entrains air from the occupied zone and generates a recirculating flow in the whole room. This paper will deal with the flow in the ceiling region. The wall jet flow...

  7. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...

  8. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it is twice as high at the top. At the same time, the share of women in top positions appears to be twice as high as at the middle ranks. Hence, it seems that in the context of a very patriarchal cult...

  9. Breaking through the glass ceiling: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, S K

    1996-11-01

    Many companies have recognized that the workforce of the future will be significantly more diverse than in the past. A substantial number of these new employees will be women. Industry must create an environment that attracts the best, brightest, and most talented women and provide an environment that empowers them to reach their full potential. Barriers to advancement, such as the real or perceived "glass ceiling," inhibit the individual and ultimately negatively affect the company. Successful companies will recognize that gender diversity is a critical business strategy and implement aggressive programs to assist women in breaking through the glass ceiling. Gender diversity initiatives should include examination of quality of life issues, training and development, organizational policies and practices, and management accountability. Mentoring programs clearly play an important role in gender diversity programs. Personal mentoring experiences in academic and corporate environments, as well as a pilot mentoring program at Land O'Lakes, will be discussed.

  10. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    Experiments with air distribution in rooms generated by a radial ceiling-mounted diffuser and a diffuser generating flow with swirl are compared with the air distribution obtained by mixing ventilation from a wall-mounted diffuser, vertical ventilation and displacement ventilation. The air....... The characteristics of the air distribution systems are addressed by analysing the acceptable conditions for the supply flow rate and the temperature difference for the different systems. The paper shows that an air distribution system with ceiling-mounted air terminal units is able to generate comfortable velocity...... and temperature conditions at the same and at slightly higher loads as can be obtained by a vertical ventilation system, a mixing ventilation system with wall-mounted diffuser and a displacement ventilation system with a low velocity wall-mounted diffuser. The comparison is extended by considering both the local...

  11. Harvard and the Academic Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Drew Gilpin Faust was recently appointed president of Harvard University, and is the first female to hold the position. Women now lead half of the eight institutions that make up the Ivy League. But focusing on highly accomplished women such as Faust misses a larger point. Women may be taking faculty positions in record numbers, but most of those…

  12. Harvard and the Academic Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Drew Gilpin Faust was recently appointed president of Harvard University, and is the first female to hold the position. Women now lead half of the eight institutions that make up the Ivy League. But focusing on highly accomplished women such as Faust misses a larger point. Women may be taking faculty positions in record numbers, but most of those…

  13. Is there still a glass ceiling for women in academic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Kaufman, Joyce; Simeone, Diane M; Chen, Herbert; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2011-04-01

    Despite the dramatically increased entry of women into general surgery and surgical subspecialties, traditionally male-dominated fields, there remains a gross under-representation of women in the leadership positions of these departments. Women begin their careers with fewer academic resources and tend to progress through the ranks slower than men. Female surgeons also receive significantly lower salaries than their male counterparts and are more vulnerable to discrimination, both obvious and covert. Although some argue that female surgeons tend to choose their families over careers, studies have actually shown that women are as eager as men to assume leadership positions, are equally qualified for these positions as men, and are as good as men at leadership tasks.Three major constraints contribute to the glass-ceiling phenomenon: traditional gender roles, manifestations of sexism in the medical environment, and lack of effective mentors. Gender roles contribute to unconscious assumptions that have little to do with actual knowledge and abilities of an individuals and they negatively influence decision-making when it comes to promotions. Sexism has many forms, from subtle to explicit forms, and some studies show that far more women report being discriminately against than do men. There is a lack of same-sex mentors and role models for women in academic surgery, thereby isolating female academicians further. This review summarizes the manifestation of the glass-ceiling phenomenon, identifies some causes of these inequalities, and proposes different strategies for continuing the advancement of women in academic surgery and to shatter the glass ceiling.

  14. The Glass Ceiling - A Question of Joint Officer Development - Why Only Five USAF Geographic Combatant Commanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    26-07-2010 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 26-07-2010 to 17-06-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Glass Ceiling -- A...SCHOOL THE GLASS CEILING – A QUESTION OF JOINT OFFICER DEVELOPMENT – WHY ONLY FIVE USAF GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMANDERS? by David M...decision making skills to senior military and civilian leaders. In doing so, the USAF can finally shatter and eliminate the glass ceiling , that only

  15. Is there a 'glass ceiling' for female managers in Singapore organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Dimovski; Miha Škerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singapore mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider their organizatio...

  16. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz;

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. Previous research was focused on combining PV with additional total volume air distribution, i.e. mixing ventilation or displacement ventilation...... temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min...

  17. Field Study of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation Performance in a Landscape Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria; Wolsing, Marie; Grysbæk, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation with regard to thermal comfort and limits of the cooling capacity of the system was studied in a 97 m2-landscape office. Seven operation scenarios were tested: two for mixing ventilation with ceiling mounted fan coils and five with diffuse ceiling...... show that diffuse ceiling ventilation has substantial potential for landscape office applications because it can provide important cooling capacity while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the occupied zone. It does not generate draught in the occupied zone even at large temperature differences...

  18. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  19. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR. Design/m

  20. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR.

  1. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  2. Numerical Prediction of Airflow in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    In ventilated rooms the air inlet device is often placed close to the ceiling. The air inlet will form a wall jet or a reattached wall jet. The wall jet may be disturbed by ceilingmounted obstacles such as light fittings or ceiling beams which, in some cases, can cause the air jet to be deflected...

  3. Experimental study of perforated suspended ceilings as diffuse ventilation air inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper for a diffuse ceiling ventilation concept. The analyses were carried out with two different porous surfaces mounted in a suspended ceiling: perforated tiles of aluminium and of gypsum. Ventilation air was supplied above the suspended ceiling...... to sustain the pressure of the plenum and ensure uni-directional airflow through the ceiling. Consequently only reverse flow of insignificant magnitude was observed which has a positive impact on the hygiene of the plenum. Furthermore, the measurements documented that the ceiling acts as a radiant cooling...... surface which increases the potential and applicability of the concept. Risk of thermal discomfort was not disclosed but the study did show evidence of large fluctuating air movements which could stem from transient behaviour creating sensations of draught to the occupants....

  4. Thresholds and Glass Ceilings: Career Pattern of Women Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-05-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  5. "No Ceiling on Achievement": Breaking the Glass Ceiling or Hitting a Steel Plate in Urban Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Ben; Melia, Victoria; Bergan, Dave; Whitby, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This article, written by a team of research-active teachers who are also senior leaders in a large, urban, comprehensive high school in the North of England, reports on their joint teacher inquiry project. This work has school-wide significance, given recent history, progressing from being graded as a "failing" school by the Office for…

  6. "No Ceiling on Achievement": Breaking the Glass Ceiling or Hitting a Steel Plate in Urban Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Ben; Melia, Victoria; Bergan, Dave; Whitby, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This article, written by a team of research-active teachers who are also senior leaders in a large, urban, comprehensive high school in the North of England, reports on their joint teacher inquiry project. This work has school-wide significance, given recent history, progressing from being graded as a "failing" school by the Office for…

  7. Hardware Locks with Priority Ceiling Emulation for a Java Chip-Multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    According to the safety-critical Java specification, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations, as it has preferable properties, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free on uni-core systems. In this paper we explore our hardware supported implementation...... of priority ceiling emulation on the multicore Java optimized processor, and compare it to the existing hardware locks on the Java optimized processor. We find that the additional overhead for priority ceiling emulation on a multicore processor is several times higher than simpler, non-premptive locks, mainly...

  8. Ceiling effect of online user interests for the movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Hu, Zhao-Long; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Online users' collective interests play an important role for analyzing the online social networks and personalized recommendations. In this paper, we introduce the information entropy to measure the diversity of the user interests. We empirically analyze the information entropy of the objects selected by the users with the same degree in both the MovieLens and Netflix datasets. The results show that as the user degree increases, the entropy increases from the lowest value at first to the highest value and then begins to fall, which indicates that the interests of the small-degree and large-degree users are more centralized, while the interests of normal users are more diverse. Furthermore, a null model is proposed to compare with the empirical results. In a null model, we keep the number of users and objects as well as the user degrees unchangeable, but the selection behaviors are totally random in both datasets. Results show that the diversity of the majority of users in the real datasets is higher than that the random case, with the exception of the diversity of only a fraction of small-degree users. That may because new users just like popular objects, while with the increase of the user experiences, they quickly become users of broad interests. Therefore, small-degree users' interests are much easier to predict than the other users', which may shed some light for the cold-start problem.

  9. A tick-borne encephalitis ceiling in Central Europe has moved upwards during the last 30 years: possible impact of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Petr; Bene, Cestmir

    2004-04-01

    The geographic/temporal pattern of cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) registered in the Czech Republic since 1970 was analysed to verify the surmise of a global warming effect. Using a geographic information system, over 8,700 notified places of infection were pin-pointed on a map and overlaid with a digital elevation model to estimate the vertical distribution of the cases. Series of yearly disease ceilings (assessed alternatively as the respective maximum altitude or mean altitudes of the upper 5 or 10 cases) were tested against the null hypothesis of random elevation course and analysed for correlation with concomitant factors (yearly TBE incidence rate, mean yearly temperature, population density of small rodents and roe deer). Statistical tests proved that the TBE ceiling has gradually moved upwards in the course of the last three decades. The average rate of ascension within this period was approx. 5.4 +/- 1.7 m yearly, which corresponds well with concurrent mean temperature rising of approx. 0.036 +/- 0.007 degrees C yearly, and the vertical temperature gradient of 0.0065 +/- 0.0004 degrees C m(-1). The TBE-ceiling estimates significantly correlated with TBE-incidence data and the mean yearly temperature recorded 1-2 years earlier. Although TBE incidence correlated with rodent population density that was observed 1-2 years earlier, the TBE ceiling does not seem to be influenced by rodent population dynamics nor did the population dynamics correlate with mean yearly temperatures. TBE incidence as well as mean altitudes of the upper 10 cases also correlated with official data on harvested roe deer. Overall, the fluctuations of TBE incidence and TBE ceiling proved to be synchronous processes that correspond with temperature changes. Although the dependence of TBE on temperature is not a direct one and various factors could be involved, an impact of climate warming on the vertical disease distribution in Central Europe is evident.

  10. Deposit Rate Ceilings as a Tool of Prudential Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Krajewski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present one of prudential regulation instruments in an environment that favors to engage in moral hazard behavior. The last decades proved that there is a link between financial liberalization and banking crises. In order to avoid crises and prevent banks engaging in gambling behavior, the system of prudential regulations has been implemented. The emphasis has been placed on the use of capital requirements, typically using the BIS standard developed in the Basel Accord.As the excessive reliance on capital requirements can become costly for the banks and lead to loose their franchise value and undermine incentives for prudent investing. The instrument that can create the franchise value, i.e. earning profits in the current period and in the future, is a policy of deposit rate controls. In the paper was also revealed why the policy of setting interest rate ceiling on deposits had not achieved its intended objectives, especially in the view of the fail of the Regulation Q policy.

  11. The glass ceiling in Irish healthcare: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore from the perspectives of top-level nurses holding the formal position of director of nursing their perceptions and interpretations of their experiences in the Irish healthcare system. This paper presents some findings from a nation-wide study, which is qualitative in approach using grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 directors of nursing representing general and psychiatric nursing. The study in this paper was conducted in the context of a changing healthcare system, which emphasises the flattening of organisational pyramids. However, this study's findings indicate that, while structures might be changing, behaviours remain unaltered. In particular, the medicine nursing power base remains unchanged, while the power shift between nursing and general management continues to widen in favour of general management. Research in this paper shows that directors of nursing who chose to participate in this study may have different perceptions of experiences from those who chose not to participate. In the paper the reality is neither medicine nor general management, individually or collectively, are going to share or devolve power and influence to nursing. This study's findings indicate that nursing needs to confront this power imbalance. Nursing needs to take the first steps towards shattering the glass ceiling by really examining its own behaviours, in maintaining the status quo, in the traditional balance of power.

  12. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...

  13. Catholic Social Teaching on Building a Just Society: The Need for a Ceiling and a Floor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenneth Himes

    2017-01-01

    .... Although he was a champion of the proposal for a living wage to establish a minimum floor below which no worker might fall, Ryan gave little attention to whether there ought to be a ceiling to limit...

  14. Modeling of a hydronic ceiling system and its environment as energetic auditing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia); University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory Campus du Sart Tilman - Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    As a part of a commissioning study, the chilled ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the chilled ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a transient thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the hydronic panels as a transient-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped transient model of the building. The behavior of the hydronic ceiling system and the interactions with its environment (walls, ventilated facade, internal loads and ventilation system) has been experimentally and numerically evaluated. Commissioning test results show that the influence of surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the facade, is considerable. Then, it is clear that the hydronic ceiling system must be evaluated together with its designed environment and not as a separate HVAC equipment. (author)

  15. Gender-gaps and glass ceilings: A survey of gender-specific publication trends in Psychiatry between 1994 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süßenbacher, S; Amering, M; Gmeiner, A; Schrank, B

    2017-07-01

    Within academic psychiatry, women are underrepresented in the higher academic ranks. However, basic determinants of women's lack of academic advancement such as publication activity are poorly understood. The present study examines women's publication activity in high-impact psychiatry journals over two decades and reports developments in the numbers of male and female authorship over time and across cultural areas. We conducted a retrospective bibliometric review of all articles published in 2004 and 2014 in three high-ranking general psychiatry journals. Statistical comparisons were made between the two years and with results from a baseline assessment in 1994. The overall percentage of female authors increased from 24.6% in 1994 to 33.2% in 2004 to 38.9% in 2014. Though increases in female authorship were statistically significant for both decades, there was less difference between 2004 and 2014, indicating a possible ceiling effect. Rates of female first authors increased between 1994 and 2014, though to a lesser degree between 2004 and 2014. Numbers of female corresponding authors plateaued between 2004 and 2014. Within Europe, Scandinavia displayed the most balanced gender-wise first author ratios. Western European and Central European countries increased their rates of female first authors substantially between 2004 and 2014. Despite gains in some areas, our study reveals considerable deficits in the diversity of the current academic psychiatric landscape. Ongoing efforts and interventions to enhance the participation of underrepresented groups on institutional, political and editorial levels are necessary to diversify psychiatric research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

  17. Exergy analysis in a space with ceiling shield; Analisis exegetico en un espacio con techo escudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The Solar Laboratory of Energy (LES) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) was designed to be comfortable in spite of the extreme climate where it was built. One of the novel characteristics was the shield type ceiling used in cubicles. In order to compare the effect that had had with respect to the environmental conditions, one had to resort to an exergy analysis, since exergy is a measurement of the capacity of the energy to carry out a work. As a first system the data of the national meteorological system as initial conditions were used. The comparative system used as initial conditions the temperature and relative humidity measurements obtained in 1992 in a cubicle of the LES. Both systems were taken as open. The final conditions were settled at 25 Celsius degrees and 50% of relative humidity in a first case and variables (with respect to the perimeter a comfort zone) in a second case. The saving obtained was of 69% and 33% respectively. Although it is not possible to determine what percentage corresponds to the exclusive saving of the ceiling shield, we see that the cover all altogether, presents a significant exergy saving in respect to modifying the environmental conditions directly. [Spanish] El Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LES) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) fue disenado para ser confortable a pesar del clima extremoso donde fue construido. Una de las caracteristicas novedosas fue el uso de techo tipo escudo en cubiculo. Para comparar el efecto que se tuvo respecto a las condiciones ambientales, se recurrio a un analisis exergetico, ya que la exergia es una medida de la capacidad de la energia para realizar un trabajo. Como un primer sistema se utilizaron los datos del sistema meteorologico nacional como condiciones iniciales. El sistema comparativo utilizo como condiciones iniciales las mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativas obtenidas en 1992 en un cubiculo del LES. Ambos sistemas fueron tomados como abiertos

  18. Prototype Design and Experimental Test of a Rotorcraft Capable of Adhering to and Moving on the Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunaga Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the prototype design and evaluation of a novel rotorcraft that can adhere to and move on the ceiling. It has four propellers for flying like conventional rotorcraft. In addition, a specialized guard frame and two active wheels are attached on its body frame for adhering to and moving on the ceiling. The propellers create negative pressure in the guard frame that acts as a suction cup for generating adhesion force. The active wheels are used for moving on the ceiling face. Experiments are carried out to show the feasibility of flying in the air, adhering to, and moving on the ceiling.

  19. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    on gypsum boards with airtight connectionswas created utilizing the full potential of diffuse layer without undesirable crack flow reported by otherauthors. The measured values were used to validate the detailed Large Eddy Simulation model of testroom created in CFD software with aim to evaluate an indoor...... comfort numerically. Results of our investigations have shown that diffuse ceiling inlet is a suitable solution for the spaceswith high density occupancy. The results have shown that transient calculations using Large Eddy Simulation models can predict well temperatures and velocity magnitude of air flow......Spaces with high occupant densities result in high heat gains and need for relatively high air change rate.By means of traditional mechanical ventilation diffusers it becomes a challenge to supply large amountsof fresh air into the space without creating a local discomfort for occupants. One...

  20. Privacy-Preserved Behavior Analysis and Fall Detection by an Infrared Ceiling Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineichi Kudo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An infrared ceiling sensor network system is reported in this study to realize behavior analysis and fall detection of a single person in the home environment. The sensors output multiple binary sequences from which we know the existence/non-existence of persons under the sensors. The short duration averages of the binary responses are shown to be able to be regarded as pixel values of a top-view camera, but more advantageous in the sense of preserving privacy. Using the “pixel values” as features, support vector machine classifiers succeeded in recognizing eight activities (walking, reading, etc. performed by five subjects at an average recognition rate of 80.65%. In addition, we proposed a martingale framework for detecting falls in this system. The experimental results showed that we attained the best performance of 95.14% (F1 value, the FAR of 7.5% and the FRR of 2.0%. This accuracy is not sufficient in general but surprisingly high with such low-level information. In summary, it is shown that this system has the potential to be used in the home environment to provide personalized services and to detect abnormalities of elders who live alone.

  1. New design options with gypsum-based cooling ceilings; Neue Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten mit Gipskuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringmann, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Sulzer administrative building at Winterthur, Switzerland, was constructed in 1928/'29 by the architect Lebrecht Voelkli. It was now modernized by the Zuerich architects, Marianne Burkhalter and Christian Sumi. The technical facilities, with a traditional heating system and modern air conditioning, was planned and constructed by Axima. As new elements, there are gypsum-based cooling ceilings which have the advantages of easy integration in the building design, high economic efficiency, and user-friendliness. The emphasis during modernisation was on architectural aspects, i.e. modern interior design, colour schemes, acoustics and flexible use of rooms. [German] 1928/29 erstellte der Architekt Lebrecht Voelkli einen Neubau fuer die Sulzer-Konzernleitung in Winterthur (Schweiz) in Gestalt eines neoklassischen Wuerfels mit vier oberirdischen Geschossen. Dessen komplette Sanierung realisierten die Zuercher Architekten Marianne Burkhalter und Christian Sumi. Die von Axima geplante und ausgefuehrte Gebaeudetechnik mit traditioneller Heizung und modernen Luftaufbereitungsanlagen weist als Novum neu konzipierte Gipskuehldecken auf. Sie erfuellen die Architektenansprueche in Bezug auf unauffaellige Integration, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Benutzerfreundlichkeit, denn im Vordergrund standen Forderungen nach moderner Innenraumgestaltung, akzentuierter Farbgebung, guter Akustik und flexibler Flaechennutzung. (orig.)

  2. Final report development of a regional nitrogen ceiling; Eindrapportage ontwikkeling regionaal stikstofplafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Rougoor, C. [Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu CLM, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The development of a methodology in which integrated nitrogen ceilings can be studied on a regional level is described. Next to the agricultural sector, also other sectors are taken into consideration (traffic, industry, etc.) with respect to the development of the nitrogen ceiling methodology. The study consists of two parts: the feasibility of a nitrogen ceiling system and the actual development of such a system [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een methodiek waarbij integrale stikstofplafonds op gebiedsniveau kunnen worden bestudeerd. Dit onderzoek beschouwt, naast landbouw, ook andere sectoren (verkeer, industrie, etc.) voor het ontwikkelen van de stikstofplafond methodiek. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee onderdelen: bestuderen van de haalbaarheid van een stikstofplafond systematiek en het feitelijke ontwikkelen van een dergelijke systematiek.

  3. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor ‘simultaneous localization and mapping’ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  4. Acoustic behavior of porous ceiling absorbers based on local and extended reaction (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdóttir, Kristrún; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marbjerg, Gerd Høy

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic behavior of ceiling absorbers can be pre dicted under different surface reaction assump- tions: Local and extended reaction. This study aims to experimentally validate acoustic transfer func tions near a ceiling absorber in an anechoic chamber based on the two surface reaction models....... First, a ceiling absorber with two mounting conditions is mo deled by equivalent fluid models, such as Delany- Bazley’s, Miki’s, and Komatsu’s model, in various w ays: (1) Local vs extended reaction and (2) planewave vs spherical-wave in cidence. For a single absorber under an echoic conditions......, the acoustic transfer functions for four source-receiver pairs are simulated using a pressure-based image source model, and then compared with measurements. For a rigid ba cking condition, both the local and extended reaction models agree well with the measurement. For an absorber backed by an air cavity...

  5. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naide Jahangirov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey. The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

  6. Comments by ABCT's first female president on overcoming the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2012-12-01

    At the annual convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in New York City in November 2009, a most interesting panel discussion occurred: Overcoming the Glass Ceiling: A Conversation With the Trailblazers. This article is a written version of my oral presentation at this panel discussion in my role as ABCT's first female president.

  7. Making Sense of the Glass Ceiling in Schools: An Exploration of Women Teachers' Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Osgood, Jayne; Halsall, Anna

    2007-01-01

    There is extensive evidence of a "glass ceiling" for women across the labour market. Though schools have widely been described as "feminized" work environments, the under-representation of women at school management level is well established. Based on a study of women teachers' careers and promotion in the English school sector…

  8. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  9. Perceptions of Women in Management: A Thematic Analysis of Razing the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Mindy S.; Schneider, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances that women have made in organizations over the past century, women continue to be underrepresented in upper management positions. Based on a review of literature, six issues that women face when encountering the glass ceiling were examined. The goal of the current study involved having women who have succeeded at breaking the…

  10. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor o

  11. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it

  12. Integrated Solution in an Office Room with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    -scale experiments in a climate chamber. The experimental results indicate that diffuse ceiling can significantly improve thermal comfort in the occupied zone, by reducing draught risk and vertical temperature gradient. The linear function between pressure drop and air change rate points out that the air flow...

  13. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS), described as radiant heating or cooling systems with pipes embedded in the building structure, represent a sustainable alternative to replace conventional systems by using source temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of suspended ceiling in office...

  14. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it

  15. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. The PV alone can be used for room ventilation when applied in conjunction with ceiling radiant cooling system, which removes sensible heat loads...

  16. Making Sense of the Glass Ceiling in Schools: An Exploration of Women Teachers' Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Osgood, Jayne; Halsall, Anna

    2007-01-01

    There is extensive evidence of a "glass ceiling" for women across the labour market. Though schools have widely been described as "feminized" work environments, the under-representation of women at school management level is well established. Based on a study of women teachers' careers and promotion in the English school sector…

  17. Perceptions of Women in Management: A Thematic Analysis of Razing the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Mindy S.; Schneider, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances that women have made in organizations over the past century, women continue to be underrepresented in upper management positions. Based on a review of literature, six issues that women face when encountering the glass ceiling were examined. The goal of the current study involved having women who have succeeded at breaking the…

  18. The Glass Ceiling for Women in Legal Education: Contract Positions and the Death of Tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Marina

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the glass ceiling for women in legal education first examines categories of law school personnel, especially the fast-growing category of legal-writing teachers, and then considers trends in law school hiring. Concludes that law school trends mirror those in college and university hiring generally, suggesting the weakening and…

  19. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor

  20. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  1. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans... certain information to help inform its current rulemaking to consider setting energy conservation... INFORMATION: I. Introduction Title III, Part B \\1\\ of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA...

  2. An experimental investigation devoted to determine heat transfer characteristics in a radiant ceiling heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Aliihsan; Acikgoz, Ozgen; Çebi, Alican; Çetin, Gürsel; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-08-01

    Investigations on heated ceiling method can be considered as a new research area in comparison to the common wall heating-cooling and cooled ceiling methods. In this work, heat transfer characteristics of a heated radiant ceiling system was investigated experimentally. There were different configurations for a single room design in order to determine the convective and radiative heat transfer rates. Almost all details on the arrangement of the test chamber, hydraulic circuit and radiant panels, the measurement equipment and experimental method including uncertainty analysis were revealed in detail indicating specific international standards. Total heat transfer amount from the panels were calculated as the sum of radiation to the unheated surfaces, convection to the air, and conduction heat loss from the backside of the panels. Integral expression of the view factors was calculated by means of the numerical evaluations using Matlab code. By means of this experimental chamber, the radiative, convective and total heat-transfer coefficient values along with the heat flux values provided from the ceiling to the unheated surrounding surfaces have been calculated. Moreover, the details of 28 different experimental case study measurements from the experimental chamber including the convective, radiative and total heat flux, and heat output results are given in a Table for other researchers to validate their theoretical models and empirical correlations.

  3. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  4. A SysML Test Model and Test Suite for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Peleska, Jan; Schulze, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    In this technical report a detailed model description of a train control system application is given. The application consists of the ceiling speed monitoring (CSM) function for the European Vital Computer which is the main onboard controller for trains conforming to the European Train Control Sy...

  5. Airflow Pattern and Performance Analysis of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation in an Office Room using CFD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Chen, Qingyan; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2015-01-01

    geometrical model and the other is a porous media model. The numerical models are validated by the full-scale experimental studies in a climate chamber. The results indicate that porous media model performed better on predicting air flow characteristic below diffuse ceiling and air velocity near the floor...

  6. Numerical investigation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in an office under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    is a numerical study of the performance of a six person office equipped with diffuse ventilation ceiling. In total six extreme, yet realistic, operation scenarios were simulated to study the performance including different occupancy, ventilation rates and supply air temperatures. The performance was studied...

  7. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of ceiling scatter in nuclear medicine: (99m) Tc, (131) I and (18) F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnerr, Roald S; de Jong, Anouk N; Landry, Guillaume; Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Wierts, Roel

    2017-03-01

    In the design of nuclear medicine treatment and examination rooms, an important consideration is the shielding required for ionizing radiation from the radioactive isotopes used. The shielding in the walls is normally limited to a height lower than the actual ceiling height. The direct radiation, possibly with build-up correction, can be calculated relatively easily. However, little data are available to estimate the dose contribution from ionizing radiation traveling over the wall shielding and scattering off the ceiling. We aim to determine the contribution of the ceiling scatter to the radiation dose outside nuclear medicine rooms. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Gate for different heights of lead shielding in the wall, and different ceiling heights. A point source in air of (99m) Tc (141 keV), (131) I (365 keV) or (18) F (511 keV) was placed 1.0 m above the floor, 3.0 m from the lead shielding. Simulations of ceiling scatter only and for the total radiation dose were performed for these 3 isotopes, 5 different ceiling heights and 4-8 different wall shielding heights, resulting in a total of 165 simulations. This allowed us to compare the contribution of the radiation passing through the shielding and the ceiling scatter. We find that the shielding required for the primary radiation, measured in half-value layers, is an important factor in determining the relative contribution of ceiling scatter. When more than about 4 half-value layers of shielding are used, ceiling scatter becomes the dominant factor and should be taken into account in the shielding design. In many practical cases for low energy photons (e.g. from (99m) Tc; 141 keV; half-value layer of 0.26 mm lead), 2 mm of lead is used and ceiling scatter is a dominating factor contributing >~70% of the dose outside the shielded room. For higher energies (e.g. (18) F; 511 keV; half-value layer of 3.9 mm lead) the ceiling scatter is typically less than about 15% when 8 mm of lead

  9. Breaking the glass ceiling: hollow OmniGuide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven G.; Ibanescu, Mihai; Skorobogatiy, Maksim A.; Weisberg, Ori; Engeness, Torkel D.; Soljacic, Marin; Jacobs, Steven A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2002-04-01

    We argue that OmniGuide fibers, which guide light within a hollow core by concentric multilayer films having the property of omnidirectional reflection, have the potential to lift several physical limitations of silica fibers. We show how the strong confinement in OmniGuide fibers greatly suppresses the properties of the cladding materials: even if highly lossy and nonlinear materials are employed, both the intrinsic losses and nonlinearities of silica fibers can be surpassed by orders of magnitude. This feat, impossible to duplicate in an index-guided fiber with existing materials, would open up new regimes for long-distance propagation and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM). The OmniGuide-fiber modes bear a strong analogy to those of hollow metallic waveguides; from this analogy, we are able to derive several general scaling laws with core radius. Moreover, there is strong loss discrimination between guided modes, depending upon their degree of confinement in the hollow core: this allows large, ostensibly multi-mode cores to be used, with the lowest-loss TE01 mode propagating in an effectively single-mode fashion. Finally, because this TE01 mode is a cylindrically symmetrical ('azimuthally' polarized) singlet state, it is immune to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), unlike the doubly-degenerate linearly-polarized modes in silica fibers that are vulnerable to birefringence.

  10. Prototype Design and Experimental Test of a Rotorcraft Capable of Adhering to and Moving on the Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Yasunaga Masaya; Lee Jae Hoon; Okamoto Shingo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype design and evaluation of a novel rotorcraft that can adhere to and move on the ceiling. It has four propellers for flying like conventional rotorcraft. In addition, a specialized guard frame and two active wheels are attached on its body frame for adhering to and moving on the ceiling. The propellers create negative pressure in the guard frame that acts as a suction cup for generating adhesion force. The active wheels are used for moving on the ceiling face. ...

  11. Performance of radiant cooling ceiling combined with personalized ventilation in an office room: identification of thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The paper compares thermal environment conditions created by four HVAC systems: mixing ventilation, chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and personalized ventilation, and chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation only. Measurements...... were performed in a test room arranged as an office with 2 workstations and 2 seating occupants resembled by thermal manikins. Heat gain of 66-72 W/m2 was simulated in the room (occupants, computers, lighting, solar gain). The air temperature in the chamber was maintained at 26°C and 28°C. Personalized...

  12. Photographic study of channel effect in emulsion explosives using a high-speed framing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Fumihiko; Hirosaki, Yoshikazu; Kato, Yukio; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Katsuyama, Kunihisa

    1997-12-01

    The precursor air shock wave (PAS), which is propagating ahead of the detonation front in air channel, precompresses and desensitizes the unreacted explosive charges. In some conditions, the PAS causes detonation failure. This phenomenon is known as the channel effect. To investigate the mechanism of the channel effect in emulsion explosives, some experimental works have been carried out using high-speed framing camera. The results of photographic observation at the first experiments demonstrated that the difference between PAS velocity and detonation velocity was the primary factor for the channel effect. It is assumed that the decrease of the PAS velocity can prevent the channel effect. The increase of surface roughness of inner wall was adopted to decrease the PAS velocity. Some experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of surface roughness on the PAS velocity and the detonation propagation. Photographic observations were performed using rectangular tubes with sandpaper on inner ceiling wall to simulate surface roughness under various conditions. The experimental results indicate that the increase of surface roughness reduces the PAS velocity and prevents detonation failure. It is concluded that the surface roughness of wall has a great influence on detonation propagation in emulsion explosive.

  13. Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, K S; Thompson, D E

    1997-06-01

    In this study the authors compare career and work experiences of executive women and men. Female (n = 51) and male (n = 56) financial services executives in comparable jobs were studied through archival information on organizational outcomes and career histories, and survey measures of work experiences. Similarities were found in several organizational outcomes, such as compensation, and many work attitudes. Important differences were found, however, with women having less authority, receiving fewer stock options, and having less international mobility than men. Women at the highest executive levels reported more obstacles than lower level women. The gender differences coupled with women's lower satisfaction with future career opportunities raise questions about whether women are truly above the glass ceiling or have come up against a 2nd, higher ceiling.

  14. The analysis of glass ceiling phenomenon in the promotion of women’s abilities in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Soleymanpour Omran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Women constitute almost half of the workforce of a society and there has been considerable increase in women employment rate in recent years. However, their promotion to management positions has not been very tangible. Gender inequalities in the workplace especially in the domain of management have resulted in the lack of efficient use of potential capacities of women. Even though the previous research demonstrates that women are not less ambitious than men, wrong beliefs which attribute management to men make a kind of invisible barrier, known as glass ceiling, which prevents women’s promotion to top organizational positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for the lack of promotion of women to top management levels in the society. It was conducted with a descriptive analytic method through the review of the related literature and emphasis on the concept of glass ceiling to present practical solutions to solve the problem.

  15. Low temperature ceiling heater of element construction. Niedertemperatur-Deckenheizung in Elementbauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treinies, N.

    1980-03-13

    The purpose of the invention is to create a ceiling heater, which can manage with as low a temperature of the heat medium as possible, so that it will match the use of solar collectors and heat pumps, where the emission of heat upwards is to be kept as small as possible, and where a smooth underside of the ceiling without gaps is to be achieved. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the individual elements consists of a lower flat through metal plate, a hard foam core and a top through cover sheet forming a sandwich, and that the hard foam core has cut-outs corresponding to the shape of the heating duct on the side towards the lower metal plate. (HWJ).

  16. The Glass Ceiling in Europe: Why Are Women Doing Badly in the Labour Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Average gender pay gaps have absorbed the interest of economists for many years. More recently studies have begun to explore the degree to which observed gender wage gaps might differ across the wages distribution. The stylised facts from these studies, summarised in the first part of the paper, are that the gender pay gap in Europe is typically increasing across the wages distribution. This finding - more pronounced in the private than the public sector - has been interpreted as a glass ceil...

  17. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Radiant chilled ceilings (CC) with displacement ventilation (DV) represent a promising integrated system design that combines the energy efficiency of both sub-systems with the opportunity for improved ventilation performance resulting from the thermally stratified environment of DV systems. The purpose of this study was to conduct laboratory experiments for a typical U.S. interior zone office to investigate how room air stratification is affected by the ratio of cooling load removed by a chi...

  18. 340B Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), referred to as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." This final rule will apply to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. This final rule sets forth the calculation of the 340B ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties (CMPs).

  19. DNA Statistical Evidence and the "Ceiling Principle: Science or Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    to everyone.... Thus, if each VNTRs is like a word, then the genetic code stutters when it speaks that word. In other words, each person’s * 76 DNA...59 C. The "Ceiling Principle" At Work. . . . . . . . . .. 61 D. The Scientists Speak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 62 VI. DNA Under Daubert...samples of DNA left by the assailant. In violent crimes, the assailant is often cut by the victim in a defensive struggle or has traces of the victim’s

  20. Mapping the Cosmos on a Ceiling: Reflection Sundials from the Seventeenth Century to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Ceiling reflection sundials employ a small horizontal mirror, say on a south-facing window sill, to cast a spot of sunlight to the ceiling and/or walls of a room or gallery. In this way the linear scale of the daily and annual motions of the sun are greatly amplified, allowing a plethora of information to be displayed and read. Besides the time of day and the date, typical quantities included the altitude and azimuth of the sun, the declination of the sun, the number of hours since sunrise, the length of daylight, the sign of the zodiac, the sidereal time, etc. The principles for planning and calculating these sundials were first laid out in detail in 17th century Italy by the Jesuit scholars Athanasius Kircher and Emmanuel Maignan: two reflection dials of the latter still survive today in Rome, at Trinità dei Monti (1637) and Palazzo Spada (1644). A third extant example can be found at the Lycée Stendhal in Grenoble, built by a Jesuit priest named Bonfa in 1673. This talk will describe and illustrate these complex sundials, as well as a recently completed ceiling dial, inspired by their example, in the New World (Seattle).

  1. Female Principals in Education: Breaking the Glass Ceiling in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Javier Diez Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Abstract Spanish schools are characterised by having a high proportion of female staff. However, statistics show that a proportionately higher number of men hold leadership positions. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons why this is so, and to determine the motivations and barriers that women encounter in attaining and exercising these positions of greater responsibility and power. Questionnaires were administered to 2,022 female teachers, 430 female principals and 322 male principals. In addition, semi-structured interviews were held with 60 female principals, 14 focus group discussions were held with female principals and 16 autobiographical narratives were compiled with female principals and school inspectors. The reasons identified were related to structural aspects linked to the patriarchal worldview that is still dominant in our society and culture. Nevertheless, we also found motivations among women for attaining and exercising leadership roles.

  2. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo;

    2015-01-01

    heating/coolingceiling panel system is used. However, no standard exists for the in situ performance evaluation of radiantheating/cooling ceiling systems; furthermore, no published database is available for comparison. Thus,this study aims to not only clarify the system performance but also to share our...... experience and our resultsfor them to serve as a reference for other similar projects. Here, the system performance in relation toits heating/cooling capacity and thermal comfort has been evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient fromwater to room was 3.7 W/(m2K) and 4.8 W/(m2K) for heating and cooling cases...

  3. Experimental study of discharging PCM ceiling panels through nocturnal radiative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Péan, Thibault Q.; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    PhotoVoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) panels were used for cooling water through the principle of nocturnal radiative cooling. This water was utilised for discharging Phase Change Material (PCM) which was embedded in ceiling panels in a climate chamber. Three different sets of flow rates were examined....... The percentage of electrical energy use that could be covered from the PV/Ts on site was 71.5% for Case 1, 68.3% for Case 2 and 86.8% for Case 3. In any case, the PV/T panels proved to be an efficient solution for the production of electrical energy, heated and chilled water....

  4. An acoustical analysis of a room with a concave dome ceiling element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sentagi S.

    2004-05-01

    Concave surfaces are often considered detrimental in room acoustics, especially because of the impact they have on the distribution of sound energy. This paper explores certain acoustical characteristics and anomalies found in spaces below concave dome ceiling elements. The architectural design of the Darusshollah mosque in East Java, Indonesia is used as a case study with specific spatial and functional concerns. Investigations of the mosque have been conducted through both a 1:12 scale model and a computer model that utilizes ray tracing and image source methods. Analysis techniques are discussed. Results are presented and compared to provide useful insights into the acoustics of such distinctive environments.

  5. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    manufacturing perforated acoustic panels for the last 13 years. The panels can be used not only in applications related to acoustics but also as low pressure drop supply air diffusers, particularly in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems. The present study verifies on a theoretically level the performance......Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been...

  6. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been...... manufacturing perforated acoustic panels for the last 13 years. The panels can be used not only in applications related to acoustics but also as low pressure drop supply air diffusers, particularly in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems. The present study verifies on a theoretically level the performance...

  7. Women's health and women's leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-11-01

    The term "glass ceiling" refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond "fixing the women" to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health.

  8. Derivation of factors for estimating the scatter of diagnostic x-rays from walls and ceiling slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; Magee, J; McVey, S; Williams, J R; Peet, D

    2012-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning rooms and interventional x-ray facilities with heavy workloads may require the installation of shielding to protect against radiation scattered from walls or ceiling slabs. This is particularly important for the protection of those operating x-ray equipment from within control cubicles who may be exposed to radiation scattered from the ceiling over the top of the protective barrier and round the side if a cubicle door is not included. Data available on the magnitude of this tertiary scatter from concrete slabs are limited. Moreover, there is no way in which tertiary scatter levels can be estimated easily for specific facilities. There is a need for a suitable method for quantification of tertiary scatter because of the increases in workloads of complex x-ray facilities. In this study diagnostic x-ray air kerma levels scattered from concrete and brick walls have been measured to verify scatter factors. The results have been used in a simulation of tertiary scatter for x-ray facilities involving summation of scatter contributions from elements across concrete ceiling slabs. The majority of the ceiling scatter air kerma to which staff behind a barrier will be exposed arises from the area between the patient/x-ray tube and the staff. The level depends primarily on the heights of the ceiling and protective barrier. A method has been developed to allow tertiary scatter levels to be calculated using a simple equation based on a standard arrangement for rooms with different ceiling and barrier heights. Coefficients have been derived for a CT facility and an interventional suite to predict tertiary scatter levels from the workload, so that consideration can be given to the protection options available.

  9. Influence of a Cooled Ceiling on Indoor Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room Examined by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    The influence of a cooled ceiling on the air quality in a displacement ventilated room is examined by means of CFD. The objective of the study is to examine how the flow field in a displacement ventilated room is influenced when a cooled ceiling removes a major part of the total heat I9ad...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling...

  11. Bifunctional chimeric SuperCD suicide gene -YCD: YUPRT fusion is highly effective in a rat hepatoma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian Graepler; Ulrike A Lauer; Reinhard Vonthein; Michael Gregor; Sorin Armeanu; Michael Bitzer; Ulrich M. Lauer; Marie-Luise Lemken; Wolfgang A Wybranietz; Ulrike Schmidt; Irina Smirnow; Christine D Groβ; Martin Spiegel; Andrea Schenk; Hansj(o)rg Graf

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of catalytically superior gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy systems on a rat hepatoma model.METHODS: To increase hepatoma cell chemosensitivity for the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), we generated a chimeric bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene, a fusion of the yeast cytosine deaminase (YCD) and the yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (YUPRT) gene.RESULTS: In vitro stably transduced Morris rat hepatoma cells (MH) expressing the bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene (MH SuperCD) showed a clearly marked enhancement in cell killing when incubated with 5-FC as compared with MH ceils stably expressing YCD solely (MH YCD) or the cytosine deaminase gene of bacterial origin(MH BCD), respectively. In vivo, MH SuperCD tumors implanted both subcutaneously as well as orthotopically into the livers of syngeneic ACI rats demonstrated significant tumor regressions (P<0.01) under both high dose as well as low dose systemic 5-FC application,whereas MH tumors without transgene expression (MH naive) showed rapid progression. For the first time, an order of in vivo suicide gene effectiveness (SuperCD>>YCD > > BCD > > > negative control) was defi ned as a result of a directin vivo comparison of all three suicide genes.CONCLUSION: Bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene expression is highly effective in a rat hepatoma model,thereby significantly improving both the therapeutic index and the efficacy of hepatocellular carcinoma killing by fluorocytosine.

  12. Question-order Effects in the Domains of Language and Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta-Kaye Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of question-order on respondents’ choices is well-studied and well established, but these effects are not always present and are sometimes contradictory. The question of whether prior involvement in an issue alters the question-order effect also exists. We examined the effect of question-order, or context, on the stated values of participants by exploiting the saliency effect through the use of framing questions. Although our results showed some influence of question order, we encountered a ceiling effect. Our ceiling may have been caused by the same factor observed by Rimal and Real (2005: high-involvement mitigates question-order effect. Nevertheless, for those interested in educational campaigns, studying how context influences an individual’s values and preferences is a subject worthy of further pursuit.

  13. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron

    2014-04-01

    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Builder S.E. Volusia County Habitat for Humanity (SEVHFH) was interested in constructing a home to the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home standards. SEVHFH partners with DOE team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction on Habitat for Humanity homes and routinely builds to ENERGY STAR V3.1. The only modification to the design needed to comply with the Zero Energy Ready Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights that exceed 8 ft to accommodate a fur-down chase, SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase. This case study describes the project.

  15. Catholic Social Teaching on Building a Just Society: The Need for a Ceiling and a Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Himes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Msg. John A. Ryan was the leading voice for economic justice among American Catholics in the first half of the twentieth century. Although he was a champion of the proposal for a living wage to establish a minimum floor below which no worker might fall, Ryan gave little attention to whether there ought to be a ceiling to limit wealth among concentrated elites. I believe Ryan’s natural law methodology hindered a fuller vision of economic justice when addressing inequality. Contemporary Catholic social teaching, shaped by documents like Vatican II’s Gaudium et spes, has formulated a communitarian approach to justice that deals more adequately with the dangers of vast economic disparities. The essay concludes with a few ideas regarding how the post-conciliar outlook assists in rectifying the growing trend of economic inequality within American society.

  16. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...... and convection or as one total parameter, but this choice may lead to different considerations about thermal performance of the system. In order to perform correct evaluations, it is therefore extremely important to use the proper reference temperature. The obtained values confirm tendencies found...

  17. Characterization of the materials of the ceiling that covers the Mayor Sacristhi of Seville's Cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios, J.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we expose the technics used to characterize the materials of the ceiling that covers the Mayor sacristy of Seville's Cathedral and the causes of the loosening of mortar and stone fragments, we also expose some ways to overcome this fact.

    En este artículo se da cuenta de los estudios realizados y técnicas empleadas para determinar las características de los materiales (que se han seleccionado de la cúpula de la Sacristía Mayor de la Santa Iglesia Catedral de Sevilla, así como de las causas que han producido el desprendimiento de fragmentos de mortero y piedras. Por último, se proponen una serie de medidas para solucionar este problema

  18. The White ceiling heuristic and the underestimation of Asian-American income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris C Martin

    Full Text Available The belief that ethnic majorities dominate ethnic minorities informs research on intergroup processes. This belief can lead to the social heuristic that the ethnic majority sets an upper limit that minority groups cannot surpass, but this possibility has not received much attention. In three studies of perceived income, we examined how this heuristic, which we term the White ceiling heuristic leads people to inaccurately estimate the income of a minority group that surpasses the majority. We found that Asian Americans, whose median income has surpassed White median income for nearly three decades, are still perceived as making less than Whites, with the least accurate estimations being made by people who strongly believe that Whites are privileged. In contrast, income estimates for other minorities were fairly accurate. Thus, perceptions of minorities are shaped both by stereotype content and a heuristic.

  19. Complete Model-Based Equivalence Class Testing for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Huang, Wen-ling

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new test model written in SysML and an associated blackbox test suite for the Ceiling Speed Monitor (CSM) of the European Train Control System (ETCS). The model is publicly available and intended to serve as a novel benchmark for investigating new testing theories......_nite cardinality of the input domains { is capable to produce _nite test suites that are complete (i.e. sound and exhaustive) for a given fault model. In this paper, an overview of the model and the equivalence class testing strategy is given, and tool-based evaluation results are presented. For the technical...... and comparing the capabilities of modelbased test automation tools. The CSM application inputs velocity values from a domain which could not be completely enumerated for test purposes with reasonable e_ort. We therefore apply a novel method for equivalence class testing that { despite the conceptually in...

  20. Constitutional guarantees gender equality and the reality of the 'glass ceiling' for women workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bernardi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article makes an assessment of the distinction between the sexes and the preponderance of the male role in the labor market throughout history. It analyzes the existing legal framework before the promulgation of the Constitution of 1988 and after editing the adoption of measures coibitivas to gender discrimination, specifically on discrimination against women in the workplace. Seeking to understand the various forms of discrimination and analyzes equality to be achieved today. representative numbers of labor market behavior for women in IBGE statistics are presented. These data serve to corroborate the existence of the phenomenon of the "glass ceiling", ie the imaginary line that prevents the rise of women to senior positions, and economically hierarchical command positions. The conclusion, finally, the need to break these limits by adopting measures that restrict employers to keep promotions designed to gender criteria.

  1. Mixed air ceilings for surgical rooms with recirculating blowers; Mischluftdecke fuer OP-Raeume mit Umluftventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    Ceilings of modern surgery rooms must have a size of about 3,200 x 3,200 mm for a laminar displacement flow of 0.18 - 0.25 m/s. air volume flows of more than 9,000 cubic metres per hour are required. Not all surgical wards have the capacity for sufficiently large air ducts for central air supply. [German] Die moderne Chirurgie verlangt OP-Zuluftdecken mit Groessen von etwa 3 200 x 3 200 mm, die eine laminare Verdraengungsstroemung im Geschwindigkeitsbereich von etwa 0,18 bis 0,25 m/s sichern. Hierbei werden Zuluft-Volumenstroeme bis ueber 9 000 m{sup 3}/h erforderlich. Nicht alle OP-Abteilungen lassen die Verlegung der entsprechend grossen Luftleitungen fuer zentrale Luftversorgung zu. (orig.)

  2. The hidden symbols of the female anatomy in Michelangelo Buonarroti's ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Deivis; Malysz, Tais; Bonatto-Costa, João Antonio; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; de Oliveira Junior, Lino Pinto; Wichmann, Jéssica Francine; Goulart, Guilherme Reghelin; Stefani, Marco Antonio; da Rocha, Andrea Oxley

    2016-10-01

    A number of published articles have suggested that each element of Renaissance art contains an inner meaning. Some of these elements include the choice of theme and protagonists, faces selected for the characters, colors used, species of flowers and trees chosen, animals depicted, positions of the elements, posture of the characters and their gestures, juxtapositions in the scenes, and even the very scenario or landscape. All of these elements are thought to have hidden meanings. In this context, this manuscript presents a new hypothesis suggesting that Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) may have concealed symbols associated with female anatomy in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (painted 1508-1512) in Rome. Thus, this paper is useful to better understand the history of anatomy and corroborates recent descriptions that have suggested the possible existence of anatomic figures concealed in many of Michelangelo's works. Clin. Anat. 29:911-916, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Validation of a numerical model of acoustic ceiling combined with TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    to understand to which extent a layer of hanging sound absorbers will impede the heating and cooling performance of the system, and how this translates on the thermal comfort for the occupants. In order to address these issues, this study focuses on validation of a new TRNSYS component (Type Ecophon Acoustic...... Elements) developed to simulate partially covered suspended ceilings such as hanging sound absorbers. The tool is validated by numerically modelling a set of similar experiments carried out in full-scale by a previous study. For this, a total of 12 scenarios from two case studies have been modelled......Thermally-Active Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient and economical cooling and heating solution for commercial buildings. However, acoustic comfort is often jeopardized in such buildings, due to the thermal requirements of the system. More knowledge is required...

  4. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, L Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5-10 °C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate.

  5. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy D.; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5–10 °C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate. PMID:27186890

  6. Academe's Glass Ceiling: Societal, Professional-Organizational, and Institutional Barriers to the Career Advancement of Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olga; Cummings, William

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 10 national systems of higher education found that less than 10 percent of professors were women, and the proportion of female professors was negatively related to institutional prestige. This academic "glass ceiling" was related to women's shorter careers, tenure issues during hard times, and women's lower level of academic…

  7. The Time Bounded Glass Ceiling and Young Women Managers: Career Progress and Career Success--Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ruth; Altman, Yochanan

    2000-01-01

    A study of 130 male and 91 female managers found that more younger women than men were in senior roles. Younger women achieved seniority faster than women over 35. However, once younger women have broken the glass ceiling at lower levels, they encounter new barriers at higher levels. (SK)

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in... § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount. (a) Scope... in § 56.4911-7(e)) either normally makes lobbying expenditures in excess of its lobbying...

  9. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo;

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans 1. Scope... significant digits as the previous step. Round the final energy consumption value to the nearest whole number...

  11. 限制性价格管制、经济福利和基本药物制度的帕累托改进%Ceiling Price, Economic Welfare and Pareto Improvement of Essential Drug System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪波; 刘玮玮

    2011-01-01

    新一轮医药卫生体制改革对基本药物实施限制性价格管制措施.在完全竞争市场条件下政府对基本药物的限制性价格管制,把部分生产者剩余,转化为消费者剩余,导致了经济福利的净损失.现实世界中对基本药物实施限制性价格管制,是为了应对一定程度的基本药物市场失灵和政府对基本药物消费者剩余的评价高于对生产者剩余的评价.限制性价格管制对降低基本药物价格和增加其有效需求起到了积极作用,同时也凸显出基本药物供给短缺压力和加强公共财政责任的必要性.在实施限制性价格管制的前提下,基本药物制度应该在不断总结试点经验的基础上实施帕累托改进.%Ceiling price regulating measure to essential drugs has been implemented in the new round health system reform. Under the perfect competition market, the ceiling price of government regulating measure to essential drugs will transfer the part producer surplus to consumer surplus, leading to the net loss of economic welfare. The reasons that implementing the ceiling price to essential drugs in the real world are on the one side to response the market failure of essential drugs caused by some market monopoly, information asymmetry and positive externality, and on the other side to give consumer surplus of essential drugs the higher evaluation than to give producer surplus of essential drags. Ceiling price played the positive role to decrease the price of essential drugs and to increase the effective demand, and to stand out the shortage pressure of essential drags supply and the necessity to strengthen the public financial responsibility. Under the condition of ceiling price, essential drug system should implement the Pareto improvement based on summing up the pilot experience.

  12. Protective effects of tea polyphenols against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T ceils from vitiligo patients%茶多酚对CD8+T细胞杀伤白癜风患者黑素细胞的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳杰; 吴纪龙; 周妙妮; 付丽芳; 许爱娥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective effects of tea polyphenols against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T cells from vitiligo patients.Methods Skin tissue was resected from the margin of vitiligo lesions followed by the isolation and culture of CD8+ T lymphocytes,and from the normal skin of vitiligo patients followed by the isolation and culture of melanocytes.Flow cytometry was carried out to evaluate the purity of CD8+ T cells.The melanocytes were cocultured with the CD8 + T cells at different ratios followed by the evaluation of killing effect of CD8+ T cells.Various concentrations (200 and 400 μg/ml) of tea polyphenols were added into the co-culture system of CD8+ T cells and melanocytes at a ratio of 5 ∶ 1 followed by an additional culture of 48 hours.Then,flow cytometry was performed to detect the apoptosis in melanocytes in the coculture system.Results CD8+ T lymphocytes were successfully obtained from the marginal area of vitiligo lesions with a purity of more than 90%,which highly expressed the antigens CD137 and CD69.The coculture with CD8+ T cells markedly accelerated the apoptosis in melanocytes,while the accelerative effect was inhibited by tea polyphenols of 200 and 400 μg/ml.Conclusions The CD8+ T cells infiltrating the edge of vitiligo lesions display a potential destructive effect on autologous melanocytes from vitiligo patients,and tea polyphenols have a protective effect against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T cells.%目的 探讨茶多酚对CD8+T细胞杀伤白癜风患者黑素细胞的保护作用.方法 取白癜风患者白斑边缘处皮片组织,培养CD8+T淋巴细胞,细胞纯度用流式细胞仪进行鉴定,通过和黑素细胞共培养验证其针对黑素细胞的杀伤作用.将不同浓度茶多酚加入CD8+T细胞和黑素细胞共培养的体系,用流式细胞仪检测黑素细胞的凋亡.结果 取白癜风皮损边缘表皮组织中成功培养CD8+T淋巴细胞,纯度达90%

  13. Control of interior surface materials for speech privacy in high-speed train cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, H S; Lim, H; Jeon, J Y

    2017-05-01

    The effect of interior materials with various absorption coefficients on speech privacy was investigated in a 1:10 scale model of one high-speed train cabin geometry. The speech transmission index (STI) and privacy distance (rP ) were measured in the train cabin to quantify speech privacy. Measurement cases were selected for the ceiling, sidewall, and front and back walls and were classified as high-, medium- and low-absorption coefficient cases. Interior materials with high absorption coefficients yielded a low rP , and the ceiling had the largest impact on both the STI and rP among the interior elements. Combinations of the three cases were measured, and the maximum reduction in rP by the absorptive surfaces was 2.4 m, which exceeds the space between two rows of chairs in the high-speed train. Additionally, the contribution of the interior elements to speech privacy was analyzed using recorded impulse responses and a multiple regression model for rP using the equivalent absorption area. The analysis confirmed that the ceiling was the most important interior element for improving speech privacy. These results can be used to find the relative decrease in rP in the acoustic design of interior materials to improve speech privacy in train cabins. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high

  15. Thou shalt not pass?: Examining the existence of an immigrant glass ceiling in Sweden, 1970-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a sample of natives and 18 immigrant nationalities in the Swedish labor market between 1970 and 1990. The purpose is examining the existence of an immigrant specific glass ceiling. Results suggest a considerable overall advantage in terms of the probability of experiencing upward occupational mobility for native Swedish males. Despite this, the pattern does not correspond to the theoretical expectations of a glass ceiling. Using the ISEI classification of occupational status, the advantage experienced by Swedish males is consistent in the private manufacturing and private service sectors, compared to the experience of immigrants and women. The public sector generally suggests a similar pattern according to linguistic background. In this sector, certain groups of women are, however, observed to experience an advantage from low occupational status origins.

  16. Pride and prejudice beyond the glass ceiling: Brazilian female executives´ psychological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Tanure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p210This paper intends to relate characteristics of female executive psychological type with their male colleagues in corporations operating in Brazil (CEOs, VPs/directors and top managers. The theoretical framework explores the glass ceiling and the prejudices faced by female executives. It was developed a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. In the quantitative part we interviewed 743 men and 222 women from 344 corporations. We applied also the questionnaire MBTI to 430 of these executives. In the qualitative part we held focus groups with 227 individuals and 104 semi-structured interviews. The most active psychological MBTI type found was the ESTJ, both to men and women. The dominant characteristics in this type is more rational, logical and less emotional. Prejudices are huge: women need to work harder to show that they are as competent as men. They also live the society's pressure in relation to the roles as mother and wife.

  17. Breaking through the glass ceiling: women in executive leadership positions--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Lynn C; Reiss, Patricia L

    2004-01-01

    Women have had their share of difficulties climbing the corporate ladder in their chosen professional roles. Excellent role models exist for nurses to look up to as role models for leadership and executive level positions. Nurses and women must strive to achieve their goals of attaining executive/management level positions in their respective organizations. The glass ceiling still exists; however, women are slowly eroding that glass barrier and reaching their professional goals. In reviewing the struggles that men in nursing have encountered in a predominantly female profession, one realizes that stereotypical attitudes do cross gender lines. The authors conclude that executive level positions need to be opened more to women, just as the nursing profession must be more welcoming to men. The profession of nursing will only become stronger with gender diversity. Women encounter barriers when aspiring to executive level positions. In the next issue of SCI Nursing, the authors will report on what the evidence says about women in leadership roles, and the challenges they have and will continue to face.

  18. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: Konstantin.Volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kuang, Wenxing [SAIC Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L{sup -1} at room temperature (21 deg. C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed.

  19. Reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in intensive care nurses using ceiling-mounted patient lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, Shirley; Haddock, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    The musculoskeletal injury (MSI) rate in the Richmond Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) increased significantly in 2000 and 2001 by 130%. As part of a quality initiative program, the problem was identified, assessed, and a plan was developed that involved the installation of ceiling-mounted patient lifts (CMPL) and the incorporation of a patient positioning sling. The evaluation process included a survey given to the ICU nursing staff prior to the implementation of the CMPL and repeated three, six, and 18 months after implementation. The survey included questions about discomfort, fatigue, and frustration levels before and after a 12-hour shift, as well as any medical interventions such as use of medications, physician visits, physiotherapy, and massage therapy for work-related issues. The use of the lifts contributed to lower scores in fatigue, pain and frustration in addition to a reduction in medical visits. The results also demonstrated a significant reduction in work-related time loss claims while promoting a positive workplace environment.

  20. Tracking the Origins of an Ancient Star Scene on a Nova Scotian Chancel Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David G.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reconstruction of St. John's Church in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, a World Heritage Site, following a disastrous 2001 fire, led to the 2004 discovery that the chancel ceiling star pattern emplaced in 1870-72 was designed to replicate the sky seen locally at the traditional beginning of the first Christmas. The resulting media blitz following the discovery generated several unanswered questions: who designed the original pattern?, who was the artist responsible for the work?, and why was such a scene used at St. John's? Further research into such questions has made little progress, mainly because there is no direct archival evidence related to the events of 1870-72. Indirect archival clues are more revealing, however, and lead to a likely scenario that explains all available evidence, including why Lunenburg residents referred to the original star pattern as 'the Mariner's Sky.' The original work appears to have been completed under the guise of a Canadian Confederation project, and provides graphic evidence for more extensive astronomical expertise in Nova Scotia in that era than previously believed.

  1. Does debt ceiling and government shutdown help in forecasting the us equity risk premium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Goodness C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the predictability of the equity risk premium in the United States by comparing the individual and complementary predictive power of macroeconomic variables and technical indicators using a comprehensive set of 16 economic and 14 technical predictors over a monthly out-ofsample period of 1995:01 to 2012:12 and an in-sample period of 1986:01- 1994:12. In order to do so we consider, in addition to the set of variables used in Christopher J. Neely et al. (2013 and using a more recent dataset, the forecasting ability of two other important variables namely government shutdown and debt ceiling. Our results show that one of the newly added variables namely government shutdown provides statistically significant out-of-sample predictive power over the equity risk premium relative to the historical average. Most of the variables, including government shutdown, also show significant economic gains for a risk averse investor especially during recessions.

  2. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  3. Experimental research on the indoor temperature and humidity fields in radiant ceiling air-conditioning system under natural ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Xiang, Yutong; Wang, Yonghong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the indoor temperature and humidity fields of the air in a metal ceiling radiant panel air conditioning system with fresh air under natural ventilation were researched. The temperature and humidity distributions at different height and different position were compared. Through the computation analysis of partial pressure of water vapor, the self-recovery characteristics of humidity after the natural ventilation was discussed.

  4. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation Surgery with Autogenous Bone Grafts as Ceiling: A Pilot Study and Test of Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J A; Telleman, Gerdien; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies have pointed out that the mere elevation of the maxillary sinus membrane might suffice to allow for bone formation indicating the additional use of augmentation materials to be redundant. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether elevation of the sinus mucosal lining combined with applying an autologous bone graft as a ceiling and placement of a short implant would allow for bone formation around the implant thus surpassing the need for applying augmentation...

  5. The controllability of climate ceilings in insulated buildings. A chaotic measurement and control illusion; Een chaotische meet- en regelillusie. Klimaatplafonds in geisoleerde gebouwen nauwelijks regelbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H.

    2012-01-15

    Dimensioning traditional climate ceilings is not an easy task. Various parameters need to be calculated according to various different methods. This is the second article on climate ceilings, addressing the chaotic measurement and control illusion in more detail. [Dutch] Dimensioneren van traditionele klimaatplafonds is geen sinecure. Verschillende parameters moeten volgens evenzoveel verschillende methoden worden berekend. Dit tweede deel over klimaatplafonds gaat dan ook dieper in op de 'chaotische meet- en regelillusie'.

  6. In search of the glass ceiling: gender and recruitment to management in Norway's state bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storvik, Aagoth Elise; Schøne, Pål

    2008-12-01

    There are still fewer female than male managers in Norway's state bureaucracy. This article asks if there are organizational barriers which prevent women from entering these positions. Is there really a glass ceiling, or must one look outside the organizational environment to find an explanation? Is it rather the case that the scarcity of female managers is caused by women's own preferences or their life situations outside work? Or do both contribute to the situation? The study shows that female managers are treated just as well as male managers in central parts of the state bureaucracy. Employers give equal shares of respect and attention to both genders. Female managers are encouraged to apply for the same number of jobs as men and are offered an equal number of jobs as men when they apply; in fact, women are offered more jobs than men, when one controls for the number of job applications. This indicates that organizational barriers are not the problem. The study also shows that there are no differences in work orientation between male and female managers. Female managers are just as ambitious as male managers. Nor do female managers find it more difficult than male managers to combine work and family life. So, how can one explain the low number of female managers? The study shows that one reason can be that female managers apply for management jobs less often than their male colleagues. The cause of this seems to be anticipated discrimination rather than lack of ambition or self-confidence. However, this slows down women's movement into higher management positions in the state bureaucracy.

  7. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-04-07

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set.

  8. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rituerto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1 tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2 geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set.

  9. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C.; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  10. 基质细胞衍生因子-1α对大脑皮质局灶性梗死成年大鼠血管发生的影响%Effect of stromal ceil-derived factor-1α on angiogenesis in focal infarct in the cerebral cortex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌莉; 张素平; 吉章阁; 黄惠鸿; 王慕真; 何锐; 邓婉青

    2014-01-01

    性多于溶剂对照组和SDF-1α+CXCR4拮抗剂组(P均<0.001).结论 SDF-1α治疗可改善成年大鼠脑梗死后的神经功能,并促进梗死灶周围的血管发生,SDF-1/CXCR4信号通路可能在脑梗死后血管发生过程中起重要的调控作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of exogenous stromal cell-derived factor-1 α (SDF-1 α) on angiogenesis peri-infarct region in cerebral cortex in adult rats and its possible mechanisms.Methods Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups:sham operation,solvent control,SDF-1α treatment,and SDF-1α + CXCR4 antagonist (n =6 in each group).A model of focal infarct in the cerebral cortex was induced by permanent ligation of the cortical branch of the right middle cerebral artery with temporary clip occlusion of both common carotid arteries.At 1 h after cortical branch occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery,SDF-1 α (1 μg/d) or equal volume of normal saline were injected via the lateral ventricle in the SDF-1α treatment group and solvent control group,and continued for 6 days.CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 (1 mg/d) was injected subcutaneously before injecting SDF-1 α in the SDF-1 α + CXCR4 antagonists group,and continued for 6 days.Before all the rats were sacrificed,5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally and their newly proliferated cells were labeled.At day 7 after modeling,the rats were sacrificed after neurological scores.Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the vascular density,the numbers of neovasculature endothelial cells and the CXCR4 + cells in the peri-infarct regions or sham operation regions.Results At 7 d after modeling,the neurological function of the SDF-1α treatment group was improved significantly compared with those of the solvent control group and the SDF-1α + CXCR4 antagonist group (all P< 0.01).The vascular densities in the peri-infarct or sham operation regions in the groups of sham operation

  11. The measurement of change in functional ability: dealing with attrition and the floor/ceiling effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille;

    2006-01-01

    , functional ability at baseline, relative wealth, social network, self-rated health, and life-satisfaction. Inclusion of the dead in statistical models for the study of change in functional ability reduced the attrition problem. A logistic model for paired observations of functional ability at two points...

  12. Chilled ceiling displacement ventilation design charts correlations to employ in optimized system operation for feasible load ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keblawi, A.; Ghaddar, N.; Ghali, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Jensen, L. [Department of Building Services Engineering, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    This paper expands Ghaddar et al. [N. Ghaddar, K. Ghali, R. Saadeh, A. Keblawi, Design charts for combined chilled ceiling displacement ventilation system (1438-RP), ASHRAE Transactions, 143 (2) (2008) 574-587] design charts of combined chilled ceiling (CC) displacement ventilation (DV) system to operating sensible load ranges from 40 W/m{sup 2} to 100 W/m{sup 2}. It develops a global correlation of system load and operational parameters, with comfort measured by vertical temperature gradient and indoor air quality measured by the stratification height. The correlations are used for a known transient load profile in generating optimal settings of the CC/DV system operational parameters and associated energy consumption. An example is illustrated to show how the correlation could be used to size the system and to provide optimized control of the CC/DV system operation at low computational cost. Results of the current model are compared to the published case study of an optimized operation based on transient simulations of the space thermal model to achieve minimum operation cost [M. Mossolly, N. Ghaddar, K. Ghali, L. Jensen, Optimized operation of combined chilled ceiling displacement ventilation system using genetic algorithm, ASHRAE Transactions, 143 (2) (2008) 541-554]. The design correlations resulted in good agreement with published data (within 3% error in energy consumption and average 6% error in predictions of comfort and stratification height) at 1/4 of the computational time. The presented methodology provides an alternative for using the correlation for supervisory online controllers for the CC/DV system based on physically derived correlations. (author)

  13. Electrorheological Effects at High Shear Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Much attention has been given to electrorheological (ER) fluids because of the ER effect, which has been described by a large number of researchers as a notable increase in the apparent viscosity of a fluid upon the application of an electric field. The description of ER effects is, however, not accurate at high shear rates. To clarify the discrepancy, we analyze and compute the apparent viscosity as a function of shear rate for ER fluid flow between rotating coaxial cylinders in the presence of an electric field. The theoretical predictions show that the increase of electric intensity contributes little to the apparent viscosity enhancement at high shear rates, while ER effects for ER fluids with a higher polarization rate still exist and ER devices possess controllability in this regime. Description of the ER effect by the apparent viscosity leads to an unrealistic conclusion that ER effects disappear at high shear rates, because the apparent viscosity of ER fluids approaches the value for Newtonian fluids. Therefore, it is concluded that the proper description of ER effects, i.e., one that holds uniformly for any strain rate when ER effects exist, is manifested by a remarkable increase in the extra stress rather than in the apparent viscosity of ER fluids.

  14. Stress effects in twisted highly birefringent fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Tomasz R.

    1994-03-01

    Hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial longitudinal strain effects in twisted highly birefringent optical fibers have been investigated from the point of the Marcuse mode-coupling theory. The problem is analyzed in terms of local normal modes of the ideal fiber and in the limit of weak twist, where large linear birefringence dominates over twist effect, and therefore twist coupling between local modes is not effective. The authors present the results of birefringence measurements in highly birefringent bow-tie fibers influenced simultaneously by hydrostatic pressure up to 100 MPa and twisting the result for highly birefringent elliptical-core fibers influenced by uniaxial longitudinal strain up to 4000 (mu) (epsilon) and twisting effect. The birefringence measurement method is based on twist-induced effects and has been successfully applied in a stress environment. The experiment was conducted with a specially designed stress generating device that makes it possible to simultaneously generate various mechanical perturbations such as hydrostatic and radial pressure, axial strain and twist, allowing study of their influence on mode propagation in optical fibers. A comparison with theoretical results as well as with pervious experimental data on stress influence on the beat length parameter in highly birefringent fibers is also provided.

  15. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica

    2004-04-01

    Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali activated cements. A significant factor influencing their properties is alkali activator used. In this paper we present a new high effective alkali activator prepared from silica fume and its effectiveness. According to the results obtained this activator seems to be more effective than currently used activators like natrium hydroxide, natrium carbonate, and water glass.

  16. Development of high effectiveness droplet heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, W. J., III; Sekins, K. M.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been carried out to assess the feasibility of developing high effectiveness, high temperature droplet heat exchangers and to identify practical applications for this type of direct contact heat exchanger. The droplet heat exchanger (DHX) concept studies uses a counterflowing gas and droplet configuration, uniformly sized droplets or particles, and a uniform dispersion of droplets in gas to achieve high heat exchanger effectiveness. Direct contact between the heat transfer media eliminates the solid heat transfer surfaces that are used in conventional heat exchangers and is expected to make very high temperature heat transfer practical. Low temperature simulation tests and analysis have been used to demonstrate that uniformly sized droplets can be generated over a wide range of fluid properties and operating conditions appropriate for high temperature droplet heat exchanger applications. One- and two-dimensional, two-phase flow and heat transfer computer models have been developed and used to characterize both individual component configurations and overall DHX heat transfer rates and effectiveness. The computer model and test data began to diverge as the operating pressure was increased, indicating a need for more general transport rate correlations and a better understanding of the two-phase flows that govern DHX operation.

  17. Validation of the French version of two on high-activity knee questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesinger, Y; Jenny, J-Y

    2014-09-01

    Self-administered quality-of-life questionnaires are valuable evaluation tools in orthopedic surgery. The conventional questionnaires are limited by a substantial ceiling effect. We wished to validate a French translation of two English questionnaires for high-activity patients: the High-Activity Arthroplasty Score (HAAS) and the Activity Scale for Arthroplasty Patients (ASAP). One hundred patients operated on for knee replacement were selected. The answers to both questionnaires were analyzed and compared to the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and to the scoring system of the American Knee Society (AKS). There is no correlation between the results of both high-activity questionnaires and of the two conventional scoring systems. All questions were easily understood. The mean scores of the HAAS and ASAP questionnaires were 8.2±3.0 and 30.7±9.6, respectively. The distributions were not considered normal. There was no floor effect, but there was a limited ceiling effect (0% and 14%, respectively). The internal coherence of both questionnaires was satisfactory. There was a significant correlation between the high-activity scores and the conventional scores. Both high-activity questionnaires in our French translation can potentially measure the overall function of a patient after knee replacement as accurately as the index English version. It is self-administered, easy to use, can collect patients' answers by postage mailing, and involves no ceiling effect. All these points should allow its routine use for evaluation after knee replacement. The HAAS evaluation seems to be superior to the ASAP evaluation. Case-control study, level III. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  19. High pressure effects in anaesthesia and narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; McMillan, Paul F; Greenfield, Susan A

    2006-10-01

    There is growing interest in determining the effects of high pressure on biological functions. Studies of brain processes under hyperbaric conditions can give a unique insight into phenomena such as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas anaesthesia, and pressure reversal of the effects of anaesthetic and narcotic agents. Such research may shed light on the action of anaesthetics, which remains poorly understood, and on the nature of consciousness itself. Various studies have established the behavioural response of organisms to hyperbaric conditions, in the presence or absence of anaesthetic agents. At the molecular level, X-ray crystallography has been used to investigate the incorporation of species like Xe in hydrophobic pockets within model ion channels that may account for pressure effects on neuronal transmission. New magnetic resonance imaging techniques are providing tomographic three-dimensional images that detail brain structure and function, and that can be correlated with behavioural studies and psychological test results. Such whole organ techniques are linked to the molecular scale via voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging studies on brain slices that provide time-resolved images of the dynamic formation and interconnection of inter-neuronal complexes. The VSD experiments are readily adapted to in situ studies under high pressure conditions. In this tutorial review we review the current state of knowledge of hyperbaric effects on brain processes: anaesthesia and narcosis, recent studies at the molecular level via protein crystallography at high pressure in a Xe atmosphere, and we also present some preliminary results of VSD imaging of brain slices under hyperbaric conditions.

  20. Daytime space cooling with phase change material ceiling panels discharged using rooftop photovoltaic/thermal panels and night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using photovoltaic/thermal panels for producing cold water through the process of night-time radiative cooling was experimentally examined. The cold water was used to discharge phase change material in ceiling panels in a climatic chamber. Both night-time radiative cooling...... the photovoltaic/thermal varied from 56% to 122%. The phase change material ceiling panels were thus, capable of providing an acceptable thermal environment and the photovoltaic/thermal panels were able to provide most of the required electricity and cold water needed for cooling....

  1. An Improved Prediction Model for the Impact Sound Level of Lightweight Floors: Introducing Decoupled Floor-Ceiling and Beam-Plate Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosharrof, Mohammad Sazzad; Brunskog, Jonas; Ljunggren, Fredrik;

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the complex acoustic behaviour of lightweight building structures both experimental and theoretical approaches are necessary. Within the theoretical approach developing theoretical models is of great importance. The aim here is to further develop an existing method to predict...... the impact sound pressure level in a receiving room for a coupled floor structure where floor and ceiling are rigidly connected by beams. A theoretical model for predicting the impact sound level for a decoupled floor structure, which has no rigid mechanical connections between the floor and the ceiling...

  2. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  3. The problem of noise in weaving mills. [considering sound absorbing ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, T.; Harastaseanu, E.; Mercea, F.

    1974-01-01

    In weaving mill departments equipped with shuttle looms there exists a high noise level that has a noxious effect on the human organism, a fact which affects a very great number of employees and has negative repercussions on productivity. Measurements were conducted in different weaving mills to determine the noise level as well as the influence of some factors that depend on the type of construction, the type, number and manner of operation of the looms, etc. Solutions for noise reduction were established that were applied experimentally in some weaving mills, and the results obtained are discussed.

  4. Parametric analysis of the operation of nocturnal radiative cooling panels coupled with in room PCM ceiling panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Péan, T.Q.

    2017-01-01

    03:00 and get activated when the temperature in the storage tank was below 21°C, 69.8°F, activate the heat pump no earlier than 05:00 and get activated when the temperature in the storage tank was below 15°C, 59°F, and lastly have a temperature difference between the output of the solar panels......The scope of this parametric simulation study was to identify the optimal combination of set-points for different parameters of a radiant PCM ceiling panels cooling system that will result in the best indoor thermal environment with the least possible energy use. The results showed that for each...

  5. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    to simulate direct solar load on the floor (270 W). The total heat load in the room was 56 W/m2. The air temperature around the workstation by the window was kept either 26 or 28 oC. The supplied air by the overhead mixing ventilation and the primary supply air of the localised chilled beam was kept at 13 L...... symptoms. Under 26 oC the localised chilled beam provided more local cooling compared to the chilled ceiling. The opposite trend between the two systems was noticed at 28 oC. However the local thermal acceptability votes were similar for the two systems. Majority of the occupants did not wish change...

  6. Operator Radiation and the Efficacy of Ceiling-Suspended Lead Screen Shielding during Coronary Angiography: An Anthropomorphic Phantom Study Using Real-Time Dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianjun; Chen, Ziman; Jiang, Xianxian; Zhao, Zhenjun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jiahua; Zhuang, Jian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Hu, Tianyu; Liang, Wensheng

    2017-02-01

    Operator radiation and the radiation protection efficacy of a ceiling-suspended lead screen were assessed during coronary angiography (CA) in a catheterization laboratory. An anthropomorphic phantom was placed under the X-ray beam to simulate patient attenuation in eight CA projections. Using real-time dosimeters, radiation dose rates were measured on models mimicking a primary operator (PO) and an assistant. Subsequently, a ceiling-suspended lead screen was placed in three commonly used positions to compare the radiation protection efficacy. The radiation exposure to the PO was 2.3 to 227.9 (mean: 67.2 ± 49.0) μSv/min, with the left anterior oblique (LAO) 45°/cranial 25° and cranial 25° projections causing the highest and the lowest dose rates, respectively. The assistant experienced significantly less radiation overall (mean: 20.1 ± 19.6 μSv/min, P shielding, the ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced the radiation to the PO by 76.8%, 81.9% and 93.5% when placed close to the patient phantom, at the left side and close to the PO, respectively, and reduced the radiation to the assistant by 70.3%, 76.7% and 90.0%, respectively. When placed close to the PO, a ceiling-suspended lead screen provides substantial radiation protection during CA.

  7. Shattering the Glass Ceiling. Issues and Solutions in Promoting the Advancement of Women and Minorities to Executive Management in Corporate America. White Paper 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microquest Corp., San Rafael, CA.

    Despite their progress in the workplace in recent years, women and minorities still remain greatly underrepresented in executive roles in major U.S. companies. The barriers, attitudes, and practices that deter the advancement of women and minorities into executive ranks collectively result in the phenomenon known as the "Glass Ceiling."…

  8. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-7T - Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). 1.103(n)-7T Section 1.103(n)-7T Internal Revenue... certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). (a) Election—(1) In general....

  9. Lead Paint Exposure Assessment in High Bays of Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanch, Penney; Plaza, Angel; Keprta, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to assess the possibility of lead paint exposure in the high bays of some of the Johnson Space Center buildings. Some of the buildings in the Manned Space Flight Center (MSC) were built in 1962 and predate any considerations to reduce lead in paints and coatings. There are many of these older buildings that contain open shops and work areas that have open ceilings, These shops include those that had operations that use leaded gasoline, batteries, and lead based paints. Test were planned to be conducted in three phases: (1) Surface Dust sampling, (2) personal exposure montioring, and (3) Ceiling paint Sampling. The results of the first two phases were reviewed. After considering the results of the first two phases, and the problems associated with the retrieval of samples from high ceilings, it was determined that the evaluation of ceiling coatings would be done on a project by project and in response to a complaint.

  10. Burning behavior of compartment pool fires with different ceiling vents%顶部不同开口尺寸腔室中油池火灾的发展过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兵; 陆守香; 李强; 黎昌海; 袁满

    2011-01-01

    在项部开口腔室内开展庚烷油池火的燃烧实验,研究了开口尺寸对火灾发展过程的影响.实验使用了2种直径的油池和6种大小的水平开口,并测量了燃料质量损失速率、腔室内的气体温度分布以及火源根部附近的气体浓度变化过程.结果表明,根据火焰熄灭的原因,燃烧可分为缺氧熄灭模式和燃料耗尽熄灭模式.在缺氧熄灭模式下,顶部开口尺寸对燃料消耗率、质量损失速率和气体温度分布的影响较小;火灾进入燃料耗尽熄灭模式后,质量损失速率以及气体温度均随开口尺寸增大而增大.同时,随着开口的增大,火焰熄灭时的氧气浓度变大.在项部开口腔室火灾中,燃烧开始后,烟气在腔室内迅速沉降并充满整个腔室,“双区模型”不再适用.%Heptane pool fires were conducted in a compartment with a ceiling vent, and the effect of the ceiling vent size on fire development was investigated, in which two pool fires of different diameters and six vents of varying sizes were used. The fuel mass loss rate, gas temperature distributions at different locations and the gas concentration at the base of the fire were measured during the experiments. Results show that the oxygen-lack regime and fuel-exhaust regime are defined due to the cause of the flame extinction. In the oxygen-lack regime, the vent size has a small influence on the fuel consumption rate, fuel mass loss rate and gas temperature, while it has an increasing impact on them in the fuel-exhaust regime. Moreover, the oxygen concentration at extinction time increases with the increase in vent size. Smoke descends quickly to the floor and the compartment is filled almost completely with smoke, rendering so the "two-zone" model invalid for the fires in compartment with a ceiling vent.

  11. Zeeman Effect in Ruby at High Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Ioana

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a versatile fiber-coupled system for magneto-optical spectroscopy measurements at high pressure. The system is based on a miniature Cu-alloy Diamond Anvil Cell (from D'Anvils, Ltd) fitted with a custom-designed He gas-actuated membrane for in-situ pressure control, and coupled with a He transfer cryostat incorporating a superconducting magnet (from Quantum Designs). This system allows optical measurements (Raman, photoluminescence, reflectivity) within wide ranges of pressures (up to 100GPa), temperatures (4.2-300K) and magnetic fields (0-9T). We employ this system to examine the effect of pressure and non-hydrostatic stress on the Zeeman split d-d transitions of Cr^3+ in ruby (Al2O3: Cr^3+). We determine the effect of pressure and non-hydrostaticity on the trigonal crystal field in this material, and discuss the use of the Zeman-split ruby fluorescence as a possible probe for deviatoric stresses in diamond anvil cell experiments.

  12. Regional Reference Center on Drugs and Associated Vulnerabilities - Ceilândia College/University of Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Mazitelli de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the purpose of the creation of the Regional Reference Center on Drugs and Associated Vulnerabilities of Ceilândia College/University of Brasília was born from the recognition of drug abuse as a major public health problem in Brazil. This importance is reinforced when focus is placed on specific regions of Brazil, such as the Midwest, where this and other vulnerabilities have become even more obvious and, therefore, most in need for actions aimed at addressing these difficulties. Objectives: to empower workers of the network of attention to drug users in the municipalities of Águas Lindas de Goiás, Valparaíso de Goiás, Luziânia and Brazlândia. Methods: mapping of territories, creation and consolidation of the network of pacts with leaders and health services. The courses were organized according to the crash course model, role-play and supervisions and local discussions. Evaluation was divided into two phases: prior to and after the course. Results: it was possible to realize that the strategies employed suited several group demands and the methodology has been extremely favorable, as it has allowed the group to show active participation, bringing the debate close to the reality of the services. The project team was strengthened, becoming a permanent group, creating several Regional Reference Center developments. Conclusion: this experience has demonstrated the crucial importance of the mapping of the territory, the creation of a network of agreements, the intersectoral approach, and the constant dialogue for the effectiveness of a proposal for continuing education.

  13. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  14. High burnup effects in WWER fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, V.; Smirnov, A. [RRC Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovqrad (Russian Federation)

    1996-03-01

    Since 1987 at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, the examinations of the WWER spent fuel assemblies has been carried out. These investigations are aimed to gain information on WWER spent fuel conditions in order to validate the fuel assemblies use during the 3 and 4 year fuel cycle in the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 units. At present time, the aim is to reach an average fuel burnup of 55 MWd/kgU. According to this aim, a new investigation program on the WWER spent fuel elements is started. The main objectives of this program are to study the high burnup effects and their influence on the WWER fuel properties. This paper presented the main statistical values of the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors` fuel assemblies and their fragment parameters. Average burnup of fuel in the investigated fuel assemblies was in the range of 13 to 49.7 MWd/kgU. In this case, the numer of fuel cycles was from 1 to 4 during operation of the fuel assemblies.

  15. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  16. Did it really happen? Memory, history and myth in Eugenia Tsoulis´ Between the ceiling and the sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ribas Segura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available World War II, the Nazi occupation and several dictatorships forced many Greek men and women into migration. In 1952 Greece signed an agreement on assisted migration to Australia and more than “250 000 Greek and Cypriot migrants from Greece (1952-74, Rumania (1952-8, Egypt and the Middle East (1952-2 [sic], Cyprus (1974-84 and other politically turbulent countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America” moved to Australia (Tamis, Anastasios M. The Greeks in Australia, 2005: 47. The lives of those migrants changed radically as they left home behind. Some of them, or their children, wrote fictional texts explaining some of their experiences. An example of this is Eugenia Tsoulis´ Behind the Ceiling and the Sky (1998, where the main characters live their lives between present and past and between memories and myths, on the one hand, and facts and the lifeworld that surround them, on the other. This paper will analyse this novel and the sometimes blurred boundaries between memory, history and myth.

  17. Informal markets and urban sociabilities in the periphery of Brasilia: the case of Ceilândia - DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitner Tavares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of some theoretical landmarks of the theory of the city to after rethink the trajectory of Brasilia in the first years its inauguration in 1960. Initially, a quarrel is become fulfilled, in terms of its process of urban segregation and its consequences in terms of the sprouting , of informal places of commerce. After that, while empiric reference, appeals itself the trajectory of the city of Ceilândia – DF, as consequence of the fast transformation of the urban landscape of Brasília. Furthermore, the sprouting of spaces of sociability of actors will be argued insurgent citizens who faces the exclusion of the modern city from the redefinition of practical solidarity as free market of exchanges and fairs as the case of the Feira do Rolo, a kind of flea market, that in relation to other markets, offers to the consumer many products for cheaper prices. Consequently, the fair simultaneously constitutes a commercial alternative for a working class community; and one has left of the significant collective memory of the city, an immaterial heritage that has been redefined permanently by its inhabitants.

  18. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  19. Dental Stem Cell Migration on Pulp Ceiling Cavities Filled with MTA, Dentin Chips, or Bio-Oss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lymperi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MTA, Bio-Oss, and dentin chips have been successfully used in endodontics. The aim of this study was to assess the adhesion and migration of dental stem cells on human pulp ceiling cavities filled with these endodontic materials in an experimental model, which mimics the clinical conditions of regenerative endodontics. Cavities were formed, by a homemade mold, on untouched third molars, filled with endodontic materials, and observed with electron microscopy. Cells were seeded on cavities’ surface and their morphology and number were analysed. The phenomenon of tropism was assessed in a migration assay. All three materials demonstrated appropriate microstructures for cell attachment. Cells grew on all reagents, but they showed a differential morphology. Moreover, variations were observed when comparing cells numbers on cavity’s filling versus the surrounding dentine disc. The highest number of cells was recorded on dentin chips whereas the opposite was true for Bio-Oss. This was confirmed in the migration assay where a statistically significant lower number of cells migrated towards Bio-Oss as compared to MTA and dentin chips. This study highlights that MTA and dentin chips have a greater potential compared to Bio-Oss regarding the attraction of dental stem cells and are good candidates for bioengineered pulp regeneration.

  20. Dental Stem Cell Migration on Pulp Ceiling Cavities Filled with MTA, Dentin Chips, or Bio-Oss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperi, Stefania; Taraslia, Vasiliki; Tsatsoulis, Ioannis N.; Samara, Athina; Agrafioti, Anastasia; Anastasiadou, Ema; Kontakiotis, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    MTA, Bio-Oss, and dentin chips have been successfully used in endodontics. The aim of this study was to assess the adhesion and migration of dental stem cells on human pulp ceiling cavities filled with these endodontic materials in an experimental model, which mimics the clinical conditions of regenerative endodontics. Cavities were formed, by a homemade mold, on untouched third molars, filled with endodontic materials, and observed with electron microscopy. Cells were seeded on cavities' surface and their morphology and number were analysed. The phenomenon of tropism was assessed in a migration assay. All three materials demonstrated appropriate microstructures for cell attachment. Cells grew on all reagents, but they showed a differential morphology. Moreover, variations were observed when comparing cells numbers on cavity's filling versus the surrounding dentine disc. The highest number of cells was recorded on dentin chips whereas the opposite was true for Bio-Oss. This was confirmed in the migration assay where a statistically significant lower number of cells migrated towards Bio-Oss as compared to MTA and dentin chips. This study highlights that MTA and dentin chips have a greater potential compared to Bio-Oss regarding the attraction of dental stem cells and are good candidates for bioengineered pulp regeneration. PMID:26146613

  1. Prediction of CO Concentration and Maximum Smoke Temperature beneath Ceiling in Tunnel Fire with Different Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gannouni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a tunnel fire, the production of smoke and toxic gases remains the principal prejudicial factors to users. The heat is not considered as a major direct danger to users since temperatures up to man level do not reach tenable situations that after a relatively long time except near the fire source. However, the temperatures under ceiling can exceed the thresholds conditions and can thus cause structural collapse of infrastructure. This paper presents a numerical analysis of smoke hazard in tunnel fires with different aspect ratio by large eddy simulation. Results show that the CO concentration increases as the aspect ratio decreases and decreases with the longitudinal ventilation velocity. CFD predicted maximum smoke temperatures are compared to the calculated values using the model of Li et al. and then compared with those given by the empirical equation proposed by kurioka et al. A reasonable good agreement has been obtained. The backlayering length decreases as the ventilation velocity increases and this decrease fell into good exponential decay. The dimensionless interface height and the region of bad visibility increases with the aspect ratio of the tunnel cross-sectional geometry.

  2. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure t

  3. Effective Management in Junior High Mathematics Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Reporting on part of the data collected in the Junior High Classroom Organization Study, this document focuses on the mathematics subsample. Twenty-six mathematics teachers in 11 junior high schools were observed in two classes. The major purpose of this paper is to describe the classroom procedures and behaviors of teachers identified as…

  4. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  5. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  6. Uso e circulação de medicamentos em um bairro popular urbano na Ceilândia, DF Medicine's use and circulation in an urban popular neighborhood in Ceilândia, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Fleischer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos subúrbios de Brasília, as cuidadoras da saúde doméstica são particularmente as mulheres idosas. Elas conhecem os atalhos oficiais e não oficiais no sistema de saúde, os medicamentos que cada membro da família deve tomar e os lugares onde os medicamentos são distribuídos ou podem ser comprados mais baratos. Elas também experimentam com pílulas e cápsulas - quais são fortes ou perigosas, quais precisam ser substituídas e combinadas com outros fármacos, etc. A partir de pesquisa etnográfica com moradores mais antigos do bairro da Guariroba na Ceilândia, DF, que convivem com hipertensão arterial sistêmica e diabetes mellitus, este artigo pretende discutir como redes informais de compartilhamento farmacêutico e formas locais de comunicação entre famílias, vizinhos e profissionais de saúde determinam uma compreensão mais ampla e complexa de "saúde". Alguns dados que nos apoiarão nessa discussão são as histórias de vida desses migrantes para o DF; o consumo de medicamentos como gerador de experiências corporais e sociais do adoecimento; a automedicação como prática também após o contato com a esfera biomédica. Esse artigo quis enfatizar que as opiniões técnicas e produtos emitidos pelos atores oficiais do cuidado da saúde não evitavam que uma rede muito mais ampla e criativa fosse constantemente acionada por essas mulheres entrevistadas, nem a substituíam. E que aperfeiçoar essa rede é uma demonstração pública do envolvimento e também do comprometimento destas cuidadoras com a recuperação ou, ao menos, a estabilidade do doente.In the suburbs of Brasilia, family health is taken care of in particular by elderly women. They know the official and non-official shortcuts inside the health system, medicines that each of the family members should take and the places where medicines can be bought cheaper or received for free. They also make experiments with pills and capsules - each ones are strong or

  7. Transition Communities and the Glass Ceiling of Environmental Sustainability Policies at Three Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardellas Santiago, Miguel; Meira Cartea, Pablo; Iglesias da Cunha, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper deals with the experiences of three European universities that have implemented transition initiatives, using the Transition Network's methodology to promote their sustainability plans. The Transition Communities' model for change is presented from a socio-educational perspective as an effective methodology for encouraging…

  8. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 1 – Physical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kosonen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    was 60 W/m2 (including simulation of solar radiation and miscellaneous heat loads). The results showed that uniform thermal conditions (differences smaller than 1 °K) were generated in the occupied zone with the studied system configurations. The LCBCC diminished the effect of the buoyancy flow from...

  9. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    in thermal environment were found between studied systems. The room air mixing with PV working alone was at the same level as with mixing ventilation. No substantial differences in contaminants' concentration distribution and air-change effectiveness were found between the studied systems in the occupied...

  10. Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? : Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Arulampalam, Wiji; Booth, Alison L.; Bryan, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Using harmonised data from the European Union Household Panel, we analyse gender pay gaps by sector across the wages distribution for ten countries. We find that the mean gender pay gap in the raw data typically hides large variations in the gap across the wages distribution. We use quantile regression (QR) techniques to control for the effects of individual and job characteristics at different points of the distribution, and calculate the part of the gap attributable to differing returns bet...

  11. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  12. Clearance capacity of the atmosphere: the reason that the number of haze days reaches a ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Cao, Ziqi; Xu, Hua

    2016-04-01

    China has experienced rapid development in the past 30 years but, alongside and associated with this growth, increased levels of pollution too. However, despite the continued increase in emissions of haze-forming aerosols in the twenty-first century, the annual number of haze days in some megacities has not risen in tandem. Various mechanisms have been proposed for "city dimming", but the cause of the hiatus remains unclear. We found that the number of haze days in Taiyuan experienced a sharp increase during 1980-1998, with a growth rate 51.6 days/10a, and then exhibited fluctuating variation around a stable high level from 1998 to 2014, while at the same time the average visibility during haze days started to decrease. We present a novel method to explain the long-term variation in the number of haze days via a temporal-piecewise function of human activities and atmospheric cleaning processes: the number of haze days increases with the level of human activity before reaching the upper limit and then remains at a high level due to the restriction of a relatively stable number of strong cleaning days.

  13. Induction of Chromosomal Aberrations by Propoxur in Mouse Bone Marrow Ceils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. C. AGRAWAL

    1999-01-01

    Propoxur is a widely used dithiocarbamate insecticide. In this study, the clastogenic effect of propoxur has been evaluated using chromosomal aberration assay in mouse bone marrow cells. Singlei. p. administration of propoxur, at 25 nag/kg b.wt., a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and 12.5mg/kg b.wt (50% of MTD) have significantly induced different types of aberrations after 24 h of treatment. The aberrations were dose and time dependent and reached a maximum after 24 h of exposure. The sresult suggest a genotoxic potential of propoxur.

  14. The Effects of High Level Infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    mid* It noceeey mind identify by block numb~t) DD I 04, 147 3 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CL ASIFICATION Of THIS PAGE (When Datai ffntermo...34Low Frequency Threshold Effects." Proceedings of Fall Meeting of British Acoustical Society 71.103, Nov 1971. 4. Kobrak, H. G., "Construction Material

  15. Static Aeroelastic Effects on High Performance Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    store/aircraft integration is also discussed. Finally, the correction of high-speed wind-tunnel model results for aeroelastic distortion is addressed...sideslip, inertia, The variation of rigid non-dimensional lift distribution with aircraft incidence, Integrated , represents C and C_ and hence C/C , which...et de manoeuvre prennent dans la base de donnLe atrodynamique la table correspondante, A 1 incidence et au bra- quage calculO (Processus it~ratif

  16. Effects of High Temperature on Collector Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Report reveals electroplated black chrome is good coating for concentrating collectors in which temperatures are in the 650 degrees-800 degrees F (340 degrees - 430 degrees C) range. Black chrome thermal emittance is low and solar-absorption properties are not seriously degraded at high temperatures. Black coatings are used to increase absorption of solar energy by base metal while decreasing emission of infrared energy. Coatings are intended to improve efficiency of solar collectors.

  17. High pressure effects on allergen food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuti, Judit; Smeller, László

    2013-12-15

    There are several proteins, which can cause allergic reaction if they are inhaled or ingested. Our everyday food can also contain such proteins. Food allergy is an IgE-mediated immune disorder, a growing health problem of great public concern. High pressure is known to affect the structure of proteins; typically few hundred MPa pressure can lead to denaturation. That is why several trials have been performed to alter the structure of the allergen proteins by high pressure, in order to reduce its allergenicity. Studies have been performed both on simple protein solutions and on complex food systems. Here we review those allergens which have been investigated under or after high pressure treatment by methods capable of detecting changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins. We focus on those allergenic proteins, whose structural changes were investigated by spectroscopic methods under pressure in correlation with the observed allergenicity (IgE binding) changes. According to this criterion we selected the following allergen proteins: Mal d 1 and Mal d 3 (apple), Bos d 5 (milk), Dau c 1 (carrot), Gal d 2 (egg), Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 (peanut), and Gad m 1 (cod).

  18. Why Is There a Glass Ceiling for Threading Based Protein Structure Prediction Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Jeffrey; Zhou, Hongyi

    2016-10-26

    Despite their different implementations, comparison of the best threading approaches to the prediction of evolutionary distant protein structures reveals that they tend to succeed or fail on the same protein targets. This is true despite the fact that the structural template library has good templates for all cases. Thus, a key question is why are certain protein structures threadable while others are not. Comparison with threading results on a set of artificial sequences selected for stability further argues that the failure of threading is due to the nature of the protein structures themselves. Using a new contact map based alignment algorithm, we demonstrate that certain folds are highly degenerate in that they can have very similar coarse grained fractions of native contacts aligned and yet differ significantly from the native structure. For threadable proteins, this is not the case. Thus, contemporary threading approaches appear to have reached a plateau, and new approaches to structure prediction are required.

  19. Performance of low pressure mechanical ventilation concept with diffuse ceiling inlet for renovation of school classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    In a great portion of Danish primary schools the mechanical ventilation systems is outdated or simply rely on opening of windows to ventilate the classrooms. This leads to high energy consumption for fans and/or ventilation heat losses and poor indoor environment, as the ventilation systems cannot...... provide a sufficient ventilation rate. A recent study with 750 Danish classrooms show that 56 % had CO2-concentrations over a 1000 ppm, which is the recommended limit by the Danish working environment authority and this adversely affects the performance and well being of the pupils. This paper describes...... a mechanical ventilation concept to lower energy consumption and improve the indoor environment, developed for refurbishment of school classrooms. The performance of the concept is investigated through computer simulations and measurements of energy consumption and indoor environment. The measurements are made...

  20. Reflections on the glass ceiling: women in the experimental analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, A L

    2000-01-01

    McSweeney and Swindell (1998) sought to determine whether men and women are treated equitably in the experimental analysis of behavior. They purported to show that women participate less in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior than in similar journals and that the participation of women decreases with increases in selectivity. Their data were difficult to interpret, however, because they did not present the variability in the mean data drawn from different individuals over time. My analyses were not in accord with their conclusions. When the percentage of associate editors who are women was considered along with the mean percentages McSweeney and Swindell reported for other measures, participation did not systematically decrease with increases in selectivity in recent years. As quantified in terms of their number of publications in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, women who were editorial board members and associate editors were not more highly selected than their male counterparts. Finally, in the recent period from 1996 to 1998, although women submitted fewer manuscripts to the journal, rejection ratios did not differ for men and women. Efforts to increase the participation of women in the experimental analysis of behavior may best be directed toward recruitment and retention rather than some of the suggestions proposed by McSweeney and Swindell (1998), which could inadvertently create different standards for women's work.

  1. Reel Royal Diversity? The Glass Ceiling in Disney’s Mulan and Princess and the Frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Dundes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both in Mulan and Princess and the Frog, Disney eschews a traditional fairytale ending involving palatial opulence by substituting an alternative narrative for women of color. Mulan disguises herself as a male soldier in order to serve in her father’s place. After sharing victory with male companions, she willingly returns home to domesticity and the confines imposed by her gender. Tiana spends two thirds of the movie as a frog, substantially limiting her on-screen time as an African American female. Like Mulan, she is driven to please her father. She fulfills his dream of owning a high-end restaurant, ironically named Tiana’s Palace, the closest she comes to a royal lifestyle. Although protagonists with more realistic lives could potentially enhance viewers’ connection with them and model a work ethic or commitment to home life, the standard and more financially successful Disney narrative immerses viewers in a fantasy world of endless prospects including a life of royalty. These nonwhite heroines instead display a willingness to settle for more modest aspirations in stories replete with stereotypical gender and race-bound tropes. This divergent narrative suggests that protagonists of color are not entitled to a life of leisure and privilege that white Disney princesses enjoy.

  2. Plant science and agricultural productivity: why are we hitting the yield ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bossoreille de Ribou, Stève; Douam, Florian; Hamant, Olivier; Frohlich, Michael W; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2013-09-01

    Trends in conventional plant breeding and in biotechnology research are analyzed with a focus on production and productivity of individual organisms. Our growing understanding of the productive/adaptive potential of (crop) plants is a prerequisite to increasing this potential and also its expression under environmental constraints. This review concentrates on growth rate, ribosome activity, and photosynthetic rate to link these key cellular processes to plant productivity. Examples of how they may be integrated in heterosis, organ growth control, and responses to abiotic stresses are presented. The yield components in rice are presented as a model. The ultimate goal of research programs, that concentrate on yield and productivity and integrating the panoply of systems biology tools, is to achieve "low input, high output" agriculture, i.e. shifting from a conventional "productivist" agriculture to an efficient sustainable agriculture. This is of critical, strategic importance, because the extent to which we, both locally and globally, secure and manage the long-term productive potential of plant resources will determine the future of humanity.

  3. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Consumers in Mental Health Organisations' Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary mental health policies call for consumers to be engaged in all levels of mental health service planning, implementation, and delivery. Critical approaches to traditional healthcare hierarchies can effectively challenge barriers to better engagement with consumers in mental health organisations. This qualitative exploratory study analyses how particular strategies for consumer leadership facilitate or hinder relationships between consumers and mental health services, and how these strategies influence hierarchical structures. Fourteen participants from a range of mental health organisations were interviewed. These interviews were analysed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. The findings highlight several benefits of having consumers within mental health organisational hierarchies, and elaborate on ways that employees within mental health services can support integration of consumers into existing hierarchies. Specific barriers to consumers in hierarchies are discussed, including a lack of clarity of structures and roles within hierarchies, and resistance to consumers reaching the highest levels of leadership within organisations. Alternative hierarchical models which privilege consumers' control over resources and power are also discussed. Mental health organisations are encouraged to integrate consumer leaders into their hierarchical structures to improve their organisational offerings, their reputation, and their service innovation.

  4. High-Multipolar Effects on Dispersive Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Noguez, C; Esquivel-Sirvent, R; Villarreal, C; Noguez, Cecilia; Roman-Velazquez, Carlos E.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the dispersive force between a spherical nanoparticle (with a radius $\\le$ 100 nm) and a substrate is enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the sphere is near to the substrate. We calculate exactly the dispersive force in the non-retarded limit by incorporating the contributions to the interaction from of all the multipolar electromagnetic modes. We show that as the sphere approaches the substrate, the fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, induced by the vacuum and the presence of the substrate, the dispersive force is enhanced by orders of magnitude. We discuss this effect as a function of the size of the sphere.

  5. Hour-glass ceilings: Work-hour thresholds, gendered health inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Huong; Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Long workhours erode health, which the setting of maximum weekly hours aims to avert. This 48-h limit, and the evidence base to support it, has evolved from a workforce that was largely male, whose time in the labour force was enabled by women's domestic work and care giving. The gender composition of the workforce has now changed, and many women (as well as some men) combine care-giving with paid work, a change viewed as fundamental for gender equality. However, it raises questions on the suitability of the work time limit and the extent it is protective of health. We estimate workhour-mental health thresholds, testing if they vary for men and women due to gendered workloads and constraints on and off the job. Using six waves of data from a nationally representative sample of Australian adults (24-65 years), surveyed in the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (N = 3828 men; 4062 women), our study uses a longitudinal, simultaneous equation approach to address endogeneity. Averaging over the sample, we find an overall threshold of 39 h per week beyond which mental health declines. Separate curves then estimate thresholds for men and women, by high or low care and domestic time constraints, using stratified and pooled samples. We find gendered workhour-health limits (43.5 for men, 38 for women) which widen further once differences in resources on and off the job are considered. Only when time is 'unencumbered' and similar time constraints and contexts are assumed, do gender gaps narrow and thresholds approximate the 48-h limit. Our study reveals limits to contemporary workhour regulation which may be systematically disadvantaging women's health.

  6. Looking through the Glass Ceiling: A Qualitative Study of STEM Women's Career Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Mary J

    2017-01-01

    Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people's perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants find

  7. Looking through the Glass Ceiling: A Qualitative Study of STEM Women’s Career Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Mary J.

    2017-01-01

    Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women’s perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women’s experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people’s perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants

  8. Plasma effects in high frequency radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C. T.

    1981-02-01

    A survey of collective plasma processes which can affect the transfer of high frequency radiation in a hot dense plasma is given. For pedagogical reasons plasma processes are examined by relating them to a particular reference plasma which consists of fully ionized carbon at a temperature kT = 1 KeV (ten million degrees Kelvin) and an electron density N = 3 x 10 to the 23rd power/cu cm, (which corresponds to a mass density rho = 1 gm/cu cm) and an ion density N sub i = 5 x 10 to the 22nd power/cu cm. The transport of photons, ranging from 1 eV to 1 KeV in energy, in such plasmas is considered. Such photons are to be used as diagnostic probes of hot dense laboratory plasmas.

  9. 用于外墙内侧、分户墙及顶棚补充节能的轻质石膏砂浆%Lightweight gypsum plaster used on exterior wall, party wall and ceiling for additional energy conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蓓红; 施嘉霖; 谈晓青; 曹禹

    2011-01-01

    轻质石膏砂浆作为粉刷石膏的一个新品种,主要用于墙面的找平层,同时对外墙内侧、分户墙及顶棚具有补充节能的作用.配制时宜选择表面玻化率高、密度小的玻化微珠作为轻骨料,其掺量为石膏量的20%~35%;当采用膨胀珍珠岩作为轻骨料时,其掺量为石膏量的15%~25%;纤维素醚掺量一般为石膏量的0.2%~0.4%;引气剂的掺量为粉料总量的0.6%~1.2%.按m(石膏):m(玻化微珠):m(纤维素醚):m(引气剂):m (SC缓凝剂)=770.0:215.0:4.1:5.0:2.3制备的轻质石膏砂浆导热系数为0.12 W/(m·K),通过计算,采用20 mm厚轻质石膏砂浆代替传统水泥砂浆,对200 mm厚混凝土隔墙进行双面抹灰后,保温效果提高38%.%As a new species of plaster, lightweight gypsum plaster is mainly used for wall leveling layer,meanwhile it has additional energy conservation effect when applied on the inside surface of external wall,party wall and ceiling. During preparation,glass beads with high surface vitrify rate and low density are selected as lightweight aggregate,and its dosage is 20%~35% of the gypsum amount;when expanded perlite is as lightweight aggregate,its dosage is 15%~25% of the gypsum amount;the dosage of cellulose ether is generally 0.22%~0.4% of the gypsum amount;the dosage of air-entraining agent (AEA) is 0.6%~1.2% of the total powder quantity. When m (gypsum) ∶m (glass beads) ∶m (cellulose ethers) ∶m (AEA) ∶m (SC retarder) =770.0∶215.0∶4.1∶5,0∶2.3, the prepared lightweight gypsum plaster has thermal conductivity of 0.12 W/(m·K). The calculation results show that the insulating effect will be increased by 38% if 20 mm-thick this type of plaster instead of the ordinary cement mortar is applied on both sides of the 200 mm-thick concrete wall.

  10. Fever's glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, P A; Boulant, J A

    1996-03-01

    The importance of an upper limit of the febrile response has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates. Although the precise temperature defining this limit varies according to the site at which body temperature is measured, human core temperature is almost never permitted to rise above 41 degrees C-42 degrees C during fever. There are compelling physiological reasons for such an upper limit of regulated body temperature. The mechanisms by which the limit is maintained are most likely complex and involve special properties of thermoregulatory neurons themselves, circulating endogenous antipyretics (such as arginine vasopressin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), and soluble receptors for the (pyrogenic) cytokine mediators of the febrile response.

  11. Breaking the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Snowflakes were dancing in Beijing.Several women.dressed in colorful clothes,appeared overly jovial for the wintry weather.They were women deputies on their Wav to the Third Session of the llth National People's Congress(NPC) on the moming of March 8.2010.They had dressed up to celebrate the 100th anniver sary of the International Women's Day.

  12. Breaking the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Women play an important role in legislative work and the administration of other state and social affairs snowflakes were dancing in Beijing. Several women, dressed in colorful clothes, appeared overly jovial for the wintry weather. They were women deputies on their way to the Third Session of

  13. Breaking the Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Marianne; Black, Sandra; Jensen, Sissel; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    In late 2003, Norway passed a law mandating 40 percent of each gender on the board of publicly limited liability companies. The primary objective of this reform was to increase representation of women in top positions in the corporate sector and decrease gender disparity in earning within that sector. We document that the newly (post-reform) appointed female board members were observably more qualified than their female predecessors, and that the gender gap in earnings within boards fell subs...

  14. The glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    O'connor, Pat

    1997-01-01

    peer-reviewed An tSileail Ghloine is an E.U. project funded under the ADAPT programme. It is concerned with the position of women within a changing organisational context. The project as a whole has involved a wide variety of activities. This report is only one element in the wider project and is seen as contributing to the diagnostic phase of the project. Using documentary evidence and qualitative material from focus groups, it presents a picture of the current position of women within th...

  15. Effective Instructional Management: Perceptions and Recommendations from High School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtel, Troy

    2010-01-01

    The two overarching research questions of this study are: What are the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the effectiveness of their current approach to instructional management? What recommendations do high school administrators have for effective strategies for instructional management? To answer these questions, a qualitative…

  16. Effective Instructional Management: Perceptions and Recommendations from High School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtel, Troy

    2010-01-01

    The two overarching research questions of this study are: What are the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the effectiveness of their current approach to instructional management? What recommendations do high school administrators have for effective strategies for instructional management? To answer these questions, a qualitative…

  17. Ceiling-mounted radiator panels are become established in sports centres and multi-function halls; Deckenstrahlplatten etablieren sich in Sport- und Mehrzweckhallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmann, R.

    2005-07-01

    This short article examines the use of ceiling-mounted radiator panels to provide space heating in sports centres and multi-function halls. The overhead-mounted radiators are quoted as being economical and flexible in their use. The functioning of the panels is described and their ease of integration in the halls is discussed. Their principles of operation are described and options for their use in summer for cooling purposes are also discussed. Illustrations of the use of these panels are provided.

  18. Celestial Phenomena and Royal Glory: The Painted Ceiling in Ehrenstrahlsalongen by David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl at Drottningholm Palace in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, I. E.

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship of astronomical phenomena and the painted ceiling The Glorious Deeds of Swedish Kings executed around 1694-1696 by the Swedish court painter David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl in the Royal manor Drottningholm, outside Stockholm. The central theme of the painting is how "Reputation" brings the renown of the valour of the Swedish kings to the stars. When Galileo dedicated the moons of Jupiter to the Medici's he used an already established tradition of likening prominent people to celestial phenomena. This paper explores why motifs related to the stars and heavens was considered to be so suitable in the court context in early modern Europe.

  19. Participação Popular em Saúde: Um Estudo Sobre o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrecinda Rocha PINA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A questão da participação popular para o exercício do controle social do Sistema Único de Saúde é especialmente importante para o debate da política de saúde no Brasil e, conforme estabelecido na Lei 8142 de 1990, essa participação deve ser realizada por meio dos conselhos e conferências de saúde. O presente artigo estuda a participação popular em saúde no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, problematizando em torno do exercício do controle social exercido pelos conselheiros do respectivo colegiado. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo geral entender como se dá a Participação Social no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia na gestão 2010-2011, buscando especificamente entender sua dinâmica de funcionamento. Partindo de uma abordagem metodológica qualiquantitativa, utilizamos como procedimento a análise documental, com levantamento de dados relativos à dinâmica de suas reuniões. Depreende-se do estudo realizado a participação expressiva dos segmentos integrantes. A grande maioria dos assuntos pautados foi proposta, especialmente, pelo segmento gestor. Entretanto, os itens em discussão revelam que os interesses dos usuários e trabalhadores permeavam com mais frequência os debates. Por fim, conclui-se que, em um contexto geral, o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia é um fórum político legítimo e atuante, com atuação decisiva nas deliberações das ações e serviços de saúde a nível local. ABSTRACT The issue of popular participation in the exercise of social control Health System is especially important for the health policy debate in Brazil and, as stated in the Law 8142/1990, this participation must be done through the advice and health conferences. This paper studies popular participation in health in the Regional Health Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, questioning around the exercise of social control exercised by the directors of the respective collegiate. This research aimed

  20. Learning about Bones at a Science Museum: Examining the Alternate Hypotheses of Ceiling Effect and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Groups of children at a science museum were pre- and post-assessed with a type of concept map, known as personal meaning maps, to determine what new understandings, if any, they were gaining from participation in a series of structured hands-on activities about bones and the process of bones healing. Close examination was made regarding whether…

  1. Peltier effect in the mixed state of high- Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvenov, G. Yu.; Ryazanov, V. V.; Ustinov, A. V.; Huebener, R. P.

    1991-04-01

    The Peltier and Seebeck effects in the mixed state of high- Tc superconductors are proportional to the resistivity due to flux motion. Therefore, both effects also show the broadening of the transition regime characteristic for these superconductors. The origin of the Peltier effect is discussed in detail, and the validity of the Thomson relation is confirmed, as expected.

  2. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  3. High-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzotta, Z; Cipriani, D; Olivares, S; Paris, M G A

    2016-01-01

    Two-photon interference and Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect are relevant tools for quantum metrology and quantum information processing. In optical coherence tomography, HOM effect is exploited to achieve high-resolution measurements with the width of the HOM dip being the main parameter. On the other hand, applications like dense coding require high-visibility performances. Here we address high-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference and study, theoretically and experimentally, the dependence of the visibility and the width of the HOM dip on both the pump spectrum and the downconverted photon spectrum. In particular, a spatial light modulator is exploited to experimentally introduce and manipulate a custom phase function to simulate the high-order dispersion effects.

  4. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (Pfluoride and high fat (Pfluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (Pfluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (Pfluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (Pfluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. What makes work experience program in junior high school effective?

    OpenAIRE

    五島, 萌子; 重川, 純子

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the work experience program in junior high schools is spreading all over Japan in order that students get views on occupation and works. The purpose of this study is to clarify the value of this program and its determinants of effectiveness. We conducted interview survey to informantswho experienced the work experience programs in junior high school from 2000 to 2004. We have found that the followings are important to make the program more effective: adequacy interm and difficulty, ...

  6. Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

  7. High-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Zeudi; Cialdi, Simone; Cipriani, Daniele; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Two-photon interference and Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect are relevant tools for quantum metrology and quantum information processing. In optical coherence tomography, the HOM effect is exploited to achieve high-resolution measurements with the width of the HOM dip being the main parameter. On the other hand, applications like dense coding require high-visibility performance. Here we address high-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference and study, theoretically and experimentally, the dependence of the visibility and the width of the HOM dip on both the pump spectrum and the downconverted photon spectrum. In particular, a spatial light modulator is exploited to experimentally introduce and manipulate a custom phase function to simulate the high-order dispersion effects. Overall, we show that it is possible to effectively introduce high-order dispersion effects on the propagation of photons and also to compensate for such effect. Our results clarify the role of the different dispersion phenomena and pave the way for optimization procedures in quantum technological applications involving PDC photons and optical fibers.

  8. Strain rate effect in high-speed wire drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Van Houtte, P.; Van Bael, A.; Mei, F.; Sarban, A.; Boesman, P.; Galvez, F.; Atienza, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a study on the strain rate effect during high-speed wire drawing process by means of finite element simulation. Based on the quasistatic stresses obtained by normal tensile tests and dynamic stresses at high strain rates by split Hopkinson pressure bar tests, the wire drawing process was simulated for low carbon steel and high carbon steel. The results show that both the deformation process and the final properties of drawn wires are influenced by the strain rate.

  9. Effective Teaching Strategies of Englishin Senior High Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟芳

    2013-01-01

    After researching the English classroom teaching in senior high school,there still exists“low efficiency”phenomenon at English class. To improve the efficiency of English teaching,five effective teaching strategies are constructed to make the effective teaching come true.

  10. Teacher and Leader Effectiveness in High-Performing Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ed.; Rothman, Robert, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of teacher effectiveness has risen rapidly to the top of the education policy agenda, and the federal government and states are considering bold steps to improve teacher and leader effectiveness. One place to look for ideas is the experiences of high-performing education systems around the world. Finland, Ontario, and Singapore all have…

  11. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  12. Kozai effect on planetesimal accretion in highly inclined binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou J.-L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Planet formation in highly inclined binaries is a complex issue. The Kozai mechanism plays an important role in this situation, since it will lead to high eccentricity and high relative impact velocity of planetesimals, thus hinder the planetesimal accretion. However, as we will show here, the presence of gas disk in some circumstance will suppress the Kozai effect by increasing the apsidal precession rate of the planetesimals, which increases the critical inclination. A criterion of the disk mass above which Kozai effect will not occur is given.

  13. EFFECT OF CARBON CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH ELONGATION STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Chen; X. Chen; P.H. Li; S.K. Pu; Z.X. Yuan; B.F. Xu; D.X. Lou; A.M. Guo; S.B.Zhou

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of new kind of hot-rolled high strengthand high elongation steels with retained austenite were studied by discussing the in-fluence of different carbon content. The research results indicate that carbon contenthas a significant effect on retaining austenite and consequently resulting in high elon-gation. Besides, new findings about relationship between carbon content and retainedaustenite as well as properties were discussed in the paper.

  14. EFFECT OF CARBON CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH ELONGATION STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Chen; X.Chen; 等

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of new kind of hot-rolled high strength and high elongation steels with retained austenite were studied by discussing the in-fluence of different carbon content.The research results indicate that carbon content has a significant effect on retaining austenite and consequently resulting in high elon-gation.Besides,new findings about relationship between carbon content and retained austenite as well as properties were discussed in the paper.

  15. Effect of High-K Dielectric Materials on Leakage Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of different high-k dielectric materials based on tunneling current density has been deployed. The various types of high-k dielectric materials such as aluminium oxide, hafnium oxide, silicon nitride are compared using Schrödinger equation. The analytical model of tunneling current density has been computed using WKB approximation method. The simulation results of various high-k dielectric materials have also been computed. Different high-k dielectric materials are also compared on the basis of barrier height and effective mass etc.

  16. Slow high-frequency effects in mechanics: problems, solutions, potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Strong high-frequency excitation (HFE) may change the ‘slow’ (i.e. effective or average) properties of mechanical systems, e.g. their stiffness, natural frequencies, equilibriums, equilibrium stability, and bifurcation paths. This tutorial describes three general HFE effects: Stiffening – an appa......Strong high-frequency excitation (HFE) may change the ‘slow’ (i.e. effective or average) properties of mechanical systems, e.g. their stiffness, natural frequencies, equilibriums, equilibrium stability, and bifurcation paths. This tutorial describes three general HFE effects: Stiffening...... and compared: The Method of Direct Separation of Motions, the Method of Averaging, and the Method of Multiple Scales. The tutorial concludes by suggesting that more vibration experts, researchers and students should know about HFE effects, for the benefit not only of general vibration troubleshooting, but also...

  17. Singlet model interference effects with high scale UV physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model (SM) is the addition of a scalar gauge singlet, S . If S is not forbidden by a symmetry from mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, the mixing will generate non-SM rates for Higgs production and decays. In general, there could also be unknown high energy physics that generates additional effective low energy interactions. We show that interference effects between the scalar resonance of the singlet model and the effective field theory (EFT) operators can have significant effects in the Higgs sector. We examine a non-Z2 symmetric scalar singlet model and demonstrate that a fit to the 125 GeV Higgs boson couplings and to limits on high mass resonances, S , exhibit an interesting structure and possible large cancellations of effects between the resonance contribution and the new EFT interactions, that invalidate conclusions based on the renormalizable singlet model alone.

  18. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  19. Signal probability effects on high-workload vigilance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, G

    1996-09-01

    Signal probability is an important influence on vigilance. Typically, higher signal probability is associated with higher hit rate, lower response criterion, and lower response:signal ratio. However, signal probability effects on demanding, high-workload vigilance tasks have not been investigated. It is believed that attentional resources become depleted during performance of such tasks, leading to perceptual sensitivity decrements. Forty subjects performed high- (.35) and low- (.10) probability versions of a demanding vigilance task. Results differed in two important respects from those previously obtained with less demanding tasks. First, the decrement in perceptual sensitivity over time was greater for the high-probability task. Second, there were no effects of signal probability on response criterion. Subjective workload was higher for the high-probability task. Implications of the data for resource-depletion and expectancy theories of vigilance are discussed.

  20. High temperature effects on compact-like structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, E.E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    In this work we investigate the transition from kinks to compactons at high temperatures. We deal with a family of models, described by a real scalar field with standard kinematics, controlled by a single parameter, real and positive. The family of models supports kink-like solutions, and the solutions tend to become compact when the parameter increases to larger and larger values. We study the one-loop corrections at finite temperature, to see how the thermal effects add to the effective potential. The results suggest that the symmetry is restored at very high temperatures. (orig.)

  1. Effect of High Coal Injection on Low Silicon Ironmaking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-long; XU Nan-ping; WU Shi-ying

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different coal ratios and reaction temperatures on silicon content in hot metal were studied under the condition of high powder coal injection (PCI) ratio in laboratory. The samples of coke taken from tuyere were analyzed by chemical methods. According to the remnant silicon dioxide in different samples, the effect of PCI ratio on silicon content in hot metal was studied in tuyere area. The results can not only certify the traditional theory, but also explain the relation between high PCI ratio and low silicon.

  2. QCD Effective action at high temperature and small chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Villavicencio, C

    2007-01-01

    We present a construction of an effective Yang-Mills action for QCD, from the expansion of the fermionic determinant in terms of powers of the chemical potential at high temperature, for the case of massless quarks. We analyze this expansion in the perturbative region and find that it gives extra spurious information. We propose for the non-perturbative sector a simplified effective action which, in principle, contains only the relevant information.

  3. Echinococcus granulosus: protoscolicidal effect of high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Junan; Zhao, Hailong; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Weihua; Ye, Bin

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a new non-invasive technique which can cause cell death and tissue necrosis by focusing high-energy ultrasonic waves on a single location. The aim of our work is to investigate the damaging effect of HIFU on Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices, as well as its inhibitory effect on growth of hydatid cysts derived from protoscolices. The damaging effect of HIFU on protoscolices was investigated by following parasite mortality after irradiation, while the inhibitory effect was investigated by infection experiments in vivo. The results demonstrated that HIFU was able to damage protoscolices and the protoscolicidal effect was dose-dependent and showed late-onset. The growth of protoscolices that survived the exposure to HIFU was obviously suppressed in vitro, and the mean weight of hydatid cysts resulting from such protoscolices in the experimental group was less than that in controls. Evidences including the protoscolicidal effect, fragmentized protoscolices and low post exposure temperatures, suggest that cavitation may contribute to the protoscolicidal effect of HIFU. In addition, the structure of the germinal membrane in cysts developing from the irradiated protoscolices was not as normal or intact as that from non-irradiated ones, and morphological changes related to degeneration were observed, suggesting that HIFU could prevent protoscolices from developing normal germinal membrane and consequently stop the proliferation of secondary hydatid cysts. HIFU demonstrated damaging effect on protoscolices, inhibited the growth of protoscolices in vitro and in vivo, and could be a possible therapeutic option for cystic echinococcosis.

  4. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  5. High Energy-Efficiency Retrofits to Baltimore's Row Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, J.; Johnson, A.L.; Lipscomb, L.; Wendt, R.

    1999-04-19

    The purpose of the research project is to develop high-perfommnce, energy-eflicient retrofits of existing row homes in Baltimore, Maryland. These efficiency enhancements are to optimize building envelope improvements, mechanical equipment improvements and operational improvements to the highest cost-effective level. Furthermore, this project is to investigate and demonstrate the impact of high-performance energy-efficiency retrofit improvements on row homes in the Historic East area of Baltimore. Three homes awaiting renovation are planned to receive building envelope, mechanical system, and electrical system improvements that will improve their energy petiormance. An incremental additional cost ceiling of $4000 for the energy eftlciency improvements, beyond those normally installed, has been set by the project.

  6. Testing Theories of Learning: Effects on High School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Cool, Valerie A.

    Theories of school learning consistently point to variables such as ability, time (e.g., homework), quality of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework as important influences on learning. In this study, path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of these variables on high school learning, with learning measured by both…

  7. Teacher Effectiveness on High- and Low-Stakes Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Beveridge, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use data from the Houston Independent School District to estimate teacher effects on two different academic tests of the same subject areas, administered in the same school year to the same students at approximately the same time of year. The first is the statewide "high-stakes" test administered as part of the Texas…

  8. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Huijser, A.; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O......-H/O-D vibration frequencies, the mobility of H+/D+ carriers, the kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation of H2/D2, the solubilities of H2O/D2O and, finally, the spontaneous electromotive force that appears across H2/D2 cells with proton conducting electrolytes. Comparable work on tritium-exchanged materials...... is also discussed. The results highlight the usefulness of isotope effects in the study of high temperature proton conductors....

  9. HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2009-11-01

    The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  10. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Effect for High Density Lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Cameron

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein has anti-inflammatory effects in addition to mediating reverse cholesterol transport. While many of the chronic anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL are attributed to changes in cell adhesion molecules, little is known about acute signal transduction events elicited by HDL in endothelial cells. We now show that high density lipoprotein decreases endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. ApoA-I, a major apolipoprotein of HDL, mediates inhibition of endothelial cell exocytosis by interacting with endothelial scavenger receptor-BI which triggers an intracellular protective signaling cascade involving protein kinase C (PKC. Other apolipoproteins within the HDL particle have only modest effects upon endothelial exocytosis. Using a human primary culture of endothelial cells and murine apo-AI knockout mice, we show that apo-AI prevents endothelial cell exocytosis which limits leukocyte recruitment. These data suggest that high density lipoprotein may inhibit diseases associated with vascular inflammation in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis.

  11. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm2, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Size effect of sandstone after high temperature under uniaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hai-jian; JING Hong-wen; MAO Xian-biao; ZHAO Hong-hui; YIN Qian; WANG Chen

    2015-01-01

    Uniaxial compression tests on sandstone samples with five different sizes after high temperature processes were performed in order to investigate the size effect and its evolution. The test results show that the density, longitudinal wave velocity, peak strength, average modulus and secant modulus of sandstone decrease with the increase of temperature, however, peak strain increases gradually. With the increase of ratio of height to diameter, peak strength of sandstone decreases, which has an obvious size effect. A new theoretical model of size effect of sandstone material considering the influence of temperature is put forward, and with the increase of temperature, the size effect is more apparent. The threshold decreases gradually with the increase of temperature, and the deviations of the experimental values and the theoretical values are between 0.44% and 6.06%, which shows quite a credibility of the theoretical model.

  13. 两种慈竹装饰天花板的设计与制造%Design and manufacturing technology of two kinds of bamboo decorative ceiling of Sinocalamus affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文金; 姚文亮; 陈新义; 郝睿敏

    2013-01-01

    Based on the scale feature of Sinocalamus affinis,all of the possible dissection units such as bamboo-culm,bamboo-chip,bamboo-split and bamboo filament and their morphological characteristics had been researched.According to the pattern construction theory of plasticism,the combining methods and their feature of single and assembly unit of the bamboo wood had been discussed.The strategic design ideas were put forward.The products having three dimensional structure feature are shaped by using bamboo-culm,and the other bamboo units more fit to used to shape products having plane composition feature.On the basis of requirements for application of interior design,two bamboo ceiling products that have standardized characteristics and with special transmiting light effect were designed,and their manufacturing technology had been introduced.%依据慈竹的尺度特征,分析了慈竹利用过程中可能的原竹、竹片、竹篾、竹丝等解剖单元,并分析各单元的基本形态特征.依据造型学中的形态构成原理,分析慈竹解剖单元间可能的组合形式及其组合形态特征.提出了原竹利用适合塑造具有体构成特点的制品,竹片、竹篾和竹丝组合利用适合塑造具有面构成特点的制品的设计观点.在分析室内装饰应用要求的基础上,设计了具有标准化特征的和具有特殊透光效果的两种吊顶装饰板,并介绍了它们的制造方法.

  14. High-transconductance graphene solution-gated field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L. H.; Hauf, M. V.; Seifert, M.; Speck, F.; Seyller, T.; Stutzmann, M.; Sharp, I. D.; Garrido, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on the electronic properties of solution-gated field effect transistors (SGFETs) fabricated using large-area graphene. Devices prepared both with epitaxially grown graphene on SiC as well as with chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on Cu exhibit high transconductances, which are a consequence of the high mobility of charge carriers in graphene and the large capacitance at the graphene/water interface. The performance of graphene SGFETs, in terms of gate sensitivity, is compared to other SGFET technologies and found to be clearly superior, confirming the potential of graphene SGFETs for sensing applications in electrolytic environments.

  15. Edge effect in ohmic contacts on high-resistivity semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzin, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Current increase due to edge effect in ohmic contacts was calculated by finite-element software in three-dimensional devices. The emphasis in this study is on semi-intrinsic (SI) and compensated high resistivity semiconductors. It was found that the enhanced electric field around the contact edges may cause about twofold increase in the total contact current. For contact radii larger than the device thickness and nano scale contacts the impact is considerably reduced. In nanoscale contacts the edge effect does not control the electric field under the entire contact, but rather decreases. The introduction of velocity saturation model has a limited impact, and only in compensated semiconductors.

  16. The Hedgehog Effect The Secrets of Building High Performance Teams

    CERN Document Server

    Kets de Vries, Manfred F R

    2011-01-01

    In The Hedgehog Effect, Manfred Kets de Vries presents the case for leadership group coaching as an experiential training ground for learning to function as a high performance team. His group coaching model, incorporating living case studies, has been developed over more than 20 years of delivering programs to top-level executives and sets the standard in the field of leadership group coaching. Written for coaches, consultants, leadership development directors, and anyone working in or with teams, The Hedgehog Effect begins with an in-depth analysis of what teams and groups are all about. The

  17. The recasting effects on the high gold dental alloy properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noble dental alloys are often reused in dental practice by recasting. The aim of this study was to determine if repeated casting of high gold dental alloys has a detrimental effect on alloy microstructure, type of porosity, structure and microhardness. Results showed that recasting procedure had a strong effect on the change of alloy porosity type. It was also found that alloy microhardness increased with the increase of the number of recasting cycles. At the same time the grain growth and changes of the solid solution phases in the microstructure were observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45012

  18. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  19. Effect of high-energy neutrons on MuGFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilchytska, V.; Alvarado, J.; Collaert, N.; Rooyakers, R.; Militaru, O.; Berger, G.; Flandre, D.

    2010-02-01

    This paper investigates, for the first time, the influence of high-energy neutrons on Multiple-Gate FETs (MuGFETs) with various gate lengths and fin widths. Neutron-induced degradation is addressed through the variation of major device parameters such as threshold voltage, subthreshold slope, maximum transconductance and DIBL. We demonstrate that high-energy neutrons result in total-dose effects largely similar to those caused by γ- and proton-irradiations. It is shown that, contrarily to the generally-believed immunity to irradiation, very short-channel MuGFETs can become extremely sensitive to the total-dose effect. The possible reasons of such length-dependent neutron-induced degradation are discussed and finally related to gate edges.

  20. Inductance effects in the high-power transmitter crowbar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeges, J.; Bhanji, A.

    1987-01-01

    The effective protection of a klystron in a high-power transmitter requires the diversion of all stored energy in the protected circuit through an alternate low-impedance path, the crowbar, such that less than 1 joule of energy is dumped into the klystron during an internal arc. A scheme of adding a bypass inductor in the crowbar-protected circuit of the high-power transmitter was tested using computer simulations and actual measurements under a test load. Although this scheme has several benefits, including less power dissipation in the resistor, the tests show that the presence of inductance in the portion of the circuit to be protected severely hampers effective crowbar operation.

  1. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound's effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp.

  2. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind.

  3. Constructs of highly effective heat transport paths by bionic optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Xinguang; (程新广); LI; Zhixin; (李志信); GUO; Zengyuan; (过增元)

    2003-01-01

    The optimization approach based on the biological evolution principle is used to construct the heat transport paths for volume-to-point problem. The transport paths are constructed by inserting high conductivity materials in the heat conduction domain where uniform or nonuniform heat sources exist. In the bionic optimization process, the optimal constructs of the high conductivity material are obtained by numerically simulating the evolution and degeneration process according to the uniformity principle of the temperature gradient. Finally, preserving the features of the optimal constructs, the constructs are regularized for the convenience of engineering manufacture. The results show that the construct obtained by bionic optimization is approximate to that obtained by the tree-network constructal theory when the heat conduction is enhanced for the domain with a uniform heat source and high conductivity ratio of the inserting material to the substrate, the high conductivity materials are mainly concentrated on the heat outlet for the case with a uniform heat source and low thermal conductivity ratio, and for the case with nonuniform heat sources, the high conductivity material is concentrated in the heat source regions and construacts several highly effective heat transport paths to connect the regions to the outlet.

  4. Strange effects of strong high-frequency excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2003-01-01

    Three general effects of mechanical high-frequency excitation (HFE) are described: Stiffening - an apparent change in the stiffness associated with an equilibrium; Biasing - a tendency for a system to move towards a particular state which does not exist or is unstable without HFE; and Smoothening...... - a tendency for discontinuities to be apparently smeared out by HFE. Studies of specific physical systems as well as more general models are described....

  5. Effect of High Pressure and Heat on Bacterial Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Margosch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the inactivation of microorganisms by high pressure treatment is a subject of intense investigations, the effect of high pressure on bacterial toxins has not been studied so far. In this study, the influence of combined pressure/temperature treatment (0.1 to 800 MPa and 5 to 121 °C on bacterial enterotoxins was determined. Therefore, heat-stable enterotoxin (STa of cholera toxin (CT from Vibrio cholerae, staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, haemolysin BL (HBL from Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli (STa were subjected to different treatment schemes. Structural alterations were monitored in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs. Cytotoxicity of the pressure treated supernatant of toxigenic B. cereus DSM 4384 was investigated with Vero cells. High pressure of 200 to 800 MPa at 5 °C leads to a slight increase of the reactivity of the STa of E. coli. However, reactivity decreased at 800 MPa and 80 °C to (66±21 % after 30 min and to (44±0.3 % after 128 min. At ambient pressure no decrease in EIA reactivity could be observed after 128 min. Pressurization (0.1 to 800 MPa of heat stable monomeric staphylococcal toxins at 5 and 20 °C showed no effect. A combined heat (80 °C and pressure (0.1 to 800 MPa treatment lead to a decrease in the immuno-reactivity to 20 % of its maximum. For cholera toxin a significant loss in latex agglutination was observable only at 80 °C and 800 MPa for holding times higher than 20 min. Interestingly, the immuno-reactivity of B. cereus HBL toxin increased with the increase of pressure (182 % at 800 MPa, 30 °C, and high pressure showed only minor effects on cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Our results indicate that pressurization can increase inactivation observed by heat treatment, and combined treatments may be effective at lower temperatures and/or shorter incubation time.

  6. Highly Sensitive Flexible Magnetic Sensor Based on Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Xinjun; Li, Menghui; Gao, Yuan; Hu, Zhongqiang; Nan, Tianxiang; Liang, Xianfeng; Chen, Huaihao; Yang, Jia; Cash, Syd; Sun, Nian-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 μm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks.

  7. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.

  8. Effect of Center High Explosive in Dispersion of Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇; 林大超; 白春华; 郭彦懿

    2004-01-01

    The dispersion of the fuel due to the center high explosive, including several different physical stages, is analyzed by means of experimental results observed with a high speed motion analysis system, and the effect of center high explosive charge is suggested. The process of the fuel dispersion process can be divided into three main stages, acceleration, deceleration and turbulence. Within a certain scope, the radius of the final fuel cloud dispersed is independent of the center explosive charge mass in an FAE (fuel air explosive) device, while only dependent both on the duration of acceleration stage and on that of the deceleration. In these two stages, the dispersion of the fuel dust mainly occurs along the radial direction. There is a close relation between the fuel dispersion process and the center explosive charge mass. To describe the motion of fuel for different stages of dispersion, different mechanical models should be applied.

  9. Effective multidisciplinary working: the key to high-quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoro, Samuel

    This article explores multidisciplinary team working, inter-disciplinary, trans-disciplinary and effective collaborative practice in order to provide high-quality patient care. It discusses different views on collaboration, some of the issues around cross-discipline and multi-agency working and concerns around promoting 'high-quality' care. It also discusses the importance of evidence-based practice in multidisciplinary teams. Issues around good-quality care, clinical governance and the audit cycle in MDTs are addressed. The article highlights the importance of the 6Cs (care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment) in MDTs if quality care is to be achieved. The article also explores advantages and limitations of multidisciplinary team working, trans-disciplinary working and inter-professional working in developing and delivering high-quality patient-centred care. Further research is needed on how clinical audits can help to improve how MDTs function in order improve the quality of service provided to clients.

  10. Anharmonic effective pair potentials of gold under high pressure and high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Okube, M; Ohtaka, O; Fukui, H; Katayama, Y; Utsumi, W

    2002-01-01

    In order to examine the effect of pressure on the anharmonicity of Au, extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectra near the Au L sub 3 edge were measured in the temperature range from 300 to 1100 K under pressures up to 14 GPa using large-volume high-pressure devices and synchrotron radiation. The anharmonic effective pair potentials of Au, V (u) = au sup 2 + bu sup 3 , at 0.1 MPa, 6 and 14 GPa have been calculated. The pressure dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients has also been evaluated. The reliability of the anharmonic correction proposed on the basis of the Anderson scale has been discussed.

  11. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  12. Quantifying ligand effects in high-oxidation-state metal catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billow, Brennan S.; McDaniel, Tanner J.; Odom, Aaron L.

    2017-09-01

    Catalysis by high-valent metals such as titanium(IV) impacts our lives daily through reactions like olefin polymerization. In any catalysis, optimization involves a careful choice of not just the metal but also the ancillary ligands. Because these choices dramatically impact the electronic structure of the system and, in turn, catalyst performance, new tools for catalyst development are needed. Understanding ancillary ligand effects is arguably one of the most critical aspects of catalyst optimization and, while parameters for phosphines have been used for decades with low-valent systems, a comparable system does not exist for high-valent metals. A new electronic parameter for ligand donation, derived from experiments on a high-valent chromium species, is now available. Here, we show that the new parameters enable quantitative determination of ancillary ligand effects on catalysis rate and, in some cases, even provide mechanistic information. Analysing reactions in this way can be used to design better catalyst architectures and paves the way for the use of such parameters in a host of high-valent processes.

  13. Super-SERS-active and highly effective antimicrobial Ag nanodendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. B.; Liu, P.; Liang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Yang, G. W.

    2012-07-01

    We have developed simple and green electrochemistry to synthesize Ag nanostructures with high purity, good crystallinity and smooth surface for applications as super-SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering), SERS-active substrates and with highly effective antimicrobial activities. This synthesis takes place in a clean and slow reaction environment without any chemical additives, which ensures an ultrahigh active surface of the as-synthesized Ag nanostructures owing to their purity, good crystallinity and smooth morphology. Using this method, we synthesized nearly perfect Ag nanodendrites (NDs), which exhibit super-SERS sensitivity when they are used to detect the SERS spectra of rhodamine 6G at concentrations as low as 5 × 10-16 M, and have an ultrahigh electromagnetic (EM) enhancement factor of the order of 1013, breaking through the theoretical limit of EM enhancement. Meanwhile, the as-synthesized Ag NDs possess highly effective antimicrobial activities for Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, which are over 10 times that of silver nanoparticles. Additionally, the basic physics and chemistry involved in the fabrication of Ag nanostructures are pursued. These investigations show that silver nanostructures with highly active surfaces can make the most of Ag nanostructures functioning as super-SERS-active substrates and multiple antibiotics.

  14. Effects of high external electric fields on protein conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bramanti, Alessandro; Maruccio, Giuseppe; del Mercato, Loretta Laureana; Chiuri, Rocco; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross

    2005-06-01

    Resistance of biomolecules to high electric fields is a main concern for nanobioelectronics/nanobiosensing applications, and it is also a relevant issue from a fundamental perspective, to understand the dielectric properties and structural dynamics of proteins. In nanoscale devices, biomolecules may experience electric fields as high as 107 V/m in order to elicit charge transport/transfer. Understanding the effects of such fields on their structural integrity is thus crucial to assess the reliability of biomolecular devices. In this study, we show experimental evidence for the retention of native-like fold pattern by proteins embedded in high electric fields. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, deposited onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying high static electric fields (up to 106-107 V/m). The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. This behavior is also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the intrinsic intra-protein electric fields. As the general features of such inner fields are not peculiar of azurin, the conclusions presented here should have general validity.

  15. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  16. Effect of high pressure high temperature processing on the volatile fraction of differently coloured carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Palmers, Stijn; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Carle, Reinhold; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-06-15

    To get deeper insight into the effect of high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing on the volatile fraction of carrots, differently coloured cultivars exhibiting orange, purple, red and yellow hues were investigated. The impact of HPHT sterilisation was compared with thermal sterilisation based on equivalent microbiological inactivation. The results of this study demonstrated HPHT sterilisation to exert a distinct effect on important chemical reactions in comparison to thermal sterilisation. A comprehensive integration of MS-based metabolomic fingerprinting (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and chemometric tools has been implemented as an untargeted multivariate screening tool to identify differences. In all carrot cultivars, two dominant discriminative quality-related reactions were found: oxidative degradation and the Maillard reaction. Regarding the first reaction, oxidative terpenes, free fatty acids and carotenoids degradation products were detected at higher levels after HPHT sterilisation. Regarding the latter reaction, HPHT sterilisation appeared to suppress the formation of Maillard and Strecker degradation products.

  17. Effects of High Mean Stress on High-cycle Fatigue Behavior of PWA 1480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S.; Antolovich, S. D.; Milligan, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    PWA 1480 is a potential candidate material for use in the high-pressure fuel turbine blade of the space shuttle main engine. As an engine material it will be subjected to high-cycle fatigue loading superimposed on a high mean stress due to combined centrifugal and thermal loadings. The present paper describes the results obtained in an ongoing program at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored by NASA Lewis, to determine the effects of a high mean stress on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of this material. Straight-gauge high-cycle fatigue specimens, 0.2 inch in diameter and with the specimen axis in the 001 direction, were supplied by NASA Lewis. The nominal room temperature yield and ultimate strength of the material were 146 and 154 ksi, respectively. Each specimen was polished with 1-micron diamond paste prior to testing. However, the surface of each specimen contained many pores, some of which were as large as 50 micron. In the initial tests, specimens were subjected to axial-strain-controlled cycles. However, very little cyclic plasticity was observed.

  18. High-order Primordial Perturbations with Quantum Gravitational Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Tao; Kirsten, Klaus; Cleaver, Gerald; Sheng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a systematic investigation of high-order primordial perturbations with nonlinear dispersion relations due to quantum gravitational effects in the framework of {\\em uniform asymptotic approximations}. Because of these effects, the equation of motion of the mode function in general has multiple-turning points. After obtaining analytically approximated solutions in different regions, associated with different types of turning points, to any order, we match them to the third one. To this order the errors are less than $0.15\\%$. General expressions of the power spectra of the primordial tensor and scalar perturbations are derived explicitly. We also investigate effects of back-reactions of the quantum gravitational corrections, and make sure that inflation lasts long enough in order to solve underlying problems, such as flatness, horizon and monopole. Various features of the spectra that are observationally relevant are investigated. In particular, under a moderate assumption about the en...

  19. High-Efficiency Helical Coil Electromagnetic Launcher and High Power Hall-Effect Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-29

    Expressions for electromagnetic force, efficiency, back-voltage, and kinetic power are derived and given in terms of electrical circuit parameters. Launcher...helical electromagnetic launcher which is subsequently compared to a one-turn augmented railgun and a conventional railgun operating at comparable scale...Efficiency Helical Coil Electromagnetic Launcher and High Power Hall-Effect Switch by T.G. Engel, W.C. Nunnally, and J.M. Gahl Center for Energy Conversion

  20. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be

  1. The High Value CVT Concept--Cost Effective and Powerful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Englisch,; A. Teubert; A. Gotz; E. Muller; E. Simon; B. Walter; A. Baumgartner

    2011-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive comparison of vehicle performance in economy,engine power,driving smoothness,and efficiency cost as well as pollutant emission etc,the paper discussed the high value CVT concept from an angle of the cost effective and powerful for vehicle.In the paper,it researched the related technical detail in CVT.By means of realizing the continuous change in transmission ratio,it could obtain the optimal matching between transmission system and engine operating mode,and enhance the characteristic of fuel oil in economy,and also improve the convenience in manipulation for driver and make passenger comfortable.For easy to understand the concept,the paper made the comparison analysis in many aspects such as performance,transmission specification,high value CVT hybrid,orifice torque sensor,hydraulic system,high value CVT em,new chain portfolio and assessment of the high value CVT on the NEDC.Finally it showed the potential advantages of CVT technology development,and proposed future developing trends to realize technical scheme of high value CVT.

  2. Long-term high-dose oral morphine in phantom limb pain with no addiction risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic phantom limb pain (PLP is a type of neuropathic pain, which is located in the missing/amputated limb. Phantom pain is difficult to treat as the exact basis of pain mechanism is still unknown. Various methods of treatment for PLP have been described, including pharmacological (NSAIDs, opioids, antiepileptic, antidepressants and non-pharmacological (TENS, sympathectomy, deep brain stimulation and motor cortex stimulation. Opioids are used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and dose of opioid is determined based on its effect and thus there is no defined ceiling dose for opioids. We report a case where a patient receiving high-dose oral morphine for chronic cancer pain did not demonstrate signs of addiction.

  3. 煤炭生产和消费环境天花板之探究%Study on Coal Production and Consumption Environmental Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田山岗; 严群; 王猛; 孙杰

    2015-01-01

    煤炭生产和消费的过程必然对大气、水、土造成污染和消耗,环境天花板是煤炭生产和消费数量的约束边界。我国煤炭生产的环境天花板约为41~43亿t,消费约为34~38亿t。随着经济结构和能源结构的调整以及生态环境的约束,预测煤炭需求总量大约在2020~2025年达到40亿t左右的峰值。生态文明战略是新阶段社会经济发展对煤炭生产和消费的必然要求,其包含“生态优先”原则、煤炭“三清洁”发展策略、生产和消费生态环境成本内部化措施、后找煤时期煤田地质勘查工作的结构调整。煤可以清洁利用,但不能低碳化利用。煤炭的低速增长或负增长已经成为煤炭工业发展的新常态。%The process of coal production and consumption will inevitably bring on pollution and expenditure of atmospheric air, water and soil, while the environmental ceiling is the constraint boundary of coal production and consumption amount. Environmental ceiling of coal production in the country is about 4.1~4.3 billion tons, coal consumption about 3.4~3.8 billion tons. Along with economic, ener⁃gy source structural regulations and entironment constraint, predicted total amount of coal demand during 2020~2025 would hit about 4 billion tons peak. The ecological civilization strategy is the certain claim of social and economic development in the new period on coal production and consumption. It comprises“ecological priorities”principle, coal“three cleanliness”development tactics (it means min⁃ing clean coal, cleanly mining coal and cleanly use coal), production and consumption entironment cost internalized measures, posterior coal prospecting period coal exploration works structural readjustment. Coal can be cleanly used, but cannot be less carbon-intensively used. Low speed growth or negative growth of coal has become the new normal of coal industry development.

  4. Integrated geological and geophisycal methods for the evaluation of the ceiling collapse hazard of the Poesia Cave in the Salento peninsula (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, M.; Leucci, G.; Quarta, G.

    2012-04-01

    tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), seismic tomography, stability models to evaluation of ceiling caves. The research allows to define the geometrical caves shape (span, length and thickness of the crown pillars) which related to the geological features and physics properties of the rocks, determine the instability of the ceiling caves and, as a consequence, the sinkhole hazard.

  5. High temperature experimental characterization of microscale thermoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Tela

    temperature vacuum thermostats are designed and fabricated with optical imaging capability and interchangeable measurement stages for various electrical and thermoelectric characterizations. We demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of in-plane electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of thin-film or bulk thermoelectric materials. Furthermore, we utilize high-speed circuitry to implement the transient Harman technique and directly determine the cross-plane figure of merit of thin film thermoelectric materials at high temperatures. Transient measurements on thin film devices are subject to complications from the growth substrate, non-ideal contacts and other detrimental thermal and electrical effects. A strategy is presented for optimizing device geometry to mitigate the impact of these parasitics. This design enabled us to determine the cross-plane thermoelectric material properties in a single high temperature measurement of a 25mum InGaAs thin film with embedded ErAs (0.2%) nanoparticles using the bipolar transient Harman technique in conjunction with thermoreflectance thermal imaging. This approach eliminates discrepancies and potential device degradation from the multiple measurements necessary to obtain individual material parameters. Finite element method simulations are used to analyze non-uniform current and temperature distributions over the device area and determine the three dimensional current path for accurate extraction of material properties from the thermal images. Results match with independent measurements of thermoelectric material properties for the same material composition, validating this approach. We apply high magnification thermoreflectance imaging to create temperature maps of vanadium dioxide nanobeams and examine electro-thermal energy conversion along the nanobeam length. The metal to insulator transition of strongly correlated materials is subject to strong lattice coupling which brings about the unique one-dimensional alignment of

  6. Effects of very high radiation on SiPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heering, A., E-mail: Adriaan.Heering@cern.ch [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Musienko, Yu, E-mail: Iouri.Musienko@cern.ch [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Instutute for Nuclear Research RAS, pr. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ruchti, R.; Wayne, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Karneyeu, A.; Postoev, V. [Instutute for Nuclear Research RAS, pr. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-11

    During the last 5 years we have successfully completed R&D for the instrumentation of silicon photo multipliers (SiPMs) for the CMS HCAL Phase 1 upgrade in 2018. Much focus was put on radiation damage during these years. For the HCAL we expect a maximum total dose of 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} for a total lifetime integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}. Good correlation between cell size and performance with high radiation was found during this R&D. To evaluate the possibility of using the SiPMs in the wider CMS environment we have exposed the current state of the art smallest cell SiPMs to radiation of 6×10{sup 12} p/cm{sup 2} in 62 MeV LIF beam line in 2014 at UCL Belgium and up to 1.3×10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} in the CERN PS 23 GeV proton beam in late 2014. The SiPM's main parameters were measured before and after irradiation. Here we report on the effects of noise increase and breakdown voltage shift due to the extremely high dose. - Highlights: • Modeling of noise increase in SiPMs vs. 1 MeV equivalent neutron radiation. • Other effects in SiPMs exposed to very high radiation.

  7. Beam divergence effects on high power optical parametric oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui-Qing; Geng Ai-Cong; Bo Yong; Wu Ling-An; Cui Da-Fu; Xu Zu-Yan

    2005-01-01

    The beam divergence effects of the input pump laser on a high power nanosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) have been numerically simulated. The OPO conversion efficiency is affected due to the angular deviation of real laser beams from ideal phase matching conditions. Our theoretical model is based on the decomposition of the Gaussian beam and assumes each component has a single deviation angle and thus a Particular wave vector mismatch. We take into account the variable intensity profile in the spatial and temporal domains of the Gaussian beam, the pump depletion effects for large-signal processes as well as the oscillatory effects of the three waves. Two nonlinear crystals β-BaB2O4 (BBO) and LiB3O5 (LBO) have been investigated in detail. The results indicate that the degree of beam divergence strongly influences the maximum pump intensity, optimum crystal length and OPO conversion efficiency.The impact of beam divergence is much more severe in the case of critical phase-matching for BBO than in the case of non-critical phase-matching for LBO. The results provide a way to choose the optimum parameters for a high power ns OPO such as the nonlinear material, the crystal length and the pump intensity, etc. Good agreement is obtained with our experimental results.

  8. Effects of ascent to high altitude on human antimycobacterial immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eisen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity.Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they ascended to 3400 meters; and in 47 long-term high-altitude residents. Antimycobacterial immunity was assessed as the extent to which participants' whole blood supported or restricted growth of genetically modified luminescent Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG mycobacteria during 96 hours incubation. We developed a simplified whole blood assay that could be used by a technician in a low-technology setting. We used this to compare mycobacterial growth in participants' whole blood versus positive-control culture broth and versus negative-control plasma.Measurements of mycobacterial luminescence predicted the number of mycobacterial colonies cultured six weeks later. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood at similar rates to positive-control culture broth whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.002 of mycobacterial growth to be 4-times less than in culture broth. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood 25-times more than negative-control plasma whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.01 of mycobacterial growth to be only 6-times more than in plasma. There was no evidence of differences in antimycobacterial immunity at high altitude between people who had recently ascended to high altitude versus long-term high-altitude residents.An assay of luminescent mycobacterial growth in whole blood was adapted and found to be feasible in low-resource settings. This demonstrated that ascent to or residence at high altitude was

  9. Effects of Ascent to High Altitude on Human Antimycobacterial Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W.; Siedner, Mark J.; Necochea, Alejandro; Leybell, Inna; Valencia, Teresa; Herrera, Beatriz; Wiles, Siouxsie; Friedland, Jon S.; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity. Methods Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they ascended to 3400 meters; and in 47 long-term high-altitude residents. Antimycobacterial immunity was assessed as the extent to which participants’ whole blood supported or restricted growth of genetically modified luminescent Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) mycobacteria during 96 hours incubation. We developed a simplified whole blood assay that could be used by a technician in a low-technology setting. We used this to compare mycobacterial growth in participants’ whole blood versus positive-control culture broth and versus negative-control plasma. Results Measurements of mycobacterial luminescence predicted the number of mycobacterial colonies cultured six weeks later. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood at similar rates to positive-control culture broth whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p≤0.002) of mycobacterial growth to be 4-times less than in culture broth. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood 25-times more than negative-control plasma whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p≤0.01) of mycobacterial growth to be only 6-times more than in plasma. There was no evidence of differences in antimycobacterial immunity at high altitude between people who had recently ascended to high altitude versus long-term high-altitude residents. Conclusions An assay of luminescent mycobacterial growth in whole blood was adapted and found to be feasible in low-resource settings. This demonstrated that ascent to or

  10. Thermoset recycling via high-pressure high-temperature sintering: Revisiting the effect of interchange chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jeremy Edward

    In 1844 Charles Goodyear obtained U.S. Patent #3,633 for his "Gum Elastic Composition". In a published circular, which describes his patent for the sulfur vulcanization of gum elastic composition, he stated: "No degree of heat, without blaze, can melt it (rubber)... It resists the most powerful chemical reagents. Aquafortis (nitric acid), sulphuric acid, essential and common oils, turpentine and other solvents... ..." Goodyear's sulfur vulcanization of rubber fueled much of the industrial revolution and made transportation possible, as it exists today. In doing so, Goodyear created one of the most difficult materials to recycle. Rubber will not melt, dissolve, or lend itself to the usual methods of chemical decomposition. Ironically, Goodyear recognized this problem and in 1853 he patented the process of adding ground rubber to virgin material, now currently known as regrind blending. Today, scrap tires represent one of the most serious sources of pollution in the world. Studies estimate that there are roughly 2 billion scrap tires in U.S. landfills and more are being added at a rate of over 273 million tires per year. Current methods of recycling waste tires are crude, ineffective, and use rubber powder as a low cost filler instead of a new rubber. The groundwork for a very simple and effective method of producing high-quality rubber goods using 100% scrap rubber was discovered in 1944 by A. V. Tobolsky et al. This application, however, was not recognized until recently in our laboratory. The process as studied to date represents a method of creating quality, high-value added rubber goods with nothing other than heat and pressure. High pressure is required to obtain a void-free compaction of the rubber particles by forcing all of the free surfaces into intimate contact. High temperature then activates the chemical rearrangement, scission, and reformation of the chemical bonds thus providing new bridges between the once fractured interfaces. This occurs both within

  11. The High Redshift Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jun-Qing; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Matarrese, Sabino

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we rely on the quasar (QSO) catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Six (SDSS DR6) of about one million photometrically selected QSOs to compute the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect at high redshift, aiming at constraining the behavior of the expansion rate and thus the behaviour of dark energy at those epochs. This unique sample significantly extends previous catalogs to higher redshifts while retaining high efficiency in the selection algorithm. We compute the auto-correlation function (ACF) of QSO number density from which we extract the bias and the stellar contamination. We then calculate the cross-correlation function (CCF) between QSO number density and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature fluctuations in different subsamples: at high z>1.5 and low z1.5. We focus on the capabilities of the ISW to constrain the behaviour of the dark energy component at high redshift both in the \\LambdaCDM and Early Dark Energy cosmologies, when the dark energy is substantially unco...

  12. Nano-textured high sensitivity ion sensitive field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajmirzaheydarali, M.; Sadeghipari, M.; Akbari, M.; Shahsafi, A.; Mohajerzadeh, S., E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-07

    Nano-textured gate engineered ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), suitable for high sensitivity pH sensors, have been realized. Utilizing a mask-less deep reactive ion etching results in ultra-fine poly-Si features on the gate of ISFET devices where spacing of the order of 10 nm and less is achieved. Incorporation of these nano-sized features on the gate is responsible for high sensitivities up to 400 mV/pH in contrast to conventional planar structures. The fabrication process for this transistor is inexpensive, and it is fully compatible with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor fabrication procedure. A theoretical modeling has also been presented to predict the extension of the diffuse layer into the electrolyte solution for highly featured structures and to correlate this extension with the high sensitivity of the device. The observed ultra-fine features by means of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy tools corroborate the theoretical prediction.

  13. Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.

  14. "EFFECTS OF HIGH-SPEED DRILL NOISE ON DENTISTS’ HEARING "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Akbakhanzadeh

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with noise problems associated with the use of air-turbine drills in dental practice. Noise level measurements were made on various types of dental handpieces, when operated free running and when used to cut tooth tissue. Hearing acuity tests were also undertaken in 12 randomly selected dental surgeons who have been using these drills for a number of years. The results indicate that although the danger to hearing from high speed drills is small, the possibility of hazardous effects-at least, for susceptible ears- is not excluded.

  15. High-pressure effects on intramolecular electron transfer compounds

    CERN Document Server

    He Li Ming; Li Hong; Zhang Bao Wen; Li Yi; Yang Guo Qiang

    2002-01-01

    We explore the effect of pressure on the fluorescence spectra of the intramolecular electron transfer compound N-(1-pyrenylmethyl), N-methyl-4-methoxyaniline (Py-Am) and its model version, with poly(methyl methacrylate) blended in, at high pressure up to 7 GPa. The emission properties of Py-Am and pyrene show distinct difference with the increase of pressure. This difference indicates the strength of the charge transfer interaction resulting from the adjusting of the conformation of Py-Am with increase of pressure. The relationship between the electronic state of the molecule and pressure is discussed.

  16. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, A.; Kuźmicka, M.; Wiśniewska, K.

    2008-07-01

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  17. An Effective Storage Mechanism for High Performance Computing (HPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima El Jamiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the process of treating data on HPC Systems, parallel file systems play a significant role. With more and more applications, the need for high performance Input-Output is rising. Different possibilities exist: General Parallel File System, cluster file systems and virtual parallel file system (PVFS are the most important ones. However, these parallel file systems use pattern and model access less effective such as POSIX semantics (A family of technical standards emerged from a project to standardize programming interfaces software designed to operate on variant UNIX operating system., which forces the MPI-IO implementations to use inefficient techniques based on locks. To avoid this synchronization in these techniques, we ensure that the use of a versioning-based file system is much more effective.

  18. Effects of High Magneto-Gravitational Environment on Silkworm Embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zongcheng; Li, Muwang; Qian, Airong; Xu, Huiyun; Wang, Zhe; Di, Shengmeng; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Lifang; Ding, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Mingzhi; Han, Jing; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Yongping; Shang, Peng

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this research was to observe whether silkworm embryos can survive in a high magneto-gravitational environment (HMGE) and what significant phenotype changes can be produced. The hatching rate, hatching time, life span, growth velocity and cocoon weight of silkworm were measured after silkworm embryos were exposed to HMGE (0 g, 12 T; 1 g, 16 T; and 2 g, 12 T) for a period of time. Compared with the control group, 0 g exposure resulted in a lower hatching rate and a shorter life span. Statistically insignificant morphological changes had been observed for larvae growth velocity, incidence of abnormal markings and weight of cocoons. These results suggest that the effect of HMGE on silkworm embryogenesis is not lethal. Bio-effects of silkworm embryogenesis at 0 g in a HMGE were similar with those of space flight. The hatching time, life span and hatching rates of silkworm may be potential phenotype markers related to exposure in a weightless environment.

  19. Avalanche effect and gain saturation in high harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Serrat, Carles; Budesca, Josep M; Seres, Jozsef; Seres, Enikoe; Aurand, Bastian; Hoffmann, Andreas; Namba, Shinichi; Kuehl, Thomas; Spielmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Optical amplifiers in all ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum exhibit two essential characteristics: i) the input signal during the propagation in the medium is multiplied by the avalanche effect of the stimulated emission to produce exponential growth and ii) the amplification saturates at increasing input signal. We demonstrate that the strong-field theory in the frame of high harmonic generation fully supports the appearance of both the avalanche and saturation effects in the amplification of extreme ultraviolet attosecond pulse trains. We confirm that the amplification takes place only if the seed pulses are perfectly synchronized with the driving strong field in the amplifier. We performed an experimental study and subsequent model calculation on He gas driven by intense 30-fs-long laser pulses, which was seeded with an attosecond pulse train at 110 eV generated in a separated Ne gas jet. The comparison of the performed calculations with the measurements clearly demonstrates that the pumped He gas med...

  20. Thermal Effect in KTP Crystals During High Power Laser Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jian-Quan; YU Yi-Zhong; CHEN Jin; ZHANG Fan; WANG Peng; WANG Tao; ZHANG Bai-Gang

    2001-01-01

    We report on the theoretical and experimental studies of the thermal effect of the KTP crystal during high power operation. From the dependence of the refractive index temperature coefficients on wavelength, the dependence of the optimum phase-matching angles on temperature is derived. In the experiment, the angle of the frequency-doubled KTP crystal is tilted to compensate for the thermal effect and to obtain △φ = 0.7° when the green laser output power is 30 W and the KTP crystal temperature is about 80°C. We obtained the highest stable output power greater than 40 W with an L-shaped flat-flat intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The experimental results are very consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  1. Tools and techniques for estimating high intensity RF effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Richard L.; Pennock, Steve T.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Ray, Scott L.

    1992-01-01

    Tools and techniques for estimating and measuring coupling and component disturbance for avionics and electronic controls are described. A finite-difference-time-domain (FD-TD) modeling code, TSAR, used to predict coupling is described. This code can quickly generate a mesh model to represent the test object. Some recent applications as well as the advantages and limitations of using such a code are described. Facilities and techniques for making low-power coupling measurements and for making direct injection test measurements of device disturbance are also described. Some scaling laws for coupling and device effects are presented. A method for extrapolating these low-power test results to high-power full-system effects are presented.

  2. Effects of very high turbulence on convective heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, R. J.; Maciejewski, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of high-intensity, large-scale turbulence on turbulent boundary-layer heat transfer are studied. Flow fields were produced with turbulence intensities up to 40% and length scales up to several times the boundary layer thickness. In addition, three different types of turbulence will be compared to see whether they have the same effect on the boundary layer. The three are: the far field of a free jet, flow downstream of a grid, and flow downstream of a simulated gas turbine combustor. Each turbulence field will be characterized by several measures: intensity (by component), scale, and spectrum. Heat transfer will be measured on a 2.5 m long, 0.5 m wide flat plate using the energy-balance technique. The same plate will be used in each of the four flow fields; a low-turbulence tunnel for baseline data, and the three flow situations mentioned.

  3. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  4. Memory effect in the high-temperature superconducting bulks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing-Yi, E-mail: zhangxingyi@lzu.edu.cn; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Effects of temperature cycles on levitation force relaxation are investigated. •Memory effect of the YBCO bulks is observed in experiments. •With an increase of temperature, memory of the superconductor is gradually lost. -- Abstract: We present an experimental investigation of the relaxation of vertical force components in a high-temperature superconducting levitation system with different temperature cycle processes. For a selected ambient temperature (T{sub 1}) of the system, the experimental results show that the relaxations of the levitation forces are strongly dependent on the initial temperature. When the sample was submitted to temperature jumps around T{sub 1}, the sample temperature was regulated at T{sub 2}, and there were two cases of the experiments, ΔT = T{sub 2} − T{sub 1} < 0 (negative temperature cycle) and ΔT > 0 (positive temperature cycle). It was found that in the case of negative temperature cycle, the superconducting samples have memory effect. And for the positive temperature cycle, with the experimental temperature increase, the memory effect of samples is gradually losing. Additionally, with the increase of temperature, the influences of the negative and positive temperature cycle on the levitation force relaxation are unsymmetrical. All the results are interpreted by using the characteristics of the free energy ‘ground’ plot of the Spin-glasses qualitatively.

  5. Kerr effect measurements in the high temperature superconductor LBCO using high resolution Sagnac interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, Hovnatan; Kapitulnik, Aharon; Hucker, Markus; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John

    2012-02-01

    Polar Kerr effect in LBCO high-Tc superconductor system was measured at zero magnetic field with high precision using a cryogenic Sagnac fiber interferometer with zero-area. We observed non-zero Kerr rotations of order ˜10 μrad appearing in charge ordered phase of LBCO-1/8. In this talk we will review our work on La1.875Ba0.125CuO4. In particular, we observe an emergence of Kerr signal that appears at temperature ˜ 54K, which is near charge ordering phase transition in this system. The signal peaks to 10 μrad at temperatures 30K to 40K and drops to a saturated value of ˜5 μrad at 5K. In addition, we we will present magnetic field training data of the Kerr signal. Through birefringence measurement, we also observe the first order structural phase transition in this system at ˜55K.

  6. The vocational training of occupational therapists and the Undergraduate Course at the University of Brasília, Ceilândia College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Giovana Furlan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Health training has been discussed in the educational field, guiding curriculum changes for undergraduate courses according to the current public policies, mainly the National Health System and the new Curriculum Guidelines. Professional formation based on the active pursuit of knowledge, ensuring integrality and humanization of health care, is objectified. In this perspective, this article presents a literature review on the scientific production related to health training, specifically the training of occupational therapists, and examines how the political pedagogical project of the occupational therapy undergraduate course of the University of Brasília – Ceilândia College (UnB-FCE contemplates and prioritizes vocational training guided by current trends. We found 14 scientific articles addressing the reformulation of the curricula of undergraduate courses, favoring interdisciplinarity and practical activities in social infrastructure. The teaching practice and the student body posture interfere in the educational process, with the challenge of developing communicative, affective and relational skills in contrast with the current teaching model. The undergraduate program in occupational therapy of UnB-FCE is recent, and it aims at vocational training under the new proposed model. It is organized in relation to the fields of professional practice and human functionality, and it prioritizes the local community development through teaching, research, and extension projects associated with the health services of the Federal District.

  7. Simulation Research on Thermal Performance of Radiant Cooling Ceiling with Phase Change Material for Thermal Storage%相变材料蓄能式吊顶辐射供冷系统热性能模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群力; 狄洪发

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a radiant cooling ceiling for thermal storage was presented, in which the capillary grid with phase change material was buried. Firstly,the mathematical model for the thermal performance of such ceiling under interval cooling conditions was set up. Secondly,the influences of various thermal property factors of phase change material on the average heat flux and energy storage ratio were analyzed, and the main influence factors were determined based on the sensitivity analysis. Thirdly, the thermal performance differences between the phase change material ceiling and the concrete ceiling were analyzed. The results indicated that the energy storage ratio of the former one was lager than that of the latter one.%本文将单位体积蓄能密度较大的相变材料与毛细管网格栅埋入到建筑吊顶中,设计出了一种相变材料蓄能式吊顶辐射供冷末端形式,建立了分析该吊顶在间歇运行工况下热性能的数学模型,利用该模型可以分析不同相变材料物性对该相变材料蓄能式吊顶的表面平均热流密度和蓄能比的影响.通过对影响因素的敏感性分析,得出了影响吊顶热性能的主要因素.此外,对比分析了相变材料蓄能式吊顶与混凝土蓄能式吊顶热性能的差异,指出相变材料蓄能式吊顶辐射供冷方式具有蓄能比更高的特点.

  8. [Toxic effects of high concentrations of ammonia on Euglena gracilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia is among the common contaminants in aquatic environments. The present study aimed at evaluation of the toxicity of ammonia at high concentration by detecting its effects on the growth, pigment contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and DNA damage (comet assay) of a unicellular microalga, Euglena gracilis. Ammonia restrained the growth of E. gracilis, while at higher concentrations, ammonia showed notable inhibition effect, the growth at 2 000 mg x L(-1) was restrained to 55.7% compared with that of the control; The contents of photosynthetic pigments and protein went up with increasing ammonia dosage and decreased when the ammonia concentration was above 1000 mg x L(-1); In addition, there was an obvious increase in SOD and POD activities, at higher concentration (2 000 mg x L(-1)), activities of SOD and POD increased by 30.7% and 49.4% compared with those of the control, indicating that ammonia could promote activities of antioxidant enzymes in E. gracilis; The degree of DNA damage observed in the comet assay increased with increasing ammonia concentration, which suggested that high dose of ammonia may have potential mutagenicity on E. gracilis.

  9. High-temperature quantum kinetic effect in silicon nanosandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagraev, N. T.; Grigoryev, V. Yu.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Malyarenko, A. M.; Mashkov, V. A.; Romanov, V. V.; Rul, N. I.

    2017-01-01

    The negative-U impurity stripes confining the edge channels of semiconductor quantum wells are shown to allow the effective cooling inside in the process of the spin-dependent transport, with the reduction of the electron-electron interaction. The aforesaid promotes also the creation of composite bosons and fermions by the capture of single magnetic flux quanta on the edge channels under the conditions of low sheet density of carriers, thus opening new opportunities for the registration of the quantum kinetic phenomena in weak magnetic fields at high-temperatures up to the room temperature. As a certain version noted above we present the first findings of the high temperature de Haas-van Alphen, 300 K, quantum Hall, 77 K, effects as well as quantum conductance staircase in the silicon sandwich structure that represents the ultra-narrow, 2 nm, p-type quantum well (Si-QW) confined by the delta barriers heavily doped with boron on the n-type Si (100) surface.

  10. Semianalytic Integration of High-Altitude Orbits under Lunisolar Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effect of lunisolar perturbations on high-altitude orbits is studied after a double averaging procedure that removes both the mean anomaly of the satellite and that of the moon. Lunisolar effects acting on high-altitude orbits are comparable in magnitude to the Earth’s oblateness perturbation. Hence, their accurate modeling does not allow for the usual truncation of the expansion of the third-body disturbing function up to the second degree. Using canonical perturbation theory, the averaging is carried out up to the order where second-order terms in the Earth oblateness coefficient are apparent. This truncation order forces to take into account up to the fifth degree in the expansion of the lunar disturbing function. The small values of the moon’s orbital eccentricity and inclination with respect to the ecliptic allow for some simplification. Nevertheless, as far as the averaging is carried out in closed form of the satellite’s orbit eccentricity, it is not restricted to low-eccentricity orbits.

  11. The Kaye effect revisited: High speed imaging of leaping shampoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Michel; Blom, Cock; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Weele, Ko; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-11-01

    When a visco-elastic fluid such as shampoo or shower gel is poured onto a flat surface the fluid piles up forming a heap on which rather irregular combinations of fluid buckling, coiling and folding are observed. Under specific conditions a string of fluid leaps from the heap and forms a steady jet fed by the incoming stream. Momentum transfer of the incoming jet, combined with the shear-thinning properties of the fluid, lead to a spoon-like dimple in the highly viscous fluid pool in which the jet recoils. The jet can be stable for several seconds. This effect is known as the Kaye effect. In order to reveal its mechanism we analyzed leaping shampoo through high-speed imaging. We studied the jet formation, jet stability and jet disruption mechanisms. We measured the velocity of both the incoming and recoiled jet, which was found to be thicker and slower. By inclining the surface on which the fluid was poured we observed jets leaping at upto five times.

  12. Effect of cosmic ray on global high cloud from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-S.; Choi, Y.-S.

    2012-04-01

    than low and middle clouds. Considering the correlations with dependence on regions, a physical cloud process regarding to cosmic ray may not be universal perhaps due to anonymous factors affecting the cloud amount. However, our synthetic conclusion is that the amount of global high cloud increases with increased cosmic ray. This implies that infrared warming effect due to increased high cloud may be intensified when more cosmic ray comes in.

  13. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  14. High-Resolution ac Measurements of the Hall Effect in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Yi, H. T.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a high resolving power technique for Hall-effect measurements, efficient in determining Hall mobility and carrier density in organic field-effect transistors and other low-mobility systems. We utilize a small low-frequency ac magnetic field (Brmsphase-sensitive (lock-in) detection of Hall voltage, with the necessary corrections for Faraday induction. This method significantly enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and eliminates the necessity of using high magnetic fields in Hall-effect studies. With the help of this method, we are able to obtain the Hall mobility and carrier density in organic transistors with a mobility as low as μ ˜0.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 by using a compact desktop apparatus and low magnetic fields. We find a good agreement between Hall-effect and electric-field-effect measurements, indicating that, contrary to the common belief, certain organic semiconductors with mobilities below 1 cm2 V-1 s-1 can still exhibit a fully developed, band-semiconductor-like Hall effect, with the Hall mobility and carrier density matching those obtained in longitudinal transistor measurements. This suggests that, even when μ organic semiconductors can still behave as delocalized coherent carriers. This technique paves the way to ubiquitous Hall-effect studies in a wide range of low-mobility materials and devices, where it is typically very difficult to resolve the Hall effect even in very high dc magnetic fields.

  15. Effect of high-potency cannabis on corpus callosum microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigucci, S; Marques, T R; Di Forti, M; Taylor, H; Dell'Acqua, F; Mondelli, V; Bonaccorso, S; Simmons, A; David, A S; Girardi, P; Pariante, C M; Murray, R M; Dazzan, P

    2016-03-01

    The use of cannabis with higher Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content has been associated with greater risk, and earlier onset, of psychosis. However, the effect of cannabis potency on brain morphology has never been explored. Here, we investigated whether cannabis potency and pattern of use are associated with changes in corpus callosum (CC) microstructural organization, in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and individuals without psychosis, cannabis users and non-users. The CC of 56 FEP (37 cannabis users) and 43 individuals without psychosis (22 cannabis users) was virtually dissected and segmented using diffusion tensor imaging tractography. The diffusion index of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity was calculated for each segment. Across the whole sample, users of high-potency cannabis had higher total CC MD and higher total CC AD than both low-potency users and those who never used (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). Daily users also had higher total CC MD and higher total CC AD than both occasional users and those who never used (p = 0.001 and p cannabis is associated with disturbed callosal microstructural organization in individuals with and without psychosis. Since high-potency preparations are now replacing traditional herbal drugs in many European countries, raising awareness about the risks of high-potency cannabis is crucial.

  16. Two failures to replicate high-performance-goal priming effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Harris

    Full Text Available Bargh et al. (2001 reported two experiments in which people were exposed to words related to achievement (e.g., strive, attain or to neutral words, and then performed a demanding cognitive task. Performance on the task was enhanced after exposure to the achievement related words. Bargh and colleagues concluded that better performance was due to the achievement words having activated a "high-performance goal". Because the paper has been cited well over 1100 times, an attempt to replicate its findings would seem warranted. Two direct replication attempts were performed. Results from the first experiment (n = 98 found no effect of priming, and the means were in the opposite direction from those reported by Bargh and colleagues. The second experiment followed up on the observation by Bargh et al. (2001 that high-performance-goal priming was enhanced by a 5-minute delay between priming and test. Adding such a delay, we still found no evidence for high-performance-goal priming (n = 66. These failures to replicate, along with other recent results, suggest that the literature on goal priming requires some skeptical scrutiny.

  17. Effect of Reduction Atmosphere on Properties of High Chrome Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hongji; WANG Jinxiang; SHI Pengkun

    2010-01-01

    The high chrome bricks specimens were prepared by firing at 1 350,1 450 and 1 550 ℃ in carbon embedded condition and at 1 700 ℃ in air,respectively.Effects of firing atmospheres(carbon embedded and air)on bulk density,apparent porosity,cold crushing strength,and slag penetration resistance of high chrome bricks were researched in order to improve physical properties and corrosion resistance of high chrome bricks and to prolong the service life in slagging coal gasifier.The results show that with temperature rising,the apparent porosity of specimens decreases and the bulk density increases; the cold crushing strength of the specimens carbon embedded fired at 1 450 ℃ is the highest,reaching214 MPa ; carbon embedded condition is beneficial to reducing the sintering temperature and improving the microstructure; the specimens carbon embedded fired at1 450 ℃ perform better slag penetration resistance than the specimens fired at 1 700 ℃ in air.

  18. Edge effect in ohmic contacts on high-resistivity semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzin, Arie

    2016-01-11

    Current increase due to edge effect in ohmic contacts was calculated by finite-element software in three-dimensional devices. The emphasis in this study is on semi-intrinsic (SI) and compensated high resistivity semiconductors. It was found that the enhanced electric field around the contact edges may cause about twofold increase in the total contact current. For contact radii larger than the device thickness and nano scale contacts the impact is considerably reduced. In nanoscale contacts the edge effect does not control the electric field under the entire contact, but rather decreases. The introduction of velocity saturation model has a limited impact, and only in compensated semiconductors. - Highlights: • Ohmic contacts were modeled on semi-intrinsic and compensated semiconductors. • Edge-effect increases the contact current by a factor of ~2 for intermediate size contacts. • In larger and smaller contacts the current increase is smaller. • In smaller contacts the E-field edge-peak decreases. • With velocity saturation the current increase is less pronounced.

  19. High-field Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects at high pressure in oriented ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Marius; Broto, Jean-Marc; Gonzalez, Jesus

    2008-10-01

    High-field Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects have been observed in single crystals of ruby submitted to hydrostatic pressure up to 10 GPa. A specific setup with a miniature diamond-anvil cell has been developed to combine high pressure and pulsed magnetic fields and to perform magnetophotoluminescence measurements. Careful analysis of low-temperature (4.2 and 77 K) photoluminescence spectra with a 56 T magnetic field applied along the c axis allows for the rectification of the assignment of observed emission lines to corresponding Zeeman-split levels. Besides, the intrinsic Zeeman-splitting factors of excited states reveal a linear pressure-induced increase. This enhancement is a signature of an increase in trigonal distortion induced by hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, spectra with magnetic field perpendicular to crystallographic c axis exhibit a Paschen-Back effect reflecting the progressive alignment of Cr3+ ions spin along the applied field. However, no pressure modification is observed in this compound, contrarily to the Heisenberg-to-Ising spin character pressure-induced transition observed in alexandrite.

  20. Effects of vinylene carbonate on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Ji-Yong; Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    The effects of vinylene carbonate (VC) on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries are investigated. 1.3 M of LiPF 6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate (EC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) of 3:3:4 volume ratio is used as original electrolyte for 18650 cylindrical cells with LiCoO 2 cathode and graphite anode. VC is then added to electrolyte. At the initial stage of the high temperature storage, higher open-circuit voltage (OCV) is maintained when increasing the VC concentration. As the storage time increases, OCV of higher VC concentration drops gradually, and then the gas evolution takes place abruptly. Gas analysis shows methane (CH 4) decreases with increase of the VC concentration due to formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the graphite. Since the residual VC after formation of the SEI layer decomposes on the cathode surface, carbon dioxide (CO 2) dramatically increases on the cathode with the VC concentration, leaving poly(VC) film at the anode surface, as suggested by XPS test results.

  1. The effects of high dose and highly fractionated radiation on distraction osteogenesis in the murine mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Laura A; Cavaliere, Christi M; Deshpande, Sagar S; Ayzengart, Alexander L; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-09-07

    The ability of irradiated tissue to support bony growth remains poorly defined, although there are anecdotal cases reported showing mixed results for the use of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after radiation for head and neck cancer. Many of these reports lack objective measures that would allow adequate analysis of outcomes or efficacy. The purpose of this experiment was to utilize a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after high dose and highly fractionated radiation therapy and to evaluate and quantify distracted bone formation under these conditions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 12 fractions of external beam radiation (48 Gray) of the left mandible. Following a two week recovery period, an external frame distractor was applied and gradual distraction of the mandible was performed. Tissue was harvested after a twenty-eight day consolidation period. Gross, radiologic and histological evaluations were undertaken. Those animals subjected to pre-operative radiation showed severe attenuation of bone formation including bone atrophy, incomplete bridging of the distraction gap, and gross bony defects or non-union. Although physical lengthening was achieved, the irradiated bone consistently demonstrated marked damaging effects on the normal process of distraction osteogenesis. This murine model has provided reliable evidence of the injurious effects of high dose radiation on bone repair and regeneration in distraction osteogenesis utilizing accurate and reproducible metrics. These results can now be used to assist in the development of therapies directed at mitigating the adverse consequences of radiation on the regeneration of bone and to optimize distraction osteogenesis so it can be successfully applied to post-oncologic reconstruction.

  2. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  3. Energy Performance of a Novel System Combining Natural Ventilation with Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao

    saving potential and the steady-state and dynamic energy performance of this system. The presented work utilizes building simulation method to investigate the energy saving potential of this novel system. Afterwards, an experimental set-up is built in the laboratory to simulate a real office environment....... Both steady-state and dynamic measurements are carried out in the experimental chamber to investigate the energy performance of the system and the thermal comfort in the test room. Overall, this integrated system has high energy saving potential without any compromise of thermal comfort even in extreme...... winter period. Since natural ventilation is of great importance in the system, this system is recommended for use in a temperate climate with high natural ventilation potential....

  4. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  5. Highly Effective Action from Large N Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2014-01-01

    Recently John H. Schwarz put forward a conjecture that the world-volume action of a probe $D3$-brane in an AdS5 x S5 background of type IIB superstring theory can be reinterpreted as the highly effective action (HEA) of four-dimensional N=4 superconformal field theory on the Coulomb branch. We argue that the HEA can be derived from the noncommutative (NC) field theory representation of the AdS/CFT correspondence and the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map defining a spacetime field redefinition between ordinary and NC gauge fields. It is based only on the well-known facts that the master fields of large N matrices are higher-dimensional NC U(1) gauge fields and the SW map is a local coordinate transformation eliminating U(1) gauge fields known as the Darboux theorem in symplectic geometry.

  6. PAMELA's Measurements of Magnetospheric Effects on High Energy Solar Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bravar, U; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Christian, E C; De Donato, C; de Nolfo, G A; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Lee, M; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Ryan, J M; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stochaj, S; Stozhkov, Y I; Thakur, N; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2015-01-01

    The nature of particle acceleration at the Sun, whether through flare reconnection processes or through shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is still under scrutiny despite decades of research. The measured properties of solar energetic particles (SEPs) have long been modeled in different particle-acceleration scenarios. The challenge has been to disentangle to the effects of transport from those of acceleration. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument, enables unique observations of SEPs including composition and the angular distribution of the particles about the magnetic field, i.e. pitch angle distribution, over a broad energy range (>80 MeV) -- bridging a critical gap between space-based measurements and ground-based. We present high-energy SEP data from PAMELA acquired during the 2012 May 17 SEP event. These data exhibit differential anisotropies and thus transport features over the instrument rigidity range. SEP protons exhibit two dist...

  7. Effects of high pressure on unsaturated fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povedano, Isabel; Guignon, Bérengère; Montoro, Óscar R.; Sanz, Pedro D.; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentín G.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of high pressure processing on the molecular structure of some unsaturated fatty acids. Samples of elaidic acid, linoleic acid, ZE and EE conjugated linoleic acid are treated at 293 or 333 K at pressures up to 700 MPa. It is observed that the adiabatic heat generated from compression is able to bring the sample temperature above 373 K after 700 MPa. These relatively extreme conditions are of great interest for food sterilization, but they may induce undesirable change in fatty acid quality characteristics. To check for structural changes, Raman spectra of the samples are analysed after treatments. The comparison with Raman spectra of samples kept at atmospheric pressure shows that pressure induces some conformational changes at the hydrocarbon skeleton in solid samples, while the liquid ones remain unchanged. No cis/trans isomerization occurs, but gauche conformers are likely to be present.

  8. Energy harvesting using AC machines with high effective pole count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Richard Theodore

    In this thesis, ways to improve the power conversion of rotating generators at low rotor speeds in energy harvesting applications were investigated. One method is to increase the pole count, which increases the generator back-emf without also increasing the I2R losses, thereby increasing both torque density and conversion efficiency. One machine topology that has a high effective pole count is a hybrid "stepper" machine. However, the large self inductance of these machines decreases their power factor and hence the maximum power that can be delivered to a load. This effect can be cancelled by the addition of capacitors in series with the stepper windings. A circuit was designed and implemented to automatically vary the series capacitance over the entire speed range investigated. The addition of the series capacitors improved the power output of the stepper machine by up to 700%. At low rotor speeds, with the addition of series capacitance, the power output of the hybrid "stepper" was more than 200% that of a similarly sized PMDC brushed motor. Finally, in this thesis a hybrid lumped parameter / finite element model was used to investigate the impact of number, shape and size of the rotor and stator teeth on machine performance. A typical off-the-shelf hybrid stepper machine has significant cogging torque by design. This cogging torque is a major problem in most small energy harvesting applications. In this thesis it was shown that the cogging and ripple torque can be dramatically reduced. These findings confirm that high-pole-count topologies, and specifically the hybrid stepper configuration, are an attractive choice for energy harvesting applications.

  9. Detecting subtle facial emotion recognition deficits in high-functioning Autism using dynamic stimuli of varying intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law Smith, Miriam J; Montagne, Barbara; Perrett, David I; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2010-07-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by social and communication impairment, yet evidence for deficits in the ability to recognise facial expressions of basic emotions is conflicting. Many studies reporting no deficits have used stimuli that may be too simple (with associated ceiling effects), for example, 100% 'full-blown' expressions. In order to investigate subtle deficits in facial emotion recognition, 21 adolescent males with high-functioning Austism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 16 age and IQ matched typically developing control males completed a new sensitive test of facial emotion recognition which uses dynamic stimuli of varying intensities of expressions of the six basic emotions (Emotion Recognition Test; Montagne et al., 2007). Participants with ASD were found to be less accurate at processing the basic emotional expressions of disgust, anger and surprise; disgust recognition was most impaired--at 100% intensity and lower levels, whereas recognition of surprise and anger were intact at 100% but impaired at lower levels of intensity.

  10. Effect of high pressure treatment on liquid whole egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Csaba; Dalmadi, István; Mráz, Balázs; Friedrich, László; Zeke, Ildikó; Juhász, Réka; Suhajda, Ágnes; Balla, Csaba

    2012-06-01

    In our tests, we artificially infected liquid whole egg samples with Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, and then treated the samples in "Food Lab900" high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) instrument for 3-17 min at 200-400 MPa. Subsequently, the change of the viable cell count of the specific bacteria has been tested. In addition to the samples infected with various bacteria, non-infected samples were also treated in each test and the change in viable cell count, colour and viscosity of the samples upon the effect of the treatment. In summary, it can be concluded that in each test of our investigations, the viable cell count of S. enteritidis critical for egg products is reduced significantly, while the reduction of the total viable cell count was around two magnitudes. Additionally, based on our results, microbial destruction, reduction of enthalpy (denaturation of egg white) caused by the treatment at HPP, and colour change are primarily affected by the pressure level, while the changes in rheological properties are also significantly affected by the duration of high pressure treatment (p<0.05).

  11. Effects of the high temperatures of cows in nursing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo G. Hurtado Sosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the physiologic answer to the high temperatures in the cow’s milkmaids in different moments of the postparto in the municipality of Fomento, 15 cows were evaluated during a period of 61 days in a warm and humid climate. The answer indicators to the heat were: Rectal temperature, cutaneous temperature, temperature of the milk, breathing frequency and heart frequency, the statistic analysis was carried out with the help of the statistical programs STATGRAPHICS Bonus 5.1 for Windows ® 2000 and the processor of data Excel, Office 2007, they were carried out correlation tests and regression, to analyze the effects from the animal answer to the heat for the suitable groups, it was carried out a variance analysis with a factorial design, in series of time. The most sensitive indicators of animal answer were the TR and the FR, the group postpartum smaller than 30 the most sensitive to the high temperatures, prevailing a situation of danger for the livestock and differences under the conditions of comfort for the cows among the morning (ITH 59.63 and the afternoon (ITH 90.72, being more favorable for the cluster the Indicator of morning comfort.

  12. The High Density Region of QCD from an Effective Model

    CERN Document Server

    De Pietri, R; Seiler, E; Stamatescu, I O

    2007-01-01

    We study the high density region of QCD within an effective model obtained in the frame of the hopping parameter expansion and choosing Polyakov-type loops as the main dynamical variables representing the fermionic matter. This model still shows the so-called sign problem, a difficulty peculiar to non-zero chemical potential, but it permits the development of algorithms which ensure a good overlap of the simulated Monte Carlo ensemble with the true one. We review the main features of the model and present results concerning the dependence of various observables on the chemical potential and on the temperature, in particular of the charge density and the Polykov loop susceptibility, which may be used to characterize the various phases expected at high baryonic density. In this way, we obtain information about the phase structure of the model and the corresponding phase transitions and cross over regions, which can be considered as hints about the behaviour of non-zero density QCD.

  13. High-temperature gas effects on aerodynamic characteristics of waverider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun; Li Kai; Liu Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of high-temperature effect on a conical waverider and it is a typical configuration of near space vehicles. Two different gas models are used in the numerical simulations, namely the thermochemical non-equilibrium and perfect gas models. The non-equilibrium flow simulations are conducted with the usage of the parallel non-equilibrium pro-gram developed by the authors while the perfect gas flow simulations are carried out with the com-mercial software Fluent. The non-equilibrium code is validated with experimental results and grid sensitivity analysis is performed as well. Then, numerical simulations of the flow around the conical waverider with the two gas models are conducted. In the results, differences in the flow structures as well as aerodynamic performances of the conical waverider are compared. It is found that the thermochemical non-equilibrium effect is significant mainly near the windward boundary layer at the tail of the waverider, and the non-equilibrium influence makes the pressure center move forward to about 0.57%of the whole craft’s length at the altitude of 60 km.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  15. Peltier-effect module for highly localized temperature manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wang, Wanjun; Murphy, Michael C.

    1999-11-01

    A Peltier-effect module suitable for applications that require manipulation of the temperature (cooling or heating) of microsized subjects or at a highly localized spot was developed. The module was constructed from a commercial electronic refrigeration device based on the Peltier effect with an array of microprobes attached to its top surface. The microprobes were fabricated using the LIGA (German acronym for lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung) process—one of the microelectromechanical systems technologies. The 1000-μm-tall microprobes were fabricated on a titanium plate and then bonded onto the top surface of a commercial Peltier device. When an electrical current was supplied to the Peltier device, the top surface (with microprobes) of the device was cooled and the other side was heated. Heat was conducted from a microsample on the tip of microprobe to the top surface of the Peltier device. A dynamic model of the module was developed and numerical simulation studies were conducted. The prototype module was tested and the experimental results matched well with those predicted by the numerical simulations. The maximum difference between the temperature of a microsample and that at the surface of the Peltier device was approximately 1 °C.

  16. Displacement damage effects in silicon MEMS at high proton doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Shea, Herbert R.

    2011-02-01

    We report on a study of the sensitivity of silicon MEMS to proton radiation and mitigation strategies. MEMS can degrade due to ionizing radiation (electron-hole pair creation) and non-ionizing radiation (displacement damage), such as electrons, trapped and solar protons, or cosmic rays, typically found in a space environment. Over the past few years there has been several reports on the effects of ionizing radiation in silicon MEMS, with failure generally linked to trapped charge in dielectrics. However there is near complete lack of studies on displacement damage effects in silicon- MEMS: how does silicon change mechanically due to proton irradiation? We report on an investigation on the susceptibility of 50 μm thick SOI-based MEMS resonators to displacement damages due to proton beams, with energies from 1 to 60 MeV, and annealing of this damage. We measure ppm changes on the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio by means of accurately monitoring the resonant frequency of devices in vacuum using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer. We observed for the first time an increase (up to 0.05%) of the Young's modulus of single-crystal silicon electromagnetically-actuated micromirrors after exposure to low energy protons (1-4 MeV) at high absorbed doses ~ 100 Mrad (Si). This investigation will contribute to a better understanding of the susceptibility of silicon-based MEMS to displacement damages frequently encountered in a space radiation environment, and allow appropriated design margin and shielding to be implemented.

  17. High-temperature gas effects on aerodynamic characteristics of waverider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of high-temperature effect on a conical waverider and it is a typical configuration of near space vehicles. Two different gas models are used in the numerical simulations, namely the thermochemical non-equilibrium and perfect gas models. The non-equilibrium flow simulations are conducted with the usage of the parallel non-equilibrium program developed by the authors while the perfect gas flow simulations are carried out with the commercial software Fluent. The non-equilibrium code is validated with experimental results and grid sensitivity analysis is performed as well. Then, numerical simulations of the flow around the conical waverider with the two gas models are conducted. In the results, differences in the flow structures as well as aerodynamic performances of the conical waverider are compared. It is found that the thermochemical non-equilibrium effect is significant mainly near the windward boundary layer at the tail of the waverider, and the non-equilibrium influence makes the pressure center move forward to about 0.57% of the whole craft’s length at the altitude of 60 km.

  18. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies.

  19. Effects of catalyst height on diamond crystal morphology under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Dong, Li; Xiao-Peng, Jia; Bing-Min, Yan; Ning, Chen; Chao, Fang; Yong, Li; Hong-An, Ma

    2016-04-01

    The effect of the catalyst height on the morphology of diamond crystal is investigated by means of temperature gradient growth (TGG) under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions with using a Ni-based catalyst in this article. The experimental results show that the morphology of diamond changes from an octahedral shape to a cub-octahedral shape as the catalyst height rises. Moreover, the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the temperature field of the melted catalyst/solvent. The results show that the temperature at the location of the seed diamond continues to decrease with the increase of catalyst height, which is conducive to changing the morphology of diamond. This work provides a new way to change the diamond crystal morphology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172089), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, the Natural Science Foundation of Guizhou Provincial Education Department (Grant No. KY[2013]183), and the Collaborative Fund of Science and Technology Office of Guizhou Province, China (Grant No. LH[2015]7232).

  20. Space-charge effects in high-energy photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verna, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.verna@uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Greco, Giorgia [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Scuola Dottorale in Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Offi, Francesco; Stefani, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM Unità di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • N-body simulations of interacting photoelectrons in hard X-ray experiments. • Secondary electrons have a pivotal role in determining the energy broadening. • Space charge has negligible effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. • A simple model provides the characteristic time for energy-broadening mechanism. • The feasibility of time-resolved high-energy experiments with FELs is discussed. - Abstract: Pump-and-probe photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with femtosecond pulsed sources opens new perspectives in the investigation of the ultrafast dynamics of physical and chemical processes at the surfaces and interfaces of solids. Nevertheless, for very intense photon pulses a large number of photoelectrons are simultaneously emitted and their mutual Coulomb repulsion is sufficiently strong to significantly modify their trajectory and kinetic energy. This phenomenon, referred as space-charge effect, determines a broadening and shift in energy for the typical PES structures and a dramatic loss of energy resolution. In this article we examine the effects of space charge in PES with a particular focus on time-resolved hard X-ray (∼10 keV) experiments. The trajectory of the electrons photoemitted from pure Cu in a hard X-ray PES experiment has been reproduced through N-body simulations and the broadening of the photoemission core-level peaks has been monitored as a function of various parameters (photons per pulse, linear dimension of the photon spot, photon energy). The energy broadening results directly proportional to the number N of electrons emitted per pulse (mainly represented by secondary electrons) and inversely proportional to the linear dimension a of the photon spot on the sample surface, in agreement with the literature data about ultraviolet and soft X-ray experiments. The evolution in time of the energy broadening during the flight of the photoelectrons is also studied. Despite its detrimental consequences on the energy

  1. The interpretation of the figure of the prophet Jonah by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the sistine chapel: anatomical urological vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:A detailed analysis in the iconography and pictorial appearance of the scene of the "Prophet Jonah" painted by the artist Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564 on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel between the years 1508 and 1512. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Literature review on the Italian Renaissance period and the life of Michelangelo Buonarroti and analysis of historical aspects of the evolution of studies of human anatomy in this period and the works of the artist. RESULTS:A comparative analysis of the representation of the figure of the fish on the left thigh of "Jonah" with a cross section of penis shows a curious similarity. The pictorial and iconographic analysis reveals an intensity of light on the pubic area and the position of the prophet with the legs spread apart and left hand placed on this region. A tube-shaped cloth covers the region and the angel at the side seems to be looking at this anatomical region of "Jonah". In fact, sets of iconographic and pictorial relate to the deciphered code. CONCLUSIONS: This description helps to confirm the relationship of the Renaissance art with the human anatomy; science has been much studied in this period. The design of a cross section of the penis is revealed with the two cavernous bodies with the septum between them and the spongy body. Considering the circumstances in which Michelangelo had painted, subjectivity was fundamental due to religious motivations added to the vigorous implications of a limited scientific knowledge typical of that era.

  2. Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junqiao

    The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity-mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever-improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs1-xNx and GaP1-xNx with x bandgap bowing (bowing parameters >14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also occurs between localized states and the valence band states. Soft x-ray fluorescence experiments provide direct evidence of the BAC interaction in these

  3. Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junqiao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity- mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever- improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs1-xNx and GaP1-xNx with x ~< 0.05). These alloys exhibit many novel and interesting properties including, in particular, a giant bandgap bowing (bowing parameters > 14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also

  4. Band anticrossing effects in highly mismatched semiconductor alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junqiao

    2002-09-09

    The first five chapters of this thesis focus on studies of band anticrossing (BAC) effects in highly electronegativity- mismatched semiconductor alloys. The concept of bandgap bowing has been used to describe the deviation of the alloy bandgap from a linear interpolation. Bowing parameters as large as 2.5 eV (for ZnSTe) and close to zero (for AlGaAs and ZnSSe) have been observed experimentally. Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques have allowed the growth of semiconductor alloys composed of significantly different constituents with ever- improving crystalline quality (e.g., GaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} and GaP{sub 1-x}N{sub x} with x {approx}< 0.05). These alloys exhibit many novel and interesting properties including, in particular, a giant bandgap bowing (bowing parameters > 14 eV). A band anticrossing model has been developed to explain these properties. The model shows that the predominant bowing mechanism in these systems is driven by the anticrossing interaction between the localized level associated with the minority component and the band states of the host. In this thesis I discuss my studies of the BAC effects in these highly mismatched semiconductors. It will be shown that the results of the physically intuitive BAC model can be derived from the Hamiltonian of the many-impurity Anderson model. The band restructuring caused by the BAC interaction is responsible for a series of experimental observations such as a large bandgap reduction, an enhancement of the electron effective mass, and a decrease in the pressure coefficient of the fundamental gap energy. Results of further experimental investigations of the optical properties of quantum wells based on these materials will be also presented. It will be shown that the BAC interaction occurs not only between localized states and conduction band states at the Brillouin zone center, but also exists over all of k-space. Finally, taking ZnSTe and ZnSeTe as examples, I show that BAC also occurs between

  5. Effect of Nanotechnology Instructions on Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…

  6. Effect of Nanotechnology Instructions on Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…

  7. Preferred Air Velocity and Local Cooling Effect of desk fans in warm environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    Common experiences, standards, and laboratory studies show that increased air velocity helps to offset warm sensation due to high environmental temperatures. In warm climate regions the opening of windows and the use of desk or ceiling fans are the most common systems to generate increased airflows...... to compensate for higher environmental temperatures at the expense of no or relatively low energy consumption. When using desk fans, local air movement is generated around the occupant and a certain cooling effect is perceived. The impact of the local air movement generated by different air flow patterns....../kg. By a thermal manikin the effect of direct air movement generated by a personal desk fan at 26 °C, 28 °C, or 30 °C room temperatures and the achievable thermal comfort was also analyzed. Results show that it is possible to offset warm sensation within a range of indoor conditions using increased air velocity...

  8. Effect of high soil copper concentration on mycorrhizal grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Amaia; Santos, Erika S.; Viegas, Wanda; Aran, Diego; Pereira, Sofia H.; Vidigal, Patricia; Lopes, Carlos M.; Abreu, M. Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Repeated application of Copper (Cu) based fungicides in vineyards since the end of the 19th century has led to a significant increase in the concentration of this chemical element in many viticultural soils. Although Cu is an essential micronutrient for most organisms, it can be toxic for the development and survival of plants and soil (micro)organisms at high concentrations and eventually lead to yield loses in viticulture, as it negatively affects key physiological and biogeochemical processes. However, some soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), have developed adaptive mechanisms for persistence in environments with supra-optimal levels of essential elements or in the presence of harmful ones, as well as for increasing plant tolerance to such abiotic stress conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a high total soil concentration of Cu on microbial soil activity as well as on the development of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal grapevines. A microcosm assay was set up under greenhouse and controlled conditions. Touriga Nacional grapevine variety plants grafted onto 1103P rootstocks were inoculated either with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mosseae, or were left as non-inoculated controls. After three months, they were transplanted to containers filled with 4 kg of a sandy soil (pH: 7.0; electrical conductivity: 0.08 mS/cm; [organic C]: 5.6 g/kg; [N-NO3]: 1.1 mg/kg; [N-NH4]: 2.5 mg/kg; [extractable K]: 45.1 mg/kg; [extractable P]: 52.3 mg/kg), collected near to a vineyard in Pegões (Portugal). Two treatments were carried out: with and without Cu application. The soil with high Cu concentration was prepared by adding 300 mg Cu/kg (in the form of an aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O) followed by an incubation during four weeks in plastic bags at room temperature in dark. Physico-chemical soil characteristics (pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients concentration in available fraction), soil

  9. Single event effects in high-energy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Alía, Rubén; Brugger, Markus; Danzeca, Salvatore; Cerutti, Francesco; de Carvalho Saraiva, Joao Pedro; Denz, Reiner; Ferrari, Alfredo; Foro, Lionel L.; Peronnard, Paul; Røed, Ketil; Secondo, Raffaello; Steckert, Jens; Thurel, Yves; Toccafondo, Iacocpo; Uznanski, Slawosz

    2017-03-01

    The radiation environment encountered at high-energy hadron accelerators strongly differs from the environment relevant for space applications. The mixed-field expected at modern accelerators is composed of charged and neutral hadrons (protons, pions, kaons and neutrons), photons, electrons, positrons and muons, ranging from very low (thermal) energies up to the TeV range. This complex field, which is extensively simulated by Monte Carlo codes (e.g. FLUKA) is due to beam losses in the experimental areas, distributed along the machine (e.g. collimation points) and deriving from the interaction with the residual gas inside the beam pipe. The resulting intensity, energy distribution and proportion of the different particles largely depends on the distance and angle with respect to the interaction point as well as the amount of installed shielding material. Electronics operating in the vicinity of the accelerator will therefore be subject to both cumulative damage from radiation (total ionizing dose, displacement damage) as well as single event effects which can seriously compromise the operation of the machine. This, combined with the extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components due to budget, performance and availability reasons, results in the need to carefully characterize the response of the devices and systems to representative radiation conditions.

  10. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  11. Effects of Photon Absorption in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Joshua; Somanathan, Sidharth; Fries, Ranier

    2014-09-01

    Photons are an important probe of the hot and dense nuclear matter created in high-energy collisions of nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since the mean free path of photons is larger than the size of the fireball of nuclear matter, final state interactions of photons are usually neglected. In light of recent tension between theoretical calculations and data from RHIC and LHC, we study the effect of reabsorption of photons on elliptic flow v2 and on the nuclear modification factor RAA. We consider photons emitted in primary hard collisions and thermal photons from quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas. We use the jet-quenching code PPM to simulate the propagation of those photons in a fireball of quark-gluon plasma and hot hadron gas created by collisions of heavy nuclei. For the absorption cross-sections we consider three different approaches: (a) Compton and pair production processes calculated by us in a static approximation, (b) the photon damping rates calculated by Thoma (1995), and (c) absorption rates derived from a recent photon calculation by van Hees et al.

  12. Investigation of renormalization effects in high temperature cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr B.

    2008-04-16

    It has been found that the self-energy of high-T{sub C} cuprates indeed exhibits a well pronounced structure, which is currently attributed to coupling of the electrons either to lattice vibrations or to collective magnetic excitations in the system. To clarify this issue, the renormalization effects and the electronic structure of two cuprate families Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} were chosen as the main subject for this thesis. With a simple example of an electronic system coupled to a collective mode unusual renormalization features observed in the photoemission spectra are introduced. It is shown that impurity substitution in general leads to suppression of the unusual renormalization. Finally an alternative possibility to obtain a purely superconducting surface of Y-123 via partial substitution of Y atoms with Ca is introduced. It is shown that renormalization in the superconducting Y-123 has similar strong momentum dependence as in the Bi-2212 family. It is also shown that in analogy to Bi-2212 the renormalization appears to have strong dependence on the doping level (no kinks for the overdoped component) and practically vanishes above T{sub C} suggesting that coupling to magnetic excitations fits much better than competing scenarios, according to which the unusual renormalization in ARPES spectra is caused by the coupling to single or multiple phononic modes. (orig.)

  13. The effects of high ambient radon on thermoluminescence dosimetry readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, John A; Kearfott, Kimberlee J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of a high level of ambient (222)Rn gas on thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) is examined. Groups of LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF(2):Dy TLDs were exposed to (222)Rn under controlled environmental conditions over ∼7 d using a luminous (226)Ra aircraft dial. LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs were tested bare, and both types were tested mounted in cards used for environmental dosimetry and mounted in cards enclosed in plastic badges. A passive continuous radon monitor was used to measure the (222)Rn level in the small chamber during the experiments. The data were analysed to determine the relationship between the integrated (222)Rn level and the TLD response. Although both LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF(2):Dy TLDs showed a strong response to (222)Rn, the badges prevented measurable radon detection by the TLDs within. The TLDs were not used to directly measure the radon concentration; rather, a correction for its influence was desired.

  14. Effect of High-K Dielectric Materials on Leakage Current

    OpenAIRE

    Puneet Kundu; Rekha Yadav

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study of different high-k dielectric materials based on tunneling current density has been deployed. The various types of high-k dielectric materials such as aluminium oxide, hafnium oxide, silicon nitride are compared using Schrödinger equation. The analytical model of tunneling current density has been computed using WKB approximation method. The simulation results of various high-k dielectric materials have also been computed. Different high-k dielectric materi...

  15. Effects of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin on HIF-1α expression in the retina in a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ping Song; Jian-ming Wang; Mei Zhang; Na Hui; Shi-ping Zhao; Kai Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of hypoxia inducible faetor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure and to investigate the mechanism of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protecting the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods First, control group and model group were established in rabbit eyes. The acute high intraocular pressure model was established by saline perfusion into anterior chamber, and then hypodermic injection of domestic rhEPO was made. HIF-1α protein in the retina was observed by immunohistochemical staining method on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after retinal ischemla-reperfusion, respectively. Results No cells with HIF-la positive expression were observed in the retina of the control group. Ceils with HIF-1α positive expression in the model group outnumbered those in the control group (P < 0. 01). The resemblance pattern occurred in EPO group but its degree was slightly greater than that in the model group from day 3 after ischemia-reperfusion (P<0.05). Conclusion Domestic rhEPO can down-regulate the expression of HIF-1α in the retina with acute high intraocular pressure, which may be one of the mechanisms that rhEPO protects the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  16. An Effective Parameter Screening Strategy for High Dimensional Watershed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Y. P.; Martinez, C. J.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed simulation models can assess the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on natural systems. These models have become important tools for tackling a range of water resources problems through their implementation in the formulation and evaluation of Best Management Practices, Total Maximum Daily Loads, and Basin Management Action Plans. For accurate applications of watershed models they need to be thoroughly evaluated through global uncertainty and sensitivity analyses (UA/SA). However, due to the high dimensionality of these models such evaluation becomes extremely time- and resource-consuming. Parameter screening, the qualitative separation of important parameters, has been suggested as an essential step before applying rigorous evaluation techniques such as the Sobol' and Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) methods in the UA/SA framework. The method of elementary effects (EE) (Morris, 1991) is one of the most widely used screening methodologies. Some of the common parameter sampling strategies for EE, e.g. Optimized Trajectories [OT] (Campolongo et al., 2007) and Modified Optimized Trajectories [MOT] (Ruano et al., 2012), suffer from inconsistencies in the generated parameter distributions, infeasible sample generation time, etc. In this work, we have formulated a new parameter sampling strategy - Sampling for Uniformity (SU) - for parameter screening which is based on the principles of the uniformity of the generated parameter distributions and the spread of the parameter sample. A rigorous multi-criteria evaluation (time, distribution, spread and screening efficiency) of OT, MOT, and SU indicated that SU is superior to other sampling strategies. Comparison of the EE-based parameter importance rankings with those of Sobol' helped to quantify the qualitativeness of the EE parameter screening approach, reinforcing the fact that one should use EE only to reduce the resource burden required by FAST/Sobol' analyses but not to replace it.

  17. Magnetospheric effects in atmospheric electricity at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilov, O. I.; Kasatkina, E. A.; Frank-Kamenetsky, A. V.; Raspopov, O. M.; Vasiljev, A. N.; Struev, A. G.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the vertical atmospheric electric field (Ez) made at auroral station Apatity (geomagnetic latitude: 63.8) and polar cap station Vostok, Antarctica (geomagnetic latitude: -89.3) in 2001-2002 have been analyzed. The measurements were made by a high-latitude computer-aided complex installed at Apatity in 2001. It consists of three spatially placed microbarographs for measurements of atmospheric waves, a device for air conductivity measurement and a device for measurement of vertical component of the atmospheric electric field. The computer-aided system permits to get information with a frequency of five times per second. The ground level atmospheric electric field was found to have systematic local diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal variations of atmospheric potential gradient were found to have a departure from the Carnegie curve. A distinct difference in the diurnal variation of atmospheric electric field has been observed also between disturbed (Kp>30) and extremely quiet (Kplatitude electric field variations appear to be the result of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Besides, we have found the similarity between the diurnal course of the atmospheric electric field under the quiet geomagnetic conditions and the diurnal variation of galactic cosmic rays. These results have been explained in terms of calculated effective Bz component of the interpalnetary magnetic field arising due to variation of the geomagnetic dipole axis inclination during the Earth's rotation. The results of analysis of the influence of extreme weather conditions (rain, snow, snowstorm, stormclouds, thunderstorms, lightning) on atmospheric electricity (electric field and conductivity) are also discussed. This work was supported by EC (grant INTAS 97-31008) and RFBR (grant 01-05-64850).

  18. The effect of temperature variation on biomethanation at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, René; Lidén, Gunnar

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine effects of daily temperature variations on the performance of anaerobic digestion. Forced square-wave temperature variations (between 11 and 25, 15 and 28, and 19 and 32 degrees C) were imposed on a bench-scale digester using a mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure in a semi-continuous process. The volumetric biogas production rate, methane yield, and the volatile solid reductions were compared with the results obtained from anaerobic digestion (AD) at constant temperatures. The forced cyclic variations of temperature caused large cyclic variations in the rate of gas production and the methane content. As much as 94-97% of the daily biogas was obtained in the 12h half-cycle at high temperature. The values for volumetric biogas production rate and methane yield increased at higher temperatures. The average volumetric biogas production rate for cyclic operation between 11 and 25 degrees C was 0.22Ld(-1)L(-1) with a yield of 0.07m3CH4kg(-1) VS added (VSadd), whereas for operation between 15 and 29 degrees C the volumetric biogas production rate increased by 25% (to 0.27Ld(-1)L(-1) with a yield of 0.08m3CH4kg(-1) VSadd). In the highest temperature region a further increase of 7% in biogas production was found and the methane yield was 0.089m(3)CH(4)kg(-1) VSadd. The employed digester showed an immediate response when the temperature was elevated, which indicates a well-maintained metabolic capacity of the methanogenic bacteria during the period of low temperature. Overall, periodic temperature variations appear to give less decrease in process performance than a priori anticipated.

  19. Effect of simulated high-altitude hypoxia on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jing HUANG

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of simulated high-altitude hypoxia on the detection rate and endotoxin level of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg of subgingival bacterial plagues in rabbit periodontitis models. Methods Forty male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, namely, normoxia control group (group A1, normoxia experimental group (group A2, hypoxia control group (group B1, and hypoxia experimental group (group B2. Each group included 10 rabbits. Periodontitis models was established in groups A2 and B2 combined by ligating both lower central incisors with steel ligature and feeding periodontitis diets, and then the animals were housed in a hypoxia chamber (simulating 5000m altitude, 23h per day. Groups A1 and A2 were raised normal diet in normoxia environment. After eight weeks, the rabbit periodontitis model was evaluated by observing radiographic features of the X-ray films and histopathologic changes under a light microscope. Subgingival plague sample from periodontal pockets on both lower central incisors were collected for isolation, culture and identification of Pg, and for detection of the endotoxin level. Results The histopathologic observation and X-ray examination results showed that the periodontitis of rabbits in group B2 was significantly more severe than that in group A2. The detection rates of Pg in group A1, A2, B1 and B2 was 0%, 50%, 55% and 95% (P < 0.05. Pg detection rate and endotoxin level were higher in group B2 (95%, 0.46±0.04EU/ml than in group A2 (50%, 0.38±0.02EU/ml, P < 0.05. Conclusions The process speed and damage degree of periodontitis in hypoxic environment is higher than that in normoxic environment. Moreover, the hypoxic environment is more suitable in the colonization of Pg with higher endotoxin level in subgingival plague.

  20. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...

  1. Effects of high intensity training and high volume training on endothelial microparticles and angiogenic growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wahl

    Full Text Available AIMS: Endothelial microparticles (EMP are complex vesicular structures shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. As endurance exercise affects the endothelium, the objective of the study was to examine levels of EMP and angiogenic growth factors following different endurance exercise protocols. METHODS: 12 subjects performed 3 different endurance exercise protocols: 1. High volume training (HVT; 130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO; 2. 4 × 4 min at 95% PPO; 3. 4 × 30 sec all-out. EMPs were quantified using flow cytometry after staining platelet-poor-plasma. Events positive for Annexin-V and CD31, and negative for CD42b, were classified as EMPs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, migratory inhibiting factor (MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF were determined by ELISA technique. For all these measurements venous blood samples were taken pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after each intervention. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to explore the effect of collected sera on target endothelial functions and MP uptake capacities. RESULTS: VEGF and HGF significantly increased after HIT interventions. All three interventions caused a significant decrease in EMP levels post exercise compared to pre values. The sera taken after exercise increased the uptake of EMP in target endothelial cells compared to sera taken under resting conditions, which was shown to be phosphatidylserin-dependent. Increased EMP uptake was associated with an improved protection of target cells against apoptosis. Sera taken prior and after exercise promoted target endothelial cell migration, which was abrogated after inhibition of VEGF. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise leads to decreased EMP levels and promotes a phosphatidylserin-dependent uptake of EMP into target endothelial cells, which is associated with a protection of target cells against apoptosis.

  2. Living high-training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robach, Paul; Schmitt, Laurent; Brugniaux, Julien V; Roels, Belle; Millet, Grégoire; Hellard, Philippe; Nicolet, Gérard; Duvallet, Alain; Fouillot, Jean-Pierre; Moutereau, Stéphane; Lasne, Françoise; Pialoux, Vincent; Olsen, Niels V; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2006-03-01

    The "living high-training low" model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of its potential benefit. This study tested whether LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect may last for up to 2 weeks after LHTL intervention. Eighteen swimmers trained for 13 days at 1,200 m while sleeping/living at 1,200 m in ambient air (control, n=9) or in hypoxic rooms (LHTL, n=9, 5 days at simulated altitude of 2,500 m followed by 8 days at simulated altitude of 3,000 m, 16 h day(-1)). Measures were done before 1-2 days (POST-1) and 2 weeks after intervention (POST-15). Aerobic performance was assessed from two swimming trials, exploring .VO(2max) and endurance performance (2,000-m time trial), respectively. Reticulocyte, serum EPO and soluble transferrin receptor responses were not altered by LHTL, whereas reticulocytes decreased in controls. In POST-1 (vs. before): red blood cell volume increased in LHTL only (+8.5%, P=0.03), .VO(2max) tended to increase more in LHTL (+8.1%, P=0.09) than in controls (+2.5%, P=0.21) without any difference between groups (P=0.42) and 2,000-m performance was unchanged with LHTL. In POST-15, both performance and hematological parameters were similar to initial levels. Our results indicate that LHTL may stimulate red cell production, without any concurrent amelioration of aerobic performance. The absence of any prolonged benefit after LHTL suggests that this LHTL model cannot be recommended for long-term purposes.

  3. Acetylcholine-releasing effect of primycin, a highly active antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám-Vizi, V; Horváth, I; Vizi, E S

    1980-01-01

    The effect of primycin, an antibiotic known to inhibit potassium conductance, was studied on acetylcholine (ACh) release from the nerve terminals of the Auerbach plexus and cortical slice of the rat. Primycin enhanced the resting release of ACh; however, it failed to affect the amount of ACh released by a single shock. It has no effect on Na+K+-activated ATPase. Its effect on Ach release was prevented by tetrodotoxin and by Ca removal. It is concluded that its effect on potassium conductance might account for its ACh-releasing effect: it produces depolarization and spontaneous firing.

  4. Cortex shatters the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Edmund; Fishell, Gord

    2008-11-06

    Recreating developmental structures in vitro has been a primary challenge for stem cell biologists. Recent studies in Cell Stem Cell (Eiraku et al., 2008) and Nature (Gaspard et al., 2008) demonstrate that embryonic stem cells can recapitulate early cortical development, enabling them to generate specific cortical subtypes.

  5. Breaking Public Relations' Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that public relations practitioners, especially women practitioners, ought to incorporate program research into daily practice. Considers the shift in public relations from a male-majority to female-majority and the challenges which this shift poses for all public relations practitioners and educators. (MS)

  6. 基于MATLAB的仿壁虎机器人天花板粘附运动仿真%Locomotion Simulation of Gecko Robot Moving on the Ceiling Based on MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建敏; 俞志伟; 戴振东

    2011-01-01

    Geckos have the dry adhesive feet that can provide the Vander Waals force, but it is quite difficult for gecko robot to move on the ceiling. Dynamic model of gecko robot is created with MATLAB/SimMechanic. A elastic damping model of the directional adhesive material on robot's foot is built. The crawling behavior of the robot on the ceiling is simulated with planned gait. The experiment results show that the robot can move we expected and the main perturbation in locomotion is induced by the change of alternation between the foot' s stance period and swing period. It provides references for the future experiment of gecko robot moving on the ceiling.%壁虎脚掌具有“范德华力”的干粘附特性,而实现仿壁虎机器人在负表面(如天花板)运动具有极高的难度,基于MATLAB/SimMechanic建立了仿壁虎机器人动力学模型.采用变弹性阻尼模型构建粘附力模型,模拟脚掌的粘附力各向异性.利用规划的负表面步态进行天花板粘附运动仿真,仿真表明仿壁虎机器人能按照预定的步态实现天花板的粘附运动,而天花板的非稳定性扰动来自脚掌粘附支撑相和脱附摆动相的交替处,为未来仿壁虎机器人天花板爬行实验提供仿真参考数据.

  7. 基于辐射供冷的太阳能吸收式空调试验研究%Investigation of solar absorption cooling system based on cooling ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 翟晓强; 尹亚领; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    对基于辐射供玲的太阳能吸收式空调系统进行了试验.该系统采用96 m2的U型管式真空管太阳能集热器驱动额定制冷量为8 kW的吸收式制冷机组,吸收式制冷机产生的冷冻水被输送到辐射吊顶中,为50 m2的实验室提供夏季空调.吸收式制冷机运行在度季晴朗天气时,平均制冷量为4.5 kW.辅助独立除湿机组与辐射吊顶联合运行.试验房间的热舒适指标PMV为-0.29~0.32,可满足热舒适要求.%Experiments were carried out to study a solar powered absorption cooling system based on cooling ceiling. The 96 m2 U-type vacuum tube collectors were employed to drive the absorption chiller with nominal refrigeration capacity of 8 kW. The chilled water from the absorption chiller was delivered to cooling ceiling, providing cooling capacity to the 50 m2 test room. Under sunshiny weather conditions, the average cooling output was 4.5 kW. An independent dehumidification unit was installed to work together with cooling ceiling. The PMV inside the test room ranged from -0.29 to 0.32, which met the indoor thermal comfort.

  8. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  9. Detuning effect study of High-Q Mobile Phone Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    Number of frequency bands that have to be covered by smart phones, are ever increasing. This broadband coverage can be obtained either by using a low-Q antenna or a high-Q tunable antenna. This study investigates high-Q antennas performance when placed in proximity of the user. This study...

  10. Posibilidad de transdisciplinariedad y evaluación pedagógica en la modalidad agropecuaria, Institución Educativa Ceilán, sede principal, municipio de Bugalagrande

    OpenAIRE

    Médicis Lenis, Carlos Andrés; Flórez Ríos, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (Magister en Educación). Universidad Católica de Manizales, Facultad de Educación, 2014 La presente obra de conocimiento centra su atención en la transdisciplinariedad y la incoherencia de los procesos evaluativos impartidos en la Institución Educativa Ceilán, Municipio de Bugalagrande, Valle del Cauca, sin articulación alguna entre áreas de conocimiento. El problema se sitúa en el campo de la educación, donde la transdisciplinariedad y evaluación pedagógica son abordados desde un...

  11. Conventional ceiling versus PCM induction convectors. Part 1. Performance criteria, calculations, physical behavior and controllability; Prestatiecriteria, berekeningen, fysisch gedrag en regelbaarheid. Deel 1. Traditionele plafond-versus PCM-inductieconvectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.H.H. [Autarkis, Almere (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Two articles compare the traditional induction convector and the innovative PCM induction convectors with each other. Part 1 addressed the traditional ceiling induction convectors and corresponding performance criteria, cooling and heat load calculation, the physical behavior of heat exchangers and the adjustability of the feed-back control loop. [Dutch] In twee artikelen worden traditionele inductieconvectoren en innovatieve PCM-inductieconvectoren met elkaar vergeleken. Dit eerste deel gaat in op traditionele plafondinductieconvectoren en de bijbehorende prestatiecriteria, koel- en warmtelastberekening, het fysische gedrag van warmtewisselaars en de regelbaarheid van de 'feed back'-regelkring.

  12. The effect of high-fat--high-fructose diet on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of isoenergetic administration to adult rats of high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet for 2 weeks on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic. Body and skeletal muscle composition, energy balance, plasma lipid profile and glucose tolerance were measured, together with mitochondrial functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, together with significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin response to glucose load. Skeletal muscle triglycerides and ceramide were significantly higher in rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 content were significantly higher, while adenine nucleotide translocase content was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet. The results suggest that a high-fat--high-fructose diet even without hyperphagia is able to increase lipid flow to skeletal muscle and mitochondrial energetic efficiency, with two detrimental effects: (a) energy sparing that contributes to the early onset of obesity and (b) reduced oxidation of fatty acids and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which could generate insulin resistance.

  13. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  14. Effect of Pyramidal Dome Geometry on the Acoustical Characteristics in A Mosque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dg. H. Kassim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important symbol in Islam, a mosque is built with architectural grandeur. Among the characteristics is its high ceiling and it is usually constructed with a typical spherical dome shape. Some mosques, however, are influenced by the local culture and the dome can be of a different shape, such as pyramidal, as found in mosques in Malacca, Malaysia. This paper presents an assessment of the internal acoustical characteristics of a mosque having a pyramidal dome. The study is conducted by means of computer simulation using CATT indoor acoustic software. Reverberation time and clarity are taken to evaluate the intelligibility of speech. The effect of the angle and height of the dome on the acoustical parameters is discussed. It is found that a pyramidal dome with a steeper angle contributes to poor acoustic clarity.

  15. High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

  16. Effective removal of methotrexate by high-flux hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saland, Jeffrey M; Leavey, Patrick J; Bash, Robert O; Hansch, Eleonora; Arbus, Gerald S; Quigley, Raymond

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the clearance of methotrexate (MTX) by high-flux hemodialysis (HD) in pediatric oncology patients. We present three patients who experienced nephrotoxicity and prolonged exposure to toxic MTX concentrations following high-dose infusions during treatment for osteogenic sarcomas. Each patient was successfully treated with high-flux HD, followed by carboxypeptidase G2 (CPDG2) in two cases. Minimal systemic toxicity occurred. We review the literature and discuss guidelines for early and aggressive treatment for this complication of high-dose MTX therapy. Clinically important removal of MTX depends upon prompt initiation of HD after detection of nephrotoxicity and delayed clearance of MTX. Therapy is indicated in cases where compassionate use of CPDG(2) may not be available, or while awaiting its delivery.

  17. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  18. does high school elective mathematics have any effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    examining the impact of SHS elective mathematics on the performance of ... Keywords: Academic performance, University, Economics, Students, Mathematics ... Uni- versity authorities and parents are worried about the high rates of failure and ...

  19. Highly Effective Thermal Regenerator for Low Temperature Cryocoolers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future missions to investigate the structure and evolution of the universe require highly efficient, low-temperature cryocoolers for low-noise detector systems. We...

  20. Dystonia not dystopia: effects of the legal high, 'Clockwork Orange'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Helen Elizabeth; Hawksley, Oliver

    2015-12-10

    A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.

  1. High Effectiveness Heat Exchanger for Cryogenic Refrigerators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an innovative high performance cryogenic heat exchanger manufactured of titanium by photo-etching and diffusion bonding. This is a parallel plate design...

  2. The Effects of Supercritical Fluids on High Performance Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    testing was conduted on an Instron Tensile Tester using a 0-100 lb cell fitted with Kallaway Clamps. Tests were run an 10 i samples of yarn drawn at a...degraded. We concluded that in these runs the teperature was too high and the primary reaction was thermal degradation of the polymer. When methanol...temperature of methanol is sufficiently high that thermal degradation processes cxmpete with amide alcoholysis. Similar results were obtained with nylon 6

  3. Effect of high temperatures on gypsum paste and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejsová, Jitka; Doleželová, Magdalena; Vimmrová, Alena

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the influence of high temperatures on some physical and mechanical properties of gypsum mixtures. Two gypsum mixtures were designed, first one was composed of gypsum and citric acid and the second one contained standardized sand also. The samples were exposed to temperatures from 50°C to 1000°C. Results show, that strength changes caused by high temperatures are significant in both mixtures and that the thermal shrinkage is reduced by adding sand to a gypsum mixture.

  4. Development of Monascus fermentation technology for high hypolipidemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Monascus species has been used as the traditional food fungus in Eastern Asia for several centuries. Monascus-fermented products are gradually developed as the popular functional food for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, but we know that culture condition affects the hypolipidemic effect of Monascus-fermented product. In the past, the cholesterol-lowering agent--monacolin K--is regarded as the most important hypolipidemic agent. Two natural yellow pigments--monascin and ankaflavin--are also proven as novel hypolipidemic agents in recent years. However, the hypolipidemic effect of Monascus-fermented product should contribute from monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin, and other unknown functional ingredients. In addition to hypolipidemic effect, the safety concern of Monascus-fermented product is involved in the levels of mycotoxin--citrinin. The hypolipidemic effect and the production of these functional metabolites or mycotoxin are influenced by many factors such as the choice of culture substrates, carbon and nitrogen source, pH value, extra nutrients, and so on. Therefore, this review focused on the effect of various culture conditions and nutrients on the functional metabolites production, hypolipidemic effect as well as citrinin concentration, and further organized the fermentation technologies used by previous studies for the promotion of hypolipidemic effect and safety.

  5. Effects of training status on the metabolic responses to high carbohydrate and high fat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, V L; McMurray, R G

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between the way in which aerobically trained and untrained women metabolize fats and carbohydrates at rest in response to either a high-fat or high-carbohydrate meal. Subjects, 6 per group, were fed a high CHO meal (2068 kJ, 76% CHO, 23% fat, 5% protein) and a high fat meal (2093 kJ, 21% CHO, 72% fat, 8% protein) in counterbalanced order. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured every half-hour for 5 hours. RMR was similar between groups. However, after ingesting a high CHO meal, trained subjects had a peak in metabolism at minute 60, not evident in the untrained subjects. In addition, postprandial RER from minutes 120-300 were lower and fat use was greater after the high CHO meal for the trained subjects. These results suggest that aerobically trained women have an accelerated CHO uptake and overall lower CHO oxidation following the ingestion of a high CHO meal.

  6. Two failures to replicate high-performance-goal priming effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Christine R; Coburn, Noriko; Rohrer, Doug; Pashler, Harold

    2013-01-01

    .... Two direct replication attempts were performed. Results from the first experiment (n = 98) found no effect of priming, and the means were in the opposite direction from those reported by Bargh and colleagues...

  7. Teacher Effectiveness in Identifying High-Risk Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Ronald P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness in identifying children "at risk" for learning problems was studied with five Head Start teachers. Results showed that, after training in classroom observation techniques, paraprofessional teachers are capable of identifying developmental delays in children. (PHR)

  8. Combinations of Effective Leadership Styles in Victorian State High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The main finding of this investigation is that the effectiveness of the educational system could be increased through the provision of task-oriented leadership to schools having an unfavorable atmosphere. (Author/IRT)

  9. Self-desiccation Effect of High Performance Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zheng-wu; SUN Zhen-ping; WANG Pei-ming

    2004-01-01

    Effects of water to binder ratio (mW/mB), types and addition content of mineral admixtures on the autogenous relative humidity (ARH) change of concrete resulting from self-desiccation were studied. The parameters of coefficient of mineral self-desiccation-effect k and efficient water to binder ratio re were proposed, and experimental results were fitted non-linearly and analyzed using these proposed parameters. The experimental results indicate that ARH reduction of concrete at different ages increases with the decrease of mW/mB. The ARH change laws of concrete with mW/mB lower than 0.4 can be expressed with a non-linear equation. The extent of the effect of types and addition content of mineral admixtures on ARH reduction of concrete resulting from self-desiccation can be reflected by the non-linear equation with the parameter of efficient water to binder ratio re effectively.

  10. Neutron irradiation effects on high Nicalon silicon carbide fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, M.C.; Steiner, D.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties and microstructure of SiC and SiC-based fibers is a current focal point for the development of radiation damage resistant SiC/SiC composites. This report discusses the radiation effects on the Nippon Carbon Hi-Nicalon{trademark} fiber system and also discusses an erratum on earlier results published by the authors on this material. The radiation matrix currently under study is also summarized.

  11. Transformational leadership, high performance work practices, and an effective organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbonnaya, Chidiebere Ndukwe; Nielsen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Although transformational leadership is touted as an important approach for improving employee well-being and an effective organization, very little is known about how its key principles can be manifested through specific Human Resource Management (HRM) systems. This is unsatisfactory as leadership is pertinent to the management of human resources and many HRM researchers and practitioners would benefit from a theoretical understanding of how effective leadership principles can be strengthene...

  12. Thermal Effects in High-Power Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature gradients in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is studied numerically. We investigate the dependence of the mode area on the signal power, and compare forward and backward pumping schemes.......The effect of temperature gradients in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is studied numerically. We investigate the dependence of the mode area on the signal power, and compare forward and backward pumping schemes....

  13. Peltier effect in multilayered nanopillars under high density charge current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravier, L.; Fukushima, A.; Kubota, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yuasa, S.

    2006-12-01

    From the basic equations of thermoelectricity, we model the thermal regimes that develop in multilayered nanopillar elements experiencing continuous charge currents. The energy conservation principle was applied to all layer-layer and layer-electrode junctions. The obtained set of equations was solved to derive the temperature of each junction. The contribution of the Peltier effect is included in an effective resistance. This model gives satisfactory fits to experimental data obtained on a series of reference nanopillar elements.

  14. Peltier effect in multilayered nanopillars under high density charge current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravier, L [Institut de Physique des Nanostructures, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), EPFL-SB-IPN station 3, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Fukushima, A [National Institute of Advances Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kubota, H [National Institute of Advances Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yamamoto, A [National Institute of Advances Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yuasa, S [National Institute of Advances Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2006-12-21

    From the basic equations of thermoelectricity, we model the thermal regimes that develop in multilayered nanopillar elements experiencing continuous charge currents. The energy conservation principle was applied to all layer-layer and layer-electrode junctions. The obtained set of equations was solved to derive the temperature of each junction. The contribution of the Peltier effect is included in an effective resistance. This model gives satisfactory fits to experimental data obtained on a series of reference nanopillar elements.

  15. Effect of feeding exercised horses on high-starch or high-fat diets for 390 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyner, A; Bessert, J; Gropp, J M

    2002-09-01

    Our hypothesis was that, because horses have not evolved as fat eaters, there may be negative metabolic long-term effects of feeding a high fat diet. The objective of the present study was to identify these long-term effects and compare them with the effects of isoenergetic long-term high starch feeding. This randomised block study with 20 exercised horses looked at the effect of feeding either a high starch (HS) or a high fat (HF) diet type in 3 periods during stabling (Stable 1), pasture, and stabling (Stable 2) over 390 days. The horses received a HS or HF concentrate, straw, hay and 6 h pasture/day in the pasture period. HF horses gained weight (2% of initial bwt) and, therefore, fat intake was reduced (from 1.43 to 0.88 g/kg bwt/day). Blood plasma glucose, total protein, albumins, gamma-globulins, free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol concentrations were higher but urea concentration was lower with HF compared to HS feeding (Pdiet type. There were period effects (Pdisadvantages of feeding on high fat compared with high starch diets.

  16. The DoDDS (Department of Defense Dependents Schools) Class of 1982: Characteristics of Students Remaining in the Same High School, 1980-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    as would be expected, P and that there is no evidence of floor or ceiling effects. The reliabilities are adequate for making mean comparisons...Waiter or waitress , bus boy, or cook 13.3 9.2 Babysitting or child care 4.0 24.5 Farm or agricultural work .... Factory work (un- or semi-skilled

  17. High tax on high energy dense foods and its effects on the purchase of calories in a supermarket. An experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Havermans, Remco C; Giesen, Janneke C A H; Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined whether a high tax on high calorie dense foods effectively reduces the purchased calories of high energy dense foods in a web based supermarket, and whether this effect is moderated by budget and weight status. 306 participants purchased groceries in a web based supermarket, with an individualized budget based on what they normally spend. Results showed that relative to the no tax condition, the participants in the tax condition bought less calories. The main reduction was found in high energy dense products and in calories from carbohydrates, but not in calories from fat. BMI and budget did not influence the effectiveness of the tax. The reduction in calories occurred regardless of budget or BMI implying that a food tax may be a beneficial tool, along with other measures, in promoting a diet with fewer calories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-equilibrium effects in high temperature chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Reaction rate data were collected for chemical reactions occurring at high temperatures during reentry of space vehicles. The principle of detailed balancing is used in modeling kinetics of chemical reactions at high temperatures. Although this principle does not hold for certain transient or incubation times in the initial phase of the reaction, it does seem to be valid for the rates of internal energy transitions that occur within molecules and atoms. That is, for every rate of transition within the internal energy states of atoms or molecules, there is an inverse rate that is related through an equilibrium expression involving the energy difference of the transition.

  19. Diets high and low in glycemic index versus high monounsaturated fat diets: effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, N D; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M

    1999-06-01

    To examine the relative effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates, and monounsaturated fats on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM subjects. Fourteen male and seven female variably controlled NIDDM subjects recruited by advertisement. Free living outpatients. A repeated measures, within-subject design was used such that each subject consumed three diets: (a) a high-GI diet (53% CHO -21% fat, 63 GI units (glucose= 100)); (b) a low-GI diet (51% CHO -23% fat, 43 GI units); and (c) a high-mono high-GI diet (42% CHO -35% fat, 59 GI units) in random order and cross-over fashion for four weeks. Approximately 45% energy was provided as key foods which differed in published GI values and specifically excluded legumes. Dietary fibre intake was > 30 g/d on each diet. At the end of each dietary intervention, we measured fasting plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, total glycated plasma protein, fructosamine, LDL and HDL particle size as well as 24 h urinary excretion of glucose and C-peptide. HDL-cholesterol was higher on the low-GI and high-mono high-GI diets compared to the high-GI diet (P < 0.05 for overall diet effect). There were no other significant differences in metabolic control between diets, even when adjusted for BMI, glucose control or gender. Body weight and saturated fat intake remained stable between dietary interventions. High-mono high-GI and high-CHO, low-GI diets are superior to high-CHO, high-GI diets with respect to HDL metabolism but no effect was noted on glucose metabolism in variably controlled NIDDM subjects.

  20. Effects of Electron Screening on Electron Capture Rates in High Density Presupernova Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋广飞; 彭秋和; 邹志刚

    2003-01-01

    Considering that the electron capture rate can be greatly reduced by the electron screening effect in the regime of high temperature and high density, we calculate the effect of electron screening on the electron capture rate for two important elements 56Ni and 55Co in the high density condition of a pre-supernova star. The effect of electron screening is so effective that the electron capture rate may be reduced to about 20%.