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Sample records for high ccl2 levels

  1. CCL2 Serum Levels and Adiposity Are Associated with the Polymorphic Phenotypes -2518A on CCL2 and 64ILE on CCR2 in a Mexican Population with Insulin Resistance

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    Guzmán-Ornelas, Milton-Omar; Petri, Marcelo Heron; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Chavarría-Ávila, Efraín; Corona-Meraz, Fernanda-Isadora; Ruíz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Madrigal-Ruíz, Perla-Monserrat; Castro-Albarrán, Jorge; Sandoval-García, Flavio; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena

    2016-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility has been described in insulin resistance (IR). Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL2) is overexpressed in white adipose tissue and is the ligand of C-C motif receptor-2 (CCR2). The CCL2 G-2518A polymorphism is known to regulate gene expression, whereas the physiological effects of the CCR2Val64Ile polymorphism are unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between these polymorphisms with soluble CCL2 levels (sCCL2), metabolic markers, and adiposity. In a cross-sectional study we included 380 Mexican-Mestizo individuals, classified with IR according to Stern criteria. Polymorphism was identified using PCR-RFLP/sequence-specific primers. Anthropometrics and metabolic markers were measured by routine methods and adipokines and sCCL2 by ELISA. The CCL2 polymorphism was associated with IR (polymorphic A+ phenotype frequencies were 70.9%, 82.6%, in individuals with and without IR, resp.). Phenotype carriers CCL2 (A+) displayed lower body mass and fat indexes, insulin and HOMA-IR, and higher adiponectin levels. Individuals with IR presented higher sCCL2 compared to individuals without IR and was associated with CCR2 (Ile+) phenotype. The double-polymorphic phenotype carriers (A+/Ile+) exhibited higher sCCL2 than double-wild-type phenotype carriers (A−/Ile−). The present findings suggest that sCCL2 production possibly will be associated with the adiposity and polymorphic phenotypes of CCL2 and CCR2, in Mexican-Mestizos with IR. PMID:26839895

  2. CCL2 Serum Levels and Adiposity Are Associated with the Polymorphic Phenotypes -2518A on CCL2 and 64ILE on CCR2 in a Mexican Population with Insulin Resistance

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    Milton-Omar Guzmán-Ornelas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic susceptibility has been described in insulin resistance (IR. Chemokine (C-C motif ligand-2 (CCL2 is overexpressed in white adipose tissue and is the ligand of C-C motif receptor-2 (CCR2. The CCL2 G-2518A polymorphism is known to regulate gene expression, whereas the physiological effects of the CCR2Val64Ile polymorphism are unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between these polymorphisms with soluble CCL2 levels (sCCL2, metabolic markers, and adiposity. In a cross-sectional study we included 380 Mexican-Mestizo individuals, classified with IR according to Stern criteria. Polymorphism was identified using PCR-RFLP/sequence-specific primers. Anthropometrics and metabolic markers were measured by routine methods and adipokines and sCCL2 by ELISA. The CCL2 polymorphism was associated with IR (polymorphic A+ phenotype frequencies were 70.9%, 82.6%, in individuals with and without IR, resp.. Phenotype carriers CCL2 (A+ displayed lower body mass and fat indexes, insulin and HOMA-IR, and higher adiponectin levels. Individuals with IR presented higher sCCL2 compared to individuals without IR and was associated with CCR2 (Ile+ phenotype. The double-polymorphic phenotype carriers (A+/Ile+ exhibited higher sCCL2 than double-wild-type phenotype carriers (A−/Ile−. The present findings suggest that sCCL2 production possibly will be associated with the adiposity and polymorphic phenotypes of CCL2 and CCR2, in Mexican-Mestizos with IR.

  3. Increase in chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2 in blood from pigs infected with high compared to low virulence African swine fever virus isolates.

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    Fishbourne, Emma; Hutet, Evelyne; Abrams, Charles; Cariolet, Roland; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Takamatsu, Haru-H; Dixon, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    Modulation of the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in whole blood was compared following infection of pigs with high and low virulence isolates of African swine fever virus. Levels of mRNAs for CCL2, CCL3L1, CCL4, CXCL10, CCR1 and CCR5 were significantly increased in at least one time point following infection in two experiments and CCL5, CCR9 and CXCR4 mRNA were significantly increased in one of the experiments. The results showed that greatest fold increases in mRNAs for CXCL10 and CCL2 were observed following infection of pigs. CXCL10 mRNA was increased by up to 15 fold in infected compared to uninfected pigs. CXCL10 protein was also detected in serum from pigs infected with the high virulence Benin 97/1 isolate. Levels of CCL2 mRNA were increased in pigs infected with high virulence Benin 97/1 isolate compared to low virulence OURT88/3 isolate and this correlated with an increase of greater than 30 fold in levels of CCL2 protein detected in serum from pigs infected with this isolate. An increase in overall chemotaxis active compounds in defibrinated plasma samples from Benin 97/1 infected pigs was observed at 3 days post-infection (dpi) and a decrease by 7 dpi as measured by chemotaxis assay using normal pig leucocytes in vitro. Increased levels of CXCL10 may either contribute to the activation of lymphocyte priming toward the Th1 phenotype or induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis. Increased levels of CCL2, a chemoattractant for macrophages, may result in increased recruitment of monocytes from bone marrow thus increasing the pool of cells susceptible to infection.

  4. Enhancement of paclitaxel and carboplatin therapies by CCL2 blockade in ovarian cancers

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    Moisan, Francois; Francisco, Edgar B.; Brozovic, Anamaria; Duran, George E.; Wang, Yan C.; Chaturvedi, Shalini; Seetharam, Shobha; Snyder, Linda A.; Doshi, Parul; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is associated with a leukocyte infiltrate and high levels of chemokines such as CCL2. We tested the hypothesis that CCL2 inhibition can enhance chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Elevated CCL2 expression was found in three non-MDR paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer lines ES-2/TP, MES-OV/TP and OVCAR-3/TP, compared to parental cells. Mice xenografted with these cells were treated with the anti-human CCL2 antibody CNTO 888 and the anti-mouse MCP-1 antibody C1142, with and without paclitaxel or carboplatin. Our results show an additive effect of CCL2 blockade on the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin. This therapeutic effect was largely due to inhibition of mouse stromal CCL2. We show that inhibition of CCL2 can enhance paclitaxel and carboplatin therapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:24816187

  5. Nuclear phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C β1 controls cytoplasmic CCL2 mRNA levels in HIV-1 gp120-stimulated primary human macrophages.

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    Francesca Spadaro

    Full Text Available HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces, independently of infection, the release of CCL2 from macrophages. In turn, this chemokine acts as an autocrine factor enhancing viral replication. In this study, we show for the first time that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC is required for the production of CCL2 triggered by gp120 in macrophages. Using a combination of confocal laser-scanner microscopy, pharmacologic inhibition, western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, we demonstrate that gp120 interaction with CCR5 leads to nuclear localization of the PI-PLC β1 isozyme mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK-1/2. Notably, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC, previously reported to be required for NF-kB-mediated CCL2 production induced by gp120 in macrophages, drives both ERK1/2 activation and PI-PLC β1 nuclear localization induced by gp120. PI-PLC β1 activation through CCR5 is also triggered by the natural chemokine ligand CCL4, but independently of ERK1/2. Finally, PI-PLC inhibition neither blocks gp120-mediated NF-kB activation nor overall accumulation of CCL2 mRNA, whereas it decreases CCL2 transcript level in the cytoplasm. These results identify nuclear PI-PLC β1 as a new intermediate in the gp120-triggered PC-PLC-driven signal transduction pathway leading to CCL2 secretion in macrophages. The finding that a concerted gp120-mediated signaling involving both PC- and PI-specific PLCs is required for the expression of CCL2 in macrophages suggests that this signal transduction pathway may also be relevant for the modulation of viral replication in these cells. Thus, this study may contribute to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention in HIV-1 infection.

  6. Elevated Levels of Microbial Translocation Markers and CCL2 Among Older HIV-1-Infected Men.

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    Scully, Eileen; Lockhart, Ainsley; Huang, Lisa; Robles, Yvonne; Becerril, Carlos; Romero-Tejeda, Marisol; Albrecht, Mary A; Palmer, Christine D; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lin, Nina H

    2016-03-01

    The aging of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected population obligates a focus on the interaction between aging, comorbid conditions, and HIV-1. We recruited a cohort of HIV-1-infected men aged ≤ 35 years or ≥ 50 years who were receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed plasma markers of inflammation; T-cell activation, exhaustion, proliferation; and innate cellular subsets and functional capacity. Levels of lipopolysaccharide and the plasma marker of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were significantly elevated in older HIV-infected men despite comparable cellular phenotypes. Compared with similarly age-stratified uninfected subjects, older HIV-1-infected adults were also more frequently in the upper quartile of soluble CD14 expression.

  7. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

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    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  8. The Duffy null genotype is associated with a lower level of CCL2, leukocytes and neutrophil count but not with the clinical outcome of HTLV-1 infection.

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    da Silva-Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes; Sales, Camila Campos; Guimarães, Jacqueline Cronemberger; de Cássia Gonçalves, Poliane; Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Santos, Hadassa Campos; da Costa Pereira, Alexandre; Ribas, João Gabriel; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Martins, Marina Lobato

    2017-08-04

    Chemokines are important in the immune response against viral infections, and may play a role in human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), such as rs12075 (A>G; FY*B>FY*A) and rs281477 (-46T>C; GATA-1 box) may influence circulating concentrations of proinflammatory chemokines. We investigate whether Duffy genotypes influence the HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) level, HTLV-1 infection outcome and chemokine concentrations in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (AC=162), HAM/TSP patients (HAM=135) and seronegative individuals (SN=71). Quantification of plasmatic IL8, CCL2 and CCL5 were performed by flow cytometry and Duffy genotypes were investigated by real-time PCR. HTLV-1 PVL was quantified in peripheral blood. To control for spurious association, individual ancestry profiles in AC and HAM groups were investigated.Results/Key findings. PVL and IL8 level were significantly higher in the HAM group than in the AC group, but were not associated with Duffy genotypes. The highest CCL2 and CCL5 levels were seen in the SN group, and there was no difference when comparing the infected groups. The level of CCL5 was not associated with Duffy genotypes. The polymorphism -46 C/C that abrogates the DARC expression on the erythrocytes was significantly associated with lower levels of CCL2, neutrophil and white blood cell (WBC) counts in HTLV-1-infected individuals. We conclude that although the Duffy null genotype was associated with leukopenia, neutropenia and lower levels of CCL2, the data do not suggest the influence of Duffy genotypes on the neurologic outcome of HTLV-1 infection, but may be a confounding factor in comparison HTLV-1-infected populations with different ancestries, especially when defining inflammatory biomarkers.

  9. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis.

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    de-Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria; Gandini, Mariana; Freitas, Laís Picinini; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Marinho, Cíntia Ferreira; Setúbal, Sérgio; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Oliveira, Solange Artimos de

    2012-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and parvovirus B19 (B19V) infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (Ra), CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10), CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37) and DENV-infected (36) patients and from healthy individuals (7). Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  10. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis

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    Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and parvovirus B19 (B19V infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra, CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37 and DENV-infected (36 patients and from healthy individuals (7. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  11. MicroRNA-33 suppresses CCL2 expression in chondrocytes.

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    Wei, Meng; Xie, Qingyun; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Yue; Guo, Dongyang; Wang, Ying; Mo, Liweng; Wang, Shuai

    2016-06-01

    CCL2-mediated macrophage infiltration in articular tissues plays a pivotal role in the development of the osteoarthritis (OA). miRNAs regulate the onset and progression of diseases via controlling the expression of a series of genes. How the CCL2 gene was regulated by miRNAs was still not fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that the binding sites of miR-33 in the 3'UTR of CCL2 gene were conserved in human, mouse and rat species. By performing gain- or loss-of-function studies, we verified that miR-33 suppressed CCL2 expression in the mRNA and protein levels. We also found that miR-33 suppressed the CCL2 levels in the supernatant of cultured primary mouse chondrocytes. With reporter gene assay, we demonstrated that miR-33 targeted at AAUGCA in the 3'UTR of CCL2 gene. In transwell migration assays, we demonstrated that the conditional medium (CM) from miR-33 deficient chondrocytes potentiated the monocyte chemotaxis in a CCL2 dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrated that the level of miR-33 was decreased, whereas the CCL2 level was increased in the articular cartilage from the OA patients compared with the control group. In summary, we identified miR-33 as a novel suppressor of CCL2 in chondrocytes. The miR-33/CCL2 axis in chondrocytes regulates monocyte chemotaxis, providing a potential mechanism of macrophage infiltration in OA.

  12. CCL2 mediates the circadian response to low dose endotoxin.

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    Duhart, José M; Brocardo, Lucila; Mul Fedele, Malena L; Guglielmotti, Angelo; Golombek, Diego A

    2016-09-01

    The mammalian circadian system is mainly originated in a master oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the hypothalamus. Previous reports from our and other groups have shown that the SCN are sensitive to systemic immune activation during the early night, through a mechanism that relies on the action of proinflammatory factors within this structure. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is induced in the brain upon peripheral immune activation, and it has been shown to modulate neuronal physiology. In the present work we tested whether CCL2 might be involved in the response of the circadian clock to peripheral endotoxin administration. The CCL2 receptor, C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), was detected in the SCN of mice, with higher levels of expression during the early night, when the clock is sensitive to immune activation. Ccl2 was induced in the SCN upon intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Furthermore, mice receiving an intracerebroventricular (Icv) administration of a CCL2 synthesis inhibitor (Bindarit), showed a reduction LPS-induced circadian phase changes and Icv delivery of CCL2 led to phase delays in the circadian clock. In addition, we tested the possibility that CCL2 might also be involved in the photic regulation of the clock. Icv administration of Bindarit did not modify the effects of light pulses on the circadian clock. In summary, we found that CCL2, acting at the SCN level is important for the circadian effects of immune activation.

  13. CCL2/MCP-I genotype-phenotype relationship in latent tuberculosis infection.

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    Rabia Hussain

    Full Text Available Among the known biomarkers, chemokines, secreted by activated macrophages and T cells, attract groups of immune cells to the site of infection and may determine the clinical outcome. Association studies of CCL-2/MCP-1 -2518 A/G functional SNP linked to high and low phenotypes with tuberculosis disease susceptibility have shown conflicting results in tuberculosis. Some of these differences could be due the variability of latent infection and recent exposure in the control groups. We have therefore carried out a detailed analysis of CCL-2 genotype SNP -2518 (A/G transition with plasma CCL-2 levels and related these levels to tuberculin skin test positivity in asymptomatic community controls with no known exposure to tuberculosis and in recently exposed household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. TST positivity was linked to higher concentrations of plasma CCL2 (Mann Whitney U test; p = 0.004 and was more marked when the G allele was present in TST+ asymptomatic controls (A/G; p = 0.01. Recent exposure also had a significant effect on CCL-2 levels and was linked to the G allele (p = 0.007. Therefore association studies for susceptibility or protection from disease should take into consideration the PPD status as well as recent exposure of the controls group used for comparison. Our results also suggest a role for CCL-2 in maintaining the integrity of granuloma in asymptomatic individuals with latent infection in high TB burden settings. Therefore additional studies into the role of CCL-2 in disease reactivation and progression are warranted.

  14. Elevated Levels of Microbial Translocation Markers and CCL2 Among Older HIV-1–Infected Men

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    Scully, Eileen; Lockhart, Ainsley; Huang, Lisa; Robles, Yvonne; Becerril, Carlos; Romero-Tejeda, Marisol; Albrecht, Mary A.; Palmer, Christine D.; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Lin, Nina H.

    2016-01-01

    The aging of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected population obligates a focus on the interaction between aging, comorbid conditions, and HIV-1. We recruited a cohort of HIV-1–infected men aged ≤35 years or ≥50 years who were receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed plasma markers of inflammation; T-cell activation, exhaustion, proliferation; and innate cellular subsets and functional capacity. Levels of lipopolysaccharide and the plasma marker of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were significantly elevated in older HIV-infected men despite comparable cellular phenotypes. Compared with similarly age-stratified uninfected subjects, older HIV-1–infected adults were also more frequently in the upper quartile of soluble CD14 expression. PMID:26494772

  15. Systemic levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL8 differ according to age, time period and season among children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S U; Eising, S; Mortensen, H B;

    2014-01-01

    -based registry of children diagnosed with T1D from 1997 to 2005, we studied five different inflammatory chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and CXCL8). Four hundred and eighty-two cases and 479 sibling frequencies matched on age and sample year distribution were included. Patients showed lower levels of CCL4...... compared to siblings, but this result was not significant after correction for multiple testing. CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL8 levels were highest in the most recent cohorts (P siblings. A significant seasonal variation - for most of the chemokines - was demonstrated...... with the highest level during the summer period in both patients and siblings. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between CCL4 levels and age. When comparing patients and siblings, remarkably few differences were identified, but interestingly chemokine levels varied with age, season...

  16. CC-Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) Suppresses High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Internalization and Cholesterol Efflux via CC-Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2) Induction and p42/44 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation in Human Endothelial Cells.

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    Sun, Run-Lu; Huang, Can-Xia; Bao, Jin-Lan; Jiang, Jie-Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Cai, Wei-Bin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Ling

    2016-09-09

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed to be internalized and to promote reverse cholesterol transport in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the mechanism underlying these processes has not been studied. In this study, we aim to characterize HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux in ECs and regulatory mechanisms. We found mature HDL particles were reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which was associated with an increase in CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). In cultured primary human coronary artery endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we determined that CCL2 suppressed the binding (4 °C) and association (37 °C) of HDL to/with ECs and HDL cellular internalization. Furthermore, CCL2 inhibited [(3)H]cholesterol efflux to HDL/apoA1 in ECs. We further found that CCL2 induced CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression and siRNA-CCR2 reversed CCL2 suppression on HDL binding, association, internalization, and on cholesterol efflux in ECs. Moreover, CCL2 induced p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation via CCR2, and p42/44 MAPK inhibition reversed the suppression of CCL2 on HDL metabolism in ECs. Our study suggests that CCL2 was elevated in CAD patients. CCL2 suppressed HDL internalization and cholesterol efflux via CCR2 induction and p42/44 MAPK activation in ECs. CCL2 induction may contribute to impair HDL function and form atherosclerosis in CAD.

  17. Chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2: differential involvement in intrathecal inflammation in multiple sclerosis

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    Sørensen, T.L.; Sellebjerg, F; Jensen, C.V.;

    2001-01-01

    . The levels of CXCL10 were higher in the patient group than in controls but two outliers in the control group also had high CSF concentrations of CXCL10. The CSF concentrations of CXCL10 did not change over time or after treatment. The CSF concentration of CXCL10 was positively correlated with the CSF...... and IgG synthesis levels. CXCL10 may be involved in the maintenance of intrathecal inflammation whereas CCL2 correlates negatively with measures of inflammation, suggesting differential involvement of CXCL10 and CCL2 in CNS inflammation...

  18. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus targets the lymphotactin receptor with both a broad spectrum antagonist vCCL2 and a highly selective and potent agonist vCCL3

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    Lüttichau, Hans R; Johnsen, Anders H; Jurlander, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    Large DNA viruses such as herpesvirus and poxvirus encode proteins that target and exploit the chemokine system of their host. These proteins have the potential to block or change the orchestrated recruitment of leukocytes to sites of viral infection. The genome of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes...... virus (KSHV) encodes three chemokine-like proteins named vCCL1, vCCL2, and vCCL3. In this study vCCL3 was probed in parallel with vCCL1 and vCCL2 against a panel of the 18 classified human chemokine receptors. In calcium mobilization assays vCCL1 acted as a selective CCR8 agonist, whereas vCCL2...... was found to act as a broad spectrum chemokine antagonist of human chemokine receptors, including the lymphotactin receptor. In contrast vCCL3 was found to be a highly selective agonist for the human lymphotactin receptor XCR1. The potency of vCCL3 was found to be 10-fold higher than the endogenous human...

  19. BMP15 Prevents Cumulus Cell Apoptosis Through CCL2 and FBN1 in Porcine Ovaries

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    Bo Zhai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15 is a maternal gene necessary for mammalian reproduction. BMP15 expression increased in oocytes accompanied by follicle growth and development. The function and regulation mechanism of BMP15 in porcine cumulus cell apoptosis process is still unclear now. Methods: In this study, flow cytometry (FCM was used to analyze the effects of BMP15 with different concentrations to cumulus cell apoptosis. High-throughput sequencing technology was carried out to screen regulatory genes linked closely with BMP15. In order to confirm the function of (MCP-1/CCL2 and FBN1 in cumulus cell apoptosis, RNA interference (RNAi method was used to inhibit the expression of (MCP-1/CCL2 and FBN1. Apoptosis and proliferation of cumulus cell treated with siRNA transfection technology were measured by FCM, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, quantitative real time-PCR (RT-qPCR and western blotting. Results: The results showed that the apoptosis levels of cumulus cell treated by BMP15 decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of related genes protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2 and fibrillin1 (FBN1 were both regulated by BMP15. After transfection, the proliferation of porcine cumulus cells increased significantly and apoptosis of cumulus cells was prevented while FBN1 was silenced after BMP15 treatment. The proliferation of cumulus cells decreased significantly and apoptosis rate of cumulus cells increased significantly while CCL2 was silenced. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study firstly demonstrated that CCL2 and FBN1 are important regulatory factors of BMP15 in preventing cumulus cell apoptosis in porcine ovaries.

  20. Beneficial impact of CCL2 and CCL12 neutralization on experimental malignant pleural effusion.

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    Antonia Marazioti

    Full Text Available Using genetic interventions, we previously determined that C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 promotes malignant pleural effusion (MPE formation in mice. Here we conducted preclinical studies aimed at assessing the specific therapeutic potential of antibody-mediated CCL2 blockade against MPE. For this, murine MPEs or skin tumors were generated in C57BL/6 mice by intrapleural or subcutaneous delivery of lung (LLC or colon (MC38 adenocarcinoma cells. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 were used to induce MPEs in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Intraperitoneal antibodies neutralizing mouse CCL2 and/or CCL12, a murine CCL2 ortholog, were administered at 10 or 50 mg/kg every three days. We found that high doses of CCL2/12 neutralizing antibody treatment (50 mg/kg were required to limit MPE formation by LLC cells. CCL2 and CCL12 blockade were equally potent inhibitors of MPE development by LLC cells. Combined CCL2 and CCL12 neutralization was also effective against MC38-induced MPE and prolonged the survival of mice in both syngeneic models. Mouse-specific CCL2-blockade limited A549-caused xenogeneic MPE, indicating that host-derived CCL2 also contributes to MPE precipitation in mice. The impact of CCL2/12 antagonism was associated with inhibition of immune and vascular MPE-related phenomena, such as inflammation, new blood vessel assembly and plasma extravasation into the pleural space. We conclude that CCL2 and CCL12 blockade are effective against experimental MPE induced by murine and human adenocarcinoma in mice. These results suggest that CCL2-targeted therapies may hold promise for future use against human MPE.

  1. CCL2 induction by 1,25(OH)2D3 in dendritic cells from healthy donors and multiple sclerosis patients.

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    Sanseverino, Isabella; Rinaldi, Arturo O; Purificato, Cristina; Cortese, Antonio; Millefiorini, Enrico; Gessani, Sandra; Gauzzi, M Cristina

    2014-10-01

    CCL2 plays a pivotal role in the recruitment of different immune cells to sites of inflammation and evidence indicates its involvement in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. MS lesions are characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate, whose nature is controlled by chemokines and cytokines, and elevated expression of CCL2 has been found in acute and chronic MS plaques within the brain. Vitamin D deficiency is currently considered one of the main environmental MS risk factors. In this study we analyzed the role of 1,25(OH)2D3, the bioactive vitamin D metabolite, in the regulation of CCL2 expression by dendritic cells (DC) obtained from healthy donors and relapsing-remitting MS patients. We report that 1,25(OH)2D3, as well as 25OHD3, its main blood precursor, induce the secretion of high levels of CCL2. 1,25(OH)2D3-induced CCL2 levels are comparable to those secreted in response to a classical DC maturation stimulus. Moreover, we observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 is able to induce a significant CCL2 secretion in DC obtained from relapsing-remitting MS patients, although CCL2 levels in these latter are lower with respect to healthy controls. The cause(s) of this apparently defective response of DC from patients and its consequences in the context of MS remain to be elucidated. However, we propose CCL2 as a molecular player contributing to the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25(OH)2D3 on DC, and hypothesize a role for this chemokine in the response of MS patients to vitamin D therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  2. Administration of Myelin Basic Protein Peptides Encapsulated in Mannosylated Liposomes Normalizes Level of Serum TNF-α and IL-2 and Chemoattractants CCL2 and CCL4 in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Yakov; Belogurov, Alexey; Glagoleva, Irina; Stepanov, Alexey; Zakharov, Konstantin; Okunola, John; Smirnov, Ivan; Genkin, Dmitry; Gabibov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that immunodominant MBP peptides encapsulated in mannosylated liposomes (Xemys) effectively suppressed experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Within the frames of the successfully completed phase I clinical trial, we investigated changes in the serum cytokine profile after Xemys administration in MS patients. We observed a statistically significant decrease of MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1β/CCL4, IL-7, and IL-2 at the time of study completion. In contrast, the serum levels of TNF-α were remarkably elevated. Our data suggest that the administration of Xemys leads to a normalization of cytokine status in MS patients to values commonly reported for healthy subjects. These data are an important contribution for the upcoming Xemys clinical trials.

  3. Administration of Myelin Basic Protein Peptides Encapsulated in Mannosylated Liposomes Normalizes Level of Serum TNF-α and IL-2 and Chemoattractants CCL2 and CCL4 in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov Lomakin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that immunodominant MBP peptides encapsulated in mannosylated liposomes (Xemys effectively suppressed experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE. Within the frames of the successfully completed phase I clinical trial, we investigated changes in the serum cytokine profile after Xemys administration in MS patients. We observed a statistically significant decrease of MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1β/CCL4, IL-7, and IL-2 at the time of study completion. In contrast, the serum levels of TNF-α were remarkably elevated. Our data suggest that the administration of Xemys leads to a normalization of cytokine status in MS patients to values commonly reported for healthy subjects. These data are an important contribution for the upcoming Xemys clinical trials.

  4. CCL2 Promotes Colorectal Carcinogenesis by Enhancing Polymorphonuclear Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Population and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Chun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study reveals a non-canonical role for CCL2 in modulating non-macrophage, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs and shaping a tumor-permissive microenvironment during colon cancer development. We found that intratumoral CCL2 levels increased in patients with colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC, adenocarcinomas, and adenomas. Deletion of CCL2 blocked progression from dysplasia to adenocarcinoma and reduced the number of colonic MDSCs in a spontaneous mouse model of colitis-associated CRC. In a transplantable mouse model of adenocarcinoma and an APC-driven adenoma model, CCL2 fostered MDSC accumulation in evolving colonic tumors and enhanced polymorphonuclear (PMN-MDSC immunosuppressive features. Mechanistically, CCL2 regulated T cell suppression of PMN-MDSCs in a STAT3-mediated manner. Furthermore, CCL2 neutralization decreased tumor numbers and MDSC accumulation and function. Collectively, our experiments support that perturbing CCL2 and targeting MDSCs may afford therapeutic opportunities for colon cancer interception and prevention.

  5. [CCL2/CCR2 signaling activation contributes to tooth movement pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Luo, Wei; Fu, Runqing; Tan, Yu; Yuan, Lingjun; Fang, Bing

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that the CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway plays an important role in pain induced by experimental tooth movement. Male Sprague- Dawley rats weighing between 200 and 300 g were used in this study. Expression of CCL2/CCR2 in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) was determined by Western blotting 0 h, 4 h, 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d after tooth movement. Localization of the CCL2 was revealed by immunohistochemistry. Changes in body weight, nocifensive behaviors, and the effects of CCL2/CCR2 antagonists on these changes in pain behaviors were evaluated. Exogenous CCL2 was injected into periodontal tissues and added to TG neurons in culture and the resulting c-fos expression and pain responses were detected. In addition, the expression and cellular localization of CCL2 in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) was determined by immunohistochemistry 3 d and 14 d after tooth movement. Experimental tooth movement led to a statistically significant increase in CCL2/CCR2 expression at the protein level from day 3 to 7 after application of force initiating tooth movement.When compared with control group (1.000 ± 0.000), CCL2 increased to (2.620 ± 0.128), (3.300 ± 0.197) and (1.740 ± 1.290) at day 3, 5 and 7 respectively, which were statistically significant (P tooth movement and involved in the development of tooth movement pain, and thus palyed an important role in orthodontic pain mechanism.

  6. Equine herpesvirus type-1 modulates CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christine L; Damiani, Armando; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Wagner, Bettina

    2011-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is highly prevalent in horses and causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion, and encephalopathy. Studies on the related human herpes simplex virus and of murine models of EHV-1 suggest that chemokines play important roles in coordinating of innate and adaptive immune responses, and thus effective control of herpesvirus infection and prevention of severe clinical disease. Here, equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were infected with one of three EHV-1 strains, which differ in pathogenicity (RacL11, NY03=abortogenic, Ab4=neurogenic). Changes in CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 chemokine gene expression relative to non-infected PBMC were measured by real-time PCR. CXCL9 and CXCL10 gene expression was up-regulated 10h post infection and decreased to the level of non-infected cells after 24h. CCL2 and CCL3 were significantly down-regulated 24h post infection with NY03 and Ab4. CCL5 was up-regulated 24h after infection with RacL11. Ab4 infected PBMC had significantly lower expression of all chemokines except CCL2 24h post infection then RacL11 infected cells. While there was not a significant difference between NY03 and the other strains, there was a trend with each chemokine toward NY03 inducing less expression then RacL11 but more then Ab4. The data suggested that EHV-1 infection of PBMC induced up-regulation of inflammatory chemokines CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10, and down-regulation of chemotactic CCL2 and CCL3. The data also implies that different EHV-1 strains have varying effects on all five chemokines, with the nuropathogenic strain, Ab4, having the greatest suppressive potential.

  7. The rs1024611 regulatory region polymorphism is associated with CCL2 allelic expression imbalance.

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    Minh-Hieu T Pham

    Full Text Available CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 is the most potent monocyte chemoattractant and inter-individual differences in its expression level have been associated with genetic variants mapping to the cis-regulatory regions of the gene. An A to G polymorphism in the CCL2 enhancer region at position -2578 (rs1024611; A>G, was found in most studies to be associated with higher serum CCL2 levels and increased susceptibility to a variety of diseases such as HIV-1 associated neurological disorders, tuberculosis, and atherosclerosis. However, the precise mechanism by which rs1024611influences CCL2 expression is not known. To address this knowledge gap, we tested the hypothesis that rs1024611G polymorphism is associated with allelic expression imbalance (AEI of CCL2. We used haplotype analysis and identified a transcribed SNP in the 3'UTR (rs13900; C>T can serve as a proxy for the rs1024611 and demonstrated that the rs1024611G allele displayed a perfect linkage disequilibrium with rs13900T allele. Allele-specific transcript quantification in lipopolysaccharide treated PBMCs obtained from heterozygous donors showed that rs13900T allele were expressed at higher levels when compared to rs13900C allele in all the donors examined suggesting that CCL2 is subjected to AEI and that that the allele containing rs1024611G is preferentially transcribed. We also found that AEI of CCL2 is a stable trait and could be detected in newly synthesized RNA. In contrast to these in vivo findings, in vitro assays with haplotype-specific reporter constructs indicated that the haplotype bearing rs1024611G had a lower or similar transcriptional activity when compared to the haplotype containing rs1024611A. This discordance between the in vivo and in vitro expression studies suggests that the CCL2 regulatory region polymorphisms may be functioning in a complex and context-dependent manner. In summary, our studies provide strong functional evidence and a rational explanation for the phenotypic

  8. Obesity increases histone H3 lysine 9 and 18 acetylation at Tnfa and Ccl2 genes in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Michal; Majewska, Aneta; Ledwon, Joanna Karolina; Dzwonek, Artur; Ostrowski, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Obesity contributes to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by the upregulated expression of two key inflammatory mediators: tumor necrosis factor (Tnfa) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (Mcp1; also known as Ccl2). However, the chromatin make-up at these genes in the liver in obese individuals has not been explored. In this study, to identify obesity-mediated epigenetic changes at Tnfa and Ccl2, we used a murine model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and hyperphagic (ob/ob) mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to determine the abundance of permissive histone marks, namely histone H3 lysine 9 and 18 acetylation (H3K9/K18Ac), H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), in conjunction with polymerase 2 RNA (Pol2) and nuclear factor (Nf)-κB recruitment in the liver. Additionally, to correlate the liver tissue-derived ChIP measurements with a robust in vitro transcriptional response at the Tnfa and Ccl2 genes, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment to induce an inflammatory response in Hepa1-6 cells, a cell line derived from murine hepatocytes. ChIP revealed increased H3K9/K18Ac at Tnfa and Ccl2 in the obese mice, although the differences were only statistically significant for Tnfa (pgenes in the obese mice. By contrast, the acute treatment of Hepa1-6 cells with LPS significantly increased the H3K9/K18Ac marks, as well as Pol2 and Nf-κB recruitment at both genes, while the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks remained unaltered. These results demonstrate that increased Tnfa and Ccl2 expression in fatty liver at the chromatin level corresponds to changes in the level of histone H3 acetylation.

  9. Direct and indirect pharmacological modulation of CCL2/CCR2 pathway results in attenuation of neuropathic pain - In vivo and in vitro evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Kwiatkowski, Klaudia; Rojewska, Ewelina; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Makuch, Wioletta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-08-15

    The repeated administration of microglial inhibitor (minocycline) and CCR2 antagonist (RS504393) attenuated the neuropathic pain symptoms in rats following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, which was associated with decreased spinal microglia activation and the protein level of CCL2 and CCR2. Furthermore, in microglia primary cell cultures minocycline downregulated both CCL2 and CCR2 protein levels after lipopolysaccharide-stimulation. Additionally, in astroglia primary cell cultures minocycline decreased the expression of CCL2, but not CCR2. Our results provide new evidence that modulation of CCL2/CCR2 pathway by microglial inhibitor as well as CCR2 antagonist is effective for neuropathic pain development in rats.

  10. Immune response CC chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 are associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis

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    Palchevskiy Vyacheslav

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary sarcoidosis involves an intense leukocyte infiltration of the lung with the formation of non-necrotizing granulomas. CC chemokines (chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2-CCL5 are chemoattractants of mononuclear cells and act through seven transmembrane G-coupled receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results with regard to the associations of these chemokines with sarcoidosis. In an effort to clarify previous discrepancies, we performed the largest observational study to date of CC chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Results BALF chemokine levels from 72 patients affected by pulmonary sarcoidosis were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and compared to 8 healthy volunteers. BALF CCL3 and CCL4 levels from pulmonary sarcoidosis patients were not increased compared to controls. However, CCL2 and CCL5 levels were elevated, and subgroup analysis showed higher levels of both chemokines in all stages of pulmonary sarcoidosis. CCL2, CCL5, CC chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1, CCR2 and CCR3 were expressed from mononuclear cells forming the lung granulomas, while CCR5 was only found on mast cells. Conclusions These data suggest that CCL2 and CCL5 are important mediators in recruiting CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3 expressing mononuclear cells as well as CCR5-expressing mast cells during all stages of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  11. Immune response CC Chemokines, CCL2 and CCL5 are associated with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palchevskiy, Vyacheslav

    2011-04-04

    Abstract Background Pulmonary sarcoidosis involves an intense leukocyte infiltration of the lung with the formation of non-necrotizing granulomas. CC chemokines (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)-CCL5) are chemoattractants of mononuclear cells and act through seven transmembrane G-coupled receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results with regard to the associations of these chemokines with sarcoidosis. In an effort to clarify previous discrepancies, we performed the largest observational study to date of CC chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Results BALF chemokine levels from 72 patients affected by pulmonary sarcoidosis were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared to 8 healthy volunteers. BALF CCL3 and CCL4 levels from pulmonary sarcoidosis patients were not increased compared to controls. However, CCL2 and CCL5 levels were elevated, and subgroup analysis showed higher levels of both chemokines in all stages of pulmonary sarcoidosis. CCL2, CCL5, CC chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1), CCR2 and CCR3 were expressed from mononuclear cells forming the lung granulomas, while CCR5 was only found on mast cells. Conclusions These data suggest that CCL2 and CCL5 are important mediators in recruiting CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3 expressing mononuclear cells as well as CCR5-expressing mast cells during all stages of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  12. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Holzinger, R.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC- 12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare

  13. CCl2-光电子能谱:Ab Initio计算与Franck-Condon分析%Photoelectron Spectra of CCl 2-:Ab Initio Calculation and Franck-Condon Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军

    2015-01-01

    Geometry optimization and harmonic vibrational frequency calculations were performed on the ~X1 A1 state of CCl2 and~X2B1 state of CCl-2 at the B3LYP ,MP2 ,CCSD levels .Franck-Condon analysis and spectral simulations were carried out on the photoelectron band of CCl2- including Duschinsky effects .The simulated spectra obtained are in excellent agreement with the ex-periment .Note that Duschinsky effect between bending vibration and the symmetric stretch modes should be considered in the CCl2 (~X1 A1 )-CCl-2 (~X2 B1 ) photodetachment process .By combining ab initio calculations with Franck-Condon analyses ,the as-signment of spectrum observed is firmly established to the ~X1 A1-~X2 B1 photodetachment process of the CCl-2 radical ,and the rec-ommended geometric parameters of which in the literature are confirmed again base on ab initio theory and IFCA process .%在B3LYP ,M P2,CCSD水平理论下,分别对CCl2分子~X1 A1态和CCl2-分子~X2 B1态进行了几何结构优化和谐振频率分析。在考虑“Duschinsky效应”情况下,通过Franck-Condon因子计算模拟了CCl2-离子的光电子能谱带。计算表明弯曲振动模与对称伸缩模发生了模式混合,即“Duschinsky效应”在该体系中不能简单忽略。数值模拟的CCl2-在~X1 A1-~X2 B1电子态跃迁中振动分辨的理论谱与实验测量到的光电子能谱能够较好吻合,并对其中的振动谱线进行了归属和标识。结合 ab initio计算和 IFCA 方法,对 M urray , Leopold ,Miller和Lineberger推荐的CCl2-的几何构型参数进行了再确认。

  14. Low-energy electron attachment to the dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, K; Haughey, S A; Field, T A; Mayhew, C A; Hoffmann, T H; May, O; Fedor, J; Allan, M; Fabrikant, I I; Illenberger, E; Braun, M; Ruf, M-W; Hotop, H

    2010-01-28

    Results from a joint experimental study of electron attachment to dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl(2)F(2)) molecules in the gas phase are reported. In a high resolution electron beam experiment involving two versions of the laser photoelectron attachment method, the relative cross section for formation of the dominant anion Cl(-) was measured over the energy range 0.001-1.8 eV at the gas temperature T(G) = 300 K. It exhibits cusp structure at thresholds for vibrational excitation of the nu(3)(a(1)) mode due to interaction with the attachment channels. With reference to the thermal attachment rate coefficient k(T = 300 K) = 2.2(8) x 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1) (fitted average from several data), a new highly resolved absolute attachment cross section for T(G) = 300 K was determined. Partial cross sections for formation of the anions Cl(-), Cl(2)(-), F(-), ClF(-), and CCl(2)F(-) were measured over the range 0-12 eV, using three different electron beam experiments of medium energy resolution. The dependence of the attachment rate coefficient k(T(e);T(G) = 300 K) on electron temperature T(e) was calculated over the range 50-15 000 K, based on a newly constructed total cross section for anion formation at T(G) = 300 K. R-matrix calculations for Cl(-) production have been carried out for comparison with the experimental data. The R-matrix results are in line with the main experimental observations and predict the dependence of the DEA cross section on the initial vibrational level nu(3)() and on the vibrational temperature. Furthermore, the cross section for vibrational excitation of the nu(3) mode has been computed.

  15. Vitamin D effects on monocytes' CCL-2, IL6 and CD14 transcription in Addison's disease and HLA susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, A U; Penna-Martinez, M; Meyer, G; Badenhoop, K

    2017-07-29

    Addison's disease is a rare autoimmune disorder leading to adrenal insufficiency and life-long glucocorticoid dependency. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and vitamin D deficiency predispose to Addison's disease. Aim of the current study was, to investigate potential anti-inflammatory vitamin D effects on monocytes in Addison's disease, focusing on inflammatory CCL-2 and IL6, as well on monocyte CD14 markers. Addison's disease is genetically linked to distinct HLA susceptibility alleles. Therefore we analyzed, whether HLA genotypes differed for vitamin D effects on monocyte markers. CD14(+) monocytes were isolated from Addison's disease patients (AD, n=13) and healthy controls (HC, n=15) and stimulated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and IL1β as an inflammatory stimulant. Cells were processed for mRNA expression of CCL-2, IL6 and CD14 and DNA samples were genotyped for major histocompatibility class (MHC) class II-encoded HLA- DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes. We found a downregulation of CCL-2 after vitamin D treatment in IL1β-stimulated monocytes both from AD patients and HC (AD p<0.001; HC p<0.0001). CD14 expression however, was upregulated in both HC and AD patients after vitamin D treatment (p<0.001, respectively). HC showed higher CD14 transcription level than AD patients after vitamin D treatment (p=0.04). Compared to IL1β-induced inflammation, HC have increased CD14 levels after vitamin D treatment (p<0.001), whereas the IL1β-induced CD14 expression of AD patients' monocytes did not change after vitamin D treatment (p=0.8). AD patients carrying HLA high-risk haplotypes showed an increased CCL-2 expression after IL1β-induced inflammation compared to intermediate-risk HLA carriers (p=0.05). Also HC monocytes' CD14 transcription after IL1β and vitamin D co-stimulation differed according to HLA risk profile. We show that vitamin D can exert anti-inflammatory effects on AD patients' monocytes which may be modulated by HLA risk genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  16. Stimulation of MMP-1 and CCL2 by NAMPT in PDL Cells

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    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms and characterized by the destruction of the periodontium. Obese individuals have an increased risk of periodontitis, and elevated circulating levels of adipokines, such as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT, may be a pathomechanistic link between both diseases. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the regulation of periodontal ligament (PDL cells by NAMPT and its production under inflammatory and infectious conditions. NAMPT caused a significant upregulation of 9 genes and downregulation of 3 genes, as analyzed by microarray analysis. Eight of these genes could be confirmed by real-time PCR: NAMPT induced a significant upregulation of EGR1, MMP-1, SYT7, ITPKA, CCL2, NTM, IGF2BP3, and NRP1. NAMPT also increased significantly the MMP-1 and CCL2 protein synthesis. NAMPT was significantly induced by interleukin-1β and the periodontal microorganism P. gingivalis. NAMPT may contribute to periodontitis through upregulation of MMP-1 and CCL2 in PDL cells. Increased NAMPT levels, as found in obesity, may therefore represent a mechanism whereby obesity could confer an increased risk of periodontitis. Furthermore, microbial and inflammatory signals may enhance the NAMPT synthesis in PDL cells and thereby contribute to the increased gingival and serum levels of this adipokine, as found in periodontitis.

  17. CCL2 and CCR2 variants are associated with skeletal muscle strength and change in strength with resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brennan T; Orkunoglu-Suer, E Funda; Adham, Kasra; Larkin, Justin S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Thompson, Paul D; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Hubal, Monica J; Tosi, Laura L; Hoffman, Eric P; Devaney, Joseph M

    2010-12-01

    Baseline muscle size and muscle adaptation to exercise are traits with high variability across individuals. Recent research has implicated several chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of many conditions that are influenced by inflammatory processes, including muscle damage and repair. One specific chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is expressed by macrophages and muscle satellite cells, increases expression dramatically following muscle damage, and increases expression further with repeated bouts of exercise, suggesting that CCL2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. The present study hypothesizes that genetic variations in CCL2 and its receptor (CCR2) may help explain muscle trait variability. College-aged subjects [n = 874, Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Muscle Size and Strength (FAMUSS) cohort] underwent a 12-wk supervised strength-training program for the upper arm muscles. Muscle size (via MR imaging) and elbow flexion strength (1 repetition maximum and isometric) measurements were taken before and after training. The study participants were then genotyped for 11 genetic variants in CCL2 and five variants in CCR2. Variants in the CCL2 and CCR2 genes show strong associations with several pretraining muscle strength traits, indicating that inflammatory genes in skeletal muscle contribute to the polygenic system that determines muscle phenotypes. These associations extend across both sexes, and several of these genetic variants have been shown to influence gene regulation.

  18. CCL2/MCP-1 modulation of microglial activation and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Bueno Borja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monocyte chemoattractant protein (CCL2/MCP-1 is a chemokine that attracts cells involved in the immune/inflammatory response. As microglia are one of the main cell types sustaining inflammation in brain, we proposed here to analyze the direct effects of MCP-1 on cultured primary microglia. Methods Primary microglia and neuronal cultures were obtained from neonatal and embryonic Wistar rats, respectively. Microglia were incubated with different concentrations of recombinant MCP-1 and LPS. Cell proliferation was quantified by measuring incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Nitrite accumulation was measured using the Griess assay. The expression and synthesis of different proteins was measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Cell death was quantified by measuring release of LDH into the culture medium. Results MCP-1 treatment (50 ng/ml, 24 h did not induce morphological changes in microglial cultures. Protein and mRNA levels of different cytokines were measured, showing that MCP-1 was not able to induce proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL6, MIP-1α, either by itself or in combination with LPS. A similar lack of effect was observed when measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 expression or accumulation of nitrites in the culture media as a different indicator of microglial activation. MCP-1 was also unable to alter the expression of different trophic factors that were reduced by LPS treatment. In order to explore the possible release of other products by microglia and their potential neurotoxicity, neurons were co-cultured with microglia: no death of neurons could be detected when treated with MCP-1. However, the presence of MCP-1 induced proliferation of microglia, an effect opposite to that observed with LPS. Conclusion These data indicate that, while causing migration and proliferation of microglia, MCP-1 does not appear to directly activate an inflammatory response in this cell type, and therefore, other factors may be

  19. CCL2, but not its receptor, is essential to restrict immune privileged central nervous system-invasion of Japanese encephalitis virus via regulating accumulation of CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a re-emerging zoonotic flavivirus that poses an increasing threat to global health and welfare due to rapid changes in climate and demography. Although the CCR2-CCL2 axis plays an important role in trafficking CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytes to regulate immunopathological diseases, little is known about their role in monocyte trafficking during viral encephalitis caused by JEV infection. Here, we explored the role of CCR2 and its ligand CCL2 in JE caused by JEV infection using CCR2- and CCL2-ablated murine models. Somewhat surprisingly, the ablation of CCR2 and CCL2 resulted in starkly contrasting susceptibility to JE. CCR2 ablation induced enhanced resistance to JE, whereas CCL2 ablation highly increased susceptibility to JE. This contrasting regulation of JE progression by CCR2 and CCL2 was coupled to central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and Ly-6G(hi) granulocytes. There was also enhanced expression of CC and CXC chemokines in the CNS of CCL2-ablated mice, which appeared to induce CNS infiltration of these cell populations. However, our data revealed that contrasting regulation of JE in CCR2- and CCL2-ablated mice was unlikely to be mediated by innate natural killer and adaptive T-cell responses. Furthermore, CCL2 produced by haematopoietic stem cell-derived leucocytes played a dominant role in CNS accumulation of Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in infected bone marrow chimeric models, thereby exacerbating JE progression. Collectively, our data indicate that CCL2 plays an essential role in conferring protection against JE caused by JEV infection. In addition, blockage of CCR2, but not CCL2, will aid in the development of strategies for prophylactics and therapeutics of JE.

  20. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU)-related tissue damage and angiogenesis is reduced in CCL2⁻/⁻CX₃CR1gfp/gfp mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiawu; Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2014-10-23

    To investigate the roles of the CCL2-CCR2 and CX₃CL1-CX₃CR1 pathways in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU)-mediated retinal tissue damage and angiogenesis. The C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and CCL2(-/-)CX₃CR1(gfp/gfp) (double knockout [DKO]) mice were immunized with IRBP₁₋₂₀. Retinal inflammation and tissue damage were evaluated clinically and histologically at different days postimmunization (p.i.). Retinal neovascular membranes were evaluated by confocal microscopy of retinal flat mounts, and immune cell infiltration by flow cytometry. At day 25 p.i., DKO mice had lower clinical and histological scores and fewer CD45(high)CD11b(+) infiltrating cells compared with WT mice. The F4/80(+) macrophages constitute 40% and 21% and CD11b(+)Gr-1(+)Ly6G(+) neutrophils constitute 10% and 22% of retinal infiltrating cells in WT and DKO mice, respectively. At the late stages of EAU (day 60-90 p.i.), DKO and WT mice had similar levels of inflammatory score. However, less structural damage and reduced angiogenesis were detected in DKO mice. Neutrophils were rarely detected in the inflamed retina in both WT and DKO mice. Macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accounted for 8% and 3% in DKO EAU retina, and 19% and 10% in WT EAU retina; 71% of infiltrating cells were T/B-lymphocytes in DKO EAU retina and 50% in WT EAU retina. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis-mediated retinal tissue damage and angiogenesis is reduced in CCL2(-/-)CX₃CR1(gfp/gfp) mice. Retinal inflammation is dominated by neutrophils at the acute stage and lymphocytes at the chronic stage in these mice. Our results suggest that CCR2(+) and CX₃CR1(+) monocytes are both involved in tissue damage and angiogenesis in EAU. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  1. Corticosterone regulates expression of CCL2 in the intact and chemically injured hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Alvin R; Sriram, Krishnan; O'Callaghan, James P

    2006-05-15

    Expression of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), also known as, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, increases in response to disease-, trauma-, or toxicant-induced damage to the central nervous system (CNS). In the periphery, endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids are known to suppress CCL2 expression associated with inflammatory conditions. However, such actions of glucocorticoids on CCL2 expression in the CNS remain unknown. Here, we explored the effects of the glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), on the expression of CCL2 and its receptors, CCR2 and CCR5, in the hippocampal formation using intact, adrenalectomized (ADX) and trimethyltin (TMT)-treated rats. An immunosuppressive regimen of CORT did not alter the mRNA expression of CCL2 or its receptors in the hippocampus. ADX, however, markedly increased the expression of CCL2 and CCR2 mRNAs in the hippocampus, while CORT replacement reversed the effects of ADX on CCL2 gene expression. Hippocampal damage resulting from systemic administration of the organometallic neurotoxicant, TMT, was associated with microglial activation, as evidenced by enhanced expression of microglial markers integrin alphaM (CD11b) and F4/80, as well as, microglia-associated factors, CCL2 and IL-1alpha. An immunosuppressive dose of CORT, suppressed TMT-induced expression of CCL2. Given the association of CCL2 with microglial activation, it appears that CORT may play a role in regulating microglial activation. However, CORT treatment did not alter TMT-mediated neuronal damage and astrogliosis. Such observations suggest that injury-related expression of microglia-associated chemokines and cytokines may subserve a role unrelated to neuronal damage. In summary, our data indicate that in the CNS, CCL2 gene expression is under negative regulation by glucocorticoids.

  2. Social stress-enhanced severity of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis is CCL2-dependent and attenuated by probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

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    Mackos, A R; Galley, J D; Eubank, T D; Easterling, R S; Parry, N M; Fox, J G; Lyte, M; Bailey, M T

    2016-03-01

    Psychological stressors are known to affect colonic diseases but the mechanisms by which this occurs, and whether probiotics can prevent stressor effects, are not understood. Because inflammatory monocytes that traffic into the colon can exacerbate colitis, we tested whether CCL2, a chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment, was necessary for stressor-induced exacerbation of infectious colitis. Mice were exposed to a social disruption stressor that entails repeated social defeat. During stressor exposure, mice were orally challenged with Citrobacter rodentium to induce a colonic inflammatory response. Exposure to the stressor during challenge resulted in significantly higher colonic pathogen levels, translocation to the spleen, increases in colonic macrophages, and increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The stressor-enhanced severity of C. rodentium-induced colitis was not evident in CCL2(-/-) mice, indicating the effects of the stressor are CCL2-dependent. In addition, we tested whether probiotic intervention could attenuate stressor-enhanced infectious colitis by reducing monocyte/macrophage accumulation. Treating mice with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri reduced CCL2 mRNA levels in the colon and attenuated stressor-enhanced infectious colitis. These data demonstrate that probiotic L. reuteri can prevent the exacerbating effects of stressor exposure on pathogen-induced colitis, and suggest that one mechanism by which this occurs is through downregulation of the chemokine CCL2.

  3. Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, and Obesity: Role of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (orCCL2 in the Regulation of Metabolism

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    Anna Rull

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To maintain homeostasis under diverse metabolic conditions, it is necessary to coordinate nutrient-sensing pathways with the immune response. This coordination requires a complex relationship between cells, hormones, and cytokines in which inflammatory and metabolic pathways are convergent at multiple levels. Recruitment of macrophages to metabolically compromised tissue is a primary event in which chemokines play a crucial role. However, chemokines may also transmit cell signals that generate multiple responses, most unrelated to chemotaxis, that are involved in different biological processes. We have reviewed the evidence showing that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2 may have a systemic role in the regulation of metabolism that sometimes is not necessarily linked to the traffic of inflammatory cells to susceptible tissues. Main topics cover the relationship between MCP-1/CCL2, insulin resistance, inflammation, obesity, and related metabolic disturbances.

  4. Ccl2, Cx3cr1 and Ccl2/Cx3cr1 chemokine deficiencies are not sufficient to cause age-related retinal degeneration.

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    Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Carvalho, Livia S; Robbie, Scott J; Cowing, Jill A; Duran, Yanai; Munro, Peter M G; Bainbridge, James W B; Ali, Robin R

    2013-02-01

    Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and microglia play critical roles in the local immune response to acute and chronic tissue injury and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Defects in Ccl2-Ccr2 and Cx3cl1-Cx3cr1 chemokine signalling cause enhanced accumulation of bloated subretinal microglia/macrophages in senescent mice and this phenomenon is reported to result in the acceleration of age-related retinal degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defects in CCL2-CCR2 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signalling pathways, alone or in combination, cause age-dependent retinal degeneration. We tested whether three chemokine knockout mouse lines, Ccl2(-/-), Cx3cr1(-/-) and Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-), in comparison to age-matched C57Bl/6 control mice show differences in subretinal macrophage accumulation and loss of adjacent photoreceptor cells at 12-14 months of age. All mouse lines are derived from common parental strains and do not carry the homozygous rd8 mutation in the Crb1 gene that has been a major confounding factor in previous reports. We quantified subretinal macrophages by counting autofluorescent lesions in fundus images obtained by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AF-SLO) and by immunohistochemistry for Iba1 positive cells. The accumulation of subretinal macrophages was enhanced in Ccl2(-/-), but not in Cx3cr1(-/-) or Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice. We identified no evidence of retinal degeneration in any of these mouse lines by TUNEL staining or semithin histology. In conclusion, CCL2-CCR2 and/or CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signalling defects may differentially affect the trafficking of microglia and macrophages in the retina during ageing, but do not appear to cause age-related retinal degeneration in mice.

  5. Tag SNP polymorphism of CCL2 and its role in clinical tuberculosis in Han Chinese pediatric population.

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    Wei-Xing Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 CCL2/MCP-1 is among the key signaling molecules of innate immunity; in particular, it is involved in recruitment of mononuclear and other cells in response to infection, including tuberculosis (TB and is essential for granuloma formation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a tag SNP for the CCL2/MCP-1 gene (rs4586 C/T. In order to understand whether this SNP may serve to evaluate the contribution of the CCL2 gene to the expression of TB disease, we further analysed distribution of its alleles and genotypes in 301 TB cases versus 338 non-infected controls (all BCG vaccinated representing a high-risk pediatric population of North China. In the male TB subgroup, the C allele was identified in a higher rate (P = 0.045, and, acting dominantly, was found to be a risk factor for clinical TB (P = 0.029. Homozygous TT genotype was significantly associated with lower CSF mononuclear leukocyte (ML counts in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study found an association of the CCL2 tag SNP rs4586 C allele and pediatric TB disease in males, suggesting that gender may affect the susceptibility to TB even in children. The association of homozygous TT genotype with decreased CSF mononuclear leukocyte (ML count not only suggests a clinical significance of this SNP, but indicates its potential to assist in the clinical assessment of suspected TBM, where delay is critical and diagnosis is difficult.

  6. CCL2 nitration is a negative regulator of chemokine-mediated inflammation.

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    Barker, Catriona E; Thompson, Sarah; O'Boyle, Graeme; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Sheerin, Neil S; Ali, Simi; Kirby, John A

    2017-03-14

    Chemokines promote leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. The oxidative burst is an important effector mechanism, this leads to the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO). The current study was performed to determine the potential for nitration to alter the chemical and biological properties of the prototypical CC chemokine, CCL2. Immunofluorescence was performed to assess the presence of RNS in kidney biopsies. Co-localisation was observed between RNS-modified tyrosine residues and the chemokine CCL2 in diseased kidneys. Nitration reduced the potential of CCL2 to stimulate monocyte migration in diffusion gradient chemotaxis assays (p nitrated chemokine for its cognate receptor CCR2b. The nitrated chemokine was unable to induce transendothelial monocyte migration in vitro and failed to promote leukocyte recruitment when added to murine air pouches (p nitration reduced heparan sulphate binding by CCL2. Importantly, intravenous administration of nitrated CCL2 also inhibited the normal recruitment of leukocytes to murine air pouches filled with unmodified CCL2. Together these data suggest that nitration of CCL2 during inflammation provides a mechanism to limit and resolve acute inflammation.

  7. Anti-CCL2: building a reservoir or opening the floodgates to metastasis?

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    Hitchcock, Jessica R; Watson, Christine J

    2015-05-21

    Neutralisation of macrophage chemoattractant C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) has shown reduced metastasis and enhanced survival in numerous experimental models of tumorigenesis. However, important new findings reported in Nature by Momo Bentires-Alj's laboratory demonstrate that withdrawal of anti-CCL2 treatment accelerates lung metastasis and death in mice. The study highlights the need to consider longer term consequences of therapeutic intervention of metastatic disease, especially with regard to transient interference with the tumour microenvironment.

  8. CCL2 Mediates Neuron-Macrophage Interactions to Drive Proregenerative Macrophage Activation Following Preconditioning Injury.

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    Kwon, Min Jung; Shin, Hae Young; Cui, Yuexian; Kim, Hyosil; Thi, Anh Hong Le; Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Eun Young; Hwang, Dong Hoon; Kim, Byung Gon

    2015-12-01

    CNS neurons in adult mammals do not spontaneously regenerate axons after spinal cord injury. Preconditioning peripheral nerve injury allows the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory axons to regenerate beyond the injury site by promoting expression of regeneration-associated genes. We have previously shown that peripheral nerve injury increases the number of macrophages in the DRGs and that the activated macrophages are critical to the enhancement of intrinsic regeneration capacity. The present study identifies a novel chemokine signal mediated by CCL2 that links regenerating neurons with proregenerative macrophage activation. Neutralization of CCL2 abolished the neurite outgrowth activity of conditioned medium obtained from neuron-macrophage cocultures treated with cAMP. The neuron-macrophage interactions that produced outgrowth-promoting conditioned medium required CCL2 in neurons and CCR2/CCR4 in macrophages. The conditioning effects were abolished in CCL2-deficient mice at 3 and 7 d after sciatic nerve injury, but CCL2 was dispensable for the initial growth response and upregulation of GAP-43 at the 1 d time point. Intraganglionic injection of CCL2 mimicked conditioning injury by mobilizing M2-like macrophages. Finally, overexpression of CCL2 in DRGs promoted sensory axon regeneration in a rat spinal cord injury model without harmful side effects. Our data suggest that CCL2-mediated neuron-macrophage interaction plays a critical role for amplification and maintenance of enhanced regenerative capacity by preconditioning peripheral nerve injury. Manipulation of chemokine signaling mediating neuron-macrophage interactions may represent a novel therapeutic approach to promote axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  9. CCL2-2518 A/G and CCR2 190 A/G do not influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection in the Spanish population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Montes-Cano; JR García-Lozano; J Aguilar-Reina; M Romero-Gómez; N Barroso; A Nú(n)ez-Roldán; MF González-Escribano

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether CCL2 or interactions between this chemokine and its receptor (CCR2) are associated with outcomes of chronic hepatitis C and with responses to antiviral therapy.METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-four patients with chronic hepatitis C and 193 non-infected matched controls were included in this study. Patients were categorized according to their Scheuer score of hepatic fibrosis as F0-F2 (n = 202) or F3-F4 (n = 82) and according to their response to anti-Hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy as sustained response (SR, n = 101) or non-sustained response (NSR, n = 98). Genotyping of the -2518 (A/G) CCL2 was performed using PCR-RFLP,genotyping of the 190 (A/G) CCR2 using a PCR-ARMS system, and genotyping of the rs3138042 (G/A) CCR2 using Taqman probes.RESULTS: Univariate analyses identified 4 parameters (infection duration time, viral genotype, gender and AST levels) that tended to influence fibrosis and 7 parameters (CCL2G, CCL2ACCR2A, viremia levels, fibrosis stage, viral genotype, infection duration time and AST levels) that significantly influenced or tended to influence response to treatment. Multivariate analysis identified gender and AST levels as parameters that independently influenced fibrosis stage and viral genotype and infection duration time were the two parameters that independently influenced response to treatment.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the mutations studied in the gene pair CCL2/CCR2 do not play a major role in the outcome and response to treatment for HCV infection in the Spanish population.

  10. The analgesic effect of rolipram is associated with the inhibition of the activation of the spinal astrocytic JNK/CCL2 pathway in bone cancer pain

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    Guo, Chi-Hua; Bai, Lu; Wu, Huang-Hui; Yang, Jing; Cai, Guo-Hong; Wang, Xin; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Ma, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Bone cancer pain (BCP) is one of the most difficult and intractable tasks for pain management, which is associated with spinal 'neuron-astrocytic' activation. The activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL2) signaling pathway has been reported to be critical for neuropathic pain. Rolipram (ROL), a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, possesses potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. The present study aimed to investigate whether the intrathecal administration of ROL has an analgesic effect on BCP in rats, and to assess whether the inhibition of spinal JNK/CCL2 pathway and astrocytic activation are involved in the analgesic effects of ROL. The analgesic effects of ROL were evaluated using the Von Frey and Hargreaves tests. Immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons, and the expression of spinal astrocytes and microglial activation on day 14 after tumor cell inoculation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and chemokines (CCL2), and western blot analysis was then used to examine the spinal phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), ionized calcium binding adapter molecule-1 (IBA-1) and JNK levels on day 14 after tumor cell inoculation. The results revealed that ROL exerted a short-term analgesic effect in a dose-dependent manner, and consecutive daily injections of ROL exerted continuous analgesic effects. In addition, spinal 'neuron-astrocytic' activation was suppressed and was associated with the downregulation of spinal IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression, and the inhibition of PDE4B and JNK levels in the spine was also observed. In addition, the level of CCL2 was decreased in the rats with BCP. The JNK inhibitor, SP600125, decreased CCL2 expression and attenuated pain behavior. Following co-treatment with ROL and SP600125, no significant

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF-α and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells

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    Grasielle S. Gusman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-α and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-α effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-α or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF- α and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells.

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    Gusman, Grasielle S; Campana, Priscilla R V; Castro, Luciano C; Castilho, Rachel O; Teixeira, Mauro M; Braga, Fernão C

    2015-01-01

    Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-α and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-α effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-α or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  13. Dendritic cell CNS recruitment correlates with disease severity in EAE via CCL2 chemotaxis at the blood–brain barrier through paracellular transmigration and ERK activation

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    Sagar Divya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmigration of circulating dendritic cells (DCs into the central nervous system (CNS across the blood–brain barrier (BBB has not thus far been investigated. An increase in immune cell infiltration across the BBB, uncontrolled activation and antigen presentation are influenced by chemokines. Chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 is a potent chemoattractant known to be secreted by the BBB but has not been implicated in the recruitment of DCs specifically at the BBB. Methods Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by injection of MOG35–55 peptide and pertussis toxin intraperitoneally. Animals with increasing degree of EAE score were sacrificed and subjected to near-infrared and fluorescence imaging analysis to detect and localize the accumulation of CD11c+-labeled DCs with respect to CCL2 expression. To further characterize the direct effect of CCL2 in DC trafficking at the BBB, we utilized an in vitro BBB model consisting of human brain microvascular endothelial cells to compare migratory patterns of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Further, this model was used to image transmigration using fluorescence microcopy and to assess specific molecular signaling pathways involved in transmigration. Results Near-infrared imaging of DC transmigration correlated with the severity of inflammation during EAE. Ex vivo histology confirmed the presence of CCL2 in EAE lesions, with DCs emerging from perivascular spaces. DCs exhibited more efficient transmigration than T cells in BBB model studies. These observations correlated with transwell imaging, which indicated a paracellular versus transcellular pattern of migration by DCs and T cells. Moreover, at the molecular level, CCL2 seems to facilitate DC transmigration in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Conclusion CNS recruitment of DCs correlates with disease severity in EAE via CCL2 chemotaxis and paracellular transmigration across the BBB

  14. CCL2 responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis are associated with disease severity in tuberculosis.

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    Zahra Hasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leucocyte activating chemokines such as CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL8 together with proinflammatory IFNgamma, TNFalpha and downmodulatory IL10 play a central role in the restriction of M. tuberculosis infections, but is unclear whether these markers are indicative of tuberculosis disease severity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated live M. tuberculosis- and M. bovis BCG-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses in patients with tuberculosis (TB and healthy endemic controls (ECs, n = 36. TB patients comprised pulmonary (PTB, n = 34 and extrapulmonary groups, subdivided into those with less severe localized extrapulmonary TB (L-ETB, n = 16 or severe disseminated ETB (D-ETB, n = 16. Secretion of CCL2, IFNgamma, IL10 and CCL3, and mRNA expression of CCL2, TNFalpha, CCL3 and CXCL8 were determined. RESULTS: M. tuberculosis- and BCG-induced CCL2 secretion was significantly increased in both PTB and D-ETB (p<0.05, p<0.01 as compared with L-ETB patients. CCL2 secretion in response to M. tuberculosis was significantly greater than to BCG in the PTB and D-ETB groups. M. tuberculosis-induced CCL2 mRNA transcription was greater in PTB than L-ETB (p = 0.023, while CCL2 was reduced in L-ETB as compared with D-ETB (p = 0.005 patients. M. tuberculosis-induced IFNgamma was greater in L-ETB than PTB (p = 0.04, while BCG-induced IFNgamma was greater in L-ETB as compared with D-ETB patients (p = 0.036. TNFalpha mRNA expression was raised in PTB as compared with L-ETB group in response to M. tuberculosis (p = 0.02 and BCG (p = 0.03. Mycobacterium-induced CCL3 and CXCL8 was comparable between TB groups. CONCLUSIONS: The increased CCL2 and TNFalpha in PTB patients may support effective leucocyte recruitment and M. tuberculosis localization. CCL2 alone is associated with severity of TB, possibly due to increased systemic inflammation found in severe disseminated TB or due to increased monocyte infiltration to lung parenchyma in pulmonary disease.

  15. Differential modulation of retinal degeneration by Ccl2 and Cx3cr1 chemokine signalling.

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    Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Lange, Clemens A; Robbie, Scott; Munro, Peter M G; Cowing, Jill A; Armer, Hannah E J; Luong, Vy; Carvalho, Livia S; MacLaren, Robert E; Fitzke, Frederick W; Bainbridge, James W B; Ali, Robin R

    2012-01-01

    Microglia and macrophages are recruited to sites of retinal degeneration where local cytokines and chemokines determine protective or neurotoxic microglia responses. Defining the role of Ccl2-Ccr2 and Cx3cl1-Cx3cr1 signalling for retinal pathology is of particular interest because of its potential role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Ccl2, Ccr2, and Cx3cr1 signalling defects impair macrophage trafficking, but have, in several conflicting studies, been reported to show different degrees of age-related retinal degeneration. Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knockout (CCDKO) mice show an early onset retinal degeneration and have been suggested as a model for AMD. In order to understand phenotypic discrepancies in different chemokine knockout lines and to study how defects in Ccl2 and/or Cx3cr1 signalling contribute to the described early onset retinal degeneration, we defined primary and secondary pathological events in CCDKO mice. To control for genetic background variability, we compared the original phenotype with that of single Ccl2, Cx3cr1 and Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knockout mice obtained from backcrosses of CCDKO with C57Bl/6 mice. We found that the primary pathological event in CCDKO mice develops in the inferior outer nuclear layer independently of light around postnatal day P14. RPE and vascular lesions develop secondarily with increasing penetrance with age and are clinically similar to retinal telangiectasia not to choroidal neovascularisation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a third autosomal recessive gene causes the degeneration in CCDKO mice and in all affected re-derived lines and subsequently demonstrated co-segregation of the naturally occurring RD8 mutation in the Crb1 gene. By comparing CCDKO mice with re-derived CCl2(-/-)/Crb1(Rd8/RD8), Cx3cr1(-/-)/Crb1(Rd8/RD8) and CCl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-)/Crb1(Rd8/RD8) mice, we observed a differential modulation of the retinal phenotype by genetic background and both chemokine signalling pathways. These findings

  16. CCL2 accelerates microglia-mediated Abeta oligomer formation and progression of neurocognitive dysfunction.

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    Tomomi Kiyota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The linkages between neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis are well established. What is not, however, is how specific immune pathways and proteins affect the disease. To this end, we previously demonstrated that transgenic over-expression of CCL2 enhanced microgliosis and induced diffuse amyloid plaque deposition in Tg2576 mice. This rodent model of AD expresses a Swedish beta-amyloid (Abeta precursor protein mutant. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now report that CCL2 transgene expression accelerates deficits in spatial and working memory and hippocampal synaptic transmission in beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP mice as early as 2-3 months of age. This is followed by increased numbers of microglia that are seen surrounding Abeta oligomers. CCL2 does not suppress Abeta degradation. Rather, CCL2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha directly facilitated Abeta uptake, intracellular Abeta oligomerization, and protein secretion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We posit that CCL2 facilitates Abeta oligomer formation in microglia and propose that such events accelerate memory dysfunction by affecting Abeta seeding in the brain.

  17. Recombinant VP1, an Akt inhibitor, suppresses progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing apoptosis and modulation of CCL2 production.

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    Tai-An Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The application of viral elements in tumor therapy is one facet of cancer research. Recombinant capsid protein VP1 (rVP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Here, we aim to further investigate its apoptotic mechanism and possible anti-metastatic effect in murine models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, one of the most common human cancers worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Treatment with rVP1 inhibited cell proliferation in two murine HCC cell lines, BNL and Hepa1-6, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 0.1-0.2 µM. rVP1 also induced apoptosis in these cells, which was mediated by Akt deactivation and dissociation of Ku70-Bax, and resulted in conformational changes and mitochondrial translocation of Bax, leading to the activation of caspases-9, -3 and -7. Treatment with 0.025 µM rVP1, which did not affect the viability of normal hepatocytes, suppressed cell migration and invasion via attenuating CCL2 production. The production of CCL2 was modulated by Akt-dependent NF-κB activation that was decreased after rVP1 treatment. The in vivo antitumor effects of rVP1 were assessed in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of HCC in immune-competent BALB/c mice. Intratumoral delivery of rVP1 inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth as a result of increased apoptosis. Intravenous administration of rVP1 in an orthotopic HCC model suppressed tumor growth, inhibited intra-hepatic metastasis, and prolonged survival. Furthermore, a decrease in the serum level of CCL2 was observed in rVP1-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented herein suggest that, via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation, rVP1 suppresses the growth, migration, and invasion of murine HCC cells by inducing apoptosis and attenuating CCL2 production both in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant protein VP1 thus has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic agent for HCC.

  18. CCL2 gene polymorphism is associated with post-transplant diabetes mellitus.

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    Dabrowska-Zamojcin, Ewa; Romanowski, Maciej; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Safranow, Krzysztof; Domanski, Leszek; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after solid organ transplantation, especially in recipients treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Previous studies suggest that chronic inflammation and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can increase or decrease transcriptional activity and can change the production of chemokines. The aim of this study was to examine the association between CCL2 and CCL5 gene polymorphisms and the development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. The study included 315 patients who received kidney transplants and were treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with PTDM (n=43) and without PTDM (n=272). An additive model of univariate Cox regression analysis showed that the hazard of PTDM development was significantly positively associated with the number of CCL2 rs1024611 G alleles (HR 1.65; 95%CI 1.08-2.53; p=0.021). Multivariate Cox regression analysis, taking into the account the recipient's sex, age and BMI, as well as the number of G alleles of the CCL2 rs1024611 polymorphism, revealed that this polymorphism is an independent risk factor for post-transplant diabetes. The results of our study suggest an association between the CCL2 gene rs1024611 G allele and PTDM in patients treated with tacrolimus or cyclosporine.

  19. Chemokine CCL2 and chemokine receptor CCR2 in early active multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Ransohoff, R M; Strieter, R M;

    2004-01-01

    the expression of CCR2 on leukocytes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis and MS, and the concentration of CCL2 in the CSF from these patients. Results were compared with the results in non-inflammatory neurological controls and were correlated with other...

  20. Inhibition of CCL2 Signaling in Combination with Docetaxel Treatment Has Profound Inhibitory Effects on Prostate Cancer Growth in Bone

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    Eva Corey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 stimulates migration, proliferation, and invasion of prostate cancer (PCa cells, and its signaling also plays a role in the activation of osteoclasts. Therefore targeting CCL2 signaling in regulation of tumor progression in bone metastases is an area of intense research. The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of CCL2 blockade by neutralizing antibodies to inhibit the growth of PCa in bone. We used a preclinical model of cancer growth in the bone in which PCa C4-2B cells were injected directly into murine tibiae. Animals were treated for ten weeks with neutralizing anti-CCL2 antibodies, docetaxel, or a combination of both, and then followed an additional nine weeks. CCL2 blockade inhibited the growth of PCa in bone, with even more pronounced inhibition in combination with docetaxel. CCL2 blockade also resulted in increases in bone mineral density. Furthermore, our results showed that the tumor inhibition lasted even after discontinuation of the treatment. Our data provide compelling evidence that CCL2 blockade slows PCa growth in bone, both alone and in combination with docetaxel. These results support the continued investigations of CCL2 blockade as a treatment for advanced metastatic PCa.

  1. New concepts of IL-10-induced lung fibrosis: fibrocyte recruitment and M2 activation in a CCL2/CCR2 axis.

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    Sun, Lei; Louie, Marisa C; Vannella, Kevin M; Wilke, Carol A; LeVine, Ann Marie; Moore, Bethany B; Shanley, Thomas P

    2011-03-01

    IL-10 is most commonly recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine possessing immunosuppressive effects necessary for regulated resolution of proinflammation. However, its role in the development of fibrosis during inflammatory resolution has not been clear. Few prior studies have linked IL-10 with the inhibition of fibrosis principally on the basis of regulating inflammation thought to be driving fibroproliferation. In contrast, in a model of long-term overexpression of IL-10, we observed marked induction of lung fibrosis in mice. The total cell number retrieved by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) increased 10-fold in the IL-10 overexpression (IL-10 OE) mice, with significant infiltration of T and B lymphocytes and collagen-producing cells. The presence of increased fibrocytes, isolated from collagenase-digested lungs, was identified by flow cytometry using dual staining of CD45 and collagen 1. Quantitative PCR analysis on an array of chemokine/chemokine receptor genes showed that receptor CCR2 and its ligand, CCL2, were highly upregulated in IL-10 OE mice, suggesting that IL-10-induced fibrocyte recruitment was CCL2/CCR2 specific. Given the prior association of alternatively activated (M(2)) macrophages with development of fibrosis in other disease states, we also examined the effect of IL-10 OE on the M(2) macrophage axis. We observed significantly increased numbers of M(2) macrophages in both BAL and whole lung tissue from the IL-10 OE mice. Administration of rabbit anti-CCL2 antiserum to IL-10 OE mice for three consecutive weeks significantly decreased fibrosis as evidenced by lung hydroxyproline content, compared with mice that received preimmune rabbit serum. These results indicate that overexpression of IL-10 induces fibrosis, in part, by fibrocyte recruitment and M(2) macrophage activation, and likely in a CCL2/CCR2 axis.

  2. Crystal structure of a mirror-image L-RNA aptamer (Spiegelmer) in complex with the natural L-protein target CCL2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Dominik; Achenbach, John; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Buchner, Klaus; Maasch, Christian; Falke, Sven; Rehders, Dirk; Klussmann, Sven; Betzel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    We report the crystal structure of a 40mer mirror-image RNA oligonucleotide completely built from nucleotides of the non-natural L-chirality in complex with the pro-inflammatory chemokine L-CLL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), a natural protein composed of regular L-amino acids. The L-oligonucleotide is an L-aptamer (a Spiegelmer) identified to bind L-CCL2 with high affinity, thereby neutralizing the chemokine's activity. CCL2 plays a key role in attracting and positioning monocytes; its overexpression in several inflammatory diseases makes CCL2 an interesting pharmacological target. The PEGylated form of the L-aptamer, NOX-E36 (emapticap pegol), already showed promising efficacy in clinical Phase II studies conducted in diabetic nephropathy patients. The structure of the L-oligonucleotide.L-protein complex was solved and refined to 2.05 Å. It unveils the L-aptamer's intramolecular contacts and permits a detailed analysis of its structure-function relationship. Furthermore, the analysis of the intermolecular drug-target interactions reveals insight into the selectivity of the L-aptamer for certain related chemokines.

  3. Chemerin induces CCL2 and TLR4 in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Kristina; Bauer, Sabrina; Schäffler, Andreas; Walter, Roland; Neumann, Elena; Buechler, Christa; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Frommer, Klaus W

    2012-02-01

    Chemerin stimulates migration of leukocytes to sites of inflammation and also increases inflammatory signaling in chondrocytes suggesting a function of chemerin in joint inflammation. Synovial fibroblasts (SF) are critically involved in synovitis and subsequent cartilage destruction. Here, we analyzed whether synovial fibroblasts express chemerin and its receptor CMKLR1. Further, the role of chemerin in synovial fibroblast chemotaxis, proliferation, insulin response and release of inflammatory proteins was studied. Synovial tissue sections were labeled with chemerin antibody and chemerin was measured in synovial fluid by ELISA. Chemerin mRNA and protein as well as CMKLR1 expression were determined in SFs from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Effects of chemerin on cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and on proliferation, migration and insulin signaling were analyzed appropriately. SFs expressed CMKLR1 and chemerin mRNA, and chemerin protein was found in cell supernatants of synovial fibroblasts. Immunohistochemistry detected chemerin in synovial tissue predominantly localized within the lining layer. Chemerin was present in synovial fluids of RA, OA and psoriatic arthritis patients in similar concentrations. Chemerin neither increased IL-6 levels nor MMP-2 or -9 activity in SFs. Also, it did not act as a chemoattractant for these cells. With respect to intracellular signaling, neither basal nor insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt was affected. However, chemerin significantly increased TLR4 mRNA and synthesis of CCL2 in SFs while CCL4 and -5 were not altered. Cell proliferation of SFs, however, was modestly reduced by chemerin. These data show that human SFs express both chemerin and its receptor. As chemerin enhanced expression of TLR4 and induced release of CCL2 in SFs, a role of this protein in innate immune system-associated joint inflammation is proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Induction of CXCL2 and CCL2 by pressure force requires IL-1β-MyD88 axis in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Aya; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kusuyama, Joji; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical stresses including pressure force induce chemokine expressions in osteoblasts resulting in inflammatory reactions and bone remodeling. However, it has not been well elucidated how mechanical stresses induce inflammatory chemokine expressions in osteoblasts. IL-1β has been identified as an important pathogenic factor in bone loss diseases, such as inflammatory arthritis and periodontitis. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential downstream adaptor molecule of IL-1 receptor signaling. This study was to examine the gene expression profiles of inflammatory chemokines and the role of MyD88 in osteoblasts stimulated by pressure force. Pressure force (10g/cm(2)) induced significant mRNA increases of CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL5, as well as prompt phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK, p38 and JNK), in wild-type primary osteoblasts. The CXCL2 and CCL2 mRNA increases and MAP kinase phosphorylation were severely impaired in MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts. Constitutive low-level expression of IL-1β mRNA was similarly observed in both wild-type and MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts, which was not altered by pressure force stimulation. Notably, neutralization of IL-1β with a specific antibody significantly impaired pressure force-induced mRNA increases of CXCL2 and CCL2, as well as MAP kinase phosphorylation, in wild-type osteoblasts. Furthermore, pre-treatment with recombinant IL-1β significantly enhanced MAP kinase phosphorylation and mRNA increases of CXCL2 and CCL2 by pressure force in wild-type but not MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts. These results have suggested that the activation of MyD88 pathway by constitutive low-level IL-1β expression is essential for pressure force-induced CXCL2 and CCL2 expression in osteoblasts. Thus MyD88 signal in osteoblasts may be required for bone resorption by pressure force through chemokine induction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-myeloid Cells are Major Contributors to Innate Immune Responses via Production of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein- 1(MCP-1/CCL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teizo eYoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2 is a chemokine regulating the recruitment of monocytes into sites of inflammation and cancer. MCP-1 can be produced by a variety of cell types, such as macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. Notably, macrophages produce high levels of MCP-1 in response to proinflammatory stimuli in vitro, leading to the hypothesis that macrophages are the major source of MCP-1 during inflammatory responses in vivo. In stark contrast to the hypothesis, however, there was no significant reduction in MCP-1 protein or the number of infiltrating macrophages in the peritoneal inflammatory exudates of myeloid cell-specific MCP-1-deficient mice in response to i.p injection of thioglycollate or zymosan A. Furthermore, injection of LPS into skin air pouch also had no effect on local MCP-1 production in myeloid-specific MCP-1-deficient mice. Finally, myeloid-specific MCP-1-deficiency did not reduce MCP-1 mRNA expression or macrophage infiltration in LPS-induced lung injury. These results indicate that non-myeloid cells, in response to a variety of stimulants, play a previously unappreciated role in innate immune responses as the primary source of MCP-1.

  6. Blood-brain barrier disruption in CCL2 transgenic mice during pertussis toxin-induced brain inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellenberg, Angela E; Buist, Richard; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The chemokine CCL2 has an important role in the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system (CNS). A transgenic mouse model that overexpresses CCL2 in the CNS shows an accumulation of leukocytes within the perivascular space surrounding vessels, which i...... of disruption in endothelial tight junctions was observed. CONCLUSION: Genetic and environmental stimuli were needed to disrupt the integrity of the BBB in this model of neuroinflammation....

  7. Theoretical calculation of the 1CCl2+O2 reaction mechanism%1CCl2+O2反应机理的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石从云; 伊双莉

    2011-01-01

    在B3LYP/6-311+ +G(d,p)水平上研究了二氯卡宾1CCl2与O2在单重态势能面上的微观反应机理.优化了中间体、过渡态和产物的构型,并得到了相应的能量值.研究发现1CCl2+O2反应有4种产物通道:CO2+Cl2、CO2+2Cl、ClCO+ClO和CO+Cl2O,且前两种是主要通道.%The dissolution enthalpies of the[Tb(Gly)3·6H2O(s)+3 Gly (s)] and Tb(Gly)3Cl3· 3H2O(s) in 2 mol·L-1 HC1 solution have been measured at 298.2 K by isoperibol calorimeter.The standard molar reaction enthalpy of the coordination reaction of terbium chloride with glycine has been determined by a thermochemical cycle, △rHmθ(298.15 K) = -6.247±0.060 kJ·mol-1.According to the results, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Tb(Gly)3Cl3·3H2O(s) has been calculated to be △rHmθ(298.15 K) =-3631.9±2.9 kJ·mol-1, and the molar dissolution enthalpy of Tb(Gly)3Cl3 ·3H2O(s) in water has been measured by isopribel calorimeter, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Tb(Gly)33+(aq) has been calculated at 298.15 K to be △rHmθ[Tb(Gly)33+ ,aq,298.15 K] = -2 260.6+2.9 kJ·mol-1.

  8. Crosstalk between Tumor Cells and Macrophages in Stroma Renders Tumor Cells as the Primary Source of MCP-1/CCL2 in Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Teizo; Liu, Mingyong; Chen, Xin; Li, Liangzhu; Wang, Ji Ming

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine MCP-1/CCL2 is produced by a variety of tumors and plays an important role in cancer progression. We and others previously demonstrated that the primary source of MCP-1 in several mouse tumors, including 4T1 breast cancer, M5076 sarcoma, and B16 melanoma, was stromal cells. In the present study, we identified that tumor cells were the primary source of MCP-1 in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), because MCP-1 mRNA was highly expressed in tumors grown in both wild type (WT) and MCP-1(-/-) mice with elevated serum MCP-1 levels. Since LLC cells isolated from tumors expressed low levels of MCP-1 in vitro, it appeared that the tumor-stromal cell interaction in a tumor microenvironment increased MCP-1 expression in LLC cells. In fact, co-culture of LLC cells with normal mouse peritoneal macrophages or normal lung cells containing macrophages increased MCP-1 expression by LLC cells. Macrophages from TNFα(-/-) mice failed to activate LLC cells and anti-TNFα neutralizing antibody abolished the effect of WT macrophages on LLC cells. When LLC cells were transplanted into TNFα(-/-) mice, the levels of MCP-1 mRNA in tumors and serum MCP-1 levels were markedly lower as compared to WT mice, and importantly, tumors grew more slowly. Taken together, our results indicate that TNFα released by tumor cell-activated macrophages is critical for increased MCP-1 production by tumors cells. Thus, disruption of tumor-stromal cell interaction may inhibit tumor progression by reducing the production of tumor-promoting proinflammatory mediators, such as MCP-1.

  9. Crosstalk between Tumor Cells and Macrophages in Stroma Renders Tumor Cells as the Primary Source of MCP-1/CCL2 in Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teizo eYoshimura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine MCP-1/CCL2 is produced by a variety of tumors and plays an important role in cancer progression. We and others previously demonstrated that the primary source of MCP-1 in several mouse tumors, including 4T1 breast cancer, M5076 sarcoma and B16 melanoma, was stromal cells. In the present study, we identified that tumor cells were the primary source of MCP-1 in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC, because MCP-1 mRNA was highly expressed in tumors grown in both WT and MCP-1-/- mice with elevated serum MCP-1 levels. Since LLC cells isolated from tumors expressed low levels of MCP-1 in vitro, it appeared that the tumor-stromal cell interaction in a tumor microenvironment increased MCP-1 expression in LLC cells. In fact, co-culture of LLC cells with normal mouse peritoneal macrophages or normal lung cells containing macrophages increased MCP-1 expression by LLC cells. Macrophages from TNFα-/- mice failed to activate LLC cells and anti-TNFα neutralizing antibody abolished the effect of WT macrophages on LLC cells. When LLC cells were transplanted into TNFα-/- mice, the levels of MCP-1 mRNA in tumors and serum MCP-1 levels were markedly lower as compared to WT mice, and importantly tumors grew more slowly. Taken together, our results indicate that TNFα released by tumor cell-activated macrophages is critical for increased MCP-1 production by tumors cells. Thus, disruption of tumor-stromal cell interaction may inhibit tumor progression by reducing the production of tumor-promoting proinflammatory mediators, such as MCP-1.

  10. Astrocyte-Derived CCL2 is Associated with M1 Activation and Recruitment of Cultured Microglial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng He

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Microglia are an essential player in central nervous system inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that the astrocytic chemokine, CCL2, is associated with microglial activation in vivo. However, CCL2-induced microglial activation has not yet been studied in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to understand the role of astrocyte-derived CCL2 in microglial activation and to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s. Methods: Primary astrocytes were pre-treated with CCL2 siRNA and stimulated with TNF-α. The culture medium (CM was collected and added to cultures of microglia, which were incubated with and without CCR2 inhibitor. Microglial cells were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR to determine whether they polarized to the M1 or M2 state. Microglial migratory ability was assessed by transwell migration assay. Results: TNF-α stimulated the release of CCL2 from astrocytes, even if the culture media containing TNF-α was replaced with fresh media after 3 h. CM from TNF-α-stimulated astrocytes successfully induced microglial activation, which was ascertained by increased activation of M1 and enhanced migration ability. In contrast, CM from astrocytes pretreated with CCL2 siRNA showed no effect on microglial activation, compared to controls. Additionally, microglia pre-treated with RS102895, a CCR2 inhibitor, were resistant to activation by CM from TNF-α-stimulated astrocytes. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the CCL2/CCR2 pathway of astrocyte-induced microglial activation is associated with M1 polarization and enhanced migration ability, indicating that this pathway could be a useful target to ameliorate inflammation in the central nervous system.

  11. 5, 8, 11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid suppresses CCL2/MCP-1 expression in IFN-γ-stimulated astrocytes by increasing MAPK phosphatase-1 mRNA stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α activator, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA, is an arachidonic acid analog. It is reported to inhibit up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes; however, its underlying mechanism of action is largely unknown. In the present study, we focused on the inhibitory action of ETYA on the expression of the chemokine, CCL2/MCP-1, which plays a key role in the initiation and progression of inflammation. Methods To determine the effect of ETYA, primary cultured rat astrocytes and microglia were stimulated with IFN-γ in the presence of ETYA and then, expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1 were determined using RT-PCR and ELISA. MKP-1 mRNA stability was evaluated by treating actinomycin D. The effect of MKP-1 and human antigen R (HuR was analyzed by using specific siRNA transfection system. The localization of HuR was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation experiment. Results We found that ETYA suppressed CCL2/MCP-1 transcription and secretion of CCL2/MCP-1 protein through up-regulation of MKP-1mRNA levels, resulting in suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK phosphorylation and activator protein 1 (AP1 activity in IFN-γ-stimulated brain glial cells. Moreover, these effects of ETYA were independent of PPAR-α. Experiments using actinomycin D revealed that the ETYA-induced increase in MKP-1 mRNA levels reflected an increase in transcript stability. Knockdown experiments using small interfering RNA demonstrated that this increase in MKP-1 mRNA stability depended on HuR, an RNA-binding protein known to promote enhanced mRNA stability. Furthermore, ETYA-induced, HuR-mediated mRNA stabilization resulted from HuR-MKP-1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation, which served to protect MKP-1 mRNA from the mRNA degradation machinery. Conclusion ETYA induces MKP-1 through HuR at the post-transcriptional level in a receptor-independent manner. The mechanism

  12. Tumour Necrosis Factor α Enhances CCL2 and ICAM-1 Expression in Peripheral Nerve Microvascular Endoneurial Endothelial Cells

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    Kelly A. Langert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment and trafficking of autoreactive leucocytes across the BNB (blood–nerve barrier is an early pathological insult in GBS (Guillain-Barré syndrome, an aggressive autoimmune disorder of the PNS (peripheral nervous system. Whereas the aetiology and pathogenesis of GBS remain unclear, pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α, are reported to be elevated early in the course of GBS and may initiate nerve injury by activating the BNB. Previously, we reported that disrupting leucocyte trafficking in vivo therapeutically attenuates the course of an established animal model of GBS. Here, PNMECs (peripheral nerve microvascular endothelial cells that form the BNB were harvested from rat sciatic nerves, immortalized by SV40 (simian virus 40 large T antigen transduction and subsequently challenged with TNFα. Relative changes in CCL2 (chemokine ligand 2 and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression were determined. We report that TNFα elicits marked dose- and time-dependent increases in CCL2 and ICAM-1 mRNA and protein content and promotes secretion of functional CCL2 from immortalized and primary PNMEC cultures. TNFα-mediated secretion of CCL2 promotes, in vitro, the transendothelial migration of CCR2-expressing THP-1 monocytes. Increased CCL2 and ICAM-1 expression in response to TNFα may facilitate recruitment and trafficking of autoreactive leucocytes across the BNB in autoimmune disorders, including GBS.

  13. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  14. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  15. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  16. Chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the medullary dorsal horn are involved in trigeminal neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain in the trigeminal system is frequently observed in clinic, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. In addition, the function of immune cells and related chemicals in the mechanism of pain has been recognized, whereas few studies have addressed the potential role of chemokines in the trigeminal system in chronic pain. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2-chemokine C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 signaling in the trigeminal nucleus is involved in the maintenance of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Methods The inferior alveolar nerve and mental nerve transection (IAMNT was used to induce trigeminal neuropathic pain. The expression of ATF3, CCL2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and CCR2 were detected by immunofluorescence histochemical staining and western blot. The cellular localization of CCL2 and CCR2 were examined by immunofluorescence double staining. The effect of a selective CCR2 antagonist, RS504393 on pain hypersensitivity was checked by behavioral testing. Results IAMNT induced persistent (>21 days heat hyperalgesia of the orofacial region and ATF3 expression in the mandibular division of the trigeminal ganglion. Meanwhile, CCL2 expression was increased in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH from 3 days to 21 days after IAMNT. The induced CCL2 was colocalized with astroglial marker GFAP, but not with neuronal marker NeuN or microglial marker OX-42. Astrocytes activation was also found in the MDH and it started at 3 days, peaked at 10 days and maintained at 21 days after IAMNT. In addition, CCR2 was upregulated by IAMNT in the ipsilateral medulla and lasted for more than 21 days. CCR2 was mainly colocalized with NeuN and few cells were colocalized with GFAP. Finally, intracisternal injection of CCR2 antagonist, RS504393 (1, 10 μg significantly attenuated IAMNT-induced heat hyperalgesia. Conclusion The data suggest that CCL2-CCR

  17. Amniotic fluid stem cells inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via CCL2 modulation in bronchoalveolar lavage.

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    Orquidea Garcia

    Full Text Available The potential for amniotic fluid stem cell (AFSC treatment to inhibit the progression of fibrotic lung injury has not been described. We have previously demonstrated that AFSC can attenuate both acute and chronic-fibrotic kidney injury through modification of the cytokine environment. Fibrotic lung injury, such as in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, is mediated through pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity. Thus, we hypothesized that AFSC treatment might inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through cytokine modulation. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of AFSC treatment on the modulation of the pro-fibrotic cytokine CCL2, which is increased in human IPF patients and is correlated with poor prognoses, advanced disease states and worse fibrotic outcomes. The impacts of intravenous murine AFSC given at acute (day 0 or chronic (day 14 intervention time-points after bleomycin injury were analyzed at either day 3 or day 28 post-injury. Murine AFSC treatment at either day 0 or day 14 post-bleomycin injury significantly inhibited collagen deposition and preserved pulmonary function. CCL2 expression increased in bleomycin-injured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, but significantly decreased following AFSC treatment at either day 0 or at day 14. AFSC were observed to localize within fibrotic lesions in the lung, showing preferential targeting of AFSC to the area of fibrosis. We also observed that MMP-2 was transiently increased in BAL following AFSC treatment. Increased MMP-2 activity was further associated with cleavage of CCL2, rendering it a putative antagonist for CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which we surmise is a potential mechanism for CCL2 reduction in BAL following AFSC treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that AFSC have the potential to inhibit the development or progression of fibrosis in a bleomycin injury model during both acute and chronic remodeling events.

  18. Obesity promotes breast cancer by CCL2-mediated macrophage recruitment and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Lisa M; McCready, Jessica; Keller, Patricia J; Baker, Dana D; Naber, Stephen P; Seewaldt, Victoria; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is one of the most important preventable causes of cancer and the most significant risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Compared with lean women, obese women are more likely to be diagnosed with a larger, higher grade tumor, an increased incidence of lymph node metastases, and elevated risk of distant recurrence. However, the mechanisms connecting obesity to the pathogenesis of breast cancer are poorly defined. Here, we show that during obesity, adipocytes within human and mouse breast tissues recruit and activate macrophages through a previously uncharacterized CCL2/IL-1β/CXCL12 signaling pathway. Activated macrophages in turn promote stromal vascularization and angiogenesis even before the formation of cancer. Recapitulating these changes using a novel humanized breast cancer model was sufficient to promote angiogenesis and prime the microenvironment prior to neoplastic transformation for accelerated breast oncogenesis. These findings provide a mechanistic role for adipocytes and macrophages before carcinogenesis that may be critical for prevention and treatment of obesity-related cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  19. NF-kappaB-driven STAT2 and CCL2 expression in astrocytes in response to brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Babcock, Alicia A; Owens, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Tissue response to injury includes expression of genes encoding cytokines and chemokines. These regulate entry of immune cells to the injured tissue. The synthesis of many cytokines and chemokines involves NF-kappaB and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT). Injury to the CNS...... induces glial response. Astrocytes are the major glial population in the CNS. We examined expression of STATs and the chemokine CCL2 and their relationship to astroglial NF-kappaB signaling in the CNS following axonal transection. Double labeling with Mac-1/CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein......-regulation and phosphorylation were NF-kappaB -dependent since they did not occur in the lesion-reactive hippocampus of transgenic mice with specific inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in astrocytes. We further showed that lack of NF-kappaB signaling significantly reduced injury-induced CCL2 expression as well as leukocyte...

  20. Chemokine CCL2 up-regulated in the medullary dorsal horn astrocytes contributes to nocifensive behaviors induced by experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Fu, Runqing; Tan, Yu; Fang, Bing; Yang, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the astrocytic chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) plays an important role in nocifensive behaviors after experimental tooth movement (ETM), the expression and cellular localization of CCL2 and astrocyte activation in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) were determined by immunohistochemistry in rats. The dose-dependent effects of intrathecal C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antagonists on these changes in nocifensive behaviors were evaluated. Exogenous CCL2 was added to medullary dorsal horn slices to evaluate its contributory role in the induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation ex vivo. We found a significant increase in the expression of CCL2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), corresponding well to the nocifensive behaviors after ETM. In addition, application of recombinant CCL2 led to ERK activation, which could be attenuated effectively by pretreatment with CCL2-neutralizing antibody ex vivo. The magnitude of the nocifensive behavior could be reduced by medullary CCR2 antagonists in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the astrocytic CCL2 is actively involved in the development and maintenance of tooth-movement pain and thus may be a potential target for analgesics in orthodontic nocifensive responses control.

  1. Regulation of CCL2 expression by an upstream TALE homeodomain protein-binding site that synergizes with the site created by the A-2578G SNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephen H; Wright, Edward K; Gama, Lucio; Clements, Janice E

    2011-01-01

    CC Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL2) is a potent chemoattractant produced by macrophages and activated astrocytes during periods of inflammation within the central nervous system. Increased CCL2 expression is correlated with disease progression and severity, as observed in pulmonary tuberculosis, HCV-related liver disease, and HIV-associated dementia. The CCL2 distal promoter contains an A/G polymorphism at position -2578 and the homozygous -2578 G/G genotype is associated with increased CCL2 production and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that contribute to the phenotypic differences in CCL2 expression are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that the -2578 G polymorphism creates a TALE homeodomain protein binding site (TALE binding site) for PREP1/PBX2 transcription factors. In this study, we identified the presence of an additional TALE binding site 22 bp upstream of the site created by the -2578 G polymorphism and demonstrated the synergistic effects of the two sites on the activation of the CCL2 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we demonstrated increased binding of the TALE proteins PREP1 and PBX2 to the -2578 G allele, and binding of IRF1 to both the A and G alleles. The presence of TALE binding sites that form inverted repeats within the -2578 G allele results in increased transcriptional activation of the CCL2 distal promoter while the presence of only the upstream TALE binding site within the -2578 A allele exerts repression of promoter activity.

  2. Pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1 promotes healing in diabetic wounds by restoring the macrophage response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wood

    Full Text Available Prior studies suggest that the impaired healing seen in diabetic wounds derives from a state of persistent hyper-inflammation characterized by harmful increases in inflammatory leukocytes including macrophages. However, such studies have focused on wounds at later time points (day 10 or older, and very little attention has been given to the dynamics of macrophage responses in diabetic wounds early after injury. Given the importance of macrophages for the process of healing, we studied the dynamics of macrophage response during early and late phases of healing in diabetic wounds. Here, we report that early after injury, the diabetic wound exhibits a significant delay in macrophage infiltration. The delay in the macrophage response in diabetic wounds results from reduced Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 expression. Importantly, one-time treatment with chemoattractant CCL2 significantly stimulated healing in diabetic wounds by restoring the macrophage response. Our data demonstrate that, rather than a hyper-inflammatory state; the early diabetic wound exhibits a paradoxical and damaging decrease in essential macrophage response. Our studies suggest that the restoration of the proper kinetics of macrophage response may be able to jumpstart subsequent healing stages. CCL2 chemokine-based therapy may be an attractive strategy to promote healing in diabetic wounds.

  3. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  4. Regulation of the CCL2 gene in pancreatic β-cells by IL-1β and glucocorticoids: role of MKP-1.

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    Susan J Burke

    Full Text Available Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from both resident and invading leukocytes within the pancreatic islets impacts the development of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Synthesis and secretion of the chemokine CCL2 from pancreatic β-cells in response to pro-inflammatory signaling pathways influences immune cell recruitment into the pancreatic islets. Therefore, we investigated the positive and negative regulatory components controlling expression of the CCL2 gene using isolated rat islets and INS-1-derived β-cell lines. We discovered that activation of the CCL2 gene by IL-1β required the p65 subunit of NF-κB and was dependent on genomic response elements located in the -3.6 kb region of the proximal gene promoter. CCL2 gene transcription in response to IL-1β was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the IKKβ and p38 MAPK pathways. The IL-1β-mediated increase in CCL2 secretion was also impaired by p38 MAPK inhibition and by glucocorticoids. Moreover, multiple synthetic glucocorticoids inhibited the IL-1β-stimulated induction of the CCL2 gene. Induction of the MAP Kinase Phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 gene by glucocorticoids or by adenoviral-mediated overexpression decreased p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which diminished CCL2 gene expression, promoter activity, and release of CCL2 protein. We conclude that glucocorticoid-mediated repression of IL-1β-induced CCL2 gene transcription and protein secretion occurs in part through the upregulation of the MKP-1 gene and subsequent deactivation of the p38 MAPK. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory actions observed with MKP-1 overexpression were obtained without suppressing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Thus, MKP-1 is a possible target for anti-inflammatory therapeutic intervention with preservation of β-cell function.

  5. ALICE High Level Trigger

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    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  6. Tanshinone IIA Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Bladder Cancer Cells via Modulation of STAT3-CCL2 Signaling

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    Sung-Ying Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA is an extract from the widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza, and has been found to attenuate the proliferation of bladder cancer (BCa cells (The IC50 were: 5637, 2.6 μg/mL; BFTC, 2 μg/mL; T24, 2.7 μg/mL, respectively.. However, the mechanism of the effect of Tan-IIA on migration inhibition of BCa cells remains unclear. This study investigates the anti-metastatic effect of Tan-IIA in human BCa cells and clarifies its molecular mechanism. Three human BCa cell lines, 5637, BFTC and T24, were used for subsequent experiments. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell assays. Real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to detect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related gene expression. The enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP was evaluated by zymography assay. Tan-IIA inhibited the migration and invasion of human BCa cells. Tan-IIA suppressed both the protein expression and enzymatic activity of MMP-9/-2 in human BCa cells. Tan-IIA up-regulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin and down-regulated mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and Vimentin, along with transcription regulators such as Snail and Slug in BCa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mechanism dissection revealed that Tan-IIA-inhibited BCa cell invasion could function via suppressed chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 expression, which could be reversed by the addition of CCL2 recombinant protein. Furthermore, Tan-IIA could inhibit the phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 (Tyr705, which cannot be restored by the CCL2 recombinant protein addition. These data implicated that Tan-IIA might suppress EMT on BCa cells through STAT3-CCL2 signaling inhibition. Tan-IIA inhibits EMT of BCa cells via modulation of STAT3-CCL2 signaling. Our findings suggest that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-metastatic agent in BCa therapy.

  7. Distinct Upstream Role of Type I IFN Signaling in Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Derived and Epithelial Resident Cells for Concerted Recruitment of Ly-6Chi Monocytes and NK Cells via CCL2-CCL3 Cascade.

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    Erdenebileg Uyangaa

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN-I-dependent orchestrated mobilization of innate cells in inflamed tissues is believed to play a critical role in controlling replication and CNS-invasion of herpes simplex virus (HSV. However, the crucial regulators and cell populations that are affected by IFN-I to establish the early environment of innate cells in HSV-infected mucosal tissues are largely unknown. Here, we found that IFN-I signaling promoted the differentiation of CCL2-producing Ly-6Chi monocytes and IFN-γ/granzyme B-producing NK cells, whereas deficiency of IFN-I signaling induced Ly-6Clo monocytes producing CXCL1 and CXCL2. More interestingly, recruitment of Ly-6Chi monocytes preceded that of NK cells with the levels peaked at 24 h post-infection in IFN-I-dependent manner, which was kinetically associated with the CCL2-CCL3 cascade response. Early Ly-6Chi monocyte recruitment was governed by CCL2 produced from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC-derived leukocytes, whereas NK cell recruitment predominantly depended on CC chemokines produced by resident epithelial cells. Also, IFN-I signaling in HSC-derived leukocytes appeared to suppress Ly-6Ghi neutrophil recruitment to ameliorate immunopathology. Finally, tissue resident CD11bhiF4/80hi macrophages and CD11chiEpCAM+ dendritic cells appeared to produce initial CCL2 for migration-based self-amplification of early infiltrated Ly-6Chi monocytes upon stimulation by IFN-I produced from infected epithelial cells. Ultimately, these results decipher a detailed IFN-I-dependent pathway that establishes orchestrated mobilization of Ly-6Chi monocytes and NK cells through CCL2-CCL3 cascade response of HSC-derived leukocytes and epithelium-resident cells. Therefore, this cascade response of resident-to-hematopoietic-to-resident cells that drives cytokine-to-chemokine-to-cytokine production to recruit orchestrated innate cells is critical for attenuation of HSV replication in inflamed tissues.

  8. Prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptors modulate expression of the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1) in response to LPS-induced renal glomerular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, Gunther; Schaper, Melanie; Panzer, Ulf; Kluger, Malte; Stahl, Rolf A K; Thaiss, Friedrich; Schneider, André

    2009-08-27

    The pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL2 [chemokine (Cys-Cys motif) ligand 2; also known as MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1)] is up-regulated in the glomerular compartment during the early phase of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced nephritis. This up-regulation also occurs in cultured MCs (mesangial cells) and is more pronounced in MCs lacking the PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) receptor EP2 or in MCs treated with a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist. To examine a possible feedback mechanism of EP receptor stimulation on CCL2 expression, we used an in vitro model of MCs with down-regulated EP receptor expression. Selectively overexpressing the various EP receptors in these cells then allows the effects on the LPS-induced CCL2 expression to be examined. Cells were stimulated with LPS and CCL2 gene expression was examined and compared with LPS-stimulated, mock-transfected PTGS2 [prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, also known as COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2)]-positive cells. Overexpression of EP1, as well as EP3, had no effect on LPS-induced Ccl2 mRNA expression. In contrast, overexpression of EP2, as well as EP4, significantly decreased LPS-induced CCL2 expression. These results support the hypothesis that PTGS2-derived prostaglandins, when strongly induced, counter-balance inflammatory processes through the EP2 and EP4 receptors in MCs.

  9. The effects of quercetin in cultured human RPE cells under oxidative stress and in Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoguang; Liu, Melissa; Tuo, Jingsheng; Shen, Defen; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin, a member of the flavonoid family, is one of the most prominent dietary antioxidants. This study investigates the mechanisms for the effects of quercetin on cultured human RPE cells and in Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knock-out (DKO) mice, which spontaneously develop progressive retinal lesions mimicking age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the in vitro experiment, cultured ARPE-19 cells were exposed to 1mM H2O2 with or without 50μM quercetin for 2 hours. Cellular viability, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis were assessed using crystal violet staining, MTT assay, and comet assay, respectively. Apoptotic molecular transcripts of BCL-2, BAX, FADD, CASPASE-3 and CASPASE-9 were measured by RQ-PCR. COX activity and nitric oxide (NO) level were determined in the supernatant of the culture medium. Quercetin treatment protected ARPE-19 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative injury, enhanced BCL-2 transcript levels, increased the BCL-2/BAX ratio, suppressed the transcription of pro-apoptotic factors such as BAX, FADD, CASPASE-3 and CASPASE-9, inhibited the transcription of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, COX-2 and INOS, and decreased the levels of COX and NO in the culture medium. In the in vivo experiment, DKO and C57/B6 mice were treated with 25mg/kg/day quercetin by intraperitoneal injection daily for two months. Funduscopy was performed monthly. After two months, serum was collected to measure NADP+/NADPH, COX, PGE-2, and NO levels. The eyes were harvested for histology and A2E measurement. Ocular transcripts of Bcl-2, Bax, Cox-2, Inos, Tnf-α, Fas, FasL and Caspase-3 were detected by RQ-PCR. Quercetin treatment did not reverse the progression of retinal lesions in DKO mice funduscopically or histologically. Although quercetin treatment could recover systemic anti-oxidative capacity, suppress the systemic expression of NO, COX and PGE-2, and decrease ocular A2E levels, it could not effectively suppress the transcripts of the ocular inflammatory factors Tnf

  10. Spiral ligament fibrocyte-derived MCP-1/CCL2 contributes to inner ear inflammation secondary to nontypeable H. influenzae-induced otitis media

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    Lim David J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM, one of the most common pediatric infectious diseases, causes inner ear inflammation resulting in vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss. Previously, we showed that spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs recognize OM pathogens and up-regulate chemokines. Here, we aim to determine a key molecule derived from SLFs, contributing to OM-induced inner ear inflammation. Methods Live NTHI was injected into the murine middle ear through the tympanic membrane, and histological analysis was performed after harvesting the temporal bones. Migration assays were conducted using the conditioned medium of NTHI-exposed SLFs with and without inhibition of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2. qRT-PCR analysis was performed to demonstrate a compensatory up-regulation of alternative genes induced by the targeting of MCP-1/CCL2 or CCR2. Results Transtympanic inoculation of live NTHI developed serous and purulent labyrinthitis after clearance of OM. THP-1 cells actively migrated and invaded the extracellular matrix in response to the conditioned medium of NTHI-exposed SLFs. This migratory activity was markedly inhibited by the viral CC chemokine inhibitor and the deficiency of MCP-1/CCL2, indicating that MCP-1/CCL2 is a main attractant of THP-1 cells among the SLF-derived molecules. We further demonstrated that CCR2 deficiency inhibits migration of monocyte-like cells in response to NTHI-induced SLF-derived molecules. Immunolabeling showed an increase in MCP-1/CCL2 expression in the cochlear lateral wall of the NTHI-inoculated group. Contrary to the in vitro data, deficiency of MCP-1/CCL2 or CCR2 did not inhibit OM-induced inner ear inflammation in vivo. We demonstrated that targeting MCP-1/CCL2 enhances NTHI-induced up-regulation of MCP-2/CCL8 in SLFs and up-regulates the basal expression of CCR2 in the splenocytes. We also found that targeting CCR2 enhances NTHI-induced up-regulation of MCP-1/CCL2 in SLFs. Conclusions Taken together, we suggest that

  11. New therapy with ASC-J9® to suppress the prostatitis via altering the cytokine CCL2 signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Jen; Chou, Fu-Ju; Lin, Chang-Yi; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-10-11

    Prostatitis is a common disease contributing to 8% of all urologist visits. Yet the etiology and effective treatment remain to be further elucidated. Using a non-obese diabetes mouse model that can be induced by autoimmune response for the spontaneous development of prostatitis, we found that injection of the ASC-J9® at 75 mg/Kg body weight/48 hours led to significantly suppressed prostatitis that was accompanied with reduction of lymphocyte infiltration with reduced CD4+ T cells in prostate. In vitro studies with a co-culture system also confirmed that ASC-J9® treatment could suppress the CD4+ T cell migration to prostate stromal cells. Mechanisms dissection indicated that ASC-J9® can suppress CD4+ T cell migration via decreasing the cytokine CCL2 in vitro and in vivo, and restoring CCL2 could interrupt the ASC-J9® suppressed CD4+ T cell migration. Together, results from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that ASC-J9® can suppress prostatitis by altering the autoimmune response induced by CD4+ T cell recruitment, and using ASC-J9® may help us to develop a potential new therapy to battle the prostatitis with little side effects.

  12. Tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells induce angiogenesis through the synergistic action of CCL2 and CXCL16 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Chun; Lee, Jungwhoi; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Choi, Chulhee

    2014-01-24

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells can suppress innate and adaptive immunity, and the functional immunosuppressive characteristics of these cells can be modulated by the tumor microenvironment. Since Gr-1(+)CD11(+) cells are also involved in tumor-associated angiogenesis, we hypothesized that the angiogenic nature of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells could be regulated by the tumor milieu. To address this hypothesis, we imitated a tumor microenvironment by exposing Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells isolated from spleen of 4T1 mammary carcinoma-bearing mice to tumor-conditioned medium. Supernatants from tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly induced capillary-like tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to naive Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells. Incubation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells with tumor-conditioned medium induced production of pro-angiogenic chemokines CCL2 and CXCL16. Pretreatment with an anti-CCL2 antibody, but not an anti-CXCL16 antibody, suppressed the angiogenic effects of tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells on HUVECs. Simultaneous neutralization of CCL2 and CXCL16 significantly inhibited tube formation and migration of HUVECs compared to the sole neutralization against CCL2. Supernatants from tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HUVECs, and inhibition of the ERK pathway blocked angiogenic effects. ERK pathway activity was partially abrogated by neutralization of CCL2 and more suppressed by simultaneous neutralization of CCL2 and CXCL16. These results collectively indicate that CCL2 and CXCL16 chemokines produced by tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells synergistically induce angiogenesis in vitro by stimulating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, regulation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells in the tumor microenvironment may contribute to angiogenesis through the secretion of pro-angiogenic chemokines.

  13. MIPAS IMK/IAA CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2) measurements: accuracy, precision and long-term stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, E.; Laeng, A.; Lossow, S.; Kellmann, S.; Stiller, G.; von Clarmann, T.; Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Kiefer, M.; Oelhaf, H.; Orphal, J.; Funke, B.; Grabowski, U.; Haenel, F.; Linden, A.; Wetzel, G.; Woiwode, W.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Dutton, G. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Engel, A.; Gille, J. C.; Kolonjari, F.; Sugita, T.; Toon, G. C.; Walker, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    Profiles of CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2) of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aboard the European satellite Envisat have been retrieved from versions MIPAS/4.61 to MIPAS/4.62 and MIPAS/5.02 to MIPAS/5.06 level-1b data using the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA). These profiles have been compared to measurements taken by the balloon-borne cryosampler, Mark IV (MkIV) and MIPAS-Balloon (MIPAS-B), the airborne MIPAS-STRatospheric aircraft (MIPAS-STR), the satellite-borne Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the High Resolution Dynamic Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), as well as the ground-based Halocarbon and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) network for the reduced spectral resolution period (RR: January 2005-April 2012) of MIPAS. ACE-FTS, MkIV and HATS also provide measurements during the high spectral resolution period (full resolution, FR: July 2002-March 2004) and were used to validate MIPAS CFC-11 and CFC-12 products during that time, as well as profiles from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer, ILAS-II. In general, we find that MIPAS shows slightly higher values for CFC-11 at the lower end of the profiles (below ˜ 15 km) and in a comparison of HATS ground-based data and MIPAS measurements at 3 km below the tropopause. Differences range from approximately 10 to 50 pptv ( ˜ 5-20 %) during the RR period. In general, differences are slightly smaller for the FR period. An indication of a slight high bias at the lower end of the profile exists for CFC-12 as well, but this bias is far less pronounced than for CFC-11 and is not as obvious in the relative differences between MIPAS and any of the comparison instruments. Differences at the lower end of the profile (below ˜ 15 km) and in

  14. Association of FCGR2A p.R131H and CCL2 c.-2518 A>G gene variants with thrombocytopenia in patients with dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagarasu, Kalichamy; Bachal, Rupali V; Damle, Indraneel; Shah, Paresh S; Cecilia, Dayaraj

    2015-11-01

    FCGR2A and CCL2 gene variants are important in dengue pathogenesis and were investigated in 122 dengue patients (DENs) [89 dengue fever (DF) and 33 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)] and 107 healthy controls (HCs) to find out their association with severity of dengue. Genotype frequencies of FCGR2A p.R131H and CCL2 c.-2518 A > G polymorphisms were not different between DF, DHF and HC. Significantly higher frequency of R/R genotype of FCGR2A p.R131H was observed in DEN cases with thrombocytopenia (TP) while the G/G genotype of CCL2 c.-2518 A > G was observed only in DEN cases with TP (p dengue infections.

  15. IL-17RA is required for CCL2 expression, macrophage recruitment, and emphysema in response to cigarette smoke.

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    Kong Chen

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is characterized by airspace enlargement and peribronchial lymphoid follicles; however, the immunological mechanisms leading to these pathologic changes remain undefined. Here we show that cigarette smoke is a selective adjuvant that augments in vitro and in vivo Th17, but not Th1, cell differentiation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Smoke exposed IL-17RA(-/- mice failed to induce CCL2 and MMP12 compared to WT mice. Remarkably, in contrast to WT mice, IL-17RA(-/- mice failed to develop emphysema after 6 months of cigarette smoke exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cigarette smoke is a potent Th17 adjuvant and that IL-17RA signaling is required for chemokine expression necessary for MMP12 induction and tissue emphysema.

  16. Suppressive effects of antimycotics on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced CCL27, CCL2, and CCL5 production in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Naoko; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2006-08-14

    Antimycotic agents are reported to improve cutaneous symptoms of atopic dermatitis or psoriasis vulgaris. Keratinocytes in these lesions excessively produce chemokines, CCL27, CCL2, or CCL5 which trigger inflammatory infiltrates. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induces production of these chemokines via activating nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We examined in vitro effects of antimycotics on TNF-alpha-induced CCL27, CCL2, and CCL5 production in human keratinocytes. Antimycotics ketoconazole and terbinafine hydrochloride suppressed TNF-alpha-induced CCL27, CCL2, and CCL5 secretion and mRNA expression in keratinocytes in parallel to the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity while fluconazole was ineffective. Anti-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) antiserum or antisense oligonucleotides against PGE2 receptor EP2 or EP3 abrogated inhibitory effects of ketoconazole and terbinafine hydrochloride on TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and CCL27, CCL2, and CCL5 production, indicating the involvement of endogenous PGE2 in the inhibitory effects. Prostaglandin H2, a precursor of PGE2 can be converted to thromboxane A2. Ketoconazole, terbinafine hydrochloride and thromboxane A2 synthase (EC 5.3.99.5) inhibitor, carboxyheptyl imidazole increased PGE2 release from keratinocytes and reduced that of thromboxane B2, a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2. Carboxyheptyl imidazole also suppressed TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and CCL27, CCL2, and CCL5 production. These results suggest that ketoconazole and terbinafine hydrochloride may suppress TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and CCL27, CCL2, and CCL5 production by increasing PGE2 release from keratinocytes. These antimycotics may suppress thromboxane A2 synthesis and redirect the conversion of PGH2 toward PGE2. These antimycotics may alleviate inflammatory infiltration in atopic dermatitis or psoriasis vulgaris by suppressing chemokine production.

  17. Smac Mimetic-Induced Upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1 Triggers Migration and Invasion of Glioblastoma Cells and Influences the Tumor Microenvironment in a Paracrine Manner

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    Carina Lindemann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac mimetics are considered as promising anticancer therapeutics that are currently under investigation in early clinical trials. They induce apoptosis by antagonizing inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, which are frequently overexpressed in cancer. We previously reported that Smac mimetics, such as BV6, additionally exert non-apoptotic functions in glioblastoma (GBM cells by stimulating migration and invasion in a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-dependent manner. Because NF-κB target genes mediating these effects are largely unknown, we performed whole-genome expression analyses. Here, we identify chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 as the top-listed NF-κB-regulated gene being upregulated upon BV6 treatment in GBM cells. BV6-induced upregulation and secretion of CCL2 are required for migration and invasion of GBM cells because knockdown of CCL2 in GBM cells abolishes these effects. Co-culture experiments of GBM cells with non-malignant astroglial cells reveal that BV6-stimulated secretion of CCL2 by GBM cells into the supernatant triggers migration of astroglial cells toward GBM cells because CCL2 knockdown in BV6-treated GBM cells impedes BV6-stimulated migration of astroglial cells. In conclusion, we identify CCL2 as a BV6-induced NF-κB target gene that triggers migration and invasion of GBM cells and exerts paracrine effects on the GBM's microenvironment by stimulating migration of astroglial cells. These findings provide novel insights into the biological functions of Smac mimetics with important implications for the development of Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics.

  18. Chemokine MCP1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms influence Henoch–Schönlein purpura susceptibility and severity

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    Hsin-Hui Yu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results support the fact that chemokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of HSP. MCP1/CCL2 gene polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility for HSP. RANTES/CCL5 gene polymorphisms may be related to disease severity and HSP nephritis.

  19. P2X7-dependent, but differentially regulated release of IL-6, CCL2, and TNF-alpha in cultured mouse microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shieh, Chu-Hsin; Heinrich, Annette; Serchov, Tsvetan; van Calker, Dietrich; Biber, Knut

    2014-01-01

    ATP is an important regulator of microglia and its effects on microglial cytokine release are currently discussed as important contributors in a variety of brain diseases. We here analyzed the effects of ATP on the production of six inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-10, CCL2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, an

  20. P2X7-dependent, but differentially regulated release of IL-6, CCL2, and TNF-alpha in cultured mouse microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shieh, Chu-Hsin; Heinrich, Annette; Serchov, Tsvetan; van Calker, Dietrich; Biber, Knut

    ATP is an important regulator of microglia and its effects on microglial cytokine release are currently discussed as important contributors in a variety of brain diseases. We here analyzed the effects of ATP on the production of six inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-10, CCL2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha,

  1. Tumor-derived CCL-2 and CXCL-8 as possible prognostic markers of breast cancer: correlation with estrogen and progestrone receptor phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Maher, Sara; Abdel-Aty, Asmaa; Saad, A; Kazem, A; Demian, S R

    2009-01-01

    Prognosis of breast cancer is believed to be a multifactorial process best achieved by complex factors including host and tumor-derived biomarkers together with traditional clinicopathological parameters and tumor histologic markers. The present study aimed at evaluating the prognostic significance of chemokine ligand-2 (CCL-2) and interleukin-8 (CXCL-8) expression in extracts of breast carcinomas through correlation with clinicopathological aspects as well as estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) phenotyping. The study was conducted on 30 Egyptian breast cancer patients diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and subjected to modified radical mastectomy. Excised tissues were used to prepare tissue sections and extracts for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 26 patients had invasive ductal carcinoma, grades II and III with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and ER and PR positive phenotype. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was significantly influenced by patient's age, menopausal status, nodal involvement, tumor grade and the ER phenotype. In contrast, it was not affected by either tumor size or PR staining pattern. Both chemokines correlated positively to each other and to tumor grade and negatively to age, menopausal status of patients and ER phenotyping. It is concluded that the angiogenic chemokine CXCL-8 and the macrophage chemoattractant CCL-2 might be useful prognostic markers where their routine follow up might be of importance in assessment of tumor aggressiveness in clinical settings.

  2. Adenosine A(3) receptor-induced CCL2 synthesis in cultured mouse astrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittendorp, MC; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, K

    2004-01-01

    During neuropathological conditions, high concentrations of adenosine are released, stimulating adenosine receptors in neurons and glial cells. It has recently been shown that stimulation of adenosine receptors in glial cells induces the release of neuroprotective substances such as NGF, S-100beta,

  3. High level binocular rivalry effects

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    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  4. [Photoelectron Spectra of CCl2-: Ab Initio Calculation and Franck-Condon Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Geometry optimization and harmonic vibrational frequency calculations were performed on the X¹A₁ state of CCl₂ and X²B₁ state of CCl₂⁻ at the B3LYP, MP2, CCSD levels. Franck-Condon analysis and spectral simulations were carried out on the photoelectron band of CCl₂⁻ including Duschinsky effects. The simulated spectra obtained are in excellent agreement with the experiment. Note that Duschinsky effect between bending vibration and the symmetric stretch modes should be considered in the CCl₂ (X¹A₁)-CCl₂⁻ (X²B₁) photodetachment process. By combining ab initio calculations with Franck-Condon analyses, the assignment of spectrum observed is firmly established to the X¹A₁-X²B₁ photodetachment process of the CCl₂⁻ radical, and the recommended geometric parameters of which in the literature are confirmed again base on ab initio theory and IFCA process.

  5. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the

  6. Changes in plasma chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 levels during treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid predict outcome in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Milene; Perry, Sarah L; Marston, Gemma; Ingram, Nicola; Cockbain, Andrew J.; Burghel, Heather; Jake, Mann; Lowes, David; Wilson, Erica; Droop, Alastair; Randerson-Moor, Juliette; Coletta, P Louise; Hull, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of the anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that EPA reduces expression of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), a pro-inflammatory chemokine with known roles in metastasis. We measured CCL2 in clinical samples from a randomized trial of EPA in patients undergoing liver surgery for CRC liver metastasis (LM) and preclinical models. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of tumors from EPA-treated patients was performed. EPA decreased CCL2 synthesis by CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner. CCL2 was localized to malignant epithelial cells in human CRCLM. EPA did not reduce CCL2 content in human or mouse tumors compare to control. However, EPA treatment was associated with decreased plasma CCL2 levels compared with controls (P=0.04). Reduction in plasma CCL2 following EPA treatment predicted improved disease-free survival (HR 0.32; P=0.003). Lack of ‘CCL2 response’ was associated with a specific CRCLM gene expression signature. In conclusion, reduction in plasma CCL2 in patients with CRCLM treated with EPA predicts better clinical outcome and a specific tumor gene expression profile. Further work is needed to validate CCL2 as a therapeutic response biomarker for omega-3 fatty acid treatment of CRC patients. PMID:27058904

  7. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  8. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  9. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  10. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  11. Kinin B2 receptor regulates chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 expression and modulates leukocyte recruitment and pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Michael

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinins are important mediators of inflammation and act through stimulation of two receptor subtypes, B1 and B2. Leukocyte infiltration contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, occurring not only in multiple sclerosis (MS but also in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. We have previously shown that the chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 play an important role in the adhesion of leukocytes to the brain microcirculation in EAE. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relevance of B2 receptors to leukocyte-endothelium interactions in the cerebral microcirculation, and its participation in CNS inflammation in the experimental model of myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG35–55-induced EAE in mice. Methods In order to evaluate the role of B2 receptor in the cerebral microvasculature we used wild-type (WT and kinin B2 receptor knockout (B2-/- mice subjected to MOG35–55-induced EAE. Intravital microscopy was used to investigate leukocyte recruitment on pial matter vessels in B2-/- and WT EAE mice. Histological documentation of inflammatory infiltrates in brain and spinal cords was correlated with intravital findings. The expression of CCL5 and CCL2 in cerebral tissue was assessed by ELISA. Results Clinical parameters of disease were reduced in B2-/- mice in comparison to wild type EAE mice. At day 14 after EAE induction, there was a significant decrease in the number of adherent leukocytes, a reduction of cerebral CCL5 and CCL2 expressions, and smaller inflammatory and degenerative changes in B2-/- mice when compared to WT. Conclusion Our results suggest that B2 receptors have two major effects in the control of EAE severity: (i B2 regulates the expression of chemokines, including CCL2 and CCL5, and (ii B2 modulates leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory lesions in the CNS.

  12. Epidermis-to-dermis migration of immature Langerhans cells upon topical irritant exposure is dependent on CCL2 and CCL5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Krista; Scheper, Rik J; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Gibbs, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Skin irritation is generally not considered to be an immunological event; however, alterations in the density of Langerhans cells (LC) in the epidermis do occur, which is indicative of LC migration. In this study, we investigated the migration of LC out of the epidermis after skin exposure to contact irritants and identified the chemokines involved. With the aid of ex vivo-intact human skin and epidermal sheets we show that dermal fibroblasts play a role in mediating LC migration towards the dermis. Exposure of ex vivo-intact human skin to a panel of seven irritants (SDS, salicylic acid, phenol, isopropanol, DMSO, TritonX, or benzalkonium chloride) resulted in decreased numbers of CD1a(+) cells in the epidermis and the accumulation of CD1a(+) cells in the dermis. In contrast to allergen exposure, neutralizing antibodies to either CXCL12 or CCL19/CCL21 did not inhibit LC migration out of the epidermis. Exposure of epidermal sheets to the prototypical irritant SDS resulted in a TNF-alpha-dependent LC migration towards dermal fibroblasts. This was a result of CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES chemokine secretion by fibroblasts: injection of CCL2- and CCL5-neutralizing antibodies into intact human skin totally inhibited LC migration into the dermis. We have thus identified a novel role for TNF-alpha-inducible dermis-derived CCL2 and CCL5 in initiating migration of irritant-exposed human LC out of the epidermis.

  13. The ALICE high level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  14. Mechanisms of HIV entry into the CNS: increased sensitivity of HIV infected CD14+CD16+ monocytes to CCL2 and key roles of CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM in diapedesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionna W Williams

    Full Text Available As HIV infected individuals live longer, the prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders is increasing, despite successful antiretroviral therapy. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes are critical to the neuropathogenesis of HIV as they promote viral seeding of the brain and establish neuroinflammation. The mechanisms by which HIV infected and uninfected monocytes cross the blood brain barrier and enter the central nervous system are not fully understood. We determined that HIV infection of CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes resulted in their highly increased transmigration across the blood brain barrier in response to CCL2 as compared to uninfected cells, which did not occur in the absence of the chemokine. This exuberant transmigration of HIV infected monocytes was due, at least in part, to increased CCR2 and significantly heightened sensitivity to CCL2. The entry of HIV infected and uninfected CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes into the brain was facilitated by significantly increased surface JAM-A, ALCAM, CD99, and PECAM-1, as compared to CD14(+ cells that are CD16 negative. Upon HIV infection, there was an additional increase in surface JAM-A and ALCAM on CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes isolated from some individuals. Antibodies to ALCAM and JAM-A inhibited the transmigration of both HIV infected and uninfected CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes across the BBB, demonstrating their importance in facilitating monocyte transmigration and entry into the brain parenchyma. Targeting CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM present on CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes that preferentially infiltrate the CNS represents a therapeutic strategy to reduce viral seeding of the brain as well as the ongoing neuroinflammation that occurs during HIV pathogenesis.

  15. Mechanisms of HIV entry into the CNS: increased sensitivity of HIV infected CD14+CD16+ monocytes to CCL2 and key roles of CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM in diapedesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dionna W; Calderon, Tina M; Lopez, Lillie; Carvallo-Torres, Loreto; Gaskill, Peter J; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Morgello, Susan; Berman, Joan W

    2013-01-01

    As HIV infected individuals live longer, the prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders is increasing, despite successful antiretroviral therapy. CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes are critical to the neuropathogenesis of HIV as they promote viral seeding of the brain and establish neuroinflammation. The mechanisms by which HIV infected and uninfected monocytes cross the blood brain barrier and enter the central nervous system are not fully understood. We determined that HIV infection of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes resulted in their highly increased transmigration across the blood brain barrier in response to CCL2 as compared to uninfected cells, which did not occur in the absence of the chemokine. This exuberant transmigration of HIV infected monocytes was due, at least in part, to increased CCR2 and significantly heightened sensitivity to CCL2. The entry of HIV infected and uninfected CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes into the brain was facilitated by significantly increased surface JAM-A, ALCAM, CD99, and PECAM-1, as compared to CD14(+) cells that are CD16 negative. Upon HIV infection, there was an additional increase in surface JAM-A and ALCAM on CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes isolated from some individuals. Antibodies to ALCAM and JAM-A inhibited the transmigration of both HIV infected and uninfected CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes across the BBB, demonstrating their importance in facilitating monocyte transmigration and entry into the brain parenchyma. Targeting CCR2, JAM-A, and ALCAM present on CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes that preferentially infiltrate the CNS represents a therapeutic strategy to reduce viral seeding of the brain as well as the ongoing neuroinflammation that occurs during HIV pathogenesis.

  16. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  17. mRNA cap analogues substituted in the tetraphosphate chain with CX2: identification of O-to-CCl2 as the first bridging modification that confers resistance to decapping without impairing translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzik, Anna M.; Warminski, Marcin; Sikorski, Pawel J.; Baranowski, Marek R.; Walczak, Sylwia; Kowalska, Joanna; Zuberek, Joanna; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Nowak, Elzbieta; W. Claridge, Timothy D.; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Nowotny, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Analogues of the mRNA 5′-cap are useful tools for studying mRNA translation and degradation, with emerging potential applications in novel therapeutic interventions including gene therapy. We report the synthesis of novel mono- and dinucleotide cap analogues containing dihalogenmethylenebisphosphonate moiety (i.e. one of the bridging O atom substituted with CCl2 or CF2) and their properties in the context of cellular translational and decapping machineries, compared to phosphate-unmodified and previously reported CH2-substituted caps. The analogues were bound tightly to eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), with CCl2-substituted analogues having the highest affinity. When incorporated into mRNA, the CCl2-substituted dinucleotide most efficiently promoted cap-dependent translation. Moreover, the CCl2-analogues were potent inhibitors of translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The crystal structure of eIF4E in complex with the CCl2-analogue revealed a significantly different ligand conformation compared to that of the unmodified cap analogue, which likely contributes to the improved binding. Both CCl2- and CF2- analogues showed lower susceptibility to hydrolysis by the decapping scavenger enzyme (DcpS) and, when incorporated into RNA, conferred stability against major cellular decapping enzyme (Dcp2) to transcripts. Furthermore, the use of difluoromethylene cap analogues was exemplified by the development of 19F NMR assays for DcpS activity and eIF4E binding. PMID:28666355

  18. The oncolytic virus dl922-947 reduces IL-8/CXCL8 and MCP-1/CCL2 expression and impairs angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastolo, Viviana; Di Somma, Sarah; Scamardella, Eloise; Gigantino, Vincenzo; Franco, Renato; Marone, Gianni; Portella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human solid tumor and current treatments are ineffective in increasing patients' survival. Thus, the development of new therapeutic approaches for ATC is needed. We have previously shown that the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 induces ATC cell death in vitro and tumor regression in vivo. However, the impact of dl922-947 on the pro-tumorigenic ATC microenvironment is still unknown. Since viruses are able to regulate cytokine and chemokine production from infected cells, we sought to investigate whether dl922-947 virotherapy has such effect on ATC cells, thereby modulating ATC microenvironment. dl922-947 decreased IL-8/CXCL8 and MCP-1/CCL2 production by the ATC cell lines 8505-c and BHT101-5. These results correlated with dl922-947-mediated reduction of NF-κB p65 binding to IL8 promoter in 8505-c and BHT101-5 cells and CCL2 promoter in 8505-c cells. IL-8 stimulates cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasion, and also angiogenesis. dl922-947-mediated reduction of IL-8 impaired ATC cell motility in vitro and ATC-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We also show that dl922-947-mediated reduction of the monocyte-attracting chemokine CCL2 decreased monocyte chemotaxis in vitro and tumor macrophage density in vivo. Interestingly, dl922-947 treatment induced the switch of tumor macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype, likely by increasing the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ. Altogether, we demonstrate that dl922-947 treatment re-shape the pro-tumorigenic ATC microenvironment by modulating cancer-cell intrinsic factors and the immune response. An in-depth knowledge of dl922-947-mediated effects on ATC microenvironment may help to refine ATC virotherapy in the context of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26625205

  19. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  20. HPV16-E7 expression in squamous epithelium creates a local immune suppressive environment via CCL2- and CCL5- mediated recruitment of mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Ford, Neill; Leggatt, Graham R; Wells, James W; Frazer, Ian H; Grimbaldeston, Michele A

    2014-10-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 protein promotes the transformation of HPV infected epithelium to malignancy. Here, we use a murine model in which the E7 protein of HPV16 is expressed as a transgene in epithelium to show that mast cells are recruited to the basal layer of E7-expressing epithelium, and that this recruitment is dependent on the epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7 by inactivating Rb dependent cell cycle regulation. E7 induced epithelial hyperplasia is associated with increased epidermal secretion of CCL2 and CCL5 chemokines, which attract mast cells to the skin. Mast cells in E7 transgenic skin, in contrast to those in non-transgenic skin, exhibit degranulation. Notably, we found that resident mast cells in E7 transgenic skin cause local immune suppression as evidenced by tolerance of E7 transgenic skin grafts when mast cells are present compared to the rejection of mast cell-deficient E7 grafts in otherwise competent hosts. Thus, our findings suggest that mast cells, recruited towards CCL2 and CCL5 expressed by epithelium induced to proliferate by E7, may contribute to an immunosuppressive environment that enables the persistence of HPV E7 protein induced pre-cancerous lesions.

  1. HPV16-E7 expression in squamous epithelium creates a local immune suppressive environment via CCL2- and CCL5- mediated recruitment of mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Bergot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16 E7 protein promotes the transformation of HPV infected epithelium to malignancy. Here, we use a murine model in which the E7 protein of HPV16 is expressed as a transgene in epithelium to show that mast cells are recruited to the basal layer of E7-expressing epithelium, and that this recruitment is dependent on the epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7 by inactivating Rb dependent cell cycle regulation. E7 induced epithelial hyperplasia is associated with increased epidermal secretion of CCL2 and CCL5 chemokines, which attract mast cells to the skin. Mast cells in E7 transgenic skin, in contrast to those in non-transgenic skin, exhibit degranulation. Notably, we found that resident mast cells in E7 transgenic skin cause local immune suppression as evidenced by tolerance of E7 transgenic skin grafts when mast cells are present compared to the rejection of mast cell-deficient E7 grafts in otherwise competent hosts. Thus, our findings suggest that mast cells, recruited towards CCL2 and CCL5 expressed by epithelium induced to proliferate by E7, may contribute to an immunosuppressive environment that enables the persistence of HPV E7 protein induced pre-cancerous lesions.

  2. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brèthes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw basis were hair (733 ng/g and kidney (511 ng/g, followed by the liver (77 ng/g. Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex. The metallothionein (MT protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2/ mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes

  3. The innate immune response to lower respiratory tract E. Coli infection and the role of the CCL2-CCR2 axis in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Ndeh, Roland; Collaco, Joseph M; Poupore, Amy K; Dikeman, Dustin; Zhong, Qiong; Singer, Benjamin D; D'Alessio, Franco; Scott, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2(-/-) C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E. coli or PBS by direct pharyngeal aspiration. Flow cytometry was used to measure immune cell dynamics and identify cytokine-producing cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure cytokine/chemokine expression. Innate immune cell recruitment in response to E. coli-induced LRTI was delayed in the neonatal lung compared to juvenile lung. Lung clearance of bacteria was also significantly delayed in the neonate. Ccr2(-/-) neonates, which lack an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, had higher mortality after E. coli challenged than Ccr2(+/+) neonates. A greater percentage of CD8(+) T cells and monocytes from WT neonates challenged with E. coli produced TNF compared to controls. The pulmonary immune response to E. coli-induced LRTI differed significantly between neonatal and juvenile mice. Neonates were more susceptible to increasing doses of E. coli and exhibited greater mortality than juveniles. In the absence of an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, susceptibility to LRTI-induced mortality was further increased in neonatal mice. Taken together these findings underscore the importance of age-related differences in the innate immune response to LRTI during early stages of postnatal life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  5. Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced production of reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 by neutrophils from localized aggressive periodontitis and healthy donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, C; Kantarci, A; Holmstrup, P

    2017-01-01

    in both groups, but reduced the generation of ROS in the group of healthy controls, and showed a similar tendency in the group of subjects with LAgP. RvE1 had no impact on the production of intracellular ROS, TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 by neutrophils from either group, but tended to reduce the generation...... healthy controls release the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8; also known as IL-8) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2; also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and intracellular reactive oxygen species...... of neutrophils were investigated. RESULTS: Upon stimulation with P. gingivalis, neutrophils from subjects with LAgP and healthy controls released similar quantities of IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL8, CCL2 and intracellular ROS. The presence of RBCs amplified the release of IL-6, TNF-α and CCL2 statistically significant...

  6. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO. Male rats were grouped as follows: (1 Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days; (2 Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3 CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4 Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5 untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  7. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Brambila, Eduardo; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Tomás-Sanchez, Constantino; Limón, I Daniel; Eguibar, Jose R; Ugarte, Araceli; Hernandez-Castillo, Jeanett; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Male rats were grouped as follows: (1) Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days); (2) Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3) CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4) Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5) untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  8. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Brambila, Eduardo; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Aguilar-Peralta, Ana Karina; Gonzalez-Vazquez, Alejandro; Tomás-Sanchez, Constantino; Limón, I. Daniel; Eguibar, Jose R.; Ugarte, Araceli; Hernandez-Castillo, Jeanett; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Male rats were grouped as follows: (1) Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days); (2) Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3) CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4) Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5) untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors. PMID:26355725

  9. Metalloproteinases control brain inflammation induced by pertussis toxin in mice overexpressing the chemokine CCL2 in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Buist, Richard; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2006-01-01

    symptoms. Metalloproteinase (MPs) enzymes are implicated in leukocyte infiltration in neuroinflammation. Unmanipulated Tg mice had elevated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10, and -12 mRNA in the brain. PTx further induced expression of tissue inhibitor...... of metalloproteinase-1, metalloproteinase disintegrins-12, MMP-8, and -10 in brains of Tg mice. Levels of the microglial-associated MP MMP-15 were not affected in control or PTx-treated Tg mice. PTx also up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in Tg CNS. Weight loss...

  10. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  11. High-Level Dialogue on International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR wishes to bring the following observations andrecommendations to the attention of the High-LevelDialogue (HLD on International Migration and Development,to be held in New York, 14-15 September 2006:

  12. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  13. UV and infrared absorption spectra, atmospheric lifetimes, and ozone depletion and global warming potentials for CCl2FCCl2F (CFC-112), CCl3CClF2 (CFC-112a), CCl3CF3 (CFC-113a), and CCl2FCF3 (CFC-114a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Maxine E.; Bernard, François; McGillen, Max R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Burkholder, James B.

    2016-07-01

    The potential impact of CCl2FCF3 (CFC-114a) and the recently observed CCl2FCCl2F (CFC-112), CCl3CClF2 (CFC-112a), and CCl3CF3 (CFC-113a) chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and climate is presently not well characterized. In this study, the UV absorption spectra of these CFCs were measured between 192.5 and 235 nm over the temperature range 207-323 K. Precise parameterizations of the UV absorption spectra are presented. A 2-D atmospheric model was used to evaluate the CFC atmospheric loss processes, lifetimes, ozone depletion potentials (ODPs), and the associated uncertainty ranges in these metrics due to the kinetic and photochemical uncertainty. The CFCs are primarily removed in the stratosphere by short-wavelength UV photolysis with calculated global annually averaged steady-state lifetimes (years) of 63.6 (61.9-64.7), 51.5 (50.0-52.6), 55.4 (54.3-56.3), and 105.3 (102.9-107.4) for CFC-112, CFC-112a, CFC-113a, and CFC-114a, respectively. The range of lifetimes given in parentheses is due to the 2σ uncertainty in the UV absorption spectra and O(1D) rate coefficients included in the model calculations. The 2-D model was also used to calculate the CFC ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) with values of 0.98, 0.86, 0.73, and 0.72 obtained for CFC-112, CFC-112a, CFC-113a, and CFC-114a, respectively. Using the infrared absorption spectra and lifetimes determined in this work, the CFC global warming potentials (GWPs) were estimated to be 4260 (CFC-112), 3330 (CFC-112a), 3650 (CFC-113a), and 6510 (CFC-114a) for the 100-year time horizon.

  14. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture....... Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details. © 2013 SPIE....

  15. Global CFC-11 (CCl3F and CFC-12 (CCl2F2 measurements with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS: retrieval, climatologies and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Linden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of CFC-11 (CCl3F and CFC-12 (CCl2F2 have been measured with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS with global coverage under daytime and nighttime conditions. The profile retrieval is based on constrained nonlinear least squares fitting of measured limb spectral radiance to modeled spectra. CFC-11 is measured in its ν4-band at 850 cm−1, and CFC-12 is analyzed in its ν6-band at 922 cm−1. To stabilize the retrievals, a Tikhonov-type smoothing constraint is applied. Main retrieval error sources are measurement noise and elevation pointing uncertainties. The estimated CFC-11 retrieval errors including noise and parameter errors but excluding spectroscopic data uncertainties are below 10 pptv in the middle stratosphere, depending on altitude, the MIPAS measurement mode and the actual atmospheric situation. For CFC-12 the total retrieval errors are below 28 pptv at an altitude resolution varying from 3 to 5 km. Time series of altitude/latitude bins were fitted by a simple parametric approach including constant and linear terms, a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO proxy and sine and cosine terms of several periods. In the time series from 2002 to 2011, quasi-biennial and annual oscillations are clearly visible. A decrease of stratospheric CFC mixing ratios in response to the Montreal Protocol is observed for most altitudes and latitudes. However, the trends differ from the trends measured in the troposphere, they are even positive at some latitudes and altitudes, and can in some cases only be explained by decadal changes in atmospheric age of air spectra or vertical mixing patterns.

  16. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  17. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6,6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of h sub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  18. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  19. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  20. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  1. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  2. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  3. Service-oriented high level architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Xichun

    2009-01-01

    Service-oriented High Level Architecture (SOHLA) refers to the high level architecture (HLA) enabled by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web Services etc. techniques which supports distributed interoperating services. The detailed comparisons between HLA and SOA are made to illustrate the importance of their combination. Then several key enhancements and changes of HLA Evolved Web Service API are introduced in comparison with native APIs, such as Federation Development and Execution Process, communication mechanisms, data encoding, session handling, testing environment and performance analysis. Some approaches are summarized including Web-Enabling HLA at the communication layer, HLA interface specification layer, federate interface layer and application layer. Finally the problems of current research are discussed, and the future directions are pointed out.

  4. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  5. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  6. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  7. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  8. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  9. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  10. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  11. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  12. Proton Affinity Calculations with High Level Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolboe, Stein

    2014-08-12

    Proton affinities, stretching from small reference compounds, up to the methylbenzenes and naphthalene and anthracene, have been calculated with high accuracy computational methods, viz. W1BD, G4, G3B3, CBS-QB3, and M06-2X. Computed and the currently accepted reference proton affinities are generally in excellent accord, but there are deviations. The literature value for propene appears to be 6-7 kJ/mol too high. Reported proton affinities for the methylbenzenes seem 4-5 kJ/mol too high. G4 and G3 computations generally give results in good accord with the high level W1BD. Proton affinity values computed with the CBS-QB3 scheme are too low, and the error increases with increasing molecule size, reaching nearly 10 kJ/mol for the xylenes. The functional M06-2X fails markedly for some of the small reference compounds, in particular, for CO and ketene, but calculates methylbenzene proton affinities with high accuracy.

  13. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilsner, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Steinbeck, T. [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H. [Bergen College (Norway); Loizides, C. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Skaali, B.; Vik, T. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. (orig.)

  14. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  15. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  16. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  17. Reliability-Centric High-Level Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, S; Arvas, E; Kandemir, M; Xie, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Importance of addressing soft errors in both safety critical applications and commercial consumer products is increasing, mainly due to ever shrinking geometries, higher-density circuits, and employment of power-saving techniques such as voltage scaling and component shut-down. As a result, it is becoming necessary to treat reliability as a first-class citizen in system design. In particular, reliability decisions taken early in system design can have significant benefits in terms of design quality. Motivated by this observation, this paper presents a reliability-centric high-level synthesis approach that addresses the soft error problem. The proposed approach tries to maximize reliability of the design while observing the bounds on area and performance, and makes use of our reliability characterization of hardware components such as adders and multipliers. We implemented the proposed approach, performed experiments with several designs, and compared the results with those obtained by a prior proposal.

  18. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  19. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  20. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  1. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  2. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  3. Statistics of High-level Scene Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Greene

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Context is critical to our ability to recognize environments and to search for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48,167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell, Torralba, Muphy & Freeman, 2008. From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed things in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human rapid scene categorization is discussed. Ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature, and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. Some objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help researchers in visual cognition design new data

  4. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  5. High-level Behavior Representation Languages Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Newell, A. (1980). The keystroke-level model for user performance time with interactive systems. Communications of the ACM , 23(7), 396-410. Cohen, M. A... ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI󈧊. New York, NY: ACM . Howes, A., Lewis, R. L., Vera, A., & Richardson, J. (2005...modeling made easy. In Proceedings of CHI 2004 (Vienna, Austria, April 2004), 455-462. New York, NY: ACM . Jones, R. M., Crossman, J. A. L., Lebiere, C

  6. Globalism on the High School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presutti, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the International Sibling Program at Lewiston-Porter High School in Youngstown, New York. Notes that 10 "sibling schools" in eight countries participate by exchanging faculty and students. Suggests that the program has given students, staff, and the community many opportunities to interact with the real world. (RS)

  7. Speech at the High-level Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    <正>The commemoration of 2014 International Day of Peace,themed with"A More Secure Asia Aspired by People"is highly relevant.To begin with,I would like to share 3 points on Asian security with you.Firstly,problems in the realm of traditional security are worrying.Outdated security perspectives and security systemic structures left by the cold war are threatening Asian peace and development,yet some countries still believe in backward security

  8. Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of a staphylokinase variant, SakøC, ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Hence in this study, we reported the cloning, high-level expression, purification and characterization of ...

  9. Theoretical Study on Isomerization of Intermediate in the CCl2O+ O(1D) Reaction System%CC12O与O(1D)反应中间体的异构化理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田燕; 王莉; 王丽平

    2012-01-01

    The study on the isomerization mechanisms of intermediate was performed with the multilevel techniques based on additive energy corrections of CBS--QB3 in the CCl2O+ O(1D) reaction system. The result of computation shows Ml--trans(ClC(O)OCl) is the most stable intermediate.%运用一种建立在多步计算水平上的CBS—QB3理论方法对光气与氧原子反应体系中生成的中间体之间的异构化反应机理进行了理论研究,计算结果表明M1-trans(ClC(O)OCl)是一种最稳定的中间体构型。

  10. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Exley

    Full Text Available The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD value of 51.0 (33.0 μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  11. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  12. Peripheral chemokine levels in women with recurrent major depression with suicidal ideation Níveis periféricos de quimiocina em mulheres com depressão maior com ideação suicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serum levels of MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, and Eotaxin/CCL11 between female patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls, verifying if there is a difference in the levels of these mediators between those with or without current suicidal ideation. METHODS: Thirty female outpatients with recurrent MDD were divided in two groups accordingly the presence or absence of suicidal ideation. These groups were compared with 16 healthy controls. Serum levels of MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5, and Eotaxin/CCL11 were determined. Depression severity was evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Suicidal ideation was assessed by SCID-I and BDI. RESULTS: Patients with recurrent MDD and healthy controls did not differ in age, socioeconomic status, and education. All patients reported high scores of BDI (mean, SD, n; 29.75, 10.55, 28. Multivariable analysis of covariance adjusted for age and BMI showed that MDD patients with suicidal ideation presented lower levels of MCP-1/ CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 (p OBJETIVO: Comparar os níveis séricos de MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5 e Eotaxin/CCL11 entre pacientes do sexo feminino com transtorno depressivo maior (TDM recorrente e controles saudáveis, verificando se há diferença nos níveis desses mediadores entre os indivíduos com ou sem ideação suicida. MÉTODOS: Trinta pacientes do sexo feminino com TDM recorrente foram divididas em dois grupos de acordo com a presença ou ausência de ideação suicida. Esses grupos foram comparados com 16 controles saudáveis. Os níveis séricos de MCP-1/CCL2, RANTES/CCL5 e Eotaxin/CCL11 foram determinados. A gravidade da depressão foi avaliada usando o Beck Depression Inventory (BDI e a ideação suicida foi avaliada usando o SCID-I e o BDI. RESULTADOS: As pacientes com TDM recorrente e os controles saudáveis não diferiram em idade, status socioeconômico e educação. Todas as pacientes relataram altas pontuações no BDI (média, SD, n

  13. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  14. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne Johan; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1) con

  15. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  16. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  17. Practical Use of High-level Petri Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The aim of the workshop is to bring together researchers and practitioners with interests in the use of high-level nets and their tools for practical applications. A typical paper is expected to report on a case study where high-level Petri nets and their tools have been used in practice. We also...... welcome papers describing a tool, a methodology, or other developments that have proved successful to make high-level Petri nets more applicable in practice....

  18. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  19. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  20. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  1. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  2. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  3. Floorplan-Driven Multivoltage High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Xing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the semiconductor technology advances, interconnect plays a more and more important role in power consumption in VLSI systems. This also imposes a challenge in high-level synthesis, in which physical information is limited and conventionally considered after high-level synthesis. To close the gap between high-level synthesis and physical implementation, integration of physical synthesis and high-level synthesis is essential. In this paper, a technique named FloM is proposed for integrating floorplanning into high-level synthesis of VLSI system with multivoltage datapath. Experimental results obtained show that the proposed technique is effective and the energy consumed by both the datapath and the wires can be reduced by more than 40%.

  4. AT-RvD1 Modulates CCL-2 and CXCL-8 Production and NF-κB, STAT-6, SOCS1, and SOCS3 Expression on Bronchial Epithelial Cells Stimulated with IL-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhony Robison de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial epithelial cells represent the first line of defense against microorganisms and allergens in the airways and play an important role in chronic inflammatory processes such as asthma. In an experimental model, both RvD1 and AT-RvD1, lipid mediators of inflammation resolution, ameliorated some of the most important phenotypes of experimental asthma. Here, we extend these results and demonstrate the effect of AT-RvD1 on bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B stimulated with IL-4. AT-RvD1 (100 nM decreased both CCL2 and CXCL-8 production, in part by decreasing STAT6 and NF-κB pathways. Furthermore, the effects of AT-RvD1 were ALX/FRP2 receptor dependent, as the antagonist of this receptor (BOC1 reversed the inhibition of these chemokines by AT-RvD1. In addition, AT-RvD1 decreased SOCS1 and increased SOCS3 expression, which play important roles in Th1 and Th17 modulation, respectively. In conclusion, AT-RvD1 demonstrated significant effects on the IL-4-induced activation of bronchial epithelial cells and consequently the potential to modulate neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma. Taken together, these findings identify AT-RvD1 as a potential proresolving therapeutic agent for allergic responses in the airways.

  5. Phospholipase D from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Induces IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/MCP-1 Production in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Stimulates Monocytes Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Rojas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration. Recombinant rLlPLD1 (active and rLlPLD2 (inactive isoforms induce interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 expression and secretion in fibroblasts. Meanwhile, C1P and LPA only exhibited a minor effect on the expression and secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, neutralization of both enzymes with anti-rLlPLD1 antibodies completely inhibited the secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, conditioned media from fibroblasts, treated with rLlPLDs, stimulated the transmigration of THP-1 monocytes. Our data demonstrate the direct role of PLDs in chemotactic mediator synthesis for monocytes in human skin fibroblasts and indicate that inflammatory processes play an important role during loxoscelism.

  6. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind.

  7. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  8. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence.

  9. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  10. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-01-01

    .... A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium–Uranium (Th–U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper...

  11. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  12. Glucose level regulation via integral high-order sliding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Lela

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough insulin, or does not properly respond to it. This causes the glucose level in blood to increase. An algorithm based on Integral High-Order Sliding Mode technique is proposed, which keeps the normal blood glucose level automatically releasing insulin into the blood. The system is highly insensitive to inevitable parametric and model uncertainties, measurement noises and small delays.

  13. Probing high energy levels of lanthanide ions - experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijzel, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of lanthanide ions. High-resolution emission and excitation spectra were recorded to investigate the VUV energy levels of lanthanide ions in fluoride and phosphate host lattices. A parameterized model for the calculation of the energy-level

  14. Nuclear Level Density at High Spin and Excitation Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.N. Behkami; Z. Kargar

    2001-01-01

    The intensive studies of equilibrium processes in heavy-ion reaction have produced a need for information on nuclear level densities at high energies and spins. The Fermi gas level density is often used in investigation of heavy-ion reaction studies. Some papers have claimed that nuclear level densities might deviate substantially from the Fermi gas predications at excitations related to heavy-ion reactions. The formulae of calculation of the nuclear level density based on the theory of superconductivity are presented, special attention is paid to the dependence of the level density on the angular momentum. The spin-dependent nuclear level density is evaluated using the pairing interaction. The resulting level density for an average spin of 52h is evaluated for 155Er and compared with experimental data. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained.``

  15. High level resistance to aminoglycosides in enterococci from Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ballaa, S R; Qadri, S M; Al-Ballaa, S R; Kambal, A M; Saldin, H; Al-Qatary, K

    1994-07-01

    Enterococci with high level of aminoglycosides resistance are being reported from different parts of the world with increasing frequency. Treatment of infections caused by such isolates is associated with a high incidence of failure or relapse. This is attributed to the loss of the synergetic effect of aminoglycosides and cell wall active agents against isolates exhibiting this type of resistance. To determine the prevalence of enterococci with high level resistance to aminoglycosides in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 241 distinct clinical isolates were examined by disk diffusion method using high content aminoglycosides disks. Seventy-four isolates (30%) were resistant to one or more of the aminoglycosides tested. The most common pattern of resistance was that to streptomycin and kanamycin. Of the 241 isolates tested, 29 (12%) were resistant to high levels of gentamicin, 35 (15%) to tobramycin, 65 (27%) to kanamycin and 53 (22%) to streptomycin. The highest rate of resistance to a high level of gentamicin was found among enterococcal blood isolates (30%). Eighteen of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 13 (72%) of these showed high level resistance to two or more of the aminoglycosides tested.

  16. Face Tracking with Low-level and High-level Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUDong; LIStan; LIUZhengkai

    2005-01-01

    Face Tracking is an important and difficult vision task. In this paper, the high-level frontal face detector information and the low-level color information are fused iteratively. With the multi-step fusion schemes, better face tracking performance is achieved, as demonstrated by the exhaustive experiments.

  17. Chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Sellebjerg, F; Jensen, C V

    2001-01-01

    Studies of chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with active multiple sclerosis (MS) have indicated that specific chemokines may have important roles in disease pathogenesis. We previously reported that CSF concentrations of CXCL10 (previously known as IP-10) were elevated in MS...

  18. An overview of very high level software design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  19. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  20. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestboe, A. E-mail: vestbo@fi.uib.no; Wiebalck, A

    2003-04-21

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate {<=}200 Hz resulting in a data rate of {approx}15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ('High Level Trigger'), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off-the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  1. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  2. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Wiebalck, A.; ALICE Colloboration

    2003-04-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/ event at an event rate ⩽200 Hz resulting in a data rate of ˜15 GB/ s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off-the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  3. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  4. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (Pfluoride and high fat (Pfluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (Pfluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (Pfluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (Pfluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is to develop VHDL modeling strategies in order to master the design and analysis of large and complex systems. Structured design methodologies are combined with a high-level synthesis system, a VHDL based behavioral synthesis tool, in order to allow hierarchical design and component re-use.

  6. Web Based Technologies to Support High Level Process Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sharmila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the uses of Web based Technologies to support High Level Process Maturity in an organization. It also provides an overview of CMMI, focusing on the importance of centralized data storage and data access for sustaining high maturity levels of CMMI. Further, elaboration is made on the web based technology, stressing that change over to Web Based Application is extremely helpful to maintain the centralized data repository, to collect data for process capability baseline, and to track process performance management, with reduced maintenance effort and ease of data access. A case study analysis of advantages of adopting Web Based Technology is also narrated. Finally the paper concludes that the sustenance of High level Process maturity can be achieved by adopting web application technology.

  7. Theory and Methods for Supporting High Level Military Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Gompert, and Kugler, 1996; Davis, 2002a). The relationship between defense applications and finance is more metaphorical than mathematical. A...be summarized as the fractal problem: • • 62 Theory and Methods for Supporting High-Level Military Decisionmaking Describing objectives...strategies, tactics, and tasks is a fractal matter—i.e., the concepts apply and are needed at each level, whether that of the president, the theater commander

  8. Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Quoc V; Devin, Matthieu; Corrado, Greg; Chen, Kai; Ranzato, Marc'Aurelio; Dean, Jeff; Ng, Andrew Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of building detectors for high-level concepts using only unsupervised feature learning. For example, we would like to understand if it is possible to learn a face detector using only unlabeled images downloaded from the internet. To answer this question, we trained a simple feature learning algorithm on a large dataset of images (10 million images, each image is 200x200). The simulation is performed on a cluster of 1000 machines with fast network hardware for one week. Extensive experimental results reveal surprising evidence that such high-level concepts can indeed be learned using only unlabeled data and a simple learning algorithm.

  9. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed.

  10. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  11. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  12. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO based high temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current limiting matrix.

  13. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  14. Online pattern recognition for the ALICE high level trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger system needs to reconstruct events online at high data rates. Focusing on the Time Projection Chamber we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: the sequential approach (cluster finding, track follower) and the iterative approach (Hough Transform, cluster assignment, re-fitting). The implementation of the former in hardware indicates that we can reach the designed inspection rate for p-p collisions of 1 kHz with 98% efficiency.

  15. Online pattern recognition for the ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C. E-mail: loizides@ikf.uni-frankfurt.de; Rohrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestboe, A.; Wiebalck, A

    2003-04-21

    The ALICE High Level Trigger system needs to reconstruct events online at high data rates. Focusing on the Time Projection Chamber we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: the sequential approach (cluster finding, track follower) and the iterative approach (Hough Transform, cluster assignment, re-fitting). The implementation of the former in hardware indicates that we can reach the designed inspection rate for p-p collisions of 1 kHz with 98% efficiency.

  16. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...

  17. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  18. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  19. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  20. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  1. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel;

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  2. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  3. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  4. High-level expression, purification, polyclonal antibody preparation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. High-level expression ... resistance severely compromises effective therapeutic options. ... In the present study, we first report the expression of the oprD ... databases of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ..... assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature.

  5. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  6. Detection of high risk campylobacteriosis clusters at three geographic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weisent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision, and (ii identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05 were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for

  7. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low.

  8. High-Level Information Fusion Management and Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Blasch, Erik; Lambert, Dale

    2012-01-01

    High-level information fusion is the ability of a fusion system to capture awareness and complex relations, reason over past and future events, utilize direct sensing exploitations and tacit reports, and discern the usefulness and intention of results to meet system-level goals. This authoritative book serves a practical reference for developers, designers, and users of data fusion services that must relate the most recent theory to real-world applications. This unique volume provides alternative methods to represent and model various situations and describes design component implementations o

  9. Design and Prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.C.Bogaerts

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines the desgn and prototyping of the ATLAS High Level Trigger(HLT)wihch is a combined effort of the Data Collection HLT and PESA(Physics and Event Selection Architecture)subgroups within the ATLAS TDAQ collaboration.Two important issues,alresdy outlined in the ATLAS HLT,DAQ and DCS Technical Proposal [1] will be highlighted:the treatment of the LVL2 Trigger and Event Filter as aspects of a general HLT with a view to easier migration of algorthms between the two levels;unification of the selective data collection for LVL2 and Event Building.

  10. Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Servais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl and hydrogen fluoride (HF are respectively the main chlorine and fluorine reservoirs in the Earth's stratosphere. Their buildup resulted from the intensive use of man-made halogenated source gases, in particular CFC-11 (CCl3F and CFC-12 (CCl2F2, during the second half of the 20th century. It is important to continue monitoring the evolution of these source gases and reservoirs, in support of the Montreal Protocol and also indirectly of the Kyoto Protocol. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS is a space-based instrument that has been performing regular solar occultation measurements of over 30 atmospheric gases since early 2004. In this validation paper, the HCl, HF, CFC-11 and CFC-12 version 2.2 profile data products retrieved from ACE-FTS measurements are evaluated. Volume mixing ratio profiles have been compared to observations made from space by MLS and HALOE, and from stratospheric balloons by SPIRALE, FIRS-2 and Mark-IV. Partial columns derived from the ACE-FTS data were also compared to column measurements from ground-based Fourier transform instruments operated at 12 sites. ACE-FTS data recorded from March 2004 to August 2007 have been used for the comparisons. These data are representative of a variety of atmospheric and chemical situations, with sounded air masses extending from the winter vortex to summer sub-tropical conditions. Typically, the ACE-FTS products are available in the 10–50 km altitude range for HCl and HF, and in the 7–20 and 7–25 km ranges for CFC-11 and -12, respectively. For both reservoirs, comparison results indicate an agreement generally better than 5–10% above 20 km altitude, when accounting for the known offset affecting HALOE measurements of HCl and HF. Larger positive differences are however found for comparisons with single profiles from FIRS-2 and SPIRALE. For CFCs, the few coincident measurements available suggest that the differences

  11. Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tétard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl and hydrogen fluoride (HF are respectively the main chlorine and fluorine reservoirs in the Earth's stratosphere. Their buildup resulted from the intensive use of man-made halogenated source gases, in particular CFC-11 (CCl3F and CFC-12 (CCl2F2, during the second half of the 20th century. It is important to continue monitoring the evolution of these source gases and reservoirs, in support of the Montreal Protocol and also indirectly of the Kyoto Protocol. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS is a space-based instrument that has been performing regular solar occultation measurements of over 30 atmospheric gases since early 2004. In this validation paper, the HCl, HF, CFC-11 and CFC-12 version 2.2 profile data products retrieved from ACE-FTS measurements are evaluated. Volume mixing ratio profiles have been compared to observations made from space by MLS and HALOE, and from stratospheric balloons by SPIRALE, FIRS-2 and Mark-IV. Partial columns derived from the ACE-FTS data were also compared to column measurements from ground-based Fourier transform instruments operated at 12 sites. ACE-FTS data recorded from March 2004 to August 2007 have been used for the comparisons. These data are representative of a variety of atmospheric and chemical situations, with sounded air masses extending from the winter vortex to summer sub-tropical conditions. Typically, the ACE-FTS products are available in the 10–50 km altitude range for HCl and HF, and in the 7–20 and 7–25 km ranges for CFC-11 and CFC-12, respectively. For both reservoirs, comparison results indicate an agreement generally better than 5–10%, when accounting for the known offset affecting HALOE measurements of HCl and HF. Larger positive differences are however found for comparisons with single profiles from FIRS-2 and SPIRALE. For CFCs, the few coincident measurements available suggest that the differences probably remain

  12. High levels of molecular chlorine in the Arctic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin; Huey, L. Gregory; Liu, Zhen; Tanner, David J.; Cantrell, Chris A.; Orlando, John J.; Flocke, Frank M.; Shepson, Paul B.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Beine, Harry J.; Wang, Yuhang; Ingall, Ellery D.; Stephens, Chelsea R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; Riemer, Daniel; Fried, Alan; Mauldin, Roy L.; Smith, James N.; Staebler, Ralf M.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Nowak, John B.

    2014-02-01

    Chlorine radicals can function as a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions, where levels of hydroxyl radicals are low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone, and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We report high levels of molecular chlorine, of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon, and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimate that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals, on average, and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyses mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. We therefore suggest that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry of the Arctic.

  13. Liquid high-level waste storage - can we tolerate it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P. [Terramares Group (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    High-level radioactive waste from reprocessing is stored at British Nuclear Fuel`s Sellafield site in High Active Storage Tanks (HAST`s), which require constant cooling and ventilation. The author argues that, containing as they do, about 100 times the caesium 137 released during the Chernobyl accident, these containment tanks represent an unacceptably high risk of a major release of caesium 137, a volatile gamma-emitter with a half-life of about 30 years. It is readily transferred into food chains and difficult to remove from soils, tarmac and concrete. Still worse, it is argued, are the tens of thousands of cancers and other biological radiation effects likely to occur as a result of such a release. He argues for the vitrification of all such highly active liquid wastes, which would slow further reprocessing down to accommodate the current backlog. (UK).

  14. The High Level Trigger of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xuyang

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger, a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In this poster we will present the performance with the specific algorithms developed to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up and bunch crossing rate using 13 TeV data during 2015, and prospects for improvements brought to both L1T and HLT strategies to meet the new challenges for 2016 scenarios with a peak instantaneous luminosity of $1.2 \\times 10^{34} $cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and 30 pileup events.

  15. High asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in patients with brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeloglu, Zafer; Sünnetcioglu, Mahmut; Tosun, Mehmet; Kücükbayrak, Abdülkadir; Ceylan, Mehmet Resat; Baran, Ali Irfan; Karahocagil, Mustafa; Akdeniz, Hayrettin

    2014-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is considered to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp., can manifest as vasculopathy. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship between ADMA and brucellosis. Serum samples from 39 patients with an accurate diagnosis of brucellosis and from 18 healthy control individuals were included in this study. ADMA levels were significantly higher in the patient group than the controls (P brucellosis and high levels of ADMA. In conclusion, ADMA levels should be tested in brucellosis cases and that further studies to clarify the mechanism underlying the association between ADMA and brucellosis are required.

  16. Mammut: High-level management of system knobs and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sensi, Daniele; Torquati, Massimo; Danelutto, Marco

    Managing low-level architectural features for controlling performance and power consumption is a growing demand in the parallel computing community. Such features include, but are not limited to: energy profiling, platform topology analysis, CPU cores disabling and frequency scaling. However, these low-level mechanisms are usually managed by specific tools, without any interaction between each other, thus hampering their usability. More important, most existing tools can only be used through a command line interface and they do not provide any API. Moreover, in most cases, they only allow monitoring and managing the same machine on which the tools are used. MAMMUT provides and integrates architectural management utilities through a high-level and easy-to-use object-oriented interface. By using MAMMUT, is possible to link together different collected information and to exploit them on both local and remote systems, to build architecture-aware applications.

  17. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  18. Sundance: High-Level Software for PDE-Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Long

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sundance is a package in the Trilinos suite designed to provide high-level components for the development of high-performance PDE simulators with built-in capabilities for PDE-constrained optimization. We review the implications of PDE-constrained optimization on simulator design requirements, then survey the architecture of the Sundance problem specification components. These components allow immediate extension of a forward simulator for use in an optimization context. We show examples of the use of these components to develop full-space and reduced-space codes for linear and nonlinear PDE-constrained inverse problems.

  19. High precision modeling at the 10^{-20} level

    CERN Document Server

    Andres, M; Costea, A; Hackmann, E; Herrmann, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Nesemann, L; Rievers, B; Stephan, E P

    2011-01-01

    The requirements for accurate numerical simulation are increasing constantly. Modern high precision physics experiments now exceed the achievable numerical accuracy of standard commercial and scientific simulation tools. One example are optical resonators for which changes in the optical length are now commonly measured to 10^{-15} precision. The achievable measurement accuracy for resonators and cavities is directly influenced by changes in the distances between the optical components. If deformations in the range of 10^{-15} occur, those effects cannot be modeled and analysed any more with standard methods based on double precision data types. New experimental approaches point out that the achievable experimental accuracies may improve down to the level of 10^{-17} in the near future. For the development and improvement of high precision resonators and the analysis of experimental data, new methods have to be developed which enable the needed level of simulation accuracy. Therefore we plan the development o...

  20. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  1. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  2. Altitudinal Levels and Altitudinal Limits in High Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Kuhle

    2007-01-01

    In lowlands climate-specific processes due to weathering and erosion are dominant, whilst the geomorphology of mountains is dependent on the geologic-tectonic structure, i.e., the energy of erosion that increases according to the vertical. The expression "extremely high mountains" has been established as the extreme of a continuous mountain classification. It has to be understood in terms of geomorphology, glaciology and vegetation.Correspondence of the planetary and hypsometric change of forms is of great value as synthetic explanation. It is confirmed with regard to vegetation,periglacial geomorphology and glaciology. Due to the world-wide reconstruction of the snowline its paleoclimatic importance increases, too. Apart from lower limits the periglacial and glacial altitudinal levels also show zones of optimum development and climatic upper limits in the highest mountains of the earth. According to the proportion of the altitudinal levels a classification as to arid, temperate and humid high mountains has been carried out.

  3. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  4. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  5. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  7. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  8. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  9. Hanford long-term high-level waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1976-06-24

    An overview of the Hanford Long-Term High-Level Waste Management Program is presented. Four topics are discussed: first, the kinds and quantities of waste that will exist and are included in this program; second, how the plan is structured to solve this problem; third, the alternative waste management methods being considered; and fourth, the technology program that is in progress to carry out this plan. (LK)

  10. Nuclear reactor high-level waste: origin and safe disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, C.; Tsipis, K. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    High-level waste (HLW) is a natural component of the nuclear fuel cycle. Because of its radioactivity, HLW needs to be handled with great care. Different alternatives for permanently storing HLW are evaluated. Studies have shown that the disposal of HLW is safest when the waste is first vitrified before storage. Simple calculations show that vitrified HLW that is properly buried in deep, carefully chosen crystalline rock structures poses insignificant health risks. (author).

  11. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  12. Execution of a High Level Real-Time Language

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Berzins, Valdis

    1988-01-01

    Prototype System Description Language (PSDL) is a high level real-time language with special features for hard real-time system specification and design. It can be used to firm up requirements through execution of its software prototypes The language is designed based on a real-time model merging data and control flow and its implementation is beyond conventional compiler technology because of the need to meet real-time constraints. In this paper we describe and illustrate our research result...

  13. Learning high-level features for chord recognition using Autoencoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongthongloa, Vilailukkana; Kamonsantiroj, Suwatchai; Pipanmaekaporn, Luepol

    2016-07-01

    Chord transcription is valuable to do by itself. It is known that the manual transcription of chords is very tiresome, time-consuming. It requires, moreover, musical knowledge. Automatic chord recognition has recently attracted a number of researches in the Music Information Retrieval field. It has known that a pitch class profile (PCP) is the commonly signal representation of musical harmonic analysis. However, the PCP may contain additional non-harmonic noise such as harmonic overtones and transient noise. The problem of non-harmonic might be generating the sound energy in term of frequency more than the actual notes of the respective chord. Autoencoder neural network may be trained to learn a mapping from low level feature to one or more higher-level representation. These high-level representations can explain dependencies of the inputs and reduce the effect of non-harmonic noise. Then these improve features are fed into neural network classifier. The proposed high-level musical features show 80.90% of accuracy. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in comparison with other based method.

  14. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  15. Design of secure operating systems with high security levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING SiHan; SHEN ChangXiang

    2007-01-01

    Numerous Internet security incidents have shown that support from secure operating systems is paramount to fighting threats posed by modern computing environments. Based on the requirements of the relevant national and international standards and criteria, in combination with our experience in the design and development of the ANSHENG v4.0 secure operating system with high security level (hereafter simply referred to as ANSHENG OS), this paper addresses the following key issues in the design of secure operating systems with high security levels: security architecture, security policy models, and covert channel analysis. The design principles of security architecture and three basic security models: confidentiality,integrity, and privilege control models are discussed, respectively. Three novel security models and new security architecture are proposed. The prominent features of these proposals, as well as their applications to the ANSHENG OS, are elaborated.Cover channel analysis (CCA) is a well-known hard problem in the design of secure operating systems with high security levels since to date it lacks a sound theoretical basis and systematic analysis approach. In order to resolve the fundamental difficulties of CCA, we have set up a sound theoretical basis for completeness of covert channel identification and have proposed a unified framework for covert channel identification and an efficient backward tracking search method. The successful application of our new proposals to the ANSHENG OS has shown that it can help ease and speedup the entire CCA process.

  16. High Levels of Molecular Chlorine found in the Arctic Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Liu, Z.; Tanner, D.; Cantrell, C. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Hall, S. R.; Beine, H.; Wang, Y.; Ingall, E. D.; Thompson, C. R.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Fried, A.; Mauldin, L.; Smith, J. N.; Staebler, R. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorine radicals are a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions where levels of hydroxyl radicals can be quite low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here, we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We detected high levels of molecular chlorine of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimated that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine on average oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyzed mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. Therefore, we propose that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic. While the formation mechanisms of molecular chlorine are not yet understood, the main potential sources of chlorine include snowpack, sea salt, and sea ice. There is recent evidence of molecular halogen (Br2 and Cl2) formation in the Arctic snowpack. The coverage and composition of the snow may control halogen chemistry in the Arctic. Changes of sea ice and snow cover in the changing climate may affect air-snow-ice interaction and have a significant impact on the levels of radicals, ozone, mercury and methane in the Arctic troposphere.

  17. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  18. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an N-dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to

  19. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  20. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Configuration and Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in customized hardware, the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event, the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying unbiased trigger decisions. Yet, to minimize data readout and execution time, cached detector data and once-calculated trigger objects are reused to form the decision. Some signature tests are performed only on a scaled-down fraction of candidate events, in order to reduce the output rate a...

  1. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  2. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  3. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Buhard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  4. Distribution of levels in high-dimensional random landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kabluchko, Zakhar

    2010-01-01

    We prove empirical central limit theorems for the distribution of levels of various random fields defined on high-dimensional discrete structures as the dimension of the structure goes to $\\infty$. The random fields considered include costs of assignments, lengths of Hamiltonian cycles and spanning trees, energies of directed polymers, locations of particles in the branching random walk, as well as energies in the Sherrington--Kirkpatrick and Edwards--Anderson models. The distribution of levels in all models listed above is shown to be essentially the same as in a stationary Gaussian process with regularly varying non-summable covariance function. This type of behavior is different from the Brownian bridge-type limit known for independent or stationary weakly dependent sequences of random variables.

  5. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  6. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  7. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  8. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  9. High level trigger online calibration framework in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bablok, S R; Djuvsland, Oe; Kanaki, K; Nystrand, J; Richter, M; Roehrich, D; Skjerdal, K; Ullaland, K; Oevrebekk, G; Larsen, D; Alme, J [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Alt, T; Lindenstruth, V; Steinbeck, T M; Thaeder, J; Kebschull, U; Boettger, S; Kalcher, S; Lara, C; Panse, R [Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: Sebastian.Bablok@uib.no (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is designed to perform event analysis of heavy ion and proton-proton collisions as well as calibration calculations online. A large PC farm, currently under installation, enables analysis algorithms to process these computationally intensive tasks. The HLT receives event data from all major detectors in ALICE. Interfaces to the various other systems provide the analysis software with required additional information. Processed results are sent back to the corresponding systems. To allow online performance monitoring of the detectors an interface for visualizing these results has been developed.

  10. FPGA Co-processor for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Grastveit, G; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    2003-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ALICE experiment requires massive parallel computing. One of the main tasks of the HLT system is two-dimensional cluster finding on raw data of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which is the main data source of ALICE. To reduce the number of computing nodes needed in the HLT farm, FPGAs, which are an intrinsic part of the system, will be utilized for this task. VHDL code implementing the Fast Cluster Finder algorithm, has been written, a testbed for functional verification of the code has been developed, and the code has been synthesized

  11. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  12. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  13. High Level Synthesis for Loop-Based BIST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓维; 张英相

    2000-01-01

    Area and test time are two major overheads encountered during data path high level synthesis for BIST. This paper presents an approach to behavioral synthesis for loop-based BIST. By taking into account the requirements of the BIST scheme during behavioral synthesis processes, an area optimal BIST solution can be obtained. This approach is based on the use of test resources reusability that results in a fewer number of registers being modified to be test registers. This is achieved by incorporating self-testability constraints during register assignment operations. Experimental results on benchmarks are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Combinatorial polarization, code loops, and codes of high level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vojtěchovský

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We first find the combinatorial degree of any map f:V→F, where F is a finite field and V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F. We then simplify and generalize a certain construction, due to Chein and Goodaire, that was used in characterizing code loops as finite Moufang loops that possess at most two squares. The construction yields binary codes of high divisibility level with prescribed Hamming weights of intersections of codewords.

  15. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed......This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...

  16. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  17. Online Pattern Recognition for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenstruth, V; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Tilsner, H; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Vik, T

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger has to process data online, in order to select interesting (sub)events, or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques.Focusing on the main data source, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: a sequential approach "cluster finder" and "track follower") and an iterative approach ("track candidate finder" and "cluster deconvoluter"). We show, that the former is suited for pp and low multiplicity PbPb collisions, whereas the latter might be applicable for high multiplicity PbPb collisions, if it turns out, that more than 8000 charged particles would have to be reconstructed inside the TPC. Based on the developed tracking schemes we show, that using modeling techniques a compression factor of around 10 might be achievable

  18. Online Pattern Recognition for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Rohrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    2004-06-01

    The ALICE high level trigger has to process data online, in order to select interesting (sub)events, or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Focusing on the main data source, the time projection chamber (TPC), we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: a sequential approach (cluster finder and track follower) and an iterative approach (track candidate finder and cluster deconvoluter). We show, that the former is suited for pp and low multiplicity PbPb collisions, whereas the latter might be applicable for high multiplicity PbPb collisions of dN/dy>3000. Based on the developed tracking schemes we show that using modeling techniques, a compression factor of around 10 might be achievable.

  19. High Level Trigger System for the ALICE Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.Frankenfeld; H.Helstrup; 等

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment [1] at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN will detect up to 20,000 particles in a single Pb-Pb event resulting in a data rate of -75 MByte/event,The event rate is limited by the bandwidth of the data storage system.Higher rates are possible by selecting interesting events and subevents (High Level trigger) or compressing the data efficiently with modeling techniques.Both require a fast parallel pattern recognition.One possible solution to process the detector data at such rates is a farm of clustered SMP nodes,based on off-the-shelf PCs,and connected by a high bandwidt,low latency network.

  20. Psilocybin impairs high-level but not low-level motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Burr, David C; Alais, David; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2004-08-26

    The hallucinogenic serotonin(1A&2A) agonist psilocybin is known for its ability to induce illusions of motion in otherwise stationary objects or textured surfaces. This study investigated the effect of psilocybin on local and global motion processing in nine human volunteers. Using a forced choice direction of motion discrimination task we show that psilocybin selectively impairs coherence sensitivity for random dot patterns, likely mediated by high-level global motion detectors, but not contrast sensitivity for drifting gratings, believed to be mediated by low-level detectors. These results are in line with those observed within schizophrenic populations and are discussed in respect to the proposition that psilocybin may provide a model to investigate clinical psychosis and the pharmacological underpinnings of visual perception in normal populations.

  1. Salivary fluoride levels after use of high-fluoride dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Glauber Campos; Cruz, Priscila Figueiredo; Bohn, Ana Clarissa Cavalcante Elvas; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary fluoride (F) availability after toothbrushing with a high-F dentifrice. Twelve adult volunteers took part in this crossover and blind study. F concentration in saliva was determined after brushing with a high-F dentifrice (5000 µg F/g) or with a conventional F concentration dentifrice (1100 µg F/g) followed by a 15 mL distilled water rinse. Samples of nonstimulated saliva were collected on the following times: before (baseline), and immediately after spit (time = 0) and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. F analysis was performed with a fluoride-sensitive electrode and the area under curve of F salivary concentration × time (µg F/mL × min(-1)) was calculated. At baseline, no significant difference was found among dentifrices (P > 0.05). After brushing, both dentifrices caused an elevated fluoride level in saliva; however salivary F concentration was significantly higher at all times, when high-F dentifrice was used (P dentifrices (P dentifrice enhanced the bioavailability of salivary F, being an option for caries management in patients with high caries risk.

  2. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James G; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, André; Y L Hwong; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, R K; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, M; Spataru, A C; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  3. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  4. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  5. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  6. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  7. High-level expressing YAC vector for transgenic animal bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Y; Miwa, M; Takahashi, R; Kodaira, K; Hirabayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Ueda, M

    1999-04-01

    The position effect is one major problem in the production of transgenic animals as mammary gland bioreactors. In the present study, we introduced the human growth hormone (hGH) gene into 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin position-independent YAC vectors using homologous recombination and produced transgenic rats via microinjection of YAC DNA into rat embryos. The efficiency of producing transgenic rats with the YAC vector DNA was the same as that using plasmid constructs. All analyzed transgenic rats had one copy of the transgene and produced milk containing a high level of hGH (0.25-8.9 mg/ml). In transgenic rats with the YAC vector in which the human alpha-lactalbumin gene was replaced with the hGH gene, tissue specificity of hGH mRNA was the same as that of the endogenous rat alpha-lactalbumin gene. Thus, the 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin YAC is a useful vector for high-level expression of foreign genes in the milk of transgenic animals.

  8. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  9. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  10. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  11. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on ATM and Fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger Pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data collection and event building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS High Level Triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5 Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows studying how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by Fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Finally, we list the benefits and the limi...

  12. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  13. High-level microsatellite instability in appendiceal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Melissa W; Galbincea, John; Mansfield, Paul F; Fournier, Keith F; Royal, Richard E; Overman, Michael J; Rashid, Asif; Abraham, Susan C

    2013-08-01

    High-level microsatellite instability (MSI-high) is found in approximately 15% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs) and in at least 20% of right-sided cancers. It is most commonly due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter region, with familial cases (Lynch syndrome) representing only 2% to 3% of CRCs overall. In contrast to CRC, MSI-high in appendiceal adenocarcinomas is rare. Only 4 MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas and 1 MSI-high appendiceal serrated adenoma have been previously reported, and the prevalence of MSI in the appendix is unknown. We identified 108 appendiceal carcinomas from MD Anderson Cancer Center in which MSI status had been assessed by immunohistochemistry for the DNA mismatch-repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (n=83), polymerase chain reaction (n=7), or both (n=18). Three cases (2.8%) were MSI-high, and 1 was MSI-low. The 3 MSI-high cases included: (1) a poorly differentiated nonmucinous adenocarcinoma with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, lack of MLH1 promoter methylation, and lack of BRAF gene mutation, but no detected germline mutation in MLH1 from a 39-year-old man; (2) an undifferentiated carcinoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6, but no detected germline mutation in MSH2 or TACSTD1, from a 59-year-old woman; and (3) a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression, in a 38-year-old man with a strong family history of CRC who declined germline testing. When the overall group of appendiceal carcinomas was classified according to histologic features and precursor lesions, the frequencies of MSI-high were: 3 of 108 (2.8%) invasive carcinomas, 3 of 96 (3.1%) invasive carcinomas that did not arise from a background of goblet cell carcinoid tumors, and 0 of 12 (0%) signet ring and mucinous carcinomas arising in goblet cell carcinoid tumors. These findings, in conjunction with the previously reported MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas, highlight the low prevalence of MSI

  14. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  15. Myocytes oxygenation and high energy phosphate levels during hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurulqadr Jameel

    Full Text Available Decrease of ambient oxygen level has been used in myocytes culture experiments in examining the responsiveness to stress secondary to hypoxia. However, none of these studies measure the myocytes oxygenation levels resulting in ambiguity as to whether there is insufficient oxygen delivery. This study examined the hypothesis that at a basal myocardial work state, adequate myocyte oxygenation would be maintained until extremely low arterial pO2 levels were reached. Myocyte pO2 values in normal dogs were calculated from the myocardial deoxymyoglobin (Mb- δ levels using (1H-spectroscopy (MRS and were normalized to Mb-δ obtained after complete LAD occlusion. During Protocol 1 (n = 6, Mb-δ was measured during sequential reductions of the oxygen fraction of inspired gas (FIO2 from 40, 21, 15, 10, and 5%, while in protocol 2 (n = 10 Mb-δ was measured at FIO2 of 3%. Protocol 3 (n = 9 evaluated time course of Mb-δ during prolonged exposure to FIO2 of 5%. Myocardial blood flow (MBF was measured with microspheres and high energy phosphate (HEP levels were determined with (31P-MRS. MVO2 progressively increased in response to the progressive reduction of FIO2 that is accompanied by increased LV pressure, heart rate, and MBF. Mb-δ was undetectable during FIO2 values of 21, 15, 10, and 5%. However, FIO2 of 3% or prolonged exposure to FIO2 of 5% caused progressive increases of Mb-δ which were associated with decreases of PCr, ATP and the PCr/ATP ratio, as well as increases of inorganic phosphate. The intracellular PO2 values for 20% reductions of PCr and ATP were approximately 7.4 and 1.9 mmHg, respectively. These data demonstrate that in the in vivo system over a wide range of FIO2 and arterial pO2 levels, the myocyte pO2 values remain well above the K(m value with respect to cytochrome oxidase, and oxygen availability does not limit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation at 5% FIO2.

  16. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  17. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  18. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  19. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  20. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... with other field tests the Yo-Yo IR2 has become an important tool for monitoring the physical fitness of football players. However, the burden of testing, for players (physically and mentally) and the coaching staff (time consuming), is large and there is a probability that the tests may contain overlapping...

  1. High level architecture evolved modular federation object model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenguang; Xu Yongping; Chen Xin; Li Qun; Wang Weiping

    2009-01-01

    To improve the agility, dynamics, composability, reusability, and development efficiency restricted by monolithic federation object model (FOM), a modular FOM is proposed by high level architecture (HLA) evolved product development group. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of HLA evolved modular FOM. In particular, related concepts, the overall impact on HLA standards, extension principles, and merging processes are discussed. Also permitted and restricted combinations, and merging rules are provided, and the influence on HLA interface specification is given. The comparison between modular FOM and base object model (BOM) is performed to illustrate the importance of their combination. The applications of modular FOM are summarized. Finally, the significance to facilitate compoable simulation both in academia and practice is presented and future directions are pointed out.

  2. High-level theoretical rovibrational spectroscopy of HCS+ isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, B.; Sebald, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the rovibrational spectrum of the HCS+ molecular cation is revisited through high-level electronic structure and variational rovibrational calculations. A local potential energy function is built from explicitly correlated coupled-cluster results, incorporating corrections for core-valence, scalar relativistic and higher-order excitation effects. The computed spectroscopic parameters, based on variational calculations with Watson's isomorphic Hamiltonian for linear molecules lead to a nearly perfect agreement with experimentally reported values (Rosenbaum et al., 1989). Furthermore, the documented Fermi resonance within the (0,00, 1) / (0,20, 0) and (1,00, 1) / (1,20, 0) pairs of states is clarified. Based on a newly developed electric dipole moment function transition dipole moments of fundamental transitions are predicted for the most important isotopologues.

  3. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  4. FADO 2.0: A high level tagging language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C. M. L.; Pimenta, M.; Varela, J.; Souza, J.

    1989-12-01

    FADO 2.0 is a high language, developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI data acquisition project at CERN, that provides a simple and consice way to define physics criteria for event tagging. Its syntax is based on mathematical logic and set theory, as it was found the most appropriate framework to describe the properties of single HEP events. The language is one of the components of the FADO tagging system. The system also implements implicity a mechanism to selectively reconstruct the event data that are needed to fulfil the physics criteria, following the speed requirements of the online data-acquisition system. A complete programming environment is now under development, which will include a syntax directed editor, and incremental compiler, a debugger and a configurer. This last tool can be used to transport the system into the context of other HEP applications, namely offline event selection and filtering.

  5. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  6. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...... development we provide a suite of program analyses that at compile time verify for a given program that no runtime errors can occur while building documents or receiving form input, and that all documents being shown are valid according to the document type definition for XHTML 1.0.We compare JWIG...... with Servlets and JSP which are widely used Web service development platforms. Our implementation and evaluation of JWIG indicate that the language extensions can simplify the program structure and that the analyses are sufficiently fast and precise to be practically useful....

  7. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories' new high level acoustic test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hendrick, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A high intensity acoustic test facility has been designed and is under construction at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The chamber is designed to provide an acoustic environment of 154dB (re 20 {mu}Pa) overall sound pressure level over the bandwidth of 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. The chamber has a volume of 16,000 cubic feet with interior dimensions of 21.6 ft {times} 24.6 ft {times} 30 ft. The construction of the chamber should be complete by the summer of 1990. This paper discusses the design goals and constraints of the facility. The construction characteristics are discussed in detail, as are the acoustic performance design characteristics. The authors hope that this work will help others in designing acoustic chambers. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Respiratory physiology: adaptations to high-level exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-05-01

    Most exercise scientists would agree that the physiological determinants of peak endurance performance include the capacity to transport oxygen to the working muscle, diffusion from the muscle to the mitochondria, energy production and force generation, all influenced by signals from the central nervous system. In general, the capacity of the pulmonary system far exceeds the demands required for ventilation and gas exchange during exercise. Endurance training induces large and significant adaptations within the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and haematological systems. However, the structural and functional properties of the lung and airways do not change in response to repetitive physical activity and, in elite athletes, the pulmonary system may become a limiting factor to exercise at sea level and altitude. As a consequence to this respiratory paradox, highly trained athletes may develop intrathoracic and extrathoracic obstruction, expiratory flow limitation, respiratory muscle fatigue and exercise-induced hypoxaemia. All of these maladaptations may influence performance.

  10. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  11. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  12. High Level Control Applications for SOLEIL Commissioning and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Nadolski, Laurent S; Ho, Katy; Leclercq, Nicolas; Ounsy, Majid; Petit, Sylvain

    2005-01-01

    The SOLEIL control system, namely TANGO developed in collaboration with ESRF, is now mature and stable. TANGO has also been chosen now by several other laboratories. High-level control applications implemented in the control room for the storage ring, the two transfer lines, and the booster will be described in this paper. Three kinds of tools for commissioning are used. First the generic TANGO tools (alarms, simple graphical control applications), which allow us to control in a simple way any TANGO Device Server. Secondly a Matlab Middle Layer (adapted from ALS and SPEAR3): Matlab is fully interconnected with TANGO; it is used primarily for writing Physics control applications. Finally Globalscreen, a commercial SCADA software devoted for building operation applications has been selected (panels for controlling or displaying setpoint, readback values, status of equipments). In addition an overview of the historical and short-term databases for the accelerators will be given. They have been developed in house...

  13. High level architecture evolved modular federation object model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenguang; Chen, Xin; Li, Qun; Wang, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    To improve the agility, dynamics, composability, reusability, and development efficiency restricted by monolithic Federation Object Model (FOM), a modular FOM was proposed by High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved product development group. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of HLA Evolved modular FOM. In particular, related concepts, the overall impact on HLA standards, extension principles, and merging processes are discussed. Also permitted and restricted combinations, and merging rules are provided, and the influence on HLA interface specification is given. The comparison between modular FOM and Base Object Model (BOM) is performed to illustrate the importance of their combination. The applications of modular FOM are summarized. Finally, the significance to facilitate composable simulation both in academia and practice is presented and future directions are pointed out.

  14. Simulation Modeling of Space Missions Using the High Level Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rabelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an environment being developed to model a mission of the Space Launch System (SLS and the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV being launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC to the International Space Station (ISS. Several models representing different phases of the mission such as the ground operations processes, engineered systems, and range components such as failure tree, blast, gas dispersion, and debris modeling are explained. These models are built using different simulation paradigms such as continuous, system dynamics, discrete-event, and agent-based simulation modeling. The High Level Architecture (HLA is the backbone of this distributed simulation. The different design decisions and the information fusion scheme of this unique environment are explained in detail for decision-making. This can also help in the development of exploration missions beyond the International Space Station.

  15. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  16. Automatic run-configuration of the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, Timm [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) uses a pipelined and component based approach for data reconstruction and analysis. Processing components push data to the next step in the processing chain via a common interface. Data flow components transport data between nodes and merge different parts of data belonging to the same event. In order for this to work, a configuration for a processing chain has to be created before the start of a run. A repository of XML files is used to automate this, with each file holding the necessary configuration for one component, including its parents components that provide its input data. The ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS) provides a number of configuration parameters to the HLT, including an identifier for the trigger menu with the algorithms to run, a list of participating detectors, and a list of active input DDLs providing data from the detectors to DAQ and HLT. From these parameters an HLT configuration is determined fully automatically including determination of the full parent hierarchy from the top-level trigger and output components to the components receiving the data from the detector, without any manual intervention or configuration.

  17. Hemipelvectomy: high-level amputation surgery and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Matthew T; Kralovec, Michael E; Andrews, Karen L

    2014-07-01

    The hemipelvectomy, most commonly performed for pelvic tumor resection, is one of the most technically demanding and invasive surgical procedures performed today. Adequate soft tissue coverage and wound complications after hemipelvectomy are important considerations. Rehabilitation after hemipelvectomy is optimally managed by a multidisciplinary integrated team. Understanding the functional outcomes for this population assists the rehabilitation team to counsel patients, plan goals, and determine discharge needs. The most important rehabilitation goal is the optimal restoration of the patient's functional independence. Factors such as age, sex, etiology, level of amputation, and general health play important roles in determining prosthetic use. The three main criteria for successful prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with high-level amputation are comfort, function, and cosmesis. Recent advances in hip and knee joints have contributed to increased function. Prosthetic use after hemipelvectomy improves balance and decreases the need for a gait aid. Using a prosthesis helps maintain muscle strength and tone, cardiovascular health, and functional mobility. With new advances in prosthetic components, patients are choosing to use their prostheses for primary mobility.

  18. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  19. Pupil dilation dynamics track attention to high-level information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia E Kang

    Full Text Available It has long been thought that the eyes index the inner workings of the mind. Consistent with this intuition, empirical research has demonstrated that pupils dilate as a consequence of attentional effort. Recently, Smallwood et al. (2011 demonstrated that pupil dilations not only provide an index of overall attentional effort, but are time-locked to stimulus changes during attention (but not during mind-wandering. This finding suggests that pupil dilations afford a dynamic readout of conscious information processing. However, because stimulus onsets in their study involved shifts in luminance as well as information, they could not determine whether this coupling of stimulus and pupillary dynamics reflected attention to low-level (luminance or high-level (information changes. Here, we replicated the methodology and findings of Smallwood et al. (2011 while controlling for luminance changes. When presented with isoluminant digit sequences, participants' pupillary dilations were synchronized with stimulus onsets when attending, but not when mind-wandering. This replicates Smallwood et al. (2011 and clarifies their finding by demonstrating that stimulus-pupil coupling reflects online cognitive processing beyond sensory gain.

  20. Deep level defects in high temperature annealed InP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhiyuan; ZHAO Youwen; ZENG Yiping; DUAN Manlong; LIN Lanying

    2004-01-01

    Deep level defects in high temperature annealed semi-conducting InP have been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). There is obvious difference in the deep defects between as-grown InP, InP annealed in phosphorus ambient and iron phosphide ambient, as far as their quantity and concentration are concerned. Only two defects at 0.24 and 0.64 eV can be detected in InP annealed iniron phosphide ambient,while defects at 0.24, 0.42, 0.54 and 0.64 eV have been detected in InP annealed in phosphorus ambient, in contrast to two defects at 0.49 and 0.64 eV or one defect at 0.13eV in as-grown InP. A defect suppression phenomenon related to iron diffusion process has been observed. The formation mechanism and the nature of the defects have been discussed.

  1. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity.

  2. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  3. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements

  5. Energy Levels of Highly Ionized Ar ⅩⅣ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zhang; LI Ping; DENG Xiao-Hui

    2006-01-01

    With the Breit interaction and quantum electrodynamics corrections considered, relativistic configuration interaction calculations have been carried out in the extended optimal level scheme using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock wave functions on the 204 energy levels and electric dipole transitions of Ar ⅩⅣ. The results of electric dipole transitions are in good agreement with experiments. Among the energy levels calculated, the lowest 125 levels are in good agreement with available experimental and other theoretical ones, and the other 79 levels are new ones obtained by the present work. This wide range of atomic energy levels is useful in astrophysics and plasma physics.

  6. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  7. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

  8. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, Performance and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) is a distributed real-time software system that performs the final online selection of events produced during proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is designed as a two-stage event filter running on a farm of commodity PC hardware. Currently the system consists of about 850 multi-core processing nodes that will be extended incrementally following the increasing luminosity of the LHC to about 2000 nodes depending on the evolution of the processor technology. Due to the complexity and similarity of the algorithms a large fraction of the software is shared between the online and offline event reconstruction. The HLT Infrastructure serves as the interface between the two domains and provides common services for the trigger algorithms. The consequences of this design choice will be discussed and experiences from the operation of the ATLAS HLT during cosmic ray data taking and first beam in 2008 will be presented. Since the event processing time at the HL...

  9. The GRAVITY instrument software/high-level software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is the four-beam, near-infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of high-level applications during observations: the acquisition procedure and the gathering and merging of data to the final FITS file.

  10. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-12-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before the upgrade, during Run 2. For opportunistic use as a Grid computing site during periods of inactivity of the experiment a virtualisation based setup is deployed.

  11. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Segato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  12. Psychological stress in high level sailors during competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Segato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the psychological stress present in elite sailors in a competition. Based on a descriptive field research, 31 elite sailors volunteered to participate. They answered the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988 and also specific questions on self-control, sources and strategies of coping. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential (Student t test and Pearson's correlation statistics. These athletes revealed low and moderate scores (M = 20.00, DP = 6.83 of stress originated from both intrinsic (ship troubles, team disorders and extrinsic (study, working and training, family and financial problems sources. The group reported good stress control during competition through the use of cognitive (avoidance and somatic (listening music, resting/sleeping, talk to friends strategies. It is important that sailors are able to control and cope with high levels of psychological stress and to understand how to proceed when under unstable and unexpected situations that arise during competition.

  13. Exercise responses in patients with chronically high creatine kinase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Neufeld, Eric V; Shieh, Perry; Jenner, John R; Riley, Marshall

    2017-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. First online experiences with the ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T.; Kisel, I.; Lindenstruth, V.; Painke, F.; Peschek, J.; Steinbeck, T.M.; Thaeder, J. [Kirchhoff Inst. of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Bablok, S.; Haaland, Oe.; Richter, M.; Roehrich, D.; Oevrebek, G. [Inst. for Physics and Technology, Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Popescu, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    During the second half of 2006 the commissioning of the ALICE TPC has been performed using both cosmic and laser events. During this commissioning the high level trigger was operational with real data for the first time. Five Linux PCs were used to receive data from six TPC readout partitions from one sector under test. On the PCs the readout of the data was performed using the software components and PCI hardware to be used during ALICE running. After readout online event reconstruction involving cluster-finding and tracking of trajectories in the examined sector was then performed. Raw data as well as the reconstructed data were then sent to an online event display. This was then used to show the reconstructed events in different views. Included were a full 3D view of the detector, different raw data displays, and some histograms. In this talk we will present some of the experiences made during this first operational use of the ALICE HLT. (orig.)

  15. Commissioning and first experiences of the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, Timm M, E-mail: timm.steinbeck@kip.uni-heidelberg.d [Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, University Heidelberg, im Neuenheimer Feld 227, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    For the ALICE heavy-ion experiment a large computing cluster will be used to perform the last triggering stages in the High Level Trigger (HLT). For the first year of operation the cluster consisted of about 100 multi-processing nodes with 4 or 8 CPU cores each, to be increased to more than 1000 nodes for the coming years of operation. During the commissioning phases of the detector, the preparations for first LHC beam, as well as during the periods of first LHC beam, the HLT has been used extensively already to reconstruct, compress, and display data from the different detectors. For example the HLT has been used to compress Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) data by a factor of 15, lossless, on the fly at a rate of more than 800 Hz. For ALICE's Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector the HLT has been used to reconstruct tracks online and show the reconstructed tracks in an online event display. The event display can also display online reconstructed data from the Dimuon and Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) detectors. For the latter detector a first selection mechanism has also been put into place to select only events for forwarding to the online display in which data has passed through the PHOS detector. In this contribution we will present experiences and results from these commissioning phases.

  16. An FPGA based Preprocessor for the ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T.; Lindenstruth, V.; Painke, F.; Peschek, J.; Steinbeck, T.M. [Kirchhoff Inst. of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Univ., Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The H-RORC (High Level Trigger ReadOut Receiver Card) is an FPGA based PCI card designed to receive raw detector data from ALICE, transfer it into the online processing framework of the HLT cluster farm and transmit the processed data out of the HLT to the DAQ. Each RORC can be equipped with two optical receiver/transmitter units and transfer up to 400 Mbyte/s via PCI. For online processing in hardware the Virtex4 LX40 FPGA is supported by four independent modules of fast DDR-SDRAM providing up to 512 Mbyte total storage at a bandwidth of 2.3 Gbyte/s and two fast serial, full-duplex links which can be used as an direct interconnect in order to exchange data between several RORCs. In replay mode the onboard memory can be loaded with real or simulated events thus giving a real-time test-bench for the HLT framework. A special configuration scheme suits the requirements of a cluster environment and allows a safe and remote upgrade of the firmware. The H-RORC was used successfully in the first time run of the HLT during the TPC commissioning 2006. (orig.)

  17. High Level Trigger Applications for the ALICE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M.; Aamodt, K.; Alt, T.; Bablok, S.; Cheshkov, C.; Hille, P. T.; Lindenstruth, V.; Ovrebekk, G.; Ploskon, M.; Popescu, S.; Rohrich, D.; Steinbeck, T. M.; Thader, J.

    2008-02-01

    For the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN/Geneva, a high level trigger system (HLT) for online event selection and data compression has been developed and a computing cluster of several hundred dual-processor nodes is being installed. A major system integration test was carried out during the commissioning of the time projection chamber (TPC), where the HLT also provides a monitoring system. All major parts like a small computing cluster, hardware input devices, the online data transportation framework, and the HLT analysis could be tested successfully. A common interface for HLT processing components has been designed to run the components from either the online or offline analysis framework without changes. The interface adapts the component to the needs of the online processing and allows the developer to use the offline framework for easy development, debugging, and benchmarking. Following this approach, results can be compared directly. For the upcoming commissioning of the whole detector, the HLT is currently prepared to run online data analysis for the main detectors, e.g., the inner tracking system (ITS), the TPC, and the transition radiation detector (TRD). The HLT processing capability is indispensable for the photon spectrometer (PHOS), where the online pulse shape analysis reduces the data volume by a factor 20. A common monitoring framework is in place and detector calibration algorithms have been ported to the HLT. The paper describes briefly the architecture of the HLT system. It focuses on typical applications and component development.

  18. Commissioning and first experiences of the ALICE High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Timm M.; Alice Hlt Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    For the ALICE heavy-ion experiment a large computing cluster will be used to perform the last triggering stages in the High Level Trigger (HLT). For the first year of operation the cluster consisted of about 100 multi-processing nodes with 4 or 8 CPU cores each, to be increased to more than 1000 nodes for the coming years of operation. During the commissioning phases of the detector, the preparations for first LHC beam, as well as during the periods of first LHC beam, the HLT has been used extensively already to reconstruct, compress, and display data from the different detectors. For example the HLT has been used to compress Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) data by a factor of 15, lossless, on the fly at a rate of more than 800 Hz. For ALICE's Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector the HLT has been used to reconstruct tracks online and show the reconstructed tracks in an online event display. The event display can also display online reconstructed data from the Dimuon and Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) detectors. For the latter detector a first selection mechanism has also been put into place to select only events for forwarding to the online display in which data has passed through the PHOS detector. In this contribution we will present experiences and results from these commissioning phases.

  19. Seasonal changes in stress indicators in high level football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, O; Kellmann, M; Ammann, T; Schnittker, R; Meyer, T

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed at describing changes in stress and performance indicators throughout a competitive season in high level football. 15 players (19.5±3.0 years, 181±5 cm, 75.7±9.0 kg) competing under professional circumstances were tested at baseline and 3 times during the season 2008/09 (in-season 1, 2, 3). Testing consisted of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Total Stress and Recovery score), vertical jump tests (counter movement and drop jump (DJ)), and a maximal ramp-like running test. Average match exposure was higher during a 3-weeks period prior to in-season 3 compared to in-season 1 and 2 (1.5 vs. 1 h/week, p=0.05). Total Stress score was elevated at in-season 1 and 2 compared to baseline (pcorrelated with the corresponding changes in Total Stress score (r=-0.55 and r=-0.61, pstress and a lack of recovery towards the end of a season might be indicated by psychometric deteriorations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-04-03

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded.

  1. THE HIGH LEVEL ACCESSION DIALOGUE FOR MACEDONIA: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Karadjoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals for the Republic of Macedonia is membership in the European Union. At the end of 2011, the Commission launched a so-called High Level Accession Dialogue for Macedonia, with a possibility to start the negotiations after the fulfillment of the Dialogue goals and benchmarks. For these reasons, the main goal of this paper will be to give an answer of the dilemma whether the Accession Dialogue for Macedonia is an accelerator of the entrance in the European Union, or is just a sophisticated tool for delay of the start of the negotiations for final accession. The expected results will correspond with the future EU plans for Macedonia, but also for the other Western Balkan countries, i.e. we will try to examine whether these countries have a realistic perspective for entrance in the European Union, or they are just a “declarative décor” for the vocabulary of the Brussels diplomats and member countries representatives. That will help to determine i.e. to try to predict the next steps of these countries, connected with the European integration, regardless of the actual constellation in the European Union concerning the Enlargement policy. The descriptive method, content analyses method, comparative method, but also the inductive and deductive methods will be used in this paper.

  2. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  3. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  4. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  5. EUVE GO Survey: High Levels of User Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroozas, B. A.

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the results of a detailed customer survey of Guest Observers (GOs) for NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) astronomy satellite observatory. The purpose of the research survey was to (1) measure the levels of GO customer satisfaction with respect to EUVE observing services, and (2) compare the observing experiences of EUVE GOs with their experiences using other satellite observatories. This survey was conducted as a business research project -- part of the author's graduate work as an MBA candidate. A total sample of 38 respondents, from a working population of 101 "active" EUVE GOs, participated in this survey. The results, which provided a profile of the "typical" EUVE GO, showed in a statistically significant fashion that these GOs were more than satisfied with the available EUVE observing services. In fact, the sample GOs generally rated their EUVE observing experiences to be better than average as compared to their experiences as GOs on other missions. These relatively high satisfaction results are particularly pleasing to the EUVE Project which, given its significantly reduced staffing environment at U.C. Berkeley, has continued to do more with less. This paper outlines the overall survey process: the relevant background and previous research, the survey design and methodology, and the final results and their interpretation. The paper also points out some general limitations and weaknesses of the study, along with some recommended actions for the EUVE Project and for NASA in general. This work was funded by NASA/UCB Cooperative Agreement NCC5-138.

  6. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  7. Neuromuscular onset succession of high level gymnasts during dynamic leg acceleration phases on high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Laßberg, Christoph; Rapp, Walter; Mohler, Betty; Krug, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    In several athletic disciplines there is evidence that for generating the most effective acceleration of a specific body part the transfer of momentum should run in a "whip-like" consecutive succession of body parts towards the segment which shall be accelerated most effectively (e.g. the arm in throwing disciplines). This study investigated the question how this relates to the succession of neuromuscular activation to induce such "whip like" leg acceleration in sports like gymnastics with changed conditions concerning the body position and momentary rotational axis of movements (e.g. performing giant swings on high bar). The study demonstrates that during different long hang elements, performed by 12 high level gymnasts, the succession of the neuromuscular activation runs primarily from the bar (punctum fixum) towards the legs (punctum mobile). This demonstrates that the frequently used teaching instruction, first to accelerate the legs for a successful realization of such movements, according to a high level kinematic output, is contradictory to the neuromuscular input patterns, being used in high level athletes, realizing these skills with high efficiency. Based on these findings new approaches could be developed for more direct and more adequate teaching methods regarding to an earlier optimization and facilitation of fundamental movement requirements.

  8. Reusable, Extensible High-Level Data-Distribution Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Zima, Hans; Diaconescua, Roxana

    2007-01-01

    A framework for high-level specification of data distributions in data-parallel application programs has been conceived. [As used here, distributions signifies means to express locality (more specifically, locations of specified pieces of data) in a computing system composed of many processor and memory components connected by a network.] Inasmuch as distributions exert a great effect on the performances of application programs, it is important that a distribution strategy be flexible, so that distributions can be adapted to the requirements of those programs. At the same time, for the sake of productivity in programming and execution, it is desirable that users be shielded from such error-prone, tedious details as those of communication and synchronization. As desired, the present framework enables a user to refine a distribution type and adjust it to optimize the performance of an application program and conceals, from the user, the low-level details of communication and synchronization. The framework provides for a reusable, extensible, data-distribution design, denoted the design pattern, that is independent of a concrete implementation. The design pattern abstracts over coding patterns that have been found to be commonly encountered in both manually and automatically generated distributed parallel programs. The following description of the present framework is necessarily oversimplified to fit within the space available for this article. Distributions are among the elements of a conceptual data-distribution machinery, some of the other elements being denoted domains, index sets, and data collections (see figure). Associated with each domain is one index set and one distribution. A distribution class interface (where "class" is used in the object-oriented-programming sense) includes operations that enable specification of the mapping of an index to a unit of locality. Thus, "Map(Index)" specifies a unit, while "LocalLayout(Index)" specifies the local address

  9. Reduced Levels of microRNAs miR-124a and miR-150 Are Associated with Increased Proinflammatory Mediator Expression in Krüppel-like Factor 2 (KLF2)-deficient Macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Palanikumar; Basford, Joshua E.; Pilcher-Roberts, Robyn; Neumann, Jonathan; Hui, David Y.; Lingrel, Jerry B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the myeloid-specific deficiency of the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic Ldlr−/− mice due to the enhanced adhesion of myeloid cells to activated endothelial cells in the vessel wall. This study revealed elevated basal inflammation with elevated plasma levels of Ccl2, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Ccl11 in the myeloid-specific KLF2 knock-out (myeKlf2−/−) mice. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from myeKlf2−/− mice showed increased mRNA levels of several inflammatory mediators, including Ccl2, Ccl5, Ccl7, Cox-2, Cxcl1, and IL-6. In contrast, the levels of two microRNAs, miR-124a and miR-150, were lower in Klf2−/− macrophages compared with Klf2+/+ macrophages. Additional studies showed a direct inverse relationship between miR-124a levels with Ccl2 expression, with anti-miR-124a increasing Ccl2 mRNA levels in Klf2+/+ macrophages, whereas the restoration of miR-124a levels in Klf2−/− macrophages significantly reduced Ccl2 mRNA expression. Likewise, the inverse relationship was observed between miR-150 levels and Cxcl1 expression in Klf2+/+ and Klf2−/− mice. Moreover, miR150 likely regulates the miR124a expression and thus augments expression of inflammatory mediators in myeKlf2−/− macrophages. This study documented that the transcription factor KLF2 modulates inflammatory chemokine production via regulation of microRNA expression levels in immune cells. PMID:25248747

  10. Electric Grid Expansion Planning with High Levels of Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); You, Shutang [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Renewables are taking a large proportion of generation capacity in U.S. power grids. As their randomness has increasing influence on power system operation, it is necessary to consider their impact on system expansion planning. To this end, this project studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem of the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid with a high wind power penetration rate. In this project, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. This study analyzed a time series creation method to capture the diversity of load and wind power across balancing regions in the EI system. The obtained time series can be easily introduced into the MIP co-optimization problem and then solved robustly through available MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed time series generation method and the expansion co-optimization model and can improve the expansion result significantly after considering the diversity of wind and load across EI regions. The improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare. This study shows that modelling load and wind variations and diversities across balancing regions will produce significantly different expansion result compared with former studies. For example, if wind is modeled in more details (by increasing the number of wind output levels) so that more wind blocks are considered in expansion planning, transmission expansion will be larger and the expansion timing will be earlier. Regarding generation expansion, more wind scenarios will slightly reduce wind generation expansion in the EI system and increase the expansion of other generation such as gas. Also, adopting detailed wind scenarios will reveal that it may be uneconomic to expand transmission networks for transmitting a large amount of wind power through a long distance

  11. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  12. High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996.

  13. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  14. Do mothers with high sodium levels in their breast milk have high depression and anxiety scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Ozbek, Aylin; Ormen, Murat; Kavurma, Canem; Ozer, Esra; Aydın, Adem

    2017-04-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the possible association of high breast milk sodium levels with postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A total of 150 mothers and their healthy, exclusively breastfed newborns aged 8 to 15 days were recruited. Mothers were asked to complete scales for evaluation of postnatal depression and anxiety following an interview for consent and sociodemographic data collection. Breast milk samples were obtained to measure sodium and potassium (K) levels. Results Forty-nine mothers had higher than expected breast milk Na concentrations and a high Na/K ratio. These mothers scored significantly higher on the scales of postnatal depression and state anxiety ( P = 0.018 and P = 0.048, respectively). Conclusions This study shows that compared to normal breast milk Na levels and Na/K ratio, high breast milk Na and high Na/K ratio, with possible serious consequences in infants, are associated with maternal depressive and anxious symptoms in the postpartum period.

  15. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  16. High level waste interim storge architecture selection - decision report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1996-09-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has embarked upon a course to acquire Hanford Site tank waste treatment and immobilization services using privatized facilities (RL 1996a). This plan contains a two-phased approach. Phase I is a proof-of-principle/connnercial demonstration- scale effort and Phase II is a fiill-scale production effort. In accordance with the planned approach, interim storage and disposal of various products from privatized facilities are to be DOE fumished. The high-level waste (BLW) interim storage options, or alternative architectures, were identified and evaluated to provide the framework from which to select the most viable method of Phase I BLW interim storage (Calmus 1996). This evaluation, hereafter referred to as the Alternative Architecture Evaluation, was performed to established performance and risk criteria (technical merit, cost, schedule, etc.). Based on evaluation results, preliminary architectures and path forward reconunendations were provided for consideration in the architecture decision- maldng process. The decision-making process used for selection of a Phase I solidified BLW interim storage architecture was conducted in accordance with an approved Decision Plan (see the attachment). This decision process was based on TSEP-07,Decision Management Procedure (WHC 1995). The established decision process entailed a Decision Board, consisting of Westinghouse Hanford Company (VY`HC) management staff, and included appointment of a VTHC Decision Maker. The Alternative Architecture Evaluation results and preliminary recommendations were presented to the Decision Board members for their consideration in the decision-making process. The Alternative Architecture Evaluation was prepared and issued before issuance of @C-IP- 123 1, Alternatives Generation and Analysis Procedure (WI-IC 1996a), but was deemed by the Board to fully meet the intent of WHC-IP-1231. The Decision Board members concurred with the bulk of the Alternative Architecture

  17. A high-speed DAQ framework for future high-level trigger and event building clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, M.; Ardila Perez, L. E.; Balzer, M.; Dritschler, T.; Kopmann, A.; Mohr, H.; Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Weber, M.

    2017-03-01

    Modern data acquisition and trigger systems require a throughput of several GB/s and latencies of the order of microseconds. To satisfy such requirements, a heterogeneous readout system based on FPGA readout cards and GPU-based computing nodes coupled by InfiniBand has been developed. The incoming data from the back-end electronics is delivered directly into the internal memory of GPUs through a dedicated peer-to-peer PCIe communication. High performance DMA engines have been developed for direct communication between FPGAs and GPUs using "DirectGMA (AMD)" and "GPUDirect (NVIDIA)" technologies. The proposed infrastructure is a candidate for future generations of event building clusters, high-level trigger filter farms and low-level trigger system. In this paper the heterogeneous FPGA-GPU architecture will be presented and its performance be discussed.

  18. High-Dimensional Topological Insulators with Quaternionic Analytic Landau Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun

    2013-05-01

    We study the three-dimensional topological insulators in the continuum by coupling spin-1/2 fermions to the Aharonov-Casher SU(2) gauge field. They exhibit flat Landau levels in which orbital angular momentum and spin are coupled with a fixed helicity. The three-dimensional lowest Landau level wave functions exhibit the quaternionic analyticity as a generalization of the complex analyticity of the two-dimensional case. Each Landau level contributes one branch of gapless helical Dirac modes to the surface spectra, whose topological properties belong to the Z2 class. The flat Landau levels can be generalized to an arbitrary dimension. Interaction effects and experimental realizations are also studied.

  19. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. .... infection, major organs involvement, and number of times ..... Characteristics .... support among medical, dental, nursing students and doctors.

  20. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  1. The Rapid Emergence of High Level Gentamicin Resistance in Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Forward

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of enterococci isolated from blood and urine cultures that were highly resistant to gentamicin and streptomycin were determined. No blood or urine isolates highly resistant to gentamicin were seen in 1983, whereas by 1986–87 25% of blood and 17% of urine isolates were highly resistant. The rapid emergence of gentamicin resistance has serious implications for patients with life threatening enterococcal disease.

  2. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ≤10-μm crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation

  3. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, David K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  4. High-performance gamma spectroscopy for equipment retrieval from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Gary L.; Hillesand, K. E.; Goodwin, S. G.; Kessler, S. F.; Killian, E. W.; Legare, D.; Nelson, Joseph V., Jr.; Richard, R. F.; Nordquist, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to ninety per cent saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed.

  5. High antibody levels to P. gingivalis in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnstedt, S; Cullinan, M P; Ford, P J; Palmer, J E; Leishman, S J; Westerman, B; Marshall, R I; West, M J; Seymour, G J

    2010-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that strain variation in the serum IgG response to Porphyromonas gingivalis occurs in periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that different P. gingivalis strains would elicit different levels of IgG, depending on a patient's cardiovascular (CV) and periodontal health. For CVD patients, serum antibody levels increased significantly with increasing numbers of deep pockets for all strains of P. gingivalis, except W50 (p immune response to P. gingivalis in the relationship between periodontal disease and CVD.

  6. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  7. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... In day to day clinical biochemistry laboratory practices, occasionally abnormal levels of individual parameters are noted. ... of using very reliable and stable reagent kit from Roche in the biochemistry laboratory ...

  8. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  9. Heavy metal levels in soil samples from highly industrialized Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anyakora

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... Cadmium and iron levels exceeded that of the European Regulatory ... to certain industrial activities has been on the rise in ... wastewater irrigation, coal combustion residues, spillage ..... excavation and land fill, thermal treatment, which are not .... Phytoextraction of toxic metals: a review of biological.

  10. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-12-27

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository.

  11. Space Electronics Operating at High Temperatures and Radiation Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to produce high efficiency DC/DC power modules in a small low profile package that can tolerate extreme environment conditions. The primary effort...

  12. A High-Throughput, High-Accuracy System-Level Simulation Framework for System on Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's System-on-Chips (SoCs design is extremely challenging because it involves complicated design tradeoffs and heterogeneous design expertise. To explore the large solution space, system architects have to rely on system-level simulators to identify an optimized SoC architecture. In this paper, we propose a system-level simulation framework, System Performance Simulation Implementation Mechanism, or SPSIM. Based on SystemC TLM2.0, the framework consists of an executable SoC model, a simulation tool chain, and a modeling methodology. Compared with the large body of existing research in this area, this work is aimed at delivering a high simulation throughput and, at the same time, guaranteeing a high accuracy on real industrial applications. Integrating the leading TLM techniques, our simulator can attain a simulation speed that is not slower than that of the hardware execution by a factor of 35 on a set of real-world applications. SPSIM incorporates effective timing models, which can achieve a high accuracy after hardware-based calibration. Experimental results on a set of mobile applications proved that the difference between the simulated and measured results of timing performance is within 10%, which in the past can only be attained by cycle-accurate models.

  13. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  14. Corrosion issues in high-level nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Samin Sharifi

    In this dissertation different aspects of corrosion and electrochemistry of copper, candidate canister material in Scandinavian high-level nuclear waste disposal program, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions that are predicted to occur in the practical system have been studied. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of copper in contact with granitic groundwater of the type and composition that is expected in the Forsmark repository in Sweden has been performed. Our primary objective was to ascertain whether copper would exist in the thermodynamically immune state in the repository, in which case corrosion could not occur and the issue of corrosion in the assessment of the storage technology would be moot. In spite of the fact that metallic copper has been found to exist for geological times in granitic geological formations, copper is well-known to be activated from the immune state to corrode by specific species that may exist in the environment. The principal activator of copper is known to be sulfur in its various forms, including sulfide (H2S, HS-, S2-), polysulfide (H2Sx, HSx -, Sx 2-), poly sulfur thiosulfate ( SxO3 2-), and polythionates (SxO6 2-). A comprehensive study of this aspect of copper chemistry has never been reported, and yet an understanding of this issue is vital for assessing whether copper is a suitable material for fabricating canisters for the disposal of HLNW. Our study identifies and explores those species that activate copper; these species include sulfur-containing entities as well as other, non-sulfur species that may be present in the repository. The effects of temperature, solution pH, and hydrogen pressure on the kinetics of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) on copper in borate buffer solution have been studied by means of steady-state polarization measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In order to obtain electrokinetic parameters, such as the exchange current density and the

  15. Exploiting Aura OMI Level 2 Data with High Resolution Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. C.; Yang, W.; Johnson, J. E.; Zhao, P.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Pham, L.; Vicente, G. A.; Shen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted, such as model inputs from satellite, or extreme event (such as volcano eruption, dust storm, …etc) interpretation from satellite. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite data products provided by NASA and other organizations. One way to help users better understand the satellite data is to provide data along with 'Images', including accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, pixel coverage area delineation, and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) always strives to best support (i.e., Software-as-a-service, SaaS) the user-community for NASA Earth Science Data. In this case, we will present a new visualization tool that helps users exploiting Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level 2 data. This new visualization service utilizes Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard-compliant Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) calls in the backend infrastructure. The functionality of the service allows users to select data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement, like NO2 and SO2 from OMI Level 2 or same parameter with different methods of aggregation, like NO2 in OMNO2G and OMNO2D products), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents, zooming, panning, overlaying, sliding, and data subsetting and reformatting. The interface will also be able to connect to other OGC WMS and WCS servers, which will greatly enhance its expandability to integrate additional outside data/map sources (such as Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS)).

  16. Factors Affecting Noise Levels of High-Speed Handpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    office communication and increase patient anxiety. Purpose: To determine if three noise-reducing techniques utilized in larger scale , non- dental...hearing loss may cause confusion, fear, and loneliness , and that sometimes hearing loss is accompanied by dizziness, which would be a handicap in the...employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8- hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or

  17. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  18. Cultural education through the high school level English textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ookawa Kouki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It cannot be denied that intercultural understanding is crucial in the process of learning English at elementary school, junior high school, high school, and beyond. This paper analyzes the high school English textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan from the perspective of intercultural understanding. First, it elucidates the types of articles, the countries materials deal with, and the purposes of the materials used in the books. Then it considers important elements of intercultural education. The result of the research shows that the materials contain various kinds of categories, and many concern English-speaking countries. Furthermore, an important fact is that many materials concerning Japan, aimed at understanding its own culture, are shown in the textbooks as well. Finally, the paper suggests future direction for the use of materials in the textbooks in order to facilitate intercultural understanding.

  19. A School News Bureau: PR Training at High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Dolores P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a high school journalism teacher established a student news bureau to channel information about schools in the school system to the local media; lists advantages of the news bureau to its staff members and to the school system. (GW)

  20. Scientific Creativity and High Ability: Gender and academic level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier ESPARZA MOLINA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and educational level on scientific creativity among gifted/talented students. A cohort of creatividad científica y alta habilidad: diferencias de género y nivel educativo 78 secondary school students from 12 to 16 years old participated in this research. The scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (Sak & Ayas, 2011 designed for secondary school students from 11 to 14 years old. Its theoretical framework sets up the measurement of a three dimensional structure: general creative abilities (fluency, flexibility and creativity, scientific creative abilities (hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation and scientific knowledge. This test has the right adequate psychometric properties with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.848 (Sak & Ayas, 2013. Results indicated that male students scored significantly higher in a task named Interaction Graph which measures hypothesis generation in interdisciplinary science. The analysis also showed that students involved in upper education levels scores significantly higher in general fluency and in the task called The Food Chain which measures evidence evaluation in the area of ecology.

  1. Digitalizing historical high resolution water level data: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinde, Lars; Hein, Hartmut; Barjenbruch, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Historical tide-gauge data offer the opportunities for determining variations in key characteristics for water level data and the analyses of past extreme events (storm surges). These information are important for calculating future trends and scenarios. But there are challenges involved due to the extensive effort needed to digitalize gauge sheets and quality control the resulting historical data. Based on these conditions, two main sources for inaccuracies in historical time series can be identified. First are several challenges due to the digitalization of the historical data, e.g. general quality of the sheets, multiple crossing lines of the observed water levels and additional comments on the sheet describing problems or additional information during the measurements. Second are problems during the measurements themselves. These can include the incorrect positioning of the sheets, trouble with the tide-gauge and maintenance. Errors resulting from these problems can be e.g. flat lines, discontinuities and outlier. Especially, the characterization of outliers has to be conducted carefully, to distinguish between real outliers and the appearance of extreme events. Methods for the quality control process involve the use of statistics, machine learning and neural networks. These will be described and applied to three different time series from tide gauge stations at the cost of Lower Saxony, Germany. Resulting difficulties and outcomes of the quality control process will be presented and explained. Furthermore, we will present a first glance at analyses for these time series.

  2. High levels of melatonin generated during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Moreno, H; Calvo, J R; Maldonado, M D

    2013-08-01

    Beer is a beverage consumed worldwide. It is produced from cereals (barley or wheat) and contains a wide array of bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceutical compounds. Specifically, high melatonin concentrations have been found in beer. Beers with high alcohol content are those that present the greatest concentrations of melatonin and vice versa. In this study, gel filtration chromatography and ELISA were combined for melatonin determination. We brewed beer to determine, for the first time, the beer production steps in which melatonin appears. We conclude that the barley, which is malted and ground in the early process, and the yeast, during the second fermentation, are the largest contributors to the enrichment of the beer with melatonin. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High Level Architecture (HLA) federation with Umbra and OPNET federates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppel, Fred John III; Hart, Brian; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2004-03-01

    Network-centric systems that depend on mobile wireless ad hoc networks for their information exchange require detailed analysis to support their development. In many cases, this critical analysis is best provided with high-fidelity system simulations that include the effects of network architectures and protocols. In this research, we developed a high-fidelity system simulation capability using an HLA federation. The HLA federation, consisting of the Umbra system simulator and OPNET Modeler network simulator, provides a means for the system simulator to both affect, and be affected by, events in the network simulator. Advances are also made in increasing the fidelity of the wireless communication channel and reducing simulation run-time with a dead reckoning capability. A simulation experiment is included to demonstrate the developed modeling and simulation capability.

  4. High-Speed, Low-Level Flight: Aircrew Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    informations tate haute ou tate basse montgs sur lea tableau de bord , 20/ sur lea dispositifs de prasentation des informations par dispositifs montds sur casque...En ca qui concerne lea dispositifs mont~s sur le tableau de bord et la charge de travail des iquipages, Monsieur MORRIS A. OSTGAARD a pr4sent6 de...need for an inertial naviga- tion system, freeing the pilot from the current high task-loading requirements of navigational pilotage . DISCUFSION It

  5. Radiation resistance of copper alloys at high exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Zinkle, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Copper alloys are currently being considered for high heat flux applications in fusion power devices. A review is presented of the results of two separate series of experiments on the radiation response of copper and copper alloys. One of these involved pure copper and boron-doped copper in the ORR mixed spectrum reactor. The other series included pure copper and a wide array of copper alloys irradiated in the FFTF fast reactor 16 refs., 13 figs.

  6. High Voltage Breakdown Levels in Various EPC Potting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komm, David S.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews exploration activities at JPL into various potting materials. Since high power space-borne microwave transmitters invariably use a vacuum tube as a final power amplifier, and this tube requires high electrode voltages for operation. The associated high voltage insulation typically represents a significant fraction of the mass of the transmitter. Since mass is always a premium resource on board spacecraft, we have been investigating materials with the potential to reduce the mass required for our applications here at JPL. This paper describes electrical breakdown results obtained with various potting materials. Conathane EN-11 (polyurethane) is the traditional HVPS encapsulant at JPL, but due to temperature limitations and durability issues it was deemed inappropriate for the particular application (i.e., CloudSat radar). The choices for the best available materials were epoxies, or silicones. Epoxies are too rigid, and were deemed inadvisable. Two silicones were further investigated (i.e.,ASTM E595- 93e2: GE RTV566(R) and Dow Corning 93-500X(R), another compound was considered (i.e., DC material, Sylgard 184(R)). "Loading" (adding filler materials) the potting compound will frequently alter the final material properties. Powdered alumina and borosilicate glass known as "microballoons" were investigated as possible loading materials. The testing of the materials is described. Each of the two loading materials offers advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages are described.

  7. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...... with other field tests the Yo-Yo IR2 has become an important tool for monitoring the physical fitness of football players. However, the burden of testing, for players (physically and mentally) and the coaching staff (time consuming), is large and there is a probability that the tests may contain overlapping...... on the Yo-Yo IR2 test and other field- and laboratory tests of intermittent interval training performed as anaerobic speed-endurance production training is very limited for football players. Hence, this latter question is examined in Study IV.In Study I we find no differences in anthropometric...

  8. High glycogen levels in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Madsen, Flemming F; Secher, Niels H

    2006-01-01

    biopsies were obtained from pathologic hippocampus (n=19) and from apparently 'normal' cortical grey and white matter. We determined the in vivo brain glycogen level and the activity of glycogen phosphorylase and synthase. Regional differences in glycogen concentration were examined similarly in healthy...... pigs (n=5). In the patients, the glycogen concentration in 'normal' grey and white matter was 5 to 6 mmol/L, but much higher in the hippocampus, 13.1+/-4.3 mmol/L (mean+/-s.d.; P..., glycogen was similarly higher than in grey and white matter. Consequently, in human grey and white matter and, particularly, in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lope epilepsy, glycogen constitutes a large, active energy reserve, which may be of importance for energy provision during sustained...

  9. High level fructan accumulation in a transgenic sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévenier, R; Hall, R D; van der Meer, I M; Hakkert, H J; van Tunen, A J; Koops, A J

    1998-09-01

    We have transformed sugar beet into a crop that produces fructans. The gene encoding 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyl transferase (1-SST), which was isolated from Helianthus tuberosus, was introduced into sugar beet. In H. tuberosus, 1-SST mediates the first steps in fructan synthesis through the conversion of sucrose (GF) into low molecular weight fructans GF2, GF3, and GF4. In the taproot of sugar beet transformed with the 1-sst gene, the stored sucrose is almost totally converted into low molecular weight fructans. In contrast, 1-sst expression in the leaves resulted in only low levels of fructans. Despite the storage carbohydrate having been altered, the expression of the 1-sst gene did not have any visible effect on phenotype and did not affect the growth rate of the taproot as observed under greenhouse conditions.

  10. Cost evaluation of a DSN high level real-time language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that the implementation of a DSN High Level Real Time Language will reduce real time software expenditures is explored. The High Level Real Time Language is found to be both affordable and cost-effective.

  11. Experimental evidence that high levels of inbreeding depress sperm competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, S R K; Lindholm, A K; Evans, J P; Brooks, R C

    2009-06-01

    The effects of inbreeding on sperm quantity and quality are among the most dramatic examples of inbreeding depression. The extent to which inbreeding depression results in decreased fertilization success of a male's sperm, however, remains largely unknown. This task is made more difficult by the fact that other factors, such as cryptic female choice, male sperm allocation and mating order, can also drive patterns of paternity. Here, we use artificial insemination to eliminate these extraneous sources of variation and to measure the effects of inbreeding on the competitiveness of a male's sperm. We simultaneously inseminated female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) with equal amounts of sperm from an outbred (f = 0) male and either a highly (f = 0.59) or a moderately inbred (f = 0.25) male. Highly inbred males sired significantly fewer offspring than outbred males, but share of paternity did not differ between moderately inbred and outbred males. These findings therefore confirm that severe inbreeding can impair the competitiveness of sperm, but suggest that in the focal population inbreeding at order of a brother-sister mating does not reduce a male's sperm competitiveness.

  12. The Absence of the FQHE at High Landau Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakov, A. A.; Fogler, M. M.

    1996-03-01

    In our earlier paper (A. A. Koulakov, M. M. Fogler, and B. I. Shklovskii, preprint cond-mat/9508017) we have studied the ground state of a two-dimensional electron liquid in a weak magnetic field using the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA). We have found that the electron cluster in large ``bubbles'', which form a regular lattice with the period of the order of the cyclotron radius. In this work we numerically compare the energies of the ``bubble'' phase and the Laughlin liquids at Landau level (LL) with indices up to N = 10. In calculations, we take into account the screening of the Coulomb interactions at the upper partially occupied LL by electrons of the lower fully occupied LLs. Using the iterational HFA for the ``bubble'' phase, and ansatz wave-function for FQHE states at N > 0 (A. H. MacDonald and S. M. Girvin, Phys. Rev. B 33), 4009 (1986), we show that 1/3 and 1/5 FQHE states do not withstand the competition with the ``bubble'' phase at N > 1.

  13. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  14. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts.

  15. Superconducting Gap Anisotropy vs Doping Level in High- Tc Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziora, C.; Kelley, R. J.; Onellion, M.

    1996-07-01

    We report the results of electronic Raman scattering in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) and Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ (Tl2201) high-Tc superconductors with variations in the oxygen content. Near optimal doping, both materials show gap anisotropy, with 2Δ/kBTc values of 7.2 ( B1g) vs 5.8 ( A1g) in Tl2201 and 8.5 ( B1g) vs 6.2 ( A1g) in Bi2212. However, overdoped samples exhibit a symmetry independent gap with 2Δ/kBTc ranging from 5.2 for Bi2212 ( Tc = 57 K) to 3.9 in Tl2201 ( Tc = 37 K). We compare the data with calculations using both isotropic s-wave and d-wave order parameters.

  16. High Level Ab Initio Kinetics as a Tool for Astrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippenstein, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We will survey the application of ab initio theoretical kinetics to reactions of importance to astrochemistry. Illustrative examples will be taken from our calculations for (i) interstellar chemistry, (ii) Titan's atmospheric chemistry, and (iii) the chemistry of extrasolar giant planets. The accuracy of various aspects of the calculations will be summarized including (i) the underlying ab initio electronic structure calculations, (ii) the treatment of the high pressure recombination process, and (iii) the treatment of the pressure dependence of the kinetics. The applications will consider the chemistry of phosphorous on giant planets, the kinetics of water dimerization, the chemistry of nitrogen on Titan's atmosphere, as well as various reactions of interstellar chemistry interest such as the recombination of OH with H, and O(3P) reacting with C2H5, CH2, and CCS. Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division.

  17. Noninvasive respiratory management of high level spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R

    2012-03-01

    This article describes noninvasive acute and long-term management of the respiratory muscle paralysis of high spinal cord injury (SCI). This includes full-setting, continuous ventilatory support by noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) to support inspiratory muscles and mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) to support inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The NIV and MAC can also be used to extubate or decannulate 'unweanable' patients with SCI, to prevent intercurrent respiratory tract infections from developing into pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (ARF), and to eliminate tracheostomy and resort to costly electrophrenic/diaphragm pacing (EPP/DP) for most ventilator users, while permitting glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) for security in the event of ventilator failure.

  18. High level triggers for explosive mafic volcanism: Albano Maar, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. K.; Tomlinson, E. L.; Giordano, G.; Smith, V. C.; De Benedetti, A. A.; Roberge, J.; Manning, C. J.; Wulf, S.; Menzies, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    Colli Albani is a quiescent caldera complex located within the Roman Magmatic Province (RMP), Italy. The recent Via dei Laghi phreatomagmatic eruptions led to the formation of nested maars. Albano Maar is the largest and has erupted seven times between ca 69-33 ka. The highly explosive nature of the Albano Maar eruptions is at odds with the predominant relatively mafic (SiO2 = 48-52 wt.%) foiditic (K2O = 9 wt.%) composition of the magma. The deposits have been previously interpreted as phreatomagmatic, however they contain large amounts (up to 30%vol) of deep seated xenoliths, skarns and all pre-volcanic subsurface units. All of the xenoliths have been excavated from depths of up to 6 km, rather than being limited to the depth at which magma and water interaction is likely to have occurred, suggesting an alternative trigger for eruption. High precision geochemical glass and mineral data of fresh juvenile (magmatic) clasts from the small volume explosive deposits indicate that the magmas have evolved along one of two evolutionary paths towards foidite or phonolite. The foiditic melts record ca. 50% mixing between the most primitive magma and Ca-rich melt, late stage prior to eruption. A major result of our study is finding that the generation of Ca-rich melts via assimilation of limestone, may provide storage for significant amounts of CO2 that can be released during a mixing event with silicate magma. Differences in melt evolution are inferred as having been controlled by variations in storage conditions: residence time and magma volume.

  19. Approximate Bisimulation for High-Level Datapaths in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deng, H; Wu, J; Tan, H

    ... for circuits, the specific data exchange processes must be analyzed. Therefore, we must study circuits at a high level, called high-level datapaths. Complex high-level datapaths typically contain equivalent data exchange processes that are overly complex; worthwhile research on these datapaths considers either how to eliminate the superfluous portion of these pr...

  20. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vaivre-Douret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities.

  1. A high-level analysis framework for HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    Younk, Patrick W; Vianello, Giacomo; Harding, J Patrick; Solares, Hugo Alberto Ayala; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory continuously observes gamma-rays between 100 GeV to 100 TeV in an instantaneous field of view of about 2 steradians above the array. The large amount of raw data, the importance of small number statistics, the large dynamic range of gamma-ray signals in time (1 - $10^8$ sec) and angular extent (0.1 - 100 degrees), and the growing need to directly compare results from different observatories pose some special challenges for the analysis of HAWC data. To address these needs, we have designed and implemented a modular analysis framework based on the method of maximum likelihood. The framework facilitates the calculation of a binned Poisson Log-likelihood value for a given physics model (i.e., source model), data set, and detector response. The parameters of the physics model (sky position, spectrum, angular extent, etc.) can be optimized through a likelihood maximization routine to obtain a best match to the data. In a similar way, the parameters of the detect...

  2. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions

  3. Nifty Native Implemented Functions: low-level meets high-level code

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Erlang Native Implemented Functions (NIFs) allow developers to implement functions in C (or C++) rather than Erlang. NIFs are useful for integrating high performance or legacy code in Erlang applications. The talk will cover how to implement NIFs, use cases, and common pitfalls when employing them. Further, we will discuss how and why Erlang applications, such as Riak, use NIFs. About the speaker Ian Plosker is the Technical Lead, International Operations at Basho Technologies, the makers of the open source database Riak. He has been developing software professionally for 10 years and programming since childhood. Prior to working at Basho, he developed everything from CMS to bioinformatics platforms to corporate competitive intelligence management systems. At Basho, he's been helping customers be incredibly successful using Riak.

  4. Changes in polyphenols and expression levels of related genes in 'Duke' blueberries stored under high CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Jamil; Saleh, Omar; Kittemann, Dominikus; Neuwald, Daniel Alexandre; Hoffmann, Thomas; Reski, Ralf; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-07-30

    Blueberries are highly perishable fruits, and consequently, storage under high CO2 and low O2 levels is recommended to preserve the highly appreciated polyphenols. However, high CO2 levels might be detrimental for certain cultivars. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of storage conditions on various quality parameters, including polyphenol composition in 'Duke' berries. Results show that storage under 18 kPa CO2, coupled with 3 kPa O2, resulted in accelerated softening of berries, which was accompanied by lower levels compared to other conditions of hexosides and arabinosides of malvidin, petunidin, cyanidine, and delphinidin. However, this storage condition had no negative impact on chlorogenic acid levels. Expression data of key polyphenol-biosynthesis genes showed higher expression levels of all investigated genes at harvest time compared to all storage conditions. Of particular importance is the expression level of chalcone synthase (VcCHS), which is severely affected by storage at 18 kPa CO2.

  5. Implications of high level pseudogene transcription in Mycobacterium leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Norman E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mycobacterium leprae genome has less than 50% coding capacity and 1,133 pseudogenes. Preliminary evidence suggests that some pseudogenes are expressed. Therefore, defining pseudogene transcriptional and translational potentials of this genome should increase our understanding of their impact on M. leprae physiology. Results Gene expression analysis identified transcripts from 49% of all M. leprae genes including 57% of all ORFs and 43% of all pseudogenes in the genome. Transcribed pseudogenes were randomly distributed throughout the chromosome. Factors resulting in pseudogene transcription included: 1 co-orientation of transcribed pseudogenes with transcribed ORFs within or exclusive of operon-like structures; 2 the paucity of intrinsic stem-loop transcriptional terminators between transcribed ORFs and downstream pseudogenes; and 3 predicted pseudogene promoters. Mechanisms for translational "silencing" of pseudogene transcripts included the lack of both translational start codons and strong Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequences. Transcribed pseudogenes also contained multiple "in-frame" stop codons and high Ka/Ks ratios, compared to that of homologs in M. tuberculosis and ORFs in M. leprae. A pseudogene transcript containing an active promoter, strong SD site, a start codon, but containing two in frame stop codons yielded a protein product when expressed in E. coli. Conclusion Approximately half of M. leprae's transcriptome consists of inactive gene products consuming energy and resources without potential benefit to M. leprae. Presently it is unclear what additional detrimental affect(s this large number of inactive mRNAs has on the functional capability of this organism. Translation of these pseudogenes may play an important role in overall energy consumption and resultant pathophysiological characteristics of M. leprae. However, this study also demonstrated that multiple translational "silencing" mechanisms are present

  6. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  7. Correlation of low levels of nitrite and high levels of fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolytic anemia, increased susceptibility to infections and recurrent vaso-occlusive crises that reduces the quality of life of sufferers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation of the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, malonaldehyde and nitrite to fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease not under treatment with hydroxyurea in outpatients at a university hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-four patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease were enrolled at baseline. Diagnosis was confirmed by evaluating the beta globin gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The concentration of fetal hemoglobin was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum levels of nitrite, malonaldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase were measured by biochemical methods. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite and malonaldehyde were observed in patients with sickle cell disease compared to a control group. The study of the correlation between fetal hemoglobin levels and these variables showed a negative correlation with nitrite levels. No correlation was found between fetal hemoglobin and malonaldehyde or lactate dehydrogenase. When the study population was stratified according to fetal hemoglobin levels, a decrease in the levels of nitrite was observed with higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (p-value = 0.0415. CONCLUSION: The results show that, similar to fetal hemoglobin levels, the concentration of nitrite can predict the clinical course of the disease, but should not be used alone as a modulator of prognosis in patients with sickle cell disease.

  8. Flooding in Myanmar: joint occurrence of high discharges and high sea water levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Vatvani, Deepak; Diermanse, Ferdinand

    2016-04-01

    In the summer of 2015 serious flooding occurred in Myanmar when cyclone Komen made landfall in Bangladesh, bringing strong winds and heavy rains to Myanmar. The cyclone struck the country during the monsoon season and resulted in widespread flooding, temporarily displacing over 1.6 million people. It was hypothesized that there could be a relation between occurrences of storm surges and extreme discharges in Myanmar. Comparable studies have shown that dependence between storm surge at Hoek van Holland in the Netherlands and high river discharges of the Rhine at Lobith exist with a lag of 6 days (Klerk et. al, 2015). The processes generating high discharges in the Ayeyarwady river and storm surges along the Myanmar coast were analyzed using global precipitation data (EU FP7 eartH2Observe), a distributed wflow-sbm hydrological model of the Ayeyarwady and a global storm surge model. About 15 historical tropical storms and hurricanes affecting Myanmar since 1992 were analyzed in terms of rainfall distribution over the country, discharged river flow volumes and storm surge extent and magnitude. All storms except for Komen in 2015 occurred between October and May, which does not coincide with the monsoon season (mainly June, July and August). The intensities and the paths of the 15 studied cyclones varied considerably and largely affected the spatial extent and the magnitude of storm surges. The study showed that high Ayeyarwady river flows and high surges generally do not coincide for the following reasons: the large scale of the river basin, the estimated one week travel time of water from the upstream catchment to the mouth, the occurrence of the majority of historical storms outside the monsoon season and the (relatively) limited spatial extent of a storm surge (at the scale of Myanmar). While the applied method is deemed successful for the identification of joint probabilities of surges and river discharges, this study indicates that such analyses are more relevant

  9. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  10. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  11. Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds containing high levels of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative evaluation of gene expression levels can lead to improved understanding of the gene networks underlying traits of economic importance. Extraction of high-quality RNA from germinating barley seeds that contain high levels of starch is of vital importance for analysing the expression of ca...

  13. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  14. An Investigation of High School Seniors' Assertiveness Levels Based on Their Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    High school students who are in the development age or in the last class and have chance to win the university exams or disposal stage of the business life must also have a high level of assertiveness. In this context, the purpose of this research is to compare the assertiveness levels of high school seniors. The study group consists of 312 high…

  15. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  16. Pro-inflammatory macrophages increase in skeletal muscle of high fat-fed mice and correlate with metabolic risk markers in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Lisbeth N; Costford, Sheila R; Lee, Yun S; Jensen, Thomas E; Bilan, Philip J; Oberbach, Andreas; Blüher, Matthias; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Sams, Anette; Klip, Amira

    2014-03-01

    In obesity, immune cells infiltrate adipose tissue. Skeletal muscle is the major tissue of insulin-dependent glucose disposal, and indices of muscle inflammation arise during obesity, but whether and which immune cells increase in muscle remain unclear. Immune cell presence in quadriceps muscle of wild type mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) was studied for 3 days to 10 weeks, in CCL2-KO mice fed HFD for 1 week, and in human muscle. Leukocyte presence was assessed by gene expression of lineage markers, cyto/chemokines and receptors; immunohistochemistry; and flow cytometry. After 1 week HFD, concomitantly with glucose intolerance, muscle gene expression of Ly6b, Emr1 (F4/80), Tnf, Ccl2, and Ccr2 rose, as did pro- and anti-inflammatory markers Itgax (CD11c) and Mgl2. CD11c+ proinflammatory macrophages in muscle increased by 76%. After 10 weeks HFD, macrophages in muscle increased by 47%. Quadriceps from CCL2-KO mice on HFD did not gain macrophages and maintained insulin sensitivity. Muscle of obese, glucose-intolerant humans showed elevated CD68 (macrophage marker) and ITGAX, correlating with poor glucose disposal and adiposity. Mouse and human skeletal muscles gain a distinct population of inflammatory macrophages upon HFD or obesity, linked to insulin resistance in humans and CCL2 availability in mice. © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. Increased nicotianamine biosynthesis confers enhanced tolerance of high levels of metals, in particular nickel, to plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Suyeon; Takahashi, Michiko; Higuchi, Kyoko; Tsunoda, Kyoko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Mori, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2005-01-01

    .... Nicotianamine synthase overexpression resulted in increased biosynthesis of nicotianamine in transgenic plants, which conferred enhanced tolerance of high levels of metals, particularly nickel, to plants...

  18. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  19. HIGH D-DIMER LEVELS PREDICT A POOR OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE TRAUMA, EVEN WITH HIGH FIBRINOGEN LEVELS ON ARRIVAL: A MULTICENTER RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Kato, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Junichi; Ogura, Hiroshi; Matauoka, Tetsuya; Uejima, Toshifumi; Morimura, Naoto; Ishikura, Hiroyasu; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Takeda, Munekazu; Kaneko, Naoyuki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Kudo, Daisuke; Kanemura, Takashi; Shibusawa, Takayuki; Furugori, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Mayama, Gou; Yaguchi, Arino; Kim, Shiei; Takasu, Osamu; Nishiyama, Kazutaka

    2016-03-01

    Elevated D-dimer level in trauma patients is associated with tissue damage severity and is an indicator of hyperfibrinolysis during the early phase of trauma. To investigate the interacting effects of fibrinogen and D-dimer levels on arrival at the emergency department for massive transfusion and mortality in severe trauma patients in a multicenter retrospective study. This study included 519 adult trauma patients with an injury severity score ≥16. Patients with ≥10 units of red cell concentrate transfusion and/or death during the first 24 h were classified as having a poor outcome. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for predicting poor outcome showed the optimal cut-off fibrinogen and D-dimer values to be 190 mg/dL and 38 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of these values, patients were divided into four groups: low D-dimer (high fibrinogen (>190 mg/dL), low D-dimer (low fibrinogen (≤190 mg/dL), high D-dimer (≥38 mg/L)/high fibrinogen (>190 mg/dL), and high D-dimer (≥38 mg/L)/low fibrinogen (≤190 mg/dL). The survival rate was lower in the high D-dimer/low fibrinogen group than in the other groups. Moreover, the survival rate was lower in the high D-dimer/high fibrinogen group than in the low D-dimer/high fibrinogen and low D-dimer/low fibrinogen groups. High D-dimer level on arrival is a strong predictor of early death or requirement for massive transfusion in severe trauma patients, even with high fibrinogen levels.

  20. High-Level Models for Transformation-Oriented Design of Hardware and Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMASEVICIUS, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of design methodologies follows a common trail: technology scaling leads to growing design complexity and rising abstraction level in the domain. Introduction of new (higher abstraction levels emphasizes the importance of reuse and transformations. The design process can be seen as a sequence of high-level transformations from the higher-level specification to the lower-level one. We analyze high-level modeling and metaprogramming techniques for supporting transformations based on domain variability models. Next, we present a reuse evolution model for domain component design at a higher abstraction level to support the transformation-oriented approaches. Finally, high-level modeling techniques (UML-domain language metamodels for domain code generation, parameterized UML classes for template metaprogramming, feature models for explicit representation of variability for specification of transformations and metaprograms are analyzed.

  1. Increased Serum Levels of Inflammatory Mediators and Low Frequency of Regulatory T Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Preeclamptic Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Rodríguez, José María; Vargas-Avila, Karina; Nieto-Velázquez, Nayeli Goreti; Frías-De-León, María Guadalupe; Sierra-Martinez, Mónica; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs; CD4+CD25highFoxp3+) are critical in maintaining immune tolerance during pregnancy and uterine vascularization. In this study, we show that, in Mexican women with different preeclamptic severity levels, the number of Tregs and the subset of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ are decreased compared with those of normotensive pregnant women (NP). Moreover, a systemic inflammatory state is a pivotal feature in the pathogenesis of this disorder and could be related to hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Likewise, we observed elevated levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8 in the serum of severe preeclamptic patients (SPE); no differences were found in the IL-1β and IL-10 levels compared with those of NP patients. An analysis of chemokines in the preeclamptic serum samples showed high levels of CXCL10, CCL2, and CXCL9. Our findings suggest that the preeclamptic state is linked with systemic inflammation and reduced numbers of Tregs. PMID:25574467

  2. High levels of self-efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary level clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mostert Wentzel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-management is a vital element in the care of type 2diabetes patients.  In turn, self-efficacy plays a major role in patients’ self-management. Self-efficacy is the patient’s personal judgement of his/herconfidence in performing aspects of diabetes self-management.  This study investigated the level of self-efficacy of patients attending the Pretoria Academic Hospital Diabetes Clinic, in the light of high levels ofre-admission due to complications, suggesting low self-efficacy levels. Eighty type 2 diabetes patients, mean age of 59 years, completed thepublished IDEA LL baseline questionnaire, to establish a self-efficacyscore.  Relationships between self-efficacy and demographic factors wereinvestigated using the chi-square test. The mean self-efficacy level of thesample population is excellent (mean = 85.44%.A lthough self-reported self-efficacy levels are excellent, in comparison to the Sarkar study (2006 in which participants only scored “fair”, it is speculated that self-efficacy is not transferred to self-management behaviour in thispopulation.  Afrikaans and English speaking participants score significantly better than those from other language categories. There is a positive relationship between self-efficacy and level of education and employment status (tendedtowards significance with p values of 0.06 and 0.07 respectively. A lthough self-efficacy scores of clients at this tertiary level outpatient clinic are excellent, further research is necessary to quantify self-management strategies andto correlate these with self-efficacy levels.

  3. Evaluation and Analysis of Noise Level at High-Traffic Locations in Gusau, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Ebozoje

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of noise levels at high-traffic intersections of Gusau town is reported in this work. Five high-traffic locations tagged LOC-A, LOC-B, LOC-C, LOC-D and LOC-E were selected and evaluated at different periods of the day using an MS6700 IEC 651, ANSI.Si.4 Type-2 Sound Level meter. Result analyses indicates that LOC-C has the highest noise level with LNP = 95 and TNI = 94, while LOC-B has the lowest noise level with LNP = 82 and TNI = 67. These noise levels imply that Gusau metropolis has an unacceptable noise level, well above the globally recommended levels of 60-65 dB(A and the national recommended level of 82 dB(A. The paper therefore makes recommendations on minimizing these intolerable noise levels with consequences for environmental and human health in the study location.

  4. Fe I OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS FROM HIGH-LYING EVEN-PARITY LEVELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Lind, K., E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    New radiative lifetimes, measured to ±5% accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm{sup –1} to 56842 cm{sup –1}. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of (log[ε(Fe)]) = 7.45 ± 0.06.

  5. Fe I Oscillator Strengths for Transitions from High-lying Even-Parity Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, E A Den; Lawler, J E; Pickering, J C; Lind, K; Brewer, N R

    2014-01-01

    New radiative lifetimes, measured to $\\pm$ 5 % accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm$^{-1}$ to 56842 cm$^{-1}$. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. (2014). The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of = 7.45 $\\pm$ 0.06.

  6. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 is reliable in young high-level soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, D; Fransen, J; Lenoir, M; Philippaerts, Rm; Vaeyens, R

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate test reliability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) in 36 high-level youth soccer players, aged between 13 and 18 years. Players were divided into three age groups (U15, U17 and U19) and completed three YYIR1 in three consecutive weeks. Pairwise comparisons were used to investigate test reliability (for distances and heart rate responses) using technical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), intra-class correlation (ICC) and limits of agreement (LOA) with Bland-Altman plots. The mean YYIR1 distances for the U15, U17 and U19 groups were 2024 ± 470 m, 2404 ± 347 m and 2547 ± 337 m, respectively. The results revealed that the TEs varied between 74 and 172 m, CVs between 3.0 and 7.5%, and ICCs between 0.87 and 0.95 across all age groups for the YYIR1 distance. For heart rate responses, the TEs varied between 1 and 6 bpm, CVs between 0.7 and 4.8%, and ICCs between 0.73 and 0.97. The small ratio LOA revealed that any two YYIR1 performances in one week will not differ by more than 9 to 28% due to measurement error. In summary, the YYIR1 performance and the physiological responses have proven to be highly reliable in a sample of Belgian high-level youth soccer players, aged between 13 and 18 years. The demonstrated high level of intermittent endurance capacity in all age groups may be used for comparison of other prospective young soccer players.

  7. High serum zinc and serum testosterone levels were associated with excessive erythrocytosis in men at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a lack of adaptation to altitude characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE), is a health problem associated with life at high altitude. The erythropoietic process is regulated by both erythropoietin and testosterone. Zinc (Zn) is known to be related with testosterone and hemoglobin levels; meanwhile, nitric oxide was also associated with adaptation to high altitude. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of hemoglobin and CMS score with serum levels of zinc, total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), bioavailable testosterone (BAT), hemoglobin, and nitric oxide in men at high altitude with or without EE. Men residing in Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, were divided into three groups: (1) low altitude, (2) high altitude without EE (hemoglobin < 21 g/dl), and (3) high altitude with EE (hemoglobin ≥ 21 g/dl). Adjusted multivariable regression models showed that serum testosterone (total or free) and Zn levels were independently correlated with increased hemoglobin levels. Similarly, hemoglobin was positively related with signs/symptoms of CMS; however, both increased the serum Zn and the nitric oxide levels correlated with reduced risk for signs/symptoms of CMS. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels and Zn levels were associated with EE, and low scores of signs/symptoms of CMS were associated with higher Zn and nitric oxide levels.

  8. Level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery: Low tie preferred over high tie. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Lange (Marilyne); M. Buunen (Mark); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractConsensus does not exist on the level of arterial ligation in rectal cancer surgery. From oncologic considerations, many surgeons apply high tie arterial ligation (level of inferior mesenteric artery). Other strategies include ligation at the level of the superior rectal artery, just cau

  9. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  10. Teaching a High-Level Contextualized Mathematics Curriculum to Adult Basic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…

  11. Epidemiology of high-level parvovirus B19 viraemia among Dutch blood donors, 2003-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kooistra; H.J. Mesman; M. de Waal; M.H.G.M. Koppelman; H.L. Zaaijer

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch blo

  12. Teaching a High-Level Contextualized Mathematics Curriculum to Adult Basic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…

  13. Explaining Gaps in Readiness for College-Level Math: The Role of High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Iatarola, Patrice; Conger, Dylan

    2009-01-01

    Despite increased requirements for high school graduation, almost one-third of the nation's college freshmen are unprepared for college-level math. The need for remediation is particularly high among students who are low income, Hispanic, and black. Female students are also less likely than males to be ready for college-level math. This article…

  14. 78 FR 14840 - U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum-Stakeholder Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... BUDGET U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum--Stakeholder Session AGENCY: Office of Management...-0028-0001). The notice was part of a joint effort by the United States and the European Union (EU) to... will hold a public meeting of the U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum (the ``Forum'')...

  15. Investigation of High School Students' Reading Compherension Levels According to Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceran, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of reading comprehension of high school students in their fields of study and learning strategies to explain the relationship between the level of reading comprehension. This working group is composed of 11th grade high school students. In this study, relational model was used. In the study…

  16. Long-Term Exposure to High Corticosterone Levels Inducing a Decrease of Adenylate Kinase 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu'nan; SHEN Jia; SU Hui; HUANG Yufang; XING Dongming; DU Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Corticosterone, a principal glucocorticoid synthesized in the rodent adrenal cortex, can be cumula-tively toxic to hippocampal neurons, the cause of which is not known. The present study determined whether the cytosol adenylate kinase (AK) system was involved in the neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels. We investigated the effects of long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels on AK1 activity, AK1 mRNA expression, and energy levels in cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels induces a reduction of the cultured hippocampal neuron viability, significantly reduces energy levels, and causes a time-dependant re-duction of the AK1 activity. These findings indicate that changes in the AK system might be the mechanism underlying neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels.

  17. Coexistence of High Fibrinogen and Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Predicts Recurrent Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Concomitant high fibrinogen and low HDL-C levels may be associated with recurrence of CVT. The effect of potential risk factors related to atherothrombosis on recurrent CVT should be closely monitored.

  18. Technical Decisions on Several Key Problems in VHDL High Level Synthesis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingye; ZHANG Dongxiao; XU Qingping

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the realization ofthe high level synthesis from system behavioral (algorithmic orfunctional) description of circuits to structural description of RTL andlogic level. Based on Xilinx-FPGA library, the structural description ismapped to technology-dependent ASIC, and FPGA chips are generated. Themain points in this paper include the technical decision of eachsub-system in a VHDL high level synthesis system HLS/BIT. The system isrealized on SUN SPARC 2, and correct running results are given.

  19. High-spin level structure of the neutron-rich nucleus 91Y

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiao-Feng; Fang, Yong-De; Liu, Min-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Wang, Kai-Long; Wang, Jian-Guo; Guo, Song; Qiang, Yun-Hua; Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Ning-Tao; Li, Guang-Shun; Gao, Bing-Shui; Wu, Xiao-Guang; He, Chuang-Ye; Zheng, Yun

    2015-01-01

    High-spin level structure of the neutron-rich nucleus 91Y has been reinvestigated via the 82Se(13C, p3n)91Y reaction. A newly constructed level scheme including several key levels clarifies the uncertainties in the earlier studies. These levels are characterized by the breaking of the Z=38 and N=56 subshell closures, which involves in the spin-isospin dependent central force and tensor force.

  20. Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie; Seppala, Susanna;

    2015-01-01

    to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable...

  1. High level of HBV DNA virus in the breast milk seems not to contraindicate breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Montoya-Ferrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns of possible risk of mother to child HBV transmission through breastfeeding arouse when mothers present high levels of HBV DNA in breast milk. Here we describe the case of an HIV-HBV coinfected mother who presents a highly replicative HBV infection postdelivery and showed high level of HBV DNA in breast milk. Despite cumulative exposure to HBV infectious particles during breastfeeding, the child, who had been correctly vaccinated, was not infected by HBV.

  2. Low-level versus high-level placement of gold plates in the upper eyelid in patients with facial palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tarek A; El-Minawi, Hisham M; El-Shazly, Malak I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lagophthalmos is a condition that results from facial paralysis causing functional as well as esthetic problems. This condition can be treated by a range of techniques, including tarsorrhaphy, facial slings, and canthopexies. Gold plates provide a solution for temporary or permanent lagophthalmos resulting from facial paralysis. This study discusses the use of gold plates in the treatment of lagophthalmos but with the introduction of gold plates in two different positions in the upper lids. Methods: Group 1 (38 eyes) had a low level of placement (2 mm from the lid margin) of gold plates, while Group 2 (23 eyes) had a high level of placement (5 mm from the lid margin). Results: Noticeable bulge was seen in 18.4% of Group 1 eyes compared with 13% in Group 2, and migration of the plate occurred in 2.6% and 0% of eyes in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, as well as ptosis (7.8% and 4.3%) and conjunctival perforation (0% and 4.3%). The degree of improvement of eyelid closure, keratopathy, and visual acuity were the same for both techniques. Conclusion: Placement of gold plates at a higher level could avoid some of the drawbacks of lower level placement of these plates, such as upper eyelid bulge and ptosis, especially given the thinning of the eyelids and orbicularis muscles that occurs in facial palsy. PMID:21760718

  3. Manufacturing of complex high strength components out of high nitrogen steels at industrial level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hannes NONEDER; Marion MERKLEIN

    2012-01-01

    High performance components,e.g.,fasteners,nowadays are usually made out of cold forged and heat treated steels like steel 1.5525 (20MnB4).To overcome the problems of heat treatment,e.g.,low surface quality,new workpiece materials for cold forging should be found to achieve the needlessness of heat treatment after cold forging.One possible material is given by high nitrogen steels like steel 1.3815 (X8CrMnN19-19).Due to the high strain hardening of these materials the process and tool design for an industrial batch process are challenging and should be conducted by FE-simulation.The numerical results show that,high strength tool materials,like PM-steels or cemented carbides,in most cases,are inevitable.Additionally to the selection of suitable tool materials,the tool layout should be developed further to achieve a high loadability of the tools.The FE-models,used for process and tool design,are validated with respect to the materials' flow and occurring forming force to assure a proper design process.Also the comparison of strength of components made out of steel 1.5525 in quenched and tempered conditions and steel 1.3815 in strain hardened condition is done.The results show that the component made of steel 1.3815 has a significantly higher strength than the component made of steel 1.5525.This shows that by the use of high nitrogen steels a high performance component can be manufactured by cold forging.

  4. Frameworks to monitor and predict resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 30,000 CPU cores which filter events at up to 100 kHz input rate. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. This talk will present an overview of how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on both CPU usage and dataflow over the data-acquisition network during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism will be explained along with how is used to profile expected resource usage and output event-rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  5. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  6. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej eKosilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal colour space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-colour stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioural performance was best for full-colour stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200-700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-colour stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli.

  7. Systemic High School Reform in Two States: The Serendipity of State-Level Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2005-01-01

    Maine and Vermont have been national leaders in state-level coordination of high school reform. Both recently developed almost interchangeable, new, voluntary, statewide frameworks that describe multiple ways high schools should change. Both frameworks--Promising Futures (Maine Commission on Secondary Education 1998) and High Schools on the Move…

  8. Representation and Integration: Combining Robot Control, High-Level Planning, and Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Ronald; Kraft, Dirk; Mourao, Kira;

    We describe an approach to integrated robot control, high-level planning, and action effect learning that attempts to overcome the representational difficulties that exist between these diverse areas. Our approach combines ideas from robot vision, knowledgelevel planning, and connectionist machine......-level action specifications, suitable for planning, from a robot’s interactions with the world. We present a detailed overview of our approach and show how it supports the learning of certain aspects of a high-level lepresentation from low-level world state information....

  9. Worker-level and Firm-level Effects of a Wage Subsidy Program for Highly Educated Labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of a Danish wage subsidy program for highly educated workers on the performance of the persons and firms participating in the program. Using data on the population of program participants, both workers and firms, we find that the program had positive effects on employment...... and annual earnings during program participation while there are no positive effects for the years after program expiration. At the employer-level, we find statistically significant effects on the number of highly educated employees for both the period of program participation and the subsequent time period....... For the total number of employees we only find positive effects during program participation while there are no statistically significant effects for value added, net income, return on assets, wages per employee and labor productivity....

  10. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed.

  11. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  12. Research on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous metal materials are widely used in noise control with high sound pressure applications such as aircraft engine liners and combustion chambers for rocket engines due to their excellent performance of sound absorption characteristics and distinguished advantages in heat resistance, lightness, and stiffness. Understanding the effect of sound pressure on the acoustic properties of these materials is crucial when attempting to predict silencer performance. In this article, we experimentally investigate the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure level. The effects of material parameters on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials under high sound pressure level are further explored experimentally. Measurements are carried out by using a standard impedance tube that has been modified to accommodate sound pressure level of up to 150 dB. The experimental results show that with the increase in sound pressure level, the effect of sound pressure level on the sound absorption characteristics yields different variation regularities in different frequencies. The sound absorption performance of porous metal materials increases with the increase in sound pressure level in low frequency, which is reasonably consistent with the theoretical results. Under high sound pressure level, the sound absorption characteristics are significantly dependent upon the material parameters such as the metal fiber diameter, the material porosity, and the material thickness. It could provide a reliable experimental validation for the applications of porous metal materials in the area of vibration and noise control at high sound pressure levels.

  13. Delta-Doping at Wafer Level for High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of Silicon Imaging Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shoulch (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Greer, Frank (Inventor); Carver, Alexander G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing high quantum efficiency silicon devices. A silicon MBE has a preparation chamber that provides for cleaning silicon surfaces using an oxygen plasma to remove impurities and a gaseous (dry) NH3 + NF3 room temperature oxide removal process that leaves the silicon surface hydrogen terminated. Silicon wafers up to 8 inches in diameter have devices that can be fabricated using the cleaning procedures and MBE processing, including delta doping.

  14. Radioactivity levels in the mostly local foodstuff consumed by residents of the high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, Nasrin; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Naddafi, Kazem; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Shooshtari, Molood Gooniband; Hosseini, Saeedeh Sadat; Karimi, Mahtab

    2017-04-01

    Among High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) all over the world, the northern coastal city of Ramsar has been considered enormously important. Many studies have measured environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, however, no survey has been undertaken to measure concentrations in the diets of residents. This study determined the (226)Ra activity concentration in the daily diet of people of Ramsar. The samples were chosen from both normal and high level natural radiation areas and based on the daily consumption patterns of residents. About 150 different samples, which all are local and have the highest consumption, were collected during the four seasons. In these samples, after washing and drying and pretreatment, the radionuclide was determined by α-spectrometry. The mean radioactivity concentration of (226)Ra ranged between 5 ± 1 mBq kg(-1) wet weight (chino and meat) to 725 ± 480 mBq kg(-1) for tea dry leaves. The (226)Ra activity concentrations compared with the reference values of UNSCEAR appear to be higher in leafy vegetables, milk and meat product. Of the total daily dietary (226)Ra exposure for adults in Ramsar, the largest percentage was from eggs. The residents consuming eggs from household chickens may receive an elevated dose in the diet.

  15. Thymic CCL2 influences induction of T-cell tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cédile, O; Løbner, M; Toft-Hansen, H

    2014-01-01

    Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) and dendritic cells (DC) play a role in T cell development by controlling the selection of the T cell receptor repertoire. DC have been described to take up antigens in the periphery and migrate into the thymus where they mediate tolerance via deletion of autoreactiv...

  16. Low-level versus high-level placement of gold plates in the upper eyelid in patients with facial palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly MI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Amer1, Hisham M El-Minawi1, Malak I El-Shazly21Department of Plastic Surgery, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: Lagophthalmos is a condition that results from facial paralysis causing functional as well as esthetic problems. This condition can be treated by a range of techniques, including tarsorrhaphy, facial slings, and canthopexies. Gold plates provide a solution for temporary or permanent lagophthalmos resulting from facial paralysis. This study discusses the use of gold plates in the treatment of lagophthalmos but with the introduction of gold plates in two different positions in the upper lids.Methods: Group 1 (38 eyes had a low level of placement (2 mm from the lid margin of gold plates, while Group 2 (23 eyes had a high level of placement (5 mm from the lid margin.Results: Noticeable bulge was seen in 18.4% of Group 1 eyes compared with 13% in Group 2, and migration of the plate occurred in 2.6% and 0% of eyes in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, as well as ptosis (7.8% and 4.3% and conjunctival perforation (0% and 4.3%. The degree of improvement of eyelid closure, keratopathy, and visual acuity were the same for both techniques.Conclusion: Placement of gold plates at a higher level could avoid some of the drawbacks of lower level placement of these plates, such as upper eyelid bulge and ptosis, especially given the thinning of the eyelids and orbicularis muscles that occurs in facial palsy.Keywords: lagophthalmos, tarsorrhaphy, gold plates, keratopathy

  17. Anomalously high noise levels in a fibre Bragg grating semiconductor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnosov, V D; Kurnosov, K V [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-31

    Taking into account gain nonlinearity allows one to obtain anomalously high noise levels in a fibre Bragg grating laser diode. This paper examines the effect of the gain nonlinearity due to spectral hole burning on noise characteristics. (lasers)

  18. OCCURRENCE OF HIGH-LEVEL AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF ENTEROCOCCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-level resistance fo aminoglycosides was observed in environmental isolates of enterococci. Various aquatic habitats, including agricultural runoff, creeks, rivers, wastewater, and wells, were analyzed. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis, e.faecium, E. gallinarum, and other Ent...

  19. Analysis of the lack of scientific and technological talents of high-level women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-08-01

    The growth and development of high-level female scientific and technological talents has become a global problem, facing severe challenges. The lack of high-level women in science and technology has become a global problem. How to recruit and help female scientists and technological talents grow raises awareness from the industry. To find out the main reasons for the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talent. This paper analyses the impact of gender discrimination on the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talents, the impact of disciplinary differences on female roles. The main reasons are: women’s natural disadvantage of mathematical thinking; female birth, the traditional culture on the role of women and the impact of values.

  20. Effects of Interior Plantscapes on Indoor Environments and Stress Level of High School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    So-Young Park; Jin-Su Song; Hyoung-Deug Kim; Kenji Yamane; Ki-Cheol Son

    2008-01-01

      Case studies were performed in two high schools (designated K and J) in Seoul, Korea in order to examine how in-class plantscapes consisting of ornamental plants affected the indoor environment and the stress level of students...

  1. Integrating High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy into Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As more variable renewable energy is integrated into electric power systems, there are a range of challenges and solutions to accommodating very high penetration levels. This presentation highlights some of the recent research in this area.

  2. Approximate Bisimulation for High-Level Datapaths in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relation called approximate bisimulation is proposed to achieve behavior and structure optimization for a type of high-level datapath whose data exchange processes are expressed by nonlinear polynomial systems. The high-level datapaths are divided into small blocks with a partitioning method and then represented by polynomial transition systems. A standardized form based on Ritt-Wu's method is developed to represent the equivalence relation for the high-level datapaths. Furthermore, we establish an approximate bisimulation relation within a controllable error range and express the approximation with an error control function, which is processed by Sostools. Meanwhile, the error is controlled through tuning the equivalence restrictions. An example of high-level datapaths demonstrates the efficiency of our method.

  3. Mastitis Pathogens with High Virulence in a Mouse Model Produce a Distinct Cytokine Profile In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnzon, Carl-Fredrik; Artursson, Karin; Söderlund, Robert; Guss, Bengt; Rönnberg, Elin; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a serious medical condition of dairy cattle. Here, we evaluated whether the degree of virulence of mastitis pathogens in a mouse model can be linked to the inflammatory response that they provoke. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (strain 556 and 392) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (676 and 127), and laboratory control strains [8325-4 (S. aureus) and MG1655 (E. coli)], were injected i.p. into mice, followed by the assessment of clinical scores and inflammatory parameters. As judged by clinical scoring, E. coli 127 exhibited the largest degree of virulence among the strains. All bacterial strains induced neutrophil recruitment. However, whereas E. coli 127 induced high peritoneal levels of CXCL1, G-CSF, and CCL2, strikingly lower levels of these were induced by the less virulent bacterial strains. High concentrations of these compounds were also seen in blood samples taken from animals infected with E. coli 127, suggesting systemic inflammation. Moreover, the levels of CXCL1 and G-CSF, both in the peritoneal fluid and in plasma, correlated with clinical score. Together, these findings suggest that highly virulent clinical mastitis isolates produce a distinct cytokine profile that shows a close correlation with the severity of the bacterial infection. PMID:27713743

  4. Environmental culture in High-School Students. Case study of Environmental Education at the High-School Level in Campeche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Isaac-Márquez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the situation presented by environmental education at the high-school level, by means of a case study done in the municipality of Campeche. There was performed exploratory research which combined quantitative and qualitative methods to diagnose high-school students’ level of environmental culture, as well as the type of environmental education they receive. The results indicate that students have a low level of environmental awareness, and lack the necessary knowledge and skills with which to make environmentally-friendly changes in their lifestyles. Although they show an interest in environmental issues, both their institutional context and their teachers’ low level of qualification operate as factors that discourage the students. The results allowed us to identify windows of opportunity for environmental education in the light of the students’ positive attitudes, their interest in learning sustainable practices, and the importance of the school as a source of information on the environment.

  5. High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High-Pitched Song in Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene

    2012-01-01

    The low frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally loud, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher...... attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high-pitched song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead...... whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185 ± 2 dB rms re 1µPa and a high mean centroid frequency of 444 ± 48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song...

  6. High Throughput, High Precision Hot Testing Tool for HBLED Wafer Level Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solarz, Richard [KLA-Tencor Corporation, Milpitas, CA (United States); McCord, Mark [KLA-Tencor Corporation, Milpitas, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The Socrates research effort developed an in depth understanding and demonstrated in a prototype tool new precise methods for teh characterization of color characteristics and flux from individual LEDs for the production of uniform quality lighting. This effort was focused on improving the color quality and consistency of solid state lighting and potentially reducing characterization costs for all LED product types. The patented laser hot testing method was demonstrated to be far more accurate than all current state of the art color and flux characterization methods in use by the solid state lighting industry today. A seperately patented LED grouping method (statistical binning) was demonstrated to be a useful approach to improving utilization of entire lots of large color and flux distributions of manufactured LEDs for high quality color solid-state lighting. At the conclusion of the research in late 2015 the solid-state lighting industry was however generally satisfied with its existing production methods for high quality color products for the small segment of customers that demand it, albeit with added costs.

  7. Examination of the Effect of High School Students Physical Activity Levels on Their Problem Solving Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nimet Korkmaz; Serkan Pancar; Tuncay Alparslan; Ayça Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to be knowledgeable with demographic characteristics, Body mass index, physical activity levels, problem solving skills and sub-dimensions of the students receiving education at Anatolia High Schools and examine the effect of the physical activity levels of these students on their problem solving skills. The population of the study was included a total of 451 students (female=264; male=187) receiving education at the Anatolia High Schools in the Osmangazi district...

  8. EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF SOME VARIABLES ON ANGER LEVELS OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WHO DO SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    TEMEL, Veysel; Alpaslan İNCE

    2017-01-01

    The research has been done with the aim ofrevealing the relation of high school students’ anger levels who do sport atschool to different variables. As the research model, descriptive model hasbeen taken up in quantitative research methods. The research group consists of 527 adolescentstudents who study at various high schools in Karaman province center.Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS) has been used in order to determineparticipants’ anger levels that was developed for 11-19 age adolescen...

  9. Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the High-Level Waste Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.E. (DataPhile, Inc., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Salmon, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The High-Level Waste Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes spent fuel and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the High-Level Waste Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. 3 figs.

  10. First High Level China-France Forum on Local Governmental Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The First High Level China-France Forum on Local Governmental Cooperation sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Association of Friendship Cities and the Guiding Committee of the High Level China-France Forum on Local Governmental Cooperation was held by the Wuhan Municipal People’s Government in Wuhan from October 27 to 28, 2005. Over 600 delegates from the Chinese and French local governments attended the Forum. With the aim of seeking friend-

  11. A two-layered approach to recognize high-level human activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu; G. Englebienne; B. Kröse

    2014-01-01

    Automated human activity recognition is an essential task for Human Robot Interaction (HRI). A successful activity recognition system enables an assistant robot to provide precise services. In this paper, we present a two-layered approach that can recognize sub-level activities and high-level activi

  12. Alkaline Earth Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high-temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

  13. High-Stakes Testing and Its Relationship to Stress Levels of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Sonya Colman

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between high-stakes testing and the stress levels of secondary teachers in Jackson's Jackson Public School District. The independent variables of age, gender, subject taught, teaching experience, degree and school level were used to determine the differences of the various groups. A survey was piloted and…

  14. Alkaline Earth Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high-temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

  15. Mitigating the impact of high interference levels on energy consumption in wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of the presence of high levels of interference in wireless sensor networks in residential buildings is presented. Furthermore, this is accompanied by WLAN measurement data to provide a quantitative illustration of actual interference levels experienced and associated...

  16. High- and low-level pressure support during walking in people with severe kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menadue, C; Alison, J A; Piper, A J; Wong, K K; Hollier, C; Ellis, E R

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the level of pressure support (PS) provided during exercise influences endurance time in people with severe kyphoscoliosis, a double-blind randomised crossover study was performed. We hypothesised that high-level PS would be required to enhance endurance time in this population with high impedance to inflation. 13 participants with severe kyphoscoliosis performed four endurance treadmill tests in random order: unassisted; with sham PS; low-level PS of 10 cmH(2)O (PS 10); and high-level PS of 20 cmH(2)O (PS 20). Participants and assessors were blinded to the level of PS delivered during exercise. Endurance time was greater with PS 20 (median (interquartile range) 217 (168-424) s) compared with unassisted exercise (139 (111-189) s), sham PS (103 (88-155) s) and PS 10 (159 (131-206) s). In addition, isotime respiratory rate was decreased by 8 breaths x min(-1) (95% CI -11- -5 breaths x min(-1)) and isotime oxygen saturation increased by 4% (95% CI 1-7%) with PS 20 compared with unassisted exercise. People with severe kyphoscoliosis require high-level PS during walking to improve exercise performance. Investigation of high-level PS as an adjunct to exercise training or to assist in the performance of daily activities is warranted.

  17. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  18. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  19. Comparative genome analysis of high-level penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-Kamradt, Amelia G; Cronan, Melissa; Dougherty, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with very high levels of penicillin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] >or=8 microg/ml) emerged in the 1990 s. Previous studies have traced the changes in penicillin binding proteins (PBP) that result in decreased penicillin susceptibility, and the role of several PBP genes in high-level resistance. In the present study, we investigated the changes that occurred at the two highest levels of penicillin resistance using NimbleGen's Comparative Genome Sequencing (CGS) technology. DNA from a highly resistant (Pen MIC 16 microg/ml) pneumococcus was used to serially transform the R6 strain to high-level resistance. Four distinct levels of penicillin resistance above the susceptible R6 strain (MIC 0.016 microg/ml) were identified. Using CGS technology, the entire genome sequences of the two highest levels of resistant transformants were examined for changes associated with the resistance phenotypes. At the third level of resistance, changes in PBPs 1a, 2b, and 2x were found, very similar to previous reports. At the fourth resistance level, two additional changes were observed in the R6 transformants. More changes were observed in PBP2x, as well as in peptidoglycan GlcNAc deacetylase (pdgA), which had a missense mutation in the coding region. Genetic transformation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated from the high-level resistant parent containing either the additional PBP2x or mutant pdgA gene did not increase the MIC of the third-level transformant. Only when both PCR products were simultaneously transformed into the third-level transformant did colonies emerge that were at the highest level of resistance (16-32 microg/ml), equivalent to the highly resistant parent strain. This is the first instance of the involvement of a variant pdgA gene in penicillin resistance. It is also clear from these experiments and the literature that there are multiple paths to the pneumococcus achieving high-level

  20. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  1. MultiThreaded Algorithms for GPGPUs in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Conde Mui\\~no, Patricia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    General purpose Graphics Processor Units (GPGPU) are being evaluated for possible future inclusion in an upgraded ATLAS High Level Trigger farm. We have developed a demonstrator including GPGPU implementations of Inner Detector and Muon tracking and Calorimeter clustering within the ATLAS software framework. ATLAS is a general purpose particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system consists of two levels, with level 1 implemented in hardware and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. The High Level Trigger reduces the trigger rate from the 100~kHz level 1 acceptance rate to 1.5~kHz for recording, requiring an average per­-event processing time of $\\sim 250 $~ms for this task. The selection in the high level trigger is based on reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Calorimeter. Performing this reconstruction within the available farm resources presents a sig...

  2. Comparison of quality of facial scars after single low-level laser therapy and combined low-level with high-level (PDL 595 nm) laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Jana; Remlova, Eva; Jelinkova, Helena; Rosina, Jozef; Dostalova, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of our study was to compare the quality of resulting facials scar 12 weeks after single and combined laser therapy. Forty-one children from age 1.5 to 5 years with facial scars after injury participated in the study. Thirty-one underwent laser therapy, 14 were treated using single low-level laser therapy (670 nm, fluence 3-5 J/cm(-2) ), and 17 underwent combined high-level laser therapy with non-ablative pulsed dye laser (PDL; 595 nm, spot size 7 mm, delay 0.45 ms or 1.5 ms, fluence 9-11 J/cm(-2) , cryogen spray/delay 20/30 ms) and low-level laser therapy. The control group consisted of 10 untreated children. Before treatment and at week 4, 8, and, 12 the scars were evaluated using the POSAS questionnaire. A statistically significant improvement in scars (between ratings before treatment and 4 weeks after therapy, before treatment and 8 weeks after therapy and before treatment and 12 weeks after therapy) was observed in all parameters in both treatment groups (p < 0.0001). For the HLLT+LLLT group the most significant enhancement in the quality of scars was found for all items and at all evaluations, except pigmentation and pliability. There was no improvement observed in quality of facial scars in the control group.

  3. High School Students' Career Decision-Making Pattern across Parenting Styles and Parental Attachment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Kirdok, Oguzhan; Isik, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate career decision among high school students regarding to their parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful) and parental attachment levels. Method: With this purpose, 382 (200 females; 182 males) Turkish high school students aged 14-18 completed Career…

  4. High School Students' Career Decision-Making Pattern across Parenting Styles and Parental Attachment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Kirdok, Oguzhan; Isik, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate career decision among high school students regarding to their parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful) and parental attachment levels. Method: With this purpose, 382 (200 females; 182 males) Turkish high school students aged 14-18 completed Career…

  5. A Study of the Environmental Risk Perceptions and Environmental Awareness Levels of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high…

  6. Aligning High School and College Instruction: Preparing Students for Success in College Level Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Across the United States, students are entering college with a need for improvement in basic mathematics and communication skills. In 2008, the Florida Legislature passed Senate Bill 1908 which changed the expectations for the senior year of high school for many students. Students who score within certain levels on the mandatory high school…

  7. A Study of the Environmental Risk Perceptions and Environmental Awareness Levels of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high…

  8. The Relationship between Internet and Computer Game Addiction Level and Shyness among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayas, Tuncay

    2012-01-01

    This study is conducted to determine the relationship between the internet and computer games addiction level and the shyness among high school students. The participants of the study consist of 365 students attending high schools in Giresun city centre during 2009-2010 academic year. As a result of the study a positive, meaningful, and high…

  9. Extending Automatic Parallelization to Optimize High-Level Abstractions for Multicore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2008-12-12

    Automatic introduction of OpenMP for sequential applications has attracted significant attention recently because of the proliferation of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. C++ applications using high-level abstractions, such as STL containers and complex user-defined types, are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high-level object-oriented abstractions and leverage their associated semantics. In this paper, we automatically parallelize C++ applications using ROSE, a multiple-language source-to-source compiler infrastructure which preserves the high-level abstractions and gives us access to their semantics. Several representative parallelization candidate kernels are used to explore semantic-aware parallelization strategies for high-level abstractions, combined with extended compiler analyses. Those kernels include an array-base computation loop, a loop with task-level parallelism, and a domain-specific tree traversal. Our work extends the applicability of automatic parallelization to modern applications using high-level abstractions and exposes more opportunities to take advantage of multicore processors.

  10. [Detraining and retraining after injury in a high-level cyclist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauty, M; Louvet, S; Potiron-Josse, M; Dubois, C

    2005-03-01

    To define retraining after injury in a high-level cyclist by taking into account the consequences of detraining. From three clinical cases and from the analysis of the consequences of detraining, three principles of retraining were determined. 1. The high-level cyclist is not protected and loses cycling capacity after four weeks of inactivity. The delay in recovery is longer the higher the adaptations. 2. Recovery of cycling capacity is based on bicycle exercises that are greater in intensity than quantity, taking into account delays in injury consolidation. 3. Retraining requires appreciating the individual physiological level by evaluating force and endurance before envisaging the resumption of training and competition. The injury of a high-level cyclist is at the origin of detraining, which has been evaluated so that sports rehabilitation may enable the cyclist to find a previous state without relapse, complication or overtraining.

  11. Second High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Second High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the French Guidance Committee of the Second High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation and the Municipal Government of Bordeaux was held in Bordeaux,France from November 22 to 23,2007.About 700 officials of the Chinese and French governments at various levels participated in it.During the forum,centring on the theme of harmonious society and sustainable development,the participants of the two sides had in-depth discussions on cooperation between the Chinese and French local governments in the areas of environmental protection,economic development,social harmony and ways of cooperation.The forum approved the Conclusive Document on the Second High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation and achieved a full success.

  12. Coastal barrier stratigraphy for Holocene high-resolution sea-level reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Susana; Ferreira, Óscar; Plomaritis, Theocharis A.; Leorri, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The uncertainties surrounding present and future sea-level rise have revived the debate around sea-level changes through the deglaciation and mid- to late Holocene, from which arises a need for high-quality reconstructions of regional sea level. Here, we explore the stratigraphy of a sandy barrier to identify the best sea-level indicators and provide a new sea-level reconstruction for the central Portuguese coast over the past 6.5 ka. The selected indicators represent morphological features extracted from coastal barrier stratigraphy, beach berm and dune-beach contact. These features were mapped from high-resolution ground penetrating radar images of the subsurface and transformed into sea-level indicators through comparison with modern analogs and a chronology based on optically stimulated luminescence ages. Our reconstructions document a continuous but slow sea-level rise after 6.5 ka with an accumulated change in elevation of about 2 m. In the context of SW Europe, our results show good agreement with previous studies, including the Tagus isostatic model, with minor discrepancies that demand further improvement of regional models. This work reinforces the potential of barrier indicators to accurately reconstruct high-resolution mid- to late Holocene sea-level changes through simple approaches.

  13. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p HADAS subjects compared with controls (p HADAS incidence and severity (p HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS.

  14. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors.

  15. THE RETRIEVAL KNOWLEDGE CENTER EVALUATION OF LOW TANK LEVEL MIXING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK RETRIEVAL 10516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-12-08

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation & Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation & Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same

  16. Intelligibility of speech in noise at high presentation levels: effects of hearing loss and frequency region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Van; Cord, Mary T

    2007-08-01

    These experiments examined how high presentation levels influence speech recognition for high- and low-frequency stimuli in noise. Normally hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners were tested. In Experiment 1, high- and low-frequency bandwidths yielding 70%-correct word recognition in quiet were determined at levels associated with broadband speech at 75 dB SPL. In Experiment 2, broadband and band-limited sentences (based on passbands measured in Experiment 1) were presented at this level in speech-shaped noise filtered to the same frequency bandwidths as targets. Noise levels were adjusted to produce approximately 30%-correct word recognition. Frequency bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios supporting criterion performance in Experiment 2 were tested at 75, 87.5, and 100 dB SPL in Experiment 3. Performance tended to decrease as levels increased. For NH listeners, this "rollover" effect was greater for high-frequency and broadband materials than for low-frequency stimuli. For HI listeners, the 75- to 87.5-dB increase improved signal audibility for high-frequency stimuli and rollover was not observed. However, the 87.5- to 100-dB increase produced qualitatively similar results for both groups: scores decreased most for high-frequency stimuli and least for low-frequency materials. Predictions of speech intelligibility by quantitative methods such as the Speech Intelligibility Index may be improved if rollover effects are modeled as frequency dependent.

  17. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binfeng He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p<0.05. Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p<0.05. It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p<0.05. ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS.

  18. Reproduction of European eel jeopardised by high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, C; Focant, J-F; Eppe, G; De Pauw, E; Belpaire, C

    2011-09-01

    Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in muscle tissue from yellow phased European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 38 sites in Belgium. Dioxin concentrations in eel vary considerably between sampling locations, indicating that yellow eel is a good indicator of local pollution levels. Measured levels of dioxin-like PCBs are much higher than those of the dioxins and furans. In the majority of the sites, eel has levels considered to be detrimental for their reproduction. Field levels of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs are therefore suggested as an additional causal factor contributing to the decline of the European eel. 42% of the sampling sites show especially dioxin-like PCB levels exceeding the European consumption level (with a factor 3 on average). Human consumption of eel, especially in these highly contaminated sites, seems unjustified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Optimized, Grid Independent, Narrow Band Data Structure for High Resolution Level Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Bang; Museth, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Level sets have recently proven successful in many areas of computer graphics including water simulations and geometric modeling. However, current implementations of these level set methods are limited by factors such as computational efficiency, storage requirements and the restriction to a doma...... difference schemes typically used to numerically solve the level set equation on fixed uniform grids.  ......Level sets have recently proven successful in many areas of computer graphics including water simulations and geometric modeling. However, current implementations of these level set methods are limited by factors such as computational efficiency, storage requirements and the restriction to a domain...... enforced by the convex boundaries of an underlying cartesian computational grid. Here we present a novel very memory efficient narrow band data structure, dubbed the Sparse Grid, that enables the representation of grid independent high resolution level sets. The key features our new data structure are...

  20. High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by Ligase Detection Reaction - Universal Array approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Beatrice

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. Results In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject. Conclusion The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.