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Sample records for high carriage rates

  1. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso

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    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613

  2. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso.

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    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  3. Nasopharyngeal carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ugandan children with sickle cell disease

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    Kateete David P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a determinant for invasive pneumococcal disease, which often complicates homozygous sickle cell disease. Here, we determined the nasopharyngeal carriage rate of S. pneumoniae in Ugandan children with homozygous sickle cell disease, who attended the outpatient Sickle Cell Clinic at Mulago National Referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Results S. pneumoniae occurred in 27 of the 81 children with homozygous sickle cell disease (giving a carriage rate of 33%, 27/81. Twenty three children were previously hospitalized of whom S. pneumoniae occurred in only two (9%, 2/23, while among the 58 who were not previously hospitalized it occurred in 25 (43%, 25/58, χ2 = 8.8, p = 0.003, meaning there is an association between high carriage rate and no hospitalization. Two children previously immunized with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine did not carry the organism. Prior antimicrobial usage was reported in 53 children (65%, 53/81. There was high resistance of pneumococci to penicillin (100%, 27/27 and trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole (97%, 26/27, but low resistance to other antimicrobials. Of the 70 children without sickle cell disease, S. pneumoniae occurred in 38 (54%, 38/70 of whom 43 were males and 27 females (53% males, 23/43, and 56% females, 15/27. Conclusion Nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in Ugandan children with homozygous sickle cell disease is high. While nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae is a determinant for invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumococcal bacteremia is reportedly low in Ugandan children with sickle cell disease. Studies on the contribution of high carriage rates to invasive pneumococcal disease in these children will be helpful. This is the first report on pneumococcal carriage rate in Ugandan children with sickle cell disease.

  4. High Rate of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Carriage and Infection in Hospitalized Returning Travelers: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study.

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    Epelboin, Loïc; Robert, Jérôme; Tsyrina-Kouyoumdjian, Ellina; Laouira, Sonia; Meyssonnier, Vanina; Caumes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Carriage of and infection with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) are a potential cause of concern in travelers with no history of hospitalization abroad. All consecutive returning travelers hospitalized in our department between February 2012 and January 2013 were prospectively screened for MDR-GNB gastrointestinal tract carriage or infection. We compared the prevalence of MDR-GNB in travelers to a non-travelers nonexposed group. Then among the travelers, MDR-GNB carriers were compared to noncarriers to determine risk factors of acquisition of MDR-GNB. Overall, 359 patients (191 travelers, 168 non-travelers) were included, and 25 (6.4%), including 23 travelers, harbored MDR-GNB. Five travelers had an MDR-GNB infection while 18 were asymptomatic enteric carriers. MDR-GNB carriage or infection was significantly more frequent in travelers (11.0% vs 1.2% for non-travelers, odds ratio (OR) = 11.3, p < 0.001) and in patients born outside France (OR = 1.67; p = 0.03). Among travelers, in multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with MDR-GNB carriage or infection were traveling to Asia (OR = 3.1; p = 0.01) and visiting friends and relatives (VFR) or migrants (OR=3.6; p = 0.01). The 10-fold higher prevalence rate of MDR-GNB in travelers raises the issues of systematic screening of all travelers, and of the choice of first line antibiotic therapy when treating urinary tract infections in travelers, especially those VFR, migrants, and those returning from Asia. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  5. Clostridium difficile Carriage Rate in Outpatients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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    Mohammad Hosain Salari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Closteridium difficile is a gram positive, anaerobic and spore-forming bacillus. Inflammatory bowel disease or IBD includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Inflammation of the intestinal mucosa in these patients can be as a risk factor for colonization of Clostridium difficile. The purpose of this study was to analysis of Clostridium difficile carriage in the IBD outpatients. Materials and methods: Stool specimens were obtained from 50 outpatients with IBD. Stools were cultured on selective media under anaerobic conditions. Filtered extract of bacteria was exposed to HeLa cell culture for analysis of toxin production after identification of Clostridium difficile isolates. Results: The results showed that 3 IBD patients (6% had stool cultures positive for Clostridium difficile. Stool cultures were negative in all patients with Crohn's disease. All 3 patients had ulcerative colitis. Only one isolate was positive for toxin production. Conclusion: The ulcerated colitis than Crohn's patients had higher carriage. In general IBD outpatients carriage rates for Clostridium difficile was low.

  6. Longitudinal investigation of carriage rates, counts, and genotypes of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in early infancy

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    Kubota, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Gawad, Agata; Kushiro, Akira; Ishikawa, Eiji; Sakai, Takafumi; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsuda, Kazunori; Martin, Rocio; Knol, Jan; Oishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic infant carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile are suggested to play a role in the transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) in adults. However, the mode of C. difficile carriage in infants remains to be fully elucidated. We investigated longitudinal changes in carriage rates,

  7. Longitudinal investigation of carriage rates, counts, and genotypes of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in early infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubota, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Gawad, Agata; Kushiro, Akira; Ishikawa, Eiji; Sakai, Takafumi; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsuda, Kazunori; Martin, Rocio; Knol, Jan; Oishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic infant carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile are suggested to play a role in the transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) in adults. However, the mode of C. difficile carriage in infants remains to be fully elucidated. We investigated longitudinal changes in carriage rates,

  8. Lack of nasal carriage of novel corona virus (HCoV-EMC) in French Hajj pilgrims returning from the Hajj 2012, despite a high rate of respiratory symptoms.

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    Gautret, P; Charrel, R; Belhouchat, K; Drali, T; Benkouiten, S; Nougairede, A; Zandotti, C; Memish, Z A; al Masri, M; Gaillard, C; Brouqui, P; Parola, P

    2013-07-01

    A cohort of 154 French Hajj pilgrims participating in the 2012 Hajj were systematically sampled with nasal swabs prior to returning to France, and screened for the novel HCoV-EMC coronavirus by two real-time RT-PCR assays. Despite a high rate of respiratory symptoms (83.4%), including 41.0% influenza-like illness, no case of HCoV-EMC infection was detected. Despite the fact that zoonotic transmission was suspected in the first few cases, a recent family cluster in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia suggests that the virus might show at least limited spread from person to person, which justifies continuing epidemiological surveillance.

  9. Carriage rate and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae amongst children in Thika Hospital, Kenya

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    Susan Githii

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rates of carriage are highest in infants and the elderly. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of nasopharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae, and to describe the antibiotic resistant patterns and the serotypes of the carried isolates. A cross-sectional study design was used. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 315 children in the months of Octoberand November 2010 and processed to isolate S. pneumoniae. The isolates were serotyped by the Quellung reaction and their antibiotic susceptibilities assessed by the disc diffusion method. The overall nasopharyngeal carriage rate for S. pneumoniae was 17%. Seventeen serotypes were detected amongst 55 strains analysed: 6A, 23F, 19F, 13, 6B, 14A, 20, 7C, 1,15B, 35B, 19A, 11A, 34, 5, 3 and 23A. Susceptibility testing revealed that nearly all (98% were resistant to cotrimoxazole, 9% were resistant to penicillin and 7% to cefotaxime. Resistance to chloramphenicol and erythromycin was 2% and 4%, respectively. All isolates were fully sensitive to tetracycline. High levels of cotrimoxazole resistance and some resistance to other antimicrobial agents commonly used in Thika District Hospital shows that there is need to revise antimicrobial policy in this region in the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infections. The frequent serotypes found in this study have previously been associated with pneumococcal infectionsin children. Several of these serotypes are included in the ten-valent vaccine and therefore useof this vaccine will help reduce pneumococcal infections in Thika.

  10. Low methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate among Italian dental students

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    S. Petti; N. Kakisina; C.M.C. Volgenant; G.A. Messano; E. Barbato; C. Passariello; J.J. de Soet

    2015-01-01

    We assessed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage rate among dental students from an Italian university. A total of 157 subjects participated (67 preclinical students and 90 clinical students); samples were collected from the nose, mouth, and skin. Five preclinical students and

  11. High Rate of Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Children in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain

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    Fernández-Reyes, María; Vicente, Diego; Gomariz, María; Esnal, Olatz; Landa, Joseba; Oñate, Eider

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) was studied in stool samples from 125 8- to 16-month-old healthy children. Twenty-four percent of them and 10.7% of the 318 fecal samples studied yielded extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, with the types being SHV-12, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-14, and TEM-52, the most common types of β-lactamases. This high prevalence of ESBLPE in healthy people, which is to our knowledge the highest currently reported in Europe, may represent a risk for increased infections by these organisms in the future. PMID:24395224

  12. Staphylococcus aureus carriage rates and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with acne vulgaris.

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    Delost, Gregory R; Delost, Maria E; Armile, James; Lloyd, Jenifer

    2016-04-01

    Overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which are occurring more frequently within the community. We sought to determine whether long-term antibiotic therapy for acne alter the carriage rate and antibiotic resistance profiles of S aureus. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, quasiexperimental study. Samples of anterior nares were obtained from dermatology patients given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris (n = 263) who were treated with antibiotics (n = 142) or who were not treated with antibiotics (n = 121). Specimens were tested for the presence of S aureus by growth on mannitol salt agar and then isolated on 5% sheep blood agar. Identification was confirmed based on colonial morphology, Gram stain, catalase, and coagulase testing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). The S aureus carriage rate was significantly lower in patients with acne treated with antibiotics (6.3%) compared with those not treated with antibiotics (15.7%; P = .016). The percentage of S aureus isolates resistant to 1 or more antibiotics did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (P = .434). Cross-sectional study, patient compliance, and effects of prior acne treatments are limitations. Treatment of patients with acne using antibiotics decreases the S aureus carriage rate but does not significantly alter the antibiotic resistance rates. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Throat Carriage Rate and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes In Rural Children in Argentina.

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    Delpech, Gastón; Sparo, Mónica; Baldaccini, Beatriz; Pourcel, Gisela; Lissarrague, Sabina; García Allende, Leonardo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) in children living in a rural community and to investigate the association between episodes of acute pharyngitis and carrier status. Throat swabs were collected from September to November 2013 among children 5-13 years of age from a rural community (Maria Ignacia-Vela, Argentina). The phenotypic characterization of isolates was performed by conventional tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed for penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and clindamycin (disk diffusion). The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for penicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The carriage of β-hemolytic streptococci was detected in 18.1% of participants, with Streptococcus pyogenes in 18 participants followed by S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis in 5. The highest proportion of GAS was found in 8 to 10-year-old children. No significant association between the number of episodes of acute pharyngitis suffered in the last year and the carrier state was detected (p>0.05). Tetracycline resistance (55.5%) and macrolide-resistant phenotypes (11.1%) were observed. Resistance to penicillin, cefotaxime, or chloramphenicol was not expressed in any streptococcal isolate. The present study demonstrated significant throat carriage of GAS and the presence of group C streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Argentinian rural population. These results point out the need for continuous surveillance of GAS and non-GAS carriage as well as of antimicrobial resistance in highly susceptible populations, such as school-aged rural children. An extended surveillance program including school-aged children from different cities should be considered to estimate the prevalence of GAS carriage in Argentina.

  14. Hand carriage of Candida occurs at lesser rates in hospital personnel who use antimicrobial hand disinfectant.

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    Yildirim, Mustafa; Sahin, Idris; Oksuz, Sukru; Sencan, Irfan; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir; Cakir, Selma; Ozaydin, Cigdem

    2014-09-01

    The hands of hospital personnel are considered to be important for colonization and infection of patients with Candida spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different hand disinfectants in reducing the carriage of Candida species on the hands of hospital personnel. A controlled study was conducted at Duzce University School of Medicine Hospital. Eighty hospital personnel were included in the trial. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to hand hygiene procedures: group 1, hand rubbing with alcohol-based solution; group 2, hand washing with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate; group 3, hand washing with 7.5% povidone-iodine; group 4, hand washing with plain soap and water. The hands of all participants were tested by culture with the broth wash technique. Hand carriage of Candida spp. was lower in the 4% chlorhexidine gluconate group (10.5%, p = 0.006), in the 7.5% povidone-iodine group (18.7%, p = 0.043), and in the alcohol-based hand rub group (21.1%, p = 0.048) compared to the group washing hands with plain soap and water (50%). The use of hand disinfectant containing antimicrobial agents is more effective than hand washing with water and soap in reducing carriage of Candida on the hands of hospital personnel. It is recommended that hospital personnel use an antimicrobial hand disinfectant in units where there is a high risk of Candida infection.

  15. Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis in Turkish recruits upon entry to the military

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    Ahmet Basustaoglu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine nasopharyngeal carriage rate and serogroup of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from Turkish recruits upon entry to the military. Material and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from 1995 soldiers and were inoculated immediately on BBL-modified Thayer-Martin medium plates. The plates were examined for the presence of colonies showing the typical morphology of N. meningitidis. Suspect colonies were screened for oxidase reactivity, and positive colonies were Gram stained. If Gram-negative diplococci were present, a biochemical profile by the API NH system was used for confirmation. Serogrouping of the meningococcal isolates was performed by a slide agglutination technique. Findings: The nasopharyngeal carriage rate of N. meningitidis was found to be 4.2% (n=83. Of these meningococci, 15.6% (n=13 were serogroup Y, 10.8% (n=9 were serogroup W-135, 9.6% (n=8 were serogroup C, 6.1% (n=5 were serogroup B, 2.4% (n=2 were serogroup A. The 46 isolates (55.4% were detected as nonserogroupable. Conclusion: Since serogroup Y and W-135 are predominant in this study population, it was suggest that Turkish recruits should be vaccinated by quadrivalent vaccine (A,C,Y, and W-135 upon the military instead of A+C polysaccharide vaccine and now quadrivalent vaccine has been carried out. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 447-450

  16. Asymptomatic throat carriage rate and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Streptococcus pyogenes in Nepalese school children.

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    Dumre, S P; Sapkota, K; Adhikari, N; Acharya, D; Karki, M; Bista, S; Basanyat, S R; Joshi, S K

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes several suppurative and non suppurative infections. In addition to pharyngitis and skin infections, GAS are also the causative agent of post-streptococcal infection syndromes such as acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and post-streptococcal glumerulonephritis (PSG). GAS frequently colonises in the throat of an asymptomatic person. Pharyngeal carriage rates of GAS among healthy school children vary with geographical location and seasons. We carried out this preliminary study to determine the throat carriage rate and antimicrobial resistance trend of Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A streptococcus (GAS) among the Nepalese school children. Four schools situated at different locations of Kathmandu valley were included in the study. Throat swabs from 350 students of age group 5-15 years were collected, immediately transported to the laboratory and were processed for S. pyogenes following standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. S. pyogenes was isolated from 10.9% (38/350) of the screened children. The GAS colonisation rate was statistically insignificant (P>0.05) with sex and age sub-groups, although the rate was slightly higher among girls and age sub-group 9-12 years. No significant difference in carrier rate was observed among different schools (P>0.05). All isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. No resistance was detected for penicillin and its derivative antibiotic ampicillin. Highest resistance rate was observed for cotrimoxazole (71.0%) followed by chloramphenicol (7.8%), ciprofloxacin (5.2%) and erythromycin (5.2%). Antibiotic resistant GAS isolated from asymptomatic Nepalese school children is a public health concern. When screened and appropriately treated with antibiotics, carriers can be prevented from spreading of streptococcal infections in the school environment and the

  17. Varying high levels of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural villages in Shandong, China: implications for global health.

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    Sun, Qiang; Tärnberg, Maria; Zhao, Lingbo; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Song, Yanyan; Grape, Malin; Nilsson, Maud; Tomson, Göran; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is considered a major threat to global health and is affected by many factors, of which antibiotic use is probably one of the more important. Other factors include hygiene, crowding and travel. The rapid resistance spread in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), is a global challenge, leading to increased mortality, morbidity and health systems costs worldwide. Knowledge about resistance in commensal flora is limited, including in China. Our aim was to establish the faecal carriage rates of ESBL-E and find its association with known and suspected risk factors in rural residents of all ages in three socio-economically different counties in the Shandong Province, China. Faecal samples and risk-factor information (questionnaire) were collected in 2012. ESBL-E carriage was screened using ChromID ESBL agar. Risk factors were analysed using standard statistical methods. Data from 1000 individuals from three counties and in total 18 villages showed a high and varying level of ESBL-E carriage. Overall, 42% were ESBL-E carriers. At county level the carriage rates were 49%, 45% and 31%, respectively, and when comparing individual villages (n = 18) the rate varied from 22% to 64%. The high level of ESBL-E carriage among rural residents in China is an indication of an exploding global challenge in the years to come as resistance spreads among bacteria and travels around the world with the movement of people and freight. A high carriage rate of ESBL-E increases the risk of infection with multi-resistant bacteria, and thus the need for usage of last resort antibiotics, such as carbapenems and colistin, in the treatment of common infections.

  18. Varying high levels of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural villages in Shandong, China: implications for global health.

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    Qiang Sun

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is considered a major threat to global health and is affected by many factors, of which antibiotic use is probably one of the more important. Other factors include hygiene, crowding and travel. The rapid resistance spread in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E, is a global challenge, leading to increased mortality, morbidity and health systems costs worldwide. Knowledge about resistance in commensal flora is limited, including in China. Our aim was to establish the faecal carriage rates of ESBL-E and find its association with known and suspected risk factors in rural residents of all ages in three socio-economically different counties in the Shandong Province, China. Faecal samples and risk-factor information (questionnaire were collected in 2012. ESBL-E carriage was screened using ChromID ESBL agar. Risk factors were analysed using standard statistical methods. Data from 1000 individuals from three counties and in total 18 villages showed a high and varying level of ESBL-E carriage. Overall, 42% were ESBL-E carriers. At county level the carriage rates were 49%, 45% and 31%, respectively, and when comparing individual villages (n = 18 the rate varied from 22% to 64%. The high level of ESBL-E carriage among rural residents in China is an indication of an exploding global challenge in the years to come as resistance spreads among bacteria and travels around the world with the movement of people and freight. A high carriage rate of ESBL-E increases the risk of infection with multi-resistant bacteria, and thus the need for usage of last resort antibiotics, such as carbapenems and colistin, in the treatment of common infections.

  19. Innovation Analysis Approach to Design Parameters of High Speed Train Carriage and Their Intrinsic Complexity Relationships

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    Xiao, Shou-Ne; Wang, Ming-Meng; Hu, Guang-Zhong; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problem that it's difficult to accurately grasp the influence range and transmission path of the vehicle top design requirements on the underlying design parameters. Applying directed-weighted complex network to product parameter model is an important method that can clarify the relationships between product parameters and establish the top-down design of a product. The relationships of the product parameters of each node are calculated via a simple path searching algorithm, and the main design parameters are extracted by analysis and comparison. A uniform definition of the index formula for out-in degree can be provided based on the analysis of out-in-degree width and depth and control strength of train carriage body parameters. Vehicle gauge, axle load, crosswind and other parameters with higher values of the out-degree index are the most important boundary conditions; the most considerable performance indices are the parameters that have higher values of the out-in-degree index including torsional stiffness, maximum testing speed, service life of the vehicle, and so on; the main design parameters contain train carriage body weight, train weight per extended metre, train height and other parameters with higher values of the in-degree index. The network not only provides theoretical guidance for exploring the relationship of design parameters, but also further enriches the application of forward design method to high-speed trains.

  20. Perceived exertion and heart rate models for estimating metabolic workload in elite British soldiers performing a backpack load-carriage task.

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    Simpson, Richard J; Graham, Scott M; Florida-James, Geraint D; Connaboy, Christopher; Clement, Richard; Jackson, Andrew S

    2010-10-01

    Identifying field measures to estimate backpack load-carriage work intensity in elite soldiers is of interest to the military. This study developed rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate models to define metabolic workload for a backpack load-carriage task valid for a population of elite soldiers using serial data. Male soldiers (n = 18) from the British Parachute or Special Air Service Regiment completed an incremental treadmill walking and (or) running protocol while carrying a 20-kg backpack. Heart rate, RPE, and oxygen uptake were recorded at each incremental stage of the protocol. Linear mixed models were used to model the RPE and heart rate data in the metric of measured peak oxygen uptake. Workload was accurately estimated using RPE alone (SE = 6.03), percentage of estimated maximum heart rate (%E-MHR) (SE = 6.9), and percentage of measured maximum heart rate (%M-MHR) (SE = 4.9). Combining RPE and %E-MHR resulted in a field measure with an accuracy (SE = 4.9) equivalent to the %M-MHR model. We conclude that RPE, %E-MHR, and %M-MHR provide accurate field-based proxy measures of metabolic workload in elite British soldiers performing a backpack load-carriage task. The model is accurate for the metabolic range measured by these serial data for the backpack load-carriage task.

  1. Emerging pneumococcal carriage serotypes in a high-risk population receiving universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2001

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    Stubbs Liz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods. Results 902 children (mean age 25 months living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and 23PPV-non-7PCV-type carriage from 31% to 25% respectively. Thus non-23PPV-type carriage increased from 57% to 67%. All these changes were statistically significant, as were changes for some specific serotypes. Shifts could not be attributed to vaccination alone. The top 10 of 40 serotypes identified were (in descending order 16F, 19A, 11A, 6C, 23B, 19F, 6A, 35B, 6B, 10A and 35B. Carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > = 0.12 μg/mL strains (15% overall was detected in serotypes (descending order 19A, 19F, 6B, 16F, 11A, 9V, 23B, and in 4 additional serotypes. Carriage of azithromycin resistant (MIC > = 2 μg/mL strains (5% overall, was detected in serotypes (descending order 23B, 17F, 9N, 6B, 6A, 11A, 23F, and in 10 additional serotypes including 6C. Conclusion Pneumococcal carriage remains high (~80% in this vaccinated population. Uptake of both pneumococcal vaccines increased, and carriage was reduced between 2003 and 2005. Predominant serotypes in combined

  2. High nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serotypes in Western Australian aboriginal people following 10 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. METHODS: We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ≥5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ≥2µg/ml was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%, 19F (4.9% and 16F (3.2% isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ≥0.125µg/ml in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%, 19A (41.3%, 16F (29.0%. Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried

  3. High prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Verner-Jeffreys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to > or =15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR. Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, bla(TEM-1, tet(A, tet(D, tet(E, qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes.

  4. original article group b streptococcus carriage during late pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY SEPTEMBER ... techniques based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards institute(CLSI) .... The statistical analysis of GBS carriage in relation to ... to secondary labour. .... TABLE 6: GBS CARRIAGE RATE AND OBSTETRIC CHARACTERISTICS.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage, sex ratios and asexual parasite rates in Nigerian children before and after a treatment protocol policy change instituting the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Olusola Gbotosho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum were evaluated after a policy change instituting the use of ACTs in an endemic area. P. falciparum gametocyte carriage, sex ratios and inbreeding rates were examined in 2,585 children at presentation with acute falciparum malaria during a 10-year period from 2001-2010. Asexual parasite rates were also evaluated from 2003-2010 in 10,615 children before and after the policy change. Gametocyte carriage declined significantly from 12.4% in 2001 to 3.6% in 2010 (@@χ2 for trend = 44.3, p < 0.0001, but sex ratios and inbreeding rates remained unchanged. Additionally, overall parasite rates remained unchanged before and after the policy change (47.2% vs. 45.4%, but these rates declined significantly from 2003-2010 (@@χ2 for trend 35.4, p < 0.0001. Chloroquine (CQ and artemether-lumefantrine (AL were used as prototype drugs before and after the policy change, respectively. AL significantly shortened the duration of male gametocyte carriage in individual patients after treatment began compared with CQ (log rank statistic = 7.92, p = 0.005. ACTs reduced the rate of gametocyte carriage in children with acute falciparum infections at presentation and shortened the duration of male gametocyte carriage after treatment. However, parasite population sex ratios, inbreeding rates and overall parasite rate were unaffected.

  6. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paget

    Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the outpatient populations seeing their GP in both countries. In contrast, urologist outpatients in Germany were colonized with spa types indicative of healthcare-associated MRSA.

  7. A population-based survey of Haemophilus influenzae type b nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, B D; Sutanto, A; Steinhoff, M; Soewignjo, S; Widjaya, A; Nelson, C; Arjoso, S

    1998-09-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence and invasive disease incidence rates are unknown in Indonesia; consequently Hib vaccine is not included in the routine vaccine schedule. To determine carriage prevalence we conducted a population-based, island-wide prospective study of a systematic sample of 484 children 0 to 2 years of age in Lombok, Indonesia. We conducted a risk factor questionnaire and determined serotypes and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. We identified 155 H. influenzae isolates, of which 22 were type b and 12 were encapsulated but not type b. The age- and population-weighted Hib carriage prevalence, adjusted for the sampling design, was 4.6% (95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 5.5%). Children younger than 6 months of age had a carriage prevalence less than one-half that of older children, and carriage varied within the four administrative regions of the island; otherwise no risk factors for Hib carriage were identified. All Hib specimens were sensitive to ampicillin and 20 (91%) were sensitive to chloramphenicol. The Hib carriage prevalence in Lombok is similar to that found in developed countries before vaccine introduction. This suggests that further studies should proceed to determine whether Lombok has invasive disease rates as high as those that justified vaccine introduction in developed countries.

  8. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, J.; Schoormans, A.; Kwakernaak, M.; Duim, B.; Broens, E.; Dierikx, C.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in

  9. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Joost; Schoormans, Anky; Kwakernaak, Mandy; Duim, Birgitta; Broens, Els; Dierikx, Cindy; Mevius, Dik; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in

  10. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, J.; Schoormans, A.; Kwakernaak, M.; Duim, B.; Broens, E.; Dierikx, C.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in

  11. High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839542; Schoormans, Anky; Kwakernaak, Mandy; Duim, Birgitta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143855352; Broens, Els|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Dierikx, Cindy; Mevius, Dik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals, and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in

  12. Low prevalence of pneumococcal carriage and high serotype and genotype diversity among adults over 60 years of age living in Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia T Almeida

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal disease is frequent at the extremes of age. While several studies have looked at colonization among young children, much less is known among the elderly. We aimed to evaluate pneumococcal carriage among elderly adults living in Portugal. Between April 2010 and December 2012, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs of adults over 60 years of age, living in an urban area (n = 1,945 or in a rural area (n = 1,416, were obtained. Pneumococci were isolated by culture-based standard procedures, identified by optochin susceptibility, bile solubility and PCR screening for lytA and cpsA, and characterized by antibiotype, serotype, and MLST. Associations between pneumococcal carriage, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. The global prevalence of carriage was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8-2.8. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, smoking, being at a retirement home, and living in a rural area increased the odds of being a pneumococcal carrier by 4.4-fold (95% CI: 1.9-9.2, 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.1-3.6 and 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.2-3.5, respectively. Among the 77 pneumococcal isolates, 26 serotypes and 40 STs were identified. The most prevalent serotypes were (in decreasing order 19A, 6C, 22F, 23A, 35F, 11A, and 23B, which accounted, in total, for 60.0% of the isolates. Most isolates (93.5% had STs previously described in the MLST database. Resistance to macrolides, non-susceptibility to penicillin and multidrug resistance were found in 19.5%, 11.7%, and 15.6% of the isolates, respectively. We conclude that the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in the elderly, in Portugal, as determined by culture-based methods, is low. Serotype and genotype diversity is high. Living in a rural area, in a retirement home, and being a smoker increased the risk of pneumococcal carriage. This study contributes to the establishment of a baseline that may be used to monitor how novel

  13. High prevalence of fecal carriage of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in cats and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost eHordijk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae have been reported worldwide amongst isolates obtained from humans, food-producing animals, companion animals and environmental sources. However, data on prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy companion animals is limited. This pilot study describes the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC encoding genes in healthy cats and dogs, and cats and dogs with diarrhea. Twenty fecal samples of each group were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime and in LB-enrichment broth supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime, which was subsequently inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1 mg/L cefotaxime. ESBL/AmpC genes were identified using the Check-Points CT103 micro array kit and subsequently by sequencing analysis. Chromosomal ampC promoter mutations were detected by PCR and sequencing analysis. From the healthy and diarrheic dogs, respectively 45% and 55% were positive for E. coli with reduced susceptibility for cefotaxime. From the healthy and diarrheic cats, the estimated prevalence was respectively 0% and 25%. One diarrheic cat was positive for both reduced susceptible E. coli and P. mirabilis. The ESBL/AmpC genes found in this study were mainly blaCTX-M-1, but also blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-52-StPaul, blaSHV-12 and blaCMY-2 were detected. This pilot study showed that the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy and diarrheic dogs, and diarrheic cats was relatively high. Furthermore the genes found were similar to those found in isolates of both human and food producing animal origin. However, since the size of this study was relatively small, extrapolation of the data to the general population of cats and dogs should be done with great care.

  14. High Prevalence of Arcobacter Carriage in Older Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Fera

    2010-01-01

    Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of arcobacters colonization in type 2 diabetic and older subjects. The clinical significance and the potential health risk associated with these emerging species remain to be determined.

  15. Molecular Detection of the Carriage Rate of Four Intestinal Protozoa with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Possible Overdiagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Sahar, Sumrin; König, Brigitte; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub-Saharan countries. To overcome sensitivity issues related to microscopic detection and identification of cysts in stool concentrates, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze genomic DNAs extracted from stool samples from 199 healthy school children for Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium. Questionnaires were administered for epidemiological data collection. E. histolytica was not detected in any of the samples, whereas Giardia (37.2%), E. dispar (18.6%), and Cryptosporidium (1%) were found. Most of the children sourced their drinking water from community wells (91%), while the majority disposed of feces in the bush (81.9%). Our study is the first to use real-time PCR to evaluate the epidemiology of E. histolytica, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium in Nigeria where previous studies using traditional diagnostic techniques have suggested higher and lower carriage rates of E. histolytica and Giardia, respectively. It is also the first study to accurately identify the prevalence of common potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers in sub-Saharan Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Maternal ABO and rhesus blood group phenotypes and hepatitis B surface antigen carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, T T; Sahota, D S; Chung, M-K; Cheung, T K W; Cheng, Y K Y; Leung, T Y

    2014-11-01

    In view of a persistently high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in our obstetric population, we examined the association between HBsAg carriage with maternal ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood group phenotypes determined at routine antenatal screening. In a retrospective study, the antenatal screening results of women booked for confinement between 1998 and 2011 in our hospital were examined for the relationship between HBsAg carriage with the ABO and rhesus blood groups, taking into account also the effects of advanced maternal age (≥ 35 years) and parity status (nulliparous or multiparous), and year of birth before or following the availability of the hepatitis B vaccine (1984). HBsAg carriage was found in 9.9%, 9.6%, 9.1% and 10.2% (P = 0.037) for group-A (n = 20 581 or 26.1%), -B (n = 20 744 or 26.4%), -AB (n = 5138 or 6.5%) and -O (n = 32 242 or 41.0%) among the 78705 women in the study cohort. Rhesus negativity was found in 0.6%, and HBsAg carriage was 12.3% and 9.8%, respectively, for the Rh-negative and Rh-positive women (P = 0.071). Carriage rate between group-O and non-O was influenced by nulliparity, age ≥ 35 years and Rh-positive status. Regression analysis indicated that group-B (P = 0.044, aOR = 1.062, 95% CI 1.002-1.127) and group-AB (P = 0.016, aOR = 1.134, 95% CI 1.024-1.256) were associated with HBsAg carriage. Blood groups-B and -AB are associated with increased hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in our population, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the implications of this on the sequelae of HBV infection.

  17. Carriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Brévers, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Leroux, A A; Amory, H; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2014-08-06

    Clostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual.

  18. Respiratory infections in Enepa Amerindians are related to malnutrition and Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Gomez-Castellano, K.; Snelders, E.; Rivera-Olivero, I.; Pocaterra, L.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Waard, J.H. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) rates are observed in indigenous populations. We assessed the role of viral infections and nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage in ARTIs in Enepa Amerindians from Venezuela. METHODS: In 40 children aged 0-10 years with ARTIs, healthy nearest-age

  19. Exploration of the Comfort Design of High-speed Train Carriage Lighting%高速列车内室照明舒适性设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章勇; 徐伯初

    2012-01-01

    从广义的舒适性角度探讨高速列车内室照明设计,分析了照明与视觉特性的关系及影响视觉舒适性的因素,就色温、照度、照射方式和照明的空间布置对心理舒适性的影响进行了详细的论述,并从环境照明、局部照明、装饰照明3个方面总结了高速列车内室照明舒适性设计策略。%It studied high-speed train carriage lighting in the generalized view of comfort and analyzed the relationship between lighting and human visual characteristics,and analyzed the factors which effect visual comfort.Then it was given thorough exploration of psychological comfort which effected by lighting color temperature,illuminance,ways of irradiation,space layout.The strategies of high-speed train carriage lighting comfort design were put forward from environment lighting,local lighting and decoration lighting.

  20. Molecular detection of the carriage rate of four intestinal protozoa with real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efunshile, Michael A; Ngwu, Bethrand A F; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the second largest killer of children worldwide, and Nigeria ranks number two on the list of global deaths attributable to diarrhea. Meanwhile, prevalence studies on potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers using molecular detection methods remain scarce in sub...... rates of E. histolytica and Giardia, respectively. It is also the first study to accurately identify the prevalence of common potentially diarrheagenic protozoa in asymptomatic carriers in sub-Saharan Africa....

  1. Direct effect of 10-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccination on pneumococcal carriage in children Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 10-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine/PCV10 was introduced in the Brazilian National Immunization Program along the year of 2010. We assessed the direct effectiveness of PCV10 vaccination in preventing nasopharyngeal/NP pneumococcal carriage in infants. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted in Goiania Brazil, from December/2010-February/2011 targeting children aged 7-11 m and 15-18 m. Participants were selected using a systematic sampling. NP swabs, demographic data, and vaccination status were collected from 1,287 children during home visits. Main outcome and exposure of interest were PCV10 vaccine-type carriage and dosing schedules (3p+0, 2p+0, and one catch-up dose, respectively. Pneumococcal carriage was defined by a positive culture and serotyping was performed by Quellung reaction. Rate ratio/RR was calculated as the ratio between the prevalence of vaccine-types carriage in children exposed to different schedules and unvaccinated for PCV10. Adjusted RR was estimated using Poisson regression. PCV10 effectiveness/VE on vaccine-type carriage was calculated as 1-RR*100. RESULTS: The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 41.0% (95%CI: 38.4-43.7. Serotypes covered by PCV10 and PCV13 were 35.2% and 53.0%, respectively. Vaccine serotypes 6B (11.6%, 23F (7.8%, 14 (6.8%, and 19F (6.6% were the most frequently observed. After adjusted for confounders, children who had received 2p+0 or 3p+0 dosing schedule presented a significant reduction in pneumococcal vaccine-type carriage, with PCV10 VE equal to 35.9% (95%CI: 4.2-57.1; p = 0.030 and 44.0% (95%CI: 14.-63.5; p = 0.008, respectively, when compared with unvaccinated children. For children who received one catch-up dose, no significant VE was detected (p = 0.905. CONCLUSION: PCV10 was associated with high protection against vaccine-type carriage with 2p+0 and 3p+0 doses for children vaccinated before the second semester of life. The continuous

  2. Epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to assess the Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rate in healthy children all over Hungary and to specify some risk factors, the antibiotic resistance patterns of the bacteria, and their genetic relatedness. In total, 878 children (aged 3-6 years) were screened at 21 day-care centers in 16 different cities in Hungary, between February 2009 and December 2011. Samples taken from both nostrils were cultured on blood agar, and suspected S. aureus isolates were identified by β-hemolysis, catalase positivity, clump test, and nucA PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were screened by mecA and mecC PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution or gradient test strips. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. S. aureus carriage rate was found to be 21.3%, which correlates well with international data. We found no statistically significant correlation between the gender or the sibling status and S. aureus carriage. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and mupirocin. The resistance rates for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were 7.5%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The isolates showed very high genetic diversity. In summary, carried S. aureus isolates are more sensitive to antibiotics compared with clinical isolates in Hungary, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage rate is very low yet.

  3. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kuhn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Kock, R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived

  4. MRSA carriage in community outpatients: a cross-sectional prevalence study in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kühn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Olde Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Köck, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three mon

  5. Community faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in french children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgy André

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing incidence of community acquired infection due to Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL -Producing Enterobacteriaceae represent a great concern because there are few therapeutic alternatives. The fecal flora of children in the community can represent a reservoir for ESBLs genes which are located on highly transmissible plasmids and the spread of these genes among bacterial pathogens is concerning. Because intestinal carriage is a key factor in the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, the study of the prevalence of these resistant bacteria and risk factors in young children is of particular interest. Methods We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of community-acquired faecal carriage of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in children aged from 6 to 24 months, by means of rectal swabbing in community pediatric practices. Child’s lifestyle and risk factors for carriage of resistant bacteria were noted. Results Among the 411 children enrolled, 4.6% carried ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 were the predominant ESBLs. The 18 E. coli isolates were genetically heterogeneous. Recent third-generation oral-cephalosporin exposure was associated with a higher risk of ESBL carriage (AOR=3.52, 95% CI[1.06-11.66], p=0.04. Conclusions The carriage rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriacae in young children in the French community setting is noteworthy, underlining the importance of this population as a reservoir. Exposure to third-generation oral cephalosporins was associated with a significant risk of ESBL carriage in our study. Because of the significant public health implications including the treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections, the spread of organisms producing ESBLs in the community merits close monitoring with enhanced efforts for surveillance.

  6. Intestinal carriage of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing E. coli in women with urinary tract infections, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuikoue, Ingrid Cécile; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Toukam, Michel; Burdet, Charles; Ruppé, Etienne; Gonsu, Kamga Hortense; Fokunang, Charles; El Mniai, Assiya; Larissa, Kamgue; Pieme, Anatole Constant; Mboupaing, Mallila Georgia; Kakam, Caroline Mietchop; Fogang, Hervé Kengne; Andremont, Antoine; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2016-10-31

    During the last decade, the prevalence of the intestinal carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamases - producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli) has continued to increase worldwide in the community, especially in developing countries. Hence, we undertook a study to determine the ESBL-E. coli fecal carriage rate and the associated risk factors in Cameroonian women. A total of 86 women suspected of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) were included in 10 health structures from May 2011 to April 2012. After filling a questionnaire, they provided a stool sample that was plated on selective media for ESBL producing bacteria. The identification of strains was obtained with mass spectrometry and the antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion in agar media. The ESBL type was determined by PCR. The relative abundance of ESBL-E. coli was measured for positive samples. Eventually, the presence of antibiotics in stool was assessed. The carriage rate of ESBL-E. coli was 57/86 (66.3%). Phenotypic and molecular characterization showed that all ESBL-E. coli strains contained group 1 CTX-M enzymes. Multivariate analysis showed that ESBL-E. coli fecal carriage was associated with the presence of antibiotics in stools (p E. coli fecal carriage in women with UTI suspicion from the Cameroonian community is extremely high and associated with recent antibiotic intake.

  7. Research and Development of an Advanced Personal Load Carriage System Phases 2 and 3. Section F: Workshop on Advances in Military Load Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-30

    factors which affect load carriage and carriage system design and evaluation include body anthropometries and composition (eg. stature, lean body...2). Subjects were asked to rate their stability, balance. comfort. and freedom of movement Figure l. Mobility Circuit- Fence Climb Focus Groups...34’ Fence Climb/Agility Run "’ Uphill Ramp/Sidehill Ramp • Static Tasks 17 Battle Order Testing- After doffing the load carriage system

  8. Faecal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital and community setting: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle eClaassen-Weitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus faecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus (including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings.Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies.Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage were 26 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 16.8 % - 36.3 %, 86 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 65.9 % - 97.9 % and 10 % (95 % CI: 0.7 % - 27.0 %, respectively. Faecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 % to 65 % during the first eight weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64 % at six months and 46 % at one year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus faecal strains in diarrhoea (n = 2 and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4. Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus faecal isolates.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus faecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be

  9. High rate drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.C. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Berisso, M.C. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Gutierrez, G. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Holmes, S.D. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Wehmann, A. (Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)); Avilez, C. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Felix, J. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Moreno, G. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Romero, M. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Sosa, M. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)); Forbush, M. (Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)); Huson, F.R. (Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)); Wightman, J.A. (Department of Physi

    1994-06-01

    Fermilab experiment 690, a study of target dissociation reactions pp[yields]pX using an 800 GeV/c proton beam and a liquid hydrogen target, collected data in late 1991. The incident beam and 600-800 GeV/c scattered protons were measured using a system of six 6 in.x4 in. and two 15 in.x8 in. pressurized drift chambers spaced over 260 m. These chambers provided precise measurements at rates above 10 MHz (2 MHz per cm of sense wire). The measurement resolution of the smaller chambers was 90 [mu]m, and the resolution of the larger chambers was 125 [mu]m. Construction details and performance results, including radiation damage, are presented. ((orig.))

  10. Characterization of Carriage Isolates of Neisseria meningitides in the Adolescents and Young Adults Population of Bogota (Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moreno

    Full Text Available Meningococcal carriage studies are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of meningococcal disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of meningococcal carriage and the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of isolates collected from a sample of students in the city of Bogotá, Colombia.A total of 1459 oropharyngeal samples were collected from students aged 15-21 years attending secondary schools and universities. Swabs were plated on a Thayer Martin agar and N. meningitidis was identified by standard microbiology methods and PCR.The overall carriage prevalence was 6.85%. Carriage was associated with cohabitation with smokers, and oral sex practices. Non-groupable and serogroup Y isolates were the most common capsule types found. Isolates presented a high genetic diversity, and circulation of the hypervirulent clonal complexes ST-23, ST-32 and ST-41/44 were detected.The meningococcal carriage rate was lower than those reported in Europe and Africa, but higher than in other Latin American countries. Our data also revealed antigenic and genetic diversity of the isolates and the circulation of strains belonging to clonal complexes commonly associated with meningococcal disease.

  11. Meningococcal carriage: prevalence and sex-related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S C; Rashid, S; Muttu, K M; Hildreth, A J

    1997-03-01

    A retrospective analysis was done to examine whether sexual behaviour was associated with meningococcal carriage. Over the 4 month period from January to April 1994, 136 (27.4%) of the 496 consecutive new/re-registered genito-urinary medicine clinic attenders showed meningococcal carriage. Two (15.4%) of 13 homosexual men compared with 134 (27.7%) of 484 heterosexual men and women had evidence of meningococcal carriage. Relative risk (RR) of meningococcal carriage was 1.8 with > 10 lifetime partners and 1.2 with 3-10 partners (P < 0.007). RR with age group of 16-25 was 4.2 and for 26-35 it was 3.5. There was no relationship with meningococcal carriage and pharyngeal symptoms, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, number of partners per month and orogenital sex. Further longitudinal studies may be of value in order to determine whether a high number of sexual partners is a marker for meningococcal carriage. In addition, further study may show whether there is an increased risk of meningococcal carriage and disease in those who live with meningococcal carriers.

  12. Load Carriage-Related Paresthesias (Part 2): Meralgia Paresthetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Reynolds, Katy; Orr, Robin; Pope, Rodney

    This is the second of a two-part series addressing symptoms, evaluation, and treatment of load carriage- related paresthesias. Part 1 addressed rucksack palsy and digitalgia paresthetica; here, meralgia paresthetica (MP) is discussed. MP is a mononeuropathy involving the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). MP has been reported in load carriage situations where the LFCN was compressed by rucksack hipbelts, pistol belts, parachute harnesses, and body armor. In the US military, the rate of MP is 6.2 cases/10,000 personyears. Military Servicewomen have higher rates than Servicemen, and rates increase with age, longer loadcarriage distance or duration, and higher body mass index. Patients typically present with pain, itching, and paresthesia on the anterolateral aspect of the thigh. There are no motor impairments or muscle weakness, because the LFCN is entirely sensory. Symptoms may be present on standing and/or walking, and may be relieved by adopting other postures. Clinical tests to evaluate MP include the pelvic compression test, the femoral nerve neurodynamic test, and nerve blocks using lidocaine or procaine. In cases where these clinical tests do not confirm the diagnosis, specialized tests might be considered, including somatosensory evoked potentials, sensory nerve conduction studies, high-resolution ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment should initially be conservative. Options include identifying and removing the compression if it is external, nonsteroidal inflammatory medication, manual therapy, and/or topical treatment with capsaicin cream. Treatments for intractable cases include injection of corticosteroids or local anesthetics, pulsed radiofrequency, electroacupuncture, and surgery. Military medical care providers may see cases of MP, especially if they are involved with units that perform regular operations involving load carriage. 2017.

  13. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in indigenous Australian and Alaska native children with bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Hare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship

  14. Nasal carriage and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Marothi, Yogyata; Iyer, Rama V; Singh, Binita; Sharma, Megha; Eriksson, Bo; Macaden, Ragini; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2010-12-29

    There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5) out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007) or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in India. Yet, prevalence of MRSA was relatively high.

  15. Cord blood Streptococcus pneumoniae-specific cellular immune responses predict early pneumococcal carriage in high-risk infants in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J P; Richmond, P C; Strickland, D; Prescott, S L; Pomat, W S; Michael, A; Nadal-Sims, M A; Edwards-Devitt, C J; Holt, P G; Lehmann, D; van den Biggelaar, A H J

    2017-03-01

    In areas where Streptococcus pneumoniae is highly endemic, infants experience very early pneumococcal colonization of the upper respiratory tract, with carriage often persisting into adulthood. We aimed to explore whether newborns in high-risk areas have pre-existing pneumococcal-specific cellular immune responses that may affect early pneumococcal acquisition. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) of 84 Papua New Guinean (PNG; high endemic) and 33 Australian (AUS; low endemic) newborns were stimulated in vitro with detoxified pneumolysin (dPly) or pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA; families 1 and 2) and compared for cytokine responses. Within the PNG cohort, associations between CBMC dPly and PspA-induced responses and pneumococcal colonization within the first month of life were studied. Significantly higher PspA-specific interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 responses, and lower dPly-IL-6 responses were produced in CBMC cultures of PNG compared to AUS newborns. Higher CBMC PspA-IL-5 and PspA-IL-13 responses correlated with a higher proportion of cord CD4 T cells, and higher dPly-IL-6 responses with a higher frequency of cord antigen-presenting cells. In the PNG cohort, higher PspA-specific IL-5 and IL-6 CBMC responses were associated independently and significantly with increased risk of earlier pneumococcal colonization, while a significant protective effect was found for higher PspA-IL-10 CBMC responses. Pneumococcus-specific cellular immune responses differ between children born in pneumococcal high versus low endemic settings, which may contribute to the higher risk of infants in high endemic settings for early pneumococcal colonization, and hence disease.

  16. LOW RCS MODIFIED DESIGN OF EXTERNAL CARRIAGE AND ANALYSIS OF ITS SCATTERING CHARACTERISTIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An external carriage and a wing have a high radar cross section (RCS) level in a wide range of angles of pitch because they form an efficient corner reflector. Coupling scattering between the external carriage and the wing is controlled by designing a saw-tooth structure of the external carriage on condition that the wing structure is not changed. A low RCS saw-tooth scheme of the external carriage is given in the paper. The ray tracing method and the physical theory of diffraction are used to calculate the radar scattering characteristics of low RCS structures of the external carriage and wing. The results show that the saw-tooth scheme of the external carriage is feasible and effective for low RCS design.

  17. Staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naeem

    2010-07-01

    To determine the frequency of staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers (HCWs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates for appropriate decolonization therapy. An observational study. The study was conducted at Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, during the period from May 2007 to April 2008. Nasal swabs from anterior nares of HCWs were cultured and identified as Staphylococcus aureus, coagulasenegative staphylococci (CoNS), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) by using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on Muller Hinton Agar using disc diffusion method. Of the 468 HCWs, 213 (45.5%) participants were men and 255 (54.5%) were women. Eighty five (18.2%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, 07 (1.5%) for MRSA, 343 (73.3%) for CoNS and 10 (2.1%) for MRCoNS. The highest carriage rate for S. aureus was in midwives (30%) followed by maintenance staff (28.6%), security guards (25%), technicians (23.5%), staff nurses (22.7%) and 90% of S. aureus and CoNS were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin and fluoroquinolones tested. Fluoroquinolones, preferably oral levofloxacin in combination with topical gentamicin ointment, in places like Pakistan where mupirocin is not routinely available, can be used for decolonization of nasal staphylococcal carriage.

  18. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Children in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Benedikt; Azuure, Clinton; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Gajdiss, Mike; Brunke, Melanie; Sarpong, Nimako; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; May, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015. S. aureus isolates were characterized by their antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and further differentiated by spa-typing and multi-locus-sequence-typing. Results Out of 544 children 120 (22.1%) were colonized with S. aureus, with highest carriage rates during the rainy seasons (27.2%; p = 0.007), in females aged 6–8 years (43.7%) and males aged 8–10 years (35.2%). The 123 isolates belonged to 35 different spa-types and 19 sequence types (ST) with the three most prevalent spa-types being t355 (n = 25), t84 (n = 18), t939 (n = 13), corresponding to ST152, ST15 and ST45. Two (2%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), classified as t1096 (ST152) and t4454 (ST45), and 16 (13%) were resistant to three or more different antimicrobial classes. PVL and TSST-1 were detected in 71 (58%) and 17 (14%) isolates respectively. Conclusion S. aureus carriage among Ghanaian children seems to depend on age, sex and seasonality. While MRSA rates are low, the high prevalence of PVL is of serious concern as these strains might serve not only as a source for severe invasive infections but may also transfer genes, leading to highly virulent MRSA clones. PMID:28107412

  19. Screening adolescents in the emergency department for weapon carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca M; Resko, Stella M; Harrison, Stephanie Roahen; Zimmerman, Marc; Stanley, Rachel; Chermack, Stephen T; Walton, Maureen A

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence and correlates of past-year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city emergency department (ED). This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14-18 years), 7 days a week, who were seeking care over an 18-month period at an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered, including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior, weapon carriage, and/or weapon use. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past-year frequency of these weapons variables. Adolescents (n = 2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. Fifty-five percent were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife or razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife or gun on someone. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. One-fifth of all adolescents seeking care in this inner-city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED-based injury prevention initiatives. (c) 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. High Data Rate Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiat, Paul; Christensen, Bradley; McCusker, Kevin; Kumor, Daniel; Gauthier, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    While quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are now commercially available, the data rate is a limiting factor for some desired applications (e.g., secure video transmission). Most QKD systems receive at most a single random bit per detection event, causing the data rate to be limited by the saturation of the single-photon detectors. Recent experiments have begun to explore using larger degree of freedoms, i.e., temporal or spatial qubits, to optimize the data rate. Here, we continue this exploration using entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom. That is, we use simultaneous temporal and polarization entanglement to reach up to 8.3 bits of randomness per coincident detection. Due to current technology, we are unable to fully secure the temporal degree of freedom against all possible future attacks; however, by assuming a technologically-limited eavesdropper, we are able to obtain 23.4 MB/s secure key rate across an optical table, after error reconciliation and privacy amplification. In this talk, we will describe our high-rate QKD experiment, with a short discussion on our work towards extending this system to ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, aiming to secure the temporal degree of freedom and to implement a 30-km free-space link over a marine environment.

  1. Surveillance of Australian Hajj pilgrims for carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria: Data from two pilot studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Tashani, Mohamed; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Heron, Leon; Pedersen, Kristen; Jeoffreys, Neisha; Kok, Jen; Haworth, Elizabeth; Dwyer, Dominic E; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    AIM To estimate the pharyngeal carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among Australian Hajj pilgrims. METHODS In 2014, surveillance was conducted in two phases among Australian Hajj pilgrims: The first phase during Hajj in Mina, and the second phase soon after returning home to Australia. Nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs were taken from participants then tested, firstly by nucleic acid testing, and also by standard culture. RESULTS Of 183 participants recruited in the first phase, 26 (14.2%) tested positive for S. pneumoniae; 4 had received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Only one tested positive for N. meningitidis (W). Of 93 2nd phase samples cultured, 17 (18.3%) grew S. aureus, all methicillin sensitive, 2 (2.2%) grew N. meningitidis (on subculture; one serotype B, one negative), and 1 (1%), from an unvaccinated pilgrim, grew S. pneumoniae. CONCLUSION Relatively high carriage of S. pneumoniae and little meningococcal carriage was found. This indicates the importance of a larger study for improved infection surveillance and possible vaccine evaluation. PMID:28352634

  2. Prevalence of Candida albicans and carriage of Candida non-albicans in the saliva of preschool children, according to their caries status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Moraga, Carla Paola; Rodríguez Martínez, Gonzalo Andrés; Lefimil Puente, Claudia Andrea; Morales Bozo, Irene Cecilia; Urzúa Orellana, Blanca Regina

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish associations among the Candida carriage rate, the diversity of Candida species carried and the different caries status of preschool children. Sixty-one children between 2 and 5 years of age were examined by a single expert examiner and were divided into three groups, the caries-free, moderate caries and severe caries groups, according to the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS). Saliva samples were obtained from the members of each group and were plated on Sabouraud agar plates to assess the Candida carriage rates. CHROMagar Candida medium was used for the preliminary screening. Biochemical testing or PCR/sequencing was conducted to identify the different Candida species in the samples. The differences observed were considered significant if the p value was Candida carriage rate and the number of species of this fungus carried were higher in the group with the highest level of caries severity (p Candida albicans was the most predominant Candida species in the saliva of all of the children, C. dubliniensis was identified only in the most caries-affected group in addition to other rare species of Candida non-albicans. A high salivary Candida carriage rate and the presence of specific species of this fungus (such as C. albicans and C. dubliniensis) appear to be related to the severity of caries experienced by preschool children.

  3. Nasopharyngeal carriage and transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in American Indian households after a decade of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan F Mosser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young children played a major role in pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, acquisition, and transmission in the era before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV use. Few studies document pneumococcal household dynamics in the routine-PCV7 era. METHODS: We investigated age-specific acquisition, household introduction, carriage clearance, and intra-household transmission in a prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in 300 American Indian households comprising 1,072 participants between March 2006 and March 2008. RESULTS: Pneumococcal acquisition rates were 2-6 times higher in children than adults. More household introductions of new pneumococcal strains were attributable to children <9 years than adults ≥17 years (p<0.001, and older children (2-8 years than younger children (<2 years (p<0.008. Compared to children <2 years, carriage clearance was more rapid in older children (2-4 years, HRclearance 1.53 [95% CI: 1.22, 1.91]; 5-8 years, HRclearance 1.71 [1.36, 2.15] and adults (HRclearance 1.75 [1.16, 2.64]. Exposure to serotype-specific carriage in older children (2-8 years most consistently increased the odds of subsequently acquiring that serotype for other household members. CONCLUSIONS: In this community with a high burden of pneumococcal colonization and disease and routine PCV7 use, children (particularly older children 2-8 years drive intra-household pneumococcal transmission: first, by acquiring, introducing, and harboring pneumococcus within the household, and then by transmitting acquired serotypes more efficiently than household members of other ages.

  4. The carriage of Candida species on the dorsal surface of the tongue: the correlation with the dental, periodontal and prosthetic status in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ohshima, Tomoko; Yasunari, Utako; Namikoshi, Satoko; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo; Maeda, Nobuko

    2006-09-01

    To screen the carriage status of Candida species, especially Candida albicans and its genotype in an epidemiological survey and to investigate its correlation with the dental, periodontal and prosthetic status of healthy elderly subjects. Microbiological samples were collected from the dorsum of the tongue of 366 subjects, aged 75, and cultured on CHROMagar medium. The carriage status of Candida spp. and the distribution of C. albicans genotypes by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method were analysed and compared with the dental, periodontal and prosthetic status of the subjects. A high carriage rate (68.6%) of Candida spp. and the predominant species of C. albicans (72.1%) were found in this study. The prevalence, density and multi-species of Candida spp. were significantly related to the presence of a dental prosthesis. In C. albicans, genotype A predominated (56.4%) and genotype D showed a higher prevalence (12.5%) than previous reports. When comparing Candida spp. carriage with the oral status, significant positive correlations were found with the presence of any dental prosthesis, missing teeth, the number of retained roots and the percentage of sites showing bleeding on probing (BOP), while significant negative correlations were found with the number of teeth present, sound and filled teeth. Candida carriage on the dorsum of the tongue in healthy elderly is significantly associated with the dental, periodontal and prosthetic status, especially the presence of a dental prosthesis. As the complexity of the prosthesis being worn increased, the relative risk of Candida carriage and the numbers and multi-species of Candida increased accordingly.

  5. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  6. Carriage and transmission dynamics of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria cause big problems in health care. Infections with these bacteria are hard to treat and lead to high morbidity, mortality, and costs. In this PhD thesis, carriage and transmission dynamics of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have been investigated in various se

  7. Daily bathing with octenidine on an intensive care unit is associated with a lower carriage rate of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, C; Orr, D; Hallam, S; Tillmanns, E

    2013-02-01

    Routine daily bathing of intensive care (ICU) patients with topical chlorhexidine reduces meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition. The aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated five-day cycles of daily topical octenidine could result in a similar effect. This was a two-year retrospective, uncontrolled study in a mixed medical and surgical ICU/high dependency unit, demonstrating a 76% reduction in MRSA acquisition but no significant reduction in all ICU-acquired bacteraemias. Chlorhexidine use is increasing but resistance is being reported. This pilot study found a similar reduction in MRSA acquisition with octenidine as an alternative to chlorhexidine. Further study is required to establish causality. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autism's 'Worryingly' High Suicide Rates Spur Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165946.html Autism's 'Worryingly' High Suicide Rates Spur Conference Signs of ... News) -- High rates of suicide among people with autism are drawing specialists to a conference this week ...

  9. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvsansharav, Ulzii-Orshikh; Hirai, Itaru; Niki, Marie; Nakata, Arisa; Yoshinaga, Aya; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Toyoshima, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Fusao; Matsuura, Nariaki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M producers. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods, was 19.6% (44 of 225 samples). Escherichia coli was the predominant CTX-M-type ESBL-producing bacterium among these isolates (41 of 44 isolates). Genotyping of bla CTX-M gene-positive isolates showed that 30 (68.2%), 13 (29.5%), and 1 (2.3%) of 44 samples belonged to groups CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2, respectively. Among the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae found in nursing homes, 95.5% (42 of 44 isolates) were co-resistant to quinolone antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, inability to turn over in bed, diabetes, and invasive procedures within the last 2 years were the only variables independently associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M-type ESBL producers. Nursing home residents in Japan exhibit a high prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage, with a high level of co-resistance to quinolones.

  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage in rural and urban Vietnam and the effect of alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Tuyet Dao

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Community acquired K. pneumoniae pneumonia is still common in Asia and is reportedly associated with alcohol use. Oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. However, little is known regarding K. pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage rates and risk factors. This population-based cross-sectional study explores the association of a variety of demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as alcohol consumption with oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1029 subjects were selected randomly from age, sex, and urban and rural strata. An additional 613 adult men from a rural environment were recruited and analyzed separately to determine the effects of alcohol consumption. Demographic, socioeconomic, and oropharyngeal carriage data was acquired for each subject. The overall carriage rate of K. pneumoniae was 14.1% (145/1029, 95% CI 12.0%-16.2%. By stepwise logistic regression, K. pneumoniae carriage was found to be independently associated with age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04, smoking (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9, rural living location (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4, and level of weekly alcohol consumption (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.04-2.8. CONCLUSION: Moderate to heavy weekly alcohol consumption, old age, smoking, and living in a rural location are all found to be associated with an increased risk of K. pneumoniae carriage in Vietnamese communities. Whether K. pneumoniae carriage is a risk factor for pneumonia needs to be elucidated.

  11. Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Hugo Edgardo; Baserni, Marisa Noemí; Jugo, Monica Beatriz

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in the community in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Faecal samples from 164 non-hospitalized patients were cultured on CHROMagar KPC and CHROMagar ESBL plates. Isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins or carbapenems were selected for further study. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolates was determined using the E-test method. The phenotypic detection of ESBLs and carbapenemases was performed using the double-disc synergy test. The rate of faecal carriage of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was 26.8%. Escherichia coli represented a large majority (75%) of the isolates recovered. Thirty-three ESBL-producing isolates were detected from 31 faecal samples (18.9% of the collected specimens). Eight carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli were recovered from eight specimens (4.9%). This study revealed a high prevalence of faecal carriage of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including ESBLs, in Buenos Aires. Therefore, the use of surveillance cultures will be helpful for tracking and monitoring the spread of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae within community settings.

  12. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were

  13. Fecal Carriage of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: a Hidden Reservoir in Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón, Desirèe; Curiao, Tânia; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2012-01-01

    Fecal carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has not been extensively investigated, except in the cases of selected patients at risk, mostly during outbreaks. A total of 1,100 fecal samples randomly collected in our institution in two different periods in 2006 (n = 600) and 2009–2010 (n = 500) from hospitalized (26.8%) and nonhospitalized (73.2%) patients were screened for CPE. The first period coincided with an outbreak of VIM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the second one coincided with the emergence of KPC enzymes in our hospital. Diluted samples in saline were cultured in Luria-Bertani broth with 1 μg/ml imipenem and subcultured in MacConkey agar plates with 4 μg/ml ceftazidime. Growing colonies were screened for CPE (modified Hodge test and EDTA and boronic acid synergy tests). Carbapenemase genes, plasmids in which they are located, and clonal relatedness were determined. Individuals who exhibited fecal carriage of CPE (11/1,043, 1.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 1.88) included 8 hospitalized (carriage rate, 2.9%; 95% CI, 1.24 to 5.55) and 3 nonhospitalized patients (carriage rate, 0.4%; 95% CI, 0.08 to 1.14), the latter being identified in 2009. Eighty-two percent of colonized patients were not infected with CPE. Isolates harboring blaVIM-1 with or without blaSHV-12 were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 8; ST39, ST688, ST253, and ST163), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 3; two pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] types), Escherichia coli (n = 2; ST155 and ST2441), and Citrobacter freundii (n = 1). Some of these lineages had previously been detected in our institution. The blaVIM-1 gene was a member of the class 1 integrons In110 (blaVIM-1-aacA4-aadA1) and In113 (blaVIM-1-aacA4-dhfrII) located on plasmids IncN (n = 11; 30 to 50 kb) and IncHI2 (n = 3; 300 kb), respectively. Dissemination of blaVIM-1 class-1 integrons within highly transferable plasmids in a polyclonal population has potentially contributed to the

  14. Understanding High Rate Behavior Through Low Rate Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Dioh, N.N., et al., The High-Strain Rate Behavior of Polymers. Journal De Physique Iv, 1994. 4(C8): p. 119-124. 21. Dioh, N.N., P.S. Leevers, and J.G...constitutive response of polymeric materials as a function of temperature and strain rate. Journal De Physique Iv, 2003. 110: p. 27-32. 23. Brown, E.N...properties of polycarbonate under dynamic loading. Journal De Physique Iv, 2003. 110: p. 159-164. 56. Li, Z.H. and J. Lambros, Strain rate effects on the

  15. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  16. Nasopharyngeal carriage and susceptibility patterns of Streptococcu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasopharyngeal carriage and susceptibility patterns of Streptococcu ... poses an increasing problem in paediatrics, particularly in less developed countries. ... An effort to curtail the misuse of anitibiotics, by prescription and otherwise, may ...

  17. Relationship between antibiotic resistance and sickle cell anemia: preliminary evidence from a pediatric carriage study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkor ES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eric S Donkor,1 Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko,2 Christabel C Enweronu-Laryea3 1Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 3Department of Child Health, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, GhanaBackground: Antibiotics are frequently used among people with sickle cell anemia (homozygous SS or HbSS disease, especially for prophylaxis. However, the relationship between antibiotic resistance and people with HbSS disease has not been adequately studied, especially in the developing world. The objectives of the study were (1 to compare antibiotic resistance patterns of nasal Staphylococcus aureus between children with HbSS disease and children without HbSS disease (healthy children and (2 to evaluate nasopharyngeal carriage of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among children with HbSS disease.Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study, and the subjects were children under 12 years old. Nasal swabs were collected from 50 children with HbSS disease and 50 children without HbSS disease. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from another group of 92 children with HbSS disease. The nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured for S. aureus and S. pneumoniae, respectively. Susceptibility testing was carried out on the S. aureus and S. pneumoniae isolates for various antibiotics, including penicillin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, erythromycin, cloxacillin, and cotrimoxazole.Results: The carriage rates of S. aureus among pediatric subjects with HbSS disease and those without HbSS disease were 48% and 50%, respectively (P > 0.05. S. pneumoniae carriage among the pediatric subjects with HbSS disease was 10%. Antibiotic resistance patterns of S. aureus carried by children with HbSS disease and children without HbSS disease were similar, and the S. aureus resistance rates were >40% for the various

  18. The prevalence of group A streptococcal throat carriage in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K P; Ameen, A S; Nsanze, H; Bin-Othman, S; Mustafa, N

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the carrier rate of group A beta haemolytic streptococci in school children in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. One thousand and two randomly selected school children aged 5-7 years had their throats swabbed twice for both culture and direct antigen detection of group A streptococci. One hundred and fourteen children (11.3%) had both a positive antigen and culture test, while 216 (21.6%) had antigen-positive tests only and 16 (1.5%) had a positive culture only. Thus, the combination of culture and antigen detection revealed a carrier rate of 35.4% in the children examined. We conclude that in an affluent but isolated desert area on the Tropic of Cancer, group A streptococcal carriage rate is high. Antigen detection is superior to culture techniques in asymptomatic carrier studies.

  19. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvsansharav UO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav,1 Itaru Hirai,1 Marie Niki,1 Arisa Nakata,1 Aya Yoshinaga,1 Akira Yamamoto,2 Mayumi Yamamoto,3 Hiroyuki Toyoshima,4,† Fusao Kawakami,5 Nariaki Matsuura,6 Yoshimasa Yamamoto1,7,8 1Department of Bioinformatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 2Blueberry, Amagasaki Health Care Facilities for the Elderly, Hyogo, 3Health Administration Center, Gifu University, Gifu, 4Nursing home Minoh, Osaka, 5Nursing home Itami, Hyogo, 6Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 7Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, 8Osaka University Global Collaboration Center, Osaka, Japan†Hiroyuki Toyoshima passed away on February 21, 2013Abstract: The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M producers. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods, was 19.6% (44 of 225 samples. Escherichia coli was the predominant CTX-M-type ESBL-producing bacterium among these isolates (41 of 44 isolates. Genotyping of blaCTX-M gene-positive isolates showed that 30 (68.2%, 13 (29.5%, and 1 (2.3% of 44 samples belonged to groups CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2, respectively. Among the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae found in nursing homes, 95.5% (42 of 44 isolates were co-resistant to quinolone antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression

  20. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  1. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports. It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001 predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low

  2. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Claire L; Hardy, Katherine J; Verlander, Neville Q; Hawkey, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count, S. aureus and CNS were enumerated by culture from nasal swabs. Representative isolates were typed by staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRU) typing and PFGE, and MICs to nine antibiotics were determined. After antibiotic administration, there was a reduction in S. aureus counts (median - 2.3 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1)) in 64.0 % of S. aureus carriers, compared with only a 0.89 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1) reduction in 75.0 % of S. aureus carriers who did not receive antibiotics. A greater increase in the nasal carriage rate of meticillin-resistant CNS was observed after antibiotic surgical prophylaxis compared with hospitalization alone, with increases of 16.4 and 4.6 %, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis carriage rate increased by 16.6 % after antibiotic administration compared with 7.5 % with hospitalization alone. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis impacts the nasal carriage of both S. aureus and CNS.

  3. Impact of MenBvac, an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, on the meningococcal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbos, Valérie; Lemée, Ludovic; Bénichou, Jacques; Berthelot, Gilles; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Leroy, Jean-Philippe; Houivet, Estelle; Hong, Eva; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Caron, François

    2013-09-13

    The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of MenBvac, an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine against P1.7,16 strains, on meningococcal carriage. During a B:14:P1.7,16/ST-32 outbreak in Normandy (France), children aged 1-7 years were randomly selected to participate in the study. Among the 1082 volunteers, there were 17 Neisseria meningitidis carriers (carriage rate of 1.57%). MenBvac vaccination appeared associated with lower carriage rate, i.e., 0.31% among the vaccinated children versus 2.10% among the non-vaccinated (p=0.03). The beneficial effect on carriage was observed regardless of the strain serogroup. OMV-vaccinated mice also showed reduction of bacterial acquisition of OMV-homolog and hererolog strains in respiratory pathways after intranasal challenge. These results suggest that meningococcal OMV-based vaccines reduce meningococcal carriage and may hence confer herd immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High frame rate synthetic aperture duplex imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    aperture flow imaging as demonstrated in this paper. Synthetic aperture, directional beamforming, and cross-correlation are used to produce B-mode and vector velocity images at high frame rates. The frame rate equals the effective pulse repetition frequency of each imaging mode. Emissions for making the B...

  5. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among patients and healthcare workers in a hospital in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Yean, Chan Yean; Hasan, Habsah; Nik Zuraina, N M N; Ravichandran, Manickam

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a common source of nosocomial infection and colonization. The aim of the present study was to assess the burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal carriage, its association with factors of interest including its genetic relationships. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was found to be 28.7%. This study showed that patients with a history of previous antibiotic intake, nasogastric tube, and longer hospitalization had a significantly high risk of being MRSA nasal carriers. The genetic relationship of all 34 nasal MRSA isolates revealed four major clusters of isolates, and there was a relationship between MRSA isolated from inpatients and healthcare workers.

  7. 47 CFR 76.56 - Signal carriage obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., only identical episodes of a television series are considered duplicative and commercial inserts are... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.56 Signal carriage obligations. (a) Carriage of qualified noncommercial educational stations. A cable...

  8. 47 CFR 76.66 - Satellite broadcast signal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite broadcast signal carriage. 76.66... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.66 Satellite broadcast signal carriage. (a) Definitions—(1) Satellite carrier. A satellite carrier is an entity that...

  9. 76 FR 60675 - Revision of the Commission's Program Carriage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... See Program Carriage NPRM, MB Docket No. 07-42, 22 FCC Rcd 11222 (2007). A. Statute of Limitations 2... Carriage Order, 9 FCC Rcd at 2652-53, para. 25 and 2676, Appendix D (47 CFR 76.1302(r)(3)). In the 1994... Biennial Regulatory Review Order. See 1994 Program Carriage Order, 9 FCC Rcd at 4421, Appendix A (47 CFR 76...

  10. 47 CFR 76.60 - Compensation for carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation for carriage. 76.60 Section 76.60 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.60 Compensation for carriage....

  11. Load Carriage and the Female Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venerina Johnson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physiological, biomechanical and health impacts of load carriage on the female soldier and extends to include issues acknowledged as impacting on the female athlete and hence the female soldier. Physiological factors such as fat mass, strength, aerobic endurance and biomechanical factors such as stride length and forward lean have the potential to increase the energy cost of load carriage and cause injury. The female athlete triad, iron deficiency, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and military equipment issues can likewise reduce female soldier performance and increase injury risk. Research evidence is presented to inform the development and implementation of performance optimisation and injury prevention strategies. Discussed strategies include structured physical conditioning, improving nutrition and hydration practices and modification of load carriage equipment to meet female soldier requirements.

  12. The efficacy of mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine body scrubs in the eradication of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Watanakunakorn; J. Brandt; P. Durkin; S. Santore; B. Bota; C. J. Stahl

    1992-01-01

    textabstractPatients undergoing long-term hemodialysis have a high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, which may lead to serious infections. Mupirocin ointment has been used intranasally to eradicate S. aureus carriage in health human volunteers and health care workers. Chlorhexidine

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  14. Understanding High Saving Rate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua He; Yongfu Cao

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the Chinese saving rate based on the flow of funds data. It finds that the most widely adopted view of precautionary saving, which is regarded as the top reason for maintaining a high saving rate in China, is misleading because this conclusion is drawn from the household survey data. In fact, the household saving rate has declined dramatically since the mid-1990s, as is observed from the flow of funds framework.The high national saving rate is attributed to the increasing shares of both government and corporation disposable incomes. Insufficient consumption demand is caused by the persistent decrease in percentage share of household to national disposable income. Governmentdirected income redistribution urgently needs to be improved to accelerate consumption,which in turn would make the Chinese economy less investment-led and help to reduce the current account surplus.

  15. A high-strain-rate superplastic ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B N; Hiraga, K; Morita, K; Sakka, Y

    2001-09-20

    High-strain-rate superplasticity describes the ability of a material to sustain large plastic deformation in tension at high strain rates of the order of 10-2 to 10-1 s-1 and is of great technological interest for the shape-forming of engineering materials. High-strain-rate superplasticity has been observed in aluminium-based and magnesium-based alloys. But for ceramic materials, superplastic deformation has been restricted to low strain rates of the order of 10-5 to 10-4 s-1 for most oxides and nitrides with the presence of intergranular cavities leading to premature failure. Here we show that a composite ceramic material consisting of tetragonal zirconium oxide, magnesium aluminate spinel and alpha-alumina phases exhibits superplasticity at strain rates up to 1 s-1. The composite also exhibits a large tensile elongation, exceeding 1,050 per cent for a strain rate of 0.4 s-1. The tensile flow behaviour and deformed microstructure of the material indicate that superplasticity is due to a combination of limited grain growth in the constitutive phases and the intervention of dislocation-induced plasticity in the zirconium oxide phase. We suggest that the present results hold promise for the application of shape-forming technologies to ceramic materials.

  16. Electrorheological Effects at High Shear Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Much attention has been given to electrorheological (ER) fluids because of the ER effect, which has been described by a large number of researchers as a notable increase in the apparent viscosity of a fluid upon the application of an electric field. The description of ER effects is, however, not accurate at high shear rates. To clarify the discrepancy, we analyze and compute the apparent viscosity as a function of shear rate for ER fluid flow between rotating coaxial cylinders in the presence of an electric field. The theoretical predictions show that the increase of electric intensity contributes little to the apparent viscosity enhancement at high shear rates, while ER effects for ER fluids with a higher polarization rate still exist and ER devices possess controllability in this regime. Description of the ER effect by the apparent viscosity leads to an unrealistic conclusion that ER effects disappear at high shear rates, because the apparent viscosity of ER fluids approaches the value for Newtonian fluids. Therefore, it is concluded that the proper description of ER effects, i.e., one that holds uniformly for any strain rate when ER effects exist, is manifested by a remarkable increase in the extra stress rather than in the apparent viscosity of ER fluids.

  17. Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Lauren D C; Ku, David N

    2017-06-21

    The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.

  18. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    The high strain rate characterisation of FRP materials present the experimenter with a new set of challenges in obtaining valid experimental data. These challenges were addressed in this work with basis in classic wave theory. The stress equilibrium process for linear elastic materials, as fibre...... a linear elastic specimen to reach a state of constant strain rate before fracture. This was in contrast to ductile materials, which are widely tested with for the High-speed servohydraulic test machine. The development of the analysis and the interpretation of the results, were based on the experience...

  19. Persistence, replacement, and rapid clonal expansion of meningococcal carriage isolates in a 2008 university student cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmos, Fadil A; Neal, Keith R; Oldfield, Neil J; Turner, David P J; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A A; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2011-02-01

    A study of meningococcal carriage dynamics was performed with a cohort of 190 first-year students recruited from six residential halls at Nottingham University, United Kingdom. Pharyngeal swabs were obtained on four occasions between November 2008 and May 2009. Direct plating and culture on selective media were succeeded by identification and characterization of meningococci using PCR-based methodologies. Three serogroup Y clones and one serogroup 29E clone were highly prevalent in particular residential halls in November 2008, which is indicative of rapid clonal expansion since the start of the academic year. Persistent carriage of the same meningococcal strain for at least 5 to 6 months was observed in 45% of carriers, with infrequent evidence of antigenic variation in PorA. Sequential carriage of heterologous meningococcal strains occurred in 36% of carriers and involved strains with different capsules and antigenic variants of PorA and FetA in 83% of the cases. These clonal replacement strains also exhibited frequent differences in the presence and antigenic structures of two other surface proteins, NadA and HmbR. This study highlights the low level of antigenic variation associated with persistent carriage but, conversely, the importance of alterations in the repertoire of antigenic variants for sequential carriage of meningococcal strains. Rapid clonal expansion of potentially pathogenic strains in residential halls has implications for the implementation of public health interventions in university populations.

  20. High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Iván; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Robin; Córdova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocío; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis. PMID:20890447

  1. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  2. High rate, high reliability Li/SO2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chireau, R.

    1982-03-01

    The use of the lithium/sulfur dioxide system for aerospace applications is discussed. The high rate density in the system is compared to some primary systems: mercury zinc, silver zinc, and magnesium oxide. Estimates are provided of the storage life and shelf life of typical lithium sulfur batteries. The design of lithium cells is presented and criteria are given for improving the output of cells in order to achieve high rate and high reliability.

  3. The association between antibiotic use in the community and nasopharyngeal carriage of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Bedouin children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Sharf, Amir Z; Vardy, Daniel; Dagan, Ron

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the increase in antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage was associated with antibiotic use in the community in children in Southern Israel. All the prescriptions given to Bedouin children or = 1.0 microg/mL increased from 8% to 21% (P < 0.01); resistance to clindamycin from 9% to 22%; resistance to erythromycin from 13% to 30%; resistance to tetracycline from 13% to 31%; and multidrug resistance from 16% to 30%. The total annual antibiotic prescription rates decreased by 19%, from 3867 to 3191 prescriptions per 1000 children (P < 0.001). This was mainly the result of a reduction in amoxicillin +/- clavulanate prescriptions (from 3046 to 2582; P < 0.001). Oral cephalosporin, erythromycin and penicillin prescription rates decreased significantly as well (P < 0.001) whereas azithromycin prescription rates increased significantly (P < 0.001). We suggest that the increased carriage of S. pneumoniae resistant to multiple antibiotics is possibly associated to the increased azithromycin consumption. Reduction of total antibiotic use may not be sufficient as long as antibiotics with high potential to promote multidrug resistance, given their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics characteristics, are widely used.

  4. High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    permeable to lithium ions and efficient in transferring the electrons into/from the LVP surface to the corresponding current collector. a) b) c) d) e...PO4)3/C for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Applications”, Lee Hwang Sheng, Nail Suleimanov, Vishwanathan Ramar, Mangayarkarasi Murugan, Kuppan

  5. [Hopes of high dose-rate radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouillade, Charles; Favaudon, Vincent; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Romeo, Paul-Henri; Bourhis, Jean; Verrelle, Pierre; Devauchelle, Patrick; Patriarca, Annalisa; Heinrich, Sophie; Mazal, Alejandro; Dutreix, Marie

    2017-04-01

    In this review, we present the synthesis of the newly acquired knowledge concerning high dose-rate irradiations and the hopes that these new radiotherapy modalities give rise to. The results were presented at a recent symposium on the subject. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  7. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  8. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  9. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  10. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  11. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  12. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  13. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  14. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  15. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  16. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  17. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  18. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  19. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  20. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  1. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  2. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  3. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  4. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  5. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  6. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  7. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  8. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  9. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  10. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  11. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  12. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  13. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  14. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  15. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  16. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  17. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  18. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  19. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  20. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  1. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  2. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  3. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  4. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  5. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  6. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in a cohort of a daycare center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Barreto Demóstenes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define epidemiologic relationships to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors for nasopharyngeal colonization by antibiotic-resistant pneumococci, their serotypes and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in children attending a daycare center (DCC. Material and Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted among children (n=53 attending the DCC at Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, which is staffed by 20 employees. Patients were enrolled in the study during a two-year period from September 1997 to September 1999. All the participants were followed prospectively, swabbing them every four months. The strains recovered were typed and screened for susceptibility to several antibiotics. The daycare records were reviewed also. Odds ratios and fisher's exact test: or chi square test of significance were computed from contingency tables as appropriate. Exact 95% confidence intervals were computed for odds ratios. Data analysis was performed using Epi statistics program version 6.04 a. Results. Pneumococci were recovered from 45/53 of the infants at one or more visits. A total of 178 isolates were carried. The carriage rate was 47%. Only 7 adults acquired pneumococci during the study. Types 6,14,19 and 23 were prevalent and represented 77% of the total. Antibiotic-resistant strains were higher to penicillin and erythromycin. Conclusions. Children were frequent carriers of pneumococci, the rate of carriage was high in infancy and tended to decrease with age. The types commonly carried by children were the same as those causing invasive disease. There is a high proportion of carriers with antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Children who have had frequent antimicrobial courses are at particular risk.

  7. A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

    2013-09-01

    A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

  8. An easy method for detection of nasopharyngeal carriage of multiple Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Margit S.; Sørensen, Uffe; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2008-01-01

    care centres. Pneumococci were observed in 363 samples and 36 of these (9.9%) contained more than one serotype (multiple carriages). Two persons carried 3 different serotypes simultaneously. A significant increase in the positive sampling rate (5.8%) was achieved by using the simplified method compared...

  9. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  10. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  11. High strain rate characterization of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviour, Clive R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the response of polymers to high strain rate deformation. The main focus is on the experimental techniques used to characterize this response. The paper includes a small number of examples as well as references to experimental data over a wide range of rates, which illustrate the key features of rate dependence in these materials; however this is by no means an exhaustive list. The aim of the paper is to give the reader unfamiliar with the subject an overview of the techniques available with sufficient references from which further information can be obtained. In addition to the `well established' techniques of the Hopkinson bar, Taylor Impact and Transverse impact, a discussion of the use of time-temperature superposition in interpreting and experimentally replicating high rate response is given, as is a description of new techniques in which mechanical parameters are derived by directly measuring wave propagation in specimens; these are particularly appropriate for polymers with low wave speeds. The vast topic of constitutive modelling is deliberately excluded from this review.

  12. A prototype of a high rating MRPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; WANG Jing-Bo; YAN Qiang; LI Yuan-Jing; CHENG Jian-Ping; YUE Qian; LI Jin

    2009-01-01

    Six-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) prototypes with semiconductive glass electrodes (bulk resistivity~1010.cm) were studied for suitability in time-of-flight (TOF) applications at high rates. These studies were performed using a continuous electron beam of 800 MeV at IHEP and an X-ray machine. Time resolutions of about 100 ps and efficiencies larger than 90% were obtained for flux densities up to 28 kHz/cm2.

  13. Reserve, flowing electrolyte, high rate lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M.; Harris, P.

    Flowing electrolyte Li/SOCl2 tests in single cell and multicell bipolar fixtures have been conducted, and measurements are presented for electrolyte flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures, fixture temperatures at several points, and the pressure drop across the fixture. Reserve lithium batteries with flowing thionyl-chloride electrolytes are found to be capable of very high energy densities with usable voltages and capacities at current densities as high as 500 mA/sq cm. At this current density, a battery stack 10 inches in diameter is shown to produce over 60 kW of power while maintaining a safe operating temperature.

  14. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  15. High frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, N.S.P.; Cverna, F.H.; Albright, K.L.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Flynn, M.J.; Tashman, S. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100-microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  16. Hand carriage of Candida species and risk factors in hospital personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Mustafa; Sahin, Idris; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir; Ozdemir, Davut; Tevfik Yavuz, M; Oksuz, Sukru; Cakir, Selma

    2007-05-01

    The hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered to be important for colonisation and infection of Candida spp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of Candida carriage on the hands of the hospital personnel the potential risk factors. Samples were collected from the hands of 214 (139 female and 75 male) hospital personnel working at Duzce Medical Faculty Hospital, Duzce, Turkey. Of these, 88 were nurses, 62 resident doctors, 21 laboratory workers, 30 officers and 13 dining room personnel. The hands of all participants were tested by culture with the broth wash technique. Overall, 34.1% of the people analysed were found to harbour Candida spp. on their hands: 30.7% were nurses, 25.8% resident doctors, 28.6% laboratory workers, 84.6% dining room personnel and 43.3% officers. Candida carriage rates of the dining room personnel were higher than found in the other groups (P = 0.001). Isolated Candida species were C. parapsilosis (38.4%), C. tropicalis (26.0%), C. albicans (23.3%), C. kefyr (11.0%) and C. globosa (1.4%). Candida carriage rate was higher in the glove-using group (35.1%) than the non-glove using group (7.1%, P = 0.031). We concluded that carriage of Candida species on the hands of personnel was common especially in non-medical staff. Wearing gloves was found to be related to increased rates of Candida carriage in the nurse group. Candida parapsilosis was the most frequently colonising species that may be a predisposing condition for nosocomial infections transmitted with the hands of HCWs. Hospital personnel should be educated for regular hand washing practice for preventing Candida colonisation.

  17. Novel High Rate Lithium Intercalation Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Application of amorphous V2O5/carbon/neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) composite is one of ways to surmount the lower electrical conductivity of V2O5. A new type of V2O5/carbon/Nd2O3 composite was prepared by mixing vanadium oxide hydrosol, acetone, carbon and Nd2O3 powder. High rate discharge/charge property of the composite electrode was tested electrochemically. This composite with Nd2O3 added shows the improvement of not only the discharge capacity but also cycle durability discharge capacity. The rate capability of the composite cathode also increases with the addition of Nd2O3.and cycle life are probably caused by the increase in porosity of open pores and short diffusion length of the active material on the lithium-ion insertion.

  18. Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage amongst Healthcare Workers of the Critical Care Units in a Nigerian Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fadeyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA Nosocomial Infection (NI outbreaks and prevalence among various populations are well reported in literature particularly for developed countries. NI due to MRSA is a known cause of increased hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality especially among the critically ill. There is paucity of information on MRSA in developing nations including the carriage by critical healthcare givers who are potential transmitters. In most hospital in developing countries like Nigeria, there is neither surveillance system or control policy for MRSA. Approach: We screened healthcare workers in the critical care units of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH, Ilorin, Nigeria for MRSA and determined vancomycin susceptibility of the isolates. Swabs of both anterior nares and web spaces of the hands were taken, transported and incubated in Tween 80 at 35°C overnight aerobically before inoculation onto Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA. Inoculated MSA were incubated aerobically at 35°C for 18-24 h. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as Gram positive cocci with positive catalase, coagulase and DNAse test. MRSA were identified by combined oxacillin and cefoxitin discs diffusion method. Sensitivity to vancomycin was by vancomycin discs diffusion and vancomycin agar screen plating. Results: Of the 198 healthcare workers screened, 104 had MRSA either in the nose, hand or both giving a carriage rate of 52.5%. Nasal carriage (38.9% was higher than hand (25.3%. Doctors (22.7% and Nurses (16.7% were the predominant carriers. MRSA isolates were resistant to commonly available antibiotics. Only 1 (1.3% of the nasal isolates was vancomycin resistant. Conclusion: MRSA carriage among healthcare workers in the critical care units of the Nigerian hospital is high with doctors and nurses being the major carriers. The MRSA isolates were multi-drug resistant which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality if

  19. Experimental recombination rates for highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold Schuch [Dept. of Atomic Physics, Stockholm Univ., Frescativ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies of recombination between free electrons and highly charged ions using electron coolers of heavy-ion storage rings have produced accurate rate coefficients of interest for plasma modeling and diagnostics. Some surprises were discovered which can lead to revisions of recombination models. With bare ions one finds at low energy a strong and puzzling deviation from radiative recombination theory. Dielectronic recombination with C3+, N4+ show that jj coupling gives essential contributions to the cross section also for light ions. (author)

  20. Coal - carriage by sea; 2nd ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.; Strange, J.; Studd, B. [SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The book provides a guide to all aspects of the carriage of coal by sea. Part I gives an overview of coal consumption, production and trade, discussing major coal producers, major consumers, and importers and exporters. Part II has chapters on the ships employed to carry coal; problems concerned with the carriage of coal; the loading carrying and discharging of coal; and chartering. Part III covers the origins, properties and utilisation of coal; the petrographic classification of coal; the industrial utilisation of coal; and the principles and techniques of manual and mechanical sampling and analysis of coal. Part IV discusses problems and dangers coal transportation and storage (spontaneous combustion, prevention of freezing), and the role of the cargo superintendent in coal transportation. The text is well supported by tables of statistical data relating to coal production, trade and use. 11 figs., 94 tabs., 4 apps.

  1. Recrystallization of High Carbon Steel during High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The recrystallization of high carbon steel during high temperature and high speed rolling has been studied by analyzing the stress-strain curves and the austenite grain size.Isothermal multi-pass hot compression at high strain rate was carried out by Gleeble-2000. The austenite grain size was measured by IBAS image analysis system. The results show that static recrystallization occurred at interpass time under pre-finish rolling, and at the finish rolling stage, due to the brief interpass time, static recrystallization can not be found.

  2. Neuromuscular impairment following backpack load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Sam D; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Bilzon, James L J; Willems, Mark E T

    2013-01-01

    Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage. The physiological responses of 10 male participants to voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions were measured before and immediately after two hours of treadmill walking at 6.5 km•h(-1) during level walking with no load [LW], and level walking with load carriage (25 kg backpack) [LC]. Maximal voluntary contraction force decreased by 15 ± 11 % following LC (p=0.006), with no change following LW (p=0.292). Voluntary activation decreased after LW and LC (p=0.033) with no difference between conditions (p=0.405). Doublet contraction time decreased after both LW and LC (p=0.002), with no difference between conditions (p=0.232). There were no other changes in electrically invoked doublet parameters in either condition. The 20:50 Hz ratio did not change following LW (p=0.864) but decreased from 0.88 ± 0.04 to 0.84 ± 0.04 after LC (p=0.011) indicating reduced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during excitation contraction coupling. In conclusion, two hours of load carriage carrying a 25 kg back pack caused neuromuscular impairment through a decrease in voluntary activation (i.e. central drive) and fatigue or damage to the peripheral muscle, including impairment of the excitation contraction coupling process. This may reduce physical performance and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury.

  3. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D. F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (less than 1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10(exp 5) counts/mm(sup 2). A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (greater than 10(exp 10) Omega(cm) materials. In practice RPC's are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm(sup 2), leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

  4. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettenschwiler, Patrick D; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Stämpfli, Rolf; Rossi, René M; Ferguson, Stephen J; Annaheim, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports). It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (pbackpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low back pain or injury.

  5. Effect of marbofloxacin on Haemophilus parasuis nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilalta, Carles; Galofré, Nuria; Aragon, Virginia; Pérez de Rozas, Ana María; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2012-09-14

    Haemophilus parasuis is a colonizer of the upper respiratory tract and the causative agent of Glässer's disease in swine. This study focused on the nasal carriage of H. parasuis after treatment with marbofloxacin. Three marbofloxacin treatments (three doses of 2mg/kg body weight [bw] every 24h, two doses of 4 mg/kg bw every 48 h and 8 mg/kg bw in one single shot) were used and all of them reduce significantly (pmarbofloxacin/kg bw in one shot was further studied in a farm with clinical cases of Glässer's disease using a longitudinal study. Statistically significant reduction of nasal carriage of H. parasuis was detected during the first week after treatment in comparison with the control group. However, a clear relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the different strains, their putative virulence or the treatment group (antibiotic or control) from which they were isolated was not detected. Finally, the effect induced by the antibiotic treatment on the bacterial strains seemed to be transitory, since diverse H. parasuis strains (with high and low marbofloxacin MICs) were observed 7 days after finishing the treatment.

  6. High-energy, high-rate materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, H. L.; Bourell, D. L.; Eliezer, Z.; Persad, C.; Weldon, W.

    1987-12-01

    The increasingly available range of pulsed-power, high energy kinetic storage devices, such as low-inductance pulse-forming networks, compulsators, and homopolar generators, is presently considered as a basis for industrial high energy/high rate (HEHR) processing to accomplish shock hardening, drilling, rapid surface alloying and melting, welding and cutting, transformation hardening, and cladding and surface melting in metallic materials. Time-temperature-transformation concepts furnish the basis for a fundamental understanding of the potential advantages of this direct pulsed power processing. Attention is given to the HEHR processing of a refractory molybdenum alloy, a nickel-base metallic glass, tungsten, titanium aluminides, and metal-matrix composites.

  7. High-Frame-Rate Oil Film Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    White, Jonathan C; Chen, John

    2010-01-01

    The fluid dynamics video to which this abstract relates contains visualization of the response of a laminar boundary layer to a sudden puff from a small hole. The boundary layer develops on a flat plate in a wind tunnel; the hole is located at a streamwise Reynolds number of 100,000. The visualization of the boundary layer response is accomplished using interferometry of a transparent, thin film of oil placed on the surface immediately downstream of the hole and with its leading edge perpendicular to the direction of flow. Through lubrication theory, it is understood that the rate of change of the spacing of the interference fringes is proportional to the skin friction at any instant. For reference, a small disk-shaped protrusion of the type often used to trip the boundary layer in wind model tunnel testing is also shown. Three cases with different puff strengths are included. Using a high-speed commercial camera, frame rates in excess of 1000/sec have been recorded; the video shown here was taken at 24 frame...

  8. High spin rate magnetic controller for nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavinskis, A.; Kvell, U.; Kulu, E.; Sünter, I.; Kuuste, H.; Lätt, S.; Voormansik, K.; Noorma, M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a study of a high rate closed-loop spin controller that uses only electromagnetic coils as actuators. The controller is able to perform spin rate control and simultaneously align the spin axis with the Earth's inertial reference frame. It is implemented, optimised and simulated for a 1-unit CubeSat ESTCube-1 to fulfil its mission requirements: spin the satellite up to 360 deg s-1 around the z-axis and align its spin axis with the Earth's polar axis with a pointing error of less than 3°. The attitude of the satellite is determined using a magnetic field vector, a Sun vector and angular velocity. It is estimated using an Unscented Kalman Filter and controlled using three electromagnetic coils. The algorithm is tested in a simulation environment that includes models of space environment and environmental disturbances, sensor and actuator emulation, attitude estimation, and a model to simulate the time delay caused by on-board calculations. In addition to the normal operation mode, analyses of reduced satellite functionality are performed: significant errors of attitude estimation due to non-operational Sun sensors; and limited actuator functionality due to two non-operational coils. A hardware-in-the-loop test is also performed to verify on-board software.

  9. High readmission rate after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, K L; Berg, S K; Thygesen, Lau Caspar;

    2015-01-01

    of anxiety and depression were present in 13.6% and 13.8%, respectively (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score ≥ 8). Twelve months following discharge, 483 persons (56%) were readmitted. Readmission was associated with lower self-reported health (SF-36 PCS: 46.5 vs. 43.9, and MCS 52.2 vs. 50.7). Higher...... after surgery (3.2 (1.2-8.9)) predicted mortality. CONCLUSIONS: 6-12 months after heart valve surgery the readmission rate is high and the self-reported health status is low. Readmission is associated with low self-reported health. Therefore, targeted follow-up strategies post-surgery are needed....

  10. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  11. Upgrade Strategy for ALICE at High Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L

    2012-01-01

    The longterm goal of the ALICE experiment is to provide a precise characterization of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state. Such a determination of its properties including initial temperature, degrees of freedom, speed of sound, and in general, transport coefficients would be a major achievement. This would go a long way towards a better understanding of QCD as a genuine multi-particle theory. To achieve this goal, high statistics measurements are required, which will give access also to the very rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of this condensed phase of QCD. The general upgrade strategy for the ALICE central barrel is conceived to deal with this challenge with expected Pb-Pb interaction rates of up to 50 kHz, that would provide an accumulated sample of the order of 10 nb^-1 in the period 2019-2023. In this document we sketch the modifications/replacements needed in all ALICE central barrel detectors and online systems (Trigger, DAQ and HLT) for high luminosity running. As the ALICE for...

  12. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macadam Clare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  13. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmia Farida

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal diseases. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia. METHODS: A population-based survey was performed in Semarang, Indonesia. Nasopharyngeal swabs and questionnaires were taken from 496 healthy young (6-60 month-old children and 45-70 year-old adults. RESULTS: Forty-three percent of children aged 6-60 months and 11% of adults aged 45-75 years carried S. pneumoniae. Determinants of carriage were being a child (OR 7.7; 95% CI = 4.5-13.0, passive smoking (OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4, and contact with toddler(s at home (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.9-4.7. The most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B and 15B/C. The current commercially available vaccines cover <50% serotypes found in children. Twenty-four percent of S. pneumoniae strains were penicillin non-susceptible, and 45% were resistant to cotrimoxazol. CONCLUSIONS: The limited coverage of commercially available vaccines against the serotypes found in this population, and the high proportion of non-susceptibility to penicillin and cotrimoxazol suggest the need for region-specific information and strategies to control S. pneumoniae.

  14. Biofilm formation, gel and esp gene carriage among recreational beach Enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Ahmad; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Gires, Usup

    2014-06-12

    Biofilm production, gel and esp gene carriage was enumerated among forty six vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) beach isolates. A higher proportion (61.54%) of biofilm producers was observed among beach sand as compared to beach water enterococci isolates (30%) indicating that enterococci within the sand column may be more dependent on biofilm production for survival than their beach water counterparts. Correlation analysis revealed strongly negative correlation (r=-0.535, p=0.015) between vancomycin resistance and biofilm formation. Given the observation of high prevalence of biofilm production among beach sand and the concomitant absence of esp gene carriage in any of the isolate, esp gene carriage may not be necessary for the production of biofilms among beach sand isolates. On the whole beach sand and water isolates demonstrated clearly different prevalence levels of vancomycin resistance, biofilm formation, esp and gel gene carriage. Application of these differences may be found useful in beach microbial source tracking studies. Tested starved cells still produced biofilm albeit at lower efficiencies. Non-dividing enterococci in beach sand can survive extended periods of environmental hardship and can resume growth or biofilm production in appropriate conditions thus making them infectious agents with potential health risk to recreational beach users.

  15. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Helmia; Severin, Juliëtte A; Gasem, M Hussein; Keuter, Monique; Wahyono, Hendro; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W M; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal diseases. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia. A population-based survey was performed in Semarang, Indonesia. Nasopharyngeal swabs and questionnaires were taken from 496 healthy young (6-60 month-old) children and 45-70 year-old adults. Forty-three percent of children aged 6-60 months and 11% of adults aged 45-75 years carried S. pneumoniae. Determinants of carriage were being a child (OR 7.7; 95% CI = 4.5-13.0), passive smoking (OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4), and contact with toddler(s) at home (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.9-4.7). The most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B and 15B/C. The current commercially available vaccines cover <50% serotypes found in children. Twenty-four percent of S. pneumoniae strains were penicillin non-susceptible, and 45% were resistant to cotrimoxazol. The limited coverage of commercially available vaccines against the serotypes found in this population, and the high proportion of non-susceptibility to penicillin and cotrimoxazol suggest the need for region-specific information and strategies to control S. pneumoniae.

  16. Lifestyle-Associated Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in the Netherlands: An Exploratory Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda M L van Rijen

    Full Text Available Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA is rapidly increasing. Currently, it is unknown which reservoirs are involved. An exploratory hospital-based case-control study was performed in sixteen Dutch hospitals to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage in patients not belonging to established risk groups.Cases were in- or outpatients from sixteen Dutch hospitals, colonised or infected with MRSA without healthcare- or livestock-associated risk factors for MRSA carriage. Control subjects were patients not carrying MRSA, and hospitalised on the same ward or visited the same outpatients' clinic as the case. The presence of potential risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage was determined using a standardised questionnaire.Regular consumption of poultry (OR 2⋅40; 95% CI 1⋅08-5⋅33, cattle density per municipality (OR 1⋅30; 95% CI 1⋅00-1⋅70, and sharing of scuba diving equipment (OR 2⋅93 95% CI 1⋅19-7⋅21 were found to be independently associated with CA-MRSA carriage. CA-MRSA carriage was not related to being of foreign origin.The observed association between the consumption of poultry and CA-MRSA carriage suggests that MRSA in the food chain may be a source for MRSA carriage in humans. Although sharing of scuba diving equipment was found to be associated with CA-MRSA carriage, the role played by skin abrasions in divers, the lack of decontamination of diving materials, or the favourable high salt content of sea water is currently unclear. The risk for MRSA MC398 carriage in areas with a high cattle density may be due to environmental contamination with MRSA MC398 or human-to-human transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to determine the absolute risks of MRSA acquisition associated with the factors identified.

  17. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases.

  18. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is required...

  19. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against carriage of weapons... Flight Operations § 135.119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an aircraft being operated by a certificate holder, carry on or about that person a deadly or dangerous weapon...

  20. Density and duration of experimental human pneumococcal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritzfeld, J.F.; Cremers, A.J.H.; Ferwerda, G.; Ferreira, D.M.; Kadioglu, A.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Gordon, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The density and duration of pneumococcal carriage are considered to affect the likelihood of transmission and invasive disease. Because of its importance in both spreading and causing disease, carriage has been suggested as an endpoint in future vaccine studies. Culture is the current gold standard

  1. Predicting physiological capacity of human load carriage - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Jace; Billing, Daniel; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Aisbett, Brad

    2016-01-01

    This review article aims to evaluate a proposed maximum acceptable work duration model for load carriage tasks. It is contended that this concept has particular relevance to physically demanding occupations such as military and firefighting. Personnel in these occupations are often required to perform very physically demanding tasks, over varying time periods, often involving load carriage. Previous research has investigated concepts related to physiological workload limits in occupational settings (e.g. industrial). Evidence suggests however, that existing (unloaded) workload guidelines are not appropriate for load carriage tasks. The utility of this model warrants further work to enable prediction of load carriage durations across a range of functional workloads for physically demanding occupations. If the maximum duration for which personnel can physiologically sustain a load carriage task could be accurately predicted, commanders and supervisors could better plan for and manage tasks to ensure operational imperatives were met whilst minimising health risks for their workers.

  2. High voltage high repetition rate pulse using Marx topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, A.; Kashapov, N.

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes Marx topology using MOSFET transistors. Marx circuit with 10 stages has been done, to obtain pulses about 5.5KV amplitude, and the width of the pulses was about 30μsec with a high repetition rate (PPS > 100), Vdc = 535VDC is the input voltage for supplying the Marx circuit. Two Ferrite ring core transformers were used to control the MOSFET transistors of the Marx circuit (the first transformer to control the charging MOSFET transistors, the second transformer to control the discharging MOSFET transistors).

  3. Continued Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Carriage in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Susan S.; Hinrichsen, Virginia L.; Stevenson, Abbie E.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Pelton, Stephen I.; Lipsitch, Marc; Hanage, William P.; Lee, Grace M.; Finkelstein, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goals were to assess serial changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and antibiotic resistance in young children and to evaluate whether risk factors for carriage have been altered by heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS Nasopharyngeal specimens and questionnaire/medical record data were obtained from children 3 months to <7 years of age in primary care practices in 16 Massachusetts communities during the winter seasons of 2000–2001 and 2003–2004 and in 8 communities in 2006–2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotyping were performed with S pneumoniae isolates. RESULTS We collected 678, 988, and 972 specimens during the sampling periods in 2000–2001, 2003–2004, and 2006–2007, respectively. Carriage of non-PCV7 serotypes increased from 15% to 19% and 29% (P < .001), with vaccine serotypes decreasing to 3% of carried serotypes in 2006–2007. The relative contribution of several non-PCV7 serotypes, including 19A, 35B, and 23A, increased across sampling periods. By 2007, commonly carried serotypes included 19A (16%), 6A (12%), 15B/C (11%), 35B (9%), and 11A (8%), and high-prevalence serotypes seemed to have greater proportions of penicillin nonsusceptibility. In multivariate models, common predictors of pneumococcal carriage, such as child care attendance, upper respiratory tract infection, and the presence of young siblings, persisted. CONCLUSIONS The virtual disappearance of vaccine serotypes in S pneumoniae carriage has occurred in young children, with rapid replacement with penicillin-nonsusceptible nonvaccine serotypes, particularly 19A and 35B. Except for the age group at highest risk, previous predictors of carriage, such as child care attendance and the presence of young siblings, have not been changed by the vaccine. PMID:19564254

  4. Outbreaks of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in day care cohorts in Finland – implications for elimination of transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auranen Kari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care centre (DCC attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus in the population. Exposure within families and within DCCs are the main risk factors for colonisation with pneumococcal serotypes in DCC attendees. Methods Transmission of serotype specific carriage was analysed with a continuous time event history model, based on longitudinal data from day care attendees and their family members. Rates of acquisition, conditional on exposure, were estimated in a Bayesian framework utilising latent processes of carriage. To ensure a correct level of exposure, non-participating day care attendees and their family members were included in the analysis. Posterior predictive simulations were used to quantify transmission patterns within day care cohorts, to estimate the basic reproduction number for pneumococcal carriage in a population of day care cohorts, and to assess the critical vaccine efficacy against carriage to eliminate pneumococcal transmission. Results The model, validated by posterior predictive sampling, was successful in capturing the strong temporal clustering of pneumococcal serotypes in the day care cohorts. In average 2.7 new outbreaks of pneumococcal carriage initiate in a day care cohort each month. While 39% of outbreaks were of size one, the mean outbreak size was 7.6 individuals and the mean length of an outbreak was 2.8 months. The role of families in creating and maintaining transmission was minimal, as only 10% of acquisitions in day care attendees were from family members. Considering a population of day care cohorts, a child-to-child basic reproduction number was estimated as 1.4 and the critical vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage as 0.3. Conclusion Pneumococcal transmission occurs in serotype specific outbreaks of carriage, driven by within-day-care transmission and between-serotype competition. An amplifying effect of the day

  5. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with

  6. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  7. Analysis of nasopharyngeal carriage rate and antibiotic resistance of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from children with respiratory tract infections%呼吸道感染患儿卡他莫拉菌携带情况及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小平; 史伟; 熊维; 彭拥军; 袁林; 田进; 姚开虎; 陈长会

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解重庆酉阳地区呼吸道感染患儿鼻咽部卡他莫拉菌的携带情况及抗生素耐药性特征,供临床用药参考.方法 采集2015年1月至12月重庆医科大学附属第一医院酉阳医院儿科住院呼吸道感染患儿鼻咽拭子标本,分离培养卡他莫拉菌,采用E-test法和纸片扩散法检测分离株的抗生素敏感性,结合欧洲抗菌药物敏感性判定(EUCAST)标准、美国临床实验室国家标准委员会(CLSI) 2014年标准和英国抗微生物化疗学会(BSAC)标准3种判读标准解读检测结果.用头孢硝噻吩纸片法检测分离株是否产β-内酰胺酶.结果 共采集1 054例1个月~l2岁患儿鼻咽拭子标本,分离出卡他莫拉菌101株,总携带率为9.6%.≤3岁患儿分离阳性率较高,为10.5%(90/860例).夏季分离率低(4.0%,8/200例),冬季分离率高(13.8%,52/378例).99.0%(100/101例)的菌株产β-内酰胺酶.所有菌株对阿莫西林-克拉维酸敏感;根据EUCAST和CLSI2014年标准,分离株对头孢菌素均较为敏感;CLSI 2014年标准下,分离株对红霉素的耐药率仅为15.8%(16/101例);根据BSAC标准判读时,氨苄西林耐药率为68.3%(69/101例),头孢呋辛的中介率和耐药率分别达45.5%(46/101例)和49.5%(50/101例).结论 重庆酉阳地区呼吸道感染住院患儿中≤3岁儿童鼻咽部携带卡他莫拉菌较其他年龄段更为常见,冬季多见;几乎所有分离株产β-内酰胺酶对阿莫西林-克拉维酸普遍敏感.%Objective To investigate the nasopharyngeal carriage rate and antibiotic resistance profiles of Moraxella catarrhalis among children with respiratory tract infections in Chongqing Youyang County in order to provide data for clinical drug selection.Methods Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from children with respiratory tract infection admitted at the Department of Pediatrics,Youyang Hospital,the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January to

  8. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.

  9. The Myth of a High Savings Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to entice consumers to save less and spend more, China has focused on perfecting its social security system, reforming taxation and dividend-sharing proportion between the government and state-owned enterprises. Liu Yuhui, Director of the China Economy Appraisal and Rating Center at the Institute of Finance and Banking, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, offered his insights in an Economic Observer article. Edited excerpts follow

  10. The Combustion of HMX. [burning rate at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, T. L.; Price, C. F.; Atwood, A. I.; Zurn, D. E.; Eisel, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The burn rate of HMX was measured at high pressures (p more than 1000 psi). The self deflagration rate of HMX was determined from 1 atmosphere to 50,000 psi. The burning rate shows no significant slope breaks.

  11. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  12. The PneuCarriage Project: A Multi-Centre Comparative Study to Identify the Best Serotyping Methods for Examining Pneumococcal Carriage in Vaccine Evaluation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satzke, Catherine; Dunne, Eileen M.; Porter, Barbara D.; Klugman, Keith P.; Mulholland, E. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background The pneumococcus is a diverse pathogen whose primary niche is the nasopharynx. Over 90 different serotypes exist, and nasopharyngeal carriage of multiple serotypes is common. Understanding pneumococcal carriage is essential for evaluating the impact of pneumococcal vaccines. Traditional serotyping methods are cumbersome and insufficient for detecting multiple serotype carriage, and there are few data comparing the new methods that have been developed over the past decade. We established the PneuCarriage project, a large, international multi-centre study dedicated to the identification of the best pneumococcal serotyping methods for carriage studies. Methods and Findings Reference sample sets were distributed to 15 research groups for blinded testing. Twenty pneumococcal serotyping methods were used to test 81 laboratory-prepared (spiked) samples. The five top-performing methods were used to test 260 nasopharyngeal (field) samples collected from children in six high-burden countries. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were determined for the test methods and the reference method (traditional serotyping of >100 colonies from each sample). For the alternate serotyping methods, the overall sensitivity ranged from 1% to 99% (reference method 98%), and PPV from 8% to 100% (reference method 100%), when testing the spiked samples. Fifteen methods had ≥70% sensitivity to detect the dominant (major) serotype, whilst only eight methods had ≥70% sensitivity to detect minor serotypes. For the field samples, the overall sensitivity ranged from 74.2% to 95.8% (reference method 93.8%), and PPV from 82.2% to 96.4% (reference method 99.6%). The microarray had the highest sensitivity (95.8%) and high PPV (93.7%). The major limitation of this study is that not all of the available alternative serotyping methods were included. Conclusions Most methods were able to detect the dominant serotype in a sample, but many performed poorly in detecting the minor

  13. LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER PERFORMANCE AT HIGH RATES

    CERN Document Server

    Kukhtin, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap and forward calorimeters has been projected at the planned high luminosity LHC option HL-LHC by exposing small calorimeter modules of the electromagnetic, hadronic, and forward calorimeters to high intensity proton beams at IHEP/Protvino accelerator. The results of HV current and of pulse shape analysis, and also the dependence of signal amplitude on beam intensity are presented.

  14. Asymptomatic Group A Streptococcus carriage in children with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, Isabela P Olivetti; Sanchez, Daniela Cristina Janolli; Di Francesco, Renata

    2016-07-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the most important bacterial cause of acute tonsillitis in children. Some children are chronic GAS carriers, and this carriage is poorly understood. We determined the frequency of GAS detection using a rapid antigen detection test in pediatric patients with indications for tonsillectomy due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy or recurrent GAS infections. Seventy-two patients underwent a tonsil swab for a rapid antigen detection test. The GAS rapid antigen detection test was positive in 18.1% of children. GAS was not associated with sex, age or previous history of recurrent tonsillitis. Also, the prevalence of GAS was similar between patients with either recurrent tonsillitis or tonsil hypertrophy. In our study, the GAS carriage rate was similar to other reports, and GAS carrier state was not correlated with recurrent tonsillitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  16. High Reproduction Rate versus Sexual Fidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss

    2000-01-01

    We introduce fidelity into the bit-string Penna model for biological ageing and study the advantage of this fidelity when it produces a higher survival probability of the offspring due to paternal care. We attribute a lower reproduction rate to the faithful males but a higher death probability to the offspring of non-faithful males that abandon the pups to mate other females. The fidelity is considered as a genetic trait which is transmitted to the male offspring (with or without error). We s...

  17. Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160256.html Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC ... lot of progress in getting Americans to stop smoking, some groups still have high smoking rates, a ...

  18. An Integrated Musculoskeletal-Finite-Element Model to Evaluate Effects of Load Carriage on the Tibia During Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Silder, Amy; Zhang, Ju; Hughes, Julie; Unnikrishnan, Ginu; Reifman, Jaques; Rakesh, Vineet

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have assessed the effects of load carriage on the tibia. Here, we expand on these studies and investigate the effects of load carriage on joint reaction forces (JRFs) and the resulting spatiotemporal stress/strain distributions in the tibia. Using full-body motion and ground reaction forces from a female subject, we computed joint and muscle forces during walking for four load carriage conditions. We applied these forces as physiological loading conditions in a finite-element (FE) analysis to compute strain and stress. We derived material properties from computed tomography (CT) images of a sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched subject using a mesh morphing and mapping algorithm, and used them within the FE model. Compared to walking with no load, the knee JRFs were the most sensitive to load carriage, increasing by as much as 26.2% when carrying a 30% of body weight (BW) load (ankle: 16.4% and hip: 19.0%). Moreover, our model revealed disproportionate increases in internal JRFs with increases in load carriage, suggesting a coordinated adjustment in the musculature functions in the lower extremity. FE results reflected the complex effects of spatially varying material properties distribution and muscular engagement on tibial biomechanics during walking. We observed high stresses on the anterior crest and the medial surface of the tibia at pushoff, whereas high cumulative stress during one walking cycle was more prominent in the medioposterior aspect of the tibia. Our findings reinforce the need to include: (1) physiologically accurate loading conditions when modeling healthy subjects undergoing short-term exercise training and (2) the duration of stress exposure when evaluating stress-fracture injury risk. As a fundamental step toward understanding the instantaneous effect of external loading, our study presents a means to assess the relationship between load carriage and bone biomechanics.

  19. High frame rate imaging based photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West; Jørgensen, U. G.; Andersen, M. I.;

    2012-01-01

    in conventional CCDs, and new methods for handling these must be developed. We aim to investigate how the normal photometric reduction steps from conventional CCDs should be adjusted to be applicable to EMCCD data. One complication is that a bias frame cannot be obtained conventionally, as the output from...... an EMCCD is not normally distributed. Also, the readout process generates spurious charges in any CCD, but in EMCCD data, these charges are visible as opposed to the conventional CCD. Furthermore we aim to eliminate the photon waste associated with lucky imaging by combining this method with shift......-and-add. A simple probabilistic model for the dark output of an EMCCD is developed. Fitting this model with the expectation-maximization algorithm allows us to estimate the bias, readout noise, amplification, and spurious charge rate per pixel and thus correct for these phenomena. To investigate the stability...

  20. Nasopharyngeal carriage, antibiogram & serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy under five children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Information related to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children is scanty in India. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the presence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization, assess serogroups/types (SGT and drug resistance of S. pneumoniae in children below five years of age. Methods: A total of 109 male and 81 female children in the age group of three months to five years belonging to different socio-economic classes were enrolled. They were recruited across all age groups from those attending paediatric OPD of a tertiary care and research centre for immunization program. Fifty three isolates identified as pneumococci were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion and E-Test methods. Serotyping was performed by detection of the quelling reaction with specific antiserum. Result: The pneumococcal carriage rate in the study population was 27.9 per cent. The isolation rate was associated with age being higher (49.2% in smaller children (3-12 months and among male (62.2%. The most prevalent SGTs were 19 followed by 10, 14 and 7; 21 per cent of isolates belonging to serotype 10 (n=7 were 11 (n=4 were not covered in any of the conjugate vaccines currently available in Indian market. Resistance to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin was observed in 91 per cent (n=48, 36 per cent (n=19, 17 per cent (n=9 and 9 per cent (n=5 isolates, respectively. All the penicillin resistant isolates were found to be intermediately resistant by E-Test. Multidrug resistance was observed in 19 per cent (n=10 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: High level of antibiotic resistance was present in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children below age five. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the prevailing SGTs would help to reduce the pool of antibiotic resistant pneumococci. Continued surveillance of serotypes and tracking

  1. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D.; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller. PMID:27446749

  2. High pressure, high strain rate material strength studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, B. A.; Arsenlis, A.; Barton, N.; Belof, J.; Cavallo, R.; Maddox, B.; Park, H.-S.; Prisbrey, S.; Rudd, R.; Comley, A.; Meyers, M.; Wark, J.

    2011-10-01

    Constitutive models for material strength are currently being tested at high pressures by comparing 2D simulations with experiments measuring the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability evolution in solid-state samples of vanadium (V), tantalum (Ta), and iron (Fe). The multiscale strength models being tested combine molecular dynamics, dislocation dynamics, and continuum simulations. Our analysis for the V experiments suggests that the material deformation at these conditions falls into the phonon drag regime, whereas for Ta, the deformation resides mainly in the thermal activation regime. Recent Fe-RT experiments suggest perturbation growth about the alpha-epsilon (bcc-hcp) phase transition threshold has been observed. Using the LLNL multiscale models, we decompose the strength as a function of strain rate into its dominant components of thermal activation, phonon drag, and work hardening. We have also developed a dynamic diffraction diagnostic technique to measure strength directly from shock compressed single crystal samples. Finally, recovery experiments allow a comparison of residual dislocation density with predictions from the multiscale model. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by LLNL Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2015-01-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60MHz/cm$^2$. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48cm$\\times$50cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50$\\mu$m at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below $5^\\circ$ are observed. Systematic deviations of this $\\mu$TPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4cm$\\time...

  4. A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study of Vaginal Carriage of Group B Streptococci (GBS and Escherichia coli in Resource-Poor Settings: Prevalences and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Cools

    Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of

  5. High dose rate brachytherapy source measurement intercomparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Smith, Ryan L; Shelton, Nikki; Whitaker, May; Butler, Duncan; Haworth, Annette

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR (192)Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single (192)Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the (192)Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR. The comparisons showed remarkably consistent results with the maximum deviation in measurement from the decay-corrected source certificate value being 1.1%. The maximum percentage difference between any two measurements was less than 2%. The comparisons demonstrated the consistency of well-chambers used for (192)Ir AKR measurements in Australia, despite the lack of a local calibration service, and served as a valuable focal point for the exchange of ideas and dosimetry methods.

  6. Liquid argon calorimeter performance at high rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $10^{12}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  7. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  8. High-deposition-rate ceramics synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Outka, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Parallel experimental and computational investigations are conducted in this project to develop validated numerical models of ceramic synthesis processes. Experiments are conducted in the High-Temperature Materials Synthesis Laboratory in Sandia`s Combustion Research Facility. A high-temperature flow reactor that can accommodate small preforms (1-3 cm diameter) generates conditions under which deposition can be observed, with flexibility to vary both deposition temperature (up to 1500 K) and pressure (as low as 10 torr). Both mass spectrometric and laser diagnostic probes are available to provide measurements of gas-phase compositions. Experiments using surface analytical techniques are also applied to characterize important processes occuring on the deposit surface. Computational tools developed through extensive research in the combustion field are employed to simulate the chemically reacting flows present in typical industrial reactors. These include the CHEMKIN and Surface-CHEMKIN suites of codes, which permit facile development of complex reaction mechanisms and vastly simplify the implementation of multi-component transport and thermodynamics. Quantum chemistry codes are also used to estimate thermodynamic and kinetic data for species and reactions for which this information is unavailable.

  9. 浅析婴儿车的人性化设计%ANALYSIS OF BABY CARRIAGE USER-FRIENDLY DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马广韬; 周铎

    2015-01-01

    在婴儿车的设计中,设计者往往重视婴儿车的外观造型而轻视它的人性化设计,这样导致了婴儿车的使用效果欠佳,安全性与功能合理性等方面出现严重的问题。本文以人性化设计为出发点,通过站在亲子性,启发性,安全性,功能性这四个方面来分析与研究婴儿车的人性化设计。旨在使婴儿车的设计更加以人为本,高度体现婴儿车人性化设计理念。使婴儿车的设计能更加满足使用者的情感需求,在功能上也能更合理、安全地为使用者所使用。%In baby carriage design, the designers often pay attention to the appearance molding of the baby carriage but despise the user-friendly design, causing unsatisfactory use effect and serious problem of security and function rationality. This article takes user-friendly design as a starting point, and analyzes and studies the user-friendly design of the baby carriage through the four aspects of parent-child, inspiration, security and functionality. The design is intended to make the baby carriage more people-oriented, and highly manifests the humanized design of the baby carriage, which enables the baby carriage design to satisfy user's emotion demands and makes the function more reasonable and safe for the user.

  10. ethiopian law of international carriage by air: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Air law, international carriage by air, the 1929 Warsaw Convention, liability of the carrier ... 4 Laws regulating balloon flights were in place in, for example, France during the 18th century; see ..... affected air carriers flying to and from Italy.

  11. [Research and production of air cleaner for traveller train carriage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Z

    1998-07-01

    After the traveller train carriage is closed, the air pollution would be serious in the carriage. In order to control the air pollution, the air cleaning technology must be studied and the air cleaner for the carriage must be designed. The authors discussed. 1. Working out a technology scheme and main technology parameter for the air cleaner, and the structure design of the air cleaner. 2. Texting the function and performance of the air cleaner. 3. Investigating the effectiveness of the cleaner in same train sections. Thereby it will be confirmed that the air cleaner can improve the air environment in the carriage, and give convincingly security to the health of attendants and travellers.

  12. 高湿地区不同海拔人群鼻腔nuc-mecA基因定植研究%Differences of Nuc-mecA Gene Carriage in the Noses among Different Altitudes in High Humidity District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡娟; 薛怀裕; 呼永河

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查高湿地区不同海拔高度世居人群鼻腔内 nuc-mecA基因定植情况,为高原高湿地区金黄色葡萄球菌及甲氧西林耐药病原菌的防治和抗生素的合理使用提供数据。方法收集1000 m,1200 m和1400 m三个不同海拔高度人群鼻拭子样本,采用多通道实时荧光 PCR技术检测其鼻腔 nuc-mecA基因,比较不同海拔高度人群鼻腔 nuc 基因及mecA基因差异。结果1000 m,1200 m和1400 m三个不同海拔高度地区人群鼻腔内nuc基因定植率分别为4.878%,2.899%和7.143%,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05)。1000 m,1200m和1400 m三个海拔高度地区人群鼻腔 mecA基因定植率分别为:14.634%,31.884%和41.837%。海拔1000 m人群与海拔1200 m人群相比,其鼻腔内mecA基因定植率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);海拔1000 m人群与海拔1400 m人群相比,其鼻腔内mecA基因定植率差异有统计学显著性意义(P<0.01)。1000 m,1200 m 和1400 m 三个海拔高度地区人群鼻腔 nuc-mecA 基因定植率分别为:0%,1.449%和3.061%,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05)。结论随着海拔的升高,耐甲氧西林mecA基因在鼻腔内的定植显著增多。较高海拔地区居民应注意保持鼻腔等病原菌易定植部位的清洁,患病后应及时去医院就诊,不擅自使用抗生素;医务人员应合理谨慎使用抗菌药物,避免抗生素的滥用和过度医疗。%Objective To investigate the carriage of nuc-mecA gene among different altitudes in high humidity district,provid-ed guiding data for prevention of staphylococcus aureus and drug-resistant bacteria,standardizing the usage for antibiotics. Methods The nose swabs were collected in different altitudes:1 000 m,1 200 m and 1 400 m,nuc-mecAgene was confirmed by multi-channel real-time PCR.Results The carrier of nuc gene in the noses were 4.878%,2.899% and 7.143%,in 1 000 m,1 200 m and 1 400 m

  13. High rate fabrication of compression molded components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Dykstra, William C.; Smith, Glen L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2016-04-19

    A method for fabricating a thermoplastic composite component comprises inductively heating a thermoplastic pre-form with a first induction coil by inducing current to flow in susceptor wires disposed throughout the pre-form, inductively heating smart susceptors in a molding tool to a leveling temperature with a second induction coil by applying a high-strength magnetic field having a magnetic flux that passes through surfaces of the smart susceptors, shaping the magnetic flux that passes through surfaces of the smart susceptors to flow substantially parallel to a molding surface of the smart susceptors, placing the heated pre-form between the heated smart susceptors; and applying molding pressure to the pre-form to form the composite component.

  14. The modern high rate digital cassette recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemow, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic tape recorder has played an essential role in the capture and storage of instrumentation data for more than thirty years. During this time, data recording technology has steadily progressed to meet user demands for more channels, wider bandwidths, and longer recording durations. When acquisition and processing moved from analog to digital techniques, so recorder design followed suit. Milestones marking the evolution of the data recorder through these various stages - multi-track analog, high density longitudinal digital, and more recently rotary digital - have often represented important breakthroughs in the handling of ever-greater quantities of data. Throughout this period there has been a very clear line of demarcation between data storage methods in the 'instrumentation world' on the one hand and the 'computer peripheral world' on the other. This is despite the fact that instrumentation data, whether analog or digital at the point of acquisition, is now likely to be processed on a digital computer at some stage. Regardless of whether the processing device is a small personal computer, a workstation, or the largest supercomputer, system integrators have traditionally been faced with the same basic problem - how to interface what is essentially a manually controlled, continuously running device (the tape recorder) into the fast start/stop computer environment without resorting to an excessive amount of complex custom interfacing and performance compromise. The increasing availability of affordable high power processing equipment throughout the scientific world is forcing recorder manufacturers to make their latest and perhaps most important breakthrough - the computer-friendly data recorder. The operating characteristics of such recorders are discussed and the resultant impact on both data acquisition and data analysis elements of system configuration are considered.

  15. Effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on neuromuscular function and locomotion: a military-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane G Grenier

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Trekking and military missions generally consist of carrying heavy loads for extreme durations. These factors have been separately shown to be sources of neuromuscular (NM fatigue and locomotor alterations. However, the question of their combined effects remains unresolved, and addressing this issue required a representative context. PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on NM function and walking characteristics. METHODS: Ten experienced infantrymen performed a 21-h simulated military mission (SMM in a middle-mountain environment with equipment weighing ∼27 kg during battles and ∼43 kg during marches. NM function was evaluated for knee extensors (KE and plantar flexors (PF pre- and immediately post-SMM using isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC measurement, neural electrical stimulation and surface EMG. The twitch-interpolation method was used to assess central fatigue. Peripheral changes were examined by stimulating the muscle in the relaxed state. The energy cost, mechanical work and spatio-temporal pattern of walking were also evaluated pre-/post-SMM on an instrumented treadmill in three equipment conditions: Sportswear, Battle and March. RESULTS: After the SMM, MVC declined by -10.2±3.6% for KE (P<0.01 and -10.7±16.1% for PF (P = 0.06. The origin of fatigue was essentially peripheral for both muscle groups. A trend toward low-frequency fatigue was detected for KE (5.5%, P = 0.08. These moderate NM alterations were concomitant with a large increase in perceived fatigue from pre- (rating of 8.3±2.2 to post-SMM (15.9±2.1, P<0.01. The SMM-related fatigue did not alter walking energetics or mechanics, and the different equipment carried on the treadmill did not interact with this fatigue either. CONCLUSION: this study reports the first data on physiological and biomechanical consequences of extreme-duration heavy load carriage. Unexpectedly, NM function

  16. Oropharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacteria among military conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Jounio, U. (Ulla)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this work were to study the carriage of respiratory bacteria and to identify risk factors affecting pharyngeal colonisation by these pathogens among young Finnish men during military service, and also to investigate the role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) concentrations and MBL2 gene polymorphisms in the carriage of respiratory bacteria. A total of 892 military recruits entering the Kainuu Brigade, including 224 men with asthma, were followed up prospectively to ...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus nasal and pharyngeal carriage in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C; Richard, V; Dufougeray, A; Biron, A; Seck, A; Laurent, F; Breurec, S

    2014-04-01

    Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 132 patients admitted to the Principal Hospital in Dakar (Senegal), in January and February 2012. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage was 56.1% (n = 74): 40.2% for pharyngeal samples and 36.4% for nasal samples. None of the isolates was methicillin-resistant. Carriage was independently associated with being female (p Senegal as compared with industrialized countries.

  18. High data rate optical transceiver terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, E. S.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to design a 400 Mbps optical transceiver terminal to operate from a high-altitude balloon-borne platform in order to permit the quantitative evaluation of a space-qualifiable optical communications system design, (2) to design an atmospheric propagation experiment to operate in conjunction with the terminal to measure the degrading effects of the atmosphere on the links, and (3) to design typical optical communications experiments for space-borne laboratories in the 1980-1990 time frame. As a result of the study, a transceiver package has been configured for demonstration flights during late 1974. The transceiver contains a 400 Mbps transmitter, a 400 Mbps receiver, and acquisition and tracking receivers. The transmitter is a Nd:YAG, 200 Mhz, mode-locked, CW, diode-pumped laser operating at 1.06 um requiring 50 mW for 6 db margin. It will be designed to implement Pulse Quaternary Modulation (PQM). The 400 Mbps receiver utilizes a Dynamic Crossed-Field Photomultiplier (DCFP) detector. The acquisition receiver is a Quadrant Photomultiplier Tube (QPMT) and receives a 400 Mbps signal chopped at 0.1 Mhz.

  19. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  20. Nasal carriage screening of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children of a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasherizadeh, Sina; Shojaei, Hasan; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Davoodabadi, Fazlollah; Khorvash, Farzin; Kushki, Ali Mehrabi; Daei-Naser, Abbas; Ghanbari, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has raised considerable public health concern in both developed and developing countries. The current study aimed to address the extent of this phenomenon in healthy preschool children of a developing country. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective study from April 2013 to March 2014 on 410 healthy 2-6 years old preschool children in Isfahan, Iran. Demographic medical data and nasal samples were collected from the participating children. Isolates were identified as S. aureus and MRSA based on microbiological and molecular tests, including the presence of eap and mecA genes. Results: The overall prevalence of S. aureus and CA-MRSA nasal carriage was 28% (115/410) and 6.1% (25/410), respectively. The identity of isolates was confirmed by molecular assay. The factors that were independently associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus were: Children crowding in day-care nurseries and income level of families. A total of 20/90 (22.2%) of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and all 25 CA-MRSA displayed multiple drug resistance to 3–8 antibiotics. Conclusions: The current report reflects issues and concerns that the high rate of colonization by CA-MRSA in Iranian healthy children provides obliging evidence that MRSA have established a foothold in the community and are emerging as important health threatening pathogens. It is suggested that we need more effective infection control measures to prevent transmission of nasal CA-MRSA in healthy preschool children. PMID:27656613

  1. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  2. Rapid screening for carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by PCR and associated costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühlmann, Manuela; Bögli-Stuber, Katja; Droz, Sara; Mühlemann, Kathrin

    2008-07-01

    PCR tests for the rapid and valid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are now available. We evaluated the costs associated with contact screening for MRSA carriage in a tertiary-care hospital with low MRSA endemicity. Between 1 October 2005 and 28 February 2006, 232 patients were screened during 258 screening episodes (644 samples) for MRSA carriage by GenoType MRSA Direct (Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany). Conventional culture confirmed all PCR results. According to in-house algorithms, 34 of 258 screening episodes (14.7%) would have qualified for preemptive contact isolation, but such isolation was not done upon negative PCR results. MRSA carriage was detected in 4 (1.5%) of 258 screening episodes (i.e., in four patients), of which none qualified for preemptive contact isolation. The use of PCR for all 258 screening episodes added costs (in Swiss francs [CHF]) of CHF 104,328.00 and saved CHF 38,528.00 (for preemptive isolation). The restriction of PCR screening to the 34 episodes that qualified for preemptive contact isolation and screening all others by culture would have lowered costs for PCR to only CHF 11,988.00, a savings of CHF 38,528.00. Therefore, PCR tests are valuable for the rapid detection of MRSA carriers, but high costs require the careful evaluation of their use. In patient populations with low MRSA endemicity, the broad use of PCR probably is not cost-effective.

  3. Epidemiology of pneumococcal serotype 6A and 6C among invasive and carriage isolates from Alaska, 1986–2009☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen; Bruce, Michael; Bruden, Dana; Zulz, Tammy; Wenger, Jay; Reasonover, Alisa; Harker-Jones, Marcella; Hurlburt, Debby; Hennessy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigated serotype 6A/6C invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence, genetic diversity, and carriage before and after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Alaska. IPD cases (1986–2009) were identified through population-based laboratory surveillance. Isolates were initially serotyped by conventional methods, and 6C isolates were differentiated from 6A by polymerase chain reaction. Among invasive and carriage isolates initially typed as 6A, 35% and 50% were identified as 6C, respectively. IPD rates caused by serotype 6A or 6C among children <5 years did not change from the pre- to post-PCV7 period (P = 0.71 and P = 0.09, respectively). Multilocus sequence typing of IPD isolates revealed 28 sequence types. The proportion of serotype 6A carriage isolates decreased from 7.4% pre-PCV7 to 1.8% (P < 0.001) during 2008–2009; the proportion of serotype 6C carriage isolates increased from 3.0% to 8.4% (P = 0.004) among children <5 years. Continued surveillance is warranted to monitor changes in serotype distribution and prevalence. PMID:23276772

  4. Strain rate effect in high-speed wire drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Van Houtte, P.; Van Bael, A.; Mei, F.; Sarban, A.; Boesman, P.; Galvez, F.; Atienza, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a study on the strain rate effect during high-speed wire drawing process by means of finite element simulation. Based on the quasistatic stresses obtained by normal tensile tests and dynamic stresses at high strain rates by split Hopkinson pressure bar tests, the wire drawing process was simulated for low carbon steel and high carbon steel. The results show that both the deformation process and the final properties of drawn wires are influenced by the strain rate.

  5. High-Rate Strong-Signal Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    1996-01-01

    Several quantum cryptosystems utilizing different kinds of nonclassical lights, which can accommodate high intensity fields and high data rate, are described. However, they are all sensitive to loss and both the high rate and the strong-signal character rapidly disappear. A squeezed light homodyne detection scheme is proposed which, with present-day technology, leads to more than two orders of magnitude data rate improvement over other current experimental systems for moderate loss.

  6. High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162069.html High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975 Most of ... News) -- The number of people worldwide with high blood pressure has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, ...

  7. High-shear-rate capillary viscometer for inkjet inks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xi [FUJIFILM Dimatix, Inc., Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Carr, Wallace W.; Bucknall, David G. [School of Polymer, Textile, and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Morris, Jeffrey F. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Benjamin Levich Institute for Physico-Chemical Hydrodynamics, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A capillary viscometer developed to measure the apparent shear viscosity of inkjet inks at high apparent shear rates encountered during inkjet printing is described. By using the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch equation, true shear viscosity versus true shear rate is obtained. The device is comprised of a constant-flow generator, a static pressure monitoring device, a high precision submillimeter capillary die, and a high stiffness flow path. The system, which is calibrated using standard Newtonian low-viscosity silicone oil, can be easily operated and maintained. Results for measurement of the shear-rate-dependent viscosity of carbon-black pigmented water-based inkjet inks at shear rates up to 2x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} are discussed. The Cross model was found to closely fit the experimental data. Inkjet ink samples with similar low-shear-rate viscosities exhibited significantly different shear viscosities at high shear rates depending on particle loading.

  8. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate applicati

  9. High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chun

    2011-01-01

    An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

  10. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  11. Subclinical infection and asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses: occupational exposure, environmental pathways, and the anonymous spread of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, R S; Cross, P; Williams, A Prysor; Edwards-Jones, G; Salmon, R L; Rigby, D; Chalmers, R M; Thomas, D Rh; Jones, D L

    2013-10-01

    Asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses is more common in people whose profession involves them working directly with domesticated animals. Subclinical infections (defined as an infection in which symptoms are either asymptomatic or sufficiently mild to escape diagnosis) are important within a community as unknowing (asymptomatic) carriers of pathogens do not change their behaviour to prevent the spread of disease; therefore the public health significance of asymptomatic human excretion of zoonoses should not be underestimated. However, optimal strategies for managing diseases where asymptomatic carriage instigates further infection remain unresolved, and the impact on disease management is unclear. In this review we consider the environmental pathways associated with prolonged antigenic exposure and critically assess the significance of asymptomatic carriage in disease outbreaks. Although screening high-risk groups for occupationally acquired diseases would be logistically problematical, there may be an economic case for identifying and treating asymptomatic carriage if the costs of screening and treatment are less than the costs of identifying and treating those individuals infected by asymptomatic hosts.

  12. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Farida (Helmia); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); M.H. Gasem; M. Keuter (Monique); H. Wahyono (Hendro); P. van den Broek (Peterhans); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control

  13. Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in Pneumonia-Prone Age Groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farida, H.; Severin, J.A.; Gasem, M.H.; Keuter, M.; Wahyono, H.; Broek, P van den; Hermans, P.W.M.; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal

  14. Healthcare Workers’ Hand Microbiome May Mediate Carriage of Hospital Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rosenthal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One function of skin microbiota is to resist colonization and infection by external microorganisms. We sought to detect whether the structure of the hand microbiota of 34 healthcare workers (HCW in a surgical intensive care unit mediates or modifies the relationship between demographic and behavioral factors and potential pathogen carriage on hands after accounting for pathogen exposure. We used a taxonomic screen (16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial community, and qPCR to detect presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and Candida albicans on their dominant hands. Hands were sampled weekly over a 3-week period. Age, hand hygiene, and work shift were significantly associated with potential pathogen carriage and the associations were pathogen dependent. Additionally, the overall hand microbiota structure was associated with the carriage of potential pathogens. Hand microbiota community structure may act as a biomarker of pathogen carriage, and modifying that structure may potentially limit pathogen carriage among HCW.

  15. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other respiratory bacterial pathogens in low and lower-middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Adegbola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low income countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs are still underused. In countries where PCVs have been introduced, much of their efficacy has resulted from their impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in vaccinated children. Understanding the epidemiology of carriage for S. pneumoniae and other common respiratory bacteria in developing countries is crucial for implementing appropriate vaccination strategies and evaluating their impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have systematically reviewed published studies reporting nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria meningitidis in children and adults in low and lower-middle income countries. Studies reporting pneumococcal carriage for healthy children <5 years of age were selected for a meta-analysis. The prevalences of carriage for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were generally higher in low income than in lower-middle income countries and were higher in young children than in adults. The prevalence of S. aureus was high in neonates. Meta-analysis of data from young children before the introduction of PCVs showed a pooled prevalence estimate of 64.8% (95% confidence interval, 49.8%-76.1% in low income countries and 47.8% (95% confidence interval, 44.7%-50.8% in lower-middle income countries. The most frequent serotypes were 6A, 6B, 19A, 19F, and 23F. CONCLUSIONS: In low and lower-middle income countries, pneumococcal carriage is frequent, especially in children, and the spectrum of serotypes is wide. However, because data are limited, additional studies are needed to adequately assess the impact of PCV introduction on carriage of respiratory bacteria in these countries.

  16. Miniature High Stability High Temperature Space Rated Blackbody Radiance Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Beswick, A. G.

    1987-09-01

    This paper presents the design and test performance of a conical cavity type blackbody radiance source that will meet the requirements of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite program (UARS). Since a radiance source meeting the requirements of this experiment was unavailable in the commercial market, a development effort was undertaken by the HALOE Project. The blackbody radiance source operates in vacuum at 1300 K + 0.5 K over any 15-minute interval, uses less than 7.5 watts of power, maintains a 49°C outer case temperature, and fits within the 2.5 x 2.5 x 3.0 inch envelope allocated inside the HALOE instrument. Also, the unit operates in air, during ground testing of the HALOE instrument, where it uses 17 watts of power with an outer case temperature of 66°C. The thrust of this design effort was to minimize the heat losses, in order to keep the power usage under 7.5 watts, and to minimize the amount of silica in the materials. Silica in the presence of the platinum heater winding used in this design would cause the platinum to erode, changing the operating temperature set-point. The design required the development of fabrication techniques which would provide very small, close tolerance parts from extremely difficult-to-machine materials. Also, a space rated ceramic core and unique, low thermal conductance, ceramic-to-metal joint was developed, tested and incorporated in this design. The completed flight qualification hardware has undergone performance, environmental and life testing. The design configuration and test results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Long-term impact of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage in children previously vaccinated with various pneumococcal conjugate vaccine regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn; Cheung, Yin Bun; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, E Kim; Licciardi, Paul V; Satzke, Catherine

    2015-10-13

    Previously, the Fiji Pneumococcal Project (FiPP) evaluated reduced dose immunization schedules that incorporated pneumococcal protein conjugate and/or polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7 and 23vPPV, respectively). Immune hyporesponsiveness was observed in children vaccinated with 23vPPV at 12 months of age compared with children who did not receive 23vPPV. Here we assess the long-term impact of 23vPPV vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage rates and densities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (n=194) were obtained from healthy children who participated in FiPP (now aged 5-7 years). S. pneumoniae were isolated and identified by standard culture-based methods, and serotyped using latex agglutination and the Quellung reaction. Carriage rates and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus and M. catarrhalis were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. There were no differences in the rate or density of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis carriage by PCV7 dose or 23vPPV vaccination in the vaccinated participants overall. However, differences were observed between the two main ethnic groups: Fijian children of Indian descent (Indo-Fijian) were less likely to carry S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and there was evidence of a higher carriage rate of S. aureus compared with indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) children. Polysaccharide vaccination appeared to have effects that varied between ethnic groups, with 23vPPV vaccination associated with a higher carriage rate of S. aureus in iTaukei children, while there was a lower carriage rate of S. pneumoniae associated with 23vPPV vaccination in Indo-Fijian children. Overall, polysaccharide vaccination had no long-term impact on pneumococcal carriage, but may have impacted on S. aureus carriage and have varying effects in ethnic groups, suggesting current WHO vaccine schedule recommendations against the use of 23v

  18. Are high real interest rates bad for world economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    There is a conventional perception that high real interest rates are bad for economic growth. However, the authors show that close examination of the experience over the last 40 years undermines the existence of such a relationship. For much of the 1950-79 period, expost real interest rates were less than the growth rate of income in the major economies, whereas the 1980s were a period of rapid growth in the world economy that coincided withunprecedentedly high real interest rates. The author...

  19. Multimodal carriage with a pinch of sea salt : Door to door under the UNCITRAL Draft instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.I.H. Hoeks (Marian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe current framework of international carriage law is made up of a collection of conventions, all of which deal with the carriage of goods by only one specific mode of transport. A convention which specifically deals with multimodal carriage is still lacking however. The new Draft Conv

  20. Load Carriage: An Integrated Risk Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin M; Pope, Rodney R

    2015-11-01

    Military load carriage (LC) gives rise to substantial risks to soldier health, tactical performance, and mission success. The aim of this article was to extract and synthesize the key findings of a series of LC research reports previously published by the authors. Five reviews and 6 studies were included, with key findings extracted and synthesized in tabulated and critical narrative form. The weight of a soldier's load is a source of risk for soldier's injuries and tactical task performance. The resulting level of risk is influenced by risk modifiers (like speed of march, terrain grade, and task type and duration) and risk controls (like administrative controls and physical conditioning). In the Australian context, these risk controls were limited, with soldiers carrying heavier loads than those mandated by doctrine and policy, and LC conditioning not meeting best practice. The diversity of LC contexts, combined with the influence of risk modifiers and risk controls, means that levels of risk associated with LC are not consistent and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Load weight and marching routes (terrains, gradients), distances, speed, and duration are all potentially treatable sources of LC-related risk. Potential risk treatments include not only commanders directly addressing these specific sources of risk to the extent feasible, on a case-by-case basis, when planning or conducting LC tasks but also improving administration controls (i.e., doctrine and policies) and personal protection (i.e., the physical conditioning of the soldier) as part of the hierarchy of controls. Practical application would involve commanders developing and implementing dedicated LC doctrine and policies and implementing and enforcing LC conditioning programs that meets best practice.

  1. High Strain Rate Compressive Tests on Woven Graphite Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allazadeh, Mohammad Reza; Wosu, Sylvanus N.

    2011-08-01

    The behavior of composite materials may be different when they are subjected to high strain rate load. Penetrating split Hopkinson pressure bar (P-SHPB) is a method to impose high strain rate on specimen in the laboratory experiments. This research work studied the response of the thin circular shape specimens, made out of woven graphite epoxy composites, to high strain rate impact load. The stress-strain relationships and behavior of the specimens were investigated during the compressive dynamic tests for strain rates as high as 3200 s-1. One dimensional analysis was deployed for analytical calculations since the experiments fulfilled the ratio of diameter to length of bars condition in impact load experiments. The mechanics of dynamic failure was studied and the results showed the factors which govern the failure mode in high strain deformation via absorbed energy by the specimen. In this paper, the relation of particle velocity with perforation depth was discussed for woven graphite epoxy specimens.

  2. Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

    2015-03-01

    We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.

  3. Effectiveness of high interest rate policy on exchange rates: A reexamination of the Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Diew Lai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis has been the appropriate response of monetary policy to a sharp decline in the value of some currencies. In this paper, we empirically examine the effects on Asian exchange rates of sharply higher interest rates during the Asian financial crisis. Taking account of the currency contagion effect, our results indicate that sharply higher interest rates helped to support the exchange rates of South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. For Malaysia, no significant causal relation is found from the rate of interest to exchange rates, as the authorities in Malaysia did not actively adopt a high interest rate policy to defend the currency.

  4. Putative extremely high rate of proteome innovation in lancelets might be explained by high rate of gene prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2016-08-01

    A recent analysis of the genomes of Chinese and Florida lancelets has concluded that the rate of creation of novel protein domain combinations is orders of magnitude greater in lancelets than in other metazoa and it was suggested that continuous activity of transposable elements in lancelets is responsible for this increased rate of protein innovation. Since morphologically Chinese and Florida lancelets are highly conserved, this finding would contradict the observation that high rates of protein innovation are usually associated with major evolutionary innovations. Here we show that the conclusion that the rate of proteome innovation is exceptionally high in lancelets may be unjustified: the differences observed in domain architectures of orthologous proteins of different amphioxus species probably reflect high rates of gene prediction errors rather than true innovation.

  5. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among medical students of Belgrade University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA present the growing problem in the whole world. Carriage of MRSA is most frequent in the nose, and medical students come in contact both with patients and different persons in the community. Therefore, they may be significant for the transmission of MRSA from hospitals to out- of-hospital communities and vice versa. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish the carriage rate among students of the second, third and fourth year of study at the School of Medicine in Belgrade and to analyze their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Methods. In total 533 nasal samples were taken. The samples were incubated in Trypcase-soy broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, and thereafter the swabs were inoculated on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 2 µg/mL of oxacillin. The presence of nuc, mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes was examined by PCR. The characteristics of the MRSA strains were determined using: antibiotic susceptibility testing by Vitek2 System, SCCmec, agr typing and MLST. Results. MRSA was isolated from two of 533 investigated samples (0.37%. MRSA were isolated from the students of the second and third year of study. Profiles of strains were: ST80 (SCCmec type IV, agr type 3 and ST152 (SCCmec type V, agr type 1. MRSA strains were multiresistant. Conclusion. The nasal carriage rate of MRSA in population of medical students of the first year of study in Belgrade is low. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MRSA strains indicate their community origin. MLST typing revealed that isolates belong to ST80 and ST152. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON175039

  6. High Burn Rate Hybrid Fuel for Improved Grain Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel type of fuel providing high burning rate for hybrid rocket applications is proposed. This fuel maintains a hydrodynamically rough surface to...

  7. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  8. Rectal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and Carbapenemase Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intensive Care Units in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Samia; Dahdeh, Chaima; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Ferjeni, Sana; Maamar, Elaa; Hamzaoui, Zeineb; Saidani, Mabrouka; Ghedira, Salma; Houissa, Mohamed; Slim, Amin; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rate of fecal carriage of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (third GC) in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis and to identify the enzymatic mechanisms involved. From February to April 2014, rectal swabs were collected from all patients (n = 38) at admission and once weekly thereafter to identify acquisition. They were cultured on desoxycholate-lactose-agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 mg/L). The rate of fecal carriage of GNB resistant to third GC was 0% (0/38) at admission and the acquisition rate was 45.16% (14/31). Nineteen GNB resistant to C3G were collected from 14 patients. The major species collected were Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 5), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 5), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 5). Thirteen extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing GNB were found; CTX-M-15 (n = 10) and CTX-M-14 (n = 1) among Enterobacteriacae and GES-12 (n = 2) among A. baumannii. Ten strains were carbapenem resistant. OXA-48 (n = 4) and NDM-1 (n = 1) were detected among Enterobacteriacae and OXA-23 (n = 5), and GES-11 (n = 1) were detected in A. baumannii. Gene encoding the ACT-16 AmpC-type-β-lactamase was detected in two isolates. All Escherichia coli isolates were assigned to group B2. Among virulence genes, prevalence of fimH, fuyA, ompT, pai, and usp were highest observed in all E. coli isolates. Among K. pneumoniae mrkD and entB were the most frequent (n = 5) followed by ybtS (n = 4) and kfu (n = 2). This study revealed a high prevalence of fecal carriage of multidrug-resistant GNB, including ESBLs, carbapenemases, and cephalosporinases producing bacteria in patients hospitalized in ICU.

  9. Quantum Communication with a High-Rate Entangled Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Lekki, John D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.

  10. High rate resistive plate chamber for LHC detector upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Y., E-mail: haddad@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet (LLR), École Polytechnique, 91120 Palaiseau (France); Laktineh, I.; Grenier, G.; Lumb, N. [IPNL, Villeurbanne 69622 Lyon (France); Cauwenbergh, S. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) used as muon detectors in the LHC experiments has prevented the use of such detectors in the high rate regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. One alternative to these detectors is RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates (10{sup 10}Ωcm), a beam test at DESY has shown that such detectors can operate at few thousand Hz/cm{sup 2} with high efficiency (>90%)

  11. High strain rate loading of polymeric foams and solid plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Richard D.; Chang, Peter C.; Fourney, William L.

    2000-04-01

    The split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) provided a technique to determine the high strain rate response for low density foams and solid ABS and polypropylene plastics. These materials are used in the interior safety panels of automobiles and crash test dummies. Because the foams have a very low impedance, polycarbonate bars were used to acquire the strain rate data in the 100 to 1600 l/s range. An aluminum SPHB setup was used to obtain the solid plastics data which covered strain rates of 1000 to 4000 l/s. The curves for peak strain rate versus peak stress for the foams over the test range studied indicates only a slight strain rate dependence. Peak strain rate versus peak stress curves for polypropylene shows a strain rate dependence up to about 1500 l/s. At that rate the solid poly propylene indicates no strain rate dependence. The ABS plastics are strain rate dependent up to 3500 l/s and then are independent at larger strain rates.

  12. Livestock-associated MRSA carriage in patients without direct contact with livestock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda M L van Rijen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Livestock-associated MRSA (MC398 has emerged and is related to an extensive reservoir in pigs and veal calves. Individuals with direct contact with these animals and their family members are known to have high MC398 carriage rates. Until now it was assumed that MC398 does not spread to individuals in the community without pig or veal calf exposure. To test this, we identified the proportion of MC398 in MRSA positive individuals without contact with pigs/veal calves or other known risk factors (MRSA of unknown origin; MUO. METHODS: In 17 participating hospitals, we determined during two years the occurrence of MC398 in individuals without direct contact with livestock and no other known risk factor (n = 271 and tested in a post analysis the hypothesis whether hospitals in pig-dense areas have higher proportions of MC398 of all MUO. RESULTS: Fifty-six individuals (20.7% without animal contact carried MC398. In hospitals with high pig-densities in the adherence area, the proportion of MC398 of all MUO was higher than this proportion in hospitals without pigs in the surroundings. CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of the individuals carrying MUO carried MC398. So, MC398 is found in individuals without contact to pigs or veal calves. The way of transmission from the animal reservoir to these individuals is unclear, probably by human-to-human transmission or by exposure to the surroundings of the stables. Further research is needed to investigate the way of transmission.

  13. The influence of gait cadence on the ground reaction forces and plantar pressures during load carriage of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marcelo P; Figueiredo, Maria Cristina; Abreu, Sofia; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2015-07-01

    Biomechanical gait parameters--ground reaction forces (GRFs) and plantar pressures--during load carriage of young adults were compared at a low gait cadence and a high gait cadence. Differences between load carriage and normal walking during both gait cadences were also assessed. A force plate and an in-shoe plantar pressure system were used to assess 60 adults while they were walking either normally (unloaded condition) or wearing a backpack (loaded condition) at low (70 steps per minute) and high gait cadences (120 steps per minute). GRF and plantar pressure peaks were scaled to body weight (or body weight plus backpack weight). With medium to high effect sizes we found greater anterior-posterior and vertical GRFs and greater plantar pressure peaks in the rearfoot, forefoot and hallux when the participants walked carrying a backpack at high gait cadences compared to walking at low gait cadences. Differences between loaded and unloaded conditions in both gait cadences were also observed.

  14. HIGH HEATING RATES AFFECTS GREATLY THE INACTIVATION RATE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Huertas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20ºC/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50ºC/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20ºC/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimates about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than ten times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7ºC/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing.

  15. High Heating Rates Affect Greatly the Inactivation Rate of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Aznar, Arantxa; Esnoz, Arturo; Fernández, Pablo S.; Iguaz, Asunción; Periago, Paula M.; Palop, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although, the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20°C/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50°C/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20°C/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimated about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than 10 times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7°C/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing. PMID:27563300

  16. Radio Interface for High Data Rate Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Henaut, Julien; Dragomirescu, Daniela; Plana, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of radio interfaces devoted for high data rate Wireless Sensor Networks. Four aerospace applications of WSN are presented to underline the importance of achieving high data rate. Then, two modulation schemes by which High Data Rate can be achieved are compared : Multi carrier approaches, represented by the popular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Single carrier methods, represented by Single Carrier Frequency division Equalization and its application for multiple access Single Carrier Frequency division multiple Access (SC-FDMA). SC-FDMA, with a very low Peak Average Power Ratio (PAPR), is as strong alternative to the OFDM scheme for highly power constraint application. The Chosen radio interface will be, finally, tested by a model based design approach based on Simulink and FPGA realization. SC-FDMA, with a very low Peak Average Power Ratio (PAPR), is as strong alternative to the OFDM scheme for highly power constraint application. The Chosen radio interface ...

  17. Stretching Behavior of Red Blood Cells at High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Jordan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this work, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that a simple viscoelastic model captures the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 1000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  18. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meco, Halim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  19. High deposition rate nanocrystalline silicon with enhanced homogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2010-01-01

    High rate growth of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) brings additional challenges for the homogeneity in the growth direction, since the start-up effects affect a larger portion of the film, and the very high degree of depletion increases the influence of back diffusion from the inacti

  20. Ergonomic comparison of three modes of load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, J A

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiorespiratory responses to carrying external loads on the head and by yoke. Ten physically fit male students carried three different external loads (11.6, 16.1 and 20.6 kg) on a level motor-driven treadmill at varying speeds (0.89, 1.23 and 1.57 m . s-1), using three different modes of load carriage systems, i.e., headpack (HP), transverse yoke (TY), and frontal yoke (FY). Physiological measurements were obtained for: heart rate (HR), pulmonary ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation equivalent (VE) and oxygen pulse (OP). The analysis of variance showed significant main effects (mode, load and speed) and three interaction effects in the HR, VE and VO2 responses. Only the speed main effect was significant (P less than 0.05) for VE. For the OP variable, significant F ratios were found for the mode (P less than 0.05), load and speed (P less than 0.01) main effects, but not for the interaction between mode, load and speed (P greater than 0.05). Scheffé's simple cell mean contrasts indicated that the cardiorespiratory (HR, VE and VO2) responses for the TY and HP modes were lower (P less than 0.05) than the FY while transporting heavy (16.1 and 20.6 kg) loads at fast (1.23 and 1.57 m . s-1) walking speeds. Irrespective of the walking speed, the cardiorespiratory responses while transporting loads with the TY and HP modes were not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). The findings suggest that load transportation by the frontal yoke is ergonomically inadvisable.

  1. 75 FR 12123 - Restrictions on Private Carriage of Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Parts 310 and 320 Restrictions on Private Carriage of Letters AGENCY: Postal Service TM ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Postal Service regulations on the enforcement and suspension of the Private...

  2. 47 CFR 76.1506 - Carriage of television broadcast signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television markets. Any provision of § 76.59 that refers to a “cable system” shall apply to an open video... open video system commencing new operations shall notify all local commercial and noncommercial... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1506 Carriage...

  3. 14 CFR 259.6 - Notice and contract of carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice and contract of carriage. 259.6 Section 259.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ENHANCED PROTECTIONS FOR AIRLINE PASSENGERS § 259.6 Notice and contract of...

  4. High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jitang

    2017-03-01

    High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials.

  5. High power, high efficiency millimeter wavelength traveling wave tubes for high rate communications from deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, James A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The high-power transmitters needed for high data rate communications from deep space will require a new class of compact, high efficiency traveling wave tubes (TWT's). Many of the recent TWT developments in the microwave frequency range are generically applicable to mm wave devices, in particular much of the technology of computer aided design, cathodes, and multistage depressed collectors. However, because TWT dimensions scale approximately with wavelength, mm wave devices will be physically much smaller with inherently more stringent fabrication tolerances and sensitivity to thermal dissipation.

  6. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  7. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasalocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Wickersham, Tryon A; MacDonald, Jim C; Ponce, Christian H; Brown, Mike; Pinchak, William E; Osterstock, Jason B; Krueger, Nathan; Nisbet, David J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether supplemental distillers grains containing high amounts of rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid may, by promoting amino acid flow to the lower bovine gut, increase intestinal carriage of Campylobacter. In study one, 10 steers (5 per treatment) were adapted to diets formulated to achieve 0 or 30% dried distillers grains. After an initial 14-day adaptation to the basal diet, control and treated steers were fed their respective diets for 23 days, after which time they were fed supplemental lasalocid for an additional 8 days, followed by a 5-day withdrawal. In study two, 24 steers preacclimated to a basal diet were adapted via 3-day periodic increases to dietary treatments formulated to achieve 0, 30, or 60% wet corn distillers grains with solubles. Analysis of Campylobacter bacteria cultured from duodenal and fecal samples in study one and from fecal samples in study two revealed no effect of dried distillers grains or wet corn distillers grains with solubles on the prevalence or concentrations of duodenal or fecal Campylobacter. The results from study one indicated that colonized steers, regardless of treatment, harbored higher Campylobacter concentrations when transitioned to the basal diet than when coming off pasture. Campylobacter carriage was unaffected by lasalocid. These results provide no evidence that feeding distillers grains high in rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid contributes to increased intestinal carriage of Campylobacter in fed cattle.

  8. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    3-D blood flow quantification with high spatial and temporal resolution would strongly benefit clinical research on cardiovascular pathologies. Ultrasonic velocity techniques are known for their ability to measure blood flow with high precision at high spatial and temporal resolution. However......, current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI......) technique is extended to estimate the 3-D velocity components inside a volume at high temporal resolutions (

  9. High Strain Rate Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Procedures for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. To characterize and validate material models that could be used in the design of impactresistant engine cases, researchers must obtain material data over a wide variety of strain rates. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain deformation data for a representative polymer matrix composite for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used to characterize and validate a constitutive model that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  10. Study of High Strain Rate Response of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the research was to continue the experimental study of the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of epoxy resins and carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composites, and to initiate a study of the effects of temperature by developing an elevated temperature test. The experimental data provide the information needed for NASA scientists for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength models for composites that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into testing the epoxy resin. Three types of epoxy resins were tested in tension and shear at various strain rates that ranges from 5 x 10(exp -5), to 1000 per second. Pilot shear experiments were done at high strain rate and an elevated temperature of 80 C. The results show that all, the strain rate, the mode of loading, and temperature significantly affect the response of epoxy.

  11. STIR: Tailored Interfaces for High Strength Composites Across Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-02

    was requested during our kickoff meeting at ARL APG. High performance fabrics including Kevlar, Twaron, Zylon , and Dyneema are used in developing...Kevlar, and Zylon for various pullout rates. Force– displacement data was recorded, and both warp and fill yarns were pulled from the fabric. Their...results presented that the effect of pullout rate is negligible for Kevlar, whereas the effect is bigger on Spectra, and significant for Zylon

  12. High rate tests of the LHCb RICH Upgrade system

    CERN Multimedia

    Blago, Michele Piero

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for the upgrade of the LHCb RICH detectors from 2020 is to readout the photon detectors at the full 40 MHz rate of the LHC proton-proton collisions. A test facility has been setup at CERN with the purpose to investigate the behaviour of the Multi Anode PMTs, which have been proposed for the upgrade, and their readout electronics at high trigger rates. The MaPMTs are illuminated with a monochromatic laser that can be triggered independently of the readout electronics. A first series of tests, including threshold scans, is performed at low trigger rates (20 kHz) for both the readout and the laser with the purpose to characterise the behaviour of the system under test. Then the trigger rate is increased in two separate steps. First the MaPMTs are exposed to high illumination by triggering the pulsed laser at a high (20 MHz) repetition rate while the DAQ is readout at the same low rate as before. In this way the performance of the MaPMTs and the attached electronics can be evaluated ...

  13. Epidemiology and risk factors for faecal extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage derived from residents of seven nursing homes in western Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S-Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y-L; Wang, Y-C; Xiao, S-Z; Gu, F-F; Guo, X-K; Ni, Y-X; Han, L-Z

    2016-03-01

    Nursing homes (NHs) have been implicated as significant reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant organisms causing severe infectious disease. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of, and risk factors for, faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in seven NHs in Shanghai between March 2014 and May 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and polymerase chain reaction were used to detect genes coding for ESBLs and carbapenemases. NH records at individual-resident level and facility level were examined for potential risk factors. Four hundred and fifty-seven Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected of which 183 (46·92%) were colonized by ESBL-E. CTX-M enzymes (198/200, 99%) predominated, with CTX-M-14 (84/200, 42%) the most common types. Two carbapenemase producers harboured blaKPC-2. Resistance rates to carbapenems, TZP, AK, FOS, CL and TGC were low. History of invasive procedures [odds ratio (OR) 2·384, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·318-4·310, P = 0·004], narrow-spectrum cephalosporins (OR 1·635, 95% CI 1·045-2·558, P = 0·031) and broad-spectrum cephalosporins (OR 3·276, 95% CI 1·278-8·398, P = 0·014) were independently associated with ESBL-E carriage. In conclusion, NH residents have a very high prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-E. Continuous and active surveillance is important, as are prudent infection control measures and antibiotic use to prevent and control the spread of these antibiotic-resistant strains.

  14. Nanoengineering Titania for High Rate Lithium Storage: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhai Jiang; Jinsong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured titania have been intensively investigated as anode materials of Li-ion batteries for their excellent high rate performance.The size effects of TiO2 polymorphs (mainly rutile,anatase and TiO2-B) on their electrochemical performance and the latest efforts in nanoengineering titania anodes through enhancing their ionic or electronic transportation or both are reviewed in this work.We suppose that micron-or submicronsized porous structures assembled by TiO2 nanoparticles,nanowires/nanotubes or nanosheets with a high percentage of exposing high reactive facets together with a conductive percolating network are ideal anodes not only for high rate lithium storage but also for high packing densities of the active materials.

  15. Semi-solid electrodes having high rate capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Holman, Richard; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Tan, Taison

    2016-07-05

    Embodiments described herein relate generally to electrochemical cells having high rate capability, and more particularly to devices, systems and methods of producing high capacity and high rate capability batteries having relatively thick semi-solid electrodes. In some embodiments, an electrochemical cell includes an anode, a semi-solid cathode that includes a suspension of an active material and a conductive material in a liquid electrolyte, and an ion permeable membrane disposed between the anode and the cathode. The semi-solid cathode has a thickness in the range of about 250 .mu.m-2,500 .mu.m, and the electrochemical cell has an area specific capacity of at least 5 mAh/cm.sup.2 at a C-rate of C/2.

  16. Semi-solid electrodes having high rate capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Holman, Richard; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Tan, Taison

    2015-11-10

    Embodiments described herein relate generally to electrochemical cells having high rate capability, and more particularly to devices, systems and methods of producing high capacity and high rate capability batteries having relatively thick semi-solid electrodes. In some embodiments, an electrochemical cell includes an anode, a semi-solid cathode that includes a suspension of an active material and a conductive material in a liquid electrolyte, and an ion permeable membrane disposed between the anode and the cathode. The semi-solid cathode has a thickness in the range of about 250 .mu.m-2,500 .mu.m, and the electrochemical cell has an area specific capacity of at least 5 mAh/cm.sup.2 at a C-rate of C/2.

  17. High strain rate compression testing of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloete T.J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper details an investigation of the high strain rate compression testing of GFPP with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB in the through-thickness and in-plane directions. GFPP posed challenges to SHPB testing as it fails at relatively high stresses, while having relatively low moduli and hence mechanical impedance. The modifications to specimen geometry and incident pulse shaping in order to gather valid test results, where specimen equilibrium was achieved for SHPB tests on GFPP are presented. In addition to conventional SHPB tests to failure, SHPB experiments were designed to achieve specimen equilibration at small strains, which permitted the capture of high strain rate elastic modulus data. The strain rate dependency of GFPP’s failure strengths in the in-plane and through-thickness direction is modelled using a logarithmic law.

  18. High-Strain Rate Mechanical Response of Cured Epoxy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirk, Timothy; Khare, Ketan; Karim, Mir; Lenhart, Joseph; Khare, Rajesh; Andzelm, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Chemically cross-linked polymer networks are increasingly common in high performance composites, adhesives and other applications involving high-impact loading conditions or ballistic collisions. The mechanical behavior of epoxy and other polymer networks exhibit a strong dependence on strain rate near the glass transition temperature (Tg); however, the elastic modulus at strain rates greater than 105 1/s is difficult to capture with experimental techniques. We present computational results of Di-Glycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA) and Jeffamine diamines (D230) from molecular dynamics simulation, which is intrinsically well-suited to model material deformation at high strain rates. Our results show that the experimental Tg can be reproduced from molecular dynamics, and the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation is useful in rationalizing the shift of Tg due to fast annealing and high strain rates. Temperature sweeps of elastic modulus show the glass-rubber transition to occur over a significantly wider temperature range compared with experimental measurements at low strain rates.

  19. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  20. Strategies for adapting to high rates of employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowday, R T

    1984-01-01

    For many organizations facing high rates of employee turnover, strategies for increasing employee retention may not be practical because employees leave for reasons beyond the control of management or the costs of reducing turnover exceed the benefits to be derived. In this situation managers need to consider strategies that can minimize or buffer the organization from the negative consequences that often follow from turnover. Strategies organizations can use to adapt to uncontrollably high employee turnover rates are presented in this article. In addition, suggestions are made for how managers should make choices among the alternative strategies.

  1. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised children in tertiary hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwenzi, Marcelyn T; Gudza-Mugabe, Muchaneta; Mujuru, Hilda A; Dangarembizi-Bwakura, Mutsa; Robertson, Valerie; Aiken, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and gentamicin resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly recognised as a major cause of infection in low-income countries. We assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of these bacteria in hospitalised children in Harare, Zimbabwe. We conducted a cohort study in paediatric inpatients at two tertiary-referral hospitals between May and July 2015. Rectal swabs and faecal samples were collected within 24 h of admission and further follow-up samples were collected on alternate days during hospitalization. Disc-based, selective and enrichment methods were used to detect carriage of these two forms of resistance. Standard methods were used to confirm resistance status and determine the susceptibility of resistant isolates to other commonly-used antibiotics. One hundred and sixty four paediatric inpatient admissions (median age = 1.0 year, IQR = 0.2-2.2years) were enrolled, and an average of 1.9 faecal samples per patient were collected. On admission, 68/164 (41%) patients had both ESBL and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae detected, 18 (11%) had ESBL only, 17 (10%) had gentamicin resistance only and 61 (37%) had negative screening for both forms of resistance. During hospitalisation, 32/164 (20%) patients were found to have a type of resistant organism which was not present in their admission sample. We found that faecal samples and use of a selective enrichment broth enhanced the detection of resistant organisms. Amongst resistant bacteria isolated, there were high levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol, but not ertapenem. More than half of children had enteric carriage of a clinically-relevant form of antibiotic resistance on admission to public-sector hospitals in urban Zimbabwe. Additionally, a fifth of children acquired a further form of resistance during hospitalisation. Urgent action is needed to tackle the spread of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria in African hospitals.

  2. High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

  3. User microprogrammable processors for high data rate telemetry preprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, J. H.; Ogrady, E. P.

    1973-01-01

    The use of microprogrammable processors for the preprocessing of high data rate satellite telemetry is investigated. The following topics are discussed along with supporting studies: (1) evaluation of commercial microprogrammable minicomputers for telemetry preprocessing tasks; (2) microinstruction sets for telemetry preprocessing; and (3) the use of multiple minicomputers to achieve high data processing. The simulation of small microprogrammed processors is discussed along with examples of microprogrammed processors.

  4. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    , such as muscle fibre type composition and power reserve, relate to endurance time. Twenty males underwent testing to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), power output corresponding to 90% of VO(2max) at 80 rpm (W90), FCPR at W90, percentage of slow twitch muscle fibres (% MHC I), maximal leg power...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables......The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables...

  5. Evaluation of dissolution rate on high plutonium content MOX fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugaya, Shinichi; Kurita, Ichiro; Endo, Hideo; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kihara, Yoshiyuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ogasawara, Masahiro; Shinada, Masanori; Kowata, Masato [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The dissolution rate of high Pu content MOX fuel into nitric acid was measured as a function of Pu content. MOX fuel samples, pressed and sintered, were dissolved in 7 M of boiling nitric acid, and the dissolution rate was measured by analyzing the Pu and U concentration in the solution. The dissolution rate of MOX fuel tended to decrease with the increase in the Pu content and was reduced after 6 hours of dissolution. These results agreed well with previous ones, but the dissolution rate was 3-6 times faster than those. It is estimated that the cause of this difference was due to underestimation of the surface area of MOX fuel powder and the difference of the MOX O/M ratio. (author)

  6. Methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    An overview on methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors is presented, with the focus on technological as well as microbiological aspects. The simple C1-compound methanol can be degraded anaerobically in a complex way, in which methanogens, sulfate reducing bacteria and homoacetogens

  7. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OCONNOR,P.; GRATCHEV,V.; KANDASAMY,A.; POLYCHRONAKOS,V.; TCHERNIATINE,V.; PARSONS,J.; SIPPACH,W.

    1999-09-25

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm{sup 2}/s.

  8. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: High Rate of Visual Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Christopher N.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Gochman, Pete; Miller, Rachel; Tossell, Julia W.; Mattai, Anand A.; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To document high rates and clinical correlates of nonauditory hallucinations in childhood onset schizophrenia (COS). Method: Within a sample of 117 pediatric patients (mean age 13.6 years), diagnosed with COS, the presence of auditory, visual, somatic/tactile, and olfactory hallucinations was examined using the Scale for the Assessment…

  9. High Reported Spontaneous Stuttering Recovery Rates: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramig, Peter R.

    1993-01-01

    Contact after 6 to 8 years with families of 21 children who were diagnosed as stuttering but did not receive fluency intervention services found that almost all subjects still had a stuttering problem. Results dispute the high spontaneous recovery rates reported in the literature and support the value of early intervention. (Author/DB)

  10. High deposition rate nanocrystalline silicon with enhanced homogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkerk, Arjan; Rath, Jatindra K.; Schropp, Ruud [Section Nanophotonics-Physics of Devices, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    High rate growth of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) brings additional challenges for the homogeneity in the growth direction, since the start-up effects affect a larger portion of the film, and the very high degree of depletion increases the influence of back diffusion from the inactive region into the plasma zone. It was calculated that back diffusion plays a role in the regime for high deposition rate (4.5 nm/s) via the residence time for particles in the plasma and the corresponding diffusion length for silane from outside the plasma. The stabilization time for back diffusion was derived and found to be on the order of tens of seconds. Experiment showed that the incubation layer for nc-Si:H is very thick in films deposited at a high rate compared to films deposited in a regime of lower deposition rate. The use of a hydrogen plasma start greatly reduced this incubation layer. Further control of the crystalline fraction could be achieved via slight reduction of the degree of depletion via the silane flow. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Advances in high rate anaerobic treatment: staging of reactor systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Zee, van der F.P.; Tan, N.C.G.; Rebac, S.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment (AnWT) is considered as the most cost-effective solution for organically polluted industrial waste streams. Particularly the development of high-rate systems, in which hydraulic retention times are uncoupled from solids retention times, has led to a world-wide acceptan

  12. Adapting high-rate anaerobic treatment to Middle East conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High-rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for sewage treatment in the Middle East and Palestine in particular. The sewage characteristics in Palestine are quite different from the values elsewhere and show solids contents of more than 1000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)ss/L

  13. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr-1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  14. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in the District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  15. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  16. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  17. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  18. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  19. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  20. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  1. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  2. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  3. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  4. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  5. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  6. Schoolbag carriage and schoolbag-related musculoskeletal discomfort among primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; Simms, Ciaran; Blake, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Schoolbag carriage is a common occurrence and has been associated with musculoskeletal discomfort in children. The current study investigated the relationship between schoolbag-related musculoskeletal discomfort and individual, physical and psychosocial risk factors in primary school children in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey and pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. The site and intensity of musculoskeletal discomfort was assessed before and after schoolbag carriage to provide a dose-response assessment of schoolbag-related discomfort for the first time. Objective measurements of the children, schoolbags and other additional items were made, and a researcher assisted questionnaire was completed on arrival at school. A total of 529 children (male 55.8%: female 44.2%) with a mean age of 10.6 years ± 7.14 months were included. The majority had backpacks (93.8%) and 89.7% (n = 445) carried the backpack over 2 shoulders. The mean schoolbag weight (4.8 ± 1.47 kgs) represented a mean % body weight (%BW) of 12.6 ± 4.29%. Only 29.9% carried schoolbags that were ≤10%BW. A significantly greater proportion of normal weight children carried schoolbags that were >10%BW compared to overweight/obese children (p school for ≤10 min. The prevalence of baseline musculoskeletal discomfort was high (63.4%). Schoolbag-related discomfort was reported more frequently in the shoulders (27.3%) than in the back (15%). The dose-response assessment indicated that both statistically and meaningfully significant increases in discomfort were observed following schoolbag carriage. Multiple logistic regression models indicated that psychosocial factors and a history of discomfort were predictors of schoolbag-related back discomfort, while gender (being female) and a history of discomfort were predictors of schoolbag-related shoulder discomfort. None of the physical factors (absolute/relative schoolbag weight, carrying an additional item, duration of carriage

  7. Genomic Variability of Serial Human Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Associated with Prolonged Carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octavia, Sophie; Wang, Qinning; Tanaka, Mark M; Sintchenko, Vitali; Lan, Ruiting

    2015-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important foodborne human pathogen that often causes self-limiting but severe gastroenteritis. Prolonged excretion of S. Typhimurium after the infection can lead to secondary transmissions. However, little is known about within-host genomic variation in bacteria associated with asymptomatic shedding. Genomes of 35 longitudinal isolates of S. Typhimurium recovered from 11 patients (children and adults) with culture-confirmed gastroenteritis were sequenced. There were three or four isolates obtained from each patient. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in these isolates, which were recovered between 1 and 279 days after the initial diagnosis. Limited genomic variation (5 SNPs or fewer) was associated with short- and long-term carriage of S. Typhimurium. None of the isolates was shown to be due to reinfection. SNPs occurred randomly, and the majority of the SNPs were nonsynonymous. Two nonsense mutations were observed. A nonsense mutation in flhC rendered the isolate nonmotile, whereas the significance of a nonsense mutation in yihV is unknown. The estimated mutation rate is 1.49 × 10(-6) substitution per site per year. S. Typhimurium isolates excreted in stools following acute gastroenteritis in children and adults demonstrated limited genomic variability over time, regardless of the duration of carriage. These findings have important implications for the detection of possible transmission events suspected by public health genomic surveillance of S. Typhimurium infections.

  8. Oral candidiasis and oral yeast carriage among institutionalised South African paediatric HIV/AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignaut, Elaine

    2007-02-01

    South Africa currently has an estimated 500,000 AIDS orphans, many of whom are HIV-positive. Oral candidiasis commonly occurs in both adult and paediatric HIV/AIDS patients. Published information on HIV-positive children in Africa mainly concerns hospitalised patients. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis and oral yeast carriage among paediatric HIV/AIDS patients residing in orphanages in Gauteng, South Africa, and to compare the prevalence of isolated yeast species with species obtained from adult HIV/AIDS patients. Eighty-seven paediatric HIV/AIDS patients residing in five homes were examined and a swab taken from the dorsal surface of the tongue, cultured on CHROMagar and yeast isolates identified with the ATB 32C commercial system. The species prevalence of 57 identified isolates was compared with that of 330 isolates from adult HIV/AIDS patients. Twelve (13.8%) children presented with clinically detectable candidiasis. Yeasts were isolated from 0% to 53% of children in the individual homes, with Candida albicans (40.4%) and C. dubliniensis (26.3%) constituting the most frequently isolated species. Gentian violet prophylaxis was administered in one particular home and a higher carriage rate (66.6%) of non-C. albicans and non-C. dubliniensis was observed among these children. The prevalence of C. albicans was lower while the prevalence of C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis was significantly higher (p candidiasis in institutionalized paediatric HIV/AIDS patients.

  9. High rates of intestinal colonisation with fluoroquinolone-resistant ESBL-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalised patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, J; Gazin, M; Kazma, M; Kotlovsky, T; Lammens, C; Carmeli, Y; Goossens, H; Malhotra-Kumar, S

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EN) and associated fluoroquinolone resistance (FQ-R) in 120 hospitalised patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, and to investigate a correlation between Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection and intestinal colonisation with ESBL-EN in these patients. Stool samples were screened for C. difficile infection by toxin A/B enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for the presence of enterobacterial isolates producing β-lactamases by plating on β-lactamase screening (BLSE) agar. Recovered isolates were confirmed pheno- and genotypically for the presence of ESBL genes (bla CTX-M, bla TEM, bla SHV) by the double-disc synergy test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing, and tested for the presence of topoisomerase mutations (gyrA, parC) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants [qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr] by PCR sequencing. ESBL-EN were detected in 44/120 (37 %) stool samples. C. difficile-infected patients showed a significantly higher frequency of intestinal colonisation with ESBL-EN compared to C. difficile non-infected patients (62 % vs. 31 %, p = 0.008). Of the 73 ESBL-EN recovered, 46 (63 %) showed high-level FQ-R [ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥32 mg/L]. The largest group consisted of 21 bla CTX-M-15-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (ciprofloxacin MIC ≥64 mg/L) with multiple topoisomerase mutations in gyrA and parC, in combination with co-carriage of aac(6')-Ib-cr. Most of them were Escherichia coli isolates belonging to sequence types ST131 and ST410. We found remarkably high rates of intestinal colonisation with high-level FQ-R ESBL-EN in hospitalised patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, especially among C. difficile-infected patients. These data underscore the need for stringent infection control to contain this potentially

  10. Mechanisms of high heart rate variability: a fresh look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Lukyanchenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consideration is being given herein to some mechanisms of high heart rate variability (high HRV, which cannot be attributed to sports exercise loading. The mechanism responsible for high HRV is explained as that resulted from the continuous performance (opening and closure of arteriovenous anastomoses in different organs and systems in a human organism. An assessment of this phenomenon is given herein from the point of view of a practicing physician who treats regularly patients with already established clinical diagnoses and those without an established nosological profile according to International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision.

  11. OFDM-based Low-voltage Powerline High Rate Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-bing(张有兵); CHENG Shi-jie(程时杰); Joseph Nguimbis; XIONG Lan(熊兰)

    2004-01-01

    Based on the experimental results, a simplified model for low-voltage powerline used as a high frequency communication channel is presented. With this model, the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based high rate digital communication over low-voltage powerline is analyzed and simulated. The capability of thc signal transmission system in overcoming multi-path interference and selection of the system parameters are discussed. And time-domain simulation is carried out to investigate the transmission capability of the OFDM cammunication system for different mapping schemes and transmission power levels. Simulation results show that it is possible to realize high rate digital communication over iow-voltage powerliue using OFDM when the transmitted power is large enough.

  12. High strain rate behavior of pure metals at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Gabriel; Bonora, Nicola; Ruggiero, Andrew; Iannitti, Gianluca; Domenico, Gentile

    2013-06-01

    In many applications and technology processes, such as stamping, forging, hot working etc., metals and alloys are subjected to elevated temperature and high strain rate deformation process. Characterization tests, such as quasistatic and dynamic tension or compression test, and validation tests, such as Taylor impact and DTE - dynamic tensile extrusion -, provide the experimental base of data for constitutive model validation and material parameters identification. Testing material at high strain rate and temperature requires dedicated equipment. In this work, both tensile Hopkinson bar and light gas gun where modified in order to allow material testing under sample controlled temperature conditions. Dynamic tension tests and Taylor impact tests, at different temperatures, on high purity copper (99.98%), tungsten (99.95%) and 316L stainless steel were performed. The accuracy of several constitutive models (Johnson and Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, etc.) in predicting the observed material response was verified by means of extensive finite element analysis (FEA).

  13. Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae in the oropharynx of young children and molecular epidemiology of the isolates after fifteen years of H. influenzae type b vaccination in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giufrè, Maria; Daprai, Laura; Cardines, Rita; Bernaschi, Paola; Ravà, Lucilla; Accogli, Marisa; Raponi, Massimiliano; Garlaschi, Maria Laura; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Cerquetti, Marina

    2015-11-17

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important pathogen able to cause a wide spectrum of diseases in children. Colonization of the upper respiratory tract is a risk factor for developing disease. This study aimed to investigate the oropharyngeal carriage rate of H. influenzae in young children in two Italian cities, 15 years after H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination was introduced. Antibiotic resistant traits and genotypes of the colonizing H. influenzae isolates were investigated. Oropharyngeal swabs were obtained from 717 healthy children aged <6 years (June 2012-July 2013). Potential risk factors for H. influenzae colonization were investigated. H. influenzae isolates from carriage were characterized by PCR capsular typing, ampicillin susceptibility testing, resistance-associated gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For comparison purposes, 38 non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) isolates from invasive disease were genotyped by MLST. The overall H. influenzae carriage rate was 14.1% (101/717). Age, study site, presence of young siblings, and complete Hib vaccination status were independently associated with colonization. Of 101 isolates, 98 were NTHi, 2 were type e and 1 was type f. The overall ampicillin resistance rate was 15.8% (16/101). Resistance was mediated by TEM-1 β-lactamase production in half of isolates (n=8) or modifications in penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 3 in the other half (n=8). Several substitutions were discovered in PBP3 including the Asn526Lys change. Seventy-six different STs were identified among 98 NTHi isolates from carriage, with only 4 STs (ST12, ST57, ST238, ST1238) encompassing ≥ 3 isolates. Comparison of carriage and disease isolates found that several STs were shared between the two sources, although none of the major disease-associated STs were observed in carriage isolates. NTHi is the predominant serotype in carriage. The importance of monitoring both NTHi colonization rate and circulating genotypes should be

  14. A High Rate Tension Device for Characterizing Brain Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael; 10.1177/1754337112436900

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical characterization of brain tissue at high loading velocities is vital for understanding and modeling Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The most severe form of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI) which involves damage to individual nerve cells (neurons). DAI in animals and humans occurs at strains > 10% and strain rates > 10/s. The mechanical properties of brain tissues at these strains and strain rates are of particular significance, as they can be used in finite element human head models to accurately predict brain injuries under different impact conditions. Existing conventional tensile testing machines can only achieve maximum loading velocities of 500 mm/min, whereas the Kolsky bar apparatus is more suitable for strain rates > 100/s. In this study, a custom-designed high rate tension device is developed and calibrated to estimate the mechanical properties of brain tissue in tension at strain rates < 90/s, while maintaining a uniform velocity. The range of strain can also be extended to 100% de...

  15. Systematic Uncertainties in High-Rate Germanium Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; Fast, James E.; Fulsom, Bryan G.; Pitts, William K.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.

    2016-10-06

    For many nuclear material safeguards inspections, spectroscopic gamma detectors are required which can achieve high event rates (in excess of 10^6 s^-1) while maintaining very good energy resolution for discrimination of neighboring gamma signatures in complex backgrounds. Such spectra can be useful for non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel with long cooling times, which contains many potentially useful low-rate gamma lines, e.g., Cs-134, in the presence of a few dominating gamma lines, such as Cs-137. Detectors in use typically sacrifice energy resolution for count rate, e.g., LaBr3, or visa versa, e.g., CdZnTe. In contrast, we anticipate that beginning with a detector with high energy resolution, e.g., high-purity germanium (HPGe), and adapting the data acquisition for high throughput will be able to achieve the goals of the ideal detector. In this work, we present quantification of Cs-134 and Cs-137 activities, useful for fuel burn-up quantification, in fuel that has been cooling for 22.3 years. A segmented, planar HPGe detector is used for this inspection, which has been adapted for a high-rate throughput in excess of 500k counts/s. Using a very-high-statistic spectrum of 2.4*10^11 counts, isotope activities can be determined with very low statistical uncertainty. However, it is determined that systematic uncertainties dominate in such a data set, e.g., the uncertainty in the pulse line shape. This spectrum offers a unique opportunity to quantify this uncertainty and subsequently determine required counting times for given precision on values of interest.

  16. Highly variable rates of genome rearrangements between hemiascomycetous yeast lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemiascomycete yeasts cover an evolutionary span comparable to that of the entire phylum of chordates. Since this group currently contains the largest number of complete genome sequences it presents unique opportunities to understand the evolution of genome organization in eukaryotes. We inferred rates of genome instability on all branches of a phylogenetic tree for 11 species and calculated species-specific rates of genome rearrangements. We characterized all inversion events that occurred within synteny blocks between six representatives of the different lineages. We show that the rates of macro- and microrearrangements of gene order are correlated within individual lineages but are highly variable across different lineages. The most unstable genomes correspond to the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Chromosomal maps have been intensively shuffled by numerous interchromosomal rearrangements, even between species that have retained a very high physical fraction of their genomes within small synteny blocks. Despite this intensive reshuffling of gene positions, essential genes, which cluster in low recombination regions in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tend to remain syntenic during evolution. This work reveals that the high plasticity of eukaryotic genomes results from rearrangement rates that vary between lineages but also at different evolutionary times of a given lineage.

  17. Demonstration of a high repetition rate capillary discharge waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, A. J., E-mail: ajgonsalves@lbl.gov; Pieronek, C.; Daniels, J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Waldron, W. L.; Mittelberger, D. E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, F.; Antipov, S.; Butler, J. E. [Euclid TechLabs, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (United States); Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-21

    A hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide operating at kHz repetition rates is presented for parameters relevant to laser plasma acceleration (LPA). The discharge current pulse was optimized for erosion mitigation with laser guiding experiments and MHD simulation. Heat flow simulations and measurements showed modest temperature rise at the capillary wall due to the average heat load at kHz repetition rates with water-cooled capillaries, which is promising for applications of LPAs such as high average power radiation sources.

  18. Physical characteristics of the Selectron high dose rate intracavitary afterloader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenery, S.G.A.; Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B. (Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1985-08-01

    The physics measurements on a Selectron high dose-rate afterloading cobalt-60 unit are reported. The installation was found to be acceptable from the standpoint of radiation safety and cost effectiveness; hospital bed space was saved as treatment could be on an outpatient basis. A source calibration 4% higher than the value stated by the manufacturer was obtained. Measurement of the ratio of exposure rate in water to that in air confirmed the calibration and the applicability of correction factors for routine clinical dosimetry recommended in the literature.

  19. Nanocrystalline silicon prepared at high growth rate using helium dilution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koyel Bhattacharya; Debajyoti Das

    2008-06-01

    Growth and optimization of the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si : H) films have been studied by varying the electrical power applied to the helium diluted silane plasma in RF glow discharge. Wide optical gap and conducting intrinsic nanocrystalline silicon network of controlled crystalline volume fraction and oriented crystallographic lattice planes have been obtained at a reasonably high growth rate from helium diluted silane plasma, without using hydrogen. Improving crystallinity in the network comprising ∼ 10 nm Si-nanocrystallites and contributing optical gap widening, conductivity ascending and that obtained during simultaneous escalation of the deposition rate, promises significant technological impact.

  20. Epidemiological study on nasal carriage in hospitalized children infected with Staphylococcus aureus%金黄色葡萄球菌感染住院患儿鼻部携带菌株的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭珊; 万朝敏; 邓建军; 肖国光; 廖琼; 舒敏

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTostudy the relationship between nasal carriage andStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in hospitalized children.MethodsFifty-six hospitalized children infected withS. aureus were recruited in this study. Nasal swabs were collected and cultured, and the nasal carriage rate ofS. aureus was examined. PVL virulence gene and mecA resistance gene were both detected in clinical strains and nasal carriage strains by PCR.Results Twenty-two (39%) of the 56 childrenhad nasal carriage ofS. aureus, and most of them (18 cases) were younger than one year. Among these 22 children, 11 (50%) had previous hospitalization over the past year. In the infected strains, the rate of methicillin-resistantS. aureus (MRSA) was 29% (16/56), while it was 32% (7/22) in carriage strains. The mecA positive results in clinical strains were consistent with the results in nasal carriage strains. Among 5 PVL-positive nasal carriage strains, 4 (90%) could be matched with their clinical strains, all of which were MRSA.ConclusionsNasal carriage is a potential risk factor forS. aureus infection. Nosocomial transmission may lead to nasal carriage, which can causeS. aureus infection. The isolation rate of MRSA is high in hospitalized children infected withS. aureus, which implies that more attention is needed for this situation. The isolates from noses may be clonally identical to the isolates from clinical secretions, and the homology between them needs to be conifrmed by multi-locus sequence typing.%目的:观察金黄色葡萄球菌(简称金葡菌)感染的住院患儿鼻部携带菌株与金葡菌感染之间的相关关系。方法以56例金葡菌感染的住院患儿为研究对象,采集鼻拭子标本进行培养,检测患儿的金葡菌鼻部携带率,并采用PCR方法分别检测临床菌株和鼻部携带菌株的mecA耐药基因和PVL毒力基因。结果56例金葡菌感染患儿中,22例(39%)鼻部携带金葡菌,携带患儿以婴儿为主(18

  1. Immunogenicity of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and impact on carriage in Venezuelan children at risk of invasive pneumococcal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera-Olivero, I.A.; Nogal, B. del; Fuentes, M.; Cortez, R.; Bogaert, D.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We evaluated the immunogenicity of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), and its impact on pneumococcal carriage in Venezuelan children at high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS: 82 children (age 2-59 months) with sickle cell anemia (n=22), chro

  2. Determination of Tensile Properties of Polymers at High Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Z.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of high rate testing of polymers the measured properties are highly dependent on the applied methodology. Hence, the test setup as whole but in particular also the geometrical type of specimen plays a decisive role. The widely used standard for the determination of tensile properties of polymers (ISO527-2 was extended by a novel standard (ISO18872:2007, which is targeted on the determination of tensile properties at high strain rates. In this standard also a novel specimen shape is proposed. Hand in hand with the introduction of new specimen geometry the question of comparability arises. To point out the differences in stress-strain response of the ISO18872 specimen and the ISO527-2 multipurpose specimen tensile tests over a wide loading rate range were conducted in this paper. A digital image correlation system in combination with a high speed camera was used to characterize the local material behaviour. Different parameters like nominal stress, true stress, nominal strain, true strain as well as volumetric strain were determined and used to compare the two specimen geometries.

  3. The effects of a simple intervention on exposures to low back pain risk factors during traditional posterior load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2017-03-01

    Traditional posterior load carriage (PLC), typically performed without the use of an assistive device, is associated with a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). However, there are few studies that have evaluated potential interventions to reduce exposures to LBP risk factors. This work examined the effects of a simple, potentially low-cost intervention using an assistive device (i.e., carrying aid) on exposures to factors related to LBP risk during PLC. Torso kinematics and kinetics, slip risk, and ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) were obtained during simulated PLC on a walkway. Consistent with earlier results, increasing load mass substantially increased torso flexion and lumbosacral flexion moment, as well as RPDs in all anatomical regions evaluated. Using the carrying aid with a higher load placement resulted in substantially lower mean lumbosacral moments when carrying the heaviest load. In contrast, using the carrying aid with a lower load placement resulted in substantially higher torso flexion angles, higher mean lumbosacral moments when carrying heavier loads, and higher peak lumbosacral moments across all load masses. With use of the carrying aid, both higher and lower load placement resulted in significantly lower RPDs in the elbows and hands compared to the control condition. In summary, use of a carrying aid with higher load placement may be beneficial in reducing the risk of LBP during PLC. Future studies are needed, though, to improve the device design and to enhance external validity.

  4. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn

  5. Multiplexed CV quantum teleportation for high rates in quantum communication

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge of today's quantum communication systems lies in the transmission of quantum information with high rates over long distances in the presence of unavoidable losses. Thereby the achievable quantum communication rate is fundamentally limited by the amount of energy that can be transmitted per use of the channel. It is hence vital to develop quantum communication protocols which encode quantum information as energy efficiently as possible. To this aim we investigate continuous-variable quantum teleportation as a method of distributing quantum information. We explore the possibility to encode information on multiple optical modes and derive upper and lower bounds on the achievable quantum channel capacities. This analysis enables us to benchmark single-mode vs. multi-mode entanglement resources. Our research reveals that multiplexing does not only feature an enhanced energy efficiency, significantly increasing the achievable quantum communication rates in comparison to single-mode coding, but als...

  6. High data rate recording: Moving to 2 Gbit/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratorin, A.; Yuan, S.; Nikitin, V.

    2003-05-01

    High data rate recording can be achieved using fast write drivers and fast heads. Advanced short-yoke write heads and write drivers with 450 ps rise time and programmable current overshoot were used to study recording at data rates up to 2 Gbit/s. The head flux rise time causes shifts of recorded transitions. It is well known that current overshoot helps to overcome bandwidth limitations in the write driver, interconnects, and write head. However, excessive overshoot may cause pattern-dependent transition shifts and significant distortions of recorded transitions. We present the data rate performance of short-yoke recording heads, analysis of nonlinear pattern-dependent distortions, and optimization of the write current wave form in the 1-2 Gbit/s range. Simple dibit and tribit patterns were recorded at 2 Gbit/s. Low-distortion recording for arbitrary data patterns was demonstrated at 1.6 Gbit/s after optimization of write current overshoot.

  7. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrissa Diawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes.Nasal swab specimens were obtained from 143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff from January to June 2012. Each participant completed a short questionnaire. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was demographically related (age, gender, hemodialysis duration, comorbidity (diabetes, malignancy and exposure to health care (dialysis staff, hospitalization. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction were used on all the isolates in the research of twelve staphylococcal enterotoxins genes. Also the PCR was used to investigate on the three factors epidermal cell differentiation inhibitors; three exfoliatin toxins; two leukotoxins; the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and the hemolysin beta genes.Nasal screening revealed 38.16%, 50% and 18.75% S. aureus carries in chronic, acute hemodialysis patients and medical staff, respectively. Only young participants were likely to be S. aureus carries (p = 0.002. But there were no gender differences between the isolate carriers and non-carriers or some comorbidity factors such as viral hepatitis B and C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infections, diabetes, chronic smoking, recent hospitalization or antibiotic therapy. Out of all isolates, only one (1.61% was methicillin-resistant and Twenty-one (33.87% had at least two virulence toxin genes.Knowledge and monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile and virulence of S. aureus carriage are essential in the treatment of infections generated by this pathogen, as well as in the control of clonal dissemination and prevent the spread of S. aureus resistance.

  9. Effect of Load Carriage on Lumbar Spine Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    LCS) confi gurations. 7 In gen- eral, the LCS backpack confi guration is preferred among the military because of the proximity of the load to the...population has been associated with lower back pain. 10 – 12 The kinematic behavior of the lumbar spine while carrying load using a backpack confi...posterior load over the base of support. Key words: low back pain , backpack , military , load carriage , MRI , upright MRI , lumbar spine

  10. [Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes in primary school children: M-protein types, pyrogenic toxin genes, and investigation of the clonal relationships between the isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlu, Barış; Karakurt, Cemşit; Bayındır, Yaşar; Kayabaş, Üner; Yakupoğulları, Yusuf; Gözükara Bağ, Harika

    2015-07-01

    M-protein and pyrogenic toxins are the most important virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes, and they play significant role in the pathophysiology of acute rheumatoid fever and scarlet fever, respectively. In this study, the pharyngeal carriage of S.pyogenes of the primary school children, clonal relationship of the strains, M-protein types, and the presence of pyrogenic toxin genes were aimed to be investigated. A total of 668 throat cultures obtained from children (age range: 6-16 years) in two primary schools in our region, were included in the study. The clonal relationships of the isolated group A streptococci (GAS) strains were investigated by DiversiLab assay (BioMérieux, France), and the clonal relatedness was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. M-protein (emm) typing was performed by DNA sequencing as suggested by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The genes encoding pyrogenic toxins, speA and speC, were investigated by an in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. S.pyogenes was isolated from 134 (20.05%) of the throat samples. The GAS carriage rate of the students aged ≥10 was statistically higher than those 7-9 years age group (%22 vs %16.4, pvaccine was determined to be over 90% with respect to M-protein types. Since the pyrogenic toxin-encoding genes were found in one fifth of the isolates from the studied subjects, we concluded that the carrier population may also have high risk for scarlet fever. We also concluded that, the clonal relationship ratio determined among the isolates may be a risk in school transmission of GAS.

  11. Investigation of high-rate lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Catherine A.; Gust, Steven; Farrington, Michael D.; Lockwood, Judith A.; Donaldson, George J.

    Chemical analysis of a commercially produced high-rate D-size lithium-thionyl cell was carried out, as a function of rate of discharge (1 ohm and 5 ohms), depth of discharge, and temperature (25 C and -40 C), using specially developed methods for identifying suspected minor cell products or impurities which may effect cell performance. These methods include a product-retrieval system which involves solvent extraction to enhance the recovery of suspected semivolatile minor chemicals, and methods of quantitative GC analysis of volatile and semivolatile products. The nonvolatile products were analyzed by wet chemical methods. The results of the analyses indicate that the predominant discharge reaction in this cell is 4Li + 2SOCl2 going to 4LiCl + S + SO2, with SO2 formation decreasing towards the end of cell life (7 to 12 Ah). The rate of discharge had no effect on the product distribution. Upon discharge of the high-rate cell at -40 C, one cell exploded, and all others exhibited overheating and rapid internal pressure rise when allowed to warm up to room temperature.

  12. HIGH RATES OF EVOLUTION PRECEDED THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J; Polly, P David

    2014-01-01

    The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. PMID:24471891

  13. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygiel, R.; Grybos, P.; Maj, P.

    2012-07-01

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  14. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczygiel, R., E-mail: robert.szczygiel@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Maj, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Instrumentation, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-07-11

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm Multiplication-Sign 4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40 Multiplication-Sign 32 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  15. Small cryptopredators contribute to high predation rates on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatley, Christopher H. R.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.

    2017-03-01

    Small fishes suffer high mortality rates on coral reefs, primarily due to predation. Although studies have identified the predators of early post-settlement fishes, the predators of small cryptobenthic fishes remain largely unknown. We therefore used a series of mesocosm experiments with natural habitat and cryptobenthic fish communities to identify the impacts of a range of small potential predators, including several invertebrates, on prey fish populations. While there was high variability in predation rates, many members of the cryptobenthic fish community act as facultative cryptopredators, being prey when small and piscivores when larger. Surprisingly, we also found that smashing mantis shrimps may be important fish predators. Our results highlight the diversity of the predatory community on coral reefs and identify previously unknown trophic links in these complex ecosystems.

  16. Complex pulsing schemes for high frame rate imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Fink, Mathias; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    High frame rate ultrasound imaging can be achieved by simultaneous transmission of multiple focused beams along different directions. However, image quality degrades by the interference among beams. An alternative approach is to transmit spherical waves of a basic short pulse with frequency coding...... with linear frequency modulation along the transducer elements, that cover the 70% fractional bandwidth of the 7 MHz transducer. The resulted images (after beamforming and matched filtering) show an axial resolution at the same order as in conventional pulse excitation and axial sidelobes down to -45 d......B. With the proposed imaging strategy of pulse train excitation, a whole image can be formed with only two emissions, making it possible to obtain high quality images at a frame rate of 20 to 25 times higher than that of conventional phased array imaging...

  17. Characteristics of Multiplexed Grooved Nozzles for High Flow Rate Electrospray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Sang Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The electrospray operated in the cone-jet mode can generate highly charged micro droplets in an almost uniform size at flow rates. Therefore, the multiplexing system which can retain the characteristics of the cone-jet mode is inevitable for the electrospray application. This experiment reports the multiplexed grooved nozzle system with the extractor. The effects of the grooves and the extractor on the performance of the electrospray were evaluated through experiments. Using the grooved nozzle, the stable cone-jet mode can be achieved at the each groove in the grooved mode. Furthermore, the number of nozzles per unit area is increased by the extractor. The multiplexing density is 12 jets per cm{sup 2} at 30 mm distance from the nozzle tip to the ground plate. The multiplexing system for the high flow rate electrospray is realized with the extractor which can diminish the space charge effect without sacrificing characteristics of the cone-jet mode.

  18. Distribution of streaming rates into high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Goerdt, Tobias; Dekel, Avishai; Teyssier, Romain

    2015-01-01

    We study the accretion along streams from the cosmic web into high-redshift massive galaxies using three sets of AMR hydro-cosmological simulations. We find that the streams keep a roughly constant accretion rate as they penetrate into the halo centre. The mean accretion rate follows the mass and redshift dependence predicted for haloes by the EPS approximation, dM / dt is proportional to Mvir^{1.25} (1 + z)^{2.5}. The distribution of the accretion rates can well be described by a sum of two Gaussians, the primary corresponding to "smooth inflow" and the secondary to "mergers". The same functional form was already found for the distributions of specific star formation rates in observations. The mass fraction in the smooth component is 60 - 90 %, insensitive to redshift or halo mass. The simulations with strong feedback show clear signs of re-accretion due to recycling of galactic winds. The mean accretion rate for the mergers is a factor 2 - 3 larger than that of the smooth component. The standard deviation o...

  19. 志贺菌1、2类整合子及ISCR1携带情况与耐药性的关系%Carriage rates of class 1, class 2 integrons as well as ISCR1 in Shigella isolates and their relationship with drug resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董利娟; 杨贤; 王俊; 祁伟; 吕星; 梁帆

    2015-01-01

    chloram⁃phenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol were both 56.60%, and the incidence of multidrug drug resistance was 77.36%. In the sonnei strains, the incidence of resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazo were 97.17% and 95.28%, 83.96%and 76.42%respectively, and the incidence of multidrug resistance was 98.11%. Among all isolates, 118 were class 1 integron positive , 70 were class 2 integron positive and 89 were double positives. For those 118 isolates that are positive of class 1 integron, 23 were typical while 95 weres atypical. The gene cassettes of typical class 1 integrons contains aadA2, aa⁃dA1, dfrⅠ, blaoxa-10 and blaoxa-1. IntI1, aadA, blaoxa-1 and IS1 were included in the gene cassetes of the atypical class 1 integrons. Class 2 integrons positive isolates carried gene cassttes which include dfrA1, satl and aadA1. No ISCR1 was found in any isolate. Integron carriage strains were closely associated with higher rate of multiple antibiobic resistance com⁃pared with the organisms without integrons (90.65%,50%, P<0.05). Conlusion Class 1 and class 2 integrons were widely existence in Shigella isolates and were related to the multidrug resistance.

  20. High-rate diamond deposition by microwave plasma CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin

    In this dissertation, the growth of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond thin films is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The goal of this research is to deposit high quality HOD (Highly Oriented Diamond) films with a growth rate greater than 1 mum/hr. For the (100)-oriented HOD films, the growth rate achieved by the traditional process is only 0.3 mum/hr while the theoretical limit is ˜0.45 mum/hr. This research increases the growth rate up to 5.3 mum/hr (with a theoretical limit of ˜7 mum/hr) while preserving the crystal quality. This work builds a connection between the theoretical study of the CVD process and the experimental research. The study is extended from the growth of regular polycrystalline diamond to highly oriented diamond (HOD) films. For the increase of the growth rate of regular polycrystalline diamond thin films, a scaling growth model developed by Goodwin is introduced in details to assist in the understanding of the MPCVD (Microwave Plasma CVD) process. Within the Goodwin's scaling model, there are only four important sub-processes for the growth of diamond: surface modification, adsorption, desorption, and incorporation. The factors determining the diamond growth rate and film quality are discussed following the description of the experimental setup and process parameters. Growth rate and crystal quality models are reviewed to predict and understand the experimental results. It is shown that the growth rate of diamond can be increased with methane input concentration and the amount of atomic hydrogen (by changing the total pressure). It is crucial to provide enough atomic hydrogen to conserve crystal quality of the deposited diamond film. The experimental results demonstrate that for a fixed methane concentration, there is a minimum pressure for growth of good diamond. Similarly, for a fixed total pressure, there is a maximum methane concentration for growth of good diamond, and this maximum methane concentration increases

  1. High Strain Rate Experiments of Energetic Material Binder

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel Mendoza, Roberto; Harr, Michael; Chen, Weinong

    2016-01-01

    Energetic materials, in particular HMX, is widely used in many applications as polymer bonded explosives (PBX) and rocket propellant. However, when damaged, HMX is known to be an unstable substance which renders it a hazardous material and in some cases unreliable. Finding critical mechanical conditions at high rates that render various forms of energetic materials as unreliable would be vital to understand the effects that vibrations and compression forces have on energetic materials. A bett...

  2. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Roel J.W. Brienen

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits - short turnover times - are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

  3. Data Feature Extraction for High-Rate 3-Phase Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-18

    This algorithm processes high-rate 3-phase signals to identify the start time of each signal and estimate its envelope as data features. The start time and magnitude of each signal during the steady state is also extracted. The features can be used to detect abnormal signals. This algorithm is developed to analyze Exxeno's 3-phase voltage and current data recorded from refrigeration systems to detect device failure or degradation.

  4. High rate multiplicity detector for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bennett, M.J. [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Carroll, J.B. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chiba, J. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); Chikanian, A. [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cronqvist, M. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dardenne, Y. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Debbe, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Doke, T. [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Engelage, J. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Flores, I. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Greiner, L. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hayano, R.S. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hallman, T.J. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Heckman, H.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kashiwagi, T. [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Kikuchi, J. [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Kumar, B.S. [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Kuo, C. [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lindstrom, P.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, J.W. [Universities Space Research Association/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nagamiya, S.; E878 Collaboration

    1995-04-21

    We have constructed and operated a detector to measure the multiplicity of secondary particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the E878 experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS facility. We describe the operation and performance of the detector in a high rate Au beam environment, and interpret the multiplicity data in terms of the impact parameters of the nucleus-nucleus collisions. ((orig.)).

  5. High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana

    2015-01-01

    Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task - the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction...... than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers....

  6. Twinning in copper deformed at high strain rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Cronje; R E Kroon; W D Roos; J H Neethling

    2013-02-01

    Copper samples having varying microstructures were deformed at high strain rates using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar. Transmission electron microscopy results show deformation twins present in samples that were both annealed and strained, whereas samples that were annealed and left unstrained, as well as samples that were unannealed and strained, are devoid of these twins. These deformation twins occurred at deformation conditions less extreme than previously predicted.

  7. MDT Performance in a High Rate Background Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin; Hessey, N P; Riegler, W

    1998-01-01

    A Cs137 gamma source with different lead filters in the SPS beam-line X5 has been used to simulate the ATLAS background radiation. This note shows the impact of high background rates on the MDT efficiency and resolution for three kinds of pulse shaping and compares the results with GARFIELD simulations. Furthermore it explains how the performance can be improved by time slewing corrections and double track separation.

  8. DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CARRIAGE-PLATFORMS USE OF SECTION TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted the comparative analysis of charges for the complete life cycle of 80-foot carriageplatform and carriage-platform of sectional type on the example of two models of carriages-platforms for the containers produced by JSC “Azovmash”. The indexes of comparative efficiency are examined from a viewpoint of company-operator of railway freight transportations – a potential proprietor of carriages-platforms.

  9. Erasmus Darwin's improved design for steering carriages and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Hele, Desmond

    2002-01-01

    Carriage journeys in England during the eighteenth century were notoriously dangerous. Rutted and pot-holed roads exacerbated the deficiencies in steering, springing and stability. In 1758 the young Dr. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802; F. R. S. 1761) was travelling about 10,000 miles a year in visits to patients from his house at Lichfield. To alleviate the danger and discomfort of his journey, he developed a design for improved carriage steering and stability, which he road-tested over 20,000 miles on two carriages. In 1765 Richard Lovell Edgeworth (1744-1817; F. R. S. 1718) heard about Darwin's design, urged the Society of Arts to enquire about it, and then visited Darwin himself. With the aid of manuscripts from the Archive of the Royal Society of Arts and elsewhere, I offer a reconstruction of Darwin's improved method of steering, which relies on four jointed rods, initially in the form of an isosceles trapezium. The mechanism was reinvented more than 50 years later, and came to be used widely in early modern cars.

  10. Mechanical properties of transgenic silkworm silk at high rate impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jou-Mei

    Transgenic silkworm silk was created to obtain the quality of spider silk while being mass-producible. Due to the variability in sequencing between the silkworm and spider DNA, the resulting transgenic silkworm silk may have different properties compared to spider silk. Furthermore, the high strain rate mechanical response of this new natural fiber is still unknown and needs to be characterized. In this experimental research, a quasi-static load frame (MTS) and a Kolsky tension bar are used to characterize the tensile stress-strain response of transgenic silkworm silk over a range of strain-rates between 10-3/s to 103/s. The results show that transgenic silkworm silk tends to have high overall elongation and initial stiffness at high strain rates compared to those of spider silk. Furthermore, specimen gage length sensitivity is studied with gage lengths of 3.97 mm (5/32 in), 4.76 mm (3/16 in), and 6.35 mm (1/4 in). Fracture surfaces are examined via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and reveal that the fracture mode is similar to that of spider silk. Therefore, it may be possible for the tensile properties of transgenic silkworm silk be comparable to that of spider silk.

  11. Semi-solid electrodes having high rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Holman, Richard; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Tan, Taison

    2016-06-07

    Embodiments described herein relate generally to electrochemical cells having high rate capability, and more particularly to devices, systems and methods of producing high capacity and high rate capability batteries having relatively thick semi-solid electrodes. In some embodiments, an electrochemical cell includes an anode and a semi-solid cathode. The semi-solid cathode includes a suspension of an active material of about 35% to about 75% by volume of an active material and about 0.5% to about 8% by volume of a conductive material in a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte. An ion-permeable membrane is disposed between the anode and the semi-solid cathode. The semi-solid cathode has a thickness of about 250 .mu.m to about 2,000 .mu.m, and the electrochemical cell has an area specific capacity of at least about 7 mAh/cm.sup.2 at a C-rate of C/4. In some embodiments, the semi-solid cathode slurry has a mixing index of at least about 0.9.

  12. Atomistic simulations of high strain rate loading of nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringa, E. M.; Tramontina, D.; Ruestes, C. J.; Tang, Y.; Meyers, M. A.; Gunkelmann, N.; Urbassek, H. M.

    2013-03-01

    Materials loaded at high strain rates can reach extreme temperature and pressure conditions. Most experiments on loading of simple materials use poly crystals, while most atomistic simulations of shock wave loading deal with single crystals, due to the higher computational cost of running polycrystal samples. Of course, atomistic simulations of polycrystals with micron-sized grains are beyond the capabilities of current supercomputers. On the other hand, nanocrystals (nc) with grain sizes below 50 nm can be obtained experimentally and modeled reasonably well at high strain rates, opening the possibility of nearly direct comparison between atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experiments using high power lasers. We will discuss MD simulations and links to experiments for nc Cu and Ni, as model f.c.c. solids, and nc Ta and Fe, as model b.c.c. solids. In all cases, the microstructure resulting from loading depends strongly on grain size, strain rate and peak applied pressure. We will also discuss effects related to target porosity in nc's. E.M.B. thanks funding from PICT2008-1325.

  13. High-rate electrochemical energy storage through Li+ intercalation pseudocapacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyn, Veronica; Come, Jérémy; Lowe, Michael A; Kim, Jong Woung; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Tolbert, Sarah H; Abruña, Héctor D; Simon, Patrice; Dunn, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Pseudocapacitance is commonly associated with surface or near-surface reversible redox reactions, as observed with RuO2·xH2O in an acidic electrolyte. However, we recently demonstrated that a pseudocapacitive mechanism occurs when lithium ions are inserted into mesoporous and nanocrystal films of orthorhombic Nb2O5 (T-Nb2O5; refs 1,2). Here, we quantify the kinetics of charge storage in T-Nb2O5: currents that vary inversely with time, charge-storage capacity that is mostly independent of rate, and redox peaks that exhibit small voltage offsets even at high rates. We also define the structural characteristics necessary for this process, termed intercalation pseudocapacitance, which are a crystalline network that offers two-dimensional transport pathways and little structural change on intercalation. The principal benefit realized from intercalation pseudocapacitance is that high levels of charge storage are achieved within short periods of time because there are no limitations from solid-state diffusion. Thick electrodes (up to 40 μm thick) prepared with T-Nb2O5 offer the promise of exploiting intercalation pseudocapacitance to obtain high-rate charge-storage devices.

  14. Dried Saliva Spots: A Robust Method for Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Krone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the highly polymicrobial oral cavity virtually impossible. Here, we tested the feasibility of using dried saliva spots (DSS for studies on pneumococcal carriage. Saliva samples from children and pneumococcus-spiked saliva samples from healthy adults were applied to paper, dried, and stored, with and without desiccant, at temperatures ranging from −20 to 37 °C for up to 35 days. DNA extracted from DSS was tested with quantitative-PCR (qPCR specifically for S. pneumoniae. When processed immediately after drying, the quantity of pneumococcal DNA detected in spiked DSS from adults matched the levels in freshly spiked raw saliva. Furthermore, pneumococcal DNA was stable in DSS stored with desiccant for up to one month over a broad range of temperatures. There were no differences in the results when spiking saliva with varied pneumococcal strains. The collection of saliva can be a particularly useful in surveillance studies conducted in remote settings, as it does not require trained personnel, and DSS are resilient to various transportation conditions.

  15. Dried Saliva Spots: A Robust Method for Detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Cassandra L; Oja, Anna E; van de Groep, Kirsten; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby; Trzciński, Krzysztof

    2016-03-05

    The earliest studies in the late 19th century on Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) carriage used saliva as the primary specimen. However, interest in saliva declined after the sensitive mouse inoculation method was replaced by conventional culture, which made isolation of pneumococci from the highly polymicrobial oral cavity virtually impossible. Here, we tested the feasibility of using dried saliva spots (DSS) for studies on pneumococcal carriage. Saliva samples from children and pneumococcus-spiked saliva samples from healthy adults were applied to paper, dried, and stored, with and without desiccant, at temperatures ranging from -20 to 37 °C for up to 35 days. DNA extracted from DSS was tested with quantitative-PCR (qPCR) specifically for S. pneumoniae. When processed immediately after drying, the quantity of pneumococcal DNA detected in spiked DSS from adults matched the levels in freshly spiked raw saliva. Furthermore, pneumococcal DNA was stable in DSS stored with desiccant for up to one month over a broad range of temperatures. There were no differences in the results when spiking saliva with varied pneumococcal strains. The collection of saliva can be a particularly useful in surveillance studies conducted in remote settings, as it does not require trained personnel, and DSS are resilient to various transportation conditions.

  16. Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in urban and rural community settings in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Alessandro; Pallecchi, Lucia; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Segundo, Higinio; Monasterio, Joaquin; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cabezas, César; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in rural and urban community settings of Bolivia and Peru. MRSA nasal carriage was investigated in 585 individuals living in rural and urban areas of Bolivia and Peru (one urban area, one small rural village, and two native communities, one of which was highly isolated). MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of virulence genes, characterization of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and genotyping (multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)). An overall very low prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was observed (0.5%), with MRSA carriers being detected only in a small rural village of the Bolivian Chaco. The three MRSA isolates showed the characteristics of community-associated MRSA (being susceptible to all non-beta-lactam antibiotics and harboring the SCCmec type IV), were clonally related, and belonged to ST1649. This study provides an insight into the epidemiology of MRSA in community settings of Bolivia and Peru. Reliable, time-saving, and low-cost methods should be implemented to encourage continued surveillance of MRSA dissemination in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the Role of Coliform Bacteria in Class 1 Integron Carriage and Biofilm Formation During Drinking Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Anca; Crăciunaş, Cornelia; Chiriac, Cecilia; Szekeres, Edina; Coman, Cristian; Butiuc-Keul, Anca

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the role of coliforms in the carriage of class 1 integron and biocide resistance genes in a drinking water treatment plant and explores the relationship between the carriage of such genes and the biofouling abilities of the strain. The high incidence of class 1 integron and biocide resistance genes (33.3 % of the isolates) highlights the inherent risk of genetic contamination posed by coliform populations during drinking water treatment. The association between the presence of intI1 gene and qac gene cassettes, especially qacH, was greater in biofilm cells. In coliforms recovered from biofilms, a higher frequency of class 1 integron elements and higher diversity of genetic patterns occurred, compared to planktonic cells. The coliform isolates under the study proved to mostly carry non-classical class 1 integrons lacking the typical qacEΔ1/sul1 genes or a complete tni module, but bearing the qacH gene. No link was found between the carriage of integron genes and the biofouling degree of the strain, neither in aerobic or in anaerobic conditions. Coliform bacteria isolated from established biofilms rather adhere in oxygen depleted environments, while the colonization ability of planktonic cells is not significantly affected by oxygen availability.

  18. High Strain Rate Compression Testing of Ceramics and Ceramic Composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenthal, W. R. (William R.)

    2005-01-01

    The compressive deformation and failure behavior of ceramics and ceramic-metal composites for armor applications has been studied as a function of strain rate at Los Alamos National Laboratory since the late 1980s. High strain rate ({approx}10{sup 3} s{sup -1}) uniaxial compression loading can be achieved using the Kolsky-split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique, but special methods must be used to obtain valid strength results. This paper reviews these methods and the limitations of the Kolsky-SHPB technique for this class of materials. The Kolsky-split-Hopkinson pressure bar (Kolsky-SHPB) technique was originally developed to characterize the mechanical behavior of ductile materials such as metals and polymers where the results can be used to develop strain-rate and temperature-dependent constitutive behavior models that empirically describe macroscopic plastic flow. The flow behavior of metals and polymers is generally controlled by thermally-activated and rate-dependent dislocation motion or polymer chain motion in response to shear stresses. Conversely, the macroscopic mechanical behavior of dense, brittle, ceramic-based materials is dominated by elastic deformation terminated by rapid failure associated with the propagation of defects in the material in response to resolved tensile stresses. This behavior is usually characterized by a distribution of macroscopically measured failure strengths and strains. The basis for any strain-rate dependence observed in the failure strength must originate from rate-dependence in the damage and fracture process, since uniform, uniaxial elastic behavior is rate-independent (e.g. inertial effects on crack growth). The study of microscopic damage and fracture processes and their rate-dependence under dynamic loading conditions is a difficult experimental challenge that is not addressed in this paper. The purpose of this paper is to review the methods that have been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to

  19. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  20. Brachytherapy for early oral tongue cancer. Low dose rate to high dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hideya [Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inoue, Takehiro; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Inoue, Toshihiko [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Furukawa, Souhei; Kakimoto, Naoya [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Dentistry

    2003-03-01

    To examine the compatibility of low dose rate (LDR) with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, we reviewed 399 patients with early oral tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) treated solely by brachytherapy at Osaka University Hospital between 1967 and 1999. For patients in the LDR group (n=341), the treatment sources consisted of Ir-192 pin for 227 patients (1973-1996; irradiated dose, 61-85 Gy; median, 70 Gy), Ra-226 needle for 113 patients (1967-1986; 55-93 Gy; median, 70 Gy). Ra-226 and Ir-192 were combined for one patient. Ir-192 HDR (microSelectron-HDR) was used for 58 patients in the HDR group (1991-present; 48-60 Gy; median, 60 Gy). LDR implantations were performed via oral and HDR via a submental/submandibular approach. The dose rates at the reference point for the LDR group were 0.30 to 0.8 Gy/h, and for the HDR group 1.0 to 3.4 Gy/min. The patients in the HDR group received a total dose of 48-60 Gy (8-10 fractions) during one week. Two fractions were administered per day (at least a 6-h interval). The 3- and 5-year local control rates for patients in the LDR group were 85% and 80%, respectively, and those in the HDR group were both 84%. HDR brachytherapy showed the same lymph-node control rate as did LDR brachytherapy (67% at 5 years). HDR brachytherapy achieved the same locoregional result as did LDR brachytherapy. A converting factor of 0.86 is applicable for HDR in the treatment of early oral tongue cancer. (author)

  1. Brachytherapy for early oral tongue cancer: low dose rate to high dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Furukawa, Souhei; Kakimoto, Naoya; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2003-03-01

    To examine the compatibility of low dose rate (LDR) with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, we reviewed 399 patients with early oral tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) treated solely by brachytherapy at Osaka University Hospital between 1967 and 1999. For patients in the LDR group (n = 341), the treatment sources consisted of Ir-192 pin for 227 patients (1973-1996; irradiated dose, 61-85 Gy; median, 70 Gy), Ra-226 needle for 113 patients (1967-1986; 55-93 Gy; median, 70 Gy). Ra-226 and Ir-192 were combined for one patient. Ir-192 HDR (microSelectron-HDR) was used for 58 patients in the HDR group (1991-present; 48-60 Gy; median, 60 Gy). LDR implantations were performed via oral and HDR via a submental/submandibular approach. The dose rates at the reference point for the LDR group were 0.30 to 0.8 Gy/h, and for the HDR group 1.0 to 3.4 Gy/min. The patients in the HDR group received a total dose of 48-60 Gy (8-10 fractions) during one week. Two fractions were administered per day (at least a 6-h interval). The 3- and 5-year local control rates for patients in the LDR group were 85% and 80%, respectively, and those in the HDR group were both 84%. HDR brachytherapy showed the same lymph-node control rate as did LDR brachytherapy (67% at 5 years). HDR brachytherapy achieved the same locoregional result as did LDR brachytherapy. A converting factor of 0.86 is applicable for HDR in the treatment of early oral tongue cancer.

  2. A spark-protected high-rate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fonte, Paulo J R; Costa, L; Ferreira-Marques, R; Mendiratta, S; Peskov, Vladimir; Policarpo, Armando

    1999-01-01

    We developed a very low resistivity RPC-type detector, the anode of which was a plate made from materials with resistivity up to 5x10 sup 7 OMEGA cm, the cathode being a metallic mesh preceded by a drift region. In such a detector it was actually possible to combine the versatility and high counting-rate capability of metallic PPACs with the extreme robustness and 'protectiveness' of Resistive Plate Chambers. Occasional discharges triggered by large deposits of primary ionisation or by extreme counting rates are quenched by the resistive anode and are constrained to the streamer phase of the sparking process. The study shows that this discharge affects the detector only locally and that the charge released is limited to a few tens of nC. Proportional counting rates up to 10 sup 5 Hz/mm sup 2 were achieved at gains above 10 sup 4. The energy resolution at 6 keV was 20% FWHM. The observed gain-rate trade-off is well described by an analytic model and further improvements may be expected by lowering the resistiv...

  3. A spark-protected high-rate detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, P. E-mail: paulo.fonte@cern.chfonte@lipc.fis.uc.pt; Carolino, N.; Costa, L.; Ferreira-Marques, Rui; Mendiratta, S.; Peskov, V.; Policarpo, A

    1999-07-11

    We developed a very low resistivity RPC-type detector, the anode of which was a plate made from materials with resistivity up to 5x10{sup 7} {omega} cm, the cathode being a metallic mesh preceded by a drift region. In such a detector it was actually possible to combine the versatility and high counting-rate capability of metallic PPACs with the extreme robustness and 'protectiveness' of Resistive Plate Chambers. Occasional discharges triggered by large deposits of primary ionisation or by extreme counting rates are quenched by the resistive anode and are constrained to the streamer phase of the sparking process. The study shows that this discharge affects the detector only locally and that the charge released is limited to a few tens of nC. Proportional counting rates up to 10{sup 5} Hz/mm{sup 2} were achieved at gains above 10{sup 4}. The energy resolution at 6 keV was 20% FWHM. The observed gain-rate trade-off is well described by an analytic model and further improvements may be expected by lowering the resistivity of the anode material. The properties of several custom-made, controllable resistivity, anode materials are described and prospects of improvement in the performance of the detector are discussed. (author)

  4. High monetary reward rates and caloric rewards decrease temporal persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Temporal persistence refers to an individual's capacity to wait for future rewards, while forgoing possible alternatives. This requires a trade-off between the potential value of delayed rewards and opportunity costs, and is relevant to many real-world decisions, such as dieting. Theoretical models have previously suggested that high monetary reward rates, or positive energy balance, may result in decreased temporal persistence. In our study, 50 fasted participants engaged in a temporal persistence task, incentivised with monetary rewards. In alternating blocks of this task, rewards were delivered at delays drawn randomly from distributions with either a lower or higher maximum reward rate. During some blocks participants received either a caloric drink or water. We used survival analysis to estimate participants' probability of quitting conditional on the delay distribution and the consumed liquid. Participants had a higher probability of quitting in blocks with the higher reward rate. Furthermore, participants who consumed the caloric drink had a higher probability of quitting than those who consumed water. Our results support the predictions from the theoretical models, and importantly, suggest that both higher monetary reward rates and physiologically relevant rewards can decrease temporal persistence, which is a crucial determinant for survival in many species. PMID:28228517

  5. Lithium manganese spinel materials for high-rate electrochemical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna V. Potapenko; Sviatoslav A. Kirillov

    2014-01-01

    In order to successively compete with supercapacitors, an ability of fast discharge is a must for lithium-ion batteries. From this point of view, stoichiometric and substituted lithium manganese spinels as cathode materials are one of the most prospective candidates, especially in their nanosized form. In this article, an overview of the most recent data regarding physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of lithium manganese spinels, especially, LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, synthesized by means of various methods is presented, with special emphasis of their use in high-rate electrochemical applications. In particular, specific capacities and rate capabilities of spinel materials are analyzed. It is suggested that reduced specific capacity is determined primarily by the aggregation of material particles, whereas good high-rate capability is governed not only by the size of crystallites but also by the perfectness of crystals. The most technologically advantageous solutions are described, existing gaps in the knowledge of spinel materials are outlined, and the ways of their filling are suggested, in a hope to be helpful in keeping lithium batteries afloat in the struggle for a worthy place among electrochemical energy systems of the 21st century.

  6. High mortality rates after non-elective colon cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, I S; Snijders, H S; Grossmann, Irene

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Colon cancer resection in a non-elective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on non-elective resection. METHOD: Data were...... obtained from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colon cancer resection in the Netherlands between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. Patient, treatment and tumour factors were analyzed in relation to the urgency of surgery. The primary outcome was the thirty day...... postoperative mortality. RESULTS: The study included 30,907 patients. In 5934 (19.2%) of patients, a non-elective colon cancer resection was performed. There was a 4.4% overall mortality rate, with significantly more deaths after non-elective surgery (8.5% vs 3.4%, P

  7. Atrial high-rate episodes and stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camm, A John; Simantirakis, Emmanuel; Goette, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    While the benefit of oral anticoagulants (OACs) for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is well established, it is not known whether oral anticoagulation is indicated in patients with atrial high-rate episodes (AHRE) recorded on a cardiac implantable electronic device......, sometimes also called subclinical AF, and lasting for at least 6 min in the absence of clinically diagnosed AF. Clinical evidence has shown that short episodes of rapid atrial tachycarrhythmias are often detected in patients presenting with stroke and transient ischaemic attack. Patients with AHRE have...... a higher likelihood of suffering from subsequent strokes, but their stroke rate seems lower than in patients with diagnosed AF, and not all AHRE episodes correspond to AF. The prognostic and pathological significance of AHRE is not yet fully understood. Clinical trials of OAC therapy are being conducted...

  8. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Wiens, John

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

  9. An Architecture for High Data Rate Very Low Frequency Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very low frequency (VLF communication is used for long range shore-to-ship broadcasting applications. This paper proposes an architecture for high data rate VLF communication using Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK modulation and low delay parity check (LDPC channel coding. Non-data aided techniques are designed and used for carrier phase synchronization, symbol timing recovery, and LDPC code frame synchronization. These require the estimation of the operative Eb/N0 for which a kurtosis based algorithm is used. Also, a method for modeling the probability density function of the received signal under the bit condition is presented in this regard. The modeling of atmospheric radio noise (ARN that corrupts VLF signals is described and an algorithm for signal enhancement in the presence of ARN in given. The BER performance of the communication system is evaluated for bit rates of 400 bps, 600 bps, and 800 bps for communication bandwidth of ~200 Hz.

  10. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Mathias; Keuser, Manfred; Solomos, George; Peroni, Marco; Larcher, Martin; Esteban, Beatriz

    2015-09-01

    The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  11. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw and the Joint Research Centre (JRC in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  12. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, Albert; Dünnweber, Wolfgang

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large H adron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise m easurement of trajec- tories of traversing muons. In order to determine the moment um of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the m uon in a single tube has to be more accurate than σ ≤ 100 m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and th e high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and γ s in the muon spectrome- ter. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade [1] to 5 10 34 cm − 2 s − 1 is planned, which will increase the background counting rates consider ably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber tech- nology to provide the required accuracy of the position meas urement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the dri ft tube chambers are described: • In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more lin ear ...

  13. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  14. Measurement of fracture properties of concrete at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-De-Pedraza, V.; Cendón, D. A.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.; Gálvez, F.

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the spalling technique of concrete bars using the modified Hopkinson bar was carried out. A new experimental configuration is proposed adding some variations to previous works. An increased length for concrete specimens was chosen and finite-element analysis was used for designing a conic projectile to obtain a suitable triangular impulse wave. The aim of this initial work is to establish an experimental framework which allows a simple and direct analysis of concrete subjected to high strain rates. The efforts and configuration of these primary tests, as well as the selected geometry and dimensions for the different elements, have been focused to achieve a simple way of identifying the fracture position and so the tensile strength of tested specimens. This dynamic tensile strength can be easily compared with previous values published in literature giving an idea of the accuracy of the method and technique proposed and the possibility to extend it in a near future to obtain other mechanical properties such as the fracture energy. The tests were instrumented with strain gauges, accelerometers and high-speed camera in order to validate the results by different ways. Results of the dynamic tensile strength of the tested concrete are presented. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  15. Measurement of fracture properties of concrete at high strain rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-De-Pedraza, V; Cendón, D A; Sánchez-Gálvez, V; Gálvez, F

    2017-01-28

    An analysis of the spalling technique of concrete bars using the modified Hopkinson bar was carried out. A new experimental configuration is proposed adding some variations to previous works. An increased length for concrete specimens was chosen and finite-element analysis was used for designing a conic projectile to obtain a suitable triangular impulse wave. The aim of this initial work is to establish an experimental framework which allows a simple and direct analysis of concrete subjected to high strain rates. The efforts and configuration of these primary tests, as well as the selected geometry and dimensions for the different elements, have been focused to achieve a simple way of identifying the fracture position and so the tensile strength of tested specimens. This dynamic tensile strength can be easily compared with previous values published in literature giving an idea of the accuracy of the method and technique proposed and the possibility to extend it in a near future to obtain other mechanical properties such as the fracture energy. The tests were instrumented with strain gauges, accelerometers and high-speed camera in order to validate the results by different ways. Results of the dynamic tensile strength of the tested concrete are presented.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  16. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a

  17. High-Strain Rate Testing of Gun Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    formulations under high loading rates have been studied previously (see Fong (1985); et al. (1981); Schubert and Schmitt (1973); Greidanus (1976...the transmission of a wave was described by Davies and Hunter (1963) and by Hoge (1970). Impedance is defined as Z = A(pE)h, where A is the area, p is...A = ma, a2u ac a 2U m = p A dx, a = . Assembling these, - p -= at 2 ax at 2 For isotropic elastic materials, a = Ee, where e = au/ax. The partial

  18. Design of high-bit-rate coherent communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyshev, V. A.; Leonov, A. V.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    We report an analysis of the problems encountered in the design of modern high-bit-rate coherent communication links. A phenomenological communication link model is described, which is suitable for solving applied tasks of the network design with nonlinear effects taken into account. We propose an engineering approach to the design that is based on the use of fundamental nonlinearity coefficients calculated in advance for the experimental configurations of communication links. An experimental method is presented for calculating the nonlinearity coefficient of communication links. It is shown that the proposed approach allows one to successfully meet the challenges in designing communication networks.

  19. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2014-02-01

    Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA from 2003 to 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, rank, total flight hours, average yearly flight hours, and type of aircraft. Results: Out of 539 pilots, there were 155 with high resting pulse rate. Compared to pilots aged 23-29 years, pilots aged 30-39 years had 66% more risk for high resting pulse rate [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.17-2.35, P = 0.004], and those aged 40-49 years had a 2.4 risk (ORa = 2.40; P = 0.000]. Compared to pilots of transport planes, jet fighter pilots had a 59% more risk for high resting pulse rate (ORa = 1.59; P = 0.002. Conclusion: Older  age  and  fighter  jets  increased  the  risk  of  high  resting  pulse  rate  in  pilots. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Key words: age, type of aircraft, resting pulse rate, pilots

  20. Radiation Hardened, Modulator ASIC for High Data Rate Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Ron; Putnam, Robert; Andro, Monty; Fujikawa, Gene

    2000-01-01

    Satellite-based telecommunication services are challenged by the need to generate down-link power levels adequate to support high quality (BER approx. equals 10(exp 12)) links required for modem broadband data services. Bandwidth-efficient Nyquist signaling, using low values of excess bandwidth (alpha), can exhibit large peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) values. High PAPR values necessitate high-power amplifier (HPA) backoff greater than the PAPR, resulting in unacceptably low HPA efficiency. Given the high cost of on-board prime power, this inefficiency represents both an economical burden, and a constraint on the rates and quality of data services supportable from satellite platforms. Constant-envelope signals offer improved power-efficiency, but only by imposing a severe bandwidth-efficiency penalty. This paper describes a radiation- hardened modulator which can improve satellite-based broadband data services by combining the bandwidth-efficiency of low-alpha Nyquist signals with high power-efficiency (negligible HPA backoff).

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage during a PCV trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojang, Abdoulie; Kendall, Lindsay; Usuf, Effua; Egere, Uzochukwu; Mulwa, Sarah; Antonio, Martin; Greenwood, Brian; Hill, Philip C; Roca, Anna

    2017-08-25

    We conducted an ancillary study among individuals who had participated in a cluster-randomized PCV-7 trial in rural Gambia (some clusters were wholly-vaccinated while in others only young children had been vaccinated), to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage. Two hundred thirty-two children aged 5-10 years were recruited and followed from 4 to 20 months after vaccination started. We collected 1264 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). S. aureus was isolated following conventional microbiological methods. Risk factors for carriage were assessed by logistic regression. Prevalence of S. aureus carriage was 25.9%. In the univariable analysis, prevalence of S. aureus carriage was higher among children living in villages wholly-vaccinated with PCV-7 [OR = 1.57 95%CI (1.14 to 2.15)] and children with least 1 year of education [OR = 1.44 95%CI (1.07 to 1.92)]. S. aureus carriage was also higher during the rainy season [OR = 1.59 95%CI (1.20 to 2.11)]. Carriage of S. pneumoniae did not have any effect on S. aureus carriage for any pneumococcal, vaccine-type (VT) or non-vaccine-type (NVT) carriage. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher prevalence of S. aureus observed among children living in villages wholly-vaccinated with PCV-7 occurred only during the rainy season OR 2.72 95%CI (1.61-4.60) and not in the dry season OR 1.28 95%CI (0.78-2.09). Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus among Gambian children increased during the rainy season among those children living in PCV-7 wholly vaccinated communities. However, carriage of S. aureus is not associated with carriage of S. pneumoniae. ISRCTN51695599 . Registered August 04th 2006.

  2. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Carriage among Janitors Working in Hospitals in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Jui; Chen, Ning-Chun; Lao, Chong-Kei; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of infection, and brings additional concern with methicillin resistance. In addition, nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization rates among health care workers are higher than that for general population. To determine the prevalence rate and risk factors for the colonization of S. aureus, including MRSA, among janitors working in hospitals in northern Taiwan, we conducted this study. Between June and August, 2014, a total of 186 janitors, 111 working in hospitals and 75 working in non-medical institutions, were recruited. Specimens were obtained from the nares of the subjects for the detection of S. aureus, with a questionnaire completed for each subject. All the S. aureus isolates, including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were further molecularly characterized. The nasal carriage rate of S. aureus was 15.3% for hospital janitors and 13.3% for non-medical janitors. The carriage rate of MRSA was 3.6% for hospital janitors and 1.3% for non-medical janitors. No statistically significant difference was found in the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus (p = 0.707) and MRSA (p = 0.65) between hospital janitors and non-medical janitors. Hospital janitors working in hospital more than 6 years and cleaning microbiologic laboratories were significantly associated with nasal S. aureus colonization. All 5 MRSA isolates carried either staphylococcal cassette chromosome type IV or V and three of them belonged to sequence type (ST) 59, the community clone prevailing in Taiwan. Of the 22 MSSA isolates, six pulsotypes were identified, with one major type for 14 isolates (shared by five STs) and another type for 4 isolates (all belonged to ST 188). Exposure to the hospital environment may not increase the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, including MRSA, among janitors in hospitals in Taiwan. However, for janitors in the hospital setting, working for more than six years in hospital and cleaning

  3. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  4. New Approach to reduce High School Dropout Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cristhian Portillo-Torres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2006 to 2014, the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica implemented four strategic actions to reduce high school dropout rates. The main purpose of these actions was to promote student participation and student identification with their school. Studies prepared by the Ministry of Education and the Comptroller of the Republic were revised to assess the impact of these actions. The result of these actions does not show an actual decrease in the number of students who leave high school. Therefore, a more holistic view is necessary to ensure the students’ stay. This review suggests using use the concept of student engagement and applying a three tier system-wide dropout preventive actions: universal, targeted and intensive.

  5. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  6. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  7. Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André

    2014-09-23

    Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30-500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks.

  8. High false positive rates in common sensory threshold tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A

    2015-02-01

    Large variability in thresholds to sensory stimuli is observed frequently even in healthy populations. Much of this variability is attributed to genetics and day-to-day fluctuation in sensitivity. However, false positives are also contributing to the variability seen in these tests. In this study, random number generation was used to simulate responses in threshold methods using different "stopping rules": ascending 2-alternative forced choice (AFC) with 5 correct responses; ascending 3-AFC with 3 or 4 correct responses; staircase 2-AFC with 1 incorrect up and 2 incorrect down, as well as 1 up 4 down and 5 or 7 reversals; staircase 3-AFC with 1 up 2 down and 5 or 7 reversals. Formulas are presented for rates of false positives in the ascending methods, and curves were generated for the staircase methods. Overall, the staircase methods generally had lower false positive rates, but these methods were influenced even more by number of presentations than ascending methods. Generally, the high rates of error in all these methods should encourage researchers to conduct multiple tests per individual and/or select a method that can correct for false positives, such as fitting a logistic curve to a range of responses.

  9. Radiation Parameters of High Dose Rate Iridium -192 Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    A lack of physical data for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 sources has necessitated the use of basic radiation parameters measured with low dose rate (LDR) Ir-192 seeds and ribbons in HDR dosimetry calculations. A rigorous examination of the radiation parameters of several HDR Ir-192 sources has shown that this extension of physical data from LDR to HDR Ir-192 may be inaccurate. Uncertainty in any of the basic radiation parameters used in dosimetry calculations compromises the accuracy of the calculated dose distribution and the subsequent dose delivery. Dose errors of up to 0.3%, 6%, and 2% can result from the use of currently accepted values for the half-life, exposure rate constant, and dose buildup effect, respectively. Since an accuracy of 5% in the delivered dose is essential to prevent severe complications or tumor regrowth, the use of basic physical constants with uncertainties approaching 6% is unacceptable. A systematic evaluation of the pertinent radiation parameters contributes to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in HDR Ir-192 dose delivery. Moreover, the results of the studies described in this thesis contribute significantly to the establishment of standardized numerical values to be used in HDR Ir-192 dosimetry calculations.

  10. High rates of methane emissions from south taiga wetland ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Maksyutov, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since wetland ponds are often assumed to be insignificant sources of methane, there is a limited data about its fluxes. In this study, we found surprisingly high rates of methane emission at several shallow ponds in the south taiga zone of West Siberia. Wetland ponds within the Great Vasyugan Mire ridge-hollow-pool patterned bog system were investigated. 22 and 24 flux measurements from ponds and surrounded mires, respectively, were simultaneously made by a static chamber method in July, 2011. In contrast to previous measurements, fluxes were measured using the small boat with floated chamber to avoid disturbance to the water volume. Since the ebullition is most important emission pathway, minimization of physical disturbance provoking gas bubbling significantly increases the data accuracy. Air temperature varied from 15 to 22° C during the measurements, and pH at different pond depths - from 4.4 to 5. As it was found, background emission from surrounding ridges and hollows was 1.7/2.6/3.3 mgC·m-2·h1 (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles). These rates are in a perfect correspondence with the typical methane emission fluxes from other south taiga bogs. Methane emission from wetland ponds turned out to be by order of magnitude higher (9.3/11.3/15.6 mgC·m-2·h1). Comparing to other measurements in West Siberia, many times higher emissions (70.9/111.6/152.3 mgC·m-2·h1) were found in forest-steppe and subtaiga fen ponds. On the contrary, West Siberian tundra lakes emit methane insignificantly, with the flux rate close to surrounding wetlands (about 0.2-0.3 mgC·m-2·h1). Apparently, there is a naturally determined distribution of ponds with different flux rates over different West Siberia climate-vegetation zones. Further investigations aiming at revelation of the zones with different fluxes would be helpful for total flux revision purposes. With respect to other studies, high emission rates were already detected, for instance, in Baltic ponds (Dzyuban, 2002) and U.K. lakes

  11. Measuring the effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and antibiotic resistance: the Palestinian-Israeli Collaborative Research (PICR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daana, Muhannad; Rahav, Galia; Hamdan, Ayob; Thalji, Amin; Jaar, Fuad; Abdeen, Ziad; Jaber, Hanaa; Goral, Aviva; Huppert, Amit; Raz, Meir; Regev-Yochay, Gili

    2015-02-18

    The Palestinian-Israeli Collaborative Research (PICR) cross-conflict setting provided a unique opportunity to study overall and indirect effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), in two closely related Palestinian populations governed by two distinct health authorities with distinct vaccination policies. Here, PCV7 effects on pneumococcal carriage, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance are reported. Annual cross-sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage were performed during 2009-2011 among Palestinian children (≤5 years) (a) under Palestinian-Authority (PA) health policy (Ramallah, Nablus and Bethlehem), where PCV7 was unlicensed (b) under Israeli health policy (East-Jerusalem (EJ)) where PCV7 was rapidly implemented from July 2009. Clinical data were collected, pneumococci identified and characterized for antibiotic susceptibilities and serotype. Analyses included multivariate logistic models with an interaction term for PCV7-effect. Altogether, 2755 children from PA (n=1772) and EJ (n=983) were enrolled, of which ~30% were pneumococcal carriers. While overall carriage was not affected by vaccination policy, carriage of vaccine-type (VT7) strains decreased from 52% to 22% (presistant strains, which was initially 23% in both populations, decreased significantly in EJ, to 10%, while simultaneously it increased in PA to 33% (presistance to most antibiotic groups. The proportion of resistant isolates among non-VT13 strains did not change during the study period. The unique study design distinguishes secular and seasonal effects from true vaccine effects. While PCV7 did not affect overall pneumococcal carriage rate, VT7 strains, many of which were antibiotic resistant decreased and were replaced by non-VT13 strains, which were mostly not antibiotic resistant, resulting in a net decrease in antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Twin Interactions in Pure Ti Under High Strain Rate Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Xiao, Dawu; Jiang, Chunli; Sang, Ge; Zou, Dongli

    2017-01-01

    Twin interactions associated with {11 overline{2} 1} (E2) twins in titanium deformed by high strain rate ( 2600 s-1) compression were studied using electron backscatter diffraction technique. Three types of twins, {10 overline{1} 2} (E1), {11 overline{2} 2} (C1), and {11 overline{2} 4} (C3), were observed to interact with the preformed E2 twins in four parent grains. The E1 variants nucleated at twin boundaries of some E2 variants. And the C3 twins were originated from the intersection of C1 and E2. The selection of twin variant was investigated by the Schmid factors (SFs) and the twinning shear displacement gradient tensors (DGTs) calculations. The results show that twin variants that did not follow the Schmid law were more frequently observed under high strain rate deformation than quasi-static deformation. Among these low-SF active variants, 73 pct (8 out of 11) can be interpreted by DGT. Besides, 26 variants that have SF values close to or higher than their active counterparts were absent. Factors that may affect the twin variant selections were discussed.

  13. ALICE TPC upgrade for High-Rate operations

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    A new type of Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been proposed for the upgrade of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN) so as to cater to the high luminosity environment expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility in future. This device will rely on the intrinsic ion back flow (IBF) suppression of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) based technology in particular the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). GEM is to minimise the space charge effect in the main drift volume and thus will not require the standard gating grid and the resulting intrinsic dead time. It will thus be possible to read all minimum bias Pb--Pb events that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era in Run 3. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1~TByte/s. The new read-out chambers will consist of stacks of 4 GEM foils combining different hole pitches. In addition to a low ion...

  14. Feasibility Study of High Data Rate Underwater Optical Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Reji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present technology of acoustic underwater communication is a legacy of technology that provides low data rate transmission for medium range communication. In addition the speed of acoustic waves in the ocean is approximately 1500 m/sec so that long range communication involves high latency which poses a problem for a real time response and synchronization. In addition acoustic waves could distress marine mammals such as dolphins and whales. So the acoustic technology needs high data rate communication networks in real time. The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbours using unmanned underwater vehicles UUVs, submarines, ships, buoys and divers.

  15. Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook University

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

  16. Pyrolysis kinetics of bagasse at high heating rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubington, J.F.; Aiman, S. (University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Fuel Technology)

    The rate of pyrolysis of bagasse was studied at high heating rates (200-10,000 [degree]C/s) to obtain engineering data for incorporation into computational fluid dynamic models of bagasse ignition and combustion in suspension-fired and swirl burners. Experiments were performed using an electrically-heated grid under a nitrogen atmosphere at atmosphere pressure. Yields of char, tar, individual gas components, and water were measured as a function of peak temperature, for ranges of heating rate, residence time at peak temperature, and particle size. At higher peak temperatures, significant tar cracking occurred so that tar yields passed through a maximum as peak temperature increased. For dry bagasse, this tar cracking produced gases with no change in char yield, suggesting that it occurred external to the particle. Moisture in the atmosphere increased the tar cracking in the vapor phase outside the bagasse particle producing more gases but did not affect the char yield. However, moisture in the bagasse reduced the char yield and further enhanced the tar cracking reactions, producing even more gases (predominantly carbon monoxide). These results suggested an interaction between water vapor and the tar cracking reactions. For the short residence times appropriate to such burners, a single, first-order reaction model gave the best fit to the total weight loss for the ranges of heating rate and particle sizes studied. However, the first-order kinetic parameters fitted to primary tar production were recommended for modeling purposes because the total weight loss included significant yields of noncombustible water and carbon dioxide. Different ultimate primary tar yields were recommended to fit the dry and wet bagasse pyrolysis results. No chemical significance should be attributed to the kinetic parameters, which were determined to provide the simplest and best fit to the pyrolysis data. 19 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2015-06-01

    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306.7nm. Measurements were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions. The measured rate constants, inferred using a mechanism-fitting approach, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as:k1=2.93×1013exp(-1350.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(890-1406K)k2=3.49×1013exp(-1449.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(906-1391K)k3=3.5×1013exp(-1407.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(908-1383K)This paper presents, to our knowledge, first high-temperature measurements of the rate constants of the reactions of xylene isomers with OH radicals. Low-temperature rate-constant measurements by Nicovich et al. (1981) were combined with the measurements in this study to obtain the following Arrhenius expressions, which are applicable over a wider temperature range:k1=2.64×1013exp(-1181.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1406K)k2=3.05×109exp(-400/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1391K)k3=3.0×109exp(-440/T)cm3mol-1s-1(526-1383K) © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  18. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-15

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  19. Carriage of λ Latent Virus Is Costly for Its Bacterial Host due to Frequent Reactivation in Monoxenic Mouse Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne De Paepe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperate phages, the bacterial viruses able to enter in a dormant prophage state in bacterial genomes, are present in the majority of bacterial strains for which the genome sequence is available. Although these prophages are generally considered to increase their hosts' fitness by bringing beneficial genes, studies demonstrating such effects in ecologically relevant environments are relatively limited to few bacterial species. Here, we investigated the impact of prophage carriage in the gastrointestinal tract of monoxenic mice. Combined with mathematical modelling, these experimental results provided a quantitative estimation of key parameters governing phage-bacteria interactions within this model ecosystem. We used wild-type and mutant strains of the best known host/phage pair, Escherichia coli and phage λ. Unexpectedly, λ prophage caused a significant fitness cost for its carrier, due to an induction rate 50-fold higher than in vitro, with 1 to 2% of the prophage being induced. However, when prophage carriers were in competition with isogenic phage susceptible bacteria, the prophage indirectly benefited its carrier by killing competitors: infection of susceptible bacteria led to phage lytic development in about 80% of cases. The remaining infected bacteria were lysogenized, resulting overall in the rapid lysogenization of the susceptible lineage. Moreover, our setup enabled to demonstrate that rare events of phage gene capture by homologous recombination occurred in the intestine of monoxenic mice. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative characterization of temperate phage-bacteria interactions in a simplified gut environment. The high prophage induction rate detected reveals DNA damage-mediated SOS response in monoxenic mouse intestine. We propose that the mammalian gut, the most densely populated bacterial ecosystem on earth, might foster bacterial evolution through high temperate phage activity.

  20. High energy high rate pulsed power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H. L.; Weldon, W. F.

    1987-03-01

    This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other High Energy High Rate Processing. The characteristics of the High Energy High Rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a Homopolar Generator, have been defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, A Nickel based metallic glass, Copper graphite composites, and P/M Aluminum Alloy X7091 have been investigated. The powder consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with sub second high temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate.

  1. The high strain-rate behaviour of selected tissue analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby-Thomas, G J; Hazell, P J; Sheldon, R P; Stennett, C; Hameed, A; Wilgeroth, J M

    2014-05-01

    The high strain-rate response of four readily available tissue simulants has been investigated via plate-impact experiments. Comparison of the shock response of gelatin, ballistic soap (both sub-dermal tissue simulants), lard (adipose layers) and Sylgard(®) (a potential brain simulant) allowed interrogation of the applicability of such monolithic tissue surrogates in the ballistic regime. The gelatin and lard exhibited classic linear Hugoniot equations-of-state in the US-uP plane; while for the ballistic soap and Sylgard(®) a polymer-like non-linear response was observed. In the P/σX-v/v0 plane there was evidence of separation of the simulant materials into distinct groups, suggesting that a single tissue simulant is inadequate to ensure a high-fidelity description of the high strain-rate response of complex mammalian tissue. Gelatin appeared to behave broadly hydrodynamically, while soap, lard and Sylgard(®) were observed to strengthen in a material-dependent manner under specific loading conditions at elevated shock loading pressures/stresses. This strengthening behaviour was tentatively attributed to a further polymeric-like response in the form of a re-arrangement of the molecular chains under loading (a steric effect). In addition, investigation of lateral stress data from the literature showed evidence of operation of a material-independent strengthening mechanism when these materials were stressed above 2.5-3.0GPa, tentatively linked to the generically polymeric-like underlying microstructure of the simulants under consideration.

  2. Prevalence of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization in children and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of carriage isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Y. Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal (NP pneumococcal carriage predisposes children to pneumococcal infections. Defining the proportion of pneumococcal isolates that are antibiotic-resistant enables the appropriate choice of empiric therapies. The antibiogram of NP carriage isolates derived from a pediatric population following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was defined in this study.

  3. The Effects of Load Carriage and Muscle Fatigue on Lower-Extremity Joint Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. Purpose: To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Method: Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded…

  4. 14 CFR 121.287 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments....287 Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments that are..., the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a crewmember to effectively reach all parts of the...

  5. 14 CFR 125.185 - Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments... Requirements § 125.185 Carriage of cargo in cargo compartments. When cargo is carried in cargo compartments... during flight, the cargo must be loaded so as to allow a crewmember to effectively reach all parts of...

  6. 49 CFR 1540.111 - Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries... § 1540.111 Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals. (a) On an individual's... individual may not have a weapon, explosive, or incendiary, on or about the individual's person or accessible...

  7. Cosmological Evolution of the Central Engine in High-Luminosity, High-Accretion Rate AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guainazzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the status of observational studies aiming at probing the cosmological evolution of the central engine in high-luminosity, high-accretion rate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. X-ray spectroscopic surveys, supported by extensive multi-wavelength coverage, indicate a remarkable invariance of the accretion disk plus corona system, and of their coupling up to redshifts z≈6. Furthermore, hard X-ray (E >10 keV surveys show that nearby Seyfert Galaxies share the same central engine notwithstanding their optical classication. These results suggest that the high-luminosity, high accretion rate quasar phase of AGN evolution is homogeneous over cosmological times.

  8. High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD

  9. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and other Gram-negative bacilli in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Helmia; Severin, Juliëtte A; Gasem, M Hussein; Keuter, Monique; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W M; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2013-05-01

    Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause many cases of pneumonia in Indonesia. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of GNB in Semarang, Indonesia. Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in adults (15%) was higher than in children (7%) (P = 0.004), while that of other GNB was comparable. Poor food and water hygiene are determinants of carriage of these bacteria.

  10. High frequency chest compression effects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Yong W; Warwick, Warren J

    2007-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) supplies a sequence of air pulses through a jacket worn by a patient to remove excessive mucus for the treatment or prevention of lung disease patients. The air pulses produced from the pulse generator propagates over the thorax delivering the vibration and compression energy. A number of studies have demonstrated that the HFCC system increases the ability to clear mucus and improves lung function. Few studies have examined the change in instantaneous heart rate (iHR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during the HFCC therapy. The purpose of this study is to measure the change of HRV with four experimental protocols: (a) without HFCC, (b) during Inflated, (c)HFCC at 6Hz, and (d) HFCC at 21Hz. The nonlinearity and regularity of HRV was assessed by approximate entropy (ApEn), a method used to quantify the complexities and randomness. To compute the ApEn, we sectioned with a total of eight epochs and displayed the ApEn over the each epoch. Our results show significant differences in the both the iHR and HRV between the experimental protocols. The iHR was elevated at both the (c) 6Hz and (d) 21Hz condition from without HFCC (10%, 16%, respectively). We also found that the HFCC system tends to increase the HRV. Our study suggests that monitoring iHR and HRV are very important physiological indexes during HFCC therapy.

  11. Remote Afterloading High Dose Rate Brachytherapy AMC EXPERIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su Gyong; Chang, Hye Sook; Choi, Eun Kyong; Yi, Byong Yong [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    Remote afterloading high dose rate brachytherapy(HDRB) is a new technology and needs new biological principle for time and dose schedule. Here, authors attempt to evaluate the technique and clinical outcome in 116 patients, 590 procedures performed at Asan Medical Center for 3 years. From Sep. 1985 to Aug 1992, 471 procedures of intracavitary radiation in 55 patients of cervical cancer and 26 of nasopharyngeal cancer, 79 intraluminal radiation in 12 of esophageal cancer, 11 of endobronchial cancer and 1 Klatskin tumor and 40 interstitial brachytherapy in 4 of breast cancer, 1 sarcoma and 1 urethral cancer were performed. Median follow-up was 7 months with range 1-31 months. All procedures except interstitial were performed under the local anesthesia and they were all well tolerated and completed the planned therapy except 6 patients. 53/58 patients with cervical cancer and 22/26 patients with nasopharynx cancer achieved CR. Among 15 patients with palliative therapy, 80% achieves palliation. We will describe the details of the technique and results in the text. To evaluate biologic effects of HDRB and optimal time/dose/fractionation schedule, we need longer follow-up. But authors feel that HDRB with proper fractionation schedule may yield superior results compared to the low dose rate brachytherapy considering the advantages of HDRB in safety factor for operator, better control of radiation dose and volume and patients comfort over the low dose brachytherapy.

  12. Modelling high data rate communication network access protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Modeling of high data rate communication systems is different from the low data rate systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) modeling. The first was a model using SIMCRIPT based upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C based upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third model further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This model was also built in C. Each model is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the model developer because of his past familiarity. Further the models were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative models were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and modeling errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand modeling complexities. Each model is described along with its features and problems. The models are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.

  13. An Architecture for High Data Rate Very Low Frequency Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very low frequency (VLF communication is used for long range shore-to-ship broadcasting applications. This paper proposes an architecture for high data rate VLF communication using Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK modulation and low delay parity check (LDPC channel coding. Non-data aided techniques are designed and used for carrier phase synchronization, symbol timing recovery, and LDPC code frame synchronization. These require the estimation of the operative Eb/N0 for which a kurtosis based algorithm is used. Also, a method for modeling the probability density function of the received signal under the bit condition is presented in this regard. The modeling of atmospheric radio noise (ARN that corrupts VLF signals is described and an algorithm for signal enhancement in the presence of ARN in given. The BER performance of the communication system is evaluated for bit rates of 400 bps, 600 bps, and 800 bps for communication bandwidth of ~200 Hz.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(1, pp.25-33, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.3760

  14. A short pulse, high rep-rate microdischarge VUV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jacob; Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas; CenterPulsed Power; Power Electronics Team

    2013-09-01

    A MOSFET based high voltage pulser is utilized to excite a microdischarge (MD), or microdischarge array (MDA) with pulsed voltages of up to 1 kV, with risetime and FWHM on the order of 10 ns and 30 ns, respectively. Additionally, the pulser is capable of pulsing at rep-rates in excess of 35 MHz. However, for these experiments the rep-rate was set on the order of 1 MHz, so as to limit excess energy deposition into the background gas and optimize the energy efficiency of VUV generation. Using VUV capable spectral diagnostics, the VUV emission of the MDs for various pressures (50-800 + Torr) and gases, focused on argon, argon-hydrogen mixtures, and neon-hydrogen mixtures (all of which provide strong emission at λ VUV emission is characterized and compared to results from transient fluid modeling of the MDA. For instance, the MDA turn-on time is recorded to be about 15 ns, which matches the full plasma development time in the model, and the MDA self- capacitance largely determines the turn-off behavior. This research was supported by an AFOSR grant on the Physics of Distributed Plasma Discharges and fellowships from the National Physical Sciences Consortium, supported by Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. High rate anaerobic thermophilic technologies for distillery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, M; Romero-García, L I; Rodríguez-Cano, R; Sales-Márquez, D

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, performance of two high rate technologies, upflow anaerobic fixed-film reactor and fluidized bed laboratory-scale, treating distillery wastewater (wine vinasses) at anaerobic thermophilic conditions have been compared. The results obtained show that the stationary packed bed, with a corrugated plastic support, operated under stable conditions at organic loading rates (OLR0) around 20 kgCOD/m3/d, gives maximal total CODr of 76% at OLR0 of 6.29 kgCOD/m3/d; the fluidized bed reactor, operated on open pore sintered-glass media, gives total CODr of 96% at OLR0 of 5.88 kgCOD/m3/d. The anaerobic fluidized bed technology is more effective than the upflow anaerobic fixed-film technology due, fundamentally, to this technology favouring the transport of microbial cells from the bulk to the surface and enhancing the contact between the microorganism-substrate phases, In this sense, the stationary packed bed technology is adequate for the treatment of easily biodegradable wastewater, or for the cases where elevated percentages of CODr removal are not required, while the fluidized bed technology is especially suitable for treatment of hazardous wastes with recalcitrant compositions.

  16. A study of yeast carriage on hands of hospital personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Batra, R

    2000-01-01

    The present study was conducted by culture with a modified broth wash technique to examine the frequency of yeast carriage on the hands of 60 nurses and 35 nonnursing hospital employees. Seventy two percent of the nurses and 80% of the nonnurses were harbouring yeast on their hands. Candida spp. were isolated in 57% on of nurses and 34% of nonnurses. Ninety percent of nurses working in nursing home care unit (NHCU), 50% working in intensive care unit (ICU) and 75% working in outpatient department (OPD) carried yeasts on their hands. Only 80% of nonnurses staff harboured yeasts on their hands.

  17. The empty carriage: lessons in leadership from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Marge

    2011-01-01

    Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today's nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning.

  18. High strain rate superplastic aluminium alloys: the way forward?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.; Dashwood, R.J.; Flower, H.M. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2001-07-01

    The technical and commercial barriers to the development and successful exploitation of a high strain rate superplastically deformable aluminium alloy for use in the automotive industry are considered in this paper. Batch processing routes, such as mechanical alloying or equal channel angular extrusion, employed to deliver appropriate chemistry and structure, are inherently costly and unlikely to deliver either the quantity or the size of strip required commercially. There is evidence that there is still scope for development of conventional casting and rolling routes, but a particulate casting route combined with roll consolidation offers the prospect of a commercially viable Al-Mg-Zr product. The use of alloying additions, including zirconium, is also discussed and comparative costs are presented: on this basis the use of scandium appears economically prohibitive. (orig.)

  19. FORECASTING INFLATION RATES WITH HIGH ORDER FUZZY TIME SERIES APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEDİDE REZAN USLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain inflation forecasts is an important economic issue. The more accurate forecasts we get implies the more precise decisions we make. The central Bank reports inflation rates in certain periods of every year. In this reports the results of inflation expectation survey are presented. In this study we use an approach in which relationship is determined by artificial neural network in high order fuzzy time series model. Time series of consumer price index is estimated by both the artificial neural network based method and some fuzzy approaches which is common in the literature. The results are compared to the results of inflation expectation survey analysis conducted by Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey in the aspect of forecasts accuracy.

  20. Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

  1. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2011-01-01

    While research and development of algal biofuels are currently receiving much interest and funding, they are still not commercially viable at today's fossil fuel prices. However, a niche opportunity may exist where algae are grown as a by-product of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) operated for wastewater treatment. In addition to significantly better economics, algal biofuel production from wastewater treatment HRAPs has a much smaller environmental footprint compared to commercial algal production HRAPs which consume freshwater and fertilisers. In this paper the critical parameters that limit algal cultivation, production and harvest are reviewed and practical options that may enhance the net harvestable algal production from wastewater treatment HRAPs including CO(2) addition, species control, control of grazers and parasites and bioflocculation are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parallel Modem Architectures for High-Data-Rate Space Modems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satorius, E.

    2014-08-01

    Existing software-defined radios (SDRs) for space are limited in data volume by several factors, including bandwidth, space-qualified analog-to-digital converter (ADC) technology, and processor throughput, e.g., the throughput of a space-qualified field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In an attempt to further improve the throughput of space-based SDRs and to fully exploit the newer and more capable space-qualified technology (ADCs, FPGAs), we are evaluating parallel transmitter/receiver architectures for space SDRs. These architectures would improve data volume for both deep-space and particularly proximity (e.g., relay) links. In this article, designs for FPGA implementation of a high-rate parallel modem are presented as well as both fixed- and floating-point simulated performance results based on a functional design that is suitable for FPGA implementation.

  3. Single chain stochastic polymer modeling at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harstad, E. N. (Eric N.); Harlow, Francis Harvey,; Schreyer, H. L.

    2001-01-01

    Our goal is to develop constitutive relations for the behavior of a solid polymer during high-strain-rate deformations. In contrast to the classic thermodynamic techniques for deriving stress-strain response in static (equilibrium) circumstances, we employ a statistical-mechanics approach, in which we evolve a probability distribution function (PDF) for the velocity fluctuations of the repeating units of the chain. We use a Langevin description for the dynamics of a single repeating unit and a Lioville equation to describe the variations of the PDF. Moments of the PDF give the conservation equations for a single polymer chain embedded in other similar chains. To extract single-chain analytical constitutive relations these equations have been solved for representative loading paths. By this process we discover that a measure of nonuniform chain link displacement serves this purpose very well. We then derive an evolution equation for the descriptor function, with the result being a history-dependent constitutive relation.

  4. Resistive Wall Heating of the Undulator in High Repetition Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, J; Corlett, J; Emma, P; Wu, J

    2012-05-20

    In next generation high repetition rate FELs, beam energy loss due to resistive wall wakefields will produce significant amount of heat. The heat load for a superconducting undulator (operating at low temperature), must be removed and will be expensive to remove. In this paper, we study this effect in an undulator proposed for a Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) at LBNL. We benchmark our calculations with measurements at the LCLS and carry out detailed parameter studies using beam from a start-to-end simulation. Our preliminarym results suggest that the heat load in the undulator is about 2 W/m or lower with an aperture size of 6 mm for nominal NGLS preliminary design parameters.

  5. Combination of OFDM and CDMA for high data rate UWB

    CERN Document Server

    Guéguen, Emeric; Hélard, Jean-François; Crussière, Matthieu

    2006-01-01

    For Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) systems, resource allocation between several users within a piconet and the coexistence of several piconets are very important points to take into consideration for the optimization of high data rate Ultra Wide Band (UWB) systems. To improve the performance of the Multi-Band OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex) solution proposed by the Multi-Band OFDM Alliance (MBOA), the addition of a spreading component in the frequency domain is a good solution since it makes resource allocation easier and also offers better robustness against channel frequency selectivity and narrowband interference. The Spread Spectrum - Multi-Carrier - Multiple Access (SS-MC-MA) system proposed in this article offers not only the advantages of Multi-Carrier - Coded Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) brought by frequency spreading, but also a more effective dynamic resource allocation in a multi-user and multi-piconet context. These improvements are obtained without increasing the compl...

  6. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneland, Trond

    2001-05-01

    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  7. Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Nuno A; Conceição, Teresa; Miragaia, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are believed to function as reservoirs, as well as possible sources of staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) to Staphylococcus aureus, but the frequency, preferred partners, and factors promoting SCCmec transfer are not known. Such postulated....... A total of 54 patients (80%) were colonized with staphylococci that included nine different species identified by internal transcribed spacer PCR (ITS-PCR) and 16S RNA sequencing. The highest rates of colonization were found for S. epidermidis (58%) and S. aureus (39%). Methicillin resistance was present...... in S. aureus (53%), S. epidermidis (53%), S. haemolyticus (33%), and S. hominis (62%). Genetic backgrounds were characterized by spa typing for S. aureus and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for CoNS. SCCmec typing showed that SCCmec type IV (2B) was the most common in the entire collection (65...

  8. Fast Timing for High-Rate Environments with Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Papaevangelou, Thomas; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Giomataris, Ioannis; Godinot, Cyprien; Gonzalez Diaz, Diego; Gustavsson, Thomas; Kebbiri, Mariam; Oliveri, Eraldo; Resnati, Filippo; Ropelewski, Leszek; Tsiledakis, Georgios; Veenhof, Rob; White, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The current state of the art in fast timing resolution for existing experiments is of the order of 100 ps on the time of arrival of both charged particles and electromagnetic showers. Current R&D on charged particle timing is approaching the level of 10 ps but is not primarily directed at sustained performance at high rates and under high radiation (as would be needed for HL-LHC pileup mitigation). We demonstrate a Micromegas based solution to reach this level of performance. The Micromegas acts as a photomultiplier coupled to a Cerenkov-radiator front window, which produces sufficient UV photons to convert the ~100 ps single-photoelectron jitter into a timing response of the order of 10-20 ps per incident charged particle. A prototype has been built in order to demonstrate this performance. The first laboratory tests with a pico-second laser have shown a time resolution of the order of 27 ps for ~50 primary photoelectrons, using a bulk Micromegas readout.

  9. An integrated CMOS high data rate transceiver for video applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaping, Liang; Dazhi, Che; Cheng, Liang; Lingling, Sun

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a 5 GHz CMOS radio frequency (RF) transceiver built with 0.18 μm RF-CMOS technology by using a proprietary protocol, which combines the new IEEE 802.11n features such as multiple-in multiple-out (MIMO) technology with other wireless technologies to provide high data rate robust real-time high definition television (HDTV) distribution within a home environment. The RF frequencies cover from 4.9 to 5.9 GHz: the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Each RF channel bandwidth is 20 MHz. The transceiver utilizes a direct up transmitter and low-IF receiver architecture. A dual-quadrature direct up conversion mixer is used that achieves better than 35 dB image rejection without any on chip calibration. The measurement shows a 6 dB typical receiver noise figure and a better than 33 dB transmitter error vector magnitude (EVM) at -3 dBm output power.

  10. An integrated CMOS high data rate transceiver for video applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yaping; Che Dazhi; Liang Cheng; Sun Lingling

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a 5 GHz CMOS radio frequency (RF) transceiver built with 0.18 μm RF-CMOS technology hy using a proprietary protocol,which combines the new IEEE 802.11n features such as multiplein multiple-out (MIMO) technology with other wireless technologies to provide high data rate robust real-time high definition television (HDTV) distribution within a home environment.The RF frequencies cover from 4.9 to 5.9 GHz:the industrial,scientific and medical (ISM) band.Each RF channel bandwidth is 20 MHz.The transceiver utilizes a direct up transmitter and low-IF receiver architecture.A dual-quadrature direct up conversion mixer is used that achieves better than 35 dB image rejection without any on chip calibration.The measurement shows a 6 dB typical receiver noise figure and a better than 33 dB transmitter error vector magnitude (EVM) at -3 dBm output power.

  11. Metrology challenges for high-rate nanomanufacturing of polymer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Joey; Barry, Carol; Busnaina, Ahmed; Isaacs, Jacqueline

    2012-10-01

    The transfer of nanoscience accomplishments into commercial products is hindered by the lack of understanding of barriers to nanoscale manufacturing. We have developed a number of nanomanufacturing processes that leverage available high-rate plastics fabrication technologies. These processes include directed assembly of a variety of nanoelements, such as nanoparticles and nanotubes, which are then transferred onto a polymer substrate for the fabrication of conformal/flexible electronic materials, among other applications. These assembly processes utilize both electric fields and/or chemical functionalization. Conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes have been successfully transferred to a polymer substrate in times less than 5 minutes, which is commercially relevant and can be utilized in a continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) process. Other processes include continuous high volume mixing of nanoelements (CNTs, etc) into polymers, multi-layer extrusion and 3D injection molding of polymer structures. These nanomanufacturing processes can be used for wide range of applications, including EMI shielding, flexible electronics, structural materials, and novel sensors (specifically for chem/bio detection). Current techniques to characterize the quality and efficacy of the processes are quite slow. Moreover, the instrumentation and metrology needs for these manufacturing processes are varied and challenging. Novel, rapid, in-line metrology to enable the commercialization of these processes is critically needed. This talk will explore the necessary measurement needs for polymer based nanomanufacturing processes for both step and continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) processes.

  12. Effectiveness of high interest rate policy on exchange rates: A reexamination of the Asian financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Diew Lai; Penm, Jack H. W.; Tim Brailsford

    2006-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis has been the appropriate response of monetary policy to a sharp decline in the value of some currencies. In this paper, we empirically examine the effects on Asian exchange rates of sharply higher interest rates during the Asian financial crisis. Taking account of the currency contagion effect, our results indicate that sharply higher interest rates helped to support the exchange rates of ...

  13. Effectiveness of high interest rate policy on exchange rates: A reexamination of the Asian financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis has been the appropriate response of monetary policy to a sharp decline in the value of some currencies. In this paper, we empirically examine the effects on Asian exchange rates of sharply higher interest rates during the Asian financial crisis. Taking account of the currency contagion effect, our results indicate that sharply higher interest rates helped to support the exchange rates of South Korea, the Phil...

  14. The strain-rate sensitivity of high-strength high-toughness steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilmore, M.F. (AFRL/MNMW, Eglin AFB, FL); Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the strain-rate sensitivity of four high strength, high-toughness alloys at strain rates ranging from 0.0002 s-1 to 200 s-1: Aermet 100, a modified 4340, modified HP9-4-20, and a recently developed Eglin AFB steel alloy, ES-1c. A refined dynamic servohydraulic method was used to perform tensile tests over this entire range. Each of these alloys exhibit only modest strain-rate sensitivity. Specifically, the strain-rate sensitivity exponent m, is found to be in the range of 0.004-0.007 depending on the alloy. This corresponds to a {approx}10% increase in the yield strength over the 7-orders of magnitude change in strain-rate. Interestingly, while three of the alloys showed a concominant {approx}3-10% drop in their ductility with increasing strain-rate, the ES1-c alloy actually exhibited a 25% increase in ductility with increasing strain-rate. Fractography suggests the possibility that at higher strain-rates ES-1c evolves towards a more ductile dimple fracture mode associated with microvoid coalescence.

  15. New liquid cathode electrolytes in high rate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jean W.; Kalisz, David W.; Blomgren, George E.

    1990-03-01

    The power limitations of liquid oxyhalide batteries were explored by examining the physical and electrical properties of new electrolytes. Conductivity, kinematic viscosity, and specific gravity of electrolytes were measured inside a specially adapted argon filled drybox. Liquid cathode oxyhalide electrolytes designed to enhance power density were tested first in demountable test cells and then, the most promising, in hermetically sealed high rate F size jellyroll cells. For F cells, the capacity on constant current discharge was measured at 3.5 and 12.5 mA/sq cm for fresh cells at 21 C and at 3.5 mA/sq cm for cells stored 4 weeks at 54 C then discharged at -30 C. An optimized cell design with thicker electrodes was developed for testing electrolytes with higher conductivity than LiAlCl4-SOCl2. The best capacity at 2A was achieved with LiGaCl4-SOCl2 or LiAlCl4-SOCl2. The best capacity at 7A was achieved with LiGaCl4-SOCl2. LiGaCl4 in SOCl2 was found to discharge at higher temperatures than LiAlCl4 in SOCl2. Imidazolium, aralkylammonium, and sulfonium chlorides were found to have high solubility and conductivity in thionyl chloride, but lithium was found to be passive in contact with these solutions and most metals corroded excessively. These salts mixed with aluminum chloride were much less aggressive and when mixed with lithium salts in addition gave high conductivity and test cell capacities.

  16. LEFT VENTRICULAR SYSTOLIC FUNCTION DURING TREADMILL WALKING WITH LOAD CARRIAGE IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Sagiv

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Backpack carriage occurs in day-to-day tasks and has applications in school, physical training, recreational activities and sports. Using metabolic cart and echocardiograph, this study determined and examined the effects of two different load carriages on left ventricular function during 30 min. of treadmill walking in healthy adolescent male subjects. Seventeen males (13.1 ± 0.5 yrs. walked on a treadmill at a speed of 4 km·h-1, each carrying a load relative to his body mass at 333 gr·kg-1 body weight during one session and without weight during the other session. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were noted between the 333 gr·kg-1 body weight and the no weights with regard to: VO2 13.6 ± 1.3 and 10.5 ± 1.1 ml·kg-1·min-1; heart rate: 133.2 ± 7.1 and 121.4 ± 5.6 beats·min-1; mean arterial blood pressure; 95. 4 ± 4.3 and 87.5 ± 3.8 mmHg and systolic blood pressure 147.7 ± 7.0 and 129.8 ± 7.1 mmHg respectively. No significant differences were noted between the two exercises with regard to left ventricular function variables. This study suggests that in adolescents as in adults, the vasodilatation mechanism dominates during combined dynamic and isometric exercises. Thus, the opposing force to the left ventricular ejection is reduced which in turn does not change the left ventricular global function. In addition, the vasodilatation mechanism enables oxygen supply to the contracting muscles via aerobic energy pathways

  17. High rate of Helicobacter pylori reinfection in Lithuanianpeptic ulcer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori ) reinfection in peptic ulcer patients during 9 yearsafter H. pylori eradication.METHODS: We invited 117 peptic ulcer patients inwhom eradication of H. pylori was confirmed 1 yearafter eradication treatment both by histology and byrapid urease test. In total, 57 patients were availablefor the study procedures: 34 (59.6%) male, 23 (40.4%)female; mean age 52.3 ± 13.0 years. There were 45(78.9%) patients with duodenal ulcer and 12 (21.1%)with gastric ulcer. H. pylori was diagnosed by a rapidurease test and histology if endoscopy was performed.If endoscopy was refused, H. pylori was diagnosed bythe C14-urea breath test and serology. H. pylori wasestablished if at least one of the tests was positive.RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 8.9 ± 1.0 years(range, 6-12). H. pylori was established in 15 patients.In 2 H. pylori -negative patients, H. pylori was establishedduring the follow-up period and eradicated. Therefore,we consider that reinfection occurred in 17 patients. Inthe per protocol analysis, reinfection was established in17 of 57 (29.8%; 95%CI: 19.2-42.2) patients during thefollow-up period. The annual rate of infection was 3.36%.If all non-responders were considered H. pylori -negative,reinfection would be 14.5% (17/117), the annual rate being 1.63%. The mean age of patients with reinfectionwas 51.8 ± 14.0 years, and without reinfection was52.5 ± 13.0 years, P 〉 0.05; the mean body massindex of patients with reinfection was 27.2 ± 4.1 kg/m2,and without reinfection was 25.7 ± 4.2 kg/m2, P 〉0.05. There were no differences in the reinfection ratesaccording the location of the peptic ulcer, the eradicationregimen used, and smoking status.CONCLUSION: The reinfection rate of H. pylori isrelatively high in Lithuania and probably related to thehigh prevalence of H. pylori , what may reflect differencesin the socioeconomic status between Western and

  18. Role Of Abo Blood Groups In The Infection Rate Of Dandruff Caused By Pityrosporum Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar S Gokul

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty subjects in the general population were studied for the possible role of ABO blood groups in the infection and asymptomatic carriage rate of Pityrosporum ovale. Out of 160, 149 were positive for P. ovale in culture. Of them, 57 had dandruff and 6 had seborrhoic dermatitis. The remaining 86 were harbouring P. ovale asymptomatically. The rate of infection was almost in identical proportion with the rate of asymptomatic carrier state of P.ovale. Our study also revelated that blood group O subjects may be the most susceptible, followed by AB group. The incidence of dandruff was relatively high in males when compared to females.

  19. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest.

  20. ASAS Eclipsing Binaries with Observed High Period Change Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Pilecki, B; Poleski, R

    2007-01-01

    We present 31 bright eclipsing contact and semi-detached binaries that showed high period change rates in a 5 year interval in observations by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). The time-scales of these changes range from only 50 up to 400 kyr. The orbital periods of 10 binaries are increasing and of 21 are decreasing, and even a larger excess is seen in contact binaries, where the numbers are 5 and 17, respectively. Period change has previously been noticed for only two of these binaries; our observations confirmed a secular period drift for SV Cen and period oscillations for VY Cet. The spectroscopic quadruple system V1084 Sco shows both period change and brightness modulation. All investigated binaries were selected from a sample of 1711 (1135 contact and 576 semi-detached) that fulfilled all criteria of data quality. We also introduce a "branch" test to check if luminosity changes on part of the binary's photosphere has led to a spurious or poorly characterized period change detection.

  1. Image-guided high dose rate endorectal brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Slobodan; Vuong, Té; Moftah, Belal; Evans, Michael; Podgorsak, Ervin B; Poon, Emily; Verhaegen, Frank

    2007-11-01

    Fractionated high dose rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDR-EBT) using CT-based treatment planning is an alternative method for preoperative down-sizing and down-staging of advanced rectal adeno-carcinomas. The authors present an image guidance procedure that was developed to ensure daily dose reproducibility for the four brachytherapy treatment fractions. Since the applicator might not be placed before each treatment fraction inside the rectal lumen in the same manner as it was placed during the 3D CT volume acquisition used for treatment planning, there is a shift along the catheter axis that may have to be performed. The required shift is determined by comparison of a daily radiograph with the treatment planning digitally-reconstructed radiograph (DRR). A procedure is developed for DRR reconstruction from the 3D data set used for the treatment planning, and two possible daily longitudinal shifts are illustrated: above and below the planning dose distribution. The authors also describe the procedure for rotational alignment illustrated on a clinical case. Reproduction of the treatment planned dose distribution on a daily basis is crucial for the success of fractionated 3D based brachytherapy treatments. Due to the cylindrical symmetry of the applicator used for preoperative HDR-EBT, two types of adjustments are necessary: applicator rotation and dwell position shift along the applicator's longitudinal axis. The impact of the longitudinal applicator shift prior to treatment delivery for 62 patients treated in our institution is also assessed.

  2. Pregnancy after kidney transplantation: high rates of maternal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Candido

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Women regain fertility a few time after renal transplantation. However, viability of pregnancy and maternal complications are still unclear. Objective: To describe the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients, focusing on maternal complications. Methods: Retrospective study of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients between 2004 and 2014, followed up 12 months after delivery. Each pregnancy was considered an event. Results: There were 53 pregnancies in 36 patients. Mean age was 28 ± 5years. Pregnancy occurred 4.4 ± 3.0 years post-transplant. Immunosuppression before conception was tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisone in 74% of the cases. There were 15% miscarriages in the 1st trimester and 8% in 2nd trimester. In 41% of the cases, it was necessary to induce labor. From all births, 22% were premature and 17% very premature. There were 5% stillbirths and 5% of neonatal deaths. De novo proteinuria occurred in 60%, urinary tract infection in 23%, preeclampsia in 11%, acute rejection in 6%, and graft loss in 2% of the cases. It was observed a significant increase in creatinine at preconception comparing to 3rd trimester and follow-up (1.17 vs. 1.46 vs. 1.59 mg/dL, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although the sample is limited, the number of miscarriages was higher than in the general population, with high rates of maternal complications. Sustained increase of creatinine suggests increased risk of graft loss in long-term.

  3. Smart Payload Development for High Data Rate Instrument Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Norton, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of smart payloads instruments systems with high data rates. On-board computation has become a bottleneck for advanced science instrument and engineering capabilities. In order to improve the computation capability on board, smart payloads have been proposed. A smart payload is a Localized instrument, that can offload the flight processor of extensive computing cycles, simplify the interfaces, and minimize the dependency of the instrument on the flight system. This has been proposed for the Mars mission, Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (MATMOS). The design of this system is discussed; the features of the Virtex-4, are discussed, and the technical approach is reviewed. The proposed Hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has been shown to deliver breakthrough performance by tightly coupling hardware and software. Smart Payload designs for instruments such as MATMOS can meet science data return requirements with more competitive use of available on-board resources and can provide algorithm acceleration in hardware leading to implementation of better (more advanced) algorithms in on-board systems for improved science data return

  4. ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

    2010-06-16

    We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

  5. High power, high repetition rate, few picosecond Nd:LuVO₄ oscillator with cavity dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Guo, Jie; Li, Jinfeng; Lin, Hua; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the potential use of Nd:LuVO4 in high average power, high repetition rate ultrafast lasers. Maximum mode-locked average power of 28 W is obtained at the repetition rate of 58 MHz. The shortest pulse duration is achieved at 4 ps without dispersion compensation. With a cavity dumping technique, the pulse energy is scaling up to 40.7 μJ at 300 kHz and 14.3 μJ at 1.5 MHz.

  6. A prototype High Purity Germanium detector for high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J., E-mail: rjcooper@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Amman, M.; Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Where energy resolution is paramount, High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors continue to provide the optimum solution for gamma-ray detection and spectroscopy. Conventional large-volume HPGe detectors are typically limited to count rates on the order of ten thousand counts per second, however, limiting their effectiveness for high count rate applications. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel prototype HPGe detector designed to be capable of achieving fine energy resolution and high event throughput at count rates in excess of one million counts per second. We report here on the concept, design, and initial performance of the first prototype device.

  7. High interest rate policy in Turkey and factors influencing interest rate spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Yurdakul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine what factors explain the difference between effective interest rates of Turkey and USA. The paper considers seven variables explaining interest rate spread such as general prices, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, exchange rate, credibility index, level of international reserves, foreign trade deficit, and budget deficit. Four distinct periods were selected to explore the influences of the above mentioned variables on on interest rate spreads in these different time periods. The period covering 1994.1-2006:12 was splitted into three sub-periods: the sub-period covering 1994:1-1998:12, crisis period covering 1999:1-2001:.12, and post-crisis period covering 2002:1-2006.12. Employing the data for Turkey and applying Engle and Granger two-step procedure, this paper concludes that the only variable reducing interest rate spreads in all periods is GDP. The other variables generally increase the interest rate spreads.Engle and Granger estimation procedure, unit-root test, interest rate spreads, interest rate.

  8. High interest rate policy in Turkey and factors influencing interest rate spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Yurdakul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine what factors explain the difference between effective interest rates of Turkey and USA. The paper considers seven variables explaining interest rate spread such as general prices, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, exchange rate, credibility index, level of international reserves, foreign trade deficit, and budget deficit. Four distinct periods were selected to explore the influences of the above mentioned variables on on interest rate spreads in these different time periods. The period covering 1994.1-2006:12 was splitted into three sub-periods: the sub-period covering 1994:1-1998:12, crisis period covering 1999:1-2001:.12, and post-crisis period covering 2002:1-2006.12.                            Employing the data for Turkey and applying Engle and Granger two-step procedure, this paper concludes that the only variable reducing interest rate spreads in all periods is GDP. The other variables generally increase the interest rate spreads.Engle and Granger estimation procedure, unit-root test, interest rate spreads, interest rate.    

  9. Histopathological analysis of Salmonella chronic carriage in the mouse hepatopancreatobiliary system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Gonzalez-Escobedo

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected. However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis.

  10. Evolution of antibiotic resistance is linked to any genetic mechanism affecting bacterial duration of carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Sonja; Blanquart, François; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Turner, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how changes in antibiotic consumption affect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is important for public health. In a number of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the prevalence of resistance has remained relatively stable despite prolonged selection pressure from antibiotics. The evolutionary processes allowing the robust coexistence of antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains are not fully understood. While allelic diversity can be maintained at a locus by direct balancing selection, there is no evidence for such selection acting in the case of resistance. In this work, we propose a mechanism for maintaining coexistence at the resistance locus: linkage to a second locus that is under balancing selection and that modulates the fitness effect of resistance. We show that duration of carriage plays such a role, with long duration of carriage increasing the fitness advantage gained from resistance. We therefore predict that resistance will be more common in strains with a long duration of carriage and that mechanisms maintaining diversity in duration of carriage will also maintain diversity in antibiotic resistance. We test these predictions in S. pneumoniae and find that the duration of carriage of a serotype is indeed positively correlated with the prevalence of resistance in that serotype. These findings suggest heterogeneity in duration of carriage is a partial explanation for the coexistence of sensitive and resistant strains and that factors determining bacterial duration of carriage will also affect the prevalence of resistance. PMID:28096340

  11. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Toko; Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans; Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick; Peric, Ivan; Pohl, David-Leon; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wang, Anqing; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  12. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko, E-mail: thirono@uni-bonn.de [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Peric, Ivan [IPE, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pohl, David-Leon [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Rozanov, Alexandre [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Rymaszewski, Piotr [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wang, Anqing [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  13. Rectal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacilli in community settings in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlinot Herindrainy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteria (ESBL-PE emerged at the end of the 1980s, causing nosocomial outbreaks and/or hyperendemic situations in hospitals and long-term care facilities. In recent years, community-acquired infections due to ESBL-PE have spread worldwide, especially across developing countries including Madagascar. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal carriage of ESBL-PE in the community of Antananarivo. METHODS: Non-hospitalized patients were recruited in three health centers in different socio economic settings. Fresh stool collected were immediately plated on Drigalski agar containing 3 mg/liter of ceftriaxone. Gram-negative bacilli species were identified and ESBL production was tested by a double disk diffusion (cefotaxime and ceftazidime +/- clavulanate assay. Characterization of ESBLs were perfomed by PCR and direct sequencing. Molecular epidemiology was analysed by Rep-PCR and ERIC-PCR. RESULTS: 484 patients were screened (sex ratio  =  1.03, median age 28 years. 53 ESBL-PE were isolated from 49 patients (carrier rate 10.1%. The isolates included Escherichia coli (31, Klebsiella pneumoniae (14, Enterobacter cloacae (3, Citrobacter freundii (3, Kluyvera spp. (1 and Pantoae sp. (1. In multivariate analysis, only the socioeconomic status of the head of household was independently associated with ESBL-PE carriage, poverty being the predominant risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of carriage of ESBL in the community of Antananarivo is one of the highest reported worldwide. This alarming spread of resistance genes should be stopped urgently by improving hygiene and streamlining the distribution and consumption of antibiotics.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of preoperative screening and eradication of Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenberg, Marjan W M; de Wit, G Ardine; Bonten, Marc J M

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative screening for nasal S. aureus carriage, followed by eradication treatment of identified carriers with nasal mupirocine ointment and chlorhexidine soap was highly effective in preventing deep-seated S. aureus infections. It is unknown how cost-effectiveness of this intervention is affected by suboptimal S. aureus screening. We determined cost-effectiveness of different preoperative S. aureus screening regimes. We compared different screening scenarios (ranging from treating all patients without screening to treating only identified S. aureus carriers) to the base case scenario without any screening and treatment. Screening and treatment costs as well as costs and mortality due to deep-seated S. aureus infection were derived from hospital databases and prospectively collected data, respectively. As compared to the base case scenario, all scenarios are associated with improved health care outcomes at reduced costs. Treating all patients without screening is most cost-beneficial, saving €7339 per life year gained, as compared to €3330 when only identified carriers are treated. In sensitivity analysis, outcomes are susceptible to the sensitivity of the screening test and the efficacy of treatment. Reductions in these parameters would reduce the cost-effectiveness of scenarios in which treatment is based on screening. When only identified S. aureus carriers are treated costs of screening should be less than €6.23 to become the dominant strategy. Preoperative screening and eradication of S. aureus carriage to prevent deep-seated S. aureus infections saves both life years and medical costs at the same time, although treating all patients without screening is the dominant strategy, resulting in most health gains and largest savings.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of preoperative screening and eradication of Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan W M Wassenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preoperative screening for nasal S. aureus carriage, followed by eradication treatment of identified carriers with nasal mupirocine ointment and chlorhexidine soap was highly effective in preventing deep-seated S. aureus infections. It is unknown how cost-effectiveness of this intervention is affected by suboptimal S. aureus screening. We determined cost-effectiveness of different preoperative S. aureus screening regimes. METHODS: We compared different screening scenarios (ranging from treating all patients without screening to treating only identified S. aureus carriers to the base case scenario without any screening and treatment. Screening and treatment costs as well as costs and mortality due to deep-seated S. aureus infection were derived from hospital databases and prospectively collected data, respectively. RESULTS: As compared to the base case scenario, all scenarios are associated with improved health care outcomes at reduced costs. Treating all patients without screening is most cost-beneficial, saving €7339 per life year gained, as compared to €3330 when only identified carriers are treated. In sensitivity analysis, outcomes are susceptible to the sensitivity of the screening test and the efficacy of treatment. Reductions in these parameters would reduce the cost-effectiveness of scenarios in which treatment is based on screening. When only identified S. aureus carriers are treated costs of screening should be less than €6.23 to become the dominant strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative screening and eradication of S. aureus carriage to prevent deep-seated S. aureus infections saves both life years and medical costs at the same time, although treating all patients without screening is the dominant strategy, resulting in most health gains and largest savings.

  16. Selected Factors of Innate Immunity in Healthy Individuals with S. aureus Nasal Carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Tomasz M; Żaba, Zbigniew; Chudzicka-Strugała, Izabela; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna K; Jaworska, Agata; Zeidler, Agnieszka; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus represents a well-defined factor of risk involving community and hospital-acquired infections. Recently a significance of several host factors has been pointed out and, in particular, of immune determinants in nasal S. aureus colonization. Therefore, this study aimed at analysis of manifestation involving manifestation in the nasal secretions of important components of the host innate immunity - human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2), lysozyme (Ly), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in healthy individuals and in persons with persistent carriage of S. aureus. The studies were conducted in two groups of healthy volunteers, encompassing non-carriers (group 1) or persistent carriers of S. aureus (group 2). Elisa assays were employed to evaluate levels of HBD-2, Ly, and IFN-γ in nasal secretions of the examined donors. In S. aureus carriers a significant variability of HBD-2 levels was detected, corresponding to, respectively, the high (averaging at 1.46 ng/ml) and the low (averaging at 0.13 ng/ml) secretory response of the defensin. The level of Ly in S. aureus carriers averaged at 1.46 μg/ml and it manifested no significant difference as compared to that noted in non-carriers. In turn, concentrations of IFN-γ in nasal secretions in the group of carriers of S. aureus amounted on the average to 81.7 pg/ml and they were 1.3-fold higher that in the group of non-carriers. The obtained results allow to conclude that IFN-γ secretion by the nasal cavity-colonizing S. aureus remains quantitatively insufficient to eliminate the pathogen. Nevertheless, a significant increase in levels of this host factor may be important for restriction of the staphylococcal colonization and protection against development of an invasive infection. In turn, the role of HBD-2 and Ly in inactivation of the colonizing S. aureus remains doubtful.

  17. Tensile Properties of TWIP Steel at High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Rong-gang; FU Ren-yu; SU Yu; LI Qian; WEI Xi-cheng; LI Lin

    2009-01-01

    Tensile tests of TWIP steels of two compositions are performed in the strain rate range of 10-5 -103 s-1.Results indicate that steel 1# does not exhibit TWIP effect but deformation-induced martensitic transformation appears only.There exists TWIP effect in steel 3#.Tensile properties at room temperature are sensitive to strain rate in the studied strain rate ranges.Analysis on the relationship between strain-hardening exponent and strain rates shows that strain-induced martensitic transformation and formation of twins during deformation have significant influence on their strain-hardening behavior.

  18. A forward error correction technique using a high-speed, high-rate single chip codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R. W.; Hartman, W. F.; Jones, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an error-correction coding approach that allows operation in either burst or continuous modes at data rates of multiple hundreds of megabits per second. Bandspreading is low since the code rate is 7/8 or greater, which is consistent with high-rate link operation. The encoder, along with a hard-decision decoder, fits on a single application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip. Soft-decision decoding is possible utilizing applique hardware in conjunction with the hard-decision decoder. Expected coding gain is a function of the application and is approximately 2.5 dB for hard-decision decoding at 10-5 bit-error rate with phase-shift-keying modulation and additive Gaussian white noise interference. The principal use envisioned for this technique is to achieve a modest amount of coding gain on high-data-rate, bandwidth-constrained channels. Data rates of up to 300 Mb/s can be accommodated by the codec chip. The major objective is burst-mode communications, where code words are composed of 32 n data bits followed by 32 overhead bits.

  19. Performance of Drift-Tube Detectors at High Counting Rates for High-Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, Bernhard; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Manfredini, Alessandro; Nowak, Sebastian; Ott, Sebastian; Richter, Robert; Schwegler, Philipp; Zanzi, Daniele; Biebel, Otmar; Hertenberger, Ralf; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The performance of pressurized drift-tube detectors at very high background rates has been studied at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN and in an intense 20 MeV proton beam at the Munich Van-der-Graaf tandem accelerator for applications in large-area precision muon tracking at high-luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS muon drifttube (MDT) chambers with 30 mm tube diameter have been designed to cope with and neutron background hit rates of up to 500 Hz/square cm. Background rates of up to 14 kHz/square cm are expected at LHC upgrades. The test results with standard MDT readout electronics show that the reduction of the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm, while leaving the operating parameters unchanged, vastly increases the rate capability well beyond the requirements. The development of new small-diameter muon drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for LHC upgrades is completed. Further improvements of tracking e?ciency and spatial resolution at high counting rates will be achieved with ...

  20. Clinical evaluation of early acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus carriage by newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Strauss, Tzipora; Rubin, Carmit; Jaber, Hanaa; Dulitzky, Mordechai; Reiss-Mandel, Aylana; Leshem, Eyal; Rahav, Galia; Regev-Yochay, Gili

    2017-09-04

    Little is known about neonatal Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Sites and clinical outcomes of S. aureus colonization during the first month of life were evaluated in this study. A cohort of 279 infants born at term to 277 mothers was included. Maternal S. aureus colonization status was examined before labor. Newborns were screened for nasal, auricular, umbilical, and rectal colonization, one to three times within 100h after birth, and infants of carrier mothers were re-screened at 1 month. Medical data were recorded from the medical charts at discharge and at the 1-month follow-up interview. Overall 43 out of 279 (15.4%) infants acquired S. aureus within the first days of life. The only two predictors of S. aureus carriage in the postnatal period were maternal S. aureus carriage (odds ratio 7.905, 95% confidence interval 3.182-19.638) and maternal antibiotic treatment during labor (odds ratio 0.121, 95% confidence interval 0.016-0.949). Among colonized children, the nose (56%) and rectum (40%) were more frequently colonized, while ear (26%) and umbilicus (16%) colonization were less common. Co-colonization at two sites was rare (4%), but always predicted carriage at 1 month of age. Maternal and neonatal characteristics, including neonatal outcomes, were similar between S. aureus carrier and non-carrier infants during the first month of life. Maternal carriage is the major predictor of neonatal S. aureus carriage. The nose and rectum are the main sites of neonatal carriage. S. aureus carriage was not associated with neonatal complications throughout the first month of life. The long-term significance of early S. aureus carriage is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; /SLAC; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2012-09-06

    Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

  2. Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; /SLAC; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2012-09-06

    Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

  3. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  4. Chronic oral infections of cats and their relationship to persistent oral carriage of feline calici-, immunodeficiency, or leukemia viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, A P; Franti, C E; Madewell, B R; Pedersen, N C

    1991-08-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six cats from the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), a cat shelter, and a purebred cattery were tested for chronic feline calicivirus (FCV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infections. Chronic oral carriage of FCV was present in about one-fifth of the cats in each of the groups. FIV infection was not present in the purebred cattery, was moderately prevalent (8%) in the pet population of cats examined at the VMTH for various complaints and was rampant in the cat shelter (21%). Unexpectedly high FeLV infection rates were found in the hospital cat population (28%) and in the purebred cattery (36%), but not in the cat shelter (1.4%). FCV and FeLV infections tended to occur early in life, whereas FIV infections tended to occur in older animals. From 43 to 100% of the cats in these environments had oral cavity disease ranging from mild gingivitis (23-46%), proliferative gingivitis (18-20%), periodontitis (3-32%) and periodontitis with involvement of extra-gingival tissues (7-27%). Cats infected solely with FCV did not have a greater likelihood of oral lesions, or more severe oral disease, than cats that were totally virus free. This was also true for cats infected solely with FeLV, or for cats dually infected with FeLV and FCV. Cats infected solely with FIV appeared to have a greater prevalence of oral cavity infections and their oral cavity disease tended to be more severe than cats without FIV infection. FIV-infected cats that were coinfected with either FCV, or with FCV and FeLV, had the highest prevalence of oral cavity infections and the most severe oral lesions.

  5. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samonis Georgios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. Methods A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Results Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%. Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Conclusion Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance.

  6. How High Might the Revenue-maximizing Tax Rate Be?

    OpenAIRE

    Usher, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Through tax evasion, through the labour-leisure choice or in other ways, taxpayers reduce the tax base in response to an increase in the tax rate. The process is commonly-believed to generate a humped Laffer curve with a revenue-maximizing tax rate well short of 100%. That need not be so. In the “new tax responsiveness literature†, the revenue-maximizing tax rate is inferred from the observed “elasticity of taxable income†. It is shown in this article 1) that the inference is unwarran...

  7. Three-Dimensional Printable High-Temperature and High-Rate Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yonggang; Fu, Kun Kelvin; Yan, Chaoyi; Dai, Jiaqi; Chen, Yanan; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Bilun; Hitz, Emily; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-05-24

    High temperature heaters are ubiquitously used in materials synthesis and device processing. In this work, we developed three-dimensional (3D) printed reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-based heaters to function as high-performance thermal supply with high temperature and ultrafast heating rate. Compared with other heating sources, such as furnace, laser, and infrared radiation, the 3D printed heaters demonstrated in this work have the following distinct advantages: (1) the RGO based heater can operate at high temperature up to 3000 K because of using the high temperature-sustainable carbon material; (2) the heater temperature can be ramped up and down with extremely fast rates, up to ∼20 000 K/second; (3) heaters with different shapes can be directly printed with small sizes and onto different substrates to enable heating anywhere. The 3D printable RGO heaters can be applied to a wide range of nanomanufacturing when precise temperature control in time, placement, and the ramping rate are important.

  8. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  9. A High Power and High Repetition Rate Modelocked Ti-Sapphire Laser for Photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker

    2001-07-01

    A high power cw mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser has been constructed to drive the Jefferson Lab polarized photoinjector and provide > 500 mW average power with 50 ps pulsewidths at 499 MHz or 1497 MHz pulse repetition rates. This laser allows efficient, high current synchronous photoinjection for extended periods of time before intrusive steps must be taken to restore the quantum efficiency of the strained layer GaAs photocathode. The use of this laser has greatly enhanced the maximum high polarization beam current capability and operating lifetime of the Jefferson Lab photoinjector compared with previous performance using diode laser systems. A novel modelocking technique provides a simple means to phase-lock the optical pulse train of the laser to the accelerator and allows for operation at higher pulse repetition rates to {approx} 3 GHz without modification of the laser cavity. The laser design and characteristics are described below.

  10. Mechanical Behavior of MTMoCr under High Temperature and High Strain-rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Dong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available MTMoCr is a kind of Mo-Cr alloy cast iron often used to make automobile panel dies. To study high-speed machining process of automobile panel dies, the material’s elastic modulus and rupture critical values of MTMoCr at 20℃-800℃ were studied based on the high temperature elongation test. The material’s stress-strain diagram at various temperatures set-points (20℃-500℃ and various strain-rates (500/s-5000/s were studied and the dynamic tensile yield strength values were obtained by dynamic SHPB (Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar high-speed compression test. The experimental results indicate that MTMoCr has heat resistance and its behavior is between toughness and brittleness materials. Its toughness is enhanced with temperature increasing. The strain-rate strengthening effect prevails over temperature softening effect.

  11. 2-D straw detectors with high rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchinskiy, N A; Duginov, V N; Zyazyulya, F E; Korenchenko, A S; Kolesnikov, A O; Kravchuk, N P; Movchan, S A; Rudenko, A I; Smirnov, V S; Khomutov, N V; Chekhovsky, V A; Lobko, A S; Misevich, O V

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurement of straw axial coordinate (along the anode wire) with accuracy compatible with straw radial coordinate determination by drift time measurement and increase of straw detector rate capability by using straw cathode readout instead of anode readout are presented.

  12. High triacylglycerol turnover rate in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, Massimo; Saltin, Bengt; Olsen, David B

    2004-01-01

    could be due to the observed decline in plasma insulin concentration (-74%, P pool(-1)). An increase in FA level......, as a consequence of short-term fasting, does not seem to increase IMTAG synthesis rate and pool size....

  13. High Strain-Rate Testing of Mechanical Couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    tensile strength equal to or greater than that of the control bar but did not achieve the ductility of the control bar. Specimen UHC 9 failed close to...than the Grade 60 bar, but only slightly so at the rapid rate. Upset head system The upset head coupler ( UHC ) system performed very well under the...average performance of the UHC system under the intermediate strain-rate loading condition produced 99% of the dynamic ultimate strength, 61% of the

  14. The prevalence of carriage of meticillin-resistant staphylococci by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel O; Boston, Raymond C; O'Shea, Kathleen; Rankin, Shelley C

    2010-08-01

    It has been shown that people and pets can harbour identical strains of meticillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci when they share an environment. Veterinary dermatology practitioners are a professional group with a high incidence of exposure to animals infected by Staphylococcus spp. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of carriage of MR Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MR S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and MR S. schleiferi (MRSS) by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their personal pets. A swab technique and selective media were used to screen 171 veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets (258 dogs and 160 cats). Samples were shipped by over-night carrier. Human subjects completed a 22-question survey of demographic and epidemiologic data relevant to staphylococcal transmission. The 171 human-source samples yielded six MRSA (3.5%), nine MRSP (5.3%) and four MRSS (2.3%) isolates, while 418 animal-source samples yielded eight MRSA (1.9%) 21 MRSP (5%), and two MRSS (0.5%) isolates. Concordant strains (genetically identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) were isolated from human subjects and their respective pets in four of 171 (2.9%) households: MRSA from one person/two pets and MRSP from three people/three pets. In seven additional households (4.1%), concordant strains were isolated from only the pets: MRSA in two households and MRSP in five households. There were no demographic or epidemiologic factors statistically associated with either human or animal carriage of MR staphylococci, or with concordant carriage by person-pet or pet-pet pairs. Lack of statistical associations may reflect an underpowered study.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among dogs and their owners: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ik; Yang, Cheol-Ho; Park, Hee-Myung

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated colonization and association of staphylococci between healthy dogs and their owners. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated staphylococci were determined for 119 dogs and 107 owners. Relatedness of the Staphylococcus isolates in dogs and their owners was investigated using antibiograms, toxin profiles, and genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence type, and spa typing. Risk factors for carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in dogs were also evaluated. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 65 (60.7%) owners and 44 (37.0%) dogs. The following species were isolated, listed in order of decreasing frequency: S. epidermidis, S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. scheiferi subsp. coagulans, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, S. saprophyticus and S. warneri. S. pseudintermedius (65.9%) was the major isolate in dogs while S. epidermidis (81.5%) was the major type in owners. Among the isolates, 71.6% were methicillin resistant (MR) and 95.4% of the isolates demonstrated multi-drug resistance regardless of the origin. Only one dog-owner pair shared the same Staphylococcus spp. (S. pseudintermedius); however, the organisms were of different PFGE subtypes and exhibited different antibiotic resistance and toxin profiles while both isolates displayed same sequence type (ST365). While the dog-origin isolate showed spa type t02, the owner-origin isolate was negative to PCRs targeting spa gene sequence. Risk factor analysis showed that the presence of cohabitant animals was correlated with the nasal carriage of MR staphylococci in dogs. The cumulative data indicated that animal- and owner-origin staphylococci have various subtypes with high prevalence of MR; however, the bacteria are not shared between healthy dogs and their owners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Open access vs. common carriage in electricity supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunekreeft, Gert [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    This paper examines the question of whether the upstream infrastructure monopolist in electricity transmission should be allowed to participate on the downstream generation market. The central assumption is that the downstream market is characterized by a U-shaped AC curve. Under this assumption, it will be shown that the unregulated upstream monopolist has an incentive for partial forward integration. He or she will, however, not have an incentive to foreclose fully the downstream market. Furthermore, it will be shown that allowing the upstream monopolist to be active on the downstream market is superior to forbidding this. In other words, under the assumptions of the model, open access will be superior to common carriage. (Author)

  17. Single-pass high harmonic generation at high repetition rate and photon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Krebs, Manuel; Demmler, Stefan; Klenke, Arno; Tünnermann, Andreas; Limpert, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Sources of short wavelength radiation with femtosecond to attosecond pulse durations, such as synchrotrons or free electron lasers, have already made possible numerous, and will facilitate more, seminal studies aimed at understanding atomic and molecular processes on fundamental length and time scales. Table-top sources of coherent extreme ultraviolet to soft x-ray radiation enabled by high harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulse lasers have also gained significant attention in the last few years due to their enormous potential for addressing a plethora of applications, therefore constituting a complementary source to large-scale facilities (synchrotrons and free electron lasers). Ti:sapphire based laser systems have been the workhorses for HHG for decades, but are limited in repetition rate and average power. On the other hand, it has been widely recognized that fostering applications in fields such as photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy, coincidence detection, coherent diffractive imaging and frequency metrology requires a high repetition rate and high photon flux HHG sources. In this article we will review recent developments in realizing the demanding requirement of producing a high photon flux and repetition rate at the same time. Particular emphasis will be put on suitable ultrashort pulse and high average power lasers, which directly drive harmonic generation without the need for external enhancement cavities. To this end we describe two complementary schemes that have been successfully employed for high power fiber lasers, i.e. optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers and nonlinear pulse compression. Moreover, the issue of phase-matching in tight focusing geometries will be discussed and connected to recent experiments. We will highlight the latest results in fiber laser driven high harmonic generation that currently produce the highest photon flux of all existing sources. In addition, we demonstrate the first promising applications and

  18. Asymptomatic oral carriage of Candida species in HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Carreadores assintomáticos de espécies de Candida na mucosa bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV na era da terapia antiretroviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. CD4+ lymphocytes count and the quantification of viral RNA in blood plasma have been found to be the main markers of HIV disease progression. The present study was conducted to evaluate Candida sp. diversity in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients and to determine whether there was association of CD4+ cell count and viral load with asymptomatic oral Candida carriage. Out of 99 HIV-positive patients studied, 62 (62.6% had positive culture for Candida (oral carriage and 37 patients (37.4% had Candida negative culture (no oral carriage. The etiologic agents most common were C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The range of CD4+ was 6-2305 cells/mm³ in colonized patients and 3-839 cells/mm³ for non-colonized patients, while the viral load was 60-90016 copies/mL for colonized patients and 75-110488 copies/mL for non colonized patients. The viral load was undetectable in 15 colonized patients and in 12 non colonized patients. Our results showed that there was no significant difference of the variables CD4+ cell count and viral load between oral candida carriage and no oral candida carriage patients.Candidíase de orofaringe é a infecção fúngica oportunística mais comum em indivíduos infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Contagem de linfócitos CD4+ e quantificação de RNA viral no plasma sanguíneo são os principais marcadores da progressão da doença pelo HIV. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade de espécies de Candida presentes na cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e para determinar se havia associação de contagem de células CD4+ e de carga viral com carreadores assintomáticos de Candida, na mucosa bucal. Dos 99 pacientes HIV positivo estudados, 62 (62,6% apresentaram cultura positiva para Candida sp. sendo denominados carreadores de Candida e os 37

  19. Experimental Results of High Pressure and High Strain Rate Tantalum Flow Stress on Omega and NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Arsenlis, A.; Barton, N.; Benedetti, L.; Huntington, C.; McNaney, J.; Orlikowski, D.; Prisbrey, S.; Remington, B.; Rudd, R.; Swift, D.; Weber, S.; Wehrenberg, C.; Comley, A.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the high pressure, high strain rate plastic deformation dynamics of materials is an area of research of high interest to planetary formation dynamics, meteor impact dynamics, and inertial confinement fusion designs. Developing predictive theoretical and computational descriptions of such systems, however, has been a difficult undertaking. We have performed many experiments on Omega, LCLS and NIF to test Ta strength models at high pressures (~ up to 4 Mbar), high strain rates (~ 107 s-1) and high strains (>30%) under ramped compression conditions using Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability properties. These experiments use plasma drive to ramp compress the sample to higher pressure without shock-melting. We also studied lattice level strength mechanisms under shocked compression using a diffraction-based technique. Our studies show that the strength mechanisms from macro to micro scales are different from the traditional strength model predictions and that they are loading path dependent. We will report the experimental results. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  20. Potassium vapor assisted preparation of highly graphitized hierarchical porous carbon for high rate performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Tang, Qunli; Hu, Aiping; Xiao, Kuikui; Zhang, Shiying; Deng, Weina; Fan, Binbin; Zhu, Yanfei; Chen, Xiaohua

    2017-09-01

    Ultrahigh graphitized carbon microspheres with rich hierarchical pores (AGHPCM-1) have been successfully synthesized through the one-step activation-carbonization strategy (OACS) with porous sulfonated poly-divinylbenzene as the carbon precursor, iron as the hard template and catalyst, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as activation agent. Through the XRD, TEM, Raman and BET analysis, AGHPCM-1 shows very high graphitization degree and rich micro-, meso- and macro-pores. More importantly, the mechanism for KOH to improve the graphitization degree of carbon materials in OACS has been illustrated by the thermodynamical theory. The tremendous heat releasing from the reaction between the catalyst precursor of Fe2O3 and potassium vapor plays a key role in the formation of graphitized carbon. It may provide a general direction to prepare highly graphitized porous carbon at a moderate temperature. Integrating the advantages of high graphitization degree and rich hierarchical porous structure, the AGHPCM-1 exhibits an excellent rate performance with a response to up to the high current density of 150 A g-1 and high scan rate of 2000 mV s-1. No obvious capacitance decay can be observed after 10000 charge/discharge cycles even at the high current density of 20 A g-1.

  1. Effects of community-wide vaccination with PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in the Gambia: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs of limited valency is justified in Africa by the high burden of pneumococcal disease. Long-term beneficial effects of PCVs may be countered by serotype replacement. We aimed to determine the impact of PCV-7 vaccination on pneumococcal carriage in rural Gambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cluster-randomized (by village trial of the impact of PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage was conducted in 21 Gambian villages between December 2003 to June 2008 (5,441 inhabitants in 2006. Analysis was complemented with data obtained before vaccination. Because efficacy of PCV-9 in young Gambian children had been shown, it was considered unethical not to give PCV-7 to young children in all of the study villages. PCV-7 was given to children below 30 mo of age and to those born during the trial in all study villages. Villages were randomized (older children and adults to receive one dose of PCV-7 (11 vaccinated villages or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (10 control villages. Cross-sectional surveys (CSSs to collect nasopharyngeal swabs were conducted before vaccination (2,094 samples in the baseline CSS, and 4-6, 12, and 22 mo after vaccination (1,168, 1,210, and 446 samples in CSS-1, -2, and -3, respectively. A time trend analysis showed a marked fall in the prevalence of vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in all age groups following vaccination (from 23.7% and 26.8% in the baseline CSS to 7.1% and 8.5% in CSS-1, in vaccinated and control villages, respectively. The prevalence of vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage was lower in vaccinated than in control villages among older children (5 y to <15 y of age and adults (≥15 y of age at CSS-2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15 [95% CI 0.04-0.57] and OR = 0.32 [95% CI 0.10-0.98], respectively and at CSS-3 (OR = 0.37 [95% CI 0.15-0.90] for older children, and 0% versus 7.6% for adults in vaccinated and control villages, respectively

  2. Characteristics of PM2.5, CO2 and particle-number concentration in mass transit railway carriages in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Long; Deng, Wen-Jing; Cheng, Yan; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and particle-number concentrations (PNC) were monitored in train carriages on seven routes of the mass transit railway in Hong Kong between March and May 2014, using real-time monitoring instruments. The 8-h average PM2.5 levels in carriages on the seven routes ranged from 24.1 to 49.8 µg/m(3), higher than levels in Finland and similar to those in New York, and in most cases exceeding the standard set by the World Health Organisation (25 µg/m(3)). The CO2 concentration ranged from 714 to 1801 ppm on four of the routes, generally exceeding indoor air quality guidelines (1000 ppm over 8 h) and reaching levels as high as those in Beijing. PNC ranged from 1506 to 11,570 particles/cm(3), lower than readings in Sydney and higher than readings in Taipei. Correlation analysis indicated that the number of passengers in a given carriage did not affect the PM2.5 concentration or PNC in the carriage. However, a significant positive correlation (p < 0.001, R (2) = 0.834) was observed between passenger numbers and CO2 levels, with each passenger contributing approximately 7.7-9.8 ppm of CO2. The real-time measurements of PM2.5 and PNC varied considerably, rising when carriage doors opened on arrival at a station and when passengers inside the carriage were more active. This suggests that air pollutants outside the train and passenger movements may contribute to PM2.5 levels and PNC. Assessment of the risk associated with PM2.5 exposure revealed that children are most severely affected by PM2.5 pollution, followed in order by juveniles, adults and the elderly. In addition, females were found to be more vulnerable to PM2.5 pollution than males (p < 0.001), and different subway lines were associated with different levels of risk.

  3. The Effect of Low Ambient Relative Humidity on Physical Performance and Perceptual Responses during Load Carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Mekjavic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study evaluated the effect of low ambient relative humidity on physical performance and perceptual responses during load carriage in a hot environment.Methods: Ten heat-unacclimatized male subjects participated in three 130-min trials, during which they walked on a treadmill, carrying a load of ~35 kg, at a speed of 3.2 km.h−1, with an incident wind at the same velocity and ambient temperature at 45°C. Each trial commenced with a 10-min baseline at 20°C and 50% relative humidity (RH, the subjects transferred to a climatic chamber and commenced their simulated hike, comprising two 50-min walks separated by a 20-min rest period. In two, full protective equipment (FP trials, RH was 10% (partial pressure of water vapor, pH2O = 7.2 mmHg in one (FP10, and 20% (pH2O = 14.4 mmHg; FP20 in the other. In the control trial, subjects were semi-nude (SN and carried the equipment in their backpacks; RH was 20%. Measurements included oxygen uptake, ventilation, heart rate, rectal and skin temperatures, heat flux, temperature perception, and thermal comfort.Results: In FP20, four subjects terminated the trial prematurely due to signs of heat exhaustion; there were no such signs in FP10 or SN. Upon completion of the trials, pulmonary ventilation, heart rate, and rectal temperature were lower in FP10 (33 ± 5 l/min; 128 ± 21 bpm; 38.2 ± 0.4°C and SN (34 ± 4 l/min; 113 ± 18 bpm; 38.1 ± 0.4°C than in FP20 (39 ± 8 l/min; 145 ± 12 bpm; 38.6 ± 0.4°C. Evaporation was significantly greater in the SN compared to FP10 and FP20 trials. FP10 was rated thermally more comfortable than FP20.Conclusion: A lower ambient partial pressure of water vapor, reflected in a lower ambient relative humidity, improved cardiorespiratory, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during load carriage.

  4. The Significance of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and the Incidence of Postoperative Wound Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Wenzel (Richard); T. M. Perl

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus infections are associated with considerable morbidity and, in certain situations, mortality. The association between the nasal carriage of S. aureus and subsequent infection has been comprehensively established in a variety of clinical settings, in particular, patie

  5. Gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria following treatment with artemisinin combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Salim; Achan, Jane; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gametocytes are responsible for transmission of malaria from human to mosquito. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) reduces post-treatment gametocyte carriage, dependent upon host, parasite and pharmacodynamic factors. The gametocytocidal properties of antimalarial drugs are importa...

  6. Eradication of carriage with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: determinants of treatment failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.M. Ammerlaan; J.A.J.W. Kluytmans; H. Berkhout; A. Buiting; E.I.G.B. de Brauwer; P.J. van den Broek; P. van Gelderen; S.C.A.P. Leenders; A. Ott; C.J.J. Richter; L. Spanjaard; I.J.B. Spijkerman; F.H. van Tiel; G.P. Voorn; M.W.H. Wulf; J. van Zeijl; A. Troelstra; M.J.M. Bonten

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from an observational study in which the effectiveness of a guideline for eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage was evaluated, we identified variables that were associated with treatment failure. Methods: A multivariate logistic regression

  7. Robust Frequency Hopping for High Data Rate Tactical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Filter Insert Pilot Channel, h(τ;t) AWGN Jamming Models. J(t) Demod Q Parallel subbands to Serial bit stream Demod EQU EQU Channel...results remains fixed at 5MHz, such that the subband bandwidths are defined as x (5 / )Q MHz Q ; this ensures that the data rate of the system is

  8. Space-time encoding for high frame rate ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanssis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Frame rate in ultrasound imaging can be dramatically increased by using sparse synthetic transmit aperture (STA) beamforming techniques. The two main drawbacks of the method are the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the motion artifacts, that degrade the image quality. In this paper we propose ...

  9. Crystallization of Al-Zr alloys at high cooling rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropova, L.S.; Kamardinkin, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    The nonequilibrium crystallization of Al-Zr alloys containing up to 5 mass pct Zr is investigated by light and electron microscopy and on the basis of lattice spacing and electrical conductivity measurements. A phase diagram of the system is presented. The dependence of the dendritic parameters of Al-Zr alloys on the cooling rate is demonstrated. 10 references.

  10. High Strain Rate Testing of Welded DOP-26 Iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carmichael, C. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, E. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 is used to produce Clad Vent Set cups that protect the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for spacecraft and rovers. In a previous study, the tensile properties of DOP-26 were measured over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures and reported in ORNL/TM-2007/81. While that study established the properties of the base material, the fabrication of the heat sources requires welding, and the mechanical properties of welded DOP-26 have not been extensively characterized in the past. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of DOP-26 specimens containing a transverse weld in the center of their gage sections. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 750, 900, and 1090°C and engineering strain rates of 1×10-3 and 10 s-1. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1×10-4 Torr. The welded specimens had a significantly higher yield stress, by up to a factor of ~2, than the non-welded base material. The yield stress did not depend on the strain rate except at 1090°C, where it was slightly higher for the faster strain rate. The ultimate tensile stress, on the other hand, was significantly higher for the faster strain rate at temperatures of 750°C and above. At 750°C and above, the specimens deformed at 1×10-3 s-1 showed pronounced necking resulting sometimes in perfect chisel-edge fracture. The specimens deformed at 10 s-1 exhibited this fracture behavior only at the highest test temperature, 1090°C. Fracture occurred usually in the fusion zone of the weld and was, in most cases, primarily intergranular.

  11. A high power impulse magnetron sputtering model to explain high deposition rate magnetic field configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Priya; Weberski, Justin; Cheng, Matthew; Shchelkanov, Ivan; Ruzic, David N.

    2016-10-01

    High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) is one of the recent developments in the field of magnetron sputtering technology that is capable of producing high performance, high quality thin films. Commercial implementation of HiPIMS technology has been a huge challenge due to its lower deposition rates compared to direct current Magnetron Sputtering. The cylindrically symmetric "TriPack" magnet pack for a 10 cm sputter magnetron that was developed at the Center for Plasma Material Interactions was able to produce higher deposition rates in HiPIMS compared to conventional pack HiPIMS for the same average power. The "TriPack" magnet pack in HiPIMS produces superior substrate uniformity without the need of substrate rotation in addition to producing higher metal ion fraction to the substrate when compared to the conventional pack HiPIMS [Raman et al., Surf. Coat. Technol. 293, 10 (2016)]. The films that are deposited using the "TriPack" magnet pack have much smaller grains compared to conventional pack DC and HiPIMS films. In this paper, the reasons behind the observed increase in HiPIMS deposition rates from the TriPack magnet pack along with a modified particle flux model is discussed.

  12. Load Carriage Capacity of the Dismounted Combatant - A Commanders’ Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    carriage. Personnel may therefore require supplementation (e.g. emergency ration chocolate bars) to meet energy requirements under such conditions...2010 31-38 Pal, M. S., et al. (2009) Optimum load for carriage by soldiers at two walking speeds on level ground. International Journal of Industrial ...Health Risk. Industrial Health 43 (3) 361-377 Seidel, H. and Griffin, M. J. (2001) Modelling the response of the spinal system to whole- body

  13. Development of a Suite of Objective Biomechanical Measurement Tools for Personal Load Carriage System Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    EMG , film analyses of posture and gait patterns, force platform measures of ground reaction forces, skin pressure) and mobility performance measures...Custom strap force transducers were produced so that strap tension could be used as a standardized input across load carriage systems. Strap...straps, hip belts or any other straps included in a given load carriage system design. The custom strap force transducers shown in Figure 4 comprise a

  14. Load-Speed Interaction Effects on the Biomechanics of Backpack Load Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Backpack Load Carriage DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Soldier...1 Load-Speed Interaction Effects on the Biomechanics of Backpack Load Carriage Everett Harman, Ki-Hoon Han, and Peter Frykman U.S. Army Research...Institute of Environmental Medicine Natick, MA, 01760-5007, U.S.A. Summary We biomechanically examined how backpack load and walking speed interact in

  15. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity.

  16. Fast rate fracture of aluminum using high intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Douglas Allen

    Laser induced shock experiments were performed to study the dynamics of various solid state material processes, including shock-induced melt, fast rate fracture, and elastic to plastic response. Fast rate fracture and dynamic yielding are greatly influenced by microstructural features such as grain boundaries, impurity particles and alloying atoms. Fast fracture experiments using lasers are aimed at studying how material microstructure affects the tensile fracture characteristics at strain rates above 106 s-1. We used the Z-Beamlet Laser at Sandia National Laboratories to drive shocks via ablation and we measured the maximum tensile stress of aluminum targets with various microstructures. Using a velocity interferometer and sample recovery, we are able to measure the maximum tensile stress and determine the source of fracture initiation in these targets. We have explored the role that grain size, impurity particles and alloying in aluminum play in dynamic yielding and spall fracture at tensile strain rates of ˜3x106 s-1. Preliminary results and analysis indicated that material grain size plays a vital role in the fracture morphology and spall strength results. In a study with single crystal aluminum specimens, velocity measurements and fracture analysis revealed that a smaller amplitude tensile stress was initiated by impurity particles; however, these particles served no purpose in dynamic yielding. An aluminum-magnesium alloy with various grain sizes presented the lowest spall strength, but the greatest dynamic yield strength. Fracture mode in this alloy was initiated by both grain boundaries and impurity particles. With respect to dynamic yielding, alloying elements such as magnesium serve to decrease the onset of plastic response. The fracture stress and yield stress showed no evidence of grain size dependence. Hydrodynamic simulations with material strength models are used to compare with our experiments. In order to study the strain rate dependence of spall

  17. Trends in human fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the community: toward the globalization of CTX-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerther, Paul-Louis; Burdet, Charles; Chachaty, Elisabeth; Andremont, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    In the last 10 years, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) have become one of the main challenges for antibiotic treatment of enterobacterial infections, largely because of the current CTX-M enzyme pandemic. However, most studies have focused on hospitalized patients, though today it appears that the community is strongly affected as well. We therefore decided to devote our investigation to trends in ESBL-E fecal carriage rates and comprehensively reviewed data from studies conducted on healthy populations in various parts of the world. We show that (i) community ESBL-E fecal carriage, which was unknown before the turn of the millennium, has since increased significantly everywhere, with developing countries being the most affected; (ii) intercontinental travel may have emphasized and globalized the issue; and (iii) CTX-M enzymes, especially CTX-M-15, are the dominant type of ESBL. Altogether, these results suggest that CTX-M carriage is evolving toward a global pandemic but is still insufficiently described. Only a better knowledge of its dynamics and biology will lead to further development of appropriate control measures.

  18. High-performance micromachined vibratory rate- and rate-integrating gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Yoong

    The performance of vibratory micromachined gyroscopes has been continuously improving for the past two decades. However, to further improve performance of the MEMS gyroscope in harsh environment, it is necessary for gyros to reduce the sensitivity to environmental parameters, including vibration and temperature change. In addition, conventional rate-mode MEMS gyroscopes have limitation in performance due to tradeoff between resolution, bandwidth, and full-scale range. In this research, we aim to reduce vibration sensitivity by developing gyros that operate in the balanced mode. The balanced mode creates zero net momentum and reduces energy loss through an anchor. The gyro can differentially cancel measurement errors from external vibration along both sensor axes. The vibration sensitivity of the balanced-mode gyroscope including structural imbalance from microfabrication reduces as the absolute difference between in-phase parasitic mode and operating mode frequencies increases. The parasitic sensing mode frequency is designed larger than the operating mode frequency to achieve both improved vibration insensitivity and shock resistivity. A single anchor is used in order to minimize thermoresidual stress change. We developed two gyroscope based on these design principles. The Balanced Oscillating Gyro (BOG) is a quad-mass tuning-fork rate gyroscope. The relationship between gyro design and modal characteristics is studied extensively using finite element method (FEM). The gyro is fabricated using the planar Si-on-glass (SOG) process with a device thickness of 100microm. The BOG is evaluated using the first-generation analog interface circuitry. Under a frequency mismatch of 5Hz between driving and sense modes, the angle random walk (ARW) is measured to be 0.44°/sec/✓Hz. The performance is limited by quadrature error and low-frequency noise in the circuit. The Cylindrical Rate-Integrating Gyroscope (CING) operates in whole-angle mode. The gyro is completely

  19. Progesterone elevation does not compromise pregnancy rates in high responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Mannaerts, Bernadette; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To compare the impact of elevated P during the late follicular phase on the chance of pregnancy in low, normal, and high responders.......To compare the impact of elevated P during the late follicular phase on the chance of pregnancy in low, normal, and high responders....

  20. Fast optical signal processing in high bit rate OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Clausen, Anders;

    1998-01-01

    As all-optical signal processing is maturing, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) has also gained interest for simple networking in high capacity backbone networks. As an example of a network scenario we show an OTDM bus interconnecting another OTDM bus, a single high capacity user...